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September 2021

  1. Sharma M.C., Joyce J., Deviga T., Raghu V.A., Nancy, K., Mohanasundari S.K., Sonia M. and Jaishri Bagg

    In India, various Maternal and Child Health Programme are in existence, which makes pregnancy safer as well as deals with child and adolescent health and nutrition. Despite of the availability of widespread services and infrastructure facilities in the rural areas, the morbidity and mortality among children and mothers continue to be a major cause of concern to the planning commissions.1 Objective: To assess the knowledge and utilization of various maternal and child health programmes by pregnant women and mothers of under-five children. Methods: A cross sectional study was carried out between March to April, 2021,simple random technique was used to select 80 antenatal, postnatal and mothers of under 5years children who are living in Dhava village, Jodhpur, Rajasthan. Self structured questionnaire and checklist were used to collect data. Data were entered and analyzed using SPSS version 20. Results: Of the total, 42 (52.5%) participants were having average knowledge regarding various MCH services and 59 (73.8%) of the participants were utilizing the services. Conclusion: Although utilization showed better rate among mothers, the knowledge of maternal and child health services among mothers was not that good. Hence, focus is needed on enhancing awareness among the mothers of under five children regarding MCH schemes for effective utilization.

  2. Dr. Krishanu Sarkar

    In developing countries like India Second largest population’s livelihood depends on common property resources (CPR) that have often been associated with high rates attached by the poor in discounting future flow of benefits, improper property rights, degraded Social value, and social protection. economic insecurity. Forest land appears to be the most important common pool resource which can capable of providing wherewithal of life to a vast section of people for its diverse type of timber and non-timber benefit including environmental benefit. The present-day problem related to this area concentrated on high poverty rate, gender conflict. This study focuses on status-wise forest dependency, types of NTFP (Non-Timber Forest Product) and their relative dependency to forest dwellers, villager’s perception towards forest management and feeling threat to being evacuated from their own land, etc. This study also investigates the characteristics of Agricultural Land. It includes the socio-economic issues related to the livelihood status of forest dwellers. The main objective of this study is to help the government making policy regarding the development of the livelihood status of the selected areas.

  3. Ummang Sharma Bajpai

    Commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) video games are easily accessible and widely used. Yet, there is limited literature about the effects these video games have on the anxiety levels of a general population of adults. With an increase in online presence and an advancement in technology, these video games have the potential to be used in mental healthcare settings, reducing cost, and increasing access. Aims: This study aims to investigate whether COTS video games have a measurable effect on the anxiety levels of young adults. It also probes if the genre of video games played make a difference to the kind of effect they have on anxiety. Methods: Participants (n=41) were split into two groups at random, with Group A (n=21) playing an action game and Group B (n=20) playing a non-action game. Each participant played the video game for an hour. A state anxiety test was administered before and after the gameplay. The difference between these scores for each participant was calculated as impact scores. This quantitative data was analyzed by through statistical testing using t-tests and correlation analysis. Results: For both participants with positive and negative change, the paired samples t-test results (Positive: t19=7.109, p<0.01; Negative: t20=-6.415, p<0.01) indicated a significant change in anxiety scores. The difference between the impact scores of Groups A and B was found to be not significant. Further, a negative correlation was found between pre-test scores and impact scores. Conclusion: COTS video games have a significant effect on the anxiety levels of young adults, irrespective of genre.

  4. Paresh Kumar Mishra, Mr. Bubushree, Dr. Prativa Shree and Dr. Dinesh Prasad Swain

    Human resource being the primary requirement for execution of any operation in an organization. Health of an organization unavoidably depends on the health of its human resource. While organizations grow in size and work environment requires suitable restructuring, health issues also deserve due attention. Health of a person or an organization does not mean mere structural attractiveness. Rather, health is closely associated with innumerable sensitive and delicate interplaying factors triggering enormous visible as well as invisible impacts both at individual and organizational level. A healthy human resource paper focuses on the remedial measures against certain unhealthy life style and environmental issues at work places which could be managed under the concepts of yoga and naturopathy. Systematic exposure to the five basic elements of nature and strategic application of those elements in work places have been found to be the most accessible and effective remedial measure as per yogic and naturopathic tradition, because these elements can be used to enhance the energy level of manpower by taking care of all health aspects whether physical, mental, emotional or spiritual.

