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March 2022

  1. Dr. Cecily, S.

    Home ownership is a part of our nation’s socio-economic policy and remains one of the key priorities for the Government. The ground reality is that homes remain unaffordable for a large section of the urban middle class in large metro cities like Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai and Bengaluru. Developers on the other hand, claim that houses remain largely unaffordable in big cities due to high land prices coupled with high cost of input materials and labour costs. Data released by the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) recently, painted a grim picture, showing that affordability has worsened over the past four years, with Mumbai remaining the least affordable city when it comes to owning a house. Further, the RBI’s asset price monitoring survey showed that the house price to income (HPTI) ratio an index of affordability rose from 56.1 in March 2015 to 61.5 in March 2019 across the country. In this context, the present paper attempts to portray the Central and State Government measures to boost demand for affordable housing among urban middle-class families. It also highlights the key elements which make houses unaffordable in big cities and the current trend of home buying.

  2. Das, S.K., Das, T.K., Kar, S., Mahata, A. and Ghosh, S.

    Integrated Nutrient Management (INM) packages were designed and field tested for submerged paddy for Coastal Saline, Red &Laterite and Vindhyan Alluvial agro-climatic zones of West Bengal (India) with 3 promising endophytic diazotrophic bacteria previously selected through laboratory analysis, pot experiment and micro field experiment. The bacteria were isolated from roots of wild paddy, Oryza rufipogon from Sundarban area. The selected isolates were applied through seed to ensure endophytic association in controlled condition of seed bed and to avoid the inhibitory factors of field like presence of excess chemical nitrogen, residual pesticides etc.. The packages were evaluated on the basis of yield and profit. The result was compared with farmers’ practice, and previously Azospirillum based INM package where this biofertilizer applied directly during field preparation along with phosphate solubilizing and potash solubilizing bacteria. Significant increase in production and economic gains were noted in this package as compared with farmers’ practice as well as Azospirillum based previous practice.

  3. Eshita Kalidindi

    Social media usage is at its prime and evidence that it causes/exacerbates depression has been increasing. An increase in social media usage leads to spending less time on daily tasks such as real-life interactions and self-reflection, which are essential for individuals, potentially causing depressive symptoms. Primarily negative interactions, problematic social media use and social comparisons have been the cause of these negative associations. However, novel studies have shown no negative associations between social media and depression.Certain social media platforms are also considered to be beneficial and have shown to improve overall user well-being. The association between social media usage and depression includes several factors, and no single factor can solely determine the causality or exacerbation of depressive symptoms.This review focuses on the associations between social media usage and depression among young adults and adolescents. In particular, it illustrates the different types of social media uses and their negative impacts. It also illuminates how baseline depression levels have been exacerbated due to increased social media usage, and how actively using social media can cause depression.

  4. Kalaiselvan Keerthika, Pandurangan Padmavathy, Velu Rani, Robinson Jeyashakila and Samraj Aanand

    Constructed wetlands are proven to be cost-effective, reliable, and alternative technology in treating wastewater because the implementation of conventional wastewater treatment methods in developing countries has higher operation and maintenance costs. It also reduces the disposal of waste into natural wetlands and helps in maintaining biodiversity. Constructed wetlands are called man-made wetlands and can be used for treating municipal wastewater, agricultural runoff, and mine drainage. Through this technique, biological oxygen demand and total suspended solids are effectively reduced. Land availability is one main limiting factor in the development of constructed wetlands, especially in regions where land resources are scarce or there is high population density. Design, operation, technical guidance, and maintenance are the factors to be considered in improving the sustainability of constructed wetlands. Further, new studies are required to gain long-term operational data, which in turn is helpful in the successful application of constructed wetlands for treating wastewaters.

  5. Meenakshi and Dr. Daljit Kaur Gill

    The right of vote and contesting elections is common practice for women in modern world, but there were many suffrage organizations involved in achieving these rights for them. Various groups and organizations and associations reflected women’s concerned during the twentieth century. These organizations became the medium for the expression of women’s opinion. At the same time, these organizations served as a training ground for women who later on took up the leadership roles in politics and other social institutions. Education also brought a unique change during this period as a new elite class emerged in large towns and cities and gave leadership to the society. The formation of Indian National Congress provided them a meeting place and gave them an opportunity to express and motivate towards taking action. At the beginning of the twenty-first century the journey of women to attain their political rights began when Mahila Parishads established, and they used to hold national conferences to discuss the topics of female education, abolition of evil, social customs such as dowry, neglect of widows, child marriage and others. Women’s right to vote was first time demanded in 1917 and Madras was the first province where government allow the women to vote and participate in elections, and these rights were extended to Punjab in 1926.

  6. Dr. Paromita mazumdar, Dr. Tanmoy Saha, Dr. Sayantan Mukherjee and Dr. Santanu Sen Roy

    Background: Oral diseases, especially dental caries has high rate of prevalence in most developing countries. The primary cause of this condition is an imbalance between calorie intake and calorie consumption. Because dental caries is associated with poor dietary habits and inappropriate diets promote obesity, this study was conducted to find out whether Body Mass Index affects the prevalence of dental caries. Methods: Based on a pilot study, sample size calculation was performed. A total of 198 patients of 19-59 years age group attending the outpatient department of Conservative Dentistry & Endodontics were randomly selected for the study. Dental caries was scored using DMFT index. BMI was calculated according to the formula: weight (kg)/height2 (m2) Results: The DMFT index scores were relatively different among the different BMI groups, in which normal weight individuals revealed the highest value and underweight showed the lowest value and the differences were not statistically significant. Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, no statistically significant association between BMI and dental caries prevalence was found. For more conclusive results to be extrapolated to a larger population, further studies need to be conducted on higher sample size.

  7. Dr. Pallavi Nanaiah, K., Dr. Varsha Venugopalan, Dr. Pavithra, T. and Dr. Mrudula, I.

    An endo-perio lesion has been one of the prevalent issues affiliated with the tooth. The cutaneous involvement of pulpal and inflammatory periodontal pathology can perplex the diagnosis and treatment planning. The present case report shows the synergic effect of endodontic, periodontal, and esthetic therapy. The treatment includes root canal therapy and open flap debridement followed by the placement of “sticky bone” graft and guided tissue regeneration membrane over the osseous defect site. After 6 months, a coronally advanced procedure with connective tissue graft placement was performed to improve esthetics. The patient was followed up for 1 year. Clinically, there was a reduction in probing pocket depth, increase in attach gingiva, and improvement in gingival biotype. Radiographically, there was a significant amount of bone fill was observed. Hence, the coactive effect of various regenerative materials with root canal sealing had significantly improved both clinical and radiographic features of the endo-perio lesion.

