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May 2021

  1. Patrick J, Achola and Enose M.W. Simatwa

    Job satisfaction is one of the most widely used variables to gauge work performance in organizations. It is an employee’s attitudinal response to his or her organization, thus as with all attitudes the relationship between satisfaction and behavior, most specifically job performance is evaluated. It has been observed that quality passes among teacher trainees in Public Teacher Training Colleges in the country has been on the decline. The recent data reveals that out of 12,438 candidates who sat Primary Teacher Education examinations in 2017, only 5 candidates scored distinctions, 4992 had credit, 886 had pass, 5739 failed while 13 had their results cancelled. Furthermore performance among Teacher Trainees has been noted to be declining since 2014, as ranking as per college mean for Primary Teacher Education analysis 2016 results among the top 5 Primary Teachers Training Colleges indicated that there has been poor performance since 2014. The previous studies captured job satisfaction among primary and secondary school teachers and did not link job satisfaction with student’s performance. It is from this view point that the current study was conducted with an intent to establish job satisfaction and performance among tutors in public primary teacher training colleges in Kenya. The objective of the study was to establish the influence of remuneration factors on job satisfaction and performance among tutors in public teacher training colleges in Kenya. A conceptual framework was used to show how dependent, independent and intervening variables interrelate to influence job satisfaction among tutors and how it impacts on trainees performance. The study established that remuneration of tutors had an influence on tutor’s performance with a mean rating of 4.16 for salaries and CBA 2016. In conclusion the study established that remuneration factors had significant influence on job satisfaction and performance among tutors in public teacher training colleges. The study recommended that further research be done and extraneous variables not used during the present study be investigated. It further recommended that the findings of the study be used by college administrators, Ministry of Education, Kenya Institute of Curriculum Development and Teachers Service Commission to initiate and develop policies that could help and improve further job satisfaction and performance among tutors in the Kenya.

  2. Soumalya Chatterjee, Debraj Hazra and Rajat Pal

    Nanoparticle and drug molecule interaction study has become a very important topic for research which can open various avenues for several biomedical fields. Here we tried to formulate a model nanoparticle structure in silico using Avogadro soft ware in several ways. We went up to nine atoms of metals (Zinc, Cadmium and Copper) along with six Boron atoms for the construction of the nanoparticle model structure. We hypothesize that it would be energetically more favourable if Boron atoms get inserted in between the metal atoms during their bond formation rather than metals interacted amongst them directly and Boron atoms are attached at the corner. We also tagged ferulic acid to all three computationally formulated nanoparticles and observed their energy levels. It was found that Zinc and Cadmium are the better choice for synthesizing nanocomposite with ferulic acid rather than Copper.

  3. Anshul Mathur Hitesh Soni, Jeet Saini, Rohan Pareek, Vivek Singh Rawat and Anil Vaishnav

    The earliest method of sewage cleaning is manual scavenging. Manual scavenging is the hand excavation done by laborers which were moved down the manholes (a small covered opening in a paved area allowing access beneath, especially one leading to a sewer) for the clogged sewage lines. Sewage system is used for the disposal of wastes but due to manual scavenging there may be loss of human life while cleaning the blockages manually. Now a day’s automation is necessary to reduce the human efforts and to provide the solution to all the problems by which chances of getting better accuracy will increase. But in the sewage cleaning system it is a challenging task to design the safe sewage cleaning system with optimum design and make it possible to get the better result. So this semi-automated sewage cleaning machine is used to reduce the manual scavenging or work. This is going to help the poor labourers to work safely and their health problems also be reduced to greater extent. They do have not go down the manholes for the cleaning and just control the machine from outside. Also by this machine we can do more work in less time.

  4. Srilekha K., K. Krishnaveni, M. Kezia, Subhendu Nayak, Netala Silvia, Kotte Raju, Anuradha Khuntia, Geeta Mounika and Sujit Kumar Mohanty

    Background: Epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFR) in human were involved in various types of cancers represented by abnormal signal transduction. This class consists of EGFR (ErbB1), HER2 (ErbB2, HER2), HER3 (ErbB3), and HER4 (ErbB4). Among them, EGFR and HER2 are related to breast cancer and are appropriate targets in dealing with various breast cancer cases. Disturbance of EGFR signalling, both by blocking EGFR binding sites or suppressing intracellular tyrosine kinase activity, can inhibit the rise of EGFR expressing tumours and recover the patient's condition. In this interest, a set of some new azo benzimidazole derivatives were prepared by coupling the diazonium derivative of benzimidazole with different suitable aromatic compounds and are used as ligands to dock against human HER2 kinase domain receptor. Materials and Methods: For this purpose, the crystal structure of the EGFR Kinase domain associated with TAK 285 (PDB ID: 3POZ, 1.5 Å X-ray resolution) was retrieved from the RCSB Protein Database (PDB) and used as the target. Results: All the compounds firmly inhibited by completely filling the active sites in the model with low energy values. Conclusion: Present study backed the in vitro activity of compounds designed by Mohanty et al., (4) and proved that the compounds of the current study inhibit the EGFR Kinase domain. So, these designed compounds can be used in drug development against some diseases that may somehow be related to the protein EGFR Kinase domain.

  5. Dr. Turki Sager Al Mutairi Ph.D., Dr. Eltoma Salih Ph.D., Harvey Olayres B.Sc., Isvaran Jayaraman B.Sc. and RN. Marwa Adam Abdelrhman Adam Ph. D

    BACKGROUND: Restrictive methods such as physical restraint are utilized in mental health facilities as part of patient care by nurses to prevent inpatients from injuring themselves, other patients, or hospital staff (Whittington, Baskind, & Paterson, 2006) but the use of restraints as a non-pharmacological intervention has long been a controversial practice (Barton, Johnson, & Price, 2009). The aim of the study was to reduce prevalence physical restraint incidents and improve patient safety through early intervention. The study was conduct in a 30-bed capacity acute inpatient psychiatric unit at Prince Sultan Military Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Participants included Inpatient Psychiatric unit nurses including Head Nurses, Charge Nurses, registered nurses and patients admitted under admission criteria. METHODS: The FOCUS-PDCA methodology as a quality improvement tool deployed to undertake this project. A pilot study conducted as a baseline assessment to determine contributing risk factors in the increase of physical restraint incident through documentation review of medical records for 3 months. Restraint Incident Log Book (RILB) used for data extraction on daily number of physically restraint patients against the total occupied bed per days to indicate physical restraint rate. Literature review done to identify the effective monitor tool for data collection. INTERVENTION: A Root Cause Analysis conducted to understand the performance variation to propose effective measure in reduction of physical restraint rate. Through formal discussion, the staff identified early recognition through risk assessment and early intervention of verbal de-escalation for implementation to improve the performance. RESULTS: Upon initiation of Quality Improvement Project on March 2020 and implementation of the action plan, the performance improvement was moving towards the target. After the implementation of training education program, early risk assessment, early intervention, restoration therapeutic room and effective verbal de-escalation techniques, the performance restraint rate reached target benchmark of 15 per 1,000 beds day. In fact, the prevalence of physical restraint rate reduced significantly after two PDSA cycles, from 52 per 1,000 beds day in mid-March 2020 to zero per 1,000 beds day by end of August 2020 and sustained improvement within the target benchmark thereafter. CONCLUSIONS: Identification of contributing factors and implementation of effective communication, education training program, early risk assessment-intervention and renovation of therapeutic room was a hallmark for the improvement in physical restraint rate. Leadership also played an essential role in the success of the project by upholding the departmental goal of zero patient harm and creating the culture of safety within psychiatric settings. Although the road to achieve zero harm far off but it is not impossible, additional work is need in several key areas, specifically in assigning a dedicated therapeutic room and introduce non-crisis intervention to replace current outdate practice.

  6. Lucien Mpanga Wa Banza, Yumba Nshimbi Kitunga, John Kabila Kamonga, Johnely Ngoy Nshimbi, Mutonkole Kiyana Mayanga, Sam Nkulu Masonji, Adelard Ngoy Kisula Wa Kasongo et Lambert Kabala Mulongo

    Si la femme reproductrice atteint la période de ménopause après 45ans sauf exception, le palmier à huile (la plante pérenne) atteint la période de sénescence après 25 à 30 ans (selon les cas et l’espèce). Là où il croit naturellement ou en plantation, le palmier à Huile apporte depuis des siècles aux populations locales de nombreux avantages : de l’huile de palme, de sauce, du savon, du vin, des engrais (cendre), de toitures (feuilles), des matériaux de construction (tronc), des médicaments (racines).2 Tous ces usages traditionnels du palmier à huile représentent encore jusqu’aujourd’hui une partie importante de la culture africaine dans les pays où il croit comme dans le secteur de Badia et le territoire de Malemba-Nkulu en particulier. Si le palmier à huile a aujourd’hui une bonne considération économique et sociale, cette plante dont la durée optimale de productivité est estimée à 25-30 ans, devrait en suite être protégée et entretenue comme une femme avant la ménopause et ensuite renouvelée comme les enfants dont la mère a atteint la ménopause.

  7. Yannick Bienge Nsenga, Fiston Ilunga Mbayo, Kennedy Twite Nyemba, Justin Batambe Kambala, Cedrick Mwamba Mpingisha, Bruno Muteba Makonga Popopo, Yves Monga Ngoy, Débouve Mpityi wa Nshimbi, Patient Ngoy Kitamba, Judex Makonga Mutabi4 et Georges Kihumba K

    Contexte: La mortalité maternelle et périnatale reste un problème majeur enrépublique démocratique du Congo, la disponibilité et la dispensation des soins obstétricaux et néonataux d’urgence reste faible; rendant nécessaire une étude de la parturition dans notre milieu. Méthodes : Cetteétude est une étude descriptive transversale des cas d’accouchements spontanés ou assistés par voie vaginale ou par césarienne sur grossesses à terme monofoetales, gémellaires, sur présentation longitudinale, oblique, transversale survenus dans le département de gynéco-obstétrique en 2018 et de Janvier à Mai 2019.484 femmes ont été retenues à cet effet. Distance parcourue, âge, parité, dilatation à l’admission, mode d’accouchement, APGAR, complications du postpartum étaientles variables étudiées. Résultats : La plupart des accouchées à l’Hôpital Général de Référence Malemba(HGR) étaient jeunes avec un âge moyen de 27,3±7,3 ans, une parité moyenne de 3,6±3,05 ; elles ont parcouru en moyenne 5±7,5 km pour arriver à l’hôpital. Elles se sont présentées dans 51% des cas avec une dilatation complète. 75% des accouchements étaient par voie vaginale, 25% des césariennes pour la plupart des primo césariennes dans le contexte d’urgence maternelle et\ou fœtale. Nous avons noté 11% des mort-nés frais, plusieurs cas des décès maternels chez des paucipares et multipares et fistules vésico-vaginales chez les primipares. Un taux faible d’interventions en cours de travail. Conclusion: Une évaluation rapide des cas et une décision avec prise en charge adaptée s’avère nécessaire la plupart du temps et également une communication permanente avec les communautés.L’utilisation optimale du système de référence par les référents et la compréhension de ce système par les communautés.

  8. Dr. Majed AlKindi, Dr. Hiba Hilal and Ismoil Odinaev

    Student’s lifestyle has been changed drastically due to covid pandemic. Whether because colleges switched to online education or the social distancing restrictions that doesn’t let students to be outside as much as they usually do. This study aims to investigate and assess the potential impact of video games on college students in Dubai during the pandemic, as well as to gain a better understanding of how college students feel about video games in general. A self-administered online questionnaire was used as an instrument for data collection among 100 respondents in Dubai through stratified random sampling technique. SPSS program was used to evaluate the results from collected data. Based on findings, researcher concludes that student’s lifestyle has been changed during the covid 19 pandemic as well as there is a relation between students mind and video games, but there is no risk of video game addiction which can cause negative effect on students’ academic performance in Dubai.

  9. Dr. Aparajita D. Amis, Dr. Dipti Tulpule and Dr. Mamta Chawla

    Marketing describes unsatisfied wants and needs. It determines, calculates, and quantifies the size and profit potential of the defined sector. It decides which segments the business is ideally suited to serve and then designs and promotes the required products and services. Marketing is the science and art of finding, designing, and providing value to a target market while making a profit.”Online food ordering in India is becoming increasingly common among Indian consumers. It has been observed to rise at a steady rate of 15% over the last year and is projected to grow at the same rate in the coming years. The proliferation of online food ordering in the Indian market is largely due to the country's smartphone penetration, which is estimated to be at 28 percent. The study discusses the purchasing habits and perceptions of Indian customers in relation to the most widely used online food ordering applications. To provide a more in-depth analysis, the ordering pattern has been categorised based on demographic factors such as age and employment status. The study was conducted in two phases, primary and secondary, and is primarily quantitative in nature. Swiggy, Zomato, Foodpanda, and Ubereats are among the companies that have received a lot of attention in the study. The primary research sought responses through a questionnaire, while the secondary research sought information from magazines, research papers, and news articles. Swiggy, Zomato, Foodpanda, and Ubereats are among the companies that have received a lot of attention in the study. The study studies the root causes of Indian customers' change from conventional approaches to home delivery, the scale of these food delivery startups, and the industry's future. The study aims to uncover consumers' secret mindsets about the faith and confidence they have in these online food aggregators, as well as the factors influencing the customer's attitude toward the online food delivery apps. A total of 165 responses were received based on the primary study. Every app's value propositions and differentiating factors. person analysis based on these answers The data was then analysed using statistical methods, and the findings indicated that the number of males ordering food online was slightly higher than females, owing to males' lack of cooking skills. Further investigation revealed that about 16.36 percent of individuals between the ages of 18 and 29 ordered food on a regular basis, indicating that ‘Students' were making the most online orders on these food distribution applications. According to the findings, there is a tremendous scope for growth for online food aggregators, and they can take advantage of this ability to expand in the Indian market. Furthermore, additional insights showed that a substantial portion of the rural sector remains substantially unexplored and will deliver more opportunities in the coming years as technology penetration in rural areas of the country increases.

  10. Jibin Joy and Anilkumar

    Orthodontic treatment is usually associated with certain complications and limitations. The risks of orthodontic treatment include periodontal damage, pain, root resorption, tooth devitalization, temporomandibular disorder, caries, speech problems and enamel damage. This article briefly describes about the complications associatedwith orthodontic treatment.