  5. Dr. Priyanka Rathod

    Aim: Evaluation of the oral stereognostic ability of complete dentures patients over patients wearing over dentures. Study design: The study is an in vivo comparative study. Materials and Methods: In the present study, oral stereognostic tests were carried out on 20 subjects. Out of the 20 subjects 10 patients were complete denture wearers and 10 patients were overdenture wearers. For each patient oral streognostic test was done without the denture and with the denture. The patients were blindfolded and one random test specimen was placed on the mid dorsum of the tongue. Stopwatch was started as soon as the test piece made contact with the tongue. Subjects were allowed to freely manipulate the test piece in the mouth. Within a 15 second patient had to point to the shape on the paper sheet .Then all six test specimens were presented in the random order. Scores were given. Then patient is asked to wear a complete denture and same procedure is followed. Results: Data obtained from oral stereognostic ability test were statistically analyzed and found out that stereognostic test ability in overdenture was significantly more than complete denture. Conclusion: We concluded that patient using overdenture have better stereognostic abilities than complete denture.

  6. Dr. Deepak C. Koli, Dr. Kritika sharma, Dr. Tapas Mandal and Dr. Hemant H. Mehta

    We describe a case report of an 81 years old male, a case of Carcinoma left lung with multiple comorbid conditions posted for video assisted thoracoscopy surgery (VATS) SOS open thoracotomy and radical left upper lobectomy. We performed the procedure under general anaesthesia with a thoracic epidural for post-operative pain relief. CoopdechTM bronchial blocker type A with standard cuff size was used in the left main stem bronchus to achieve one lung ventilation. In this case report, we emphasise the importance of using a thoracic epidural for post-operative pain management and a bronchial blocker for lung deflation in the management of VATS, because incomplete deflation of the nondependent lung during VATS can result in poor surgical exposure and insufficient space for surgical manipulation, compromising the procedure's success. In our case, despite a good deflated operative lung, there was conversion to open thoracotomy due to adherent left bronchus to main pulmonary vessels, but with a good working thoracic epidural, we were able to extubate patient the next day in ICU due to excellent pain relief and an uneventful rest of the postoperative course, so to summarise, despite major open thoracic surgery overall good surgical outcome possible even in geriatric age group patient with multidisciplinary team approach.

  7. Iana Karla Azevedo Messias, Julliany Lopes Dias, Ana Edith Farias Lima, Domingos de Oliveira, Juliana Maria Barbosa Bertho de Oliveira and Ângela Lima Pereira

    Introdução: A escola é um espaço de relações sociais, produção de conhecimento e de impacto significativo na saúde. Diante disso, a enfermagem escolar pode atuar no apoio aos escolares e profissionais da educação, no processo de ensino aprendizagem, e fornecendo os cuidados em saúde necessários e adequados ao ambiente escolar. Objetivo: Relatar a experiência do trabalho desenvolvido pela enfermagem em uma escola privada de Palmas, Tocantins, no primeiro semestre de 2021. Metodologia: Artigo de relato de experiência acerca da atividade de enfermagem realizada em uma escola no Tocantins, no período de fevereiro a agosto de 2021. Relato: De maneira geral, a equipe de enfermagem ocupou quatro funções: avaliação geral de saúde do escolar no início e no final de cada turno de aula, assistência sistematizada de enfermagem na sala da enfermagem, educação em saúde e vigilância epidemiológica.Considerações finais: A vivência da enfermagem escolar permitiu identificar sua importância tanto para a comunidade escolar, quanto para a equipe de enfermagem, contribuindo para maior segurança da comunidade escolar, não apenas em tempos de pandemia, mas em todo o tempo.