  8. Dr. Tanvi Rajan Prabhu and Dr. Jayaraj R Mhetri

    Background: It is observed that in diabetes there is an enhanced platelets activation and increase in coagulation proteins and fibrinolytic activity is reduced. These are the pro thrombotic states which further lead to the development of cardiovascular and atherosclerotic complications. Studies have indicated that the patients of Type 2 DM have two to four folds increase in risk of atherosclerosis. Mean Platelet Volume (MPV), which is the average volume of platelets and measures platelet size distribution, and is not influenced by glycemic control. Studies have shown that a higher incidence of proliferative diabetic retinopathy and myocardial infarction are associated with increased MPV. It is observed in the diabetics that larger than normal platelets are in circulation, this is due to the activated megakaryocyte-platelet system. Platelet count and MPV can prove to be an inexpensive, simple and effective tests that may be used to predict angiopathy in type 2 DM. Few studies have used Elevated MPV levels to predict bad outcome for acute ischemic cerebrovascular events independent of other clinical parameters. Aims and Objectives: To study the relation between the variations in platelet counts and mean platelet volume in type 2 diabetic patients on treatment and non-diabetic controls. Methods: Acase control study. Results: The overall mean platelet volume was 8.41±0.68fl, for the diabetics 8.72±0.71 fl and the non-diabetic controls 8.94±0.79 fl.There was a statistically significant difference in platelet count of diabetics and healthy controls platelet counts. p =0.049 and t value of 1.99. There was no statistically significant difference between the mean platelet volume in diabetics and healthy controlswith p=0.146 and t value of 1.46. Positive correlation was observed between MPV and fasting blood sugar (r = 0.027, p <0.001) when Pearson's correlation test was applied.Also, Body Mass Index (r =0.147) and duration of diabetics (r =0.026) were positively correlated.However, platelet count and fasting blood sugar were negatively co related (r = -0.048),Platelet count was also negatively correlated with duration of diabetics (r = -0.021). Platelet count and body mass index (r = 0.032) were positively correlated. In both the diabetic patients and non-diabetic controls the relation between the platelet count and mean platelet volume showed positive correlation, Pearson's test was used and it showed statistically significant levels of 0.041 in both groups. Conclusion: The present study showed that the diabetics on treatment had higher mean platelet count than that of non-diabetics controls, it was also noted that mean platelet volume was lower in controls than in cases.

  9. Dr. Dipanshu Jain, Dr. Atal Meena, Dr. Amit Sharma, Dr. Gunjan Sharma, Dr. Aishwarya, A.P., Dr. Ashish Ranjan, Dr. Varsha Raj Meena and Dr. Anil Saxena

    Background: Most of the increased mortality associated with COPD is due to cardiac involvement. RV dysfunction is common in patients with COPD secondary to the development of PH, which leads to corpulmonale. In India the burden and mortality due to COPD is increasing day by day., early recognition of RV dysfunction and PH may help in the treatment and the survival of the patients. Evaluate the clinical profile of COPD patients and study the PH in COPD patients by non-invasive methods. Methods: Sample size 200. Sampling method: simple random sampling, Study Design: cross-sectional study, Patients who presented with complaints of breathlessness, cough, sputum >3months duration clinically diagnosed as by spirometry i.e. FEV1/FVC<0.7 And FEV1 divided into 3 groups of mild, moderate & severe/very severe COPD based On GOLD guideline. Using non-invasive methods like ECG, chest X-Ray,2-D Echo, PH was evaluated in diagnosed COPD patients. Result: Among 200 patients,142 males& 58 females the most common abnormality observed in ECG was P-Pulmonale (69%), the prevalence of PH found 63.9 ± 12.9%, The mean value of PH increased 4.1% with mild to moderate COPD and 5.8% increased from moderate to severe/very severe COPD category and The mean value of Ejection Fraction also decreased 7.3% in moderate COPD as compare mild COPD and 5.6% decreased in severe/very severe COPD as compared to moderate COPD. Conclusions: PH was significantly increased with the severity of COPD categories.

  10. Laith Obaidat, Sakher Sharaa, Ola M Alwaqfi, Yazan Bani Hamad, Moath Marashdeh

    Introduction: Transcutanous aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is being increasingly done nowadays in lower risk patients, and these patients will commonly have major coronary abnormalities needing intervension around the time of TAVI. Objectives: to identify the prevalence of coronary artery abnormalities in patients undergoing TAVI and management options. Methods: this is a retrospective study of patients who underwent TAVI from Jan. 2016 till May 2021 at Queen Alia Military heart institute in Jordan. Demographic data where reviewed including age, co-morbidities, gender, signs and symptoms, echo findings, results of computed tomography or angiography before and during the procedure and complications after the procedure. Results: thirty four patients were included, age 50-91 years (average 77.5 years). All patients were symptomatic before TAVI. 7 patient had diabetes, 15 patients had hypertension, three patients had previous coronary artery disease, two patients had chronic kidney disease, three patients had previous malignancy, two patients had atrial fibrillation and one patient had previous pacemaker implanted 9 patient had impaired LV function. all patients had severe aortic senosis and in six patients there was associated moderate to severe aortic regurgitation. In 10 patients there were significant coronary artery lesions. all patients were stented. the average number of stents was 1.6 Stents per patient. All stents were drug eluting stents (DES). there was associated mild disease in four patients. three patients had previous CABG; two of them were stented. six patients died after the procedure. complications including SVG oclusion which was stented. Pericardial effusion in three patients and in one patient there was tamponade needing drainage. one patient had complete heart block for whom a permanent pacemaker was inserted. femoral artery dissection happened in three patients and all were stented. one patient had 2:1 AV block and one patient had coronory CCU psychosis. Conclusion: major coronary abnormalitites happen in one thirds of TAVI and these must be addressed during or before TAVI. The timing and best management option should be addressed

  11. Dia Diatou, G., Dia Amadou, D., Dieye Alassane, Diagne Nafissatou, Ndao Awa, C., Tall Cheikh, Ngouamba Blaise, M., Faye Babacar and Dia-Badiane Ndeye Mery

    The aim of this work is to describe the anomalies of the blood count and the factors associated with them during antiretroviral treatment (ARV) at the Regional hospital center of Saint-Louis Hospitalier Régional de Saint-Louis. We carried out a cross-sectional descriptive study which took place from February 2 to 28, 2020. The population of our study was that of Persons living with VIH (PLVIH) aged 18 years or over, on antiretroviral treatment for at least 06 months, and having agreed to participate in the study by signing the free and informed consent form. Results: A total of 100 patients were included in the study, 65% of whom were female, for a sex ratio of 0.54. The mean age of the patients was 44.97 with ranges ranging from 20 to 72 years. The mean duration of antiretroviral therapy was 93.74 ± 58 months (7 - 203). The most frequently encountered anomaly was anemia (33%) with an average hemoglobin level of 12.67 ± 1.77g / dl. It is hypochromic microcytic in 24.2% of patients, normochromic normocytic in 60.6% and normochromic macrocytic in 15.2%. The other anomalies observed were: neutropenia (31%), lymphopenia (18%), leukopenia (11%). On univariate analysis, factors associated with anemia are gender (p = 0.01) and treatment with AZT (p = 0.008). Lymphopenia is 22.2% present in WHO stage 1 and 77.8% in stage 2. It is associated with HIV 1 (p = 0.032) and WHO stage 3 (p = 0.022). Conclusion: Haematological abnormalities remain a major comorbidity in patients with HIV. The anemia is frequent, severe and predominantly normochromic normocytic in our patients.

