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IJCR is following an instant policy on rejection those received papers with plagiarism rate of more than 20%. So, All of authors and contributors must check their papers before submission to making assurance of following our anti-plagiarism policies.





January 2022

  1. Tejeda Rosales María Elena

    Experimentally it is not possible to calculate the energy nor the structure of the substrate during an enzymatic reaction. With the aid of in silico analysis, it is possible to follow the energetic and structural change of the conformers (products and substrates) that are involved in an enzymatic reaction. In the present work, an in silico analysis of the Cefamandole’s structural and energetic change was conducted; both, inside and outside the active site of the β-lactamase K73A fromMycobacterium tuberculosis. The energy for each conformer was determined by molcular mechanics. Cefamandole’s non-hydrolyzed energy, before entering the active site of β-lactamase K73A, was of 333.16 kJ/mol; inside the active site the value changed to 342.06 kJ/mol. The energy of the hydrolyzed Cefamandole inside the active site was of 323.86 kJ/mol; while outside of the active site the energy was 321.76 kJ/mol. The energy surge of the non-hydrolyzed Cefamandole inside the active site is due to a conformational change required to occupy the active site. The decrease in energy of the hydrolyzation makes the reaction irreversible. Hydrolyzed Cefamandole outside of the active site has the lowest energy, which explains the escape from the active site.

  2. Babasaheb Kangune

    21st century is essentially an era of information, communication and technology. New economic policy opened up thousands of career opportunities to the aspiring youth. Because of globalization and privatization, there is no place for any kind of compromise as far as qualitative metrics are concerned. Students have to prove their potentialities in order to create their own position in the career market. Students of humanities especially, languages and social sciences have good career opportunities in the fields like marketing, BPO/ KPO industry, banking, finance, insurance, management, HR sections of MNCs, business administration, counseling, media, entertainment and journalism, editing and translation, event management, compering, hoteling and tourism, public relations departments etc. No doubt our students work hard and achieve good marks in the examination. They obtain good score in the final year examination. Students are having necessary hard skills in computer, Tally, MS Word, Excel, animation, PowerPoint etc. Our students lack focused approach which is a key factor in becoming successful in the life. Workshops on ‘Soft Skills’ at UG level provide the best platform for students to realize their potentialities and make career planning accordingly. The present research focuses on enhancing employable skills among the UG students of languages and social sciences through soft skills.

  3. Zineddine ET-TAHOURI, Jihane OUSSAGA, Salma AMRANI IDRISSI, Maryem TARMIDI, Abdellah DAMI and Abderrahman BOUKHIRA

    Introduction: Dyslipidemia is a major cause of premature mortality, morbidity and high healthcare costs. It has an important impact in terms of public health and most of them are the result of clinical complications secondary to atherosclerotic lesions of arteries. The aim of the study was to understand the pattern of dyslipidemia among the type 2 diabetic adults’ patient and to understand its association with glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c). Materials and Methods: This is a descriptive retrospective cross-sectionalstudy done over one year in the Military Hospital (Marrakesh, Morocco). To assess the relationship between glycemic control (as reflected by HbA1c) and serum lipid profile in type 2 diabetic patients which included a total of 200 type 2 diabetic patients (104 males and 96 females). Results: The sera were analyzed for HbA1c fasting blood glucose (FBG), total cholesterol, triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. The levels of HbA1c, FBG, and LDL did not differ significantly between males and females. Female patients showed significantly correlation between HbA1c and FBG. There was a highly significant correlation between HbA1c and FBG, both HbA1c and FBG exhibited direct correlations with cholesterol, TG, and LDL and inverse correlation with HDL; the magnitude of significance for all these lipid parameters being greater with HbA1c than FBG. There was a linear relationship between HbA1c and dyslipidemia. The levels of serum cholesterol and TG were significantly higher and HDL significantly lower in patients with poor glycemic control as compared to patients with good glycemic control. Conclusion: The findings of this study showed that HbA1c is useful biomarker of long-term glycemic control, also a good predictor of lipid profile.

  4. Dr. Meghna Chotaliya and Baijul Anand Mehta, CA.

    Today is the world of tough competition; any industries in the world are under a constant dilemma to reduce cost and improve quality. To overcome this dilemma and confusion, company are required to follow some modern techniques like Active Base Costing, Target Costing, life cycle costing, Kaizen costing and many other available techniques. But most popular among this are Kaizen costing. By using the kaizen techniques company can increase their production and improved overall efficiency of the company. This paper discussed on different literature that have been published in the field of Kaizen techniques and present a Review of literature. This review of literature will help to the new researched for their further studies.

  5. Mahamat Mouta Djirabi

    L’objectif de ce travail est d’évaluer l’influence de l’instabilité sociopolitique sur les flux d’Investissement Direct Etranger entrant au Tchad. Pour y parvenir, un modèle de régression linéaire multiple nous a permis de mettre en évidence cette relation. En utilisant la méthode des Moindres Carrés Ordinaires (MCO) sur la période 1980-2017, il ressort que l’instabilité sociopolitique influence négativement et de façon significative les flux d’IDE entrant au Tchad. Le renforcement du dialogue politique, la cohésion sociale et les bonnes politiques de redistribution de la richesse nationale doivent être l’une des principales priorités des autorités administratives.

  6. Rakotondramanana Andry Lova Herizo, Andrianarizaka Marc Tiana, Randriamiharisoa Mamy Alfa and Rakotomalala Fanja Tiana Claudia

    Humanitarian aid is currently experiencing a major economic and organizational crisis. Initially direct aid has been prioritized and standardized with a view to efficiency, making it counter-productive and exposing it to numerous criticisms. This is why we are currently witnessing a refocusing on the ethics of action, one of the most explicit symptoms of which seems to be the increasing attention paid to resilience. It becomes problematic, then, to ask how ethics in humanitarianism contribute to building the resilience of the vulnerable for socially sustainable development. Based on the hypothesis that ethical humanitarianism plays an important role in building the resilience of beneficiaries towards sustainable development, this work attempts to assess the extent to which ethical humanitarianism contributes to the resilience of the vulnerable. This work attempts to assess the impact of ethical humanitarianism on the level of resilience and development of beneficiaries through a sample of 300 beneficiaries.

  7. Dr. Safia Farooqui

    Emotional Intelligence (EI) is the ability to be able to be in control of self and others’ emotions and behaviour in an effective way. It also involves the capability to distinguish one emotion from another hereby utilizing this information to monitor and guide one's thoughts and behaviour. Studies have already pointed out that emotional intelligence is vital element contributing towards success in an individual's personal and professional life. A person who is highly emotionally intelligent demonstrates greater potential to understand, regulate and control emotions at work thus resulting in increased productivity and performance. This research will explore how socio- demographic elements impact EI and performance of employees. The data was collected from 100 retail employees and was analyzed with One Way ANOVA in SPSS from that the significance value less than .05 Key findings indicate that EI dimensions such as self-regulation, self-awareness a n d relationship management are significantly related with designation, job basis, income and age. Job performance dimensions of commitment and task orientation are significantly with type of family, designation, job basis and age.

  8. Rayan Almehmadi, Rayan Niyazi, Hani Almalki

    Aim: To assess the knowledge, attitude and believe regarding influenza vaccination in family medicine residents. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out among family medicine residents at Makkah Al-Mokrramah joint program, Saudi Arabia. A questionnaire was administered by web based survey in September – November 2020. It composed of 5 sections; general information of participants, their awareness, knowledge, attitude and practices regarding influenza vaccine. Results: One hundred and sixty three (n=163) family medicine residents have included in the final report. More than half of them (51.5%) were females. Almost half of them (49.7%) were aware of the published guidelines Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP), Scientific Committee for Influenza and Pneumococcal Vaccination (SCIPV) or CDC for influenza immunization; particularly among R4 residents, p=0.034. Male physicians were more likely than females to believe that administering the influenza vaccine should be part of their medical practice (91.1% vs. 78.6%), p=0.026. Most (76.1%) of the family medicine residents have taken routine vaccination against influenza. Among those who did not routinely vaccinated against influenza (n=39), the main reasons were believing that the vaccine will make them sick (43.6%), dislike needles (17.9%), no big deal as they had flu before (17.9%) and believing that the flue is not so serious (17.9%). The commonest reported barriers preventing family medicine physicians from giving influenza vaccine to some or all patients were concerns regarding vaccine safety for patients (54.0%), availability (42.3%) and concerns regarding vaccine safety for them (30.7%). Discussion: Knowledge level of family medicine residents in Makkah Al-Mokrramah regarding influenza vaccination is acceptable in many parts; however it is defective in some other parts. Their attitude is overall encouraging and coverage rate is acceptable, but can be improved.

  9. Dr. Shrikant Kol, Dr. Bharat Kumar Chaudhari and Prof. R.M. Mishra

    The degradation pathways of a variety of petroleum hydrocarbons (e.g., aliphatics and polyaromatics) have been shown to employ oxidizing reactions; however, these pathways differ greatly because of the specific oxygenases found in different bacterial species. For instance, some bacteria can metabolize specific alkanes, while others break down aromatic or resin fractions of hydrocarbons. Many normal and extreme bacterial species have been isolated and utilized as biodegraders for dealing with petroleum hydrocarbons. This phenomenon is related to the chemical structure of petroleum hydrocarbon components. These organism are showing similarity to Bacillus pumilus, B. subtilis, Micrococcus luteus, Alcaligenes faecalis, Enterobacter cloacae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa respectively

  10. Dr. OlusayoAderonke Shorinwa and Maxwell Inemeowaji Egart

    Smilax anceps leaves are used in the treatment of arthritis and rheumatism in traditional medicine. The anti-inflammatory effects of ethanol leaf extract of Smilax anceps were investigated using carrageen an and egg albumin assays with in vitro human red blood cell (HRBC) membrane stabilization method. Fifty albino rats divided into twenty-fivealbino rats for each in-vivo model were then sub-divided into five groups of five rats each and were used. The first three groups received doses of the extract at (250, 500 and 1000mg/kg) respectively, while the control groups were treated with ibuprofen 20mg/kg and distilled water. All administrations were done through the oral route. Inflammation was induced by right hind limb sub-plantar administration of 0.1ml of 1% w/v carrageenan injection and 0.1 ml of fresh egg albumin in the respective in-vivo models. Preliminary phytochemical screening revealed the presence of steroids, tannins and flavonoids while the LD50 was found to be greater than 5000mg/kg. There was a statistically significant (P<0.05-0.01) inhibition of inflammation in both carrageen an and egg albumin induced inflammation when the extracts at doses of (250, 500 and 1000mg/kg) were compared against the positive control group at 5 hours, and at 300 minutes respectively in both models after induction of inflammation. The plant extract also showed a good inhibition of erythrocyte membrane lysis. The findings showed that ethanol leaf extract of Smilax anceps possesses anti-inflammatory and membrane stabilizing activities.