  11. Athmik Shetty, Sanju and Prof. Abhishek Venkteshwar

    There has been an increased interest among scholars to investigate supply chain resilience (SCRes) in manufacturing and service operations during emerging situations. Grounded in the SCRes theory, this study provides insights into the impact of the COVID-19 outbreak on the automobile and airline supply chain. Both the short and long-term response strategies adopted by the two supply chains are assessed, using a combination of qualitative and quantitative techniques in three distinct phases. In phase one, we use a sequential mixed-method for resilience evaluation, integrating Time-to-Recovery (TTR) and Financial Impact (FI) analysis. In phase two, we conduct an empirical survey involving 145 firms to evaluate the short-term SCRes response strategies. In the third phase, we conduct semi-structured interviews with supply chain executives both from the automobile and airline industries to understand the long-term SCRes response strategies. Our findings indicate that: (i) the automobile industry perceived that the best strategies to mitigate risks related to COVID-19, were to develop localized supply sources and use advanced industry 4.0 (I4.0) technologies. (ii) The airline industry on the other hand, perceived that the immediate need was to get ready for business continuity challenges posed by COVID-19, by defining their operations both at the airports and within the flights. (iii) Importantly, both the sectors perceived Big Data Analytics (BDA) to play a significant role by providing real-time information on various supply chain activities to overcome the challenges posed by COVID-19. (iv) Cooperation among supply chain stakeholders is perceived, as needed to overcome the challenges of the pandemic, and to accelerate the use of digital technologies.

  12. Loay Ibrahim Aglan, Reham Ahmed Alkady, Nihal Ahmed Fathi and Fatma Hussien Elnoby

    Introduction: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is described as a chronic systemic inflammatory immune-mediated disease characterized by symmetrical polyarthritis. Objective: We aimed in this study to evaluate neuropathic foot pain in patients with RA using electrophysiological studies to compare the occurrence and severity of neuropathic foot pain in RA activity, remission and to compare between seropositive and seronegative RA patients. Methods: A retrospective cohort study included sixty Patients selected from Rheumatology and Rehabilitation outpatient clinics, Aswan University Hospitals, Faculty of Medicine, Aswan University during the period from 1 May 2018 to 1 March 2020.Patients were diagnosed and classified as having RA by Rheumatologist, who fulfilled the ACR/EULAR 2010 criteria for classification of RA. Results: Regarding nerve conduction, the present study showed that Peroneal nerve mean +SD of latency, amplitude, velocity and F wave were (4.20+1.21, 4.62+2.33, 45.63+3.85 and 50.15+3.09 respectively), Post-tibial nerve mean +SD of latency, amplitude, velocity and F wave were (4.6+1.48, 8.36+4.15, 42+5.23 and 50.61+2.67 respectively) and Sural nerve mean +SD of latency, amplitude and velocity were (3.09+0.52, 11.8+5.90 and 36.25+5.82 respectively). Also, there was statistically significant difference between active and inactive RA groups as regard velocity of Post tibial nerve and amplitude of Sural nerve. There were no correlations between Disease Activity score in 28 joints and nerve conduction study /electromyographic results. Conclusion: Our study showed that there was non-significant correlation between neuropathy and disease duration, RF, DAS28 & HAQ-DI but there was significant correlation with SFAQ score.

  13. Patrick J. Achola, Enose M.W. Simatwa and Gogo J.O.

    Teacher training is an important training of teacher preparation. The trainers play an important role and therefore any variable that affects them affect their service delivery. The service delivery is measured by the trainees performance in examination. It has been observed that quality passes among teacher trainees in Public Teacher Training Colleges in the country has been on the decline. The recent data reveals that out of 12,438 candidates who sat Primary Teacher Education examinations in 2017, only 5 candidates scored distinctions, 4992 had credit, 886 had pass, 5739 failed while 13 had their results cancelled. Furthermore performance among Teacher Trainees has been noted to be declining since 2014, as ranking as per college mean for Primary Teacher Education analysis 2016 results among the top 5 primary teachers training colleges indicated that there has been poor performance since 2014. The previous studies reviewed had captured job satisfaction among primary and secondary school teachers and did not establish the link job satisfaction and performance among tutors in relation to institutional factors. It is from this view point that the current study was conducted with an intent to establish the influence of job satisfaction and performance among tutors in public primary teacher training colleges. Objective of the study was to determine the influence of institutional factors on job satisfaction and performance among Tutors in public primary teacher training colleges. A conceptual framework was used to show how dependent, independent and intervening variables interrelate to influence job satisfaction among tutors and how it impacts on trainees performance. The study established that Institutional factors were found to have influence on job satisfaction and performance among tutors in public primary teacher training colleges as signified with a mean rating of 4.13 which according to level of job satisfaction indicator was high thus confirming that it had influence on Tutors performance. In conclusion the study established that institutional factors had significant influence on job satisfaction and subsequently influenced teacher trainees’ performance. The study recommended that further research be done and extraneous variables not used during the present study be investigated. It further recommended that the findings be used by college administrators, Ministry of Education, Kenya Institute of Curriculum Development and Teachers Service Commission to initiate and develop policies that could help and improve job satisfaction among teachers in the Kenya.

  14. Chenyang Li, Meiling Xian, Siwei Hua and Jun Zhang

    Two schiff bases containing 1, 2, 4-triazole as subunits were synthesized in high yields. Their coordination properties were characterized by UV-vis spectra, and the results showed that the active groups on the subunit had great effect on the coordination properties of Schiff bases.

  15. Gitanjali Devi

    Nirgundi (Vitex negundo) is an important medicinal plant found all over India. The plant contains numerous bioactive compounds .Therefore almost all of its parts are used as traditional medicine. This review reveals a brief account of Vitex negundo its medicinal uses, phytochemical properties and cultivation practices.

  16. Priyanka Sinha

    The roots of the Unlawful Acts (Prevention) Amendment are often traced back to colonial times; in 1908 the British Raj implemented the criminal law Amendment Act. This act, for the first time, brought into the purview of the concept of “unlawful association.” At the time, the act was accustomed criminalise the leaders of the Indian Freedom Struggle. Once the Indian government attained freedom in 1947, the administration decided to keep the provisions of the Criminal Law Amendment. However, on the flipside, the Nehru government began to use the provision against their own citizens; i.e., against dissidents who spoke out against the policies of the Indian National Congress. In the subsequent years, the Indian Judiciary however held in cases like in – V.G Row v. State of Madras; AK Gopalan v. State of Maharashtra; and also, the Romesh Thapar v. State of Madras, in essence, collectively held that fundamental rights of the citizens are often curtailed only within the foremost extreme and within the rarest of the rarest circumstances; which any statute, legislation, or executive decision that aim towards curtailing said rights, will be held unconstitutional. On the concept of these judgements, the judiciary held that Section 124A of the Criminal Law (Amendment) Act was unconstitutional as they put arbitrary, and unreasonable restriction on the ability of the citizens to enjoy their fundamental rights.The provisions of the UAPA are violative of the fundamental rights guaranteed to the citizens of India. The freedom of speech and expression guaranteed under article 19(1)(a) and Article 20 and 21 is being crushed by over-empowering the government with the assistance of the draconian act of UNLAWFUL ACTIVITIES (PREVENTION) ACT,1967 and the amendment Act of 2019.To overcome such restrictions put by the Indian judiciary, the first amendment to the constitution was introduced, wherein there was significant tweaking done to the language of Article 19 of the Indian constitution; the phrases “public order” and “friendly relations with states” were added under the purview of “reasonable restrictions”. The consequence of such an amendment was that the phrase “public order” was used arbitrarily by the government in situ of the now-repealed 124A section of the criminal law (Amendment), and dissidents of the government was being rounded under the justification of them violating “reasonable restrictions.” The arbitrariness of the government further increased within the subsequent years; perhaps the foremost prominent example of this was seen in 1963 when India was engaged during a war with China, and to suppress the regional dissidents of the government’s policies and critics of the war against China, the 16th Amendment to the constitution was passed by the Parliament. The 16th amendment further tweaked Article 19 to feature that the government can put “reasonable” restrictions on the interest of “sovereignty and integrity” of the state. This clause was essentially added to allow the government a blank check to detain anyone or groups that demanded autonomy or demanded to secede from the Union.

  17. Dr. Sudipta Das

    Rash Behari Bose is well-known in Japan for the Nakamura-ya no Indo Cāre (Indian curry of Nakamura shop). Presently they have some chain shops in Japan andit is very famous among the Japanese people. Rash Behari Bose introduced Indian curry in Japan, carrying the real taste of India with it. Presently there are many Indian shops throughout Japan but the Nakamura’s curry remains different and unique. Apart from this, his contribution in Indian independence is unforgettable. His connection with many Japanese nationals and high-level officers helpedIndian independence movement in various ways. He left India and become stateless until his marriage in Japan. His role in the independence movement is often overlooked in India, but peopleof Japanstill rememberhim and love to go to Nakamura shop and enjoy the taste of Indian curry.

  18. Neethu Sasi and Raveesh Kaimal, T.V.

    Background: The family of mentally ill clients carry a heavy burden because they are involved in providing informal care to these patients at home. Need for the Study :An increase in the knowledge level of family members can help a great deal in providing better domiciliary care and there by reducing the rate of relapse and admission to the hospital. Methodology: A quasi experimental one group pre testpost test design was used in the study. The sample comprised of 40 caregivers of patients with severe mental disorders admitted in the psychiatry ward of AIMS, Kochi, selected by using convenience sampling technique. The knowledge of care givers regarding domiciliary care of patients with severe mental disorder was assessed before and after the implementation of education programme which constituted 2 sessions each of 45 minutes duration. The data was collected using knowledge assessment questionnaire by means of structured interview schedule. Knowledge was reassessed seven days after the intervention. Results: Application ofpaired t test revealed a statistically significant increase in the knowledge of the study subjects regarding the domiciliary care of patients with severe mental disorder after the implementation of the education programme (t= 18.23,df=39, p< 0.001). There was significant increase in the knowledge of each of the components of domiciliary care also. The maximum knowledge was seen in the area of communication and healthy family environment in the pre test, but in the post-test, maximum score is for the component, medication compliance. No association was found between pre-test and post test knowledge and sociodemographic variables. (2(1)=3.84,2(2)= 5.99,p>0.05). Conclusion: Based on the study findings, it was concluded that the education programme was effective in improving the knowledge level of caregivers regarding the domiciliary care of patients with severe mental disorder.

  19. Aleksandar Popovic, Rana Naous and Timothy A. Damron

    We describe a unique case of Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis (LCH) arising in the scapula of a 2-year old male child masquerading as an aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC) at clinical presentation and onimaging. Coordination of MRI and open biopsy was conducted. MRI revealed an expansile, multi-loculated, septated lesion involving the scapular body and spine, consistent with ABC. Frozen section biopsy favored ABC based on the presence of bloody and cystic areas associated with histiocytes, bland fibroblasts, osteoclast-like giant cells, and hemosiderin deposition. However, final pathological analysis revealed blood-filled cystic spaces lined with fibroblasts, multinucleated giant cells and focal collections of S100+ and CD1a+ histiocytes, consistent with LCH. Following biopsy, the entire lesion was ompletely curetted, leaving only a rim of bone around the native scapula. high speed bur was used to further extend the margins around the lesion to ensure it was entirely removed. Conclusion: This case is of interest as scapular involvement is only occasionally noted in LCH cases. Furthermore, solitary bone involvement in our patient’s age group is uncommon in LCH without multi-organ involvement. Lastly, there are only two reported cases in the literature of LCH masquerading as an ABC, with this being the third. Careful pathologic examination and immunohistochemical was crucial in establishing this diagnosis due to the presence of a solitary lesion with fluid-fluid levels.

  20. Kusum Bisla, Sarla Hooda, Suman Bisla, Vishakha Dhasmana and Monika Dalal

    Background: Previous studies done on Lignocaine and Nalbuphine individually found to attenuate the haemodynamic stress response but none of the study compared the two drugs. To compare the efficacy of intravenous Lignocaine versus intravenous Nalbuphine for attenuating the stress response to laryngoscopy and endotracheal intubation. Material and method: The present study was a hospital based prospective, randomized study conducted amongst adults aged 20 years to 60 years who were scheduled for elective surgery under general anaesthesia in the Department Of Anaesthesiology And CriticalCare. The patients were randomly allocated to GROUP L (n = 30) Patients received intravenous lignocaine 1.5 mg kg-1 ninety seconds before tracheal intubation and GROUP N (n =30) received intravenous nalbuphine 0.2 mg kg-1 one hundred and twenty seconds before tracheal intubation. Results: All the patients were monitored for heart rate, blood pressure(systolic, diastolic and mean BP) for haemodynamic responses during laryngoscopy, endotracheal intubation or side effects in the postoperative period. There was no statistically significant difference between both groups with regards to mean age and gender. The attenuation of pressor response to laryngoscopy and endotracheal intubation was significantly better with nalbuphine as compared to lignocaine.There was no side effect in both the groups. Conclusion: It is safe to assume that the dosage of 0.2 mg/kg of Nalbuphine is better at the attenuation of haemodynamic pressor response to laryngoscopy and endotracheal intubation than Lignocaine 1.5 mg kg -1.

  21. Noor Zaman Sheikh

    We have created a formula to calculate the number of primes less than or equal to any given positive integer ‘ n ‘ . It is denoted by π (n) . This is a fundamental concept in number theory and it is difficult to calculate. A prime number can be divided by 1 and the number itself. The set of all primes can be written as { 2,3,5,7,11,13,17,...............}. The Prime Counting Function was conjectured in the end of 18th century by the famous Mathematician Gauss and Legendre Sir, to be approximately x/(ln x) .But in this paper we are presenting the real formula, by applying the modern approach, that is by applying the basic concept of set theory.

  22. Jorge Enrique Muñoz Sánchez, Ma. Elvia Chavarría Solís

    The objective of this work is to know and describe how it affects, and is perceived by the tourist service providers TSP, of the tourist strip of Acapulco's Miguel Aleman Coast. Here are detailed the types of crimes, how many times they have been affected, the impact on their businesses and how they face the phenomenon, at the time of the study there is no data on the problem from the government or academic sphere, although Acapulco, has been listed as one of the tourist destinations with the highest incidence of crime in the country, according to the SESNSP, so the issue is relevant. The study focused on knowing the opinion of 50 of them out of a universe of 500, through the application of a questionnaire with 20 questions, which was distributed to hoteliers, restaurateurs, tourist guides, and travel agencies, the application took place in the traditional Acapulco and Acapulco Dorado area, the result of the study is relevant because the contribution obtained information comes from the look of the TSP themselves, and through the descriptive method were findings such as that despite the pandemic criminal activity did not decrease in the study area.

