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December 2023

  1. Esmail Alrajhi,Yahya A. Asseri, Khadijah A. Hummadi, Amwaj A. Hijri, Amal A. Hakami, Reda M. Ashwi, Abrar M. Almutahhir, Ali A. Alnamazi, Hani A. Ahmed, Ahmed M. Dahlan, Abdullah A. Tomehi, Hussein Y. Doshi, Hamood M. Hassan, Waleed I. Muqri, Wafi H. Muq

    Obesity is a major public health crisis both globally and within Saudi Arabia. The increasing prevalence across nations carries severe consequences for population health and healthcare systems. Obesity elevates the risks for numerous chronic diseases like heart disease, stroke, type 2 diabetes, cancer and osteoarthritis, resulting in reduced quality of life and expectancy. The economic costs are equally staggering, estimated over $2 trillion annually including both direct medical costs and indirect productivity losses. Within Saudi Arabia, rapid urbanization, economic growth and associated lifestyle changes have catalyzed the obesity epidemic. The public health implications are just as severe as the global situation. Saudi Arabia faces one of the highest obesity rates worldwide, with around 30% of adults classified as overweight or obese. This has contributed to soaring rates of related chronic illnesses and risks within the Saudi population (Althumiri et al., 2021).

  2. Ndao Y.

    Introduction: Generic drugs constitute a major tool for regulating drug expenses insofar as they allow each patient to benefit from best suited therapeutic strategy to their pathology, under same safety conditions, but at a significantly lower cost. The purpose of our work was to study price variations between generic and princeps in Senegal. Methodology: Basedon Laborex Software, we first made a reasoned choice of seventy-five (75) generic drugs. After calculating the difference between the public price of each generic drug and that of its original drug, we proceeded togenerics classification according prices difference. Results and discussion: An increase in price variations has been noted between generics, but also between generics and princeps. A low availability of generics in INNs, and generics intended for chronic diseases and pediatric management. Conclusion: These inadequacies both in generic pricesvariation, as well as generics availability used in management of diabetes and hypertension, raised the problem of generic medicines policy in Senegal.

  3. Ambaga, M., Tumen-Ulzii, A. and Buyantushig, Т.

    The Existence of life is strongly dependent on the presence of protons and electrons, which were formed during an event called the big bang, 15 billion years ago. That is, the protons and electrons, which were formed during this event, set the stage for the formation of life in the universe. The historical process of transition of life from the simple membrane - based mechanism for making ATP had converted to a more complex membrane - redox potential, a three state line system for making ATP during last 3,6 billion years. The membrane - redox potential three state line system existed between donators of proton and electrons as food substrates and acceptors of the protonand electrons as air, oxygen in all cells.

  4. Prof. Dr. Genesta Mary Gysel, P. and Mrs. Sindhuja, M.

    Background: A Joint is defined as the junction where bones and muscles come together, facilitating movement and stability. Normal joint function is ability to move throughout its range of motion and bear weight .Discomfort in the joints is called joint pain. Sometimes the joint swells and feels warm as well. Joint pain can be a symptom of many ailments. Camphor oil is aromatic and absorbed though the skin. It can be used for various health benefits like pain relief and easing of the skin irritations. Camphor oil is extracted from woods of the camphor tree, it is scientifically called as Cinnamomum Camphor. There are four grades and colours of camphor oil as white, brown, yellow and blue in colour. Objectives: 1.To assess the level of joint pain among older adults in experimental and control groups.2.To evaluate the effectiveness of camphor oil application on joint pain among the experimental and control groups.3. To associate the pre test and post test level of camphor oil application on joint pain among older adults with their selected socio demographic variable in experimental group. Methodology: A Quasi-Experimental research design, two group pre test and post test with control group with purposive sampling was adopted for the study. Sample size was 60 (30 in Experimental group and 30 in Control group) and were selected in Moorthikuppam and Panithittu and the data was analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results: The study findings revealed that post test of experimental group mean score was 2.5333 with standard deviation 0.62881 was higher when comparing to pre test mean score of 3.3333 with standard deviation 0.47946 and it was statistically the post test level of Womac scale was associated with the history of joint pain and it was significant at the level of p<0.001. The study concluded the application of camphor oil was effective to reduce the joint pain among older adults in experimental group when compared to control group. Conclusion: Application of camphor oil has many pharmacological properties. It act as antiviral, anti-cancerous, antimicrobial, insecticidal, anticoccidial, antinociceptive and anti-tussive drug. It can be used as skin penetrating enhancer. Camphor gives smoothing and cooling effect, which helps to reduce pain.

  5. Xin Ying Lin, Gao Yu Pan and Ning Xiao

    Background: Patients with neurogenic bladder (NB) always need regularly to drain bladder artificially, mostly by clean intermittent catheterizations (CIC) or indwelling catheterizations. This study attempted to compare the cost of bladder drainage and salary between patients with NB willing to conduct CIC and that of preferring to indwelling catheterization. Methods: The age, cost of bladder drainage, salary, and income were compared between two groups according to selection of CIC or indwelling catheterization. Results: There was no significant difference of age in two groups. Although significant higher cost of bladder drainage in patients with CIC was found than that of indwelling catheterization, significantly higher salary was earn by patients with CIC compared to the other group. Therefore, lower income was discerned in patients preferring to indwelling catheterizations when compared to that of CIC. Conclusion: Patients eligible for CIC should be encouraged to perform CIC because of lower salary and income resulting from indwelling catheterization compared to CIC.

  6. Balaji, T., Manikandan, K., Rajesh, M. and Vengateswari, M.

    The experiment was conducted by Agricultural Research Station, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Vellore district of Tamil Nadu during 2014-15 to study the effect of foliar spray of micronutrients on growth and yield parameter of Banana. The investigation was carried out in simple Randomized Block Design with three replications and 12 treatments in the experimental field at Kavasampattu village, Vellore district. The uniform healthy 2 months old sword suckers of cv. poovan were planted in pit at a spacing of 2m x 2m after treating the Carbendazim. The nitrogen and potash were applied in 3 splits i.e at 3,5 and 7th months after planting. The Phosphorus was applied by basal. The Micronutrients viz. Zn(0.5%), Borax (0.1%), Fe (0.2%) and Cu (0.2%) were applied singly or in combination as foliar spray at 3, 5 and 7th month after planting of suckers. Control plants were sprayed with water only. Recommended plant protection measures and cultural operations were made throughout the period of study. Observation on plant height, leaf number and flowering percentage were recorded at shooting. From the findings of the present investigation, the yield per hectare was significantly higher in high density population of plant height, number of leaves and flowering percentage with application of foliar spray of Zinc (0.5 %) and Boron (0.1%) followed by Boron (0.1 %) and Iron (0.2 %). It can be adopted for higher yield of banana.