  11. Eleonora Alexandrovna Yurieva, Maria Vasilievna Kushnareva and Ekaterina Sergeevna Vozdvizhenskaya

    The review presents the main mechanisms of the formation of nephropathies in children mainly with endocrine pathology. The effect of hormones on the structure and function of the kidneys in healthy children and in children with endocrine diseases has been shown. The issues of modern diagnosis and treatment of combined renal and hormonal dysfunction are considered. Data on congenital and hereditary disorders in children with kidney and endocrine system diseases are presented

  12. Dr. Rahul Manchanda and Dr. Apoorva Dave

    Introduction and background: Robotic revolution has influenced all aspects of human life, the field of medicine is one of them. Robotic technology is the latest in surgical armamentarium that looks very promising. Versius is the next-generation robotic system, developed by a British private limited company CMR surgical, which has been useful in conducting over 1000 surgeries globally by November 2020 since its introduction in the year 2018. The aim of the present review article is to give an objective evaluation of robotic technology and to share our experience on total robotic hysterectomy with or without salpingo-ophorectomy using Versius robotic system. Methods: A review of the literature on robotics was undertaken using google search. Various studies describing the history and development of robots in the field of surgery were included in the present study. Epidemiological, clinical, laboratory, and radiological characteristics and intraoperative and follow-up data were obtained with data collection forms from electronic medical records and history given by six patients planned for hysterectomy with Versius robot admitted in PSRI Hospital, Delhi. All the patients had completed their family and they underwent Hysterectomy with or without bilateral salpingo-ophorectomy by Versius robotic system. Results: During the course of this study for seven patients who underwent total robotic hysterectomy with or without bilateral salpingoophorectomy average duration was 207 minutes and the indication for the surgery in five patients was abnormal uterine bleeding and in two patients it was postmenopausal bleeding. The average intraoperative blood loss was 120 ml. six out of seven patients were discharged the next day after the procedure. Conclusion: The evolution of robotic armamentarium in the surgical field is no doubt a milestone. We figured out that, robotic surgery can be highly advantageous with the learning curve and appropriate training and skill, along with proper patient selection. Versius robotic system is a revolution in the healthcare system, not only it is doctor friendly also it is patient-friendly too. For minimally invasive gynecologic surgery, Robot-assisted surgery provides an alternative surgical tool.

  13. Hüseyin Şahin and Nelisa Türkoğlu

    This study aimed to synthesize and characterize nickel magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs), and evaluate their anticancer effects on the DLD1 colon cancer cell line and L929 mouse fibroblast cell line. The characterization of the MNPs which were synthesized by selective leaching was performed with a Zetasizer via dynamic light scattering (DLS) method, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The zeta potential of Ni MNPs was determined to be -24.7(7.83) mV. The size of Ni MNPs was 764 nm with 0.486 PDI value. The cytotoxicity test was performed for L929 Fibroblast cell line and DLD1 colon cancer cell line. Cytotoxicity analyses were performed with the MTT (3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay. The cell viability was observed to be 94.89% for L929 fibroblast cells. Then, anticancer effects on the DLD1 colon cancer cell line were evaluated. The use of Ni MNPs can be effective in reducing the effects of cancer since it decreases the cell viability overall, and it seems even more effective in the cancerous cell lines. We determined the cell viability of the DLD1 colon cancer cell line with the use of 0.001 grams of Ni MNP as 78.2%.

  14. Tingshan Yan, Manisha Oberoi, Ayman Askari, Hana Morrissey and Patrick Ball

    Introduction: Fatigue is a significant and frequently encountered health complaint that may accompany many medical conditions, communicable and non-communicable. Long-Covid is increasingly presenting to general practice and specialist neurology and rheumatology clinics which in most cases involves elements of CFS causing sudden increase in the patients seeking solutions for chronic fatigue. Results: There are many supplements offered commercially for the treatment of fatigue. Some are categorised as complementary or traditional medicines and are not licensed or controlled as medicinal products. Of those licensed as medicines, many are not licenced for the treatment of fatigue, so are prescribed ‘off-label.’ Patients have reported variable experiences with the different supplements and medications discussed. This paper attempts to document the available evidence for their efficacy in the treatment of fatigue. Conclusion: In almost all cases, only some patients derive any benefit and the benefits found are marginal culture RCT comparative studies using standardised products from those listed in this review are required to be able to make a definitive conclusion.

  15. Anirudh Sharma, Uma Ranjan Lal, Pushap Lata and Deepak Thakur

    Objective: The aim of the present study was to standardize Payapro™ Premix by quantitative estimation of apigenin and glycyrrhizin by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) and high-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) methods. Payapro™ Premix is a polyherbal formulation used as galactogogue containing seven herbs including Cuminum cyminum and Glycyrrhiza glabra. Materials and methods: RP-HPLC and HPTLC methods were developed for the standardization of Payapro™ Premix by quantitative estimation of apigenin and glycyrrhizin, the bio-active constituents of Cuminum cyminum and Glycyrrhiza glabra respectively. The developed methods were validated on various parameters, including linearity, precision, accuracy, LOD, and LOQ as per ICH guidelines. Results: The RP-HPLC and HPTLC analysis methods were selective for the polyherbal formulation. Both the methods had specific linearity range with regression coefficient ≥ 0.995. The apigenin and glycyrrhizin estimation methods were precise (% RSD 0.7 and 0.4), accurate (average recovery values were 96.28 % and 95.83 %), LOD (sensitive) (0.0054 µg/mL & 0.016 µg spot-1), LOQ (reliable) (0.0162 µg/mL & 0.048 µg spot-1), respectively. Methanolic extracts of polyherbal formulation showed the presence of significant amount of apigenin (50 µg/g) and glycyrrhizin (1200 µg/g) using developed methods. The comparison of different batches for these markers was found to be uniform which ensures their quality. Conclusion: The present work emphasized on standardization of the polyherbal formulation by determination of bio-active marker constituents. The developed methods can be used to standardize other samples containing Cuminum cyminum and Glycyrrhiza glabra.

  16. Ratti Lal Meena , Neera Samar , Ayush Agarwal, Savitri Verma, Adheer kumar Yadav , Reshmi Pillai3, Jitendra Beniwal, Pankaj Meena and Ravi Bhoria

    Pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVMs) are rare congenital anomalies resulting from the direct communication between pulmonary arteries and pulmonary veins without the interposition of a capillary bed with an increased risk of severe complications such as rupture, haemothorax, and hypovolemic shock. We report a case of Complex type PAVMs with 34 week pregnancy presented with dyspnoea, cyanosis and underwent intrauterine death.

  17. Anahita Ali and Santosh Kumar

    Background: Globally, studies on psychological impacts of COVID-19 have reported heightened stress, anxiety, sleep disruption, and panic. 45% of US participants reported impacts of COVID-19 on their mental health. There is 20% increase in mental morbidities among Indians according The Indian Psychiatry Society. The aim of this review was to summarize coping strategies adopted by different Indian population groups during COVID-19. Method: Articles published from March 2020 to October 2021 were searched systematically using PubMed database and Google Scholar search engine of which 21 papers were selected for final review. Results: This review reveals that the general population adopted emotion focused coping strategies whereas the healthcare workers have adopted problem focused coping more than emotion focused strategies. Conclusion: These differences could be due to the availability of different coping resources between the groups that may help them to deal with their stress. With such challenging circumstances and limited resources, it is critical to consider group specific approach that can help people maintain their mental health.

  18. Stève Hotou Tchamo, Anselme Michel Yawat Djogang, Njajou Omer, Kouamouo Jonas and Ossondo Marlène

    Fever is one of the reasons for consultation in Cameroon. Malaria and typhoid fever are the first incriminated, constitute public health problems in Cameroon. In Bangangté’s Health District, these two diseases are managed by modern medicine and / or traditional practitioners, each according to his approach. This study aims to describe the management of fever by traditional medicine and modern medicine in order to explore the possibilities of collaboration. The methodological approach was based on a cross-sectional study with a sample of 65 patients and 50 health care providers. The data collections tools used was the questionnaires and the interview’s protocol, their practices and their opinions of the care of others. We have also investigated the in vitro efficacy of traditional therapeutics on S typhi and E Coli. The study was conducted in hospitals and traditional healers in the department of Ndé during the period from 02ndJanuary to 30thJune 2018.The patients were submitted to the consensual admission for the treatment of typhoid and malaria in the hospital and a mixture of several plants, parts of plants and eggs usually used by traditional healers. The treatment follow-up criteria were clinical and paraclinical. This study shows that traditional medicine relies more than we think on modern medicine for clinical diagnosis of diseases but, especially for Para clinics. There are informals exchange of patients between these two systems of medicine. The follow-up of the patients in the two systems shows that, in traditional medicine, for these diseases, fever drops as from the second day of treatment whereas with the modern medicine, it is necessary to wait three to four days to observe an improvement. At the 15th day, all the parameters perturbated are normalized for all the Protocols. It appears that the treatment of typhoid with a juice of Ocinum gratissinum, Lemon citrus, egg yolk and that of malaria by a tea made from tuna Ficus thonmigu (bark), Bidens pilosa (leaf), Eremonasta speciase, Ocimum gratissimum (leaf), Cymbopogon citratus (fruit), citrus (fruit) and Aloes vera are effective. An extract based on the potion used to treat typhoid has a bactericidal activity, were better for Salmonella typhi than for Colibacille, confirming the activity of this potion on typhoid fever. Formalized clinical trials deserves to be undertaken on galenic preparations ensuring a better stability of these preparations. Based on this conclusion, we recommendates to health sector decision-makers in Cameroon that, traditional medicine which is often closer to the population, can be integrated into the medicine’s modern circuit for more effective care of patients as in West Africa (Senegal) for example.

  19. Nelson Ricardo Coelho Flores Zuniga

    In the hydrocarbon exploration is common to find reservoirs underlying complex formations, particularly in offshore conditions. From many possible complex characteristics, one of them is when a geological formation presents an abnormally low velocity. This kind of characteristic is so different, because the increasing overburden of rocks with the depth usually results in an increase of propagation velocity of seismic waves, for both compressional (P) and shearing (S) waves. An important step in the seismic processing is the velocity analysis, what helps to characterize the formation geologically and structurally. In complex situations, the travel-time curves associated to waves reflected in interfaces between layers are extremely distorted and present a nonhyperbolic behaviour. Thus, it is necessary to use an equation able to control the effects of the nonhyperbolicity of the reflection event. However, for the nonhyperbolic equations, it is assumed that the velocity always increases with the depth, and that is the reason for these equations present some difficulty to fit the calculated curve to the recorded curve. Despite this, the limitation of the capacity of fit in this kind of condition results in a good way to detect the layers with abnormally low velocity, once the quality of the curve fitting decreases abruptly. So, it was proposed in this work the utilization of this limitation in the curve fitting to identify this characteristic, testing in different models what allows to analyse in what kind of situation the proposed method works in a reliable way.