  23. Dr. Suparna Sanyal Mukherjee

    Health is determined by several factors including genetic inheritance, personal behaviors, access to quality health care, and the general external environment - like quality of air, water and housing conditions. In recent years, scientists and epidemiologists have turned their attention to a growing range of social and cultural variables as antecedents of health. These variables include SES, race/ ethnicity, gender and sex roles, immigration status and acculturation, poverty and deprivation, social network and social support, and the psychological work environment, in addition to aggregate characteristics of the social environments- distribution of income, social cohesion and collective efficacy. In the present era media plays an important role in people’s lives. Watching television, surfing World Wide Web, Listening Music, Reading Newspaper and Magazines, all are time framing production of mass media around the clock. The proliferation of communication technologies, audio-visual learning, encourages omnipresence of the media in daily life. Protein Calorie Malnutrition (PCM) is the burning social cohesion and unrest among the tribal people specially who is residing deep inside the forest, their nutritional value in daily food habit was based on forest collection only. But illiteracy, lack of awareness, shy behaviour and socio-economic proviso did not explore such endeavor to avail proper nutrition. Thus, they are suffering from Malnutrition since decades. The present study peered into Media involvements which effectuate a challengeable ensue to the Santal and Lodha population of the tribal village, Jual Bhanga. The potential role of the media as an actor in the public health ensue, that is, how it can use its presence and power to lead to the mobilization of societal action that creates a challengeable conditions for restriction and protection of Malnutrition in the process of eradication from grass-root level, while Jual Bhanga Tribal village is an unique accumulation towards socio-economic amplifications.

  24. Hervé Dègla KOUMASSI and Akibou A. AKINDELE

    Les inondations sont les catastrophes naturelles les plus fréquentes dans le monde et sont celles qui affectent le plus grand nombre d’individus.L’objectif de la présente étude est donc de faire la cartographie des zones à risque d’inondation dans les pôles de développement 4 et 6 du Bénin. L’approche méthodologique utilisée consiste en la collecte des données hydro-climatiques, d’occupation du sol et produits dérivés des modèles numériques de terrain. Le traitement des données est fondé sur l’intégration dans un système d’information géographique (SIG), des données interprétées à partir des images TM de Landsat, des données hydro-climatiques et des produits dérivés d’un modèle numérique de terrain (MNT). L’analyse spatiale multicritère, réalisée a permis d’élaborer les cartes des aléas climatiques et de la vulnérabilité des populations à l’inondation. La combinaison de ces deux cartes a permis la cartographie des zones à risque d’inondation les PDA 4 et 6. Des résultats, il ressort que le secteur d’étude présente un niveau de vulnérabilité proportion allant du niveau faible (33,1 %) au fort (35,25 %) en passant par le moyen (31,65 %). Cette répartition à peu près proportionnelle montre la grande sensibilité des PDA 4 et 6 aux risques d’inondation. Cette répartition pourrait croitre considérablement vers le fort au regard des modes d’exploitation des terres observés dans le secteur. En ce concerne le niveau du risque d’inondation, il ressort que les zones à fort risque d’inondation représentent environ 28,91 % de la superficie des PDA. Les zones à moyen risque d’inondation sont situées sur les formations métamorphiques ayant une pente moyenne. Elles représentent 31,47 % de la superficie et les zones à faible risque d’inondation représentent environ 39,62 % de sa superficie.

  25. Siddhardha Solosan, S., Euphrasia Latha, J., Lakshmi Priya, N., Gopalakrishnan, N., Rosy Vennila, P., Selvi, R. and Secunda, A.

    In the present investigation an assessment was made on the potential renal transplant subjects involving HLA typing of the donor and recipient (Table 5.1 - 5.10) , screening for alloantibody against HLA, and obtaining a history of sensitizing events. HLA typing ideally includes A; B; C; DRB1; DRB3,4,5; DQB1; DQA; DPB1; and DPA; but this is not always performed. The single antigen bead (SAB) solid-phase assay is most commonly used as the first line of screening for alloantibody, but multi-antigen screening beads can also be used. In the tables mentioned above, 5.1 - 5.5 imply live donors, while the tables 5.6 - 5.10 are based on cadaveric donors. Furthermore, the criteria such as CDC HLA crossmatch, PRA Class - I and II HLA, PCR-SSOP are pre transplant data, while the remaining such as DSA IgG HLA Class-I and II, SAB-FCXM HLA Class - I and II , NGS - Illumina MiniSeq are post transplant data. Besides in the current pursuit, more importance was given to renal transplant data, than liver, heart and lung. The data were also analysed in the light of advanced statistical and computational tools and expressed as graphics and tables (5.21 - 5.24).

  26. Noor Zaman Sheikh

    The twin prime conjecture is a fundamental problem in number theory and it isoriginally based upon in the basic concept of Mathematics. Twin primes are theprimes of gap 2. In thi spaper, proof is of the twin primecon jectureisgoingtobepresented. In order to do that, the basic concept of proof of the formula forprime numbers has been connected with this proof. Originally it is a difficultproblem in observational space has beentransformed into general space th besolved. Through this research paper my approach is to provide a proof for thetwin primeconjecture.

  27. arthikeyan Kadirvel, Sumathisri Ramachandran, Ragasivamalini Sivapregassam and Anu Rakesh Chellathurai

    Background: Term babies are those who are born between 37 weeks 0 days and 42 weeks. They are further subdivided into early term (between 37 weeks and 38 weeks) and full term (between 37 weeks and 38 weeks). The objectives of this review are to examine the effect of early-term birth on adverse neonatal outcomes and developmental disabilities. Methods: We searched PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus, and Google scholar from January 2007 to December 2020, for studies investigating the associations between early-term birth and neonatal mortality, morbidity and long term developmental outcomes. Results: Twenty two studies were included in the review, of which fourteen compared morbidity and mortality rates and eight assessed any adverse developmental outcomes among the subgroups of term babies. Reviewed studies found that early-term birth was associated with increased neonatal mortality, poor neonatal outcomes and short term and long term developmental disabilities. Conclusion: The included trials in this review involved a sizeable population, with good quality with limited reporting for adjusting the outcomes for obstetric, social and regional factors. We recommend to assess the benefits or harms before planning early birth and to carefully follow infants born early term for neurodevelopmental disabilities.

  28. Deepak Jyoti

    Background: People are using internet anywhere and anytime. IOT is the field which connect people with the devices, which allow people to communicate with connected devices at anytime and anywhere. It has facilitate our life style very deeply. It is very innovative invented technology which facilitate every user to control all connected devices remotely automatically. It facilitates various services to the user at various platforms and applications. Internet of things (IOT) constitutes one of the most important technological development in the last decade in which all smart and heterogeneous devices are connected. These devices are able to communicate to each other through internet. but various challenges are there in such a innovative technology. Security is the big challenge with this technology. If the security leaks then there will be big harm to the sensitive information of the user. The traditional security management mechanisms are not able to apply on IOT because of heterogeneity in the connected devices. There should be flexible security mechanisms are required to handle dynamic and heterogenic designs. In this paper, various security issues are represented along with the remedies.

  29. Aparna R., Dr. Gomathi Chitra, A., Dr. Manjula, S.R. and Mr. Karthik, A.

    Background: The current global pandemic (SARS Covid-19), was first detected in Wuhan, in December 2019. The increasing magnitude and significance of identifying the cases have accentuated the importance of diagnostic approaches to Covid-19 caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Major challenges are being faced in various phases of laboratory diagnosis, from pre-analytical to post-analytical processes. Although the gold-standard method for testing is real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR), various limitations such as low sensitivity at early stages of infection, longer turn-around time (TAT) and influence of external factors have been reported in various studies. Choosing ideal targetsfor nuclei acid amplification tests (NAATs) are important to increase the sensitivity and specificity of the assays and lower the limit of detection.At present computed tomography (CT) of chest has been reported as a reliable diagnostic technique, even in rRT-PCR false-negative cases. Immunodiagnostic assays are being developed recently to overcome the short-comings in rRT-PCR method, to confirm the active cases, as well as determine the immune status of asymptomatic patients. Reverse-transcriptase loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) based assays, have been suggested as rapid, cost-effective point-of-care tests (POCTs). Currently various diagnostic assays are under development based on isothermal amplification, CRISPR, nanotechnology, biosensors and AI (artificial intelligence), most with potential for POCTs. Aim: To identify and compare the relevance of various techniques and tests under development to detect Covid-19. Methods: Original articles, review articles, commentaries and short communications regarding the assays to detect Covid-19 were thoroughly examined to summarise the observations. Conclusion: Understanding the biological properties of the virus is crucial forthe development of new diagnostic approaches which can provide precise identification with high sensitivity, specificity, and short TAT, thus aiding in real-time patient management and controlling spread of infection.”

  30. Dilnavoz R. Adizova

    The article aims to evaluate the severity of anxiety-depressive disorders (ADD) in elderly and middle-aged female patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). Material and methods: A study of 139 patients with CHF Functional Class (FC) 2 and 3 was conducted. The average age was 67.1±10.6 years. Depending on the age characteristic, the patients were divided into three groups: the elderly, senile, and middle-aged groups. Assessment of the severity of depression was conducted using the Hamilton Scale for Depression Assessment (HAM-D) and the Minnesota Quality of Life Assessment Questionnaire (MLHFQ) to assess the impact of CHF on the social aspects of patients' lives. Results: It was found that the highest prevalence of depression in FC II was in elderly patients. The highest prevalence of depression in FC III was observed in the middle-aged group. The analysis showed that there is a pronounced relationship between the degree of depression and CHF FC, which was determined in the age group of elderly patients. The assessment of the correlation between the severity of ADD and the indicators characterizing the severity of CHF showed that there was a noticeable or strong direct correlation between the indicators in the middle and senile age group, which indicates that ADD is a marker of the severity of CHF in patients of these age groups. Conclusion: The presence of ADD affects the physical component of the quality of life, which is proved by reliable results obtained using both the MLHFQ scale and the Clinical status assessment scale (CSAS). At the same time, the influence of the severity of CHF on the mental component was revealed when using HAM-D as a tool for determining ADD.

  31. Chaitanya D. Bhoite, Ashnaya Ranaware and Prof. Shankar B.banerjee

    The Goods and Service Tax (GST) is the greatest and considerable circuitous expense change since 1947. The principle thought of GST is to supplant existing expenses like esteem included assessment, extract obligation, administration duty and deals charge. GST as it is known is good to go to be a distinct advantage for the Indian economy. The goods and service tax (GST) are a value added tax levied in India on the supply of goods and services. It is a comprehensive multistage, destination based on one nation one tax. Goods & Service Tax has made large scale changes in the working pattern of all the sectors of Indian Economy. One of the sectors is construction industry. GST on construction sector hiked to 18%. The government has hiked the Goods Service Tax Rate for the construction sector to 18% from 12%.

  32. Chayanan Sittibusaya, Titiporn Gunvihok, Chirawat Yoosabai, Parinya Darasuwon, Kanpirom Yangsup and Rattaphong Sonsuphap

    This study’s objective is to assess the performance of the Second National Tobacco Control Strategy 2559-2562 B.E. (2016-2019) vis-à-vis the target set. This research was a combined method evaluation research by collecting both quantitative and qualitative data from October to December 2562 B.E. (2019). The studied population in group 1 was the Thai population aged 15 years and over. A total of 6,660 people and group 2 were youths who were 15-19 years old. A total of 6,965 subjects were recruited using the stratified two-stage cluster sampling method in the provinces with the median of the highest and lowest smoking rates. The past 3 years of the 12 health districts and 25 Bangkok provinces. The results showed that the prevalence of tobacco use among the Thai population aged 15 years and over was 16.3% (95% CI: 14.2, 18.5) with the prevalence value adjusted according to the Age Standard Structure (ASR) accounted for 16.1 percent which can be reduced according to the target (not more than 16.7%). Males have 11.6 times higher smoking rates than females (29.0% and 2.5%, respectively) and the protection of public health from the dangers of tobacco smoke the prevalence of seeing smokers / using tobacco products or having been exposed to secondhand smoke in public places is required by law to be 100% non-smoking in five places: markets, public bus stations, religious institutions, lower level higher education, and public health facilities. They were equal to 20.1%, 16.3%, 7.2%, 6.5% and 4.8%, respectively which decreased more than the target set. It was concluded that the results of the Second National Tobacco Control Strategy Plan 2559-2562 B.E. (2016-2019) achieved the target designated.

  33. Ch Gowtham Reddy, M Laasya, G N Manikanta, M S R Bapi Raju

    Individuals who are overweight or obese have greater risk of disease compared to those who are in healthy weight range. Sleep is a recurring state of mind and body, which is distinguished by altered alertness, relatively inhibits or decreases the sensory activities, voluntary muscle movements during the rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. The changes during sleep were recorded and monitored using electroencephalography (EEG), electrooculography (EOG), and electromyography (EMG). The circadian clock regulates the sleep cycle. Sleep disturbances, especially obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) and insufficient sleep duration will affect physical, mental, and social well-being. The sample consists of 244 college students of B. Pharm, M. Pharm, first 4 years of Pharm D from Shri Vishnu college of pharmacy in the west Godavari, Andhra Pradesh. The PSQI utilized in assessing sleeping patterns. BMI calculated using self-reported height and weight. Descriptive statistics, chi-square, and logistic regression analyses were performed using IBM SPSS 20. The results were, overall sleep quality rating during the past month was 46.7% (fairly good), 40.2% (very good). No statistically significant difference in the BMI was found between those who achieved >71.7% and <71.7% overall grade. The conclusion is, overall data revealed impairment with the sleep duration and patterns of college students. Poor-quality sleep increases the risk for health problems. This study shows that sleep disturbances are significantly linked to overweight and obesity. We suggest the need of wellness programs and health initiatives to promote healthy sleeping habits among college students.

  34. Mrs. Anandhi, A., Dr. Mallika Rajadurai and Mrs. Saritha, G.

    Abuse is a serious and common problem in and around the World. A quarter of all adults have been physically abused as children. One in 5 women and 1 in 3 men has been sexually abused as a child. In the world, India has the largest number of children 375 million, covering 40% of its population, out of which 69% of Indian girls are victims of physical, emotional, and sexual abuse. Objectives: The study aims to assess the effects of "Structured Teaching Programme on Knowledge and Attitude regarding child abuse among Mothers of pre-school children in Anganwadi, Puducherry”. Methodology: Quasi-Experimental (One group Pre-test, Post-test only design with non-probability convenient sampling technique was used to collect the data from 40 mothers of preschool children in Sedarapet, Anganwadi at Puducherry. The data were collected by the Structured Interview guide method. Result: The findings of the study revealed that in the pre-test, 32.5% of mothers had Inadequate Knowledge and 22.5% had Adequate Knowledge. In the post-test, 2.5% had inadequate knowledge and 70% had adequate knowledge. In terms of attitude, 82.5% had a desirable attitude and 17.5% had the most desirable attitude in the pre-test and the post-test result was 42.5% had desirable attitude and 57.5% had the most desirable attitude. No one was with undesirable attitudes both in pre-test and post-test. Conclusion: The study recommended that the various measures to combat child abuse are awareness of children, parents, and urging strong policy. The study concluded that Mother’s knowledge and family involvement in a child's well-being and development plays a major role in the prevention of child abuse.