  7. Zhou Jinjuan

    This study focused on aesthetic education, particularly within the Chinese educational landscape and has provided a comprehensive understanding of its theoretical foundations and practical implications. This study delved into historical, cultural, and educational dimensions, drawing on the insights of influential thinkers and traditions. Through a diverse range of indicators, we assessed the curriculum's impact on students and identified a strong, statistically significant positive relationship between perceived quality and efficacy. This correlation underscores the inherent effectiveness of higher-quality aesthetic education. These findings carry implications for educators and policymakers, emphasizing the ongoing need for efforts to enhance the quality of aesthetic education for a more impactful educational experience.

  8. Ebifuro Odubo and Horsefall Digieneni Eli

    This study is aimed at analyzing shoreline changes, for the purpose of promoting better understanding of the trends, causes and impact of shoreline changes along the coastline of Koluama2 settlement in Southern Ijaw local government area of Bayelsa state, Nigeria. To achieve this aim, the study therefore examined the spatio temporal changes along the Koluama2 shoreline with respect to analyzing the long term and short term shoreline changes. The study adopted a Geographic Information System (GIS) technique for data analysis. The GIS analyses adopted the use of Digital Shoreline Analysis System (DSAS) of ArcGIS 10.8.2 to detect, measure and determine changes in the shoreline position through the End Point Rate (EPR) statistics. The EPR results for the long term shoreline change reveal that the transects line cast on the shore of the study area recorded statistically significant erosion value of 100%. This trend indicates that in the long term, erosion is the dominant event along the shoreline of Koluama2 settlement. Analysis of the short term shoreline change reveals that erosion was recorded as the most dominant event on the shore of the study area. The study recommended amongst others the execution of coastal zone management for the region.

  9. Dr. Thendral, M., Dr. Ravi Pawar, Dr. Nuthan Sai Paruchuri and Dr. Anjali Agroya

    Cardiac arrhythmias are an important aspect of fetal and neonatal medicine. Premature complexes of atrial or ventricular origin are the main cause of an irregular heart rhythm. The finding is typically unrelated to an identifiable cause and no treatment is required. Tachyarrhythmia most commonly relates to supraventricular re-entrant tachycardia, atrial flutter, and sinus tachycardia. Supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) is one of the most common conditions requiring emergency cardiac care in neonates. Atrial Flutter is the most common SVT. Atrioventricular re-entrant tachycardia utilizing an atrioventricular bypass tract is the most common form of SVT presenting in the neonatal period. here is high likelihood for spontaneous resolution for most of the common arrhythmia substrates in infancy. Pharmacological agents remain as the primary therapy for neonates.

  10. GANNYI Adoukoè Hortense, KASSENEY Boris Dodji, TOZOOU Panawé, KADANGA Mawabena, HENEKOU Tovignon Daniel, MENSAH Labité Komlan BANAKINAO Bawou Toussaint and MELILA Mamatchi

    Meat consumption has almost tripled due to population growth and the rise of the middle class. It is expected to double again by 2050. Promoting entomophagy is therefore one way of covering food needs in animal-derived protein. Beyond the nutritional value and functional properties of comestible insects, it is also necessary to know the different ways in which these insects are used as food in order to better assess their contribution to cover nutritional needs. Thus, this study aims to assess the dietary uses of Rynchophorus phoenicis larvae in several localities in southern Togo. An analytical cross-sectional study was carried out in Hiheatro, Kouvé and Badja from 22 August to 8 September 2023 using survey forms. The results showed that these larvae are prized by various ethnic groups, principally the Ewe (42.86%), the Watchi (31.43%) and the Akposso (16.19%) for their taste. Moreover, people of all ages and occupations consume these larvae. The reasons for this consumption are feeding habits (88.57%), nutritional value (66.67%) and flavour (10.48%). The stage of the insect most consumed was the larval stage (94.29%). In 98.10% of cases, roasting was the method of preparation and preservation. The data from this study also showed that the larvae were associated with foods such as gari (cassava flour), sauces, rice and Djinkoumé (paste with roasted corn flour). These larvae were also said to be used therapeutically to treat a number of pathologies, including epilepsy, high blood pressure, heart disease, diabetes, whitlow and mouth sores, especially for infants. The larvae of R. phoenicis were well known and well consumed by the populations of the localities surveyed in the present study. Their contribution to the nutritional quality of the dishes in which they are used therefore remains an asset for meeting the nutritional needs of consumers.

  11. Gopal Singh and Ajay Kumar Gupta

    According to Ayurveda, Dosha, Dhatu and Mala are Moola (basic elements) of the body. Among seven Dhatus, Rakta (blood) is the most vital component of our body. According to Acharyas, it gives and sustains the life of any individual and is also included in Dashavidha Pranayatana by Acharya Charka. So, one should protect Rakta (blood) by all means, because its loss (Raktasrava) will ultimately lead to death. Many references are mentioned in Ayurvedic literature for controlling internal as well as external haemorrhage, in addition to these Acharya Sushruta, has described four different measures i.e., Skandana, Sandhana, Pachana, and Dahana for Raktstambhana. Various methods described in modern literature for haemostasis also work on almost similar principles described by our Acharyas. In this article, an effort has been made to describe in detail about Rakta (i.e., its derivation, formation, constituents i.e., Panchamahabhoota, functions), Raktasrava and different measures of Raktstambhana (haemostasis) along with their mode of action.

  12. Ambaga, M, Tumen-Ulzii, A and Buyantushig, Т.

    The Existence of life is strongly dependent on the presence of protons and electrons, which were formed during an event called the big bang, 15 billion years ago. That is, the protons and electrons, which were formed during this event, set the stage for the formation of life in the universe. The historical process of transition of life from the simple membrane-based mechanism for making ATP had converted to a more complex membrane - redox potential, a three state line system for making ATP during last 3,6 billion years. The membrane - redox potential three state line system existed between donators of proton and electrons as food substrates and acceptors of the protonand electrons as air, oxygen in all cells.