  20. Ankur Dwivedi and Amarendra Kumar

    Coals are heterogeneous combustible sedimentary rocks made by the decay and deposition of organic and inorganic materials derived from plant parts in past geological processes. The major elemental constituents of coal consist of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, with lesser amounts of sulphur and nitrogen. Inorganic coal constituents like ash, are mostly derived from ash-forming compounds distributed throughout the coal. The Krishnshila coal mine selected for this study belongs to NCL (Northern Coalfields Limited).Five coal samples were collected and analyzed for their proximate, ultimate analysis, and gross calorific value estimation. According to laboratory analysis, the gross calorific values of these coals fall into the G-7, G8, G9, and G-6 grades, which determine the fuel's energy content, while the moisture content and carbon content define its heat value. Moisture content affects the burning power. Coals are bituminous in nature, medium to high in volatiles. After the beneficiation, coal KLS-4 and KLS-5 can be used in coke-based industries. This study will help in the better utilization of theses coal in various industries.

  21. Dr. Ahmad Mohamad El-fallah Ismail

    In this paper, modeling, simulation and performance analysis of the three phase permanent magnet brushless direct current (PMBLDC) motor using Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC), hybrid Fuzzy-Genetic Algorithm controller (FGAC), hybrid Neuro-Genetic Algorithm Controller (NGAC), Hybrid Neuro-Fuzzy controller (NFC) and Hybrid Neuro-Fuzzy controller (NFC) based on Genetic Algorithm (GA) under the effect of external load for improving the transient and steady state response is presented. The applications of the three phase permanent magnet brushless direct current (PMBLDC) motor are increasing day by day. In order to have proper utilization of these motors and to control them effectively it is important to have proper mathematical modeling of these motors. Similarly effective control these motors are also essential to have successful application of the devices across multiple domains. This paper handles both these important aspects. A mathematical model has been derived to represent a three phase permanent magnet brushless direct current (PMBLDC) motor model, its utility can be noted from the fact that different motors can be analyzed easily using the proposed model. The mathematical model was subjected to open loop and closed loop analysis to study the stability and performance. In this paper in order to validate the approach a MATLAB/SIMULINK model having intelligent controllers are constructed to control the modeled three phase permanent magnet brushless direct current (PMBLDC) motor under the effect of external disturbances for enhancement of static & dynamic response.

  22. Judex Makonga Mutabi

    Introduction: En République Démocratique du Congo, l’un des problèmes majeurs de santé publique rencontré dans l’immunisation, est la recrudescence des maladies évitables par la vaccination. L’une des causes serait l’inachèvement des séries vaccinales chez les enfants de 0 à 11 mois dans le PEV de routine. Elle reste l’une des mesures préventives primordiale en matière de soins de santé primaire. Mais bien que la vaccination ait permis de lutter contre certaines maladies infectieuses, elle n’a pourtant pas atteint son plein potentiel. Cette étude vise à évaluer la couverture vaccinale des enfants de 12 à 14 mois dans la cité de Malemba. Méthodes: Il s'agit d'une étude descriptive transversale couvrant la période allant de Février à Mai 2021. L'étude a porté sur 369 repondantes et enfants de 4 aires de santé de la cité de Malemba (AS Kametemete, AS Nyoka, AS Mukomutombo et AS Kyamakanza). Les données ont été saisies et encodées avec le logiciel EPI INFO version 3.3.2. Résultats: La proportion des enfants complètement vaccinés par le BCG était de 100%, pour le DTC-HEPB Hib1 était de 98,6%, DTC-HEPB Hib2 était de 91,8% ; pour le DTC-HEPB Hib3 était de 79,2% et 51,4% pour le VAR et VAA. On remarquait ainsi une diminution progressive de proportion d’où la proportion des enfants complètement vaccinés, s’avérait être de 44,1% soit un taux très faible. Les raisons de non vaccination évoquées par la plupart des mères était la perte des carnets de vaccination avec 35, 2% ; la négligence de certaines mères avec 12,3% ; refus sans raison avec 19,9% etc. Conclusion: Cette étude est une photographie ou un enregistrement des évènements de santé de manière instantanée. Et la couverture vaccinale chez les enfants de 12 à 14 mois dans la cité de Malemba est faible.

  23. Sarita Kumari

    Media is the mirror of society and it reflects the happening of society. Media is known as the fourth pillar of democracy. The media has a role and responsibility to create awarness among women for the betterment of society. Today’s there are different types of media like print and digtial media conveying the message to society. It is observed that there is a lack of coverage in all media of women's issues like sex ratio, wage disparities, literarcy rate, crime against women etc. It is the media’s responsibility to disseminate all information, knowledge, and news to the large community. All government and non-government organizations are also responsible for the prevention of discrimination against women. Women empowerment is very important for social development. The current paper is focused on the different types of media, how digital media helped women's empowerment. Women's participation in decision-making through the media increased.

  24. RABIOU ABDOU Abdoul Rachid OUMAROU DIADIE Halima Maman Laouali Adamou Ibrahim and BALLA Abdourahamane

    Food is a necessary response to the body's needs and also a highly socialized practice that exposes the consumer in making a choice in these behaviors. The objective of this work is to analyze the food behaviors in connection with the nutritional status of women in sedentary and pastoral households. To do this, a dietary survey of 845 households was conducted as part of this cross-sectional analytical study. Multiple linear regression was applied to see the relationship between dietary behaviors and the nutritional status of women. Thus, the results revealed that most (74.3%) of the households usually eat 3 meals a day and that breakfast (90.9%) and eating between meals (81.6%) are frequent. The results also show that 93.4% of households do not systematically add salt to ready-to-eat meals. On the other hand, 92.6% of the respondents do not take food supplements. However, the addition of chili to meals remains a reality in both sedentary and pastoral settings. In fact, more than half (65.2%) of urban households add pepper to their dish before and/or at the time of eating. On the other hand, low consumption of meat (78.2%), fish (86%), milk/dairy products (66.7%) and fruit/vegetables (76.3%) was recorded. Also, the frequency of consumption of fruit/vegetables (85%), milk/dairy products (74.1%) and the meat/fish/egg group (82.5%) was below the recommended norm. At the same time, the assessment of nutritional status shows that 70.4% of women have a normal nutritional status. Leanness is much more prevalent in rural (24.9%) and pastoral (12.5%) areas, while overweight (25.7%) and obesity (11.4%) are frequent in urban areas. Nevertheless, the dietary behavior of households influences the nutritional status of women. Indeed, this association is significant between the nutritional status of women and dietary behaviors such as, frequency of consumption of meat (Beta 0.327 and P-value 0.000) and oils (Beta 0.106 and P-value 0.007), number of meals taken by households (Beta 0.189 and P-value 0.011), fat (Beta 0.087 and P-value 0.027), meat (Beta 0.081 and P-value 0, 030) in household diets, household perceptions of quantity of food (Beta -0.163 and P-value 0.000), frequency of consumption of milk/dairy products (Beta -0.094 and P-value 0.015), the routine addition of chili peppers to dishes (Beta -0.078 and P-value 0.018), and the number of meals eaten at home (Beta -0.140 and P-value 0.045) by households. Dietary behavior is a key factor to consider in ensuring better nutrition for the population.

  25. Nelson Ricardo Coelho Flores Zuniga

    Multicomponent seismic data processing is a challenge concerning the velocity analysis for offshore surveys, and the difficulty increases when OBN (Ocean Bottom Nodes) technology is used. The ray tracing asymmetry caused by wave conversion from P-wave (compressional wave) to S-wave (shearing wave), and the difference of depth between source and receiver generate a nonhyperbolicity in the travel-times of a reflection event of a seismic wave. Large offsets between source and receivers and the complexity of pre-salt structures from Santos Basin also contribute to the event being strongly nonhyperbolic. Aiming to solve this problem, three nonhyperbolic multiparametric equations are used to characterize this behaviour. Since the equations have many variables, the study was treated as an inverse problem according an optimization criterion. Three optimization algorithms were used to accomplish the curve fitting. To understand the behaviour of each equation, the complexity analysis of the objective function topography using L1-norm and L2-norm was performed. Hence, it was possible to determine which combination of equation and optimization algorithm showed the best results and the lower processing time for the studied structure.

  26. Ms. Hema Oli, Mrs. Champa Sharma and Mrs. Hemkala Dhakal

    Background: Patients admission in an intensive care unit is a distressing event for both patient and their family member. It is usually unexpected and sudden, whereby families might suffer uncertainty and shock that may precipitate familial disequilibrium due to lack of preparedness of the situation. Family’s coping contributes a great deal in patient’s recovery. The main focus of health care provider is on patients and not towards the family members who are in a state of crisis and need some sort of assurance to cope with the situation. The study tries to find out the level of sleep disturbance, anxiety, fatigue and most importantly the coping strategies adopted by the family members. Methods: A descriptive cross sectional study was conducted wherein113 samples were selected by non probability purposive sampling technique from selected hospitals of East Sikkim. The data was collected by using Pre structured sleep disturbance questionnaire and Standardized tool (Chalder Fatigue scale, and Coping strategies inventory). Data were analysed by using SPSS version 25. Results: The study finding revels that majority of the samples who experienced sleep disturbance was64.6 %, severe fatigue 63.3% and 85.8% of the sample experienced high level of anxiety. Positive coping strategy adopted by family members was found to be 61.07% and negative was 38.93%. Conclusion: The study findings revealed that family members of patient admitted in intensive care unit experiencedsleep disturbanceanxiety and severefatigue. Although majority of the family members used positive coping, the family members who used negative coping contributes 38.93 % which should be of concern.

  27. Humdah Qayyum, Shekhar Marandi, Kumari Surekha Mahto, Priyangulta Beck, Neha Kumai, Pooja Kumari, Dibya Kumari, Mona Priya Tirkey, Rupa Verma and Mukesh Nitin

    Citrus is amongst the world's most frequently farmed commercial fruit crops, and it is constantly exposed to a variety of environmental constraints including abiotic and biotic stresses. Since citrus plants have a very few and short root hairs. So, in order to get sufficient nutrient and water they need mycorrhizal colonization. Numerous soil microbes, particularly arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, dwell into the citrus rhizosphere and form a mutualistic relationship with citrus plant roots. AMF has been considered as a valuable biofertilizer for sustainable agriculture since it provides resistance to host plants against environmental challenges. Moreover, mycorrhizal hyphae contribute towards soil aggregation wich ultimately increases the soil fertility. Although, AMF possess a broad array of applications in citrus plant performance; however, the molecular regulatory mechanisms underlying the AMF response have not yet been fully characterized in citrus plants. In this review, we aimed to dissect the intricate molecular and metabolic pathways induced within citrus following AMF colonization using a variety of approaches such as transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics. And further scrutinized the relative contributions of diverse processes to the modulation of host defense response. The insights provided from a more comprehensive understanding of this peculiar symbiotic relationship will contribute in the agricultural biotechnology advancements.