  35. Anindita Bachhar and Mitu Das

    COVID-19 pandemic has shifted the academic culture into virtual mode. The unexpected exchange from traditional approach of learning to a new approach of learning accomplishment with technology didn’t allow any probability to students as well as teachers for designing any accurate plan for teaching, assessment, technical setting or providing any support thereof. However, now both students & teachers have become more familiar with video lectures, white board, sharing screen and online evaluation process. Therefore, the present paper aimed to study the attitude of students towards online examination in South Bengal. The data were collected from 170 students experienced with online examination system in Nadia district. The findings of the study indicate that there is no significant difference in the attitude of students irrespective of gender, habitat and qualification. They believe that due to insufficient technical structure offline examination is more reliable than online examination.

  36. Rezaul Karim Kazal, Mohammad Shahnoor Hossain, Mohammad Shafiqur Rahman, Dr. Hasna Hena Pervin and Shahjada Selim

    Background: Recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) is one of the frequently occurring infertility related problem world-wide. Low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3) concentrations may be associated with pregnancy loss. To justify this proposition, we studied the serum 25(OH) vitamin D3 concentrations in pregnant women who have experienced two or more pregnancy loss and control subjects who had successful pregnancy history. Objective: In this study, we investigated whether serum 25(OH)D3 concentration was associated with recurrent pregnancy loss. Design: In this prospective cohort study, 45 pregnant women in their early pregnancy with previous history of two or more early spontaneous pregnancy loss and 45 women in their early live pregnancy with previous history of one or more successful pregnancy and no history of any pregnancy loss were recruited to investigate the association between maternal serum concentrations of serum 25(OH)D3 and the risk of experiencing pregnancy loss (n = 45). Results: Our study revealed that serum 25(OH)D3 concentration is significantly lower in RPL group than the healthy controls (P<0.01). The multivariable logistic analysis revealed that serum 25(OH)D3 concentration is negatively associated with RPL outcome (OR: 0.78 with 95% CI: 0.62, 0.99) with 22% lower odds for one extra level of serum 25(OH)D3 concentration. We also found that pregnant women who does not intake vitamin D3 containing food has 5.6 times higher odds of having RPL outcome compared to those who intakes vitamin D3 containing food (OR: 5.66; CI: 1.56, 20.52). Conclusions: We found an association between serum 25(OH)D3 concentration and RPL, which indicates that serum vitamin D3 acts as a modifiable risk factor for pregnancy loss.

  37. Aaradhana Reddy

    A 65 year old male patient who was given dexamethasone intravitreal implant (DEX implant; Ozurdex, Allergan Inc.) 1 week ago presented to us with chief complaint of sudden decrease in vision since 3 days. On slit lamp examination corneal edema was noted and we found the ozurdex implant in anterior chamber.The DEX implant is a non-tethered biodegradable sustained release implant containing 0.7 mg dexamethasone in the Novadur (Allergan) solid polymer drug-delivery system. These implants can occasionally migrate into the anterior chamber, causing vision-threatening complications that involve permanent corneal decompensation. We would like to report this case of early migration of ozurdex pellet into anterior chamber and review the literature pertaining to the anterior chamber migration of implant.

  38. Dr. Pushpender Yadav

    Child trafficking is severe offence prevalent worldwide. Children are abducted, forced or transported for sexual or physical exploitation, prostitution, begging, slavery or other kind of crimes. Exact figure or rate of this crime is very difficult to estimate because there are many cases which are not even reported. In India, where 44 percent population is near or below poverty line, this heinous offence affects the security of children nationwide and large numbers of children are trafficked every year. There are many forms of child trafficking such as child labour, sex trade, domestic slavery etc. In India, poverty and unemployment are discovered as major cause of trafficking. Other cause such as lack of education is also emerged as a problem behind child trafficking. It is very difficult to fight against this form of exploitation against children until and unless we cope with the challenges that come across. Also, there is need of strict implementation of laws against trafficking in country and no person should be left unpunished who try to infringe the child rights and exploit them in any way. Corruption is a factor that compromises the protection programs in the nation; therefore reduction of corruption to enhance the child security is necessary. Public awareness and involvement of police, parents and other government or non-government organizations is equally important for protecting children from trafficking and other forms of crime.

  39. Loay Ibrahim Aglan, Shaimaa Abd Elaal Fekry, Nihal Ahmed Fathy and Fatma Hussien Elnoby

    Background: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a common systemic autoimmune disease influencing 0.5–1% of the population. The RA diagnosis is based essentially on clinical and biological parameters, even though the novel American College of Rheumatology (ACR)/European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) sortingstandardscomprise MRI and ultra-sound (US) as extra tools to evaluatethe objective joint connection. Our study to evaluate the values of Ultra-sound 7 scores in the diagnosis of sub-clinical synovitis in the early RA- Cases and its correlation with the disease activity score (DAS28). Results: A significant positive, but moderate association was found between DAS28 score and GSUS synovitis total score (r = 0.52, p < 0.001) and fair positive association with power Doppler synovitis total score (r = 0.44, p < 0.001). DAS28 was not connected to total erosion score (r = 0.045, p = 0.754). Conclusion: Ultrasound 7 is simple and practical scoring system and we recommend it for usage in the diagnosis of sub-clinical synovitis in the early RA-cases.

  40. Osama Abdelkarim Alshoubaki, Ziad khalef Aldarabaa, Ashraf Hatem Qubbaj, Ramzi abdelmajid Alhyari, Laith Saed Obiadat and Yazan Bani Hamad

    Background: Left ventricular lead instability encounters some cardiac resynchronization therapy implantations affecting heart failure patient's responsiveness. We present a left ventricular lead stabilization in the coronary sinus via a drug-eluting stent in addition to the literature review of this technique. Methods: A 33-year-old male patient had advanced heart failure and implanted cardiac resynchronization therapy. Left ventricular lead dislocation mandated redo-implantation. Lead instability complicated the procedure until a drug-eluting stent anchored it in the posterolateral branch of the coronary sinus. Furthermore, we reviewed the literature to address all studies and reports of left ventricular lead stabilization via coronary stent in the coronary sinus during cardiac resynchronization therapy implantation. We explored words as left ventricular lead stabilization, lead stenting, coronary sinus stent, coronary sinus angioplasty. Results: A total of 14 studies spotted left ventricular lead stenting in the coronary sinus during biventricular pacing between 2000 and 2021; four observational studies: three case series: seven case reports. The studies included 400 patients, and mean follow-up was 20 months. Stenting the lead during the primary procedure (n=368) versus stenting in the redo procedure (n=32). Stenting for lead instability and phrenic nerve stimulation (n=374), whereas stenting due to unfavorable anatomy (n=26). Most patients received a bare-metal stent (n=396), a drug-eluting stent (n=2), and a bioabsorbable scaffold (n=2). Overall reported stenting the left ventricular lead since the first procedure description in years 2003 to 2011 was 390 stents and between the years 2012–2021 was ten stents. Conclusion: During cardiac synchronization therapy implantation, left ventricular lead retention in the coronary sinus by stent is feasible and effective.

  41. Hasna G. Al Zahrani and Hoda Z Helmy

    Background : Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused mental health distortion in the among citizens across the globe. Healthcare workers have sustained frontline effort to curb the spread of the virus. However, few studies have investigated the impact COVID-19 on the psychological wellbeing in Saudi Arabia despite being among countries with high prevalence cases. The review aimed to determine the psychological impact of COVID-19 Pandemic on HCWs in Saudi Arabia. Methods: Systematic review was used for literature search in PubMed, Google Scholar, CINAHL, and Cochrane Library. Eligibility criteria was applied to screen and select 10 scholarly studies from the electronic databases. Centre for Evidence-Based Management (CEBMa) checklists were used to assess methodological quality of the studies while critical analysis of the ten studies facilitated data extraction. A narrative synthesis of different themes from the studies was presented. Results: Findings revealed cases of high psychological distress among healthcare workers in Saudi Arabia. The HCWs registered stress, depression, insomnia, fear, anxiety, and worries about personal or family health. Female physicians and nurses showed higher distress levels than their male healthcare professionals. Conclusion: COVID-19 has led to psychological distress among Saudi HCWs. Administrators and policymakers should improve organizational resilience, counselling, onsite therapy, and work-life balance. Further studies should establish longitudinal studies to determine the varied mental health outcomes of male versus female HCWs to understand gaps in mental health vulnerabilities due to COVID-19 pandemic.

  42. Dr. Kanimozhiy Senguttuvan, Dr. K. Senthil Kumar, Dr. Gayathri, Dr. Vandana Shenoy K., and Dr. Mohammed Afradh

    Background: The radicular cyst is considered to be an inflammatory odontogenic cyst. The radiographic findings, present a well circumscribed, round or teardrop-shaped radiolucent area. Final diagnosis should be based on histopatological examination. The objective of this paper is to report a classic case of radicular cyst located in the anterior region of maxilla. Methods: A 24 years male patient complained of gingival and palatal swelling in the region of 11, 12, 13 and 14. Radiographic examination revealed a single well circumscribed radiolucency with approximately 2 cm diameter. Results: A total enucleation of the lesion was performed. Histological examination revealed that the lesion was "radicular cyst of inflammatory origin". Conclusions: The treatment of choice is surgical removal and subsequent histological evaluation to confirm the diagnosis. Relapses are infrequent.

  43. Nayannika Mongmaw, Dr. Deepak Bhargava and Dr. Puja Bansal

    Eosinophils are known moderators of innate and adaptive immunity. However, studies focusing on the role of Tumor-Associated Tissue Eosinophils (TATE) in oral squamous cell carcinoma are limited, keeping which in mind, the present study was conducted. AIM: To evaluate tumor-associated tissue eosinophilia in mild and moderate oral squamous cell carcinoma. METHOD: 30 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded blocks of histopathologically proven oral squamous cell carcinoma cases were retrieved from the department archive. Two sections of 4μm of each block were subjected to staining by routine Hematoxylin and Eosin stain and Carbol Chromotrope stain. TATE was graded based on the modified classical counting method (Alkhabuli and High, 2006). Statistical analysis was done using SPSS version 21, and P<0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULT: Statistically significant association was found between TATE count and oral squamous cell carcinoma (P<0.0001). CONCLUSION: The positive correlation between TATE count and increasing oral squamous cell carcinoma grades could indicate its role as a prognostic marker. We further concluded that Carbol chromotrope couldbe a better stain for TATE than routine hematoxylin and eosin.

  44. Subash Cherumannil Karumuthil, Soney Varghese and Dr. Abdurahiman, T.

    Homoeopathic system of medicine uses drugs prepared by the process of potentisation, by which crude medicinal substance become immeasurably small and penetratingly efficacious and remedial. Dr.CFS Hahnemann (1745 – 1842) could not demonstrate these particle and this bring forth severe criticism from and outside the homoeopaths. This stood as an obstacle to acceptance of Homoeopathy by scientific world and public at large. The situation was changed on demonstration of nanoparticles in some of the potencies of some homoeopathic drugs by using one or two nano-technological procedure. Hence, it was attempted to undertake the material characterisation of different potencies (6C, 12C, 30C, 200C 1M, 10M, 50M, and CM) of Homoeopathic drug – Plumbum metallicum, with different nano-characterisation procedures - Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), atomic force microscopy (AFM), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) with selected area electron diffraction (SAED) and dynamic light scattering (DLS). The samples were prepared without any pre-concentration and pre -treatment of drugs. The investigation has demonstrated the presence of nanoparticles of plumbum met along with other elements in all dilutions. This opens an opportunity for further studies in the standardisation of homoeopathic drugs as well as understanding its mode of action.

  45. Naif AlAli, Shahad Alruwaili, Norah AlRabeeah and Awad Alharbi

    Background: Headache is one of the top ten commonest reasons for doctors' consultations. The aim of this study is to identify whether the traditional and alternative medicine practices play a role in the treatment of the headache and relieves head pain. Methodology: It is a cross-sectional study among the population in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. data were collected by using validated self-administered questionnaire. The participant had to answer multiple questions, including demographics factors and questions related to the study objectives. Confidentiality was ensured. Results: In this study, we had collected 486 responses with a mean age of participants was 35.47 with standard deviations of 12.5 years. The percentage of participants who reported knowing about traditional or alternative medicine in the treatment of headache finding that only 30.8 % of participants indicated that they knew these medicines and 36.5 % had tried some of them. Moreover, we did not find any relation between any demographic factors and using of alternative medications however, we noticed some consideration. Conclusion: In conclusion, we found a low prevalence of using alternative medications among the population in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. This reflects the good knowledge of the population in Saudi Arabia about alternative medications however, there is a need for developing policies and education programs for both population and physicians to improve the relationship between them.

  46. Gupta, D., Kapoor, A., Puri, P., Tewari, A., Agarwal, S. and Trivedi, N.

    Collision tumours are rare tumours; defined as tumours composed of two histologically distinct neoplasms located in the same organ or anatomical site. According to the World Health Organisation (WHO) histological classification, collision tumours include at least two different malignant components, without mixed or transitional area. Collision tumours are different from the mixed tumours formed by more than one type of neoplastic tissue, but, having the same histological origin, as shown by the transitional area. Pathogenesis of this rare entity remains unclear, although there are several proposed hypotheses. Preoperative diagnosis of collision tumours is difficult because of the lack of specific clinical symptoms and radiological features. Histological diagnosis also poses a significant problem and Immunohistochemistry needs to be done in all the cases to reach the conclusion. We, hereby, report a case of 60 year male having Pancreatic head Neuroendocrine carcinoma and Ductal Adenocarcinoma collision tumour. Based on our case report and review of literature, we conclude that collision pancreatic cancer is a very uncommon tumour which poses a significant challenge in diagnosis and treatment.

  47. Mukul Maity and Dr. Siba Sankar Sahu

    Education has been observed as the very crucial development tool throughout the World. The education system in India has become a great movement, both in terms of resources allocated and the number of persons involved, these include, teachers, students and the administrators in all aspects. Since the post-independence period, there was noticed huge rate of expansion in education in India at all levels but till now light of education can’t reach at all corner in our country. Especially most of the backward state in India facing lots of problem about elementary education. Purulia is the most backward state in West Bengal, here literacy rate is too poor than other regions. Here I selected Rigid Gram Panchayet (GP) for study purpose which is one of the extreme backward GP in respect to education. According to 2011 Indian Census Report 44.1% people are literate under which only 14.2% women are educated which highlighted the poor condition of education in Rigid. Higher education of that region also facing great threaten due to socio economic backwardness and lack of awareness. That’s why here try to analyse the reasons behind the educational backwardness and how can we manage total circumstances. Objectives of the study are to find out the problems faced by the students in Schools, to analyse education condition of women, to interlink education and economic condition. If the government schools are not properly maintained and develop then there would be no development in the society as well as in the Country.