  13. Rithwik Sankar, A. and Dr. Babitha Justin

    In a world that remains in the throes of the Covid era, we find ourselves adapting to a new "normal," where the virus transcends distinctions of caste, color, religion, class, and gender. However, the brunt of the pandemic has undeniably fallen harder on the marginalized segments of society. Globally, individuals have confronted Covid and explored diverse avenues to surmount its challenges. Even in regions like Kerala, the pandemic has unleashed unprecedented consequences, particularly affecting the realm of ritual performances. Throughout this pandemic period, traditional performances, which encompass both ritualistic and labor aspects, have been indefinitely put on hold. This article undertakes an examination of the current state and potential future trajectories of Theyyam, a ritualistic performing art intrinsic to North Malabar, against the backdrop of the Covid era. It attempts to offer a distinct perspective on the rituals, cultural expressions, and artistic performances of North Malabar across various historical periods. Moreover, it delves into the role played by the tourism sector in times of pandemic-like situations, and the role that social media has assumed in providing support to ritual performers and in the dissemination and popularization of the Theyyam tradition amid the pandemic's constraints.

  14. Dr. Renu Bala Sroa, Dr. Baljeet Kumar, Dr. Avneet Kaur, Dr. Mandeep Kaur, Dr. Nisha and Dr. Yashika Bhambri

    Background: Root canal preparations using (NiTi) rotary instruments induces momentary stress concentrations in the root dentin that lead to formation of microcracks. Objective: The objective was to evaluate the incidence of dentinal microcrack formation after root canal preparation using two Continuous rotation : One Shape , Trunatomy & two Reciprocating motion: Wave one Gold, Reciproc blue single file systems under SEM. Materials and Methods: Sixty freshly extracted single root permanent mandibular premolars were selected, decoronated and divided into four groups(n=15) according to the motion used i.e. continuous rotation: Group 1 A(One Shape), Group 1 B Trunatomy)& reciprocating motion: Group 2 A (Wave one Gold), Group 2 B (Reciproc blue). After instrumentation, specimens were sectioned horizontally at 3 mm, 6 mm and 9 mm from the apex, dried in a critical point dryer and then was mounted on metallic stubs and gold sputtering was done. The examination of the specimens were done under Scanning electron microscope (SEM) at 100X magnification. Result: Minimum amount of microcracks were observed in Group 1 B (Trunatomy) at all the three cross-sectional levels of root. The experimental data was compared using using Pearson chi square test. Dentinal microcrack formation between Group 1A v/s Group 1B andGroup 1 B v/s Group 2 A showed no statistically significant difference at 6mm and 9mm levels, however at 3mm distance from the apex, there was a significant difference among both the groups. There was no significant difference among the other groups. Conclusion: There is no definitive conclusion concerning the clinical implications of these dentinal defects in long term. More studies on this topic and the development of more effective methods and analysis are required.

  15. Naveen Kumar, Reshma Manohar and Harjalseen Kaur - MAS, BDS

    Depression impacts millions globally and is a primary cause of chronic impairment. This document defines, symptoms, types, prevalence, and diagnoses depression. This paper mentions prenatal and early childhood features, mother's health during pregnancy, socioeconomic status, and environmental variables that predict depression. Almost 10% of the worldwide illness burden is depression. The disorder is the second leading cause of morbidity among 15-44-year-olds. The research further addresses depression diagnosis, which includes history, mental status evaluation, physical or functional limitations, and ICD criteria. Lastly, prenatal and early childhood variables, mother health during pregnancy, socioeconomic status, and environmental determinants are important in depression development and management. Knowing these health variables can influence depression prevention and management methods, such as improving mental health during pregnancy, addressing socioeconomic inequities, and increasing access to professional aid and support.

  16. Ludmilhia Gudrid FOUTI, Faust René OKAMBA ONDZIA, Landry Fils MPELLE, Oscar MOKONO, Arsène BIKOUE, Anicet Luc Magloire BOUMBA and Etienne NGUIMBI

    Background: The Rhesus (RH) system is of major clinical importance due to the high degree of immunogenicity of its antigens, particularly the D antigen. There are different variants of the D gene (weak D, partial D and Del). Screening for the weak D antigen can prevent the risk of alloimmunisation in Rh D-negative recipients. The aim of this study was to estimate the frequency of the weak D phenotype in D-negative blood donors in the Congolese population. Material and methods: This study was carried out on rhesus-negative blood donors received at the various collection stations of the national blood transfusion centre (Brazzaville and Pointe-Noire), from 1er February to 31 November 2018. Sociodemographic data were collected from the blood donor's clinical form. ABO and RH blood groupings were performed using the opaline plate haemagglutination technique. The weak phenotype D was determined using the indirect Coombs assay with anti-human polyglobulin antibody. Results: A total of 73 Rh D negative blood donors were selected for this study (52 in Brazzaville and 21 in Pointe-Noire). The O-negative phenotype was the most frequent (n = 54; 73.97%). In the RH system, the ddccephenotype complex was the most common (89.04%). The frequency of the weak D phenotype was 19.18%, with men predominating (78.57%). This phenotype was predominantly found in blood group A donors (45.45%) and relatively found in groups B and O (12.5 and 14.81%, respectively). Conclusion: This study reveals a relatively high frequency of the weak D phenotype in Rh D negative blood donors in the Republic of Congo. Systemic screening for this phenotype in Rh-negative blood donors at blood transfusion centres should therefore be considered in order to prevent alloimmunisation.

  17. Dr. Venugopal, P.

    A Note on Social Progress Index in India Abstract: Social progress has become an increasingly critical agenda for leaders in government, business, and civil society. The demand for better lives and greater equality is evident across the world as we see protests and new political movements for racial equity, women’s rights, climate change, gun violence and beyond. As the Covid-19 pandemic swept the world it highlighted our structural weaknesses and our inequities. There has been a growing expectation that it is not just governments who need to play a role in delivering improvements, but that business is also accountable, and must deliver improvements in the lives of people, as well as protecting the environment for us all. This is the social progress imperative. Progress on social issues does not automatically accompany economic development. Rising income usually brings major improvements in areas such as access to clean water, sanitation, literacy, and basic education. But on average, personal security is no better in middle-income countries than in low-income ones and is often worse. And too many people—regardless of income—live without full rights and experience discrimination or even violence based on gender, religion, ethnicity, or sexual orientation. Traditional measures of national income, such as GDP per capita, fail to capture the overall progress of societies. In this connection, an attempt is made in this paper to examine the levels of social progress in India.

