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August 2023

  1. Dr. Lavanya Lakshmi, K.J. and Dr. Prasad, P.V.N.R.

    In spite of advancements on multiple fronts of Science & Technology, man lives a life of worry, stress and discontentment, which is a sad and unfortunate paradox. Although we have greater opportunities for rich and fulfilling life than ever before, we ever desire new things and seldom content with what we have. In the process we have disconnected ourselves from the great traditions that have provided us the guidance and wealth of practical knowledge on how to live healthy and meaningful life. As a result of this, the psychological diseases have posed as serious challenge to human civilization. Ayurvedic Psychology clearly recognizes that the Mind and Body are one with mind being field of ideas and the body, a field of molecules. Ayurveda considered both physical and mental diseases as two separate subjects and has always followed the psychosomatic approach to the diseases, where more emphasis is given to the integration aspect of these two factors. In somatic clinical conditions, the Psychological factors have never been neglected and in Psychological disorders, the possibility of organic involvement has always been given due consideration. India has a heritage flora & fauna enriched with medicinal properties and the usage of which has been in vogue since centuries. Many of the Ayurvedic medicinal plant drugs, single are compound preparation are being use for mental well being. The pharmacological properties and their actions of Ayurvedic drugs recommended in the management of Manovaha Sroto Vikara are vividly discussed in this paper.

  2. Ogbudu Gabriel Ada, MB BCH, MPH, PhD

    Dental fluorosis, an under reported public health problem the world over impacts 11.4% of the population in Nigeria. It is caused by successive exposure to high fluoride concentrations during tooth development and is linked to the development of a variety of psychological and physiological problems: dental aesthetics, reduction in intelligence and skeletal changes. The purpose of this quantitative, cross-sectional study was to explore the influences of altitude and use of fertilizers in cropping in the development of dental fluorosis in children in a rural community in Nigeria. A multilevel theoretical model was used to identify possible fluoride exposure pathways that impact childhood oral health. The study was guided by 2 main research questions: What is the prevalence of fluorosis among Nigerian school-aged children? What is the association of this prevalence with the prevailing influences of altitude and use of fertilizers in cropping? Data was collected by administering surveys, on children aged 5 to15 years and their parents/guardians. Chi-square tests were used to test for possible associations. The study findings showed a fluorosis prevalence rate of 86.6% in the 269 school children surveyed, with majority of these children between the ages of 8 to 13 years. There was no significant association of fluorosis prevalence with altitude in the population, however the association with the use of fertilizers requires further research. This study’s possible impact on social change include raising awareness to this problem as well encouraging the cautious use of fertilizers in cropping.

  3. Mandawara, V. and Chaturvedi, A.

    Weight loss and thermometric techniques were used in the absence and presence of an additive (KNO3) to test the corrosion-inhibitory effectiveness of Tinospora Cordifolia stem and leaf extract in various concentrations of HNO3 acid (0.5, 1, 2, and 3N). The results of this study indicate that inhibition effectiveness (ɳ%) increases with both increasing inhibitor concentration and acid strength, and that a further improvement in inhibition efficiency was observed with the addition of additives (KNO3) due to a synergistic effect. Based on the research, stem extract outperforms leaf extract as a corrosion inhibitor. In the absence of an additive and using 3N HNO3 acid at its maximum strength, the greatest inhibitory efficiency was seen for stem and leaf extracts at their maximum concentrations (0.8%) of 90.46% and 86.51%, whereas it was shown at 93.48% and 90.69% in the presence of an additive (KNO3). The disc diffusion method was used to investigate the in vitro antifungal activity of the Tinospora Cordifolia stem and leaf extract against Aspergillus niger. Interpretations from the zone of inhibition revealed that Tinospora Cordifolia stem and leaf extract has good antifungal efficacy against Aspergillusniger (a fungus).

  4. Dr. Priyanka Thukral, Dr Shweta Bali, Dr. Vishwas Uckoo and Dr. Vaishali Rai Sharma

    Research and innovation in Oral Implantology is a never ending process. Introduction of Magnetic Mallet in Oral Surgery and Oral Implantology in the recent years has gained a lot of popularity in procedures like Atraumatic Extraction, Implant Osteotomy, Sinus Floor Elevation and Bone Condensation Technique. This is a unique instrument which gives the clinician freedom to visualise the field as it does not require Saline Irrigation while performing the procedures.

  5. Dr. Abhishek Shukla, Dr. Amita Shukla, Ms. Pankhuri Misra and Ms. Sughand Anand

    Aims: Ocular symptoms and dry eye disease have a strong relationship with ageing. In this study, we evaluate the prevalence of ocular symptoms and dry eye disease in elderly attending an eye camp. Method: A total of 120 elderly (>60 years) outpatients visiting an eye camp organized at a geriatric speciality hospital in Lucknow were assessed for presence of ocular symptoms like foreign body sensation, burning, discharge, itching, heaviness, redness, photophobia, watering and eye pain/heaviness. Details regarding presence of cataract disease at present or in past and chronic systemic illnesses like hypertension, diabetes, asthma, COPD, osteoarthritis were noted. All the participants were then evaluated for dry eye disease using Schirmir strips. Dry eye disease was noted at a cut-off <10 mm, those having values <5 mm were considered to have severe dry eye disease. Data was analyzed using SPSS 21.0 package. Chi-square and Independent samples ‘t’-tests were used for comparisons. Results: Age of participants ranged from 61 to 82 years. Mean age of elderly was 69.98±5.80 years. Almost half (50.8%) were males. A total of 109 (90.8%) elderly were symptomatic, discharge from eye (54.2%), photophobia (49.2%) and eye pain/heaviness (49.2%) were the most common ocular symptoms. Mean number of ocular symptoms was 3.89±1.81. A total of 64 (53.3%) had cataract and 76 (63.3%) had chronic systemic illnesss history. Prevalence of dry eye disease was 38.3%. Severe dry eye disease was seen in 14 (11.7%) cases. Older age, foreign body sensation, Itching, photophobia, eye pain/heaviness, symptomatic eye, higher number of symptoms cataract and chronic systemic illness history were significantly associated with dry eye disease. Conclusion: Elderly OPD patients had a high prevalence of ocular symptoms and dry eye disease. Older age, chronic systemic illness and cataract history were significant predictors of DED.

  6. Dr. Mahalaxmi Panda, Dr. Sudip Indu and Dr. Monali Prajapati

    Chondrosarcoma is an infrequent malignant tumor of head and neck with less than 10% of cases occurring in the craniofacial region. Many a times it is a challenge to differentiate its benign or malignant nature. Osteoid osteoma presents with severe localized pain, predominantly nocturnal, relieved with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. 80% of osteomas occur in the long bones and less than 1% occur in jaws. Here we present an enigmatous lesion where two tumours with distinct tissue of origin, arose in the same site, started as a harmless benign osteoid osteoma and then transforming into an aggressive sarcomatous lesion.

  7. Dr. Prashanth Sadashiva Murthy, Dr. Seema Deshmukh, Ms. Shristhi Patel and Ms. Dimple Rajesh

    One of the most revolutionary and quickly developing topics in modern science and technology is artificial intelligence (AI). The goal of artificial intelligence (AI) is to develop intelligent systems that can mimic, duplicate, or augment cognitive functions that are unique to humans. AI has evolved from theoretical ideas to real-world applications with wide-ranging effects. The goal of this multidisciplinary discipline is to develop computers that can learn, reason, solve problems, and adapt to changing surroundings. It draws influence from a variety of fields, including cognitive psychology, computer science, mathematics, neurology, and engineering. Natural language processing, computer vision, and autonomous decision-making are just a few of the impressive accomplishments that AI has shown because to the exponential expansion of computational power and the gathering of enormous datasets. This review describes the fundamental ideas, approaches, and uses of AI, shedding light on how it can find application in dentistry.