  48. Muhammed Shalikh, N.

    Biological hazard is a biological substance that causes a threat to the health of living organisms primarily humans. One of the most important health issues the world faces is the threat of a global disease outbreak called a pandemic. Biological risks related to pandemics & epidemics can affect the health of workers, particularly in specific occupations such as health care workers, transport services etc. Pandemics are large-scale outbreaks of infectious disease that can greatly increase morbidity and mortality over a wide geographic area and cause significant economic, social, and political disruption. The management of this biological devil is a crucial problem in the bad situation. India, the world famous democratic countries weeks and strength is mainly discussed in this paper.

  49. Pooja Anudhar, G. and Sushma, B. V.

    Dietary lifestyles certainly found to have direct influence on ageing process. Typically ageing is associated with increased susceptibility to degenerative process often exacerbated by nutritional inadequacy. Detrimental healthy life expectancy at ageing period is a significant global issue. An advance in functional foods has shown increased life expectancy, healed various lifestyle diseases as a preventive & ideal nutraceutical for geriatric. Evidences on the NCD interlinked with the nutritional etiology and morbidities outcomes among elderly in India are limited. Proposed review research yields new insight regarding functional food role on various age related ailments such as malnutrition, hypertension, bone fractures and frailty. In particular, this scientific data base establishes the impact of functional food as a comprehensive nutrition regime for the effective disease management that could diminishes chronic disease risks and nutritional deficits in Geriatric.

  50. Alzahraa K. Halabi and Hoda Z. Helmy

    Background: Laboratory turnaround time is a periodic measure for improving hospital services and increasing the quality of care as well as patient satisfaction. The current study aims to evaluate the correlation between TAT and LOS at Al Noor Specialist Hospital ED. It also help policy makers to enhance the quality of services provided by minimizing the root causes of the problem. Methods: The retrospective cross-sectional research design uses ED Health information system data at Al Noor Specialist Hospital. Analysis of all laboratory tests (Hematology and Biochemistry) ordered by ED physicians from 05 October 2018 until 4 October 2019. The Regression analysis tests used to report the correlation in-between two TAT and LOS. The IBM SPSS "Statistical Package for the Social Sciences" version 21 used to generate the result. Result: The total number of ED visits is(181,704) and the average LOS is about 2 hours and most people using the services are the Saudi citizen, male, in 21-40 years old. The second in order is pilgrims of HAJJ and UMRA His more than 21% of visits. The Study indicated that there is a statistically insignificant result and weak relation between TAT and ED length of stay so, the study accepts the null hypothesis. Conclusion: The study has been proven that there is no relation between TAT and LOS. Further research is needed to assess and evaluate time to physician diagnosis with TAT to verify if there is a relation between them.

  51. Modawy Abdelgader, Ismoyowati, Ning Iriyanti and Eka Aris Rimbawanto

    This study evaluated the blood hematological, immunity, organs lymphoid of combinations safflower oil (SO) and inositol (IN) in female Sentul chicken. A total of 81 birds, was 16 weeks old which were raised throughout 8 weeks. Nine experimental diets were formulated, control diet = SO 0% + IN 0%, SO = 0,5%, IN = 0,5%, SO = 1%, IN = 1%, SO 0,5 % + IN 0,5%, SO 0,5% +IN 1%, SO 1% + IN 0,5%, SO 1% +IN 1%. Used research a completely random design; nine experimental with three repetitions for each replicate of three birds. Were the variables being feed consumption, hematological, titer antibodies against New castle disease, avian influenza, and lymphoidorgans. The results showed the treatments had no significant (p<0.05) feed consumption on the first week of birds while in the second to the six-week application of different levels supplementation safflower oil and inositol application affected was significantly (p>0.05) affected feed consumption and did not significant difference (p >0.05) of hematological, titer antibody of ND,In contrast, AI was highly significantly different (p < 0.01), the spleen and thymus did not have a significant difference (P>0, 05) while the relative weight of bursa of Fabricius was high significantly (P<0, 05). The application supplementation safflower oil with inositol had no negative effect on hematological, still produced relatively similar of blood, increased the feed consumption at (IN 0.5 %), weight in bursa Fabricius at (SO 1%+IN 1%) , increased response immune indices of titer antibody at (SO1%)(IN 1%)( SO 0.5%+IN 1%) this indicates healthy of chicken.

  52. Jaganathan Sickan, Aw Tar Choon,Shaoqing X Du, Jian Li, Huang Janel, Ajay Darbar, Tina Jubin,Hussain Ali, and Agim Beshiri MD

    Introduction: Cancer is the second most common cause of death in Malaysia. Early detection and treatment may help to optimise outcomes, but most cancer patients in Malaysia present with late-stage disease. The aim of this community health project was to improve community awareness of the risks of cancer (among other non-communicable diseases), and the benefits of screening for disease prevention and early detection. Methods: Community health screening was conducted during the 2016 Kembara Mahkotacommunity event in Johor, Malaysia. Blood-based biomarkers were used to screen for risk of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer and thyroid disease in the population attending the event. Cancer screening involved measurement of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), a marker of colorectal cancer risk, cancer antigen 125 (CA125) for assessment of ovarian cancer risk, prothrombin induced by vitamin K absence II (PIVKA II) levels for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) risk, and pepsinogen I/II (PG I/II) ratio for assessment of gastric cancer risk. Individuals identified as high risk were referred for specialist follow-up. Results: A total of 2744 individuals participated in biomarker screening.CEA and CA 125 levels indicated that 4–7% of the population had high cancer risk. HCC risk was high in 17% of individuals, based on PIVKA II levels, and 3% were at risk of gastric cancer based on the PG I/II ratio. Conclusion: Community health projects such as ours are required to raise awareness of the risks of common preventable diseases, and to encourage individuals to participate in health checks and disease screening programmes.

  53. Dr. Niyati Patra and Dr. Jayaraj R Mhetri

    Background: There have been substantial increases in newer business models like business process outsourcing (BPOs) in last two decades in India. Various factors have contributed to the conducive environment in India for these businesses to boom which include, cheaper labor costs and the pool of skilled, English speaking Indians have been the foremost factors. The employees working at night may be unable to sleep adequately during daytime, which can compromise their health status. Few studies indicate that the night shift duties result in serious health concerns for call center employees, it was observed that sleep disorders were present among 83% of employees. Objectives: To assess the sleep quality using Athens insomnia scale. Methods: The present study is a cross sectional study. Results: The mean age of employees in the study was 25.35 years. Majority of the employees were males 78.4% were males; most of them were unmarried 87.5%, 11.5% married, and rest of the 1 % were divorced. Most of the employees were graduates i.e. 84.2% and 7% were post-graduates; rest of the employees had diplomas. In the present study, majority of the employees worked in night shift or changing shift 83% the remaining 17 % worked in day shift. 82 % of the participants worked for 7–9 hours per day, rest of the 18.0% worked for 9–14 hours per day. About 48% of the employees were cigarette smokers. 91.4% of these were males and 8.6% were females. Most of the 56% of the employees who smoked cited the reason for smoking as stress and 11% smoked to stay up at night. About 47% of the employees consumed alcohol. Only about 21.6% call employees did not have any type of sleep problems; 63.5% had suspected insomnia and 14.9% had insomnia according to the Athens insomnia scale. Conclusion The call center employees need to be screened for Regular health check-ups, the employees need to have access to consultation of counsellors and need to educated about the sleep hygiene and healthy lifestyle. Large scale multicentric studies should be conducted to better understand the epidemiology of the problem

  54. Das, S. K., Das, T. K. and Podder, A. K.

    Method for selection of endophytic diazotropic isolates for use as nitrogen bio-fertilizer in rice cultivation is developed and standerdized. Ten endophytic diazotropic bacterial isolates were collected from roots of a wild rice species, Oryza rufipogon, from Sunderban area of West Bengal. These isolates were characterised on the basis of nitrogenage activity, siderophore & IAA production capacity. These isolates were also tested for contribution in yield attributing parameters in rice in pot culture. Based on these studies, 4 isolates were selected for field trials in coastal saline and red & laterite zones of West Bengal. In the trial 25% ( 20 – 22.5 kg) of recommended chemical nitrogen dose was deducted and supplemented by endophytic diazotropic bacteria application. Two isolates for each zones were selected on the basis of their contribution in 1000 grain weight and total yield in rice. These isolates are recommended for inclusion in INM package in rice cultivation.

  55. Bareen Na Mohammed, M.B.Ch.B, D.M.R.D. Radiology, Maysaloon Sh Saeed, M.B.Ch.B, F.I.B.M.S. Radiology and Sohaib Hasan Ali, M.B.Ch.B, F.K.B.M.S .Radiology

    Background: First trimester vaginal bleeding is one of the commonest obstetrical and gynecological emergencies all over the world. The aim of this study was the use of ultrasonic (US) imaging to identify the commonest causes of first trimester vaginal bleeding ( VB), finding their incidence in primigravida (pr.gr) and multigravida ( mu.gr) pregnant women, detecting the most frequent mean age of occurrence according to gestational age (GA) in weeks, looking for the incidence of viable and nonviable pregnancy among them, their relations with a bad obstetrical history and finally estimating the disparity between clinical and ultrasonic diagnosis. Methods: A cross sectional study that has been done on 113 pregnant women presented with first trimester vaginal bleeding, attending Azadi Teaching Hospital and Duhok Maternity Hospital from 1stJune to 22 of November (2019 ). All patients were clinically referred byspecialized clinicians and subjected to US examination under supervision of specialized radiologists, all were exposed to trans Abdominal Ultrasound (TAU) to assess the causes of the bleeding correlated with the clinical diagnosis, mean gestational ages of occurrence in weeks, the incidence of viable pregnancy, the gravida of patients and their previous obstetrical history. Results: The mean age of the examined patients was29.4±5.9 years, (mu.gr)were more than (pr.gr) constituting (81.4%) of the cases while the(pr.gr) constitute (18.6%) of the cases, the GA of these was between 6-8 weeks with the mean 8.2±1.6 weeks. Non-viable pregnancy constitute (67.3%) of total, the most common cause of VB was miscarriage (84.1%). Followed by ectopic pregnancy (6.2%) thenhydatiform mole (3.5%). The most common subtype of miscarriage was threatened (32.7%). Among all the patients, thewhole difference between US diagnosis and medical diagnosis were found in 72 patients. Conclusion: USexamination of the cases complaining from first trimester VB is helpful in confirming and diagnosing different causes,mean gestational age of occurrence, incidence of viable pregnancy compared with the clinical diagnosis.

  56. A.K.M. Abul Kalam Azad, Md. Najmus Sayadat Pitol and Yonosuke Hara

    The study appraised rubber tree plantations at Bandarbans Hill Tract in Bangladesh, to measure the biomass in plantations of different ages and to determine the organic carbon content and CO2 equivalence.The DBH and biomass growth were increased with the age of the plantations so as the carbon storage and carbon-di-oxide equivalence (CO2e). All of them were sharply increased upto 15th year from the beginning and become slower after 15th year. The average DBH, above-ground biomass, below-ground biomass, total biomass, carbon storage and carbon-di-oxide equivalence for rubber plantation were 15.15cm, 160.12 Mg ha-1, 27.41 Mg ha-1, 187.54 Mg ha-1, 93.97 Mg ha-1 and 344.14 Mg ha-1 respectively. The highest DBH (1.54 87cm ha-1 yr-1) and biomass (53.29 Mg ha-1 yr-1) growth were found between 10 to 15 years of rubber plantation where the average growth of DBH (1.01cm ha-1 yr-1) and biomass (23.71 Mg ha-1 yr-1). An average 11663.42 Tk ha-1yr-1 earn for rubber plantation in Bandarban hill tract only for keeping the tree in field. Three types of DBH based models were developed with strong mean R2 (Power = 0.99; Polynomial = 0.98 and Linear = 0.90) and all were highly significant (P < 0.05). The result will be explored the value of rubber plantation and helped the policy maker for advancing the management of forest in hilly area of Bangladesh.

  57. Luis Eduardo Ordoñez Kuc and Daniel Antonio Muñoz González

    Theater is a recreational, artistic, and educational activity. But above all it is enriching that offers you a comprehensive opportunity to complement education with the skills that students seek to develop. It is important to consider that educational life is evolving and above all is advancing by leaps and bounds, it cannot be taught in the same way as our teachers taught us, there are currently countless new pedagogical methods that are put into practice, who is only the end is to obtain beneficial results, for this process that we know well as teaching-learning. It is important to consider that educational life is evolving and above all is advancing by leaps and bounds, it cannot be taught in the same way as our teachers taught us, there are currently countless new pedagogical methods that are put into practice, who is only the end is to obtain beneficial results, for this process that we know well as teaching-learning. The theater not only brings us closer to this artistic part that we all know by its very nature, it allows us to live a new way of educating, transmitting knowledge using innovative tools, which allows a more effective approach towards the learning that is intended to be achieved.

  58. Navruzova, V.S., Yuldasheva, N.S. and Akhmedov, O.M.

    In recent years there seen an increased incidence among women of fertile age (at the age of 28-45 years). In the Republic of Uzbekistan about 60% of CC are revealed in stage 1-2. Conservative treatment for early stage cervical cancer allows to save the life of a patient in most cases, however, leads to irreversible loss of fertility, depressions of different gravity, stress disorders and sexual dysfunction. Look forward to continued work produced in this area and have a score not only subjective, but also the objective status of a young woman, the study of reproductive behavior and quality of life, as well as remote results.

  59. Guilherme Silva de Mendonça, Laíssa Mota Cardoso, Pedro Guimarães Pereira, Marcelo Davi Lucio, Lourdes de Fátima Gonçalves Gomes, Cairo Antônio Guedes Junior, Clesnan Mendes-Rodrigues, Carla Denari Giuliani

    Objetivo: Identificar as competências da enfermagem em internações psiquiátricas, considerando a Reforma Psiquiátrica e o processo de dissolução do modelo manicomial. Método: Revisão Integrativa de Literatura realizada no período de novembro/2019 a março/2020. Foram utilizados os descritores cadastrados no DECs – Descritores em Saúde: “Cuidados de enfermagem”, “Hospital psiquiátrico” e “Humanização da assistência”, e incluídas publicações do período de 2007 a 2018. Resultados: Realizada a seleção da amostra, foram incluídos na revisão 14 estudos, dos quais emergiram quatro categorias: a transição do modelo assistencial considerando a reforma psiquiátrica; as relações interpessoais e a comunicação terapêutica como cuidado de enfermagem em internações psiquiátricas; o trabalho em equipe multiprofissional; obstáculos e recursos na prática de enfermagem em saúde mental. Conclusão: As competências de enfermagem nas internações psiquiátricas assim como as possibilidades de atuação têm se expandido superando as contenções diversas e o saber exclusivamente biológico. Reformula-se e reinventam-se os modos de assistência estabelecendo um cuidado psicossocial menos invasivo e mais respeitoso, que usa da disponibilidade e da criatividade do profissional para contribuir na reabilitação e no processo de reinserção do sujeito na sociedade.