  12. Dr. Nahyan Al Mansouri and Dr. Mashhood Ul Haque Qazi

    Heat stroke is a common presentation in hot climates and if not treated aggressively can be fatal. It generally has a typical clinical presentation which includes nausea, vomiting, signs of dehydration, disorientation or coma. In this case report, we present an unusual presentation of heat stroke in a young female. She had an unusually high body temperature which was associated with reduced levels of consciousness followed by disseminated intravascular coagulopathy.

  13. Aguiyi Nduka Watson and Ayibapreye K. Benjamin

    Electromagnetic (EM) wave propagation through a physical model of foam-covered sea surface modelled as layers of randomly distributed air-bubbles coated with thin layer of sea water was investigated. Here, the matching potential of the split-step Fourier technique was explored by slicing the three-dimension foam structure into two-dimension layers and determine the vertical field profiles of the propagating E-field at successive range steps until the desired range is reached. The scatterer (foam layer) comprises of randomly distributed packed bubbles with estimated complex dielectric constant of sea foam which is a mixture of air coated with thin layer of sea water. It has internal and external radii and . The bubble size distribution follows a log-normal distribution pattern. We consider a cluster of N bubbles randomly packed closely such that there exists no overlap between any two adjacent bubbles. The bubbles are assumed to be spherical in shape and are placed in a finite domain in the form of a cube with dimensions = = The sea foam model is described by three regions embedded in inequality , the incident field must satisfy the Helmholtz equation. Results of EM field intensity through layers of sea foams as at selected WindSat frequencies were reported.

  14. Biswajit Goswami and Swagat Ghosh

    This study evaluated the production performance of two species of catfish - Pabo Catfish (Ompok pabda) and Walking Catfish (Clarias batrachus) in six months of semi-intensive rearing. A three-time replica of each stocking density of O. pabda and C. batrachus was conducted. Fingerlings of O. pabda and C. Batrachus were stocked 15000 numbers/ha in Treatments (T) 1 (1.5: 1), 2 (1: 1) and 3 (1: 1.5), respectively. In T1, T2 and T3, the fish production was 3876 ± 94, 3992 102 and 4538 ± 112 kg / ha/ 180 days, respectively. Similarly, all treatments employed the same feed twice a day of the initial stocking of fry. The initial weight of both O. pabda and C. batrachus were 5±0.00g and initial lengths were 7.0 cm and 4.0 cm respectively. The average highest final weight recorded was in T3 (32 ± 3.43) g in O. pabda and C. Batrachus respectively. The average highest final length was observed in T3 (22 ± 0.05 cm) and (21.30 ± 0.09 cm) in O. pabda and C. Batrachus respectively. The survival rate of the stocked O. pabda and C. Batrachus was recorded 64 and 88% in T1; 69 and 90% in T2; 72 and 93.00 % in T3.

  15. Parfait Cocou BLALOGOE

    This article establishes an environmental and socio-economic diagnosis of the sand sector in Lake Ahémé and the repercussions of its exploitation on the local populations. It assesses the societal problems caused by lake sand management methods. The methodological approach consisted of field work (direct observation and socio-anthropological surveys), the calculation of indices of reduced centered anomalies, etc. In addition, the exposure and impact indicators developed using the sensitivity matrix of Léopold (1971) made it possible to highlight the main elements of the degradation of Lake Ahémé. The exploitation of lake sand extracted from Lake Ahémé is still embryonic, artisanal and totally unorganized. In the Lake Ahémé sector, sand mining is more than a socio-professional retraining activity and is led by key players trained by quarry operators, divers, collectors, loaders and consumers. It allows these actors to increase their income and improve their social and economic conditions. But the exploitation of lake sand in Lake Ahémé has direct impacts such as the destruction of the ecological habitats of aquatic fauna, fauna and flora at the bottom of the lake (more than 75%), the degradation of waterways (90%). In addition, the health of the direct actors (divers, collectors, loaders (more than 95%)), involved in the activity, is affected by the lake sand mining system. It is important to reorganize and regulate the exploitation of lake sand and to implement the measures proposed for sustainable environmental and social management.

  16. Weihan Huang

    Firstly I give an introduction of lives living inside a machine. Then I give the definitions of awakening and dreaming in a virtual reality. Secondly, I show 3 examples of situations : eating steaks, playing games, approaching to death, and show that some of them require awakening, while some of them forbid awakening. Thirdly, two important cases of computer program bugs are proposed : halting problem, infinite loop. I discuss the ability of detecting them, and make the corresponding awakening choices. Lastly I list points of how to prevent the bugs before running virtual reality.

  17. KABRITI Mohamed, MERBOUH Chaimaâ, OUJIDI Bouchra, Elbouch Mohamed ACHKIR Abdelmajid, HASSINE Ayoub, Mly Ouahidi Hassan and IOUNES Nadia

    The main purpose of this work was to investigate for the first time, levels of certain organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in Sebou river sediments in its upper part. Three sampling campaigns were carried out in three years between October 2018 and October 2020 in six sampling locations of the river. The results of our investigations have showed that the sediments contains more or less pollutants depending on the sampling area. The downstream part of the studied area is more loaded with OCPs and PCBs than the upstream part. HCH and DDT isomers were two dominant pollutants of OCPs in this region. Levels of ∑3HCHs were ranging from 0.56 to 3.87 ±0.15 ppb and ∑3DDTs concentrations ranging from 0.96 to 5.30 ±0.10 ppb. For individual HCHs, α-HCH registered the highest value of 2.31 ppb, and β-HCH was the most dominant isomer in all stations, and p,p’-DDT was the most dominant with 2.61 ppb. The concentrations of ∑5PCBs in sediment samples were between 1.91 and 6.53 ±0.20 ppb. The maximum levels of these pollutants were recorded in the sediments sampled from Allal El Fassi dam. The presence of these molecules could be directly related to the use of pesticide upstream and to aerial deposition due to their global movement.