  8. Ferdinand Ezeiruaku Chukwuma and Onitsha Enebrayi Nelson

    Background: Obesity is a medical problem that increases the risk to many reproductive issues in women, and there is a high prevalence of obese women in the population attending the different fertility clinics in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria. Objective: This cross-sectional study was carried out to assess reproductive hormones in obese infertile women. Methods: A total of 626 women comprising of 513 obese infertile women and 113 not obese women who serve as control were recruited for the study.Anthropometric measurements were taken and Body Mass Index were calculated. A non-fasting venous blood sample was collected from the subjects and analyzed for serum Estrogen, Luteinizing Hormone (LH), Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH), Progesterone, Inhibin, and Prolactin. Results: The result revealed that obese infertile women with primary and secondary infertility showed a statistically significant (p<0.05) increase in estrogen, LH, FSH, prolactin levels, and decreased progesterone and inhibin levels. However, women with secondary infertility had slightly higher levels of all analyzed hormones than primary infertility women. The study also revealed that hyperestrogenism was more prevalent among the obese women with primary infertility and secondary infertilitycompared with other gonadal disorders, but slightly higher in secondary infertility women. Infertility showed positive correlation with Body Mass Index. LH, FSH, E2, progesterone and prolactin showed a positive correlation withBMI in primary and secondary infertility women, while inhibin showed a negative correlation with Body Mass Index.Conclusion: Therefore, weight loss should be considered as a first line of treatment in obese women with hormonal imbalance.

  9. Dr. Kritika Sharma, Dr. Roly Mishra, Dr. Harvesp Panthakey, Dr. Niranjan Waje and Dr. Hemant Mehta

    One of the major concerns of using bioprosthetic valve in Surgical Aortic Valve Replacement (SAVR) or Bentall surgery is the risk of structural valve deterioration (SVD) leading to bioprosthetic failure. It can lead to aortic stenosis, regurgitation or combined stenosis and regurgitation. As a redo-surgery can be associated with multiple complications, Valve in valve Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement (VIV-TAVR) can provide a safer alternative.

  10. Inna Malik, Syed Sadaf Altaf and Sabia Rashid

    Background: Ocular trauma refers to any injury to the eye. Mechanical trauma to the eye is subdivided into open and closed globe injuries. An open globe injury is defined as a full thickness wound of the eye wall and intraocular structures. The annual global incidence rate is 3.5/100000 persons. The Ocular Trauma Classification group has developed a classification system based on Birmingham Eye Trauma Terminology (BETT) and features of globe injury at initial examination. Objective: To assess risk factors prognosticating final visual outcome of post vitrectomy patients with open globe injuries. Methods: The patients with open globe injuries of all age groups on follow up for atleast6 months were included in the study. Patients were assessed by clinical examination, indirect ophthalmoscopy, X-Ray/CT scan, B scan in cases with opaque media, timing of Pars planavitrectomy, final visual outcome and retinal reattachment. Patients underwent primary repair followed by vitrectomy depending on type, severity, duration of trauma and were followed up at 1week,1month,2 months and 6months post vitrectomy. Results: The study population consisted of 75 males and 3 females, ratio of male: female was 25:1 with mean age of 20.9±7.16 years. Time duration from primary repair upto vitrectomy was <15 days in 34 (43.65%), anterior chamber was maintained in 63 (80.8%) eyes, relative afferent pupillary defect was present in 12 (15.4%) eyes. Mean visual acuity showed significant improvement from 2.26± 1.82logMAR (Hand movements) preoperatively to 1.76± 1.39 logMAR (p=0.014) at 1 month, 1.51±1.071 logMAR (p=0.007) at 2 months, 1.23±0.96 logMAR (6/96) (p<0.001) at 6 months. Retinal detachment was present in 10 (12.8%) eyes and showed poor visual outcome compared to rest 68 (87.1%) of eyes with no retinal detachment (p=0.01) which was statistically significant. Out of 78 eyes, 1 (1.3%) eye presented with vision of 6/18, 2 (2.6%) eyes with 6/36, 20 (25.6%) eyes with finger counting 1 metre, 32 (41.0%) eyes with hand movements, 23 (29.5%) eyes perception of light. Postoperatively at the end of 6 months 17 (21.8%) eyes had 6/6-6/9 vision, 13 (16.7%) eyes had 6/12-6/24 vision,16 (20.5%) eyes had 6/36-6/60, 11 (14.1%) eyes had finger counting at 1 metre, 12 (15.3%) eyes had hand movements, 8 (10.3%) eyes had perception of light and only one patient remained with no light perception as he presented with optic nerve avulsion preoperatively. Conclusion: Good preoperative visual acuity had good prognosis, but poor visual acuity did not correlate with poor visual outcome, which means that with vitrectomy the prognosis could improve in patients with lower initial visual acuity.