  60. Drugă, C., Șerban, I., Braun, B.C., Conte, M. and Roșca, I. C.

    The interactions in gravity and in classical electrostatics have been revisited in (Conte, 2015, 2017) and it follows from this the taking into account of the temperatures in black body equilibrium for the neutral and charged masses thus involving two new and different writings of the relations of the resulting respective forces. This new conception of the effects of black body radiations in photonic fields which are superimposed in the structure of space-time in quantum entities EVTD2 requires that inside the entities exist material elements (concretizing the substrate of space-time) to capture and store these electromagnetic energies and they were originally named Substratum. From an electrical point of view, this Substratum corpuscle would be a dipole of very small dimensions internal to the EVTD2 and its spatial orientations would be correlated with the positive and negative pressures where the attractive and repulsive effects are generated in the new conceptions of gravity and electrostatics.

  61. Rakesh Kumar Medhi, Nischal Das and Swarga Jyoti Das

    Periodontitis is an inflammatory process causing destruction of the periodontal tissues and alveolar bone. Various adjunctive treatment approaches are introduced along with scaling and root planing for treating periodontitis; Statins being one of them. Statins are considered as “Gold-standard” to treat hyperlipidemia and widely used to control cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Apart from the lipid-lowering properties, various non-cholesterol-dependent biological effects of statins are captivated. These include Antioxidative, Antibacterial, Antithrombotic, Anti-inflammatory, Immunomodulatory, and Osteomodulatory properties. Considering these effects, this group of drugs might play a potential role in regenerative periodontal therapy.

  62. Dr. Akshaya Subhashinee Dhanasekaran, Dr. Pradeep Christopher Jesudas, Dr. Senthil Kumar, K. and Dr. Mohamed Afradh

    Corticosteroids are potent anti-inflammatory drugs that resemble cortisol, a naturally produced hormone by the body. Their main use is to reduce inflammation, especially when the body mistakenly triggers inflammation where it shouldn’t exist. Corticosteroids are widely used in the treatment of diseases, disorders and conditions affecting the oral and maxillofacial area and the adjacent associated structures. The diseases of the oral and maxillofacial region may be either local or the manifestation of systemic problem. Corticosteroids have their widest application in the management of acute and chronic conditions which have an allergic, immunologic, or inflammatory basis. Most of the oral and maxillofacial surgeons utilize corticosteroids based on their efficacy to control outcomes of surgery and to yield a comfortable post-surgery period. This paper reviews the uses of corticosteroids in oral and maxillofacial surgery.

  63. Chingangbam Dhananjoy Singh and Takhellambam Ramananda Singh

    The chromosomes movement during the somatic division in all flowering plants followed certain conservative pattern. The centromeric regions with kinetochore are the sites for spindle binding and pull towards the opposite poles. Do a parasitic plant chromosomes follow this movement? For the above query the shoot tips of parasitic plant, Cuscuta reflexa, Roxb were collected, fixed in Carnoy’s solution for 24 hours from Indian plum, Ziziphus mauritiana Lam., but the plants have found to parasite on other plants. The fixed shoots were macerated in the solution of glacial acetic and 1 N HCl and squashed and observed under the microscope. The chromosome number of the plant was 32 with monocentric chromosomes. The pattern of the movement of the chromosome was observed to be quite acquainted as in other plants. The nuclear architecture of the interphase nuclei and dividing cells are quite conventional. The patterns of prophase to cytokinesis stages are quite stable as in other angiosperms. As expected the heterochromatic content in the interphase nuclei known as chromocenters were huge and distinct. The shoots of 3 cm to 7 cm could be utilized for mitotic studies. The future works are to determine the chromatin organization of the plant and study the germinal chromosomes and compare them with the other species.

  64. IMH Muhammad Akil

    Most of the mankind is divided into two extreme views between the fatalists and non-believers in luck. Both these views are extreme views as a Creation’s luck appears to have two distinct components; one fixed component (scripted component) which is gifted to it by the Almighty at the time of its birth and second; a variable component (karma component) which could be cultivated by the Creation itself through its deeds by training of mind, planning of events, making preparations for the success of events, using social situations, personal strengths and by developing requisite intentions to assist the Almighty in running His majestic show of managing the activities of Universe. This variable component depends upon the Creation’s talent, capability of handling chance events, domain knowledge of the events, opposing forces, favouring forces and its capability to effect the change. The fixed component or the scripted component is dependent upon one’s origin, lineage, place of birth, date and time of birth, race, religion, caste, creed, class, sex etc. The total luck at any given point of time will be the sum total of the two components at that point of time. It can be concluded that every Creation has been given freedom by the Almighty to choose its own luck by making amendments in its scripted or by birth luck gifted by the Almighty through the variable component.

  65. Dr. Smita A Khalikar, Dr. Varsha M Patil, Dr. Shankar P Dange and Dr. kishor M Mahale

    Many prosthodontic situations demand an additional set of complete dentures. In such cases, the additional set can be made by duplicating the existing ones. Sometimes it is desirable to make a few changes when making new complete dentures for a patient who has been wearing old dentures for a long time and is satisfied with them. Replica dentures can be made for these patients, and success with the new dentures can be assured. A procedure is presented for duplication of the old dentures with intact intaglio but attrided occluding surface.

  66. Mr. Dr. Karan R Gregg Aggarwala

    The periodic table of the chemical elements was most intuitively understood and, perhaps most universally accessible to innovators when atoms were classified as triads of elements adjacent by atomic weight. Such classification depicts and reveals underlying order in the physical world: with concepts such as Design Elegance and Parsimony of Mathematical Equations having been widely spoken of by eminent physicists. To designate and nominate a numerical value of 3.12 arc radians as the exact value of the Circumference to Diameter ratio-proportion of a closed contour (“pi”) could be a manifest travesty against mathematical exactitude: But only if adequate justification were not provided. The message of this written communication is that on account of hidden variables, the uncertain derivations that our best of science can infer about any cosmological constant: such “nominated” numerical value of pi = 3.12 falls clearly within the bounds of reasoning and approximation. Furthermore, designating such 2-decimal value for “pi” might not compromise critical applications such as planning trajectory for navigation to planetary bodies of our solar system, and as well, to local stellar objects of our Milky Way Galaxy. The gains in computational speed from simplifying computer code to faster process 2 places of decimal compared to floating points of several hundred places of decimal would be significant. Also, the natural advantage that ensues from 3.12 is that polar geometry representation is enabled for the paper napkin: with a simple scientific calculator of year 1985 vintage. The author takes this opportunity to introduce the geography and history relevant to contextual understanding of circular and spiral geometry and measurement.

  67. Shaik Mehnaz and Monali Baskar

    Aim: An analysis about cloud kitchens in India and also how they have changed recently due to the recent pandemic. Background: Cloud Kitchens are a growing disruptive model that a lot of young entrepreneurs can tap into in recent times. Not a lot of people are aware of it although the usage of it is increasing tremendously. This paper would analyse how this industry works to give a detailed insight into the current trends and industry impacts. Design: A Research paper. Data Sources: A search of published evidence from 1990–2020 using keywords (as outlined below) was undertaken from which relevant sources were selected to build an informed discussion. Conclusion: This paper discusses the conceptual models of cloud kitchens and demonstrates an important link between the it and pandemic.

  68. Elisabete Roldão, Jéssica Ferreira, Mafalda Santos Neves, Mariana Vinagre Anacleto, Tânia Margarida Leal and Augusto Gil Pascoal

    Backgrounds: Grasp is defined as the static posture of the hand, through which an object is securely grasped regardless its orientation. Daily living activities are carried out using different types of grasps. Feeding is one of these activities where grasps are carried out on objects, utensils or products. It is associated with the "process of preparing, disposing of and bringing food or fluids, from the dish or glass, to the mouth". Objectives: With this study we intend to characterize the grasps used in activities of daily living, namely in the preparation of meals. Methods: As a descriptive-correlational study, relationships between variables are described to understand the use of grasps configurations and establish relationships between grasps, frequency, duration and types of objects. Four participants (two females and two males) selected by convenience, without pathology of the hand, with 18 to 64 years, who cook four times a week, were filmed performing the tasks in question. Data confidentiality and blind analysis of investigators were guaranteed. Results: Were found that in cooking activities, which elapsed for 18786 seconds, the most frequently used hand and for longer periods, was the right one. Thirty-one different types of holds were used and those that stood out for frequency and duration were the "Extension Indicator", "Thumb Adduced" and "Quadríade". Thus, force holds (with palmar and digital contact with all sets of force vectors, mostly with the thumb adduced), intermediate (with lateral contact, with all sets of forces except when the thumb is abducted) and precision (with palmar and lateral contact with all sets of force vectors) were used. Thus, we found that the greater the weight and diameter of the object, the greater the number of force vectors involved, which means more fingers in contact with the object. Therefore, we conclude that it is the prehensile object that influences the apprehension to be adopted, regardless of the sex and age of the individual. Conclusion: This work allows health professionals to know this activity considering the hand grasp and anticipate difficulties in occupational performance, make decisions about the intervention to be implemented, support assistive devices to be use, tasks to be adapted or training to be developed.

  69. Almir Fernando Loureiro Fontes, Clauber Lourenço, Bruno Soares Menezes, Guilherme Silva de Mendonça, Elmiro Santos Resende and Aguinaldo Coelho da Silva

    Foi avaliado, no contexto da saúde pública, o papel da tele-eletrocardiografia (Tele-ECG) em pacientes com dor torácica atendidos em serviço de pronto socorro médico, durante o primeiro ano de implantação deste serviço. Procurou-se determinar através da tele-ECG as alterações eletrocardiográficas encontradas nesses pacientes, analisando-se especialmente os casos de infarto agudo do miocárdio com supradesnivelamento do segmento ST e acompanhá-los quanto ao tratamento e eventuais complicações na fase aguda (30 dias) dessa síndrome clínica. Foram coletados os eletrocardiogramas transmitidos de 161 centros remotos do Brasil para uma Central de Telecardiologia situada em Uberlândia-MG. O sinal transtelefônico do ECG foi decodificado usando um software específico que permite a realização de todas as medidas, análise e armazenamento. De um total de 15.095 ECGs recebidos na Central, 4.428(29,33%) corresponderam a pacientes queixando-se de dor torácica. Dentre esses, 2.173(49,07%) apresentavam ECG considerados dentro dos limites da normalidade; 503(11,36%) pacientes com bloqueios de ramo do feixe de His; 576(13,00%) com alterações da repolarização ventricular do estímulo elétrico; 263(5,94%) com área eletricamente inativa; 179(4,04%) com sinais sugestivos de isquemia e 150(3,39%) com IAM com supradesnivelamento do segmento ST. Dos 150 pacientes diagnosticados como IAM, foi possível acompanhar 77(51,33%) quanto ao tratamento instituído e eventuais complicações. Observou-se que 54(71%) receberam tratamento clínico; 15(19%) trombolítico; e 8(10%) angioplastia transluminal coronariana terciária. Conclui-se que: aproximadamente 50% dos pacientes com dor torácica apresentam ECGs dentro dos limites da normalidade. Esse achado, associado aos dados clínicose laboratoriais, pode reduzir o tempo de hospitalização, resultando em benefício para os pacientes, bem como redução dos custos hospitalares; a tele-ECG permite um diagnóstico precoce do IAM, possibilitando uma abordagem terapêutica adequada em tempo hábil; por outro lado, vale ressaltar que apesar do suporte proporcionado pela tele-ECG para confirmar o diagnóstico precoce de IAM, a maioria dos pacientes não é submetida ao tratamento mais apropriado (trombolítico ou ATC primária) e recebe tratamento clínico, que no nosso trabalho apresentou o maior número de complicações.

  70. ChinnaRami Reddy Rendeddula, Samskruthi Raj and Prof. Abhishek Venkteswar

    The purpose of this study is to understand the changes in CSR practices and activities due to the COVID-19 pandemic by organizations of different sectors across India. The outbreak of the coronavirus has led to serious changes in many businesses ranging from work from home to workforce reduction in many sectors. Despite the setbacks, many organizations are actively participating in helping society and the government get through these unprecedented times. Many firms usually focus on environmental and charitable activities while performing CSR but the focus rapidly shifts towards medical aspects due to the novel coronavirus where companies are seen performing activities like PPE distribution, awareness campaigns, economic help, donating in PM Cares Fund etc. This pandemic has also affected the CSR plans and models for the subsequent years in many firms. To conclude, the pandemic altered the way of CSR practices, led to many changes and has become an important lesson for the coming years to deal with any situation that might arise in the future

  71. Coly Mame Ngoné, SarrHabibou, Makalou Demba, Kalilou Diallo, Manga Noel Magloire and Diatta Alassane

    Introduction: The human cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a virus belonging to the herpes virus family. It causes latent and persistent infections and may be responsible for morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised and newborn infants. The objective of this study is to determine its prevalence among our blood donors. Patients and methods: Prospective cross-sectional study conducted from November 2019 to February 2020. All donors were screened for CMV and other routine tests (HIV, hepatitis B and C, syphilis). The fisher test was used to analyse the data and we considered a threshold p < 0.05 to be significant. Results: Out of a total number of 121 donors, 89.3% (n=108) are male and 10.7% (n=13) are female (sex ratio= 8.3). The average age of the donors was 32.57 years (extremes of 18 to 57 years). Older donors represented 45.5% (n=55) versus 54.5% (n=66) of new donors. The prevalence of CMV was 43.8% (n=53), HIV prevalence was 0.8% (n=1, HIV profile 1), and hepatitis B prevalence was 11.6% (n=14). For hepatitis C and syphilis no donors were tested positive. There was no significant difference between CMV seroprevalence and sex (p=0.314) or status (p=0.09).

  72. Dr. Sajitha, M.A.

    In the United States and the U.K., the inclusion of disability studies under the discipline of humanities and social sciences is based on the notion that political rights and academic discourses are intricately linked. According to Lennard J. Davies, the “problem” of disability does not lie with the person with disabilities but rather in the way that normalcy is constructed. The paper analyses critically the representation of Tourette syndrome in the movies Hichki and Front of the Class. Both these movies are adaptations of the autobiography of Brad Cohen, Front of the Class: How Tourette Syndrome Made Me the Teacher I Never Had. The paper also investigates how the teachers diagnosed with Tourette Syndrome (TS) become role models to their students by articulating the exact message of education. The films Hichki and Front of the Class have portrayed the discrimination, isolation and alienation which Naina and Brad Cohen were subjected to. While Brad Cohen works with kids who have TS, Naina works with a group of underprivileged students and becomes successful in transforming them into better students of refined character and behaviour. With her constant suggestions and training, she is able to improve the academic performance also of these students. These teachers become real role models who make a difference in the lives of others.