  8. Poulomi Das and Prof. Dr. Suparna Sanyal Mukherjee

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha is a pro-inflammatory cytokine secreted by monocytes/macrophages, T cells, and natural killer (NK) cells. Interferon gamma (IFN-γ) is an acid-labile interferon produced by CD4 and CD8 T lymphocytes as well as activated NK cells. IFN-γ receptors are present in most immune cells, which respond to IFN-γ signaling by increasing the surface expression of class I MHC proteins. This promotes the presentation of antigen to T-helper (CD4+) cells the increased presence of TNF-alpha and its receptors in articular cartilage with mild osteoarthritic. Regulating TNF-alpha is an important component in the treatment. Osteoarthritis (OA) is an inflammatory joint disease due to degeneration of joint cartilage and underlying bone. Inflammation is common and essential protective response to the harmful stimuli such as infectious agents, antigen-antibody reactions, thermal, chemical, and physical agents, and ischemia. The main characteristics of inflammation are redness, warmth, swelling, and pain. Inflammation cascades can lead to the development of diseases such as arthritis, chronic asthma, multiple sclerosis, inflammatory bowel disease. Osteoarthritis is characterized by loss of joint cartilage, results pain and loss of function primarily in the knees and hips, which mostly affects 9.6% of men and 18% of women aged more than 60 years. The present sequel was emphasized on the levels of TNF alpha, IFN gamma and catalase in osteoarthritic patients and to compare it with the levels of those after introducing of antioxidants (Phytoconstituents). Control and regulation through phytoconstituents was enhanced a new way to prevent Osteoarthritis. Study have explored and examined on several medicinal plants spices like Curcumin (Curcuma longa),Cardamom ( Elettaria cardamom), Saffron (Crocus sativus), Cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum) which are carotenoid-rich that is used to treat various types of diseases caused by oxidative stress specially for Osteoarthritis, Diabetics etc. It has the ability to decrease the levels of ROS, free radical-mediated lipid peroxidation, its anti-inflammatory effects which stimulate phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinases (AMPK), acetyl-CoA carbohydrate (ACC), and mitogenactivated protein kinases (MAPKS). Cinnamon consists of cinnamaldehyde, cinnomic acid, eugenol and other components that have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects that can reduce interleukin (IL) 6, and nitric oxide (NO) types of production and can suppress lipid peroxidation and malondialdehyde (MDA). Hence, regulation and control of Osteoarthritis is a challenging opportunity at present 21st century, enhancement of ushering a new way to evaluate and prevent Osteoarthritis among the Indian patients can possible through such medicinal herbs which were accentuated upon.

  9. Kannan CS Warrier and Muthupandiyan, S.

    Thespesia populnea is a valued multipurpose tree species grown in India especially by the rural coastal population. It is a timber of great utility, being used for furniture, agricultural implements and small canoes. It is an easy timber to saw and work and can be brought to a smooth surface and also takes a high polish. The wood is highly valued because it does not split. The wood is highly resistant to dry wood termites. The problem with this farmer friendly tree species is that it grows with twists and turns and therefore, timber of good length is not generally available, limiting its market potential. To address this issue, ICFRE-Institute of Forest Genetics and Tree Breeding, Coimbatore, India initiated a systematic tree improvement programme since 2011, conducted exhaustive field surveys, selected 139 crook free plus trees from the southern states, and assembled them in a Clonal Multiplication Area (CMA). Multi-location clonal trials established using the plantlets derived from this CMA are in various stages of evaluation for release of crook free superior clones. Apart from the utility as timber, this species yields fodder relished by cattle. It is also grown in agroforestry as standard for pepper. Wood yields dye and tannin. Most of the plant parts are being used in various medicines. It is also suitable for paper pulp. A detailed review of this valuable multipurpose tree species is presented in this paper.

  10. Huang Xinheng and Gatbonton, Ryan Ray

    Sanda is a competitive sport that requires teamwork, especially among student-athletes. A number of courses that call for in-class student participation and teamwork have been related to the idea of cooperative learning. This correlation research aimed to discover the association between cooperative learning attitude and fighting performance among Sanda student-athletes, as well as a qualitative aspect that explored teacher practices in cooperative learning. One hundred twenty-two participants were surveyed using a researcher-made tool (Cronbach alpha > 0.90) and 5 teachers were purposefully interviewed. Informed consent was secured during the process of data collection. The results of the survey show that there is a high level of cooperative learning (Mean =2.54, SD = 0.27) in the domains of teamwork (Mean =2.55, SD = 0.46), peer support (Mean =2.50, SD = 0.48), and positive interdependence (Mean =2.58, SD = 0.49). On the other hand, fighting performance (Mean =2.50, SD = 0.25) was seen at high levels in the domain of self-confidence (Mean =2.56, SD = 0.46) but perceived as low in the domain of motivation (Mean =2.50, SD = 0.43) and concentration (Mean =2.43, SD = 0.50). Practices to ensure cooperative learning were structured training methods, positive relationships amongst students, partner rotations to encourage collaborative exercises, learning from one another, and effective communication. Strategies to improve cooperation include mentorship programs, conducting in-house competitions, team-building activities, mixed-level training, and cooperative training sessions. Correlation tests revealed that there is a significant correlation between cooperative learning and fighting performance (r = –0.2181, p< 0.05).

  11. Flores-Encarnación, M., Hernández-Hernández F.C., Aguilar-Gutiérrez G.R., Cabrera-Maldonado C. and García-García S.C.

    In the field, pests are undesirable due to the economic losses they cause. The use of synthetic pesticides has long been the measure to combat many pests, however their use has generated pollution problems for the environment and, therefore, for human health. For this reason, other alternatives that are more environmentally friendly and that are less toxic to animals and humans are being investigated. Thus, the extracts of some plants and their components, such as essential oils, seem to be a possible source to treat various pests in agricultural and urban areas, through biopesticides.

  12. Dr. Jayati Nag

    Le développement des Etats passe par la santé de leur population, ainsi ils se donnent les moyens pour assurer leur bien-être. En Côte d’Ivoire, ce désir est possible grâce à la construction des édifices sanitaires, à la formation des agents de santé et àl’organisation des activités scientifiques. Aussi, des programmes de prise en charge vaccinales gratuite leur sont offerts pour maintenir leur santéen bonne étatdès leur naissance. Au nombre deces programmes figurent le Programme Elargie de Vaccination (PEV),qui permet à la population d’éviter certaines maladies. Malgré les actions menées par l’état pour prévenir et guérir les maladies, la couverture vaccinale dans l’air sanitaire d’Anyama reste faible. Alorscetarticleveut comprendre les raisons qui justifient l’inobservance de la vaccination des mères d’enfants de 0 à 11 mois. La méthodologie qui a présidé au recueil des données est l’approche qualitative. Les outils mobilisés sont unguide d’entretien et une grille d’observation in situ.Les résultats de l’étude montrentqu’au-delà des représentations des mères, les facteurs comme les manifestations post-vaccinales indésirables(MAPI), l’occupation des mères, la distance des ménages du lieu de vaccination, et le recours aux soins traditionnels justifient de l’inobservance de la vaccination chez les mères d’enfant de 0 à 11 mois dans ledit district.

  13. Djonoumawou Mèmèvêgni Grâce Floriane Chidikofan, Bernard Noukpo Tokpohozin, Melhyas Kplé, Guevara Nonviho and Jacques Boco Adjakpa

    The present study aims to quantify the agro-pastoral residues available in the municipality of Tori-Bossito and to assess the potential of said residues to supply the energy in Dokanme public primary school through anaerobic digestion. Field surveys were made to identify the different types of waste and the generation sites, then, based on statistical data collected and biogas productivity indexes from the literature the quantities of agro-pastoral residues, biogas and energy were estimated. The residues consist of cassava peelings, palm oil clarifying sludge and cow dung. The amount of cassava peelings that can be collected is estimated to 76.565 tons, 20075 liters for palm oil clarifying sludge and 118.260 tons for cow dung. A total energy potential in biogas from residues found to be 661.722 GJ. The exploitation of this energy resource can contribute to the conservation of forest and reduce women and schoolchildren occupation in searching for wood-energy.

  14. Priyasi Mallick, Syeda Sagufta Sultana and Sibani Sen Chakraborty

    Lipases (triacylglycerol hydrolases) are enzymes capable of hydrolysing lipids into fatty acids and glycerol. There are mainly three major categories of lipases- substrate-specific, regioselective and enantioselective. Microbial lipases are in huge demand due to its application in various industrial sectors. The present study aims to isolate lipase producing bacteria from biomedical waste of a pharmaceutical company located in West Bengal, India. Further, morphological and biochemical characterisation of the isolated bacterial sample was carried out. After serial dilution and spread plate method, the prominent clear zone observed in TBA agar (Tributyrin agar) media confirmed the isolation of lipase producing bacterial strain. The bacteria were biochemically characterised by different tests according to Bergey’s manual. Further optimisation of growth parameters (i.e. media formulation, time, pH and temperature) and antimicrobial activities of isolated lipase producing bacteria have also been studied. The optimum parameters for bacterial growth were analysed by using spectroscopic methods at 600nm. The isolated bacteria exhibited its maximum growth at a temperature of 37°C and an optimum pH 7.0 in production media (PM) using 1% (w/v) olive oil (contain fatty acid act as a carbon and energy source for bacteria) after 48 hours of incubation.