  11. Dr. Shraddha Subhash Bhoyar, Dr. Lokanath K. V., Dr. Nilam Uttam Sathe and Dr. Supriya Basvaraj Yempalle

    Background: Adenoidectomy is one of the most common surgical procedures performed by Otorhinolaryngologists in the paediatric population. Most commonly used method for adenoidectomy being digital palpation of adenoids followed by their blind curettage using adenoid curette. This leads to incomplete removal of adenoids and also has risks of injuring surrounding structures. Objective of our study was to evaluate the role of intra-operative endoscopic inspection of conventional adenoidectomy. Methodology: Eighty patients attending ENT OPDs at Chigateri district hospital and Bapuji hospital, teaching hospitals attached to our institute during the period from October 2016 to October 2018 with symptoms and radiographic evidence of enlarged adenoids and who fulfill all inclusion and exclusion criteria and are willing to participate in the study were selected, informed and written consent was taken from all cases. A thorough clinical examination and required investigations were performed and diagnosis of enlarged adenoids was made. Patients were operated by Conventional adenoidectomy, followed by visualization and removal of remnants in the nasopharynx using a rigid endoscope. The number of patients benefited with remnants removal was noted. Results: The mean age of patients in our study was 8.8 years with male preponderance. Most common presenting complaints were mouth breathing, nasal obstruction, and snoring. Adenoidectomy with tonsillectomy was the most common procedure performed. Adenoid remnants were detected using endoscopic visualization in 92.5% of the cases in our study, with nasopharyngeal roof being the most common site. Conclusion: Endoscopic assisted adenoidectomy allows complete removal of adenoid tissue there by reducing the chances of developing recurrent adenoid, obstructive symptoms and reducing the bacterial reservoir in the nasopharynx.

  12. Keyur N Sharma and Dr. Mahendrasinh D. Chauhan

    Toric intraocular lenses (IOLs) are the practice of choice to correct corneal astigmatism of 1 D or more in cases enduring cataract surgery. The consequences after toric IOL implantation are influenced by numerous factors, right from the preoperative case selection and investigations to accurate intraoperative alignment and postoperative care. An ideal IOL power calculation formula should take into account the surgically induced astigmatism, the posterior corneal curvature as well as the effective lens position. A probable observational study was executed on 216 eyes of 108 patients canned between 2016 to 2020 for Cataract with astigmatism (cylinder ≤ -4.00 Diopters). The 216 consecutive eyes that had endured for bilateral cataract surgery with phaco and implantation of Toric Intraocular lens. Refractive certainty, change in mean spherical equivalent refraction, postoperative uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA), and subjective visual outcome were compared at, 1 month following surgery. In subjective questioner patient show rating between 7 to 10 out of 10, this shows satisfaction for distance & near vision after implantation of toric intraocular lens. Overall patients were satisfied with visual performance because of less amount of refractive power.

  13. Dr. Akash Gupta, Dr. Sadiya Shakeel and Dr. Malti Agrawal

    Mucormycosis is a life threatening illness, encountered lately as a sequel of post COVID 19 infection which is commonly found in immunocompromised individuals especially with diabetes mellitus. Due to the aggressive disease progression if not diagnosed early and treated appropriately with antifungals and surgical debridement, the mortality rate rises remarkably. Anaesthetists face challenges in view of poor general condition, hemodynamic instability and difficult airway of the patients. In this case ketamine was used as inducing agent along with propofol and was also used as maintenance agent demonstrating the usefulness and efficacy of the drug.