  73. Saanya Singhani and Prof. Abhishek Venkteshwar

    In the decade of unrivalled growth, companies have enjoyed the morning sun. This sun has empowered their monetary growth, helped them develop new market niches and focus on expansion/improvement of the business. As a result of management failure, companies have immensely failed to understand their employees. They treat their employees as mere workers who contribute to the profits but often fail to consider them as one of the greatest assets of the organisation. The result of this leads to increased levels of stress among employees and this leaves them with what is known as burnout. This situation of burnout often leads to higher level of stress among employees. Stress is a general component and people from practically all social statuses need to confront it. Organisations today are investigating the reasons behind higher levels of stress that ultimately lead to unsatisfactory job performance among employees. The primary motive is to do an extensive study on the impact of stress on employees’ performance. Moreover, this research paper will throw light upon few factors that lead to an increased level of stress among employees and how their productivity is hindered due to the same. There is an immense need for employers to treat their employees as their assets and be all ears to their problems. Stress and employees’ performance are directly proportional to each other. One of the major reasons behind employees being stressed is the lack of appreciation and motivation by their superiors.

  74. Yuri Alfrin Aladdin, Udi Rusadi and Mirza Ronda

    During the first two years of Jokowi-Jusuf Kalla Government (2014-2015) in Indonesia, precisely 18 death row inmates who were guilty of drugs had been executed. The government believed that death penalty is the effective solution to overcome the high rate of narcotics crime. It becomes an interesting case due to the pressure of hegemony of the European Union over the government of Indonesia. One of the major national media in Indonesia, namely Republika.co.id, supports the implementation of death penalty. This studied aims to reveal the counter-hegemonic representation of Republika.co.id in opposing the hegemony of the EU related to the issue of Human Rights, particularly death penalty. This study applied Critical Discourse Analysis by Norman Fairclough and critical theory of Hegemony by Antonio Gramsci. The result shown that Republika represents counter-hegemonic in its reporting since it rejects the EU’s attitude considered to impose its standard principles of human rights on Indonesia.

  75. Enose M.W. Simatwa, Kageni Linet and Olive T. Baraza

    Mental harassment as a method of managing pupil discipline in primary schools is currently unlawful in line with the Basic Education Act, 2013 after it had been established to be one of the causes of pupil indiscipline. However, despite the ban, by the year 2015, Emuhaya Sub-County had a higher rate of indiscipline cases where there were 833 (53%) cases, 644(43%) in Vihiga Sub-County and 543(37%) in Hamisi Sub county; and 2750 (42%) at national level. The objective of the study was to establish the influence of implementation of ban of mental harassment on pupil discipline in Emuhaya Sub County. A conceptual framework consisting of implementation of ban of mental harassment as the independent variable and pupil discipline as the dependent variable was used. The results showed that there was a weak negative relationship between mental harassment and level of discipline of pupils: where r = -.065, N=71 and P > .05. This meant that ban of mental harassment did not significantly influence pupil discipline. The study recommends that ban of mental harassment be fully implemented in primary schools. The study is significant in as it informs the stakeholders in education, that is learners, teachers, policy makers and members of school management boards that mental harassment ban should be reconsidered in primary schools with the view of improving pupil discipline.

  76. Kageni Linet, Olive T. Baraza and Enose M.W. Simatwa

    Physical punishment and mental harassment for decades have been used as methods of managing pupil discipline in primary schools in Kenya. However there were outlawed vide the Basic Education Act, 2013. However, despite the ban, by the year 2015, Emuhaya Sub-County recorded a higher rate of indiscipline cases whereby Emuhaya Sub county recorded 833 (53%) cases, 644(43%) in Vihiga Sub-County, 543(37%) in Hamisi Sub county and 2750 (42%) at national level. The objective of the study was to establish the influence of implementation of ban of physical punishment on pupil discipline in Emuhaya Sub County. A conceptual framework consisting of implementation of ban of physical punishment as the independent variable and pupil discipline as the dependent variable was used. The results showed that the overall mean rating on extent of implementation of ban of physical punishment was 2.89, meaning the implementation of ban was rated as moderate. A significant positive relationship between physical punishment ban on implementation and level of pupil indiscipline was established, whereby the ban of physical punishment accounted for 35.9% of the improvement in the level of pupil indiscipline. The study concluded that there was a moderate positive relationship between the ban of physical punishment and pupil discipline. The study recommends that ban of physical punishment be fully implemented in primary schools. The study is significant in informing the stakeholders in education for example learners, teachers, policy makers and members of school management boards that the ban on physical punishment and mental harassment is indeed improving pupil discipline in public primary schools and should be implemented fully.

  77. Dr. Vinod Joseph, Dr. Jency Maria Koshy, Dr. Grace Mary John, Dr. George Chandy Matteethra, Dr. Joise P.

    Objectives: The use of radiological examination is increasing worldwide. Since radiation exposure can result in many health hazards, medical professionals, as well as medical students, should possess adequate knowledge regarding radiation and its related hazards to protect themselves and the patients. Many studies have assessed medical students’ knowledge on this topic, but never in Kerala. In this study, we aimed to examine medical students’ awareness and knowledge regarding radiological examination modalities and their risks on themselves and their patients. To examine the level of knowledge about the radiation exposure to various radiological modalities among the medical students and to suggest how education could be improved. Material and Methods: This was an observational, cross-sectional, population-based study, conducted among all medical students and interns from Believers Church Medical College Hospital in Kerala. Participants were asked to complete a questionnaire consisting of their actual knowledge on ionizing radiation and various radiation safety issues. A total knowledge score that ranged from 0 to 20 was calculated for each participant, with higher scores indicating better knowledge regarding radiation doses and the related hazards. All questions were in multiple choice formats ranging from 4 to 5choices. The obtained data were analyzed using statistical software. Results: Four hundred and forty seven students participated in our study, with a response rate of 71%. The average knowledge score of the participants was 10.97 ± 1.31 out of a maximum of 20 points. More than half of the students were aware of radiation shielding and the contraindication to radiological modalities. Approximately 78.9% of respondents underestimated or do not know the American College of Radiology (ACR) Appropriateness Criteria. Conclusion: This study has clearly shown that awareness of ionizing radiation from diagnostic imaging is lacking among senior medical students and interns. The results highlight the need for improved education to minimize unnecessary exposure of patients.

  78. Suman Bisla, Dr. Ambika Gupta, Harneet Singh

    Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a T- cell mediated mucocutaneous disease of autoimmune origin affecting stratified squamous epithelium in 0.5-2.6% population. Genetic predisposition, stress, anxiety, hepatitis C, immunocompromising status, dental materials, certain drugs have been found to cause lichen planus but with lack of evidence. It is associated with the increased risk of developing into oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Transformation rate of OLP to OSCC in some review ranged from 0.4 – 5.6% and in another from 0% to 12.5%. Considering its malignancy potential, it seems important to have a standardized diagnostic criteria, treatment, and clinical follow-up of patients with OLP so that the disease is diagnosed at an early stage and cured on time. Here we present a case of 50-year-old female who reported with erosive form of lichen planus in left buccal mucosa, later lost the follow up and reported with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) in the same region after 1.5 years, potentially originated from pre-existing OLP.

  79. Giulio Tarro, MD, PhD

    The Italian management of the coronavirus epidemic by the technical scientific committee (TSC) was a failure according to an editorial in the prestigious English journal NATURE as reported in the first decade of March 2021. According to a study published in Science by the Emory University of Atlanta, the coronavirus will take on an endemic character and its lethality, i.e. mortality of the infected, will end up settling around 0.1% below seasonal flu, therefore strong social distancing. It is not the solution, the lockdown, masks, closures, hunting for the infected, blaming the people. Who gets sick must be treated, using hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, and healing people at home. Used cortisone and heparin and avoided thrombus embolisms. People died because the correct drugs were not used. The incidence of asymptomatic positive cases in Wuhan post-lockdown was very low (0.303 / 10,000) and there was no evidence that the cases identified as positive asymptomatic were infectious. As attested by the few data made public by the pharmaceutical companies that produce them, the current vaccines do not guarantee a perennial immunity nor, even less, a “sterile immunity” to the vaccine that continues, therefore, to transmit the virus. They only promise to reduce the symptoms of the infection; symptoms that in 90-95% of the "infected" do not even manifest themselves. It would have been logical, therefore, that only the elderly were vaccinated in whom the onset of Covid represents a real danger. If seniors over 80 had been vaccinated in January as originally planned, there would have been no 500 deaths per day. Instead, a mass vaccination has been chosen which - in addition to multiplying the risks, inevitably associated with vaccines - will not guarantee even temporary herd immunity. There are currently three major genetic variants of COVID-19. these mutations typically arise when the virus is subjected to selective pressure by antibodies that limit but do not eliminate viral replication. the specific antibodies, which neutralize the virus, are still able to act on the viral "spike" protein, despite the sequence changes of the viral nucleic acid being present in the D614G variant, as in the other subsequent ones that have the purpose of allowing survival of viral particles. Protease inhibitors have been effective in the treatment of other viral pathogens such as HIV and the hepatitis C virus, both alone and in combination with other antivirals. Currently commercialized therapies that target viral proteases are generally not associated with toxicity and as such, this class of molecules can potentially provide well-tolerated treatments against COVID-19.

  80. Nitin Ashok John and Jyoti Elgiva John

    Covid 19 impact on global economy and health has been devastating. This socioeconomic and health effects has been more detrimental in developing and underdeveloped countries. The pandemic has worsened the health crisis in the developing and underdeveloped nations and the disease burden of COVID 19 will definitely further hamper the effective health care delivery due to already existing shortage of trained medical personnel’s (doctors, nurses and paramedics) apart from lack of supply of adequate medicines, personal protective equipment’s and ventilators. This may eventually lead to more number of patients dying as well as chances of health personnel being infected. The above back ground gave us an impetus to explore the COVID-19 impact on socio-economy and public health in developing countries of Asia and Africa.

  81. BAYRAKÇI Onur, ŞANLI Maruf, BORAZAN Ersin and ELBEYLİ Levent

    Chylothorax is an extremely rare complication of pulmonary resections of lung cancer. Traditionally, it is treatment initiated with drainage, conservative and somatostatin. Later, pleurodesis and intrathoracic ductus mass ligation are other surgical options. In our study, we present a case of chylothorax after lobectomy in lung cancer. Conservative, somatostatin, pleurodesis and intrathoracic ductus mass ligation were not successful. Serious clinical deterioration was observed due to the continued increasing chylous drainage. Since permanent chylothorax is associated with mortality, method was considered for stopping chylous drainage. Treatment was completed with intraabdominal ductus ligation (proximal cisterna chile).

  82. Dr. Payal

    Healthy is a state of physical, social and mental well-being. We can’t qualify absence of disease as healthy. Thus, it becomes imperative to maintain a harmony between body, mind and soul. Dental health is directly related to mental and digestive health of a person and it can’t be treated as an isolated disease or infirmity without considering its effects on other parts of our body. Traditional healing methods may be less effective in a few cases but has proven to be more holistic in nature when we look at overall health of a person. Modern doctors are utilizing these techniques and biological way of healing in tandem with modern medicine to eliminate the disease while keeping the reactive effects of medication in check. Biological dentistry has also been formulated on similar lines where modern dentists amalgamate ancient healing herbs and techniques with modern medicine and techniques to ensure overall wellbeing of the patient.

  83. Dr. Sasikumar Ravi, Dr. Srivatsa Kenga Subbiah, Dr. Laavanya, and Dr. Mohammed Afradh

    Impacted mandibular 3rd molar is most common in younger adults and the patient seeks treatment whenever there is pain, swelling or any other discomfort such as sensory disturbances. Although the rate of complication is low, the efforts to limit intraoperative or postoperative complications may have a great impact in terms of enhancing patient outcome. Mandibular Impacted third molar are in close proximity to the inferior alveolar nerve, lingualnerve, mylohyoid nerve and buccal nerves. Each of these nerves is at risk of damage during surgical removal of mandibular third molar, but the most troublesome complications result from inferior alveolar or lingual nerve injuries. The majority of these injuries results in transient sensory disturbance but, in some cases, permanent paraesthesia (abnormal sensation), hypoaesthesia (reduced sensation) or, even worse, some form of dysaesthesia (unpleasant abnormal sensation) can occur. This paper reviews the lingual nerve injury after surgical removal of mandibular third molar and how to prevent from lingual nerve injury.

  84. Dhiraj Chandra Biswas (MBBS, MD), Ananya Roy (MBBS, MS), Mohammad Moshiur Rahman (MBBS, MS), FarzanaSharmin (MBBS, MD), Md. TawhidulAlam (MBBS, MD), SaminaSharmeen (MBBS) and AndSuraiya Begum (MBBS, FCPS)

    Background: Obesity is an exaggeration of normal adiposity. Adipose tissue contributes to the secretion of inflammatory cytokines. These cytokines include interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-1 (IL-1) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-a), which stimulate hs-C-reactive protein (CRP) production by the liver. Hs-CRP is a marker of inflammation and early determination may help to predict the future metabolic and cardiovascular complication associated with obesity. Objective: To study therelationship of hs –CRP levels with various anthropometric parameters in children with obesity. Methods: This cross sectional study conducted at department of Paediatrics of BSMMU, Dhaka over a period of 12 months (September 2018 to August 2019). Total 110 obese children aged between 10 to 18 years with BMI ≥ 95th centile according to CDC growth chart were selected in this study after considering exclusion and inclusion criteria. Age and sex matched 55 non-obese children (normal weight children) with BMI ≥ 5th to < 85th centile were also included in this study. A structured questionnaire was prepared for each participant taken into account demographic and clinical parameters. Levels of hs-CRP were estimated in 110 obese and 55 non-obese children. These levels were then correlated to various anthropometric parameters (body mass index, BMI; waist circumference, WC; hip circumference, HC;waist hip ratio, WHR; waist height ratio, WHtR). Results: Hs-CRP Level was raised in 46.4% of children in obese group than non-obese group (10.9%). Mean hs-CRP Level was significantly higher in obese group than non- obese group (2.81 ± 2.62mg/L vs 0.922 ± 0.852mg/L).Among the obese group, about 58% was grade I obese and 42% was grade II obese (Severe obese). About 67% of grade II obese had hs-CRP level ≥ 2mg/L in comparison to grade I obese (31.3%). Mean body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC),waist-hip ratio (WHR),waist-height ratio (WHtR) were significantly higher in the obese group than in the non-obese group. Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, waist-hip ratio, waist-height ratio were positively correlated with raised hs-CRP level in obese group. Conclusion: Levels of hs-CRP were significantly elevated in obese children as compared to non-obese children. Hs-CRP level was raised significantly in grade II obese children. Raised hs-CRP level in obese children was positively correlated with BMI, waist circumference, waist-hip ratio and waist-height ratio.