  18. COULIBALY Bakari, TAH Léonard , ALLICO Gustave, SYLLA Soumaila, KONE Tidiani and KOUAMELAN Essétchi PAUL

    Catch composition, fishing effort, catch per unit effort and the purse seine production were estimated through this study. Samplings were carried out from May 2022 to April 2023 by the mean of artisanal purse seine fisheries. Few species namely Sardinella aurita, S. maderensis, Caranx crysos and Engraulis encrasicolus were recorded in the catches. Length frequency distribution shows for both species Sardinella aurita and S. maderensis the presence of mature individuals regarding mean size and length range. The highest fishing effort and monthly CPUE were recorded during the long cold season (July). Regarding CPUE of the main species, the highest values were obtained with Sardinella aurita during the cold season. The purse seine production oscillated between 20.995 tons in May and 36.365 tons in July with a mean production of 28.680 tons. The total fish production was estimated at 34.25 tons.

  19. Dr. Roopa, R.

    Uric acid is a strong reducing agent (electron donors) and potent antioxidant. In humans, over half the antioxidant capacity of blood plasma comes from uric acid.6 Serum uric acid has been shown to be associated with Diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, vascular stroke and chronic kidney disease in previous studies. 7 Recent evidence suggest that uric acid plays a role in cytokine secretion and has been identified as a mediator of endothelial dysfunction and systemic inflammation.8Hyperglycemia induce both an oxidative stress (glucose autoxidation and advanced glycosylation end products (AGE) – ROS oxidation products) and a reductive stress through pseudo-hypoxia with the accumulation of NADH and NAD(P)H in the vascular intima.9-11 This redox stress consumes the natural occurring local antioxidants such as: SOD, GPX, and catalase. Once these local intimal antioxidants are depleted, uric acid can undergo the paradoxical antioxidant – prooxidant switch or the urate redox shuttle.12,13Insulin activate the renin –angiotensin system with subsequent increase in Angiotensin II (ANG II). AngII is the most potent endogenous inducer of NAD(P)H oxidase, increasing NAD(P)H, which increases vascular –intimal reactive oxygen species and superoxide (O2-•).9,14Now in the background of the complex cellular environment of insulin resistance and hyperglycaemia which is associated with oxidative stress, antioxidant properties of uric acid might get converted to a pre-oxidant state owing to reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation.15This may also lead to adverse effects on endothelial function and a pro-inflammatory response, both of which are known to be associated with new onset of type 2 diabetes.16Many studies have reported that there is a positive association between high serum uric acid level and diabetes.15-17 whereas other studies show no association18 or inverse association.19,20Most of studies are on serum uric acid levels in already existing type 2 DM. Hence, this study was taken up to assess the relation between serum uric acid levels in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus and its relation with glycemic index. The Case control study included 30 newly diagnosed type 2 DM patients of age group 30-65 years in Victoria Hospital, attached to Bangalore Medical College and Research Institute, Bangalore and 30 healthy individuals of same age group with no family history of type 2 DM from general population. Diabetic patients diagnosed as per American Diabetes Association criteria. Patients already on treatment for Diabetes mellitus, liver dysfunction, renal dysfunction, essential hypertension, neoplastic diseases and on its treatment and Pregnant and lactating mothers were excluded from the study. After obtaining written informed consent from the cases and controls, about 5 ml of fasting venous blood was obtained by venepuncture under aseptic conditions and divided into 2 parts, first part of blood was taken in a sterile EDTA tube and was used for measuring HbA1C and second in a plain tube, centrifuged and separated serum was used for measuring fasting blood glucose and uric acid. Parameters was measured in Beckman Coulter AU480. Chi-Square test. Pearson’s Correlation analysis. Student’s t test. Statistical Tests were used to interpret results. And p value < 0.05 was considered significant. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES of the study was to measure HbA1C and Serum Uric Acid in newly diagnosed type 2 Diabetes mellitus patients and to assess the correlation between HbA1C and Serum Uric acid in the above patients. Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a heterogeneous disease which is characterized by variable degrees of insulin resistance and increased glucose production.1Pathogenesis: There is rising blood sugar levels (hyperglycaemia) and a drop in the energy production. To compensate for the insulin resistance and to keep the blood glucose levels from spiralling out of control the pancreas tries to restore the balance by producing more insulin. If they are left unchecked, the cells become even more resistant to insulin, even as the pancreas secretes ever greater amounts of insulin, in a desperate attempt to bring the system back under control. This results in dangerously high blood levels of insulin (hyper-insulinaemia). If this is not corrected, the pancreas eventually becomes exhausted, resulting in diabetes. In the present study, it was observed that the serum uric acid level of cases was significantly higher than that of controls (p<0.001).It can be postulated that compensatory hyper-insulinaemia which occurs in the insulin resistant individuals may impose an anti-uricosuric effect on the kidneys. Insulin mediates renal urate reabsorption via stimulation of the urate-anion exchanger URAT1 and/or the sodium-dependent anion co-transporter in brush border membranes of the renal proximal tubule.2Thus, the clearance of uric acid gets reduced, with an increase in the insulin resistance.16 Similar results were reported by Joseph B. Herman et al.21 , T P Whitehead et al.22 , Causevic et al.23 In the present study, it was also observed that when a comparison was made between the serum uric acid and HbA1C, there was a positive correlation (r= 0.4688) which was statistically significant(p< 0.01), which meant that there was an increase in the serum uric acid with an increase in HbA1C.This can be explained on the basis of the mechanisms with suggested association with Hyper-insulinaemia. It is through increased uric acid production. The increased flux of glucose-6-phosphate through the hexose monophosphate pathway shunt due to impairment of the glycolytic pathway, has been suggested as an explanation for the increased uric acid and NADPH formation in impaired glucose tolerance 2,21,24 and this may also include excess carbohydrates and an enhanced lipogenesis in the presence of excess insulin.25Similar findings were explained by HK Choi et al. 26 This case control study showed that serum uric acid is seen increased in newly diagnosed type 2 DM patients and suggests that HbA1C very much correlates with serum serum uric acid levels. Hence, simple cost effective biochemical parameter, uric acid can be used as a potential biomarker to guide the deterioration in glucose metabolism instead of using complex tests for measurement of insulin resistance, but community based study comprising large group of representatives is necessary to generalise uric acid as more specific tool in type 2 DM.