  15. Aastha Vithalkar, Keshav Kaiwartya and Yashwant Kumar Patel

    Ashwagandha, also known as Withania somnifera, is a herb that has been utilised in traditional Indian medicine since the time of Ayurveda. The plant's dried roots are used to treat neurological and sexual issues. This review article is provided to consolidate all the most recent data on its pharmacological and phytochemical actions, which were carried out using a variety of various techniques. According to studies, ashwagandha has anti-inflammatory, anticancer, memory-enhancing, anti-parkinsonian, adaptogen, antioxidant, and anxiolytic activities. There have also been studies on a number of other effects, including immunomodulation, hypolipidemia, antimicrobial, cardiovascular protection, sexual behaviour, tolerance, and dependency. These results are quite positive and suggest that more research on this plant is necessary to validate these findings and elucidate additional possible therapeutic benefits. The plant is a typically upright, branching, unarmed shrub that may grow up to 1.25 metres tall and is native to subtropical India and other dry regions of the world. It is mostly grown in Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan, and both domestic and export use in India is enormous. It has to be carefully cultivated because it is vulnerable to a number of pests and illnesses. The two primary with anolides that contribute to the majority of biological effects are with aferin A and with anolide D. It has pharmacological effects on practically all bodily systems. Additionally, it has various negative effects and restrictions A variety of biological activities, including anti-inflammatory properties, hepatoprotective activity, infertility activity, anti-bacterial activity, psychotropic/anti-anxiety activity, anti-convulsant activity, skin care activity, healthy hair activity, immune-modulator activity, anti-peroxidative action, anti-ageing effect, macrophage activating effect, haemopoietic effect, antibiotic activity, and more, have been observed in pharmacological studies. The plant's morphology, geographic distribution, cultivation and market value, plant pathology, Ayurvedic properties, chemical components, medicinal uses in Ayurveda, side effects and contraindications, and pharmacological evidence are all covered in this review of Withania somnifera (Linn) Dunal (Ashwagandha).

  16. Angita Malakar, Ramit Rahaman and Jaydip Ray

    Errors in medication and dose selection are a major concern in the field of healthcare systems, they can have an impact on the patient's safety and care. More precisely dose errors represent a particular type of medication error, as they can lead to adverse events like adverse drug reaction (ADR), birth defect, disability, unexpected adverse events (UAE) etc. In an effort to reduce medication errors and dose errors and also to improve personalized medication management, artificial intelligence (AI) has been taken into consideration. The purpose of the study is to throw some light on the scopes of AI to help with the above-mentioned problems. By using various algorithms and models A.I development could give more accurate and precise results. Some of the events like screening a prescription, providing real time alerts to the health care personnel about the possible medication interactions, dose related issues can be more specified and ethically modified using AI algorithms. Also, by using and developing A.I models and algorithms prediction of an upcoming disease can be possible from the early stages. As an example, by using different parameters like age, height, weight, patient medical history, genetic history, lifestyle there is a great possibility to predict the upcoming possible diseases.

  17. Dr. Binal Dave, Dr. Devangee Mehta, Dr. Shweta Mistry

    Background: WATSU (Water Shiatsu) are therapeutic treatment methods comprising passive stretches, active movements and massage techniques administered in 35°C warm water. Pregnant women need safe methods to reduce pain, stress, and fatigue. Therefore, we conducted a pilot study evaluating the effects of WATSU on pregnancy-related complaints in pregnant women. Methods: Nine healthy pregnant women at gestational week ≥28 were included in an intervention group (receiving WATSU) and compared to eight women in a passive control group (receiving no treatment). WATSU was performed on days 1 and 4 of the study. Outcomes include physiological and psychometric as well as qualitative data. Participants in the control group completed questionnaires only. Results: WATSU was found to significantly lower participants’ levels of stress and pain and to improve their mental health-related quality of life and mood. In comparison to the passive control group, participants in the intervention group reported reduction in perceived stress from day 1 to day 8 (P=0.036), Cohen’s f=0.57). Qualitative data indicate that WATSU was appreciated as enjoyable and deeply relaxing. No negative side effects were reported. Conclusion: Our findings support the notion that WATSU yields therapeutic benefits for pregnant women and warrant further research.

  18. Gopal Roy, Dharmshila Kumari and Abha Rani

    Now a days it is difficult to imagine the food products without any food additives. Sodium benzoate (SB) is one of the most commonly used food preservative in food processing industries. The aim of present study, is to ensure the ameliorating effect of fenugreek seeds were evaluated against genotoxic effect induced by Sodium benzoate(SB) on polychromatic erythrocytes(PCEs) and normochromatic erythrocytes(NCEs) in bone marrow cells in mice using micronucleus test, twenty four adult swiss albino mice of average weight 25 gm was selected and divided into four groups. First group included control(C) with normal diet, the second group was treated with sodium benzoate at concentration (2.25 mg/ml) and the third group was treated with fenugreek seed powder(ameliorating agent) at a concentration( 400 mg/Kg) body weight and fourth concurrent group was treated with sodium benzoate and fenugreek same as 2nd and 3rd group concentration for 35 days, after that animals were sacrificed and samples were taken for study of micronucleus test, the result shows that the micronucleus formation in Sodium benzoate (SB) treated groups were significantly (2.80%) higher than the control (0.16%) and the treatment of concurrent (sodium benzoate and fenugreek) group shows the value of (0.27%), this value was significantly lower than Sodium benzoate treated group and almost equivalent to the control group. The results thus suggested that fenugreek seed showed ameliorating effect against Sodium benzoate (E211) induced genotoxicity in bone marrow cells of mice.

  19. Dr. Raja Ghosh, Dr. Palas Manna and Dr. Indranil Das

    Out of hospital cardiac arrest is quite common and in many a times it is under reported. Also often there is delay in seeking medical help and the outcome is not always positive. In this case report we want to mention about one such incident of out of hospital cardiac arrest in a young male and timely intervention and quick response from the emergency team lead to good final outcome.

  20. MORO Moro Dominique, Enseignant-Chercheur and Institut d’Ethno-sociologie (IES)

    Le développement des Etats passe par la santé de leur population, ainsi ils se donnent les moyens pour assurer leur bien-être. En Côte d’Ivoire, ce désir est possible grâce à la construction des édifices sanitaires, à la formation des agents de santé et àl’organisation des activités scientifiques. Aussi, des programmes de prise en charge vaccinales gratuite leur sont offerts pour maintenir leur santéen bonne étatdès leur naissance. Au nombre deces programmes figurent le Programme Elargie de Vaccination (PEV), qui permet à la population d’éviter certaines maladies. Malgré les actions menées par l’état pour prévenir et guérir les maladies, la couverture vaccinale dans l’air sanitaire d’Anyama reste faible. Alorscetarticleveut comprendre les raisons qui justifient l’inobservance de la vaccination des mères d’enfants de 0 à 11 mois. La méthodologie qui a présidé au recueil des données est l’approche qualitative. Les outils mobilisés sont unguide d’entretien et une grille d’observation in situ.Les résultats de l’étude montrentqu’au-delà des représentations des mères, les facteurs comme les manifestations post-vaccinales indésirables (MAPI), l’occupation des mères, la distance des ménages du lieu de vaccination, et le recours aux soins traditionnels justifient de l’inobservance de la vaccination chez les mères d’enfant de 0 à 11 mois dans ledit district.

  21. Thomas F Heston MD MS FAAFP

    This poem, essay, and song are about cultivating gratitude for our gifts, overcoming obstacles to serving others, and how a dying patient's courage reminds us that we can provide comfort and strength even in dire circumstances.