  85. Patil Amit, Narang Himanshi and Ranjan Ranvir

    Background-The respiratory disease brought about by the COVID19 (Coronavirus) is a pandemic with serious clinical manifestations, including death, and influencing nations on all landmasses. On March 11, 2020, the World Health proclaimed that the worldwide spread of the novel Coronavirus infection, was a pandemic. The sheer size of numbers coupled with high virulence of the infection has set off nationwide lockdowns across huge wraps of the globe. In such an emergency, there are ingredients at risk to stir up our ethical principles, sharpen our ethical dilemmas, and lead to situations of languishing over guardians. Main Body- In India, a few states have uniform guidelines, while other states have no approaches at all. Doctors constrained by the density of work, the absence of promptly accessible beds and the conceivable outcomes of moving patients to settle on agonizingly experienced decisions that were in contrast to their basic ethical principles and source of immediate burden. While Coronavirus has taken our whole concentration in treatment, we appear to have overlooked our non-Coronavirus patients? Conclusion - The ethical challenges that have emerged are probably going to persevere for quite a while on account of the drawn-out impact of changes in health care practice, economies, and social norms. The requirement for cautiousness about viral contagion need not diminish a likewise significant message: COVID or NO COVID, we are still here to care for you.

  86. Dr. Swathi, P., Dr. Anupama S Gopinathan, Dr. Shiji Dinakaran, Dr. Mali G Nair, Dr. Renjini, S. and Dr. Aishwarya, P.

    Root resorption of the tooth may be a pathologic or physiologic process resulting in loss of root dentin and cementum. Broadly, it can be of two types – external and internal root resorption. The location of these resorptions can vary. Internal resorption is relatively a rare resorption in which resorption begins in the root canal and destroys surrounding dentalhard tissues. It is caused by transformation of normal pulp tissue into granulomatous tissue by giant cells, which resorbdentin. Thepresent article describe the management of internal resorption involving mandibular premolar with internal root resorption with 1 year follow‑up

  87. Dr. Ramachandran, K., Dr. Vigneshwar, T. MS., Dr. Lakshminarayanan, P. and Dr. Satheesh, K.V.

    Introduction: Hydrocele is one of the commonly encountered cases in Surgical OPD in Govt Kilpauk Medical college hospital. Aim of the Study: The study was conducted to compare between the advantages and disadvantages of Inguinal approach and Scrotal approach in hydrocele surgeries. Materials and Methods: A randomised controlled study was done in a tertiary care hospital between September 2018 and September 2019 in two groups. Group A underwent hydrocele surgery by INGUINAL approach and group B underwent hydrocele surgery by SCROTAL approach. Results: Both groups were compared and analysed. Statistically significant results were attained. The post-operative stay, post-operative pain, discharge from wound were less in Inguinal approach than Scrotal approach. Early return to work is observed with inguinal approach. Duration of surgery was more with Inguinal approach than Scrotal approach. Conclusion: Inguinal approach was found to be superior to scrotal approach in Hydrocele surgeries.

  88. Thaina Jacome Andrade de Lima, Maria Valeria Chaves de Lima, Kalyane Kelly Duarte de Oliveira, Vaniely Oliveira Ferreira, Lauana Cristina Chaves Ferreira and Janaína De Queiroz Maciel

    Objetivo: discutir as semelhanças das pandemias anteriores com a pandemia da covid19. Método: estudo teórico-reflexivo. Resultados: as pandemias costumam ser infectocontagiosas. As doenças desse tipo costumam ser de rápido contágio e transmissão a longo espectro. Elas podem seguir o caráter de serem zoonoticas, sexualmente transmissíveis, cutâneas, arboviróticas, de veiculação hídrica e respiratória. As formas de entrada pelo corpo podem variar, mas existe uma predisposição das doenças pandêmicas em adentrarem no corpo humano pelo sistema respiratório por ser um percurso breve para a reprodução da doença. Nota-se que há uma forte relação das doenças infecto contagiosas com as questões de higiene humana que levantam quesitos gestão, comprometimento e saúde coletiva. Além de que, a maioria das pandemias inicialmente receberam pouca importância como calamidades públicas. Conclusão: a prevenção e a promoção são de certo modo o redutor de impactos quando se soa o alarme de uma enfermidade emergente.

  89. Ahmed Y. Nammour, Hisham Aboul-Enein, Mohamed Osama Taha Hussein, Kerolus Kamel Gad and Eman Saeed El-Keshk

    Background: Differentiation between types of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) whether physiological or pathological is essential for Management and/or follow up. Purpose: To examine the accuracy of 2D and 3D strain and LV dyssynchrony for differentiating athletes with moderate LVH (13—15 mm) from patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). Patients & Methods: A prospective case control study carried out at Benha University Hospitals, Cardiology Department and National Heart Institute during the period from March 2019 to September 2020.The study included 100 subjects divided into four groups:First Group: 25 competitive athletes with moderate LVH (13—15 mm),Second Group: 25 competitive athletes without LVH, Third Group: 25 patients with HCM and moderate LVH (13—15 mm), andFourth Group: 25 sedentary healthy subjects (control group). Results: Our result reported thatthere is a significant difference between athletes with LVH and HCM group regarding 2D & 3D GLS, GRS and GAS (where these measures were higher in athletes with LVH). Also, there is a significant difference between Athletes without LVH and HCM group GRS and GAS (where these measures were higher in athletes without LVH) while no significant difference between groups regarding GCS. Also, LV end-diastolic diameter has the highest sensitivity (98%) with cutoff < 54 mm for distinguishing HCM from athletes with or without moderate LVH with high significance (p < 0.001). Conclusion: We demonstrated that a preserved 2D and 3D longitudinal strain function and the absence of LV dyssynchrony can be used to exclude HCM, while abnormal longitudinal function associated with dyssynchrony is specific to HCM.

  90. Doddamani Jahangirbasha, Rahil Kittur and Syeda Mumtaz

    Cesarean section (“C-section”), an incision through the abdominal wall and then into the uterus to deliver a calf potentially indicated in cases of dystocia when a calf cannot be delivered by fetal mutation and extraction or when vaginal delivery could endanger her life or the life of her calf. A prompt decision to perform a caesarean operation is important for optimum success. A successful prognosis depends on several factors, such as the skill and speed of the surgeon, duration of dystocia, physical condition of the dam, surgical environment, concurrent disease, and presence of a live calf. The following article discusses about the procedure of Cesarean section and the outcomes.

  91. Keerthanadevi S

    Recent concerns about environmental pollution and escalating energy consumption accompanied by the advancements in battery technology have initiated the electrification of the transportation sector and the exponential growth of electrical vehicles in the near future, utilities need to be prepared to maintain reliability of the grid. The primary impacts on electrical systems are generation adequacy, generation flexibility, transmission grid capacity, and distribution grid capacity. With the universal resurgence of Electric Vehicles (EVs) the adverse impact of the EV charging loads on the operating parameters of the power system has been noticed..Further, the penalty paid by the utility for the degrading performance of the power system cannot be neglected. The high charging loads of the fast charging stations results in increased peak load demand, reduced reserve margins, voltage instability, and reliability problems. This work aims to investigate the impact of the EV charging station loads on the voltage stability, power losses, reliability indices, as well as economic losses of the distribution network. The main challenge of electrification of transportation expansion lies in the distribution networks and the overloading of network assets: 1. Medium voltage substations may be needed 2. Replacement of the head feeders and the distribution transformers, optimal allocation of charging infrastructure and lack of regulation. Electrification of transportation provides utilities a way to solve the challenges of flat electricity demand, optimize decentralized systems, and improve customer engagement. Planning for E-Mobility can help mitigate utility pain points and provide new means of opportunity. Utilities are a critical partner for connecting vehicle charging stations to the grid and have the capabilities to own, operate, and support the charging infrastructure. In this project proposed approach for a real and reactive power analysis and harmonics in a charging current at the grid side and based on a novel Voltage stability, Reliability, and Power loss (VRP) index. The entire analysis is performed on the IEEE 14 bus test system representing a standard radial distribution network. The simulation model developed in a MATLAB Simulink tools and verified with corresponding factors.

  92. Mohamed Prince, M.

    This paper discusses the sports in rural area of India. There is a great gap between urban and rural areas in India. Rural residents clearly feel this gap in terms of sports facilities. The present paper aims to fill the class gap by initiatives and demonstrating the benefits of exercise and sport, hoping that the status of physical education in rural areas would be more seriously followed in future plans of the government.. In the 86 years since India attained Test status, 290 different men have played test cricket for India. However, only four belong to the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes. That’s four, instead of about 70, as it should have been per the population proportion. This is a disparity that just cannot be dismissed as insignificant. Unfortunately, Dalit under-representation in Indian cricket has received scant attention. A similar under-representation of black players in South Africa resulted in the introduction of a quota for non-White players in the playing XI across all levels of the game. On the other hand, we don’t even have accurate data about the socio-economic backgrounds of players playing a sport which is followed religiously by most Indians. Very few scholars have looked at possible reasons for this stark under-representation of Dalits in cricket.

  93. Lancel’eau NKULU WA NDALAMBA, Eric ILUNGA LUSA, Médard ILUNGA KABOLE, René NONGO MBUYA1, Cadette NYEMBO WA KUBAPONDA, Prudance NKULU KANZONZONGOLO, Gabriel ILUNGA WA MWILA et Yolande NYEMBA MPINGISHA

    L’évaluation constitue l’une des étapes principales de processus dans tous les domaines des sciences (sanitaire, éducatifs, judiciaire…) dans lequel elle apprécie la qualité et la quantité des acquisitions réalisées. Ce processus implique des objectifs, des instruments de mesures et un ensemble d’informations.

  94. Ananya Kamal, Mir Ayan Abbas, Suhani Sultana and Abhisekh Venkateshwar

    Background: To Understand a criminal's brain is the most ideal approach to diminish wrongdoing. When we see how hoodlums’ figure, we will want to comprehend why they are perpetrating violations in any case and prevent it from occurring. Design: Discussion paper. Implications of Criminal Psychology: Assisting specialists with acquiring a brief look into a criminal's mind, criminal analysts help law implementation to anticipate an obscure guilty party's age, financial status, schooling level, propensities, and character attributes just like the sort of local area or neighborhood where a wrongdoer is probably going to live. Conclusion: Criminal Psychology isn't just to comprehend Criminal Minds or Predict Criminal Behavior it is likewise critical to control the improvement of wrongdoing and to have the option to offer mediation to those out of luck.

  95. Dr. Sai Venkatesh Alluri and Dr. Srujith, N.

    Background: Diabetes mellitus is one of major disease of the world today causing significant morbidity and mortality. The perception of wellbeing of the patient of the diabetes is usually negatively impacted. ‘Wellbeing’ of the person is subjective and depends on the personal perception and is difficult to measure. Therefore, the quality of life is considered as the overall measure of the wellbeing of a person. Objectives: The present study was carried out in order to know the quality of life of the diabetics which include their physical, mental, and social wellbeing. Materials and Methods: The present study is a hospital-based cross-sectional study. A pre-designed, pre-tested, and semi-structured questionnaire, “MOS SF-36 v 2” was used to determine the quality of life of the study participants. Results: MALE participants had higher quality of life scores, when compared to female participants with 68.54 ± 15.41 and 53.87 ± 14.12 scores respectively. This difference was found to be statistically significant.The quality of life was higher in patients with normal BMI when compared with patients with obesity or over weight which was statistically significant. The quality of life in patients with longer duration of the diabetes was poorer when compared to the patients with shorter duration of diabetes. The quality of life in patients with comorbidities was poorer when compared to the patients with shorter duration of diabetes. Conclusions: The quality of life is compromised in the diabetics who were females and had co morbidities, with longer duration of diabetes and the patients who were overweight

  96. Dr. Ankit Jha and Dr Pooja Yadav

    Mucormycosis (MCM) is a life-threatening infection that carries high mortality rates despite recent advances in its diagnosis and treatment. Mucormycosis occurs in patients who are immunocompromised because of diabetic ketoacidosis, neutropenia, organ transplantation, and/or increased serum levels of available iron. Because of the increasing prevalence of diabetes mellitus, cancer, and organ transplantation, the number of patients at risk for this deadly infection is increasing. This literature review emphasis on the types, risk factor, diagnosis and treatment of mucormycosis.

  97. Dr. Sharad Sankhe and Mr. Sainath Bhavsar

    A new Schiff base 3-[3-(hydroxyimino)butan-2-ylidene]hydrazinylidene}methyl]phenol) has been synthesized by the condensation of m-hydroxybenzaldehyde and diacetylmonoximehydrazone (1:1 molar ratio). Its complexes with trivalent lanthanides (La3+, Nd3+, Sm3+, Gd3+, Tb3+ and Dy3+) have been synthesized. The ligand has two coordination sites, azomethine and oximinonitrogens take part in coordination. The complexes have been assigned the general formula [Ln(DMHmHB)2NO3] on the basis of elemental analysis, molar conductance, magnetic moment, PMR, electronic absorption and FT(IR) spectral studies. The electronic spectra of the complexes of La3+, Nd3+, Sm3+, Gd3+, Tb3+ and Dy3+ have been analyzed and discussed. The spectral parameters show covalent nature of bonding between the metal and the synthesized ligand.

  98. Gody J.C., Houndjahoue, G.F., Ningatoloum Nazita, S., Gaspiet-Sonny, V.I.

    Acute paracetamol poisoning is a common cause of drug poisoning in both developed and developing countries. It leads to severe liver injury. N-acetylcysteine’s effectiveness (NAC), an antidote to paracetamol, usually depends on the time between ingestion and management. In the following case, we report a 5-year-old child who presented with acute hepatic encephalopathy after acute paracetamol intoxication and who progressed favorably despite NAC’s delayed administration.

  99. Rani Joseph

    Sacred groves are virgin forests and acts as site for in situ conservation of bio-resources and shows near climax vegetation of lot of trees and associate groups of organisms, managed as a part of local cultural tradition. This study was conducted in the selected sacred groves of Kerala. The present study revealed a total of 8 species belonging to Vitaceae. These groves includes trees, shrubs, herbs and climbers representing Vulnerable and Endemic species. 98.88% plants in the groves are medicinal and used in different systems of medicines. Some native medicinal plants are available in undisturbed areas like groves. Medicinal plant species are present in the groves are used in the treatment of diseases in Ayurveda, Folk, Unani, Siddha, Homeopathy and traditional systems for common ailments like cough, ulcers, bronchitis, skin diseases, etc.

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