  20. Sivakumar, K.P., Nallakurumban, B. and Balaji, T.

    Obesity is a major public health crisis both globally and within Saudi Arabia. The increasing prevalence across nations carries severe consequences for population health and healthcare systems. Obesity elevates the risks for numerous chronic diseases like heart disease, stroke, type 2 diabetes, cancer and osteoarthritis, resulting in reduced quality of life and expectancy. The economic costs are equally staggering, estimated over $2 trillion annually including both direct medical costs and indirect productivity losses. Within Saudi Arabia, rapid urbanization, economic growth and associated lifestyle changes have catalyzed the obesity epidemic. The public health implications are just as severe as the global situation. Saudi Arabia faces one of the highest obesity rates worldwide, with around 30% of adults classified as overweight or obese. This has contributed to soaring rates of related chronic illnesses and risks within the Saudi population (Althumiri et al., 2021).

  21. Viji, G. and Dr. K.R. Sivabagyam

    The talk of the town is green. To combat the harshest effects of environmental deterioration, new tactics, and technology are developed every other day. Everyone is buzzing about the color green. Each passing day witnesses the emergence of innovative strategies and technologies aimed at combating the dire consequences stemming from environmental degradation. Green marketing and green products are becoming indispensable because of the rate at which our world is being misused and the seriousness of the environmental problems. However, the success of this "green concept" will only come when there is a high degree of awareness and a favorable impression. This article focuses on the perception of green products in Tiruppur District. This article provides a detailed analysis that addresses questions such as What is the general perception (negative, positive or neutral)? Do consumers appreciate green product packaging? Is there a relationship between the findings and various demographic variables? An undisguised, structured questionnaire was created and sent to 120 responders; 106 of them were deemed to be potentially useful. More than thirty samples are regarded as big. The hypotheses are tested using statistical methods such as mean, median, frequency distribution, Kruskal-Wallis, and one-way ANOVA. This paper will help other researchers understand how consumers feel about green products, businesses will be able to adjust their strategies and policies based on consumer perception, and other organisations and institutions interested in researching consumer behaviour related to green products will find it useful.

  22. Yacouba CAMARA, Oumar KEITA, Amadou Lamarana BAH and Nénè Aissata BALDE

    This present research aims to determine the hydrological parameters from average flows to define the variability of the hydrological regime of the Diani River watershed in N'Zérékoré in the Republic of Guinea. This research allowed us to understand the behavior of the flow in the river bed. During this research, after obtaining the average flow rates from the daily flow rates of the 27-year observation series (1995-2021), we determined; if the number of years of observation chosen is sufficient or not through the calculation of the mean square error whose calculated value is 14% which is in the interval of (10 to 15)%. From there, the rest of the results obtained during this study are as follows: the average interannual flow equal to 144.49 m3/s, the sum of average precipitation equal to 34184.6 mm/h, the coefficient of variability equal to 0 .44, the flow coefficient equal to 0.1, the minimum average flow rate is 26.48 m3/s and was observed in 2011 and the maximum average flow rate was observed in 2006 and is equal to 347.05 m3/s.

  23. Hassan Abdelnour and Mariana Bolis

    Background: Clinical placement programs are very important experience that help physiotherapy students in acquiring more practical skills and confidence to communicate, assess, set goals, and treat patients. It is important part of the physiotherapy education curriculum that students must go through in order to obtain the Bachelor degree. This study was designed to assess the effect of clinical placement on the confidence and skills on physiotherapy students at Ahfad University for Women (AUW) in Omdurman, Sudan. Method: A descriptive cross-sectional study used questionnaires to collect the data on the objectives. The study conducted at the physiotherapy department at AUW. The study population includes total of 80 students distributed as follows: 15 students (18.7%) at second year, 19 students (23.7%) at third year, 18 students (22.5%) at fourth year and 28 students (35%) at fifth year. Skills and confidence were determined using assessment questions based on case studies. Results: The results obtained revealed that students in the academic years that were exposed to more clinic placements (I.e., 4th and 5th year students) showed high confidence in selecting appropriate treatment (44.4%) and (32.1%) and most of the confidence assessment questions. Also, most of the fourth- and fifth-year students showed better results in the skills assessment questions than second- and third-year students. Conclusion: Students of 5th year at AUW physiotherapy program gain more confidence and problem-solving skills compared to other years. Recommendations: More in depth investigations is required to assess, evaluate, and improve the physiotherapy educational programs specifically at AUW and generally in Sudan.

  24. Dr. Sambhaji B Gunjal and Dr. Vandana Jain

    Background: Malignant pleural effusion (MPE) is a clinical condition and common complication that develops in cancer patients in many types of tumors, its presence indicates the onset of the terminal stages of cancer. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) has been used extensively to control pain mainly in post-operative thoracotomy patients, but its effects are controversial. So present study aims to study the role of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation in pain Management using the NPRS Scale for patients with Malignant pleural effusion with an Intercostal Drainage (ICD) Tube. Method: An experimental study was done at Pravara Rural Hospital and a total of 44 patients with malignant pleural effusion with intercostal drainage tube were assessed for this study. The effectiveness of TENS was assessed by the numerical pain rating scale (NPRS).Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) with High Frequency (100 to 120 HZ) and low intensity was given for 2 weeks. Result: Pre-intervention mean value of NPRS Score (Pain Intensity)in participants of the experimental group was 7.30±0.92 and after 2 weeks of intervention it was 2.82±0.83. The difference between the pre and post-values of the NPRS Score (Pain Intensity)in the experimental group was 4.47and it shows a highly significant difference in pre and post-intervention pain intensity. Conclusion: This study concludes that physiotherapy modalities like Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation are safe and effective in pain management in Malignant pleural effusion with an ICD tube.

  25. Wejdan Abdulrahman Alghamdi

    The demand for blended learning is increasing in Saudi educational institutions, notably universities. Blended learning incorporates online and traditional face-to-face components to maximize teaching and learning best practices in synchronous and asynchronous learning contexts. Furthermore, there is a lack of studies on the attitudes, benefits, and challenges of implementing blended learning, even though it's been an emerging paradigm for decades. This study provides a picture of EFL teachers' attitudes towards Blended Learning (BL) at University of Jeddah, Khulais branch. The study also sought to determine if teachers' attitudes toward blended learning were related to gender and teaching experiences. It explored if instructors encounter supports and challenges as they implement blended approaches. The research instrument used by the researcher to collect quantitative data from a sample of 19 EFL teachers was a questionnaire to measure EFL teachers' attitudes towards it. Analyses for the research data used Statistical Package for Social Scientists (SPSS 26). The findings of the attitude questionnaire indicated teachers' satisfaction and positive attitudes towards BL, and they had never faced challenges. Also, the findings showed no significant differences among the teachers' gender and teaching experiences on their attitudes toward blended learning (BL). In the light of the results, some recommendations were suggested.