  14. Dr. Ashish Khandelwal, R.L. Dr. Meena, Dr. Neera Samar and Dr. Yogesh Mishra

    Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a syndrome of disordered metabolism with abnormally high blood glucose levels (hyperglycemia). In Type-2 DM (T2DM), the loss of direct effect of insulin to suppress hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis in the liver causes an increase in hepatic glucose production. Hence, this study was intended to study the activity of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in T2DM patients and compare it with that of normal healthy controls. Methods: A total of 100 patients of both sexes suffering from T2DM and 50 age and sex matched healthy individuals were selected for the study. From the subjects Fasting blood samples were drawn. Biochemical parameters like fasting blood glucose, liver enzymes (ALT and AST) and HbA1c were estimated in the samples. Results: The mean activity of serum ALT was significantly higher in diabetic patients as compared to controls while AST showed non-significant difference between patient and controls. Along with this, significantly increasing pattern of serum ALT level was found as duration of disease increased. While serum AST level was non-significant as duration of disease increased. Conclusion: The outcomes of the present study suggest that among the liver aminotransferases enzymes (ALT) have shown higher activity with T2DM patients than individuals who do not have DM. Hence routine monitoring of LFT along with other routine investigations in patients with type 2 diabetes is recommended.

  15. Ram Bahadur and Vijaykant Pandey

    A helical coiled heat exchanger is generally functional in industrial applications due to its compact structure, larger heat transfer area and higher heat transfer capability. The study of this investigation is the comparison CFD Analysis of TiO2 Nano-Fluid with Water and Ethylene Glycol as a base fluid in Tapered Helical Coil Heat Exchanger with the help of CFD on copper tube. The Titanium Oxide (TiO2), are used as Nano fluid and water and ethylene glycol is a base fluid. Tapered Helical coil was fabricated by bending 500 mm length of copper tube having 10mm tube diameter, 50mm pitch coil diameter, 20mm pitch and 20 tapered angle. The comparison of pressure drop and temperature variation between TiO2 nano fluid with water as its base and TiO2 nanofluid with ethylene glycol as its base is found in this analysis. The result indicates that the TiO2 nanofluid with ethylene glycol as a base fluid have maximum pressure drop and TiO2 nanofluid with water as its base fluid have maximum temperature variation compare with ethylene glycol as a base fluid. A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methodology using ANSYS FLUENT 15 is used here to investigate pressure drop of Titanium Oxide (TiO2) nanofluid with ethylene glycol and water as its base fluid on the heat transfer characteristics in a tapered helically coil-tube.

  16. Dr. Inbanila T. and Dr. Rajasekaran, A.

    This paper presents the experimental investigation on hollowed clay brickto enumerate itssound insulation. A total of 90 test specimens were cast and testedwith variations for each of 6 specimens. To createthe sound insulation inside the brickby using chart paper boxes placed in the core area of brick with combustible material such as saw, rice husk and cow dung. After the process of burning the combustible materials fully burned and turned into ash.The findings of the study concluded that the sound insulation of single hollowed brick 2 -3% greater than that of ordinary brick. In double hollowed 1.5% and triple hollowed bricks was 1.9% higher than the ordinary brick.

  17. Narayana Gowda, K.N., Sadath Ali Khan Zai, Chethankumar, J. and Aswini Kumar K.N.

    This paper presents finite element analysis on flexural behavior of recycled aggregates concrete beam using Abacus and same is compare with the experimental obtained results., the numerical models for the static load appraisal on beam are starting to become more accurate and honorable, the ABAQUS program is used to model the behaviour of reinforced concrete (RC) beam subjected to static loading. The Nonlinear finite element model uses the concrete damaged plasticity (CDP) approach. The model used in the present study can help to compare the experimental investigations under considerations as a valuable data for the design aspect. Four test beam specimens of size 150X230X2200mm with four different mixes with partial replacement of Natural coarse aggregate with Recycled coarse aggregate (RCA) and Treated recycled coarse aggregate (TRCA) are modelled in ABAQUS 6.14 and tested for static loading and the parameters such as first crack load, ultimate load and load deflection behavior were studied, then the analytical results are compared with experimental results. Hence, the Nonlinear finite element models can simulate the behavior of recycled aggregate beam under static load and there was good compromise of analytical results obtained from ABAQUS 6.14 with that of experimental results.