  28. Dr. Daljit Kaur Gill and Mamta

    There were many changes that came in education system in India. Education board was established for better education. In this research Paper briefly read about the education board and the nature of society of Punjab With the establishment of East India Company, the supremacy of the British in India increased but education in general was neglected. With the efforts of some Christian missionaries only few institutions were established. There were many changes that happened in the development of education. Many efforts were made by social organizations to re-establish the education system in different States of India.

  29. Moromi Engtipi and Raju NL

    Background: Today salt is the most desired and routinely added major food ingredient. The taste of salt or saltiness is universally accepted by human society since time immemorial. The Karbi tribehas been observed using a liquid condiment locally known as Phelo as salt substitute since time immemorial. But at present, it is observed that the extraction practice of Phelo is vanishing from this region because of the replacement of these local condiments with the commercially available refined salts and soda powder. Therefore the present study was an attempt to help uncover the forgotten salt resources and highlight their therapeutic potentialities. Methods: Extraction of Phelo was done by the traditional method adopted by the local indigenes. Derivation of salt substitutes was done by an evaporation method. And the chemical analyses were performed according to the methods established in Indian standard: Specification of edible common salt (1985). Results: It was observed that Musa balbisiana, Carica papaya, Brassica nigra, Dendrocalamus hamiltonii, and Sesamum indicum were the five plants used for extraction of Phelo by the Karbi tribe. The observed Physico-chemical values and minerals estimated from the derived salt substitutes showed varied differences. Conclusion: Today many man-made harmful food ingredients and food additives causing many deleterious health issues are the main cause of concern among the people, so the present study will provide a new herbal salt substitute with up-to-date nutritional information which is very natural and safe for human consumption.

  30. Dr. Osama Mohamed Ahmed Salem

    This article aimed at investigating staff members’ technological pedagogical content knowledge at the Faculty of Education, Zagazig University. The participants were 16 staff members from the Faculty of Education, Zagazig University. The researcher adopted quasi experimental design method. To achieve the aims of the study, the researcher designed Staff Members’ Technological pedagogical content knowledge Questionnaire (TPACK) at the Faculty of Education, Zagazig University. The results showed the important connections between pedagogical training and selection of suitable technology, and between personal technology use and the choice of proper technology. Hence, this study recommends that staff members should continue to model the use of technology so that their students can increasingly update their technological knowledge through observation and learning.

  31. Oldemar de Oliveira Carvalho, Procássia Maria L. Barbosa and Alesandra Bez Birolo

    This work aims to analyze the use of shelters by Lontra longicaudis, through microsatellite analysis. DNA extraction is performed according to the silica-guanidine methodology. Qui-square test (χ²) is applied to check sample differences. The similarity of genotypes in the shelters is calculated using the Morisita Index of Similarity and the Jaccard Community Coefficient. Two shelters exhibited high similarities. These preliminary results suggest that the size of the otter population is, at least six individuals, and different otters can use the same shelters.

  32. Ogbeide Osareme Mercy, Kanu Emmanuel Mmesirionye, Ossi Eric Okorie, Ossai Ifeanyichukwu Tina and Nworu Jeremiah Nwokwu

    Comparative assessment of rainwater was carried out to investigate the impact of quarrying and mining activities on the physicochemical properties of rainwater in Ishiagu area. To achieve this, six communities were considered based on the busy quarrying activities going in the area. Sampling of the raindrops were properly carried out using plastic funnel of 30cm diameter fitted onto two litre container placed on a woody stool that is five feet above the ground level, sited in an open space away from obstruction. From all indication, the values of the physicochemical parameters analyzed were found mostly below the limits set by both the National (NSDWQ, SON) and International standard (WHO, EPA, USGS) regulatory bodies for drinking and domestic waters. Except in the case of pH concentration, where Amaeze (RWD1) and Okue (RWD6) stations exhibited high pH values of 6.79 and 5.4, respectively, which is within the range of the recommended standard, while the rest of other stations like; Amaonye (RWD2), Amaokwe (RWD3), Ihietutu (RWD4), and Ngwogwo (RWD5), were found to be 4.36, 4.45, 4.70 and 4.36 respectively, which is mainly acidic and below the set standards. In other way round, the water samples in these stations recorded acidic pH value may be experiencing trace of acid rain. However, Amaeze and Okue stations exhibited high level of salinity as the level of electrical conductivity (EC), Total dissolved solids (TDS), total solids (TS) and total hardness (TH) increases. This shows that there is a direct relationship between these parameters in most of the samples result, as the parameters changes with respect to each other. Moreover, the total hardness analysis confirmed the rainwater in all the stations a soft water.

  33. Goc Amuchi and Prof. J.C Agunwamba

    Moisture due to rainfall is required to be properly managed to avoid its destructive impact on flexible Pavement surface of Asphaltic Concrete. In spite of this consideration, Pavement continues to be exposed to rainfall all through the service life. Flexible pavements, tested and verified, show that during the service years of the Pavement, rainfall contributes to the deterioration and loss of strength, with duration of exposure. The statistical analysis of the results, employing empirical models, show that a linear correlation existed between loss of strength and duration of exposure to moisture (water) due to rainfall. This result was utilized to predict pavement maintenance programmes.

  34. Bereslavskii Eduard Naumovich

    The following filtration flows with unknown free boundaries are investigated: in case of a flow past the Zhukovsky groove in the case when the soil layer is underlain along its entire length with an impermeable base and evaporation from the free surface occurs; in case of a flow past the Zhukovsky groove in the case when the underlying layer is a completely well-permeable aquifer and infiltration occurs on the free surface; when groundwater moves in a rectangular bridge with a partially impenetrable vertical wall in the presence of evaporation from the free surface; when groundwater moves to an imperfect gallery in the presence of evaporation from the free surface.

  35. Anju Singh

    The adsorption of Pb(II),Cd(II),Zn(II) and Ni(II) on peels of banana has been studied in batch process using atomic adsorption spectroscopy for metal estimation. Concerned parameters like adsorbent dose, contact time, PH, and temperature were investigated. Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms were employed to describe adsorption equilibrium. The maximum adsorption was at 10-15 mg/L, when added different dosage of banana peel, and increase of PH value from 5-8 removal of heavy metal ion increase. When temperature was set between 27-600C amount of adsorbed metal was 150-200 mg/g. Adsorption of different metal ion vary between a contact time period of 80-120 minute. Study concluded that banana peels, a waste material, have good potential as an adsorbent for xenobiotic and non-xenobiotic heavy metal ion.

  36. Michel Jacques CONTE and Ileana-Constanța ROSCA

    In EVTD2 entity theory all original space-time is homogeneous and its structure in quantum entities results from a sorting stack of small energy volumes EVTD2, which are filled with even smaller elementary electric dipoles (Substrata) (1). This universal configuration is set up and maintained by the Electromagnetic Mother Wave (EMW) (2). So, in this theory the whole base of space-time would be entirely electromagnetic. From this, multiple transformations of these dipoles, according to the specific local circumstances, can generate the appearances of light atomic elements H, He and Li for example and even the heaviest, which by being agglutinated can materialize the diversity in matter. constituting the stars. Initially a heterogeneity or a phenomenon adapted in a certain zone of the cosmos can, by the work of the EMW wave, generate a zonal concentration of Substrata of the surroundings and thus create a black hole strongly filled, at the start, with elementary matter of very high energy which will, therefore, locally give particularly very high temperatures. It follows therefore a whole range of possible processes of transformations of the basic dipoles. The pattern of an original generation of matter in this area is therefore representative of an anti-Big Bang process by multiplication, identically, in other distant areas of the cosmos. Thus, the EVTD2 space-time of the Universe, already in place would fill with its galaxies which would represent its appearance of expansion in volume of visible matter over time since the dipoles Substrata (dark matter) do not emit electromagnetic waves external to their elements.

  37. Dr. Jude Bassey

    This paper discusses the effect of total quality management on the management of the Cross River University of Technology (CRUTECH) and concludes that total quality management is consistent with higher education environment and is based on fundamental educational values such as human resource development, life-long learning, rational problem solving and social benefit. These higher education quality principles emphasize the fact that the information students get in the classrooms should be reinforced in the manner CRUTECH is being operated. They should be a conceptual shift from person-focused to system-focused thinking. It is essential that total quality management should be the basis of how work is performed, the quality of students trained in the University, how people are held accountable for what they do in the institutions, how people are evaluated, promoted or disciplined and how effectively higher education services are provided. This should be the hallmark of applying total quality management to the management of not only CRUTRECH but also other universities in Nigeria.

  38. Efstathios K. Metaxas, Teona Kiknadze, Panagiota Pantoula, Dimitrios Lioumpas, Ioannis Stamatatos, Evangelos Georgios Fergadis, Georgios Benakis, Odysseas Mouzakis, Antonios Katsantonis, Symeon Patsos, Eleni Alexandra Maniotis, Sophia Boundi, and St

    Background: One third of patients diagnosed with spontaneous pneumothorax may need surgery.1,2 There patients with significant comorbidities who cannot afford operation, blood patch pleurodesis (patients’ blood in thoracic cavity) may resolve the problem. Was noticed that can resolve also small air leaks post procedures in thoracic surgery like lobectomies, decortication.3 Methods: During the years 2017 -2021, seventeen patients, underwent blood patch pleurodesis at the Thoracic Surgery Department, General Hospital of Nicaea, Greece. Results: During the years 2017 -2021, seventeen patients (only one female) underwent blood patch pleurodesis, age 32- 84 mean age 67 years. An 82 year old male with significant comorbidities like heart failure very emphysematous lungs underwent blood patch pleurodesis 20ml the first time and a day after another 20 ml uneventfully. Another 83 year old male with significant respiratory failure and very emphysematous lungs, underwent blood patch pleurodesis 20ml autologous blood for three days successfully. He was discharged home with a valve and in a week time the chest drain was removed successfully with no recurrence. Three patients post surgeryfor spontaneous secondary pneumothorax (post pneumonia emphysematous lungs and heavy smokers) underwent successfully blood patch pleurodesis 30ml by the first time. There was another 32 old male operated for pneumothorax and post procedure he developed Covid 19. He underwent twice blood patch pleurodesis 20mls each day. He was discharged home with valve in quarantine for a week. Within a week post discharge ha was negative and his left lung was fully expanded and the thoracic drain was removed. Blood patch also was used successfully for five male patients who underwent decortication for mesothelioma and discharged home the sixth postoperative day. Another 73 year old male post decortication for empyema. Pleurodesis with blood was efficient for another five patients post lobectomy. Reduced the hospital stay at 6, 5, 4, 5 and 5 days for each patient. All above patients temperature was 37,5 and 38 C nocte and only once. Conclusion: Pleurodesis with blood is very useful for spontaneous pneumothorax treatment. Also is very helpful for small air leaks post thoracic surgery like lobectomies, decortication. Considered as alternative solution.