  18. Oldemar de Oliveira Carvalho-Junior and Andreoara Deschamps Schmidt

    This work is a description and comparative analysis of otter shelters for three distinct environments, a freshwater lake, a coastal island, and a river. The original disposition of the rocks favors the formation of semi-closed internal environments, sometimes connected, and frequently divided in compartments. The structure created and the disposition of the internal and external spaces appears to be important in determining the comfort of the animal as related to temperature and ventilation. Otter conservation along the coastal region of Santa Catarina state depends on the conservation of the Atlantic Rain Forest.

  19. Dhanalakshmi, R.L. and Lokesh, S.

    The biogenic CuNPs from Ocimum tenuiflorum and Vitex negundo were subjected for antimicrobial activity against 3 human pathogens Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus along suitable controls for comparison. Among CuNPs biosynthesized using V. negundo and O. tenuiflorum, V. negundo showed high inhibition zones than O. tenuiflorum. Nanoparticles treated seeds showed low incidence of seed mycoflora in which the incidence of Aspergillus niger and Curvularia lunata was reduced to 4%. Aspergillus flavus was depleted by 8% over control. Interestingly, the incidence of common field fungi in sorghum was reduced by 8% over control. In general the incidence of all the fungi remained low in CuNPs treated samples compared to control set. It indicated the antifungal effect of biogenic CuNps to some fungi which are commonly affecting the foliages in the sorghum fields during growth. Its occurrence was reduced in biosynthesized CuNPs through Ocimum tenuiflorum and Vitex negundo leaf extract. Insecticidal activity of the above biosynthesized CuNPs against Callosobrushus chinensis was assessed by treating the green gram seeds treated with 20mg/ml of CuNPs. The activity and mortality rate of C. chinensis was found decreased compared to control, thus, proving the insecticidal activity of the biosynthesized CuNPs from Vitex negundo and Ocimum tenuiflorum. Thus, it is proved the possibilities of biosynthesized nanoparticles as an ecofriendly approach to manage the field fungi and storage pests in pulses.

  20. Kouakou A. Jerome, Bla K. Brice, Konaté-Touré Abibatou, Gnagne A. Paterne, Bedia A. Valérie, Assanvo A.N. Stevenson and Yavo William

    Background: Monitoring of Plasmodium falciparum resistance to antimalarial drugs in Côte d'Ivoire takes place on the classic sentinel sites determined by the National Program Control for Fight against Malaria (PNLP) according to the therapeutic efficacy testing approach and/ or coupled with molecular studies. However, areas outside these sentinel sites are not regularly monitored; hence the non-updating of data on the epidemiological profile of malaria in these areas. Methods: A cross-sectional and descriptive study was conducted over a period of 3 months at the Regional Hospital of Séguéla (from September to November 2019) to describe the epidemiological profile of malaria in this region of North-West Côte d'Ivoire (Séguéla). Results: A total of 3057 patients were included in the study, involving 1621 female (53%) and 1436 male (47%). The average age was 15 years with extremes ranging from 4 months to 65 years. The realization of the thick drops made it possible to count 1614 (53%) positive cases of which the majority were children of less than 5 years. The parasite density varied from 112 to 300000 parasites/µl of blood with an average of 9724 parasites/µl of blood. Plasmodium falciparum was the only species found. The parasite index reported during this study was 52.8%. Conclusion: Malaria is endemic in the health district of Séguéla with a prevalence higher than that observed nationally.

  21. Shri. P.C. Lakra, Obaidullah Ehrar, Dr. Narendra Prasad and Saroj Biswakarma

    Jharkhand is India's most biologically diverse state due to its location and different physiographical and climatic situations. It is well-known for its indigenous peoples, mineral riches, and extensive forest cover. Sal (Shorea robusta) is one of the essential and the most important Dipterocarp species in ecology and commerce, but it is also one of the most threatened species. Due to its socio-economic and cultural significance, it has been recognized as Jharkhand's" State Tree”. The study entitled" Assessment of potential distribution of Shorea robusta Gaertn.f. in the District of Dumka, Jharkhand through Ecological Niche Modelling is aimed at assessing the potential distribution and forecasting the future distribution of Shorea robusta Gaertn.f. in the Diistrict of Dumka. The modelling and the MAXENT method are utilised for forecasting the present (2020) and future (2040) distribution of the Shorea robusta ecological niche. In order to examine the distribution of the target species, 19 bioclimatic variables were employed. The data were analysed from the jack knife test after running the 19 variables in the MAXENT. Then eight bioclimatic factors were eliminated in accordance with their contribution to the Shorea robusta distribution. Finally, just 11 bioclimatic variables were used to provide the actual contribution of the model. The potential distribution of the Shorea robusta in the study area was predicted by Max Ent model which involved multiple predictor variable is bioclimatic variables, elevation, slope, soil, LULC, and human influence index, where the maximum contribution of minimum temperature of coldest month was 33.9 % having followed by precipitation seasonality 11.9% respectively.

  22. Sowmya, K.L. and Dr. Ramalingappa, B.

    Discovery of the Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR), the mechanism of the CRISPR based prokaryotic adaptive immune system and its repurposing into a potent gene editing tool has revolutionized the field of molecular biology and generated excitement for new and improved gene therapies. Additionally, the simplicity and flexibility of the CRISPR /Cas 9 site specific nuclease system has led to its widespread use in many biological research areas including development of model cell lines, discovering disease mechanisms, development of transgene plants and animals. In this review we present a CRISPR delivery systems including physical delivery methods like microinjection, hydrodynamic delivery and viral vector delivery methods like Adeno Associated Virus (AAV), Lentivirus (LV) and Adenovirus (AdV) and its applications in different fields.