  18. Ahmed H. I. Elfaig, Mohamed Elnour Yassen Ahmed, Amna Maryoud and Amel. E. Abd Albagi

    This paper intends to study the environmental change characterization and analyses river islands with special emphasis on Tuti island area. Also, the article attempts to explore the change causes during the period 1975-2017, identifies its nature and assesses its spatial pattern, using remote sensing and GIS approaches. The main sources of data are the remote sensing images of Tuti Island (Spatial and Temporal images) for the years 1975, 1987, 2000, 2010 and 2017). The software used for data analysis is ArcGIS and Eardas Imagine. An accuracy assessment for images and results was conducted for the purpose of validation. Field survey was carried out for ground truth. Results showed that Tuti Island has witnessed an increase and decrease during the period 1975-2017,which proposed that Tuti Island has characterized by dynamic changes over time. During "1975-1987" the total area of Tuti Island increased by 11.6%, most probably due to flood events of 1988 which sediments deposited on the island surfaces area and edges. However, during 1987-2017, Tuti Island area slightly decreased by 0.83% at the minimum level and by 1.63% at the maximum level. The variation in the area is a result of the White Nile and Blue Nile deposition as well as anthropogenic factors. The results also showed that Tuti Island has a typical crescent shape with a very narrow coastal plain; these spatial attributes are an outcome of an annual deposition of silt forming a small strip of fluvial landform as a distinctive geomorphological feature of the island. Water erosion (Haddam) affects most of its agricultural areas on the rivers’ banks of Tuti Island. Significant changes from agricultural area to a residential area were seen during 1975-2017; thus, indicating that many of the potential changes will not only be harmful to ecosystems and human societies, but will also be costly to deal with, both socially and economically.

  19. Dr. Govind Dhulgande and Datta Ghogare

    Cytological investigations have been carried out in the experimental set of individual treatment of chemical mutagen such as EMS concentration in Pea (Pisum sativum L.). Seeds of Pea were subjected to different concentrations of EMS. The treated root tips showed varying degree of mitotic abnormalities almost in all the concentrations of EMS. The frequency of mitotic abnormalities was found to be more in highest concentrations of EMS. The various types of mitotic aberrations such as fragments, bridges, laggards, micronuclei, early and late separation were scored in case of root meristem cells of treated materials. Taking the percentage of mitotic aberrations and germination as an index of effectiveness of a mutagen concentration proved to be the most effective.

  20. Madhuchhanda Das, Harischandra Sripathy Prakash and Monnanda Somaiah Nalini

    Objective: Isolation and molecular identification of actinobacterial endophytes from Zingiber nimmonii (J. Graham) Dalzell., Polygonum chinense L., and Justicia wynaadensis Heyne, important ethnomedicinal plant species of the ‘Western Ghats’, a hotspot location in southern India and characterization of secondary metabolites for the antibacterial activity by bio-autography and Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) techniques. Methods: The endophytic actinobacteria were isolated from the plant parts and identified by sequencing of the 16S rRNA genes. The secondary metabolites produced by the strains in the ISP-1medium were extracted with ethyl acetate and the crude dry extracts were evaluated for the total phenolic, flavonoid, antioxidant capacities and antibacterial potentials. Results: 14 endophytic actinobacteria belonging to five taxa were identified from three plant species as Corynebacterium, Curtobacterium, Arthrobacter, Streptomyces and Nocardiopsis. The total phenolic content of the actinobacterial extracts ranged from 5.2±0.1 to 24.4±0.08 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE) /g dry extract. Flavonoid content was detected in three extracts (3.2±0.1 to 5.6±0.3 mg catechin equivalents (CE)/g dry extract). The radical scavenging activity (IC50 values) of actinobacterial extracts varied from 489.4 ± 2.3 µg/mL to 1968.3±112.0 µg/mL. Antibacterial activity was detected in all the extracts against six test bacterial strains viz., Bacillus subtilis (MTCC 121) and Staphylococcus aureus (MTCC 7443), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MTCC 7093), Escherichia coli (MTCC 729), Enterobacter aerogenes (MTCC 111) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (MTCC 661). Eight extracts among the 14 showed inhibition zones ranging from 7.2±0.1 to 28.8±0.2 mm diameter against four of the six test pathogenic bacteria. S. indiaensis isolated from Z. nimmonii exhibited highest inhibition zones against all test pathogenic strains (14.2±0.1 to 28.8±0.2 mm dia) with the Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MIC’s) ranging from 0.02 to 0.16 mg/mL. Characterization of Streptomyces indiaensis extract by thin layer chromatography and GC-MS revealed the presence of eight aliphatic and volatile organic compounds. Conclusions: Three ethnomedicinal plant species from Western Ghats harbor diverse actinobacterial taxa with bioactivities.