  22. K.R.M. Swamy

    Urad bean belongs to the Family Fabaceae, Subfamily Faboideae, Gnus Vigna, Species Vigna mungo. The chromosome number 2n=22. Urad bean (Vigna mungo) is a different species from mung bean/green gram (Vigna radiata). Both species are similar and are sometimes called by the same vernacular names. Urad bean has been reclassified from the Phaseolus to the Vigna genus. However, at present they are considered as 2 separate species with as major differences: flower colour (bright yellow in Vigna mungo, pale yellow in Vigna radiata), pocket on the keel (longer in Vigna mungo than in Vigna radiata), fruit shape (pods of Vigna mungo are shorter and erect on the peduncle, in Vigna radiata the pods are longer and spreading or pendulous). Three taxa are distinguished within Vigna mungo: 1) var. mungo, with large, black-seeded and early-maturing cultivars; 2) var. viridis Bose, with greenish dull or glossy seeds and late-maturing cultivars; and 3) var. silvestris Lukoki, Maréchal & Otoul, the wild type; compared to cultivated types it is smaller, more climbing, more hairy, with denser inflorescences and small seeds with prominent raised aril; it is considered the ancestor of the cultivated black gram. Common names are Black gram, urd bean, urad bean, Haricot urd. In Gujarati: aḷad, aḍad; Hindi: uṛad dāl, urad dāl; Kannada: uddu, uddina bēḷe; Marathi/Konkani: uḍid; Malayalam: uẓhunnu; Punjabi: "mānha di dāl"; Tamil: uḷuntu, ulundu, ulutham paruppu; Telugu: minumulu and uddhi pappu in Rayalaseema; Tulu: urdu bele; Urdu: urad dāl . Other Names are Adad, Arad, Karu-minimulu, Maga, Mas, Mash kalai, Masha, Matimah, Minumulu, Nallaminumulu, Tikari kalai, Uddu, Udid, Ulundu, Urad, Urd dhal, Urdi, Uzhunnu, ambérique, black gram, fagiolo urd, feijão-da-china, frijol mungo, haricot mungo, mash, mash kalai, masha, moong, mung bean, urd, urd bean, urd-bean, urdbohne, urdböna, urd|ulundu / urd. These are available in various avatars as whole, dehulled and in the form of split bean. Vigna mungo is a hairy and bushy, annual plant which has an elaborate taproot. The stem is highly branched from the base. The plant is cultivated for its edible seeds in tropical countries, especially in Asia. In addition, being an important source of human food and animal feed, it also plays an important role in sustaining soil fertility by improving soil physical properties and fixing atmospheric nitrogen. Being a drought resistant crop, it is suitable for dry land farming and predominantly used as an intercrop with other crops. This crop is itself a mini-fertilizer factory, as it has unique characteristics of maintaining and restoring soil fertility through fixing atmospheric nitrogen in symbiotic association with Rhizobium bacteria, present in the root nodules. Crop is suitable for inter cropping with different crops such as cotton, sorghum, pearl millet, green gram, maize, soybean, groundnut, for increasing production and maintaining soil fertility. In India the black gram is one of the important pulses grown in both Kharif and Rabi seasons. This crop is extensively grown in southern part of India, northern part of Bangladesh and Nepal. In Bangladesh and Nepal it is known as mash daal. It is a popular daal (legume) side dish in South Asia, that goes with curry and rice as a platter. Black gram has also been introduced to other tropical areas such as the Caribbean, Fiji, Mauritius, Myanmar and Africa. Black gram (urad bean) will be black in colour usually. But black gram in green colour has been invented by C.S.Azad University of Agriculture and Technology, Kanpur (variety Shekhar 1). In this review article on Origin, Domestication, Taxonomy, Botanical Description, Genetics and Cytogenetics, Genetic Diversity, Breeding, Uses, Nutritional Value and Health Benefits of Urad bean or Black gram are discussed.

  23. K.R.M. Swamy

    Cocoa belongs to the Family Sterculiaceae (Malvaceae/ mallow family), Genus Theobroma and species Theobroma cacao L. Cocoa is one of 26 species belonging to the genus Theobroma. In 2008, researchers proposed a new classification based upon morphological, geographic, and genomic criteria: 10 groups have been named according to their geographic origin or the traditional cultivar name. These groups are: Amelonado, Criollo, Nacional, Contamana, Curaray, Cacao guiana, Iquitos, Marañon, Nanay, and Purús. The genome of T. cacao is diploid, its size is 430 Mbp, and it comprises 10 chromosome pairs (2n=2x=20). The cocoa bean (technically cocoa seed) or simply cocoa, also called cacao is the dried and fully fermented seeds of cocoa, from which cocoa solids (a mixture of nonfat substances) and cocoa butter (the fat) can be extracted. Cocoa beans are the basis of chocolate, and Mesoamerican foods including tejate, an indigenous Mexican drink. Cocoa is the source of all the different types of chocolate found on the market today. It is made from the fruit of the cocoa tree. The tree has been cultivated for centuries by the Maya, and over time, has spread to tropical regions in the Americas, Africa, Asia and Oceania. The word cocoa comes from the Spanish word cacao, which is derived from the Nahuatl word cacauatl. The Nahuatl word, in turn, ultimately derives from the reconstructed Proto-Mixe–Zoquean word kakawa . The Amazon basin is an area that harbors genetic diversity and variability of cocoa; scattered populations of wild cocoa, cultivated cacao and related species of this genus can be found there. Cocoa beans may be cultivated under shade, as done in agroforestry. Agroforestry can reduce the pressure on existing protected forests for resources, such as firewood, and conserve biodiversity. Integrating shade trees with cocoa plants reduces risk of soil erosion and evaporation, and protects young cocoa plants from extreme heat. Agroforests act as buffers to formally protected forests and biodiversity island refuges in an open, human-dominated landscape. People around the world enjoy cocoa in many different forms, consuming more than 3 million tons of cocoa beans yearly. Once the cocoa beans have been harvested, fermented, dried and transported they are processed in several components. Processor grindings serve as the main metric for market analysis. Processing is the last phase in which consumption of the cocoa bean can be equitably compared to supply. After this step all the different components are sold across industries to many manufacturers of different types of products. Cocoa, being a highly cross pollinated and self- incompatible crop shows greater diversity. In this review article on Origin, Domestication, Taxonomy, Botanical Description, Genetics and Cytogenetics, Genetic Diversity, Breeding, Cultivation, Processing, Uses, and Health Benefits of cocoa are discussed.

  24. Liu Shaofan and Gatbonton, Ryan Ray

    This study presents the "ALICE: Autism-Led Individualized Conditioning Exercise Program," a personalized physical education approach designed for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The challenges faced by individuals with ASD in communication, behavior, and social interaction highlight the need for tailored interventions. The ALICE program aims to address this need by offering customized exercise plans based on each child's unique abilities and preferences. To assess the program's efficacy, a pre-test and post-test study was conducted involving 30 children diagnosed with autism. Comparative results indicate significant improvements in specific locomotion skills such as running, galloping, hopping, and sliding (p < 0.05). Object control skills like striking, catching, kicking, and underhand throwing also demonstrated notable enhancements (p < 0.05). While certain skills like leaping, horizontal jumping, stationary dribbling, and overhead throwing did not exhibit significant changes (p > 0.05), the overall findings underscore the positive impact of the ALICE program on enhancing targeted physical abilities among children with autism. This study emphasizes the potential of personalized interventions to promote physical well-being, psychological health, and social engagement within the autism community.

  25. Liang Zhengjun and Gatbonton, Ryan Ray

    The historical evolution of dragon boat racing in the Wuxi Basin is testament to its adaptability and resilience. Over centuries, this cultural phenomenon has undergone transformations, aligning itself with the changing contexts of society. Integral to the preservation of traditional Chinese culture, dragon boat racing champions the rich legacy of this ancient sport. Amidst the challenges posed by globalization and modernization, the sport's role in cultural heritage preservation is undeniable. The dragon boat's symbolism and rituals, spanning from its making process to pre-race ceremonies, showcase its cultural richness and ethnic identity. This preservation extends to its capacity to integrate with the contemporary pursuit of national fitness. As a revered component of Chinese tradition, the sport aligns with modern health consciousness, contributing to the larger goal of cultivating a healthier society. Moreover, dragon boat racing serves as a bridge for harmonious social development. Fostering connections across diverse demographics, the race creates an inclusive space that transcends societal barriers. Its inherently cooperative nature promotes teamwork, shared goals, and unity. Through this cultural vehicle, individuals find common ground, breaking down divides and promoting social cohesion. This inclusivity extends to individuals' psychological needs, fostering pride and a sense of belonging among participants and observers alike. This research provides a comprehensive exploration of dragon boat racing's impact within the socioecological system of the Wuxi Basin. From its historical roots to its contemporary significance, the sport emerges as a dynamic force that shapes and is shaped by its environment. Through its diverse impacts, the dragon boat race becomes a conduit for economic growth, cultural preservation, social cohesion, and enhanced well-being. It also underscores the intricate interplay between traditional cultural practices, societal dynamics, and ecological contexts, shedding light on the broader implications of sport within the fabric of society.

  26. Dr. Geetha., V.G. Ph.D.

    The study looked at the success rate of the Entrepreneurship and Skill Development Programmes (ESDP), the role of training intuitions, and the changes in beneficiaries following training in Karaikal district, Puducherry. The study is descriptive in nature, with 256 samples gathered and evaluated using appropriate statistical methods and a systematic random sampling method. The core data was gathered via well-structured questionnaires distributed by the DIC - Karaikal and CEDOK-DIC offices. The study's findings revealed that Entrepreneurship and Skill Development Programmes (ESDP) were positively connected with youth success in self-employment in the Karaikal District of Puducherry.

  27. Aigboje, O.E.

    The project evaluates the effectiveness of quality control in Dangote Cement PLC, Ibese Ogun State, Nigeria. Limestone, shale and laterite samples were from the mines to determine their right grade as well as their mixing proportion. Also samples were taken from kiln feed and the final stage of cement production. The compressive strength of the cubes is determined according to the ages of the cubes which is 2 days, 7 days and 28 days while the degree of lime content in raw materials, clinker, cement, limestone in relation to other oxides were determined using XRF and setting time and residue determination values were also estimated. The results show that the compressive strength for 2 days is between 16 – 33, for 7 days is between 28 – 47 and for 28 days is between 33 – 53. Meanwhile, percentages of CaO, C3 S, C2S and MgO in clinker are 53.57 %, 56 %, 16.47 %, 2.14 % and 62 %, 58 %, 19 %, 0 % in cement. The amounts of residue retained by different sieves were within the standard specification of 10 – 22gm. The study therefore concluded that the quality control in Dangote Cement Company is effective and cement produce meets international standard requirements and characteristics which dependable and satisfacto.