  23. Nyaligwa., L.M., Masuki., K. F. and Karwani., G.M.

    Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is plagued by low maize productivity due to climate change, poverty and poor agronomic practices by smallholder scale farmers. The objective of this study was to explore the attainable maize grain yields under various nutrient use in a varying soil conditions..In order to execute the study, in year 2016/2017 maize planting season, performance trials (PTs) were extracted from the Nutrient Omission Trials (NOTs) of the season 2015/16. The PTs was an advanced of NOTs to understand the variation in nutrient use efficiency of maize under varying soil conditions. The performance Trials (PTs) were conducted in 10 different districts of main maize growing areas Northern Tanzania. The PTs sites were introduced in the same grids in which NOTs were planted. The aim of this study was to verify the performance of newly developed site specific nutrients management recommendations by Taking Maize Agronomy to Scale in Africa (TAMASA) project against the blanket recommendation. The PTs were based on nutrient expert tool and soil test (ST) based fertilizer recommendations. The treatments used were nutrient expert (NE) recommendation, soil test (ST) based fertilizer recommendation, region fertilizer recommendation (RE) and control in which no fertilizer was applied. The fertilizer rates and their ranges was as follows; RE-NPK (100-20-0), NE-standard NPK (100-20-0), Soil Test ST- NPK (102-50-46).The parameters considered were grain and biomass yields. The results showed that performance of these treatments varied within and across locations. Generally the results in Siha district showed that the grain yield was higher for NE>ST> control>RE. In Mbulu district NE and ST performed highest than RE and the control. In Babati although the difference was small still NE and ST were better than the control treatment. Grain yield in Monduli was also better for NE, ST and RE in relation to the control treatment. The treatments revealed significant variation in biomass yield as indicated in the results followed with discussion section of this study report. The study concluded that NE and ST treatments were significant that showed comparable high grain yield of maize, therefore farmers could make significant yield upon adopting of NE and ST treatments fertilizer for site specific nutrient management.

  24. Poncheran Palanisamy, Venkateswaramurthy Nallasamy and Sambathkumar Ramanathan

    Coronaviruses, such as HCoV 229E and HCoV OC43, were identified in the early 1960s. This coronavirus causes the most severe acute respiratory illnesses. SARS is a coronavirus that has been connected to a respiratory illness in the Middle East (MERS). The outbreak of Novel corona virus disease (COVID-19) was initially noticed in mid December, 2019,To improve the success rate of COVID-19treatment, several pharmacological approaches are proposed, and some clinical data are reviewed in the literature. Comorbid patients require many pharmacological therapies. Multiple medication use (polypharmacy) dramatically increases pharmacological adverse effects. As a result, diagnosis and treatment of drug-drug and disease-drug interactions are critical. When prescribing new drugs to COVID-19patients, clinicians should examine the likelihood of drug-drug and disease-drug interactions. Detecting drug-drug and disease-drug interactions of the medications utilized will thus be critical in the treatment of COVID-19. This article will concentrate on the drug-drug and disease-drug interactions of COVID-19 therapeutic medicines. Variations in the expression of a transporter are well recognized to result in changes in the PK/PD of the prescribed medication; hence, prescription medicine during inflammation may be a major contributor to inter-individual variability in drug efficacy and toxicity. It also highlighted the possibility of drug-drug and disease-drug interactions of the specified medicine in the treatment of COVID-19. It will aid in lowering risk in individuals with co-morbidities and providing better therapy with fewer adverse effects.

  25. Rand Y. Omari, MD, Loay A. Salman, MBBS and Mohammad Alassaf, MBBS, MS, FRACS

    Background: Superior Mesenteric Artery Syndrome (SMA syndrome) is a condition that occurs when the third part of the duodenum is compressed between the Aorta and the Superior Mesenteric Artery which causes postprandial abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting due to partial or complete blockage of the duodenum. It is thought to be caused by rapid weight loss leading to sudden decrease in the angle between the Aorta and SMA which results in gastric outlet obstruction, failure to gain weight, and electrolyte disturbances. Case presentation: We report an original case of a previously diagnosed 35-year-old female with SMA syndrome through history and radiological findings who initially underwent gastrojejunostomy for the treatment of her SMA syndrome two years prior to her presentation without resolution of her gastric outlet obstruction symptoms. CT scan of the abdomen at the time of presentation revealed an aortomesenteric angle of 22 and distance of 8.5mm with an intact anastomosis of the gastrojejunostomy. Laparoscopic revision of gastro-jejunostomy followed by duodenojejunostomy with Roux-en-Y jejuenojejunostomy was successfully performed with resolution of the patient’s symptoms. Conclusion: Surgical intervention is the mainstay in cases of SMA syndrome refractory to conservative management. Gastrojejunostomy is not commonly preferred due to the high recurrence rate of symptoms. We report an original case of persistent SMA syndrome post gastrojejunostomy which was treated with laparoscopic revision of gastrojejunostomy followed by duodenojejunostomy with Roux-en-Y jejuenojejunostomy. No previous reports of this surgical intervention or similar presentations were found in the literature.

  26. Balasubramanian Arumugam, Madhusudhan Napa, Prabhakar, R., Bhanumati Giridharan, Shanmugasundaram, P.N. and Meenakshisundaram, K.

    Gastric neuroendocrine tumor (GNET) is a part of the more heterogenousGastroenteropancreatic -Neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NET). A rare case of type III GNET is reported in this article. A 44 year old male presented with dyspepsia symptoms and on upper gastrointestinal (UGI) endoscopy he was incidentally identified with a solitary polyp in the body of the stomach. The histopathological examination of the biopsy was reported as Gastric neuroendocrine tumor (GNET). He was evaluated completely as per the recent consensus available and was managed successfully. The recent times explosion in the incidence of the neuroendocrine tumors and the complexity they pose in their management made obligatory to report this case.

  27. Vandana Yadav and Arsheen Aijaz

    The existence of Heavy metals in water is the sole issue these days. Environmental and Ecological imbalance can be utilised. The high range collection of heavy metals in water and polluted water have negative results on living organisms and the environment. In all the heavy metals like Pb2+, Zn2+, Cr6+etc. Chromium has the most damaging effects on living organisms including plants or animals. It is produced from electroplating and tannery industries. Chromium pollutes the earth and groundwater. The contact of mankind to an extreme quantity of chromium straightly cause respiratory disorders and injures the lungs. Cause of industrialization the chromium pollution in the aqueous solution and wastewater is crossing the tolerance limits of forbearance. Different techniques are utilised for the removal of chromium from the water. Adsorption is a very economical method largely utilised to get rid of heavy metals from commercial and industrial wastewater. It has been examined that this technique is the most functional and commercially workable technique for eliminating heavy metals, specifically chromium. The existing article explains numerous minds of natural waste adsorbents that are observed to be productive in eliminating hexavalent chromium (Cr6+) from factories elimination.

  28. A. Nagy Elsayed, M. M. Abo El Nasr and W. Aboelsoud

    Using renewable energy for heating and cooling applications covers the increasing demand of energy sources. In the present study, numerical analysis is used to study 9 closed-loop geothermal air pipe system cases during summer and winter with different pipe geometry of diameters of 0.17, 0.35, and 0.65 meters and total pipe lengths of 47, 64 & 87 meters for air conditioning application. The conditioned air is then supplied to a room of Length 3m x Width 3m x Height 3m. The numerical model is combined with a 1 m length solar chimney of 45ᵒ inclination angle. Also, an experiment was conducted in Damanhur city, Beheira Governorate, Egypt, providing conditioned air to a room of L 2m x W 2m x H 2m via a 5 m long, 5.3 mm thick geothermal PVC air pipe of 2 inches in diameter. The pipe was buried at 2 m depth and was supported by the solar chimney during winter to provide natural draft force inside the closed-loop system and to support the heating process. On the other hand, the closed loop contains a driving fan to provide circulation during summer. The results of the numerical model prove that the numerical analysis showed the highest level of air conditioning temperature difference close to 5 ᵒC for the case of 0.65 m diameter pipe, and 87 m total length. The validation of the numerical model was carried out using experimental results.