  39. Ayan Das, Sujit Das, Ratul Mandal, Rahul Dey, Abhijit Sarkar and Parasuram Kamilya

    Seedlings of eight weeds and seven crops are described and quantitatively analyzed with six chemical parameters viz. leaf extract pH, ascorbic acid contents, total chlorophyll content, protein content, total phenolic content and peroxidase activity. Morphological traits of seedlings of both crops and weeds are used for the preparation of artificial keys separately for their proper identification. Of many chemical parameters, only these six parameters may address towards better adaptation of weeds and crops to the stressful environment. However, very little differences have been resulted in the above chemical parameters under numerical analysis through ANOVA and Principal component analysis.

  40. Dr. Mudasir Ahmad Sofi MD, Dr. Masood Tanvir, Dr. Rakib Ahmad Wani and Dr. Sobia Nisar

    Introduction: Vitamin B-12, also called Cobalamin Water soluble vitamin. It is the largest and structurally complex vitamin. Sources of Vitamin B12 are Produced by microorganisms (bacteria/fungi) inhabit in gut, Plants do not produce or contain VitaminB12. Liver, Kidney, Muscle, Egg, Milk, Cheese and other dairy products, Seafood and Foods fortified with B12 are also sources of the vitamin B12. Individuals who lack intrinsic factor have a decreased ability to absorb B12.Gastric acid releases the vitamin from food particles. Therefore antacid and acid-blocking medications may inhibit absorption ofB12.In addition some elderly people produce less stomach acid thereby increasing their probability of B12deficiencies. Methodology: In this observational study, 102 study patients were included on the basis of inclusion and exclusion criteria. The data was collected by administering a clinical questionnaire, relevant medical, drug history and dietary history. All baseline investigations, serum vitamin B12 level was investigated to document the deficiency. Data was analyzed through Epinfo using student`s t-test, Chi square test. p<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Result: It was observed that only (6.9%) of patients are deficient and (11.8%) are on borderline while as (81.4%) of study patients are not having any abnormality with regard to vitamin B12 deficiency. Among 102 patients ; 80 patients were prescribed PPI for peptic ulcer disease and rest 22 patients were having co morbid disease where PPIs were prescribed prophylactically. Around (6%) of patients are having deficiency in vitamin B12 who receive 40 mg dosage of PPI while as around (94%) of patients are not having any deficiency. However, around 12 percent of patients are having vitamin B12 deficiency who received 80 mg dosage of PPI and (88.2%) does not report any deficiency on this dosage. Discussion: The present study deficiency in Vitamin B12 alternatively named as cobalamin is a disorder that is most commonly seen in individuals who are beyond 59 years of age with a supporting prevalence of (10-40%). Vitamin B12 deficiency is generally thought to be synonymous with pernicious anemia (intrinsic factor deficiency); however, studies suggest that pernicious anemia is rare among types of vitamin B12 deficiency in the older population. Research conducted by Scarlet, suggested that most older adults with vitamin B12 deficiency have a normal Schillings test, but do not adequately absorb food-bound cobalamin.

  41. Bereslavskii, E.N.

    We consider a plane steady-state filtration in a rectangular bridge with a partially impermeable vertical wall in the presence of evaporation from a free surface of groundwater. To study the effect of evaporation, a mixed multiparametric boundary-value problem of the theory of analytic functions is formulated and using the method of P. Y. Polubarinova-Kochina. Based on the proposed model, an algorithm is developed to calculate the dependence of efficiency and productivity of hydrodynamic analysis.

  42. Gloire Kasongo Lupitshi, Fiston Ilunga Mbayo, Yannick Bienge Nsenga, Ilus Ilunga Kalenga, Aimé Banza Sokele, Faustin Mbuyu Wa Fwamba, Pierre Ntwadi Mwanabute, Patient Ngoy Kitamba, Felix Kalenga Ngoy et Bernard Nsenga Ndala

    L’alimentation de la femme enceinte avant et pendant la grossesse joue un rôle primordial pour sa santé, pour la croissance du fœtus et pour la qualité du lait maternel. La présente étude vise à évaluer l’état nutritionnel de femmes enceintes de l’Hopital Général de Référence Malemba. Il s'agit d'une étude descriptive transversale couvrant la période allant du 01 Janvier au 31 Décembre 2021. Les femmes enceintes âgées de 13 à 23 ans étaient les plus enregistrées avec 55,26% ; 10,53% de sujets enregistrés pèsent 58 kilogrammes ; les femmes dont la gestité est de 1 sont les plus enregistrées avec 34,21% ; les femmes qui ont conçue pour la première fois étaient les plus enregistrées avec 35%. La nutrition de la femme gestante reste un sérieux problème de santé publique, surtout dans les pays à faible revenu ou plus de 30% de femmes vivent une situation difficile pendant leur grossesse.

  43. Ponsuryadevi, A. and Selvi, R.

    In this paper, we introduce the concept of〖 τ〗^*-generalized β continuous multifunctions in topological spaces and study some of their properties where〖 τ〗^* is defined by τ^*={G:cl^* (G^C)=G^C}.

  44. Dr. Nupur Nandkishor Agarwal, Dr. Rucha Shivajirao Bhise Patil, Dr. Ashveeta Jagdish Shetty and Dr. Miloni Paresh Sanghavi

    Use of laser in dentistry has evolved in an immense way. With the recent advancement in laser application, it is now effectively used for diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of dental caries and for minimally invasive procedures. The rational use of soft‑tissue and hard tissue laser for different oral procedures in infants, children, and adolescents is also recommended by the American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry. Use of laser has numerous benefits in the field of pediatric dentistry like the selective and precise interaction with diseased tissues, less thermal necrosis of adjacent tissues, maintaining a dry and bloodless operative field, produces less pain, sound, and vibration thus increasing the patient compliance. This paper describes a series of four cases wherein excision of bilateral mucocele and granulomatous lesion on the lower lip, a soft tissue mass on the palate and lingual frenectomy were successfully carried out with the help of diode laser.

  45. Dr. Rashmi Gujaran, Dr. Vidhya Deshmukh, Dr. Aarti Kolte and Dr. Hemant Mehta

    Vein of Galen aneurysmal malformation (VGAM) is a rare congenital anomaly of intracranial circulation that occurs before birth. It’s a malformation where blood drains from cerebral arteries to a dilated vein of Galen. It commonly results in high-output congestive heart failure. It may also present with neurological symptoms like seizures, hydrocephalus and developmental delay. Early staged embolization of feeding vessels to shut off the shunt can improve survival rates in these patients. We present the case of a three months old boy with vein of Galen malformation for embolization.

  46. Sarita Kumari

    Domestic violence is one of society's most harmful gendered afflictions. Domestic violence (physical, sexual, and emotional) has been linked to an elevated risk of psychopathologies as well as physical morbidity, according to researchers. In India, there are a lot of domestic violence instances, and they're getting worse at an alarming rate because of the COVID-19 pandemic. During the COVID-19 pandemic, the current study looked into incidents of domestic abuse among Indian women. The issues surrounding the increase in domestic violence incidents during the COVID-19 lockdown period were investigated using newspaper reports from the previous five years. When compared to previous years, the COVID-19 period saw a significant increase in domestic violence cases. In addition, the number of cases was larger in the early stages of the pandemic but gradually declined as time passed. The COVID-19 epidemic had an extraordinary and worsening impact on women. As a strategy to preserve the public's health and well-being, home containment has resulted in greater suffering for women, including disease-related pain and increased domestic violence.Finally, a lack of skilled guardians was caused by a shortage of police officers and travel restrictions on both formal and informal sources. We find that during the COVID-19 lockdown, disruptions in people's daily activities gave greater opportunity for domestic abuse perpetrators.

  47. Nelson Ricardo Coelho Flores Zuniga

    Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) method is important to perform the structural characterization in near-surface surveys. Obtaining information of frequency and amplitude increases strongly the possibility of performing a better stratigraphical characterization. The spectral recomposition is an efficient method to recover wave parameters information in near-surface seismic data processing. Since many wavelets observed in seismic records are similar to the ones observed in GPR data, it is possible to recompose the GPR signal spectrum using the same proposition.For this reason, we propose to apply, for a GPR signal, an adapted version of the spectral recomposition approach, aiming to obtain, through an inversion procedure, frequency and amplitude information in a more efficient manner. Since the peak frequencies observed in GPR signal are more singular and higher, in comparison to the seismic signal, it is possible to recover frequency and amplitude information in a more accurate manner.

  48. Dr. Subramanian, S.S.

    Occupational hazards with sustained sitting postures among young adults can lead to numerous known musculoskeletal disorders were reported, added with obesity leading to neurological dysfunctions such as disturbances in balance, falls can lead to larger disability at an early age reducing these subjects standard of living. This research where instead of symptom based, clinical condition based therapy, subjects problem were functionally analyzed and treated with needed physiotherapy techniques. For 3 months the results were scientifically discussed with evidence. Though in theory patient centric therapy in to be used were emphasized but a lesser applied concept, needs further explorative evidence, a key component of this research.

  49. Samatar Abshir Mahamed, AbdifatahMahamed and NesraYusuf

    A cross-sectional study was done with the objectives of assessment on working Donkey welfare problem in Jigjiga City, Somali Region. A total of 384 working donkey were observed. Both direct (animal based) and owner interview were used to collect data. According to the current investigation, 64% of donkeys were used for draught and 36% were used for pack type of work. All females were used for packing purpose, whereas 86.8% of male donkeys were used for draught purpose. Out of 134(77.9%) of donkeys had a poor body condition in >10years of age group, whereas most donkeys 57(75%) under the age group less than 5-years were having good conditions. A significant association (p<0.01) was found between the duration of working hours, and working type of donkey and poor body condition. Out of total 384 working donkeys examined in the study area about 59.9%, 34.9%, 45.6% and 44.8% were suffering with different type of wounds, other disease signs, musculo-skeletal problems and dermatological diseases respectively, whereas about 80.9% animals showed abnormal behavior such as depressed and other odd sign. Donkeys used for draught purpose experienced higher prevalence of wound than those used for other purpose. The current study also showed that 45% of donkeys used for work were in >10 years of age group. Most of the respondents (44.8%) of the study area had no knowledge and information on donkey welfare. Beating of working animal was widely practiced (45.1%). In conclusion working donkeys in the present study area were experiencing a compound health and welfare problems. Awareness creation through mass education, training and extension service should be promoted in the study area in order to ensure better donkey welfare and productivity.