  28. Sukirman, Muhammad Sayuti, EdhySusatya and Fitri Nur Mahmudah

    The purpose of this study is to find out the implementation of fieldwork practices that have been achieved. The method used is qualitative. The research was conducted at SMK Muhammadiyah 2 Ajibarang, with participants being students of SMK Muhammadiyah 2 Ajibarang Department of Mechanical Engineering class XI and XII. Data collection was carried out using semi-structured interview techniques. The process of data analysis uses descriptive. The results of the study identified the challenges faced by respondents, among others, students' understanding of work readiness, limited facilities and infrastructure for implementing fieldwork practices. The results of further research as a reference in improvement and study materials to be able to improve learning activities by SMK Muhammadiyah 2 Ajibarang. Next, the role of student job readiness to face global competition in the world of work is the role of strengthening a sense of responsibility, discipline, skills, good communication, establishing interpersonal relationships, self-view, and health and safety. Finally, the strategy applied by the principal in building reputation at SMK Muhammadiyah 2 Ajibarang is in accordance with the vision and mission of the school (Business Entrepreneurship, Continuing Education to Higher Education, Work / Work) while continuing to develop networks, improve school facilities and infrastructure, build effective communication, and improve graduate tracing programs.

  29. Ogouvidé Akpaki, Xossou Dansou, Bouwèdèo Toi Bissang and Gnon Baba

    The amount of faecal sludge entering the undeveloped site in Attidjin is changing dramatically, exacerbating pressure on water resources around the site. The aim of the study is to assess the physicochemical quality of water in four concessions near the site. Indeed, water has been collected and treated by physicochemical methods. The organic pollution index OPI for wells is 2.25 and drilling is 3.25.However, the COD/BOD5 ratio ranges from 1.55 ± 0.34 to 2.35 ± 1.02 and exceeds 1.5 WHO values. The pH of the waters is acidic and their conductivity is very high. Metallic trace elements such as Cu, Zn, Ni and Mn have been determined and are above WHO values. For Cu, its contamination factor CF is greater than 6. The metal geoaccumulation index (Igeo) of the faecal sludge spilled is also evaluated. The results showed that Igeo de Zn is close to 2 and that of Cu is close to 1. The Attidjin site has been identified as a source of chemical groundwater pollution. The next studies will be looking at the treatment model for these faecal sludge-contaminated waters.

  30. Avinash, Rupender K Ranga, SPS Yadav and Satyavir Yadav

    Palatal recurrence of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma after completion of chemotherapy is rare clinical entity Lymphoma has a propensity for recurrence in any part of the body. PET scan is the modality of first choice to rule out recurrence of NHL after completion of chemotherapy. Biopsy is the gold standard for diagnosis and staging of Non Hodgkin Lymphoma (NHL). Histopathology and immune his to chemistry decides the treatment. In elderly patients, treatment with R-mini CHOP regime has excellent role without any complications.

  31. Avinash, Rupender K Ranga and SPS Yadav

    Foreign body oesophagus theme is related to paediatric population and uncommon in adults, however, it may be seen in high risk adults e.g., psychiatric illness, alcohol intoxication and certain pathological conditions like malignancy, achalasia, stricture and oesophageal ring. We report anti-inflammatory tablet which presented as a foreign body oesophagus in an adult female without any alimentary tract disorders which was diagnosed clinically as well as radiologically and removed with rigid oesophagoscopy under general anaesthesia in piecemeal without any complication. It is suggested that internet as not a panacea of all malodies but may land up in troubles.

  32. Chairit Siladej, Niparat Bunkul and Noppadol Thumchuea

    The purposes of this research were as follows: 1) To develop a prototype of Rajabhat University students from ChomBueng Village using the social engineering process. 2) To compare the effectiveness before and after implementing social engineering skills among Muban Chom Bueng Rajabhat University students. 3) To assess the behavior before and after utilizing social engineering skills among Muban Chom Bueng Rajabhat University students.The sample for this research was obtained through group random sampling, consisting of students from seven groups: Faculty of Education, Faculty of Science and Technology, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Industrial Technology, Faculty of Management Sciences, Faculty of Muay Thai Studies and Thai Traditional Medicine College, as well as central organization members. The total sample size was 100 individuals. This research involved developing a prototype for Muban Chom Bueng Rajabhat University students using a social engineering process. The assigned task for the students was to visit an organic farming village area inhabited by elderly community members in Moo 8, Pak Chong Subdistrict, Chom Bueng District, Ratchaburi Province. The purpose was to study the effectiveness and observe behavioral changes in prototype students regarding their use of social engineering skills. Data analysis methods included content analysis (mean, percentage), standard deviation calculations, and t-tests. The results of the study were as follows: 1) the model of Rajabhat University students Chom Bueng Village There are 4 social engineer skills, namely thinkers, communicators, coordinators, and innovators, which are the skills that must be used in students' work in community areas. 2) Comparison of effectiveness before and after using skills. The social engineers of Muban Chom Bueng Rajabhat University students found that the knowledge test results before and after using the social engineer skills of Muban Chom Bueng Rajabhat University students. It was found that the mean score before the experiment was 8.28 (S.D = 3.05) and the posttest mean score was 17.53 (S.D = 1.49). The ability to use social engineer tools after the experiment and before the experiment was significantly different. statistically significant (p > 0.05) and 3) Studying the Utilization Behavior of Social Engineering Skills among Mu Ban ChomBueng Rajabhat University Students. Social engineers after the experiment and before the experiment were significantly different (p > 0.05).

  33. Minocha Dr. Pramod Kumar, Kothwala Dr. Deveshkumar Mahendralal, Rana Nirav Mahesh and Kamli Nehal Narendra

    Mitral valve prolapsed is a prevalent condition that leads to mitral regurgitation, resulting in the backflow of blood into the left atrium. This condition imposes an increased workload on the heart, potentially leading to the weakening of the heart muscle over time. In this research study, we have presented a concise depiction of a novel mitral valve repairing device designed specifically for the treatment of mitral valve regurgitation. The proposed implant incorporates various components, including a fastener, a slotted nut, multiple crowns and anchors which are interconnected in a predefined manner to enable circular expansion of the implant. The V-shaped structure of the crowns ensure the equal stress distribution during leaflet actuation & minimizing the risk of tissue wall damage. The circularly expandable nature of the implant allows for effective treatment of annular regurgitation of the mitral valve within the native annulus. In order to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the MVR device, in-vitro testing was conducted. This approach allowed the study to be ethically viable while ensuring relevance to human physiology, cost-effectiveness, a controlled experimental environment, risk identification and mitigation, and adherence to regulatory requirements. The preliminary findings obtained from this in vitro testing provided valuable insights into the safety profile of the mitral valve repairment device.

  34. Jacinta, N. Akalazu

    The limited durability of mushrooms is a significant obstacle to their commercialization and consumption. The objective was to assess the impact of CaCl2 treatment on production characteristics such as dry matter, yield, colour, firmness, wet loss, and tissue calcium content in three consecutive flushes. The study involved applying five concentrations ofCaCl2 irrigation treatments (0.35%, 0.45%, 0.55%, 0.75%, and 1.00% CaCl2) as well as tap water (control) to the Pleurotusostreatus white strain, for 8 days at 4oC. The statistical analysis of the data indicated that CaCl2 treatment enhanced the dry matter content, increased the concentration of Ca in the mushroom tissue, and enhanced the colour, and firmness, reduced wet loss, but had little impact on the yields. A linear relation was observed between the amount of CaCl2 used and the shelf life and quality of mushrooms. The highest Ca content was found in mushrooms treated with 0.75% and 1.00% CaCl2. Concentrations of 0.35%, 0.75%, and 1.00% were seen to delay the softening of mushrooms, resulting in increased firmness, preserving freshness by preventing the occurrence of browning throughout their shelf-life. Treating the mushrooms with CaCl2 solution for 8 days at 40C could be used as asustainable production approach that could help to increase the shelf life and postharvest quality of Pleurotusostreatus, to boost its commercialization and consumption.

  35. Sanjay Prasad Gupta and Sachin Kumar Agnihotri

    Fungi are complex communities of microorganisms that damage historic monuments. The present study was made to examine the diversity of fungi associated with deteriorated monuments sites. In the present investigation, 10 samples were collected from various portions of deteriorating sites of Bateshwar Hindu temples at Morena Town of Madhya Pradesh state of India. Five fungal species isolated from deteriorated monument sites are reported in this paper. The most frequent isolated fungal species from the historic monument sites are Aspergillus niger. Present biological and mycological investigations focused on bio-deterioration of said monument by various fungal species.