  29. J.W. Mayembo Mfoutou, C.B. Ndangui,F.B. Ganongo-Po,B. D., B.D. Biyendolo Loumpangou, L.S. Mvili, S. Moussoyi Moudanga and J.M. Nzikou

    The objective of this work is the modeling of the drying kinetics of the gombo sections by using a solar drier. The objective of this work is to model the drying kinetics of okra slices using a hybrid solar dryer. The work focused on the kinetics of okra slices at different thicknesses (1cm, 1.5cm and 2cm), temperatures (40°C, 50°C and 60°C) and different air speeds (1m/s, 1 .5m/s and 2m/s). The methodology consisted in following water content okra section of time function. The driying curves obtained were modeled with six semi-empirical models by the nonlinear regression method with the validation criterion following : coefficient of determination (R^2), chi-square (χ^2 )andMean Square Error (RMES ).The diffusion coefficient was estimated from the simplified solutions of Fick's second law Two parameters were given: the energy of activation and the coefficient of diffusion. The results obtained show that mass diffusivity increases with the temperature and the thickness of the product. The coefficient of diffusion varies from 3.5.10 -8 to 5.88.10-7 m2/s, and the activation energy of 12.50kJ/mol with 54.82KJ/mol. The time of drying decreases with the increase in the temperature, and the speed of air and increases with the increase thickness of produit. The models of Demir et al., and Wang and Singh are most reliable to represent the water content reduced of the gombo according to time, therefore as well as possible simulate the kinetics of the gombo drying with for coefficients of correlation respective :R^2=0.99708,X^2=0.000467,RMES=0.0215 for Demir et al., and R^2=0.99527,X^2=0.00734,RMES=0.02289 for Wang and Singh.

  30. Himmat Singh Thakur

    Since the time immemorial education experts have been making efforts to bring about better and positive changes and to obtain satisfactory results in education. Education is the spirit of any nation and serves as an integral part of human life. Even the personality of person also reflects through the education acquired by him or her. In order to raise the educational standard among students we have adopted many techniques and still the process is in progress comprising digital tools and technologies but due to stagnant, faulty and poor evaluation system the quality of education is at its downfall and the better results are beyond our access. Hence it has been essential to introduce CCE in our education system to occur positive changes including scholastics and co-scholastics activities. CCE not only measures the qualitative aspects of learners it creates different dimensions of their development as well. It also helps to decide and implement the different educational techniques and teaching-learning strategies. CCE enables to make a holistic evaluation of entire educational process encouraging and enhancing affective, psycho-motor and cognitive skills.

  31. Dr. Paromita Mazumdar, Dr. Tanmoy Saha, Dr. Sayantan Mukherjee and Dr. Santanu Sen Roy

    Background: The association between certain systemic diseases like diabetes, cardiac disorders and ABO blood group is a well-documented fact. The studies conducted on the association between dental caries and ABO blood group till date is limited. This study was conducted to find out whether ABO blood group affects the prevalence of dental caries. Methods: Based on a pilot study, sample size calculation was performed. A total of 198 patients of 19-59 years age group attending the outpatient department of Conservative Dentistry & Endodontics were randomly selected for the study. Patients free from any systemic diseases and holding a valid certified copy indicating ABO blood group, obtained from a registered pathological laboratory or government institute were selected for the study. Dental caries was scored using DMFT index. Results: Blood group O was found to be more prevalent among the subjects and had the highest mean DMFT score and blood group AB the lowest among all groups. The results were statistically significant. Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, an association between blood group and dental caries prevalence was found. For more conclusive results to be extrapolated to a larger population, further studies need to be conducted on a on a higher sample size.

  32. Ondari, J.R., Dawo, J.I.(PhD) and Gogo, J.O.(PhD)

    Teacher involvementthrough lesson attendance is a major determinantof achievement of school academic goals. In this regard the Teachers Service Commission(TSC) instituted the Teacher Performance Appraisal and Development system (TPAD) in 2016 highlighting teacher lesson attendance with the aim of improving educational outcomes.However,there have been active resistances by teacher trade unions against TPAD implementation.Out of the 160 teachers who were interdicted nationally for resisting the TPAD training, 42 cases were from KisiiCounty representing 26.25% with Gucha Sub-County leading with 15 (35.7%) followed by Gucha South 7 (16.7% ) and Sameta 5 (11.9%) respectively, yet without training effective TPAD implementation may not be achieved, worst of all in Gucha Sub-county. Therefore, the purpose of the study was to establish effectiveness of the TPAD implementation for monitoring lesson attendance in secondary schools inGucha Sub-county.Locke’s (1968) goal-setting model formed the study's theoretical basis. The study used descriptive survey design.Study population consisted of 23 principals, 115 HODs, 254 teachers, 194 class secretaries out of whom 2 school principals, 10 HODs, 10teachers and 8 class secretaries were utilized during piloting. A reliability coefficient of 0.8 was established using test- retest method. Validity of data collection tools was determined by experts in Educational Administration from Maseno University. Using saturated sampling, 21 Principals and 105 HODs were selected while by simple random sampling to attain 169 teachers and 132 class secretaries was selected. The findings of the study revealed partial effect between implementation of TPAD curriculum monitoring tools and teacher lesson attendance in secondary schools as indicated by M= 3.94 SD=0.85 for HODs, M=3.87 SD=0.74 teachers, and M=3.93 SD=0.77 class secretaries. The findings of this study provide a framework through which school administrators will learn the effectiveness of TPAD that is being implemented in schools and allow them to initiate system improvements to achieve the performance measurement goals.