  50. Yadav, A K., Niraula, S.R., Giri, R., Paudel, M., Giri, S., and Chaudhary, R.

    Background: Trauma is a major increasing cause of morbidity and mortality in both developed and developing countries like Nepal. The traumatic injuries account for major financial loss and may lead to permanent deformities and dysfunction leading to mental and psychological health problems. According to the Nepalese Ministry of Health and Population, unspecified Injuries are the third largest single cause of hospitalization and 10% of Nepal’s total burden of diseases. This study was done to improve the understanding of differerent spectrum, the mode of trauma, severity of injuries, and outcome of trauma victims in our hospital. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective observational study of all adult trauma patients more than 18‑year‑old presenting to our emergency department (ED).Details of the incident in terms of causes, severity, mode, and outcome of injuries were noted. RESULT: Most vulnerable age group for traumatic injuries was between 20-40 years. The gender distribution was 70% males and 30% females. 80% patients arrived in Emergency ward beyond one hour of accident ( golden hours) between 8 am to 5 pm being stayed 24 hours. Fall from height on the ground (45%) was the most common mode of injury, followed by Road traffic injuries (41%), cut injuries (7. 5%),trauma related assault, sports and animal injuries (6.2%) electrical injuries (0.7%), industrial injuries 0.3%. Regarding implementation of Australian triage system (ATS) in relation with different mode of trauma, fall from height[ (137), out of which ATS 2 was 6, ATS 3 was 114 and ATS 4 was 17],Road traffic injury(124) out of which ATS 2 was 12, ATS 3 was 100 and ATS 4 was 12. Regarding implementation of ATS scoring in relation with injured area involved, upper extremity (130) out of which ATS 2 was 5, ATS 3 was 108 and ATS 4 was 17, Lower extremity (119) out of which ATS 2 was 10, ATS 3 was 98, and ATS 4 was 11. Extremity injuries (upper and lower limbs) were the most common injuries seen in 70% of patients followed by traumatic brain injury (TBI) (7%), thoracic injuries (6%), abdominal injuries (6%), Spinal injuries 6%, facial injuries (3.4%) and neck injuries (0.8%) with two wheeler accidents contributing to the majority.78% patients had moderate severity of injury, 17% had minor injury and 4% had serious injuries and 0.7% had severe injury. Emergency Department(ED) team alone managed around half of the patient (50%), while around 50 % patients were admitted in different wards for further evaluation and treatment in terms of either conservative management or surgical interventions., 42% were discharged in a stable condition.2% were gone on left against medical advice (LAMA),1% referred to other centre. out of which 49% patients had managed operative followed by 51 % had non operative. Conclusion: Falls and Road traffic injuries are the predominant causes of trauma. A. simple scoring system such as Australian triage system (ATS has been used to prioritize injured patients according to urgency.

  51. Rupali Nawale and Indrajeet J. Bhosale

    This study investigated the relationship of gratitude with emotional intelligence, spiritual wellbeing and rumination in a sample of university students. A total of 183 university students completed the emotional intelligence scale, the gratitude questionnaire, the spiritual well-being scale and the rumination measures. Pearson Product Moment Correlation and Independent Sample t-test were employed using SPSS Version 20. There was a positive correlation found between gratitude and emotional intelligence with r= 0.445 which was significant at 0.05 level. Gratitude and spiritual well-being were positively correlated with r= .466 which was significant at 0.5 level. There was a negative correlation found between gratitude and rumination with r= -0.252 which was significant at 0.05 level. Gender difference was seen in rumination, which was found to be significant at 0.05 level whereas no significant gender differences were found in gratitude, emotional intelligence, spiritual well-being.

  52. Dr. Mansha Grover, Dr. Anil Saxena and Dr. Babulal Bansiwal

    Background: Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a contagious disease caused by SARS (SARS-COV2). It is a large family of virus that are known to cause illnesses ranging from common cold to pneumonia to Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS). The effect of smoking on COVI D 19 is under consideration. This study is aimed to evaluate the relationship between smoking (Pack years) and CT severity score and its effect on COVID 19 linked biomarkers in COVID-19 RTPCR positive patients. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective study conducted between March 2021 to July 2021 on 50 adult COVID-19 RTPCR positive patients admitted in COVID ward and ICU in GMC, Kota. Their CTSS and biomarkers (CRP, D-Dimer, LDH, IL-6 and S. Ferrtin) were obtained at the time of admission and smoking history was obtained for the study. Results: The CT severity score was found to be high in patients with more pack years. The Pearson Correlation ‘r’ value was calculated as 0.575475 with a p-value of 0.000012 at 5% level of significance which is highly significant. COVID-19 linked biomarkers and its association with pack years was also evaluated. P-values at 5% level of significance for the biomarkers are CRP=0.03359, D-Dimer=0.219884, LDH=0.000028, IL-6=0.186538 and Serum Ferritin=0.00001. Conclusion: CT severity score is high in smokers and shows significant p-Value at 0.05 and is associated with poor prognosis. CRP, LDH and S. Ferritin are found to be significantly raised in smokers suffering from COVID 19 disease, out of which S. Ferritin is more significantly raised as compared to other significant markers.

  53. Dr. Nilam U Sathe, Dr. Saad Ahmed, Dr. Kamini Chavan and Dr. Lal Pek Thangi

    Introduction-This study is aimed to present the clinical features, incidence, associated complications and management strategies in post Covid aspergillosis and mixed fungal infections at a tertiary health care setup. The development of Aspergillosis in Post Covid patients is a novel presentation of the fungus and with the advent of new data, our horizons regarding the association of Apsergillosis and Covid is ever expanding. Currently, the causation of invasive fungal sinusitis in the form of Mucormycosis has been well documented. However, with new data and going by the fungal culture reports, the incidence of mixed fungal infections and aspergillosis has not been well studied, and the clinical features and management strategies is an evolving spectrum on which we plan to shed some light. Materials and Methods- This is an observational prospective study conducted by us at a Tertiary Health Set up where patients presented with complains of nasal pain, facial pain, ptosis, proptosis , facial asymmetry and with scans suggestive of sinusitis with history of Covid, and clinical suspicion of invasive fungal sinusitis were evaluated. Subsequently, nasal crusts were sent for KOH and Fungal culture. After reviewing of the scans and evaluating the KOH report, these patients were posted for endoscopic sinus surgery with debridement. Conclusion-Thus, Aspergillosis should also be a cause for suspicion especially in post Covid patients, as a reason for invasive fungal sinusitis. Early treatment can help in early recovery and less morbidity, a direct association has been detected with Diabetes Mellitus and Aspergillosis, thus controlling blood sugar levels is of utmost importance in the management of these patients Incessant use of steroids should be avoided as it is a significant risk factor in the development of post Covid Aspergillosis could not be derived.

  54. Oliveira, T. R., Reis, G. P., Nogueira, F. C., Pereira, C. A. and Tavares, R. F.

    O presente artigo tem como objetivo apresentar a importância do ensino não-formal como atividade da extensão universitária em Centro Cultural localizado no bairro Piedade, Ouro Preto, MG, e suas implicações na comunidade. Essa pesquisa apresenta uma abordagem descritiva de cunho qualitativo. Para que fosse viável desenvolver o tema, realizou-se pesquisa bibliográfica sobre conceitos como o de extensão universitária, e tríade universitária que é composta pelo ensino, pesquisa e extensão, estes juntos compõem os pilares da universidade. O conceito de ensino não-formal também foi pesquisado, este inclui aulas de reforço escolar com dinâmicas que auxiliam o aprendizado e realiza empréstimos de livros através da biblioteca comunitária, de forma a estimular a leitura dos moradores da cidade. Para obter os resultados das ações do projeto do CCBP, foi colhido relatos dos pais e responsáveis das crianças que participam da ação. Em 2019 o projeto teve a participação de 40 alunos nas aulas de reforço, desta participação foi possível constatar o desenvolvimento acadêmico das crianças, e como ocorreu a mudança de comportamento destas, tanto no ambiente escolar como no familiar. Para os universitários, se percebe os efeitos da extensão no CCBP em seu dia a dia como estudantes, pois é uma oportunidade de aprimorar o conhecimento para além da sala de aula aprendendo na prática e no convívio social, o que torna a graduação mais qualificada.

  55. Khan Khalid Masood, Kole T. and Das, I.

    Magnesium sulphate (MS) is molecule with bronchodilatory properties and has been successfully used for treatment of acute exacerbation of asthma .The use of magnesium sulphate has also been evaluated for treatment of acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (copd).There is conflicting results of different studies evaluating the efficiency of Magnesium sulphate .The aim of this study is to review the findings of those studies and to answer the question if there is any rationale for use of magnesium sulphate as an adjuvant therapy in acute exacerbation of copd

  56. Assis, E. L. P., Reis, G.P., Nogeira, F. C., Pereira, C. A. and Amaral, R. R.

    O presente trabalho aborda a relevância do ensino lúdico como forma de ensino aprendizagem, tendo como base o ensino não-formal, essas formas de aprendizagem viabilizam novos métodos de ensinamento, que contribui diretamente para construção de uma educação mais qualificada e emancipatória, colaborando com o ensino formal. Durante o ano de 2019 mais de 100 alunos frequentaram o centro cultural do bairro Piedade com o intuito de desenvolver alguma atividade, sendo 40 destes com atividades de reforço escolar, 26 participaram das oficinas promovida pelo Festival de Inverno. Com isso, ressaltamos a importância do brincar, como forma de ensino para jovens e crianças que frequentam o Centro Cultural, pois, por meio de oficinas e jogos é possível que o aluno desenvolva habilidades como concentração, motivação, coordenação motora, além de facilitar o entendimento do conteúdo das disciplinas formais. Através do lúdico o aluno expande sua imaginação, aumenta sua criatividade e seu interesse em participar das atividades escolares, contribuindo de forma gradativa para sua autonomia.

  57. Eloho N. Igbinedion, Ahama, E. EFE. and Oghene Joy

    Objective: This retrospective study was conducted to elucidate the prevalence of tooth discolouration among patients considering their gender and age. Methods: A simple random sampling technique was employed to obtain samples from the study population. Data obtained from the sampled population were 199 subjects, of which 104 were females and 95 were males. The data were collected from patients who attended the Dentistry Department of Federal Medical Centre, Asaba, Delta State, between September 2016 to September 2017. The obtained data were analysed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS, Version 22). Ethical approval for this research was granted bythe Research and Ethics Committee of the Department of Human Anatomy and Cell Biology, Delta State University, Abraka. Results: The prevalence of tooth discolouration was 58% of the studied population, which was noticed to decrease with age. However, tooth discolouration appeared to be more predominant in the 28-37years age group. It was also observed that tooth discolouration was more prevalent among males than in females and a significant relationship between gender and age to tooth discolouration was closely observed. Conclusion: Discoloured dentition is a common diagnosis observed by the medical and dental practitioners in their routine clinical practices. This is so rampant among the youths of the studied populationprobably as a result of their social and unhygienic lifestyles.

  58. Dr. Adesola Adefemi Muritala

    The focus of this paper is the children with identified Cardiovascular Abnormality, and its goal is to develop prudent consensus recommendations regarding the eligibility of such children for competition in a sport. To accomplish this objective. I have attempted to ascertain by way of consensus which Cardiovascular Abnormalities and with what degree of severity would place the competitive athlete at increased risk for sudden death or disease progression, thereby justifying a medical recommendation against participation in certain sports. Both parents and physicians are involved with efforts to maximize recreational and competitive sports participation in Children with congenital heart disease while at the same time minimizing any potential risks. In this regard, it is fortunate that significant morbidity or mortality precipitated by exercise in patients with congenital heart disease is rare. Indeed, there are relatively few congenital heart lesions that have been associated with sudden death during sports participation. The most common are hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, congenital coronary artery anomalities, Marfan’s syndrome, and myocarditis with less common causes including Valvular aortic stenosis, and complex defects tetrology of fallot, complete transposition and single ventricle, and those associated with Pulmonary Vascular Disease. The recommendations for the permitted level of activity are offered only as guidelines.