  36. Akalazu Jacinta, Onu Martin Onu and Ohazurike Nathaniel Chukwu

    The proliferation of the invasive Mimosa diplotricha weed species on agricultural lands within humid tropical agroecosystems necessitates the implementation of sustainable management measures. The present study investigated the impact of varying quantities of rice husk(RH) and palm kernel shell(PKS) mulch (0, 1.5, 3.0, and 4.5 tonnes per hectare) as well as an unmulched control on the emergence and growth of Mimosa diplotricha weed in a garden egg farm. The quantification of the impact of two different mulches on the performance and yield of garden egg was also conducted. A randomized block design was implemented, consisting of three replicates conducted over the course of two growing seasons. This study presents the initial evidence of the efficacy of palm kernel shell mulch in mitigating the growth of M. diplotricha The percentage emergence of the weed under PKS treatment was much lower (20.0%) when compared to the unmulched control group (87%) in the year 2018. In the year 2019, the control group exhibited a percentage emergence of 90%, while the PKS group demonstrated a percentage emergence of 23%. The study observed the shoot and root growth, as well as biomass accumulation, were reduced, in both experimental years for the weed. Conversely, the utilization of palm kernel shell mulch resulted in a significant enhancement in garden egg biomass, leaf area, and fruit yield. The efficacy of the mulch on the performance of M.diplotricha and garden egg remained consistent over both research years, indicating no significant effect. However, the application of different mulch volumes had a discernible impact on their growth. The findings ofthis study will serve as a guiding framework for future research endeavors focused on investigating the impacts of bioherbicides on the control of tropical weeds.

  37. Marcel BAGARE and Paul Marie MOYENGA

    Internet fait son entrée en politique dans les années 1990 et est aujourd’hui considéré comme indispensable à la pratique et à la modernisation de la communication politique. Ses outils numériques qui reposent sur la contribution du public participe au débat sur les questions d’ordre général. Les attaques terroristes de ‘‘Seytenga’’ qui ont suscité l’émotion aussi bien dans la sphère politique, sociale que militaire ont trouvé comme cadre de libération de la parole les réseaux sociaux numériques dont Facebook. Dans cette recherche, l’objectif est mis sur la participation interactive des politiques à travers les médias et les usagers sur les questions centrales soulevées et débattues aux lendemains des attaques de ‘‘Seytenga’’. L’usage de RSN par les acteurs (politiques et les publics) à propos de ‘‘Seytenga’’ permettent d’aborder des thèmes comme les stratégie politiques sur les questions sécuritaires, les conflits communautaires et la confusion faite par les usagers sur les Peulhs et le terrorisme. Si les débats sur les réseaux sociaux permettent de toucher aux questions liées au terrorisme qui semblent taboues, ils laissent des interrogations importantes en suspend comme la capacité réelle des politiques et aussi de militaires à lutter contre les attaques des populations civiles au Burkina Faso notamment au sahel.

  38. K.R.M. Swamy

    Finger millet, also known as ragi belongs to the Family: Graminae/ Poaceae, Subfamily: Chloridoideae, Genus: Eleusine and Species: Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertn. Finger Millet is an important millet grown extensively in various regions of India and Africa. It ranks sixth in production after wheat, rice, maize, sorghum and bajra in India. Finger millet is one of the important millets that are mostly consumed by the people in Africa and Asia. It is native to subsistence farmers and poor people in rural parts. The seeds of finger millet have rich nutrients providing energy and nutrients to the rural population. Notably, the calcium content of finger millet is much higher (10-fold) than any other cereal crop. Better resistance to both biotic and abiotic stresses and the long shelf-life of seeds make this crop a crop of the future. Although it received less attention in the first green revolution, rich nutrient profile and climate resilience nature of this crop have attracted the researchers even in Western countries in recent years. Main cultivation areas are parts of eastern and southern Africa – particularly Uganda, Kenya, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Zimbabwe, Zambia, Malawi, and Tanzania – and parts of India and Nepal.  It is also grown in southern Sudan  and "as far south" in Africa as Mozambique.  In India, ragi is mostly grown and consumed in Rajasthan, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Orissa, Maharashtra, Kumaon region of Uttarakhand and Goa; of which, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu and Uttarakhand produce the bulk of ragi in the country. There are significant yield variations observed even among the top producing States. In Karnataka, ragi growing areas are concentrated in the southern maidan. Tumakuru district is the leading producer of ragi, followed by Ramnagar, Bengaluru Rural, Hassan, Mandya, Kolar, Chikballapur, Shivamogga, Chikkamagaluru, Chamarajnagar, and Davanagere districts. Finger millet or ragi occupies significant position in India in terms of production and utilization and in entire world. It is one of the most stable food crop. Finger millet is superior to rice and wheat with respect to mineral, fiber and micronutritient contents. Finger millet is a nutrient rich crop. Finger millet is being used as food (grains) in developing countries and as animal feed (straw) in developed countries indicating that it is considered as a poor man's food. Ca is required for a number of basic regulatory functions such as transmission of nerve impulses, contraction and relaxation of muscles, blood coagulation cascade, activation of enzymes, stimulation of hormonal secretion and so on in human body and so on. In the Deccan, ragi is prepared in the form of rotti, bhakri, dosa, idli, porridge, pudding, or a large sphere (mudde) that is broken into pieces that are dipped into sambar. In Sanksrit, the iron-rich ragi is referred to as nrtta-kondaka, meaning dancing grains. Legend holds that Lord Rama, Indra and Hanuman all favoured ragi over rice, on the merits of its immediate and lasting attractiveness. Its merits go beyond looks: it is rich in minerals and unusually for a cereal boasts an amino acid, methionine, that is normally found in significant amounts largely in eggs, meats and fish. In this review article on Origin, Domestication, Taxonomy, Botanical Description, Genetics and Cytogenetics, Genetic Diversity, Processing, Uses, Breeding, and Health Benefits of Ragi are discussed.

  39. Dr. Merin George, Dr. Renji K Paul, Dr. Ramyashree N.R. and Dr. Aravind S Raju

    CBCT has upscaled the way diagnosis and treatment planning are performed in recent times. It has become an integral part in planning Temporary Anchorage Devices, Orthognathic surgery, Transverse expansion, Impactions etc. The drawbacks of traditional 2D radiology where three-dimensional structures are viewed on a two-dimensional view has been overcome with the current technique with all due respects to ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Applicable) principle. This review article gives a description about the potential applications of CBCT in the field of orthodontics.

  40. Dr. Abdul Saheer, Dr. Sangeetha M., Dr Shabeera Hussain P V., Dr. Safwa Rahna, Dr. Shahana, Dr. Sana Yousef and Dr. Megha J Nair

    Child's dental fear has been reported as one of the reasons that increase, aggravate dental diseases and facilitate other oral diseases. This study is aimed to describeprevalence of dental fear and to assess the relationship between dental caries, gingival status and dental fear in 6-12year-old children at Malappuram District. The sample comprised of 300 children aged 6-12 years. The questionnaire examined the profile of participants and assessed their dental fear using the Children's Fear Survey Schedule-Dental Subscale (CFSS-DS). Children have “dental fear” when the total CFSS-DS score is greater than or equal to 53. By contrast, those without dental fear gain the total point which is less than 53. After completing the questionnaire, a dental examination was undertaken by using OHI-S Index, DMFT Index and Gingival Index. The 3 indices were found to be higher in fearful child [OHI-S Index (3.17± 0.45), Gingival Index (2.34 ± 0.45), DMFT Index (7.35± 1.65) when compared with fearless child. Our findings demonstrated the status of 6-12year-old children's dental fear at Malappuram district and reported that dental caries and gingival status had correlation with child dental fear score (p < 0.05).

  41. Dr. Prathvi Nandalike, Dr. Rahul R Raikar, Dr. Nimrah Fathima, Dr. Sandhya Rani and Dr. Arpitha

    Introduction: 78 year old female presented to the Emergency with altered sensorium since two hours with the BP OF 240/120mmHg with the GCS of 9/15. Right plantar extensor with pupils bilateral equal and reactive with normal fundus, bronchial breath sounds on left infra clavicular and mammary area. Investigation: Blood parameters showed microcytic hypochromic picture with haemoglobin of 10.9,increased total counts of 12000 and normal platelets renal and liver function tests, normal serum electrolytes and urine analysis. ECG showed lvh strain, Chest x-ray showed left upper lobe non homogenous opacity present suggestive of pneumonia. SPUTUM CBNAAT came positive MTB Detectable HRCT Thorax confirmed pneumonia suggestive of tubercular origin. CT BRAIN showed? Granuloma/ ring enhancing lesion in left parietal lobe. MRI BRAIN suggestive of ring enhancing lesion mostly probably tuberculoma. 2D Echo shows hypertensive heart disease with concentric left ventricular hypertrophy with normal systolic function and grade 2 LV diastolic dysfunction. Discussions: Patient was diagnosed to have accelerated hypertension with sputum positive pulmonarytuberculosis and Tuberculoma inthe left parietal lobe. Patient was started on ATT with pyridoxine after confirmation of PTB and antihypertensives. Patient came for follow up after 1week with all parameters normal and no vomiting or headache. Conclusions: We have come to a conclusion that any patients who presents with altered sensorium needs to suspect neuro infection. Clinical examination along with investigations will give you a clear picture and confirmed diagnosis of the same.