  26. Constance Hollie, C., PhD, Efuet Simon Akem, PhD, Willie Fred Johnson, PhD and Antoine Socpa, PhD

    Post-Traumatic Slave Syndrome (PTSS) refers to a state characterized by the presence of multigenerational trauma among a community, stemming from prolonged periods of enslavement spanning centuries, and persisting due to ongoing experiences of oppression and institutionalized racism in contemporary society. This paper examines the physical, mental, and socioemotional consequences of institutionalized oppression from the 1600s to the present day. It focuses on the impact of this oppression on the Bamileke community in America, analyzing various sectors of society.“The Descendants of Enslaved Bamileke in America: Coping with Intergenerational Trauma of the Transatlantic Slave Trade” was to enable the target audience to express their responses of historical trauma in their own words- phenomenological interviews and observation were used in this study. Ethnographic data collection in Cameroon and in the USA was conducted. The results of the study indicate that participants are still engaged in a coping process in response to previous trauma, with a predominant focus on restoration-oriented coping that can shift to loss-oriented coping when triggered by current events.

  27. Agi Livinus Aloho, Efuet Simon Akem and George Fonkeng Epah

    This article endeavours to promote a transformative shift towards integrated technical and vocational education with a focus on enhancing employability within the secondary school system of Cross River State, Nigeria. The evolving perceptions of various stakeholders concerning Technical and Vocational Education (TVE) in Cross River State can help to enhance this shift. The views held by stakeholders in the realm of technical and vocational education exhibit a range of perspectives, encompassing students' outlooks, teachers' viewpoints, parents' stances, and employers' impressions. These perceptions collectively shed light on the current landscape of technical and vocational education in Cross River State. Data was collected through observation and in-depth interviewing. Results indicate thatthe Prevailing Perceptions Regarding Technical And Vocational Education In Cross River State include limited Access To Technical Education, students’less interest in Tve, Influence Of Parents And Lack Of Awareness,Diminished Prestige Of Technical Education.

  28. Dr. Pramod Kumar Minocha, Dr. Deveshkumar Mahendralal Kothwala, Dikshita Yogendrashigh Lodha, Unnati Girish Patel and Mansi Samir Desai

    Colon cancer, a disease similar to its human counterpart, also affects animals, including pets such as canines and felines. This malignant disease involves the uncontrolled growth of malignant cells in the tissues of the colon, a central section of the large intestine responsible for absorbing nutrients and water from digested food. The causative factors for colon cancer in animals remain complex and include genetic predisposition, dietary influences, inflammation, and possible environmental influences. Characteristic symptoms of colon cancer in animals include changes in bowel habits, hematochezia, weight loss, abdominal discomfort, decreased appetite, and lethargy. When colorectal cancer or related health problems are suspected in pets, timely veterinary intervention is essential. Timely diagnosis and appropriate medical treatment greatly improve the prognosis and management of the disease. This research article presents a new approach in the treatment of colon cancer. A self-expanding metallic colon stent system is presented, which consists of a nitinol alloy wire developed using the braiding technique. The stent has free wire ends to enhance stability and anchoring during expansion. This innovative approach strategically displaces tumors during expansion, improving colonic passage. While this study enhances our understanding of the commonalities of colon cancer in animals and humans, it highlights a breakthrough technique that holds promise for new therapeutic strategies. A critical evaluation performed in-house at laboratory scale to avoid significant risk to patient safety, stent integrity, and long-term durability has demonstrated the compressive strength of a self-expanding metallic colon stent system. This analysis has confirmed the mechanical strength of the system.

  29. Dr. Shalini Misra

    Discrimination is a grim reality in our society that affects all people. Racial / Colour discrimination has existed in our society for centuries. This is a serious concern and needs immediate attention. The main causes of racial / colour discrimination are: superiority, prejudice, stereotyping, jealousy etc. This is a big challenge, which, if ignored, may result in a serious threat to life. Othello, the Moor of Venice, one of William Shakespeare’s finest creations, reflects the same theme. It would not be just to say that this was a reflection of his personal experience, but at the same time we cannot deny the fact that it raised the burning issue of racial or colour discrimination in his time and challenged civil, cultural, political and social rights. Discrimination on the grounds of caste, colour, race, religion, sex etc. is a violation of the right to equality. The major themes in Othello include racism, love, jealousy, infidelity, revenge, repentance etc. Othello provoked many reactions because of the issue of race , colour and anti-apartheid movement in South Africa. This play has shaken the faith of the readers in basic human values as it proved that ‘Black’ is associated with ‘Evil and Sin’. Othello, the most dignified character in the play, was a victim of racism and his brutality was revealed when he killed his innocent wife Desdemona. The objective of the present paper is to examine how a legendary writer such as William Shakespeare dramatizes colour discrimination, a very sensitive issue, which is widely prevalent in our society. In the play, Othello’s own weakness (inferiority complex) had been exploited by Iago and Roderigo. Othello, a competent and experienced soldier, fell victim to a political conspiracy which resulted in his downfall.

  30. Shen Xiaoyu

    The study adopted a quantitative comparative-correlational research design to examine the relationship between transformational leadership style, job satisfaction, and instructional performance. It used questionnaire survey and random sampling method with 360 faculty respondents at Shaoyang College in Hunan Province taken as sample respondents. The study found there is a higher participation of females among the faculty of Shaoyang College or a higher response rate of female faculty in this study and that teachers as a whole had high recognition and evaluation of transformational leadership styles as well as exemplary character, visionary motivation, personalized attention, and leadership charisma. The study also found that professional factors have a greater influence on the job satisfaction of the respondents' teachers. These factors affect the perception and assessment of job satisfaction of the teachers. Additionally, the respondents are positive in all aspects of teaching performance and teaching performance and job satisfaction is positively related to instructional performance while transformational leadership style is negatively related to instructional performance. Increasing teachers' job satisfaction and developing transformational leadership styles may have a positive impact on instructional performance.