  33. Shreeya, R., Rajesh Kumar, Shweatha, H.E. and Sushma B. V.

    The concept of “food addiction” has received increasing attention in recent clinical and experimental investigations (1,3). While cogent arguments have been made against the establishment of food addiction as a psychiatric diagnosis in its own right, there is a substantial evidence to suggest a significant role in the process of substance abuse disorders(4). Proposed review research has inherent limitations based on the scarcity of data on food addiction derived from clinical trials, which seriously limits the possibility of treatment recommendations (5). Diagnostic criteria for “food addiction” are controversial, and the heterogeneity of the studied population also limits the possibility of formulating screening strategies that are already implemented for other addictive disorders (11). Food addiction could possess strong implications on various aspects of life (12). Food addiction, if left ignored or untreated it can rapidly alter the biomechanics and health quality of an individual (5). Furthermore, validating data base relative to the concepts of toxic and lethal doses of hyper palatable foods on humans are crucial, as doses below the toxic and/or lethal range perhaps play a causal role in inducing intoxication or death. Evidently formulating a cohesive approach to diagnosis and treatment uniquely enable a vital impact on the proliferation of food addiction in the coming years.

  34. Eric Buhle Gumbi

    The radical education qualifies the functionality that establish and develop human potential towards anticipations, and preparations for the country’s generational empowerment. The education sector stands as a barometer and a foundation to various sectors of the country both in public and private, through which the success of the country can be predicted. The purpose-driven and functional education can be interpreted into establishment and improvement of infrastructure and increase in socio-economic growth. Functional education is characterized by a total process of bringing up the country’s individuals to develop their potentials to the fullest, whether in cognitive, affective or psychomotor domains, and consequently, be able to contribute maximally to the development of the society. The aforementioned values contradict with what can be mirrored as a dysfunctional education system. The South African education system less perform adequately as expected and show inadequate results in terms of learning ability and teaching ability, and of which, most of the schools on the tipping end, are public rural schools that are in a state of chaos. The paper looks at education as a sentient and a premeditated effort to create a learning atmosphere for learners so that they can be actively developed for their maximal potential for personality, intelligence, service, noble character and skills required in their cohesive societies. This cannot be achieved if the education system is dysfunctional, and South Africa is one of the countries experiencing the crisis of dysfunctional education system. The paper delved within the parameters of the transformational paradigm where transformative learning theory has been used as a theoretical lens in a participatory action research as an approach for data collection. The collected data through a purposive sampling was analysed using a critical discourse analysis. In conclusion, the paper argues that dysfunctionality in education does not reside in solitary aspect, but in a syndrome of related climate issues.

  35. Ritu P. Naihar, Usha Singh, Sapna D. Malviya and Azaz Prim

    People with different jobs encountered different types and quantities of stress. Nursing is one of the most stressful profession. Nursing is an occupation with a constellation of circumstances leading to stress. Nurses in India are overburdened as the nurse to patient ratio is low (1:2250). They are responsible along with other health care professionals – for the treatment, safety, and recovery of acutely or chronically ill, injured, health maintenance, treatment of life threatening emergencies, and medical and nursing research. Nurses do not only assume the role of caregivers but are also administrators and supervisors of patients. These multiple work roles contribute to the significant amount of occupation related stress among nursing staff. Nurses in the so-called high stress areas such as Intensive Care Units may be expected more stress than nurses working in less stressful areas. The present study was conducted with the purpose to assess the relationship between work related stress and stress reactions among staff nurses. The objectives of the study were to identify the work related stress and stress reactions as reported by the staff nurses working in critical care units of Christian Medical College & Hospital, Ludhiana and to find correlation between the work- related stress and stress reactions. A three point Likert Scale on Work Related Stress and four point likert Scale on Stress Reaction were developed and used. The pilot study was conducted to ensure the reliability of the tool and feasibility of the study. Data was collected from 60 staff nurses working in Critical Care Units of Christian Medical College & Hospital, Ludhiana, Punjab, by using non-probability, purposive sampling technique. The data was analyzed by using descriptive and inferential statistics, finding revealed that 60% of staff nurses had moderate level of work related stress & 65% staff nurses occasionally had stress reactions. The correlation between work -related stress and stress reactions was 0.57 which shows moderate positive correlation

  36. Shreya Verma and Sunita Mishra

    Brahmi, Ashwagandha and Curcumin is valued herbs are used in ayurveda medicine and such was used and cultivated from long periods in India. It possess therapeutic value against a large number of ailments such as brain/Dementia diseases, asthma, inflammation, arthritis rheumatism, tuberculosis, infections, fever, diseases including cancer. Brahmi (Bacopa monnieri), Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) and Curcumin (Curcuma longa) extract was incorporated directly with other ingredients of herbal products. It is helpful in curing the Dementia disease. The key objective of this study is to analyze the proximate composition and antioxidant content of the dehydrated Brahmi, Ashwagandha and Curcumin extract. In this study, proximate analysis standard methods of AOAC (2007) were used. It was found that dehydrated proximate analysis, minerals and vitamin content of dehydrated Brahmi, Ashwagandha and Curcumin extract Per 100 g. Proximate composition of Brahmi, Ashwagandha and Curcumin extract (Per 100g) obtained by chemical analysis in form of Moisture, Ash, Protein, Crude Fiber, Carbohydrate, Iron, Calcium, Total carotene, Vitamin C.

  37. Bah M Traoré, Mamadou Dansoko, Fadaba. Danioko, Mamadou Lamine Doumbia, Bourema S. Traore, Moussa Sangaré and Abdramane BA

    This paper deals the electrification problems in African rural localities particularly in Malian localities. One solution is to develop the renewable energy sources due to their enormous resource which is inexhaustible and their production mode which preserves environment. To increase the energy production and to manage the intermittent period of renewable resource, it will be interesting to combine divers renewable sources. In this hybridization of renewable energy sources context, the PV-Biomass hybrid system becomes very interesting compared to others hybrid energy systems, due to his high flexibility and low dependency to meteorological conditions. These properties place the PV-Biomass hybrid energy system as one of the bests systems in reliable and sustainable energy production for rural areas. In this study, we propose a PV-Biomass hybrid energy system with energy storage to produce 100% renewable energy and to preserve at the same time the environment. This hybrid system is studied under HOMER PRO software in order to identify the optimal configuration in terms of reliable energy production, sustainable and minimal cost over the hybrid system life cycle. The obtained results after simulation show that the optimal configuration is composed of a biogas generator of 100kW, a PV field of 160kWc and a battery park for reliable and sustainable energy production with a low cost over the life cycle of the hybrid energy system for Kolokani locality.

  38. Jatin V Thake and Kaushal P Jadhav

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the most common gastric intestinal malignancies and remain a prime death causing cancer worldwide. Although recent advancements in surgical and multimodal treatments, overall survival rates for advanced CRC patients remain poor. Molecular and metabolic processes that have been shown to contribute to phenotypic alterations favoring cancer include: gene mutation, angiogenesis, development of benign lesion, enhanced carcinoma proliferation. These occurrences may have a role in the onset and progression of cancer (carcinogenesis). A biomarker is a chemical that may be detected in blood, stool and tissue samples to allow pathological diseases like cancer to be identified. As a result, finding accurate and useful molecular biomarkers to help in the diagnosis and treatment of CRC would be advantageous. This review is based on the available information from published research papers related to different biomarkers that are used in the diagnosis of colorectal cancer also take a quick glimpse into the future.