  42. Chandan Kumar Pandit, Anamol Kumar Lal and Uma Shanker Singh

    This case report delves into the analysis of the effect of temperature change in rainfall pattern . Climate change is becoming a threat to the environment and livelihood of human. It is also affecting the economy of country as it is affecting agriculture process. Jharkhand being agriculture dominated state, also got affected by climate change. Correlation study of temperature and rainfall in India were positively correlated during January and May, but negatively correlated during July. In this paper, a correlation study of temperature and rainfall is done for the period 1973-2020. Pearson’s correlation study for Ranchi signifies that the temperature and rainfall are negatively correlated for all the seasons and is significant for summer season whereas it is moderately correlated annually. The monthly correlation study signifies that the temperature and rainfall is negatively correlated for all month except November and January and is significant for month March, April, May, June, September and December. The month of November and January have positive correlation.

  43. Ni Nyoman Kristina, I Putu Gede Adiatmika, I Nyoman Adiputra, dan Ketut Tirtayasa

    Background: Dental filling service procedures in the dental clinic of the health center with the application of the total ergonomics approach no longer seem appropriate. Unergonomic work attitudes, long working hours and repetitive movements in awkward positions are the causes of increased musculoskeletal complaints so it is deemed necessary to overcome with a total ergonomic approach. Objective: This study aimed to improve physiological responses in the form of decreased musculoskeletal complaints, workload and fatigue in dentists through the application of actions with a total ergonomics approach. Materials and Methods: This research was a true experiment with a same-subject design. There were 18 research subjects actively involved in this study who were taken by simple randomization. This study was conducted on dentists who performed dental filling services in the dental clinic of the Denpasar city health center from October 2022 to December 2022. Data collection on physiological responses in the form of musculoskeletal complaints, workload and fatigue was carried out for four consecutive days while working in Period 1 and while working in Period 2. Period 1 was an activity carried out by dentists conventionally without intervention, while in period 2 dentists worked using a total ergonomic approach. The data obtained were then statistically analyzed with a significance level of p<0.05. Results: The results of the analysis showed that the average of musculoskeletal complaints decreased significantly by 7.28% (p<0.05); workload decreased significantly by 4.46% (p<0.05); and the level of fatigue decreased significantly by 8.23% (p<0.05). Conclusion: It can be concluded that the total ergonomics approach can reduce musculoskeletal complaints, workload and fatigue in dentists working on dental filling services in the dental clinic of the Denpasar City health center. The results of this study can be used as a clinical reference in implementing interventions to improve physiological responses in the form of a decrease in musculoskeletal complaints, workload and fatigue of dentists while doing their work.

  44. Dr. Boda Rambabu

    Hyperlipidaemia is the greatest risk factor of coronary heart disease. Currently available hypolipidemic drugs have been associated with number of side effects. Herbal treatment for hyperlipidaemia has no side effects and is relatively cheap and locally available.Literature claims that Saponins are able to reduce hyperlipidemia. Based on high content of saponin in herbal plants, Garlic (Allium sativum L.) was selected and focus on the anti-hyperlipidemic activity of ethanolic seed extract of Allium sativum Lagainst triton-WR1339 induced hyperlipidemia in rats. Hyperlipidemia was induced in Wistar rats by Intraperitoneal (I.P) injections of Triton WR-1339 at a dose of 400 mg/kg body weight. Allium sativum L was administered orally at a dose of 200 mg/kg to triton WR-1339 induced hyperlipidaemic rats. After administration of Allium sativum L shows a significant decrease in the levels of cholesterol, phospholipids, triglycerides, LDL, VLDL and significant increase in the level of HDL in serum and liver tissues against triton induced hyperlipidaemic in rats. Therefore it effectively suppressed the triton induced hyperlipidemia in rats, suggesting the potential protective role in Coronary heart disease.

  45. Priyanka Thukral, Shreya Ghosh, Hunny Sunil Khaitan and Rik Chaterjee

    This case report delves into the fascinating realm of full mouth rehabilitation, focusing on the pivotal aspect of restoring the vertical dimension in comprehensive oral rejuvenation. The aim of this study is to elucidate the clinical significance and transformative effects of vertical dimension restoration within the context of full mouth rehabilitation. The case involved a patient exhibiting substantial dental deterioration and loss of vertical dimension, adversely affecting both functional aspects and facial aesthetics. Through meticulous examination and thorough treatment planning, a comprehensive approach was devised to tackle the multifaceted challenges. This case report showcases the impact of full mouth rehabilitation and the restoration of the vertical dimension on oral rehabilitation. The patient demonstrated significant improvements in functional capabilities, facial proportions, and overall patient satisfaction.

  46. Nguyen Trong Hung

    The purpose of the article is to analyse the economic role of the Hoa (or ethnic Chinese) in South Vietnam under the Saigon regime (1954–1975). The article argues that the Hoa in South Vietnam under the Saigon regime were a key economic force, having a dominant role in many of South Vietnam’s key economic activities such as commerce, industry, and traffic. On the one hand, the Hoa contributed to the economic growth of South Vietnam during this period; on the other hand, they also made the Saigon government feel worried about the dominant role of this community’s economic force.

  47. Thomas F. Heston MD and Charya Khun MA

    Chat GPT offers interactive and personalized learning, granting students access to vast medical knowledge and potentially enhancing critical thinking and problem-solving skills. However, challenges arise, including misinformation risks, reduced human interaction, and ethical considerations. Future physicians' professional identity and autonomy may be threatened, while over-reliance on Chat GPT can compromise patient safety. Striking a balance is crucial, emphasizing technology integration while preserving humanistic aspects. Mitigation strategies like human oversight, curated content, and critical appraisal skills can address these concerns. Responsible integration empowers future physicians and upholds core medical values, maximizing benefits and preparing students for new complexities introduced by advanced technology in medicine.

  48. Dr. Dharmendra Bhatti and Ms. Bhumika Patel

    Voting is considered the fundamental right for being a citizen of a country; it allows a citizen to elect an appropriate candidate to form the ruling government. Electronic voting is better than the ballot voting system, but it has a lot of problems that cannot be overlooked. In this paper we have proposed that by creating an electronic system we can limit the tampering of the count by doing it using computer based system. Initially A user can be authenticated using many different techniques, here we have listed some of them and provided the more accurate combination for it. The problem with the existing system which works on a much basic and less technical standards, which occupies a lot of man power as well as the cost and the false authentication which is quite possible in the existing system that cannot be overlooked. Further we have learned that implementing the authentication using biometric is much reliable and efficient for e-voting among all the other techniques.

  49. Odero Everlyne Akoth

    The COVID-19 pandemic has caused great disruption worldwide. In connection to this, over 43 million people have confirmed diagnosis of the disease, and over 1 million people have died from it. Though it is well documented that a number of factors have been linked to the reduction of the risk of COVID-19 infection ranging from social distancing, mask wearing and washing of hands, Intervention could fight against the spread of the COVID-19 virus. In this paper, we used maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) method, to fit logistic regression model; first to data set without intervention then to data set with effect of intervention incorporated. This was done with an aim of determining the effect of intervention on COVID-19prevalence in Kenya. Model parameters were estimated by MLE method. AKaike’s information criteria (AIC) was used to compare the two models fitted to data so as to determine the better performing model. The study used data sets of 2019-2020(data obtained before vaccination intervention set in) and 2021-2023(data obtained after incorporation of vaccination intervention effect)COVID-19 data sets for Kenya ( from the Centre for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)).The model fitted to the data set which contained the effect of Vaccination intervention gave a lower AIC value of 1293 compared to the one fitted to the data set which did not contain the effect of Vaccination intervention which gave AIC value of 1389. The logistic regression model fitted to data set containing the effect of vaccination intervention therefore had a better performance as indicated by the AIC value. The results of this study revealed a high prevalence of COVID-19 in the data set which had no effect of vaccination intervention. Whereas, a low prevalence of COVID – 19 was realized with data set which had effect of vaccination intervention incorporated. This indicates that the existence of vaccination in Kenya has played a significant role in reducing the prevalence of COVID-19 disease. The results of this study would be of much benefit to the health sector in monitoring and sensitizing people on the effect of Intervention on COVID-19 prevalence.