  31. Dr. Mukanyangezi Marie Therese, Ph.D.

    The main purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between internal communication, psychological empowerment, and employee engagement of selected hotels in Rusizi District for the year 2023. The study was quantitative in nature using the descriptive correlation research design. Out of 281 distributed questionnaires, only 242 individuals participated in filling the questionnaire where 38% were male and 62% were female. The descriptive data was analyzed using frequency distribution and percentage, the mean, and standard deviation. For the inferential components of the research, the Kruskal-Wallis Test, Mann-Whitney U-Test, and Regression Analysis were used. The descriptive statistics findings showed that the respondents perceive internal communication as very good, and the level of psychological empowerment and employee engagement as high. The statistical results reveal that only age, marital status, and monthly income affect employee engagement in selected hotels. Based on Pearson correlation findings, internal communication had a positive relationship with employee engagement and its dimensions: vigor, dedication, and absorption. All components of psychological empowerment: meaning, competence, self-determination, and impact had a positive relationship with employee engagement and its dimensions. These findings show that meaning, self-determination, internal communication, and competence predict employee engagement. The obtained results are not just similar but they confirm findings of previous studies conducted in different settings showing that the deficiency in internal communication and psychological empowerment would lower the level of employee engagement that will decrease performance and prevent the organization from achieving its goals and objectives as outcomes.

  32. Dr. Ambili Gopi, Dr. Viji S Pillai, Dr. Sreelekshmi P R and Dr. Jagathnath Krishna KMN

    Background: Placement of thoracic epidural is technically challenging and demands precise anatomical knowledge .This study used pre-procedural ultrasound for thoracic epidural catheter placement in high BMI patients undergoing oncosurgeries. Accuracy of ultrasound assisted method and palpation method in locating and measuring thoracic epidural space depth is studied. Additionally, the study seeks optimal needle insertion point to minimize the attempts. Methods: A prospective observational study included ASA I and II patients aged > 18, with BMI >/=25, scheduled for elective oncosurgeries with thoracic epidural for pain relief. Forty eligible patients who had thoracic epidural placement were observed and studied. The time for skin markings, loss of resistance, and number of attempts, needle skin puncture, and needle redirection were recorded and analysed. Results: Age and BMI were comparable between two groups. Mean time for epidural needle placement to achieve loss of resistance in group A (159.300sec) and group B(379.150sec) respectively (P = 0.015). Ultrasound assisted skin marking took 92.550 sec for A and 39.950 sec for B (P = 0.379). Number of attempts for group A was 1.650 and B was 1.900(P = 0.293). Ultrasound assistance for skin marking, depth of epidural space, number of attempt, needle skin puncture and needle redirection were comparable. Conclusion: Pre-procedural ultrasound markedly reduced time for loss of resistance. However, factors like time for skin marking, number of attempts, depth of epidural space, needle skin puncture and redirection not significantly different compared to palpation.

  33. Sharmila Choudhary, Dr. Jahnvi Sharma, Dr. Pinky Bhagat and Dr. P.K. Khatri

    Introduction: Fungal infections are a major burden of mortality and morbidity in the critical care setting and are one of the leading causes of nosocomial infections despite recognition of risk factors and improvement in infection prevention. The mortality rate associated with candidemia worldwide is also high ranging from 10% to 49%. In India, the picture is not very clear due to lack of multicentre studies. Objectives: This study was done to determine prevalence and drug resistance pattern of candida isolates from patients admitted in ICU. Methods: This is a hospital based cross sectional study done in ICU of a tertiary care hospital from period of January 2022 to December 2022. In total 130 immunocompromised patients with clinical suspicion of having fungal infections were included in the study and samples were processed using standard microbiological methods and antifungal susceptibility testing was done as per CLSI 2022 guidelines. Result: Out of 130 samples, 36 samples (27.69%) were positive for Candida infection whereas 94 samples (72.30%) were found to be negative for Candida infection. (p=0.0001). It was observed that nonalbicans Candida species (75%) had predominance over C. albicans (25%). Among the non-albicans Candida spp., Candida tropicalis was the most common isolate seen in 15 (41.67%) isolates followed by Candida parapsilosis in 6 (16.67%), Candida krusei in 4 (11.11%) and Candida glabrata in 2 (5.55%) isolates. Among 9 Candida albicans, Nystatin, Amphotericin B and Miconazole showed 100% sensitivity followed by Ketoconazole (88.88%), Itraconazole (88.88%) and Fluconazole (88.88%). Candida tropicalis showed 100% sensitivity to Ketoconazole, Nystatin, Voriconazole, Amphotericin B and Miconazole followed by It raconazole (93.33%) and resistance to Fluconazole (73.33%). Conclusion: In our study non albicans candida were more prevalent than candida albicans with Antifungal susceptibility testing for Candida spp by Disk diffusion method showed resistance to Voriconazole in C.albicans and among NAC, resistance to Fluconazole. Increasing rate of resistance among C.albicans and NAC may be due to frequent use of antifungal prophylaxis in immunocompromised patients especially in ICU setup, this emphasizes the need of antifungal susceptibility testing in ICU which can help clinician to avoid over use of antifungal prophylaxis and start appropriate antifungal agents as per culture sensitivity report. This can help in reduction of multidrug resistance in fungal isolates.

  34. Dr. Ishita Mou, Dr. Nazmul Islam, Dr. Ishrat Ahmed, Dr. Sinthia Alam, Dr. Mohammad Tajul Islam, Dr. Kazi Nazmul Hossain and Dr. Md Jubaidul Islam

    Background: Epidemiological studies to determine the pattern of skin diseases among children are important for proper health care planning and management. The purpose of this study was to describe the pattern of skin diseases among pediatric patients seen at a dermatology outpatient clinic of Combined Military Hospital, Dhaka. Objective: Despite the high frequency of certain skin diseases among under twelve children in developing countries, they have so far not been regarded as a significant health problem in the development of public health strategies. This study will provides comprehensive data on the epidemiology of the commonest skin diseases in a developing country environment, documents their health importance, describes measures that could be used to continue them & permits a rational consideration of the problem. The Study will be performed with a view to future interlayer of matters relating to skin diseases in children integrated management of child hood illness (IMCI) program. Methods: A cross-sectional study of children (12 years old and below) who attended the dermatology clinic between January 2021 and June 2021. Data obtained from the medical records of the patients included age, gender, clinical features, laboratory features and diagnosis. Skin diseases were classified into various groups. Results: There were 90 children included in the study with a male to female ratio of 1:1.13. The most common dermatoses are Atopic dermatitis 28 (31.11 %), Scabies 15 (16.67%), Tinea corporis 12 (13.33%), Molluscum contagiosum 3 (3.33 %), Urticaria 9 (10.0 %), Miliaria 1 (1.11 %) and genetic disorder 2 (2.22 %). Conclusion: The study highlights the common dermatoses seen in children in a specialized dermatology clinic in a developing country. Most of the skin diseases observed can be controlled by proper environmental sanitation, adequate nutrition, reducing overcrowding and promoting good health-seeking behavior among parents and caregivers. Information obtained from the study may guide training in dermatology especially among pediatricians.