  59. Ernest Wendemanegde SALOU, Jacques KABORE, Soudah BOMA, Martin Bienvenu SOMDA, Prudenciène AGBOHO, Wilfrid YONI and Zakaria BENGALY

    Tsetse flies Diptera: Glossinidae) are the biological vectors of the trypanosomes responsible sleeping sickness in humans and African animal trypanosomiasis AAT) in domestic animals in sub-Saharan Africa. Ecological factors, climate change and habitat fragmentation affect distribution in tsetse flies. but little information is available in the conserved areas. The objective of our study is to update information on the distribution and density of tsetse flies in the protected area of Folonzo, in the southwest of Burkina Faso. For the sampling and monitoring of tsetse flies, the transect method was used. Each transect consisted of 5 biconical traps set from the bank of the stream to the savannah. The total of 25 traps 5 transects) were collected every 24 hours and for 5 days per season. The overall density of the 4 tsetse species initially encountered G. tachinoides; G. palpalis gambiensis, G. morsitanssubmorsitans and G. medicorum) in 2012, was reduced by 87.11% in 2019, p <0.001) .However, no capture of G. m. submorsitans was only observed in 2019. The influence of the season effect on tsetse density has not been verified. This study shows that tsetse populations in conservation areas are also affected by the impact of climate change and human pressure. These pressures can lead to extinction G. m. submorsitans) , scarcity G. tachinoides) and the resilience G. p. gambiensis) of some species. Knowledge of tsetse distribution is an important component in understanding the dynamics of trypanosome transmission in order to effectively control AAT.

  60. Santosh Kumar Gupta and Vijaykant Pandey

    The recovery of waste heat has been a topic of concern for large-scale industrial companies for several decades. This recovery not only makes an operation more environment friendly, but it also helps to cut costs. In addition to this, it can reduce the amount of resources needed to power a facility. Many industries have implemented different methods of waste heat recovery. In this present paper the efforts are made to understand that how to compare the heat transfer rate in Copper and aluminium tapered helically coiled tube heat exchanger using different types of Nano fluid with Oil as a base fluid in Tapered Helical Coil Heat Exchanger with the help of CFD on copper and aluminium tube. TheAl2O3&MgO, are used as Nano fluid and oil as a base fluid. Tapered Helical coil was fabricated by bending 500 mm length of copper tube having 10mm tube diameter, 50mm pitch coil diameter, 20mm pitch and tapered angle 20 and Square shaped coil was fabricated by bending 500 mm length of copper tube having 10mm square side, 50mm pitch coil dia, 20 mm pitch and tapered angle 20. The comparison of pressure drop and temperature variation between MgO and Al2O3nano fluid with oil as its base in aluminium and copper tube found in this analysis. The result indicates that the MgO nanofluid with oil as a base fluid in helical copper tube have maximum pressure drop and also have maximum temperature variation compare with other nano fluid and other material.

  61. Nasser M. N. Masood, Adel A. M. Saeed, and Ali N. A. Al-Kumi

    This study has been carried out at Lawdar, s tannery (Aden-Yemen), and aimed to determine the mean concentration of seven selected heavy metals (Cr, Fe, Zn, Cu, Pb, Ni, and Ti). four samples (three liquid samples and one solid sample), were analyzed by the ICP-OES technique. The results obtained from this study showed overall mean concentrations of the selected heavy metals in the range of (Cr =0.066 -2.366 mg/L), (Fe=2.230 - 6.519 mg/L), (Zn=4.430 - 42.029 mg/L), (Cu= 0.033 - 3.166 mg/ L), (Pb=0.133 - 0.866 mg/L), (Ni =0.033 - 0.699 mg/L), and (Ti=0.266 - 49.49 mg/L), respectively. The mean concentrations of the selected heavy metals in the wastewater were above the recommended limit.

  62. Sharon, E. P., Ajith R pillai, Jayanth Jayarajan, Fawas Shaj and Priya Raj

    Background and objective: Facial esthetics is one of the major concerns of most patients seeking orthodontic treatment. Bimaxillary proclination can be characterized as a condition where the upper and lower incisors are proclined and protrusive which results in increased lip procumbancy. The aim of the study is to determine the effect of anterior teeth retraction on hyoid bone position, tongue position and posture in Angle’s Class I bimaxillary dentoalveolar protrusion cases with first premolar extraction. Materials and methods: Pre and post treatment lateral cephalogram of twenty Class I bimaxillary dentoalveolar protrusion patients in the age group of 15-25years treated orthodontically as maximum anchorage cases with Pre-adjusted Edgewise Appliances (MBT prescription) with extraction of all first premolars were compared. Conclusion: extraction of four first premolars for retraction of anteriors in bimaxillary dentoalveolar protrusion cases showed significant posteroinferior displacement of hyoid bone. There was a reduction in the total tongue space, tongue length and air way.

  63. MD. Najemoddin Quazi, Ms. Saly Suseel and Ms. Jolly Simon

    Aim: To investigate the impact of night shift napping on work performance and fatigue among nurses. Background: Night shift has various side effects on health and work performance. Due to which there are errors in patient’s care. Methods: Quasi-experimental study conducted, data were collected from 60 nurses among them 30 control and 30 experimental who got chance to take nap for 20-30 minute (between 12 am to 4 am and alternate nurse took care of their assignment) in night duty and data is collected. Descriptive (frequency, percentage, mean, standard deviation) and inferential statistics (z-test, Pearson’s correlation test, chi-square test) used for data analysis and finalized the result. Conclusion: There is significant difference in work performance but no significant difference in fatigue. Nurses who nap during night duty had found improved in morning sleep as well as health and concentration. However the napping time can be increased to 1 - 2 hours and dedicated place can be provided for napping. Larger-scale randomized trial needed to implement on large population.

  64. Khalel Ibrahim Alkhadyde, Abdulaziz Abdulrahman Alharbi and Adeel Ahmed Khan

    Background: Hand hygiene (HH) is a general concept of practicing hand washing, either with alcohol-based hand, or with soap and water, and considered the most effective, simple and cost-effective way to prevent transmitting the infections. Objectives: To assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices of proper hand hygiene technique among family medicine residents working in Makkah, Saudi Arabia. Methods: Analytical cross-sectional study was carried out among Family medicine residents working at joint program of family medicine in Makkah city, Saudi Arabia, during 2020. A valid self-administered questionnaire in English consisted of 4 parts (demographic data, questions to assess knowledge, attitude and practice of hand hygiene) was used. Chi-square and Student t-test were used in analysis utilizing Statistical Package for the Social sciences (SPSS) version 26.0. Results: A total of 163 family medicine residents were included in the study. Overall, 87.1% and 92.6% of the family medicine residents had good level of knowledge and positive attitude, respectively towards hand hygiene. Most of them (81%) had good practice-related to hand hygiene. Older physicians were more likely to have good level of practice. Age of family medicine residents who expressed good level of practice –related to hand hygiene was significantly higher than that of those with poor level of practice (28.0±2.1 vs. 27.2±1.3), p=0.005. Conclusion: Majority of the family medicine residents had good knowledge and practice as well as positive attitude towards hand hygiene. However, knowledge and attitude towards hand hygiene were not related to its practice among them.

  65. Prof. (Dr.) Mahipal Singh, Mr. Nilesh Soni and Ms. Swati Choudhary

    Healthy children are the greatest resource and proud of a nation. Investment in childcare is an investment in future of nation because "today's children are adult of tomorrow". Children ought to be healthy and happy to become productive and contented adults of the future. To give them happy and healthy childhood, we must safeguard their total health, right from the beginning. More than 8.1million newborns of India have low birth weight (less than 2500 grams or 5.5 pounds). In India 30 present infants born are low birth weight baby. They have high chances of dying within the first 28 days of life. Oral feeding problems in preterm infants are of growing concern over the world: cases of breast- or bottle-feeding failures often result in delayed hospital discharge, maternal stress and long-term health problems. Hence a Study was conducted on Impact Of Oral Stimulation Technique Upon The Outcomes Of Premature Neonates In Terms Of Weight Gain And Duration Of Hospitalization In Selected Pediatric Care Area Rajasthan. A quasi-experimental design (non-equivalent control group pretest-posttest design) was used without a control group on 550 premature neonates in selected pediatric care area Rajasthan state. The technique used in the study is Non-probability convenient sampling technique and Major findings shows In Terms Of Weight Gain obtained by Premature Neonates in Post-Exposure Weight (Grams) (2217.07) is higher than Pre- Exposure Weight (Grams) 2051.23 of experimental group. Whereas in control group Weight Gain obtained by Premature Neonates in Post-Exposure Weight (2039.48) is less high than Pre- Exposure Weight (Grams), which show the weight control group is a natural phenomenon of gaining weight. This may show that oral stimulation techniques have significant effect upon weight gain in experimental group.

  66. Dr. Hima Buddhdev, Dr. TajgnaKadia and Dr. Kamlesh Patel

    BACKGROUND: Mental health consequences of the COVID-19 crisis may increase suicide rates during and after the pandemic. METHODS: This is a Cross-sectional study. 214 Patients diagnosed with COVID-19 viral infection and who fulfilled inclusion criteria were included in study. Participants were subjected to social-demographic details and semi-structured questionnaire for suicide ideation. RESULTS: From 214 participants, the mean age was 18.63 ± 2 years, female 150 (70.09%), married 118 (55.14%) and nuclear family 196 (91.59%). 144 (67.29%) participants were studied up to primary. The majority were included in lower socioeconomic status 102 (47.67%) and reside at rural area 199 (92.99%). The prevalence rate of suicide ideation is 13.08%.In the exploration of perceived causes of SI, most of the study subjects 10 (35.71%) responded that they were fear of COVID-19 infection followed by fear for the future 5 (17.86%), difficult family dynamics 5 (17.86%), loss of loved ones 3 (10.71%), job loss 3 (10.71%), and isolation (loneliness) 2 (7.14%). CONCLUSION: This study indicated that Suicide risk is multi factorial andif specific strategies can be maximally implemented with COVID-19–specific threats to population mental health and suicide risk in mind, this pandemic may not only provide a sense of urgency, but a path forward to address suicide risk at hospital and community levels.

  67. Bishal Kumar Bhuyan

    Witchcraft is a practice of magical skill, use to harm others. It symbolizes the mildness of paganism, the practice of religious acts by Non-Christians in Western culture. Black magic is a magical perfume made by witches. Such practices satisfy witches. Ironically, Witch hunting is one such incident where the whips are being burnt alive by the peasant society.