  50. Ms. Dipal Gohil and Dr. Vijay Pithadia

    E-learning is both a crisis and a turning point for education, because when the COVID-19 epidemic swept the world, governments around the world implemented the policy of suspending classes without delaying students’ learning. Since last year, the global experiment began, and schools have carried out distance teaching, e-learning, etc.The word "smart" refers to intelligence, wisdom, efficiency, and effectiveness. Therefore, smart education refers to a learning medium that enables learners to think intelligently, act effectively, and solve problems effectively.The term "e-learning" has different interpretations and nouns with the development of different technological tools, such as: Internet based training, web-based training, or online learning, online learning, distance learning, etc., but basically all are the application of computers and network technology media in learning situations, including synchronous and asynchronous network learning.The aim of this paper is to develop a hierarchy framework in assessing the key success factors of the importance of smart E-learning education systems. Compare the relative weight values with AHP; it clearly understands the impact of the criteria on the importance of E-learning. Through this dual assessment model, it can more thoroughly assess the impact of the guidelines, and further provide a gradual increase in the use of E-learning system. Also, it is an important reference and substantive recommendations to the smart E-learning education providers.

  51. Dr. Entisar D. Mustafa

    The study was conducted to search in the laboratories of the College of Agriculture, Tikrit University, as the raw materials were provided from the local markets, and pieces of carrots were added in varying proportions (5, 10, 15, 20)%, and the coefficients were named (L4, L3, L2, L1). In relation to the addition in carrot pieces, while L was considered the standard treatment to which carrot pieces were not added, and a chemical analysis, sensory evaluation, and evaluation of antioxidants and total phenols were conducted on the studied samples in different treatments and the mineral elements in them, it was noted that a rise in moisture content Fat, protein, ash and fiber in treatment L4, in which the percentage of addition was 20% of the carrot pieces used, which amounted to (4.55, 8.09, 3.67, 2.29, 2.32)%, respectively, while the chemical estimates of moisture content, fat, protein, ash and fiber decreased in the standard treatment compared to In other treatments to reach (4.03, 7.09, 2.77, 1.13, 0.56)%, respectively, while carbohydrates had increased in the standard treatment only to record (83.42)%, but the lowest percentage of carbohydrates was in treatment L4, which recorded (79.08%). When conducting the sensory evaluation, the characteristics differed significantly, as the characteristics of color, smell and texture had increased in treatment L2 to be (19, 19, 29) respectively, while the taste had increased in treatments L2 and L4 to be 29 for each. An estimate was made for the total antioxidants and phenols, as the study showed a rise in them with the increase in the percentage of addition of carrot pieces in the treatments. The highest percentage of antioxidants estimated by the DPPH reagent was 27.78% for the L4 treatment. The highest percentage of total phenols was recorded in the treatment L4, which amounted to 60.61 mg / 100 gm, but the lowest content of them was in the standard treatment L, which recorded 55.53 mg / 100 gm. The estimation of mineral elements showed a rise in their proportions with an increase in the percentage of addition of carrot pieces in the studied treatments.

  52. N’DRI Kouakou Anatole and TRAORE Kassoum

    Cet article se propose de faire l’analyse sociologiquedu mécanisme de prise en charge sociale des élèves filles en grossesse ou mères du système scolaire ivoirien, particulièrement dans le département de Korhogo. Il s’agit d’une étude essentiellement qualitative qui s’inscrit dans une approche compréhensive et s’appuie sur les observations et les entretiens (individuels et des focus group). Les techniques d’échantillonnage par choix raisonné et de boule de neige ont été utilisés pour la sélection des participants. Au total, un échantillon de quarante (40) personnes ont été interrogées (23 personnels d’encadrementscolaire et 17 parents d’élèves). Les résultats révèlent que le phénomène d’arrêt des cours touche plus les filles qui rencontrent des difficultés dans la prise en charge en milieu familial, pendant la grossesse et après l’accouchement. Aussi, notre étude révèleque, plus la nouvelle mesure de prise en charge défend les droits des élèves filles en grossesse à continuer les cours si leur santé leur permet, plus celles qui n’ont pas encore été enceintes essayerons de faire comme leurs camarades. Cela justifie la théorie de l’imitation de Gabriel Tarde, basée sur l’imitation des acteurs sociaux dans l’ensemble de leurs rapports et échanges. L’étude a montré également des facteurs sociaux qui favorisent les grossesses scolaires aboutissant à l’abandon scolaires. Ce sont, la curiosité et l’ignorance des filles élèves. Ces filles cherchent à savoir ou à découvrir l’état dans lequel se trouve une jeune fille en grossesse et cela aboutisse à des résultats défavorables. L’un des facteurs qui participe à l’émergence des grossesses précoces est la démissionde la famille dans ses rôles régaliens. Cette démission de la famille est arrivée à renforcer le comportement sexuel des élèves. Il ressort des entretiens que la majorité soit (90%) des grossesses sont contractées en période de congé scolaire, le moment où la famille doit avoir un contrôle sur les enfants.

  53. Dr. Sumona Bhattachharya and Ritesh Ranjan Lashe

    This research paper aims to study the initiative taken by Government to fulfil the shortage of housing in India and various schemes that runs in the geographical area of Bilaspur city of Chhattisgarh State. The Beneficiaries view on the scheme of Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojna (PMAY) has been analysed with the methodology of survey. PMAY is a scheme introduced by Government of India where the main objective is to provide house to each and everyone who are unprivileged, below poverty line and not being able to build their own house. There are various other schemes available for the same objective which are implemented by the State. Through this study we understand the role of Government in development of the life style of the people who face difficult to build their own home and provide them with all the facilities, good living environment, basic amenities like Electricity, water and hygiene. Further the study shows the detail overview of the development in living standard of people and their economic status.

  54. Dr. Kirti Nirmal, Dr. Seema Gangar, Dr. Manoj Kumar Meena, Dr. Shukla Das and Dr. N.P Singh

    An operation theatre (OT) is a very complex setup, which presents numerous challenges for both patients and health care providers. A safe OT environment decreases the susceptibility of patients to postoperative infections. The microbiological profile and bacterial colonization and the microbial contamination of air quality indoor effects in the operating theatres of a tertiary care hospital were studied. Bacterial species in the OTs were isolated and identified by standard conventional methods. Air quality surveillance of OTs was done by settle plate method. A total of 342 samples were collected from surfaces, articles and of the various OTs. Out of these, 32 (9.3%), samples showed bacterial growth. The predominant species isolated was Aerobic spore forming bacilli 20 (62%) followed by Coagulase negative Staphylococcus (CONS) with 8 (25%) isolates followed by 3 (89.3%) Micrococcus species and one (3.1%) Methicillin sensitive Staphylococcus aureus were isolated. Analysis of the OTs air samples showed the least colony forming unit (cfu) rate of air (27cfu/m3) in ophthalmology OT and the highest rate of 133 cfu/m3 in general surgery OT was very high. The study shows that the frequent use of OTs, traffic is more, more patient load and infrequent cleaning between surgeries can cause high CFU counts.

  55. Dr. Bishnupriya Mohanty, Karapurkar Aditi Uday, Karuna Kishore Palyekar and Dr. Sangram Keshari Das

    The Daivavyapashraya Chikitsa is one of the most underappreciated ways of therapy, and many illnesses are not healed at their source. The success rate of therapy will be improved if a balanced approach is used that involves all Trividha Chikitsa. Daivavyapashraya Chikitsa is performed in Numerous parts of the world, consciously or unknowingly, as a part of religious traditions, but it goes beyond That and emphasizes on Spirituality. As a result, recording of certain traditions that are quickly becoming Obsolete, as well as a comprehensive analysis of Daivavyapashraya Chikitsa (divine therapy) become necessary. In This article, an attempt is made to explore the concept of Daivavyapashraya Chikitsa.

  56. N’guessan Verdier ABOUO, Yevi Delphine N’GUESSAN, Didier Narcisse AMANE, Yacouba KAMARA and Nogbou Emmanuel ASSIDJO

    The cashew apple is a product of proven nutritional importance and perishable due to its high water content. A reduction of this would allow its conservation and can be done by osmosis-drying in order to limit the loss of nutrients. This drying study aimed to describe the behavior of water outflow in cashew apples treated with molasses and sucrose solutions in order to predict their final water content. Drying experiments were carried out on fresh cashew slices in an oven at 50°C by static gravimetric weighing. The drying data was used to create and simulate the evolution of the water content from an artificial neural network (multilayer perceptron). The results indicate that the 4-2-1 structure artificial neural network exhibited the best abilities to predict and simulate the end-of-drying water content of cashew apples treated with R² > 0.9999 and EQM (9.7252 E -09) <10-9.





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