  35. Yang Tian

    This paper takes time as a clue, takes the experience of time as the entry point of research, discusses the landscape design of urban public space at different levels, explores the meaning and connotation of landscape design of public space from a different angle, emphasizes the understanding of the deeper role of time on the public space by analyzing the perception and experience of timeliness of the landscape space and hopes to draw more attention to the temporality of the landscape space, and brings new ideas to the current and future landscape design of the urban public space, which does not mean pursuing the "new", but rather injecting cultural connotations to embody the continuity of the landscape, and promotes the sustainable development of the landscape.

  36. Viviline C Ngeno

    Teenage years to every child is challenging emotionally, physically and psychological especially for the girl child. Studies have indicated that three out of ten girls miss school in Africa during their menstruation periods and eventually drop out as a result. This is due to lack sanitary towels due to economic situations in families of which the Kenyan government started providing in 2011. This study established the influence of provision of sanitary pads on Teenage girls’ dropout ratesin Ainamoi sub county, Kericho County, Kenya.Liberal Feminism Theory was adopted in this study. A conceptual framework was formulated to guide the study. The independent variable wasprovision of sanitary pads while the dependent variable is Teenage girls ‘dropout rates in Ainamoi Sub County, Kericho County Kenya.Ex post facto, Descriptive, Correlational and Mixed Method Research design was adopted in the study. The study was in form of quantitative and qualitative research. The Study population consisted of 686 teenage girls, 99head teachers. The sample size was 20 head teachers and 140 teenage girls. Quantitative data wasanalyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Data was collected using questionnaires, focus group discussion, and interview schedule and document analysis. While qualitative was analyzed using themes and sub themes.The study established that there was a moderate relationship between girls drop out and provision of sanitary pads. The Pearson product moment correlation coefficients was 0.496 which account for 24.60% of the variation. The study concluded that provision of sanitary pads reduced dropout rate. It recommend that teenage girls should be provide with sanitary pads to keep them in school.The findings of this study will be significant to stakeholders in education guiding them on ways of improving teenage girls’ academic progression and performance. It will also guide in improving on policies that will help the girl child and protect the girl child to enable them access education comfortably.

  37. Prabrisha Chatterjee and Sanat Chatterjee

    The excessive use and abuse of pesticides and veterinary drugs contaminate the food articles, which can threaten human health and environment. Therefore, there is an extremely urgent need for multi analysis techniques for the detection of pesticide and veterinary drug residues, which can be applied as screening techniques for food safety monitoring and detection. Milk is contaminated with hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), dichloro-diphenyltrichloro ethane (DDT), endosulfan, cypermethrin, cyhalothrin, permethrin, chloropyrifos, ethion, and profenophos pesticides. Milk is also contaminated by chlorinated pesticides, organophosphates, herbicides, fungicides, antihelminthetic drugs, antiobiotics, hormones, detergents, disinfectants, nitrites, polychlorinated biphenyls, dioxins. Problems associated with antibiotic residues in milk include the risk of allergic reactions and occurrence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, teratogenicity risk to the foetus, hypoplasia in developing teeth, aplasia of bone marrow, chronic insidious intake lead to elevated cancer risk and disruption of body’s reproductive, immune, endocrine and nervous system.

  38. Upendra Bhatnagar, Navin Rajesh B, Vijaykumar B Malashetty, Lakshmi Narayan G, Reshma Shaik and Vijayakumar Subramanian

    Thiamethoxam, a second-generation neonicotinoid insecticide was assessed for its systemic and reproductive toxicity, developmental neurotoxicity and immunotoxicity through an extended one generation toxicity study (EOGRTS, OECD No. 443). Wistar rats were exposed to Thiamethoxam at doses of 0, 15, 50 and 150 mg/kg/day by oral intubation. Treatment of males was initiated 2-weeks before cohabitation and continued for 70 consecutive days whereas treatment of females began 2 weeks before cohabitation and continued until weaning of the F1 offspring. In view of reducing the number of animals, but without compromising on parameters to be assessed, cohort 1A was covered in the parental generation. Treatment with Thiamethoxam technical did not reveal any systemic/reproductive toxicity and abnormal changes in the fertility parameters of rats belonging to parental generation. However, males belonging to the F1 generation exhibited delay in the acquisition of balano-preputial separation and, decreased total and ambulatory counts at 50 and 150mg/kg/day. A decrease in the overall width of hippocampus was observed at 150mg/kg/day. The T-cell dependent antibody response (TDAR) functional assay exhibited the ability of Thiamethoxam to mount an antibody (IgM and/or IgG) response up to 150 mg/kg/day in the F1 generation. Based on findings, the No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL) of Thiamethoxam was 15 mg/kg/day for developmental and neurobehavioral end points and 150 mg/kg/day for reproductive toxicity.





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Dr. Swamy KRM
Dr. Abdul Hannan A.M.S
Saudi Arabia.
Luai Farhan Zghair
Hasan Ali Abed Al-Zu’bi
Fredrick OJIJA
Firuza M. Tursunkhodjaeva
Faraz Ahmed Farooqi
Saudi Arabia
Eric Randy Reyes Politud
Elsadig Gasoom FadelAlla Elbashir
Eapen, Asha Sarah
United State
Dr.Arun Kumar A
Dr. Zafar Iqbal
Dr. Ruchika Khanna
Dr. Recep TAS
Dr. Rasha Ali Eldeeb
Dr. Pralhad Kanhaiyalal Rahangdale
Dr. Nicolas Padilla- Raygoza
Dr. Mustafa Y. G. Younis
Dr. Muhammad shoaib Ahmedani
Saudi Arabia
United State
Dr. Lim Gee Nee
Dr. Jatinder Pal Singh Chawla
Dr. Devendra kumar Gupta
Dr. Ali Seidi
Dr. Achmad Choerudin
Dr Ashok Kumar Verma
Thi Mong Diep NGUYEN
Dr. Muhammad Akram
Dr. Imran Azad
Dr. Meenakshi Malik
Aseel Hadi Hamzah
Anam Bhatti
Md. Amir Hossain
Mirzadi Gohari