  21. El-Zaeem, S. Y., Zidan, E. M., EL-Wakil, H. M., EL-Dahhar, A. A. and AL-Garary, I. M.

    Variation in phenotype based on morphometric character indices and meristic counts of different population of shrimps, (Metapenaeus monoceros monoceros, Penaeus vannamei, Penaeus japonicas, Penaeus semesulacatus, Penaeus penicillatus, Penaeus monodon, Penaeus kerathurus), were analyzed phylogenetically to study and compare the amount of differences in phenotypes. The results revealed that there were significant differences (P≤0.05) in most of morphometric character indices and meristic counts among different population tested. The hierarchical cluster analysis based on quantitative phenotype (morphometric character indices and meristic counts), grouped the seven shrimp species into two major category groups; Penaeus vannamei, Penaeus penicillatus, Penaeus monodon and Penaeus semesulacatus species first group and Metapenaeus monoceros monoceros, Penaeus kerathurus and Penaeus japonicas species second group. Within these major grouping, the first group showed that Penaeus vannamei and Penaeus penicillatus were grouped close together. While the second group showed that Metapenaeus monoceros appears to be more phenotypically similar to that Penaeus kerathurus species than that of Penaeus japonicas. Therefore, it was observed in this study that the phenotype analysis based on a large number of morphometric character indices and meristic counts, can be used to discriminate shrimp species and genotype analysis using DNA fingerprint based on microsatellites (simple sequence repeats, SSRs) fingerprinting among seven species of shrimp.

  22. Shwetha JV., Sneha K Chunchanur, Silpa Mohandas and Ambica, R.

    Background: Gonorrhoea is one of the most prevalent sexually transmitted infection (STI) across the world. Isolation and preservation of gonococci is important to perform antimicrobial susceptibility testing and molecular characterization. Objective: To evaluate the preservation of gonococci by deep freezing, chocolate GC agar slope and lyophilization. Methods: The study was undertaken at State level STI/RTI Laboratoryat a tertiary care hospital. Isolation of gonococci was done from suspected cases of gonorrhoea. The culture isolates of gonococci were preserved by deep freezing, chocolate GC agar slope and lyophilization. Results: Out of 71 suspected cases of gonorrhoea, N. gonorrhoeae was isolated from 22 cases (30.9%). Preservation of all 22 isolates of N. gonorrhoeae were attempted by 3 methods.Out of 22 gonococcal isolates preserved by deep freezing (-700 C), 12 (54.5%), 06 (27.2%) and 03 (13.6%) isolates were revived at 3 months, 6 months and 8 months respectively by nutrient broth - glycerol method; 10 (45.5%), 04 (18.1%) and 01 (4.5%) were revived at 3 months, 6 months and 8 months respectively by preservation media (trypticase soy broth and yeast extract). Out of 22 gonococcal isolates, 18 (81.8%), 14 (63.63%) and 06 (27.27%) isolates were revived at end of 1 month, 3 months and 6 months by subculturing gonococcal isolates from chocolate GC agar slope. Conclusion: Chocolate GC agar slope is preferred method for preservation of gonococcal isolates over other methods in routine microbiology laboratories as its inexpensive, less laborious, doesn’t require sophisticated equipment and recovery rate of gonococcal isolates is good upto 6 months.

  23. Prakash, D.S.R.S., Vijaya Nirmala P. and Kalyani, D.

    This paper describes finger dermatoglyphics of 130 men and 130 women belonging to Yerukula Tribe, an endogamous population of Andhra Pradesh were studied for qualitative and quantitative finger dermatoglyphic characters. Among qualitative and quantitative characters, Bisexual and bimanual differences are also observed. This population records higher incidence of Ulnar loops followed by whorls.