  39. Dr. Dilip Kr. Goswami

    A case report is a brief but informative document about a patient prepared by a medical practitioner. Commonly a case report is needed to be prepared when a patient under treatment does not show the expected improvement after installation of the treatment procedures / methods considered to be necessary for his/her condition and needs referral to another hospital / doctor. Ideally the contents of a case report should be sufficient to provide information about the patient with regards to identity, suffering at the time of first visit, treatment given till date and the outcome along with the ground why the patient is referred to the concerned hospital / doctor. Great care should be taken by the doctor preparing the case report the lack of which may give rise to difficulty in decision making of the hospital / doctor who receives the patient. Hence a discussion on the importance and techniques of preparation of a case report is considered important.

  40. Shrishaila B Mudhol

    A company can only act through human beings and a human being who commits an offence on account of or for the benefit of a company will be responsible for that offence himself. The importance of incorporation is that it makes the company itself liable in certain circumstances, as well as the human beings” - Glanville Williams. The evolution of the concept of corporate criminal liability in India can be classified as a long processing effort from the judiciary to fix responsibilities on non-fictitious persons. Initially, the corporations were considered incapable of committing crimes, but with globalisation and liberalisation came a shift in the societal wherein corporations were seen as being involved in committing (almost all) white collar crimes. Criminal liability encompasses two elements: actusreus (guilty act) and mensrea (guilty mind). There is no dispute that a company is liable to be prosecuted for criminal offences. However, the company being an artificial person cannot have the requisite mensrea, hence the question whether a company could be prosecuted for an offence for which the mandatory sentence is imprisonment. Corporate criminal liability explains vicarious liability and the identification principle as well; it is an important item on the agenda of legislators and legal practitioners to inculcate. In general terms, it refers to the imposition of criminal liability on a company or its employees for an illegal act. The Indian law on corporate criminal liability is not confined to the general criminal law under the Indian Penal Code (IPC), 1860, but is scattered across several statutes, including The Companies Act 2013, Money Laundering Act 2002, and The Prevention of Corruption Act 1988. The Negotiable Instruments Act, 1881, and The Information Technology (IT) Act, 2000. Due to the rapid pace of globalization of business and evolution of transnational corporations, it has become very essential to determine the concept of corporate criminal liability and the present paper discusses the laws relating to corporate criminal liability and to what extent they are regulating the wrongs done by corporations.

  41. Dr. Subhasis Sheet, Dr. Anukul Chandra Biswas, Dr. Chandra Bhanu Pratap, Dr. Sourav Koley, Dr. Santosh Shukla and Dr. Pintso Tshering Lepcha

    Introduction: The potential effect of maxillary incisor retraction on infranasal soft tissue part is debatable . Aim: This study aims to evaluate the soft tissue changes of the infranasal part of the face after retraction of the maxillary incisors following Begg mechanotherapy. Materials and Methods: The parent sample consisted of one hundred patients. Of them, 40 female and 20 male patients had class II division 1 malocclusion whereas 24 male and 16 female patients had class I malocclusion with anterior protrusion. All the patients were treated with fixed appliances (Begg’s technique following extraction of either all first premolars or only upper first premolars) for an average period of one year and six months .Each patient had lateral skull radiographs taken before commencement of treatment, at the end of the first stage of treatment; that is as soon as the incisors reached an edge -to- edge relationship; and at the end of treatment 2 months after appliances were removed. Chi-square test was applied as the measures of associations, T-test was used to compare the means. The soft tissue parameters compared between pre-treatment and post-treatment were as follows: Labrale superior(Ls) to E line, Labrale inferior(Li) to E line, Sulcus superior(Ss) to E line , Sulcus inferior(Si) to E line, lower lip to H line, upper lip to profile line, lower lip to profile line, Z angle, Nasolabial angle, Labiomental angle and H angle. Results: Soft tissue analysis revealed that significant changes were noted in case of labrale superior to E line, labrale inferior to E line, Z angle, H angle, nasolabial angle and labiomental angle whereas non-significant changes were noted in case of sulcus superior to E line, sulcus inferior to E line , H line and profile line relative to both upper and lower lips. Conclusions: The findings of the present study indicates that retraction of maxillary incisors is a viable option for a desirable decrease of lip procumbency although the amount of this reduction varies from person to person.

  42. Deepthi S Nair, Chris Irene, Praneet Garg, Shafeela Jasmine and Anu Varughese

    Water audit aims to counter the depleting water resources and ill usage of water by identification of the problems, leak points, losses, wastage and giving suggestions to minimize the same. For this purpose water meters were installed at different locations. Water meter indicates the measured value of water usage at that particular location. At the same time estimated value of water usage is calculated by using the standards specified by WHO. A comparison of the measured and estimated values was done to get the losses. The results depicted a bulk of water wasted by leaks or real losses and over usage of water at most of the distribution points. Methods like inspection, replacement and repairs of corroded pipes and ill fittings were suggested. Generating awareness to limit wastage of water at households and hostels were also suggested.

  43. Dr. Yashmeet Kaur, Dr. Sarfaraz Padda and Dr. Navkiran Goraya

    Introduction: Transalveolar screws for achieving maxillomandibular fixation have been in clinical usage for the past three decades. Thisprospective clinical study aims to analyze the efficacy and potential complications of transalveolar screws in the management of mandibular fractures. Material and Methods: A prospective interventionalclinical study with 40 adult patients with minimally displaced mandibular fractures effecting the occlusion and requiring open reduction and internal fixation were selected. Maxillomandibular fixation was achieved using 2.0 mm diameter, 10-12 mm long, titanium transalveolar screws. The time required to achieve Maxillomandibular fixation using transalveolar screws was recorded. Intraoperative complications (glove perforation, screw breakage, screw redirection, soft tissue injury) and post-operative complications (iatrogenic root damage, tooth non-vitality, soft tissue injury) were recorded during follow up. The results were statistically evaluated using the Mean and Percentage tool. Results: The average time taken to achieve Maxillomandibular fixation was found to be 16.43 minutes, with three screw breakage out of 163 screws used. No glove perforation was observed. Iatrogenic dental damage was found to be 6.62% with additional soft tissue injury. Occlusal stability of the device was found to be satisfactory, though screw loosening in a few cases was observed. Conclusion: The overall incidence of intraoperative and postoperative complications with their sequelae were minimal and can be further decreased by taking appropriate precautions.





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