  68. Pushpa, Mohankumar, T. K. and Nirupama, M.

    Mosquitoes are important vectors for both human and veterinary diseases. Pathogens and parasites cause widespread sickness and mortality, as well as a significant negative impact in many countries. Synthetic pesticides are now the standard of protection against these lethal mosquitoes. Synthetic pesticides, on the other hand, have a huge cumulative effect on nature, such as non-target effects, pollution, and so on. As a result, the researchers shifted their focus to a new alternative strategy that would be acceptable for both the environment and public health. The use of bio-insecticides derived from botanical extracts appears to be a potential way of vector control. Many plant extracts contain secondary metabolites, which have stronger insecticidal properties. Similarly, pests are another natural organism that causes enough harm to crops to put the human population at risk. There are numerous pests that are unique to each plant species. We use synthetic insecticides to control pest populations, but this has negative implications such as health risks. As a result, efforts are being made to isolate biological molecules from plant sources, which are both environmentally beneficial and cost effective. In this regard, a variety of medicinal plants have been investigated for pest management since these botanicals offer pesticidal properties. The goal of this review was to assess current research on botanicals as potential insecticides and pesticides in terms of chemical composition and biological activity.

  69. Anjali V. Waghmode, Sunita Girish, Mangesh Bankar, Santosh Varma and Sameer Joshi

    Background: Hearing loss is a common sensory disorder, which affects 1 in 1000 live births. Genetic causes are thought to be responsible for more than 50% of the cases with the majority of non-syndromic hearing loss being inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern. The most common form of Autosomal Recessive Non-syndromic Hearing Loss (ARNSHL) is caused by mutations in the gene GJB2 encoding the protein Connexin 26 (Cx26). Cx26 plays a key role in potassium homeostasis, which is essential for sound transduction. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the GJB2 gene mutations namely, p.W24X, p.W77X, c.35delG, IVS 1+1G→A and c.235delC in patients with Congenital Non-Syndromic Hearing loss. Methodology: This is a cross-sectional study, in which 50 patients were screened for five mutations in GJB2 gene, by ARMS PCR and/or RFLP. Results: This study revealed high prevalence of p.W24X mutation (8%) and low prevalence of p.W77X (2%). Other mutations associated with Cx26 gene like c.35delG, c.235delC and IVS 1+1G→A were not observed in our patients. Conclusion: We conclude that there is a significant contribution of GJB2 mutations to ARNSHL in this population. Screening for GJB2 mutations particularly, p.W24X and p.W77X should be offered to ARNSHL patients to confirm diagnosis of their congenital deafness, to deliver proper genetic counseling.

  70. Dr. Sagar Kumar and Dr. Abhishek Kumar Singh

    Objective: The objective of this study to find out incidence of surgical site infection in clean surgeries operated with peri-operative and post-operative dose of antibiotics. Setting and Design: A Prospective study in a tertiary care hospital in eastern India. Durations:one year. Materials and methods: 25 General surgical cases were operated with perioperative 3 doses versus postoperative 5 days course of antibiotic in each group from July 2018 to August 2019. Data collected and analysed and two Sided 'P' Value was compared. Results: Out of two groups 8% and 12% was the incidence of surgical site infection and 'p' value was1.000 which is statistically insignificant. Conclusion: Use of 3 dose perioperative antibiotic is sufficient to prevent surgical site infection and no need of 5 days course of antibiotics.

  71. Dr. Deepak C. Koli, Dr. Aarti N. Kolte, Dr. Vidhya N. Deshmukh, Dr Tapas Mandal and Dr. Hemant H. Mehta

    A case of advanced ankylosing spondylitis involving the entire spine posted for posterior thoracolumbar fixation in view of unstable chance fracture at T12 - L1 level. Patient had fixed rigidity of the cervical spine with minimal rotational movement and inability to lie supine with recent ICU admission for acute pulmonary oedema due to severe plasmodium falciparum infection, post optimisation in ICU patient was posted for thoracolumbar fixation from T8 to L4 level. An awake fiberoptic guided intubation was performed and case was done under total intravenous anaesthesia in the prone position. Intraoperative neuromonitoring (SSEP/MEP) done to rule out neurological damage during surgery and positioning. Considering prolonged surgery and difficult airway postoperatively, patient was electively ventilated and extubated uneventfully within 24 hours without any fresh neurological injury.

  72. Sabreena Afzal and Ruqiya Ramzan

    Background: Information and communication technology (ICT) has been the most fascinating phenomenon that has characterized the 21st century. The growth of these technologies has over the year been accrued to researchers in the field of science and technology. According to Wikipedia online information technology is the use of computers and software to manage information, store data, and transmit the data as necessary. The government of India’s (GOI) initiative in education through ICT Education should highest priority for the development of any country. The government of India (GoI) has taken many imitative towards better utilization of ICT in education Information and communication technology is often considered to be a catalyst for change, changes in teaching styles, and changes in learning methods and information acquisition (Watson, 2005). It means technology that provides access to information through telecommunications. Aim: To determine the Availability, Reason, knowledge and utilization of information and communication technology among radiography students in JamiaHamdard university. Objective • To assess the availability OF ICT facilities to the radiography students in JamiaHamdard new delhi . • To determine the reason for the use of ICT by the radiography students. • To find out knowledge and utilization of ICT. Material and method: This study was observational, comparative &questionnaire-based designed, and carried out in the Department of paramedical sciences, SNSAH, Jamia Hamdard New Delhi. A total 170 students were included in the study. Approval for this study was obtained from ETHICAL Committee Jamia Hamdard The self-structured questionnaire was prepared and reviewed by experts. Solely after their endorsement, it was shared with the participants. Consent was taken from the students. The survey was online based and the questionnaire was sent to participants via mail and SMS. The data collection was by questionnaire administered randomly and analyzed with percentage table. Among the 170 questionnaires sent online vai mail,sms, 150 students responded and 20 students did respond. The research was analyzed to bring out the students‟ knowledge, the availability of ICT to the students, ‟ utilization of ICT by the student, And reason for using ICT TOOLS. Result: This survey based research revealed that A total of 150 responses were collected, out of them 42 % (n=63) were females and 58% (n=87) were males. There were more males than females. The top represented programme was Bmit (n=113 ,75.3%%), 63.3 %) 95 students were having good knowledge of ICT Apart from that (62.7%) 94 students said good contributions of ICT Towards personnel development ,(46%) 73 students had done microsoft office training .(36%) 54 students confirmed their improved commination skills due to using Ict. Apart from that while trying to know the availability of Ict to students (46%) 70 students said not provide(30%) 45 students said find enough Ict facilities .( 29.3 % ) 44 students confirmed university had ICT innovation based Learning practice .(87.3%) that is 131 students use google for accessing information. .(36%) 54 students were engaged personally in project using ICT. Conclusion: Majority Radiography students in JamiaHamdard had knowledge of ICT and their level of knowledge was relatively good. Majority of the students in the research population had access to ICT facilities, Also, there were no significant gender difference in the use of information and communication technology among the Radiography students , the extent of their use of these facilities were relatively good. Lastly, there was the full utilization of ICT by the Radiography students because of adequate internet access by the university . However, the researcher strongly believes that , workshops should be provided , training programs on ICT , projects on ICT innovations then knowledge and utilization of information and communication technology (ICT) among the Radiography students in Jamia Hamdard will be greatly improved.

  73. Saumya Awasthi, Ram Rakha, Harish Kumar, Dheer Singh, Shiv Kumar Katiyar and Nupur Gautam

    This study was done to produce innovative product by giving a vast importance to the nature provided material. Keeping in view of the above facts these fruits and medicinal herb benefits health and nutritional values was carried out with the following objective. Various recipes for the development and acceptability of different value added products made using Apple, amla, dates pulp were standardized with addition of brahmi, giloy, mulethi and Piper nigrum. For preparation of apple RTS initially standardize the fruit juice (apple and amla), after standardization the best ratio used for the same with giloy percentage along with a very least amount of mulethi and brahmi fortification. Dates can be crushed and heated with little water and extracted sugar can be used for sweetness. The physiochemical analysis was carried out as per method described in AOAC (1984) and products were prepared as per technical program. The various analysis including organoleptic evaluation was carried out just after the preparation of the sample. pH was measured with pH meter as described by Ranganna (1986)52. The fruit juices were extracted from ten fruits and extracted satva from ten stems, homogenized and pH was measured using pH Meter. Total soluble solids were determined by Hand Refractometer as per method of Ranganna (1986)52. Acidity was analyzed by acid - base titration method as described by Miller (1950)43. Ascorbic acid was estimated according to Bessey and King (1933)14. Reducing, Non- reducing, and Total sugar were measured by the method of Lane and Eynons (1943).The prepared RTS was packed in glass bottles with cork cap andstored at room temperature. The data pertaining to chemicalcomposition of apple based RTS just after preparation represented in table and The pH was depicted 3.10 in T1 followed by 3.09, 3.09, 2.81 and 2.90in T3, T4, T 1 andT5. Result of R.T.S. beverages were analyzed for their chemical characters immediately after preparation data presented in table and were observed that pH is approximately 3.0 in each treatment. Total soluble solids were observed is 160Brix in in each treatment. T.S.S of fresh dates is 87-degree Brix while that of date syrup prepared is 26-degree Brix. The acidity was approximately 0.28% as citric acid in each treatment, Organoleptic evaluation was convened in the institute with 5 experts panel. The R.T.S. secured 79-96% marks. Among 5 treatments T 2 secured highest 96% score whereas T3 secured 95% followed by T1 79% T4 89% and T5 86%. The result clearly indicates that good quality R.T.S is prepared.






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Dr. Abdul Hannan Abdul Mannan Shaikh
Saudi Arabia.
Luai Farhan Zghair
Hasan Ali Abed Al-Zu’bi
Fredrick OJIJA
Firuza M. Tursunkhodjaeva
Faraz Ahmed Farooqi
Saudi Arabia
Eric Randy Reyes Politud
Elsadig Gasoom FadelAlla Elbashir
Eapen, Asha Sarah
United State
Dr.Arun Kumar A
Dr. Zafar Iqbal
Dr. Ruchika Khanna
Dr. Recep TAS
Dr. Rasha Ali Eldeeb
Dr. Pralhad Kanhaiyalal Rahangdale
Dr. Nicolas Padilla- Raygoza
Dr. Mustafa Y. G. Younis
Dr. Muhammad shoaib Ahmedani
Saudi Arabia
United State
Dr. Lim Gee Nee
Dr. Jatinder Pal Singh Chawla
Dr. Devendra kumar Gupta
Dr. Ali Seidi
Dr. Achmad Choerudin
Dr Ashok Kumar Verma
Thi Mong Diep NGUYEN
Dr. Muhammad Akram
Dr. Imran Azad
Dr. Meenakshi Malik
Aseel Hadi Hamzah
Anam Bhatti
Md. Amir Hossain
Mirzadi Gohari