  24. Ese Anibor, Chukwuedu Ojebor, Charity Inikoroand Nicholas Asiwe

    Background: Dental occlusion is the connection between the masticatory surfaces of the maxillary and mandibular teeth. The occlusion types include the edge to edge bite, the moderate overbite, the extreme overbite, and the negative overbite. This study offers important information for exploit in orthodontics, anthropology and forensic science. Objectives: To investigate the pattern of tooth occlusion among the Ika people, to investigate if there is a significant gender difference, and to provide a baseline data on the dental occlusion pattern for the Ika ethnic group. Methods: Data was gotten from 384 subjects fromIka Kingdoms in Delta State, Nigeria (Agbor, Owa-Ekie and Owa-Alero). Data was collected via observation as subjects were asked to bite, swallow saliva, occlude and open their mouths, while the association between the upper maxillary and lower mandibular teeth was observed and recorded. Record of occlusion pattern was taken as mild overbite, edge to edge bite, negative bite or severe overbite. The Chi-square test was used for inferential statistics and P value less than 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results:The mild overbite occlusion pattern had the highest frequency (Males 43.2%, females 42.3%). The negative overbite had the lowest frequency (Males 2.1%, females 1.0%). There was no significant association between sex and type of occlusion pattern (p=0.84), and between age and type of occlusion pattern (p>0.05). The second most common type of occlusion pattern in the age group range of 15-19 years was the severe overbite occlusion pattern (28%), but in the other age groups (20-24years, 25-30 years) it wasthe edge to edge bite occlusion pattern,28.2% and 32.8% respectively. Conclusion: The mild overbite occlusion pattern is the most prevalent type found among the Ika people, and there is no significant association between sex or age group and type of occlusion pattern.

  25. Nichanor A. Onyango, Enose M.W. Simatwa and Stella L.A. Juma

    Safety of students in public secondary schools is a matter of concern worldwide. In Kenya, a number of students in public boarding secondary schools suffer from tragedies ranging from death of students during infernos in schools, students falling sick due to food poisoning or poor hygiene, attack of students by the community and porous school gates which enables strangers in the school leading to stealing of school property and attack on the students. In 2008, the Government of Kenya launched Safety and Standards manual in both public schools and private schools. Implementations of these standards were expected to make students secure in these schools. However, from 2009 to 2018, there were a number of reported cases of food poisoning, closure of schools due to community threats, loss of lives of students and properties worth millions of shillings in arson cases, diseases caused due to poor hygiene and many others which go unreported. The objective of this study was to establish the effect of physical infrastructure safety guidelines on students’ safety in public boarding secondary schools in Homa Bay County. The study revealed that physical infrastructure safety guidelines had significant effect on students’ safety. The study also established that physical infrastructure safety guidelines had strong and positive effect on students’ safety. The study recommended that school principals should strive to fully implement these safety guidelines to enhance students’ safety in public boarding primary schools in Homa bay County, Kenya. The study is useful to policy makers and stakeholders in the Ministry of Education in developing more strategies to enhance students’ safely in public boarding secondary schools in Kenya.

  26. Nichanor, A. Onyango, Enose M.W. Simatwa and Stella L.A. Juma

    Safety of students in public secondary schools is a matter of concern globally. In Kenya, a number of students in public boarding secondary schools do encounter tragedies ranging from death of students during infernos in schools, students falling sick due to food poisoning or poor hygiene, attack of students by the community and porous school gates which enables strangers to enter in the schools leading to stealing of school property and attack on the students. In 2008, the Government of Kenya launched Safety and Standards manual in both public schools and private schools. Implementations of these standards were expected to make students secure in these schools. However, from 2009 to 2018, there were a number of reported cases of food poisoning, closure of schools due to community threats, loss of lives of students and properties worth millions of shillings in arson cases, diseases caused by poor hygiene and many others which were unreported. The objective of the study was to determine the effect of health and hygiene safety guidelines on students’ safety in public boarding secondary schools in Homa Bay County. The study revealed that physical health and hygiene safety guidelines had significant effect on students’ safety as they accounted for 53.8% of the variation in students’ security. The study also established that health and hygiene safety guidelines had strong and positive effect on students’ safety. The study recommended that school principals should strive to fully implement these safety guidelines to enhance students’ safety in Homa bay County, Kenya. The study may be useful to policy makers and stakeholders in the Ministry of Education in developing more diversified strategies to enhance students’ safety in public boarding secondary schools in Kenya.

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