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Plagiarism Detection

IJCR is following an instant policy on rejection those received papers with plagiarism rate of more than 20%. So, All of authors and contributors must check their papers before submission to making assurance of following our anti-plagiarism policies.





March 2012

  1. D.K. Ketui , Dr. P. Karimi and Dr. A.S Merenga

    Fire detection, control and notification at early stages are of great importance as human life and property is concerned. In this paper we report the design and fabrication of simple, cheap and reliable computer based fire fighting system for use at homes, offices, supermarkets, schools among others. The system comprised of fire detection units made of smoke and temperature sensors, computer display unit, actuators, Bluetooth and GSM networks. Systems functionality was tested by introducing smoke and raising temperature of the surrounding beyond a set threshold levels. With smoke introduced, sensors were activated within 5-10 seconds while with temperature sensors activation took 5-20 seconds. Fire scenes were displayed by the computer 5seconds after detection and respective sprinklers triggered 10seconds later. Bluetooth enabled mobile phone interfaced to the Bluetooth enabled computer via Bluetooth network was able to send a short preset text message to a target remote mobile phone connected to it through GSM network within a period of 60-70 second. With extinction of fire components, respective sprinklers were automatically switched off by the system.

  2. Ani, W. Uchenna , Ugwunta, O. David and Imo G. Ibe

    Bank consolidation has been the major policy instrument adopted in correcting deficiencies in the financial sector in the world all over; and hence the 2005 concluded bank consolidation exercise in Nigeria. This study therefore, x-rayed the effect of bank consolidation on cost savings for consolidated banks in Nigeria. The research design is ex-post facto studying two periods before and after the 2005 concluded bank consolidation exercise in Nigeria. The Cost Income Ratio (CIR) was used as a proxy to measure cost savings for six banks quoted on the Nigerian Stock Exchange for a 10-year period (2000-2009). Descriptive statistics was used to analyze the operational variable (CIR). The sampled banks five years performance before the consolidation exercise was compared to the banks five years performance after the consolidation exercise. The paired sample t-test statistics was used to test the formulated hypothesis for a significant difference between the means of the two sample periods (pre and post consolidation) observed at two points in time. The findings revealed that the sampled banks recorded decreases and increases in the operating variable at various intervals of the pre and post consolidation periods. However, two banks had significant differences on costs saving. Accordingly, the study revealed that the 2005 concluded bank consolidation exercise in Nigeria has not achieved costs saving for all the consolidated banks in Nigeria. Therefore, forced consolidation is not the best option for reducing banks’ operational cost.

  3. J.U.J Onwumere, Imo G. Ibe and Ifeoma Ihegboro

    Recognizing that agricultural production provides the needed lift upon which a sustainable development can be achieved the Federal Government of Nigeria established the Agricultural Credit Guarantee Scheme Fund (ACGSF) in 1977 specifically to provide guarantee in respect of loans granted by any bank for agricultural purposes. However, over the years, it has been argued that the scheme along with other such schemes has not actually enhanced agricultural productivity through the provisions of credit which has been a major problem to Nigeria farmers. This study, therefore, empirically examined the impact of ACGS Fund on three agricultural subsectors (crop production, livestock and fisheries) as well as on aggregate agricultural sector basis of the Nigerian economy from 1978 to 2008. Using the two-variable regression model, the study found that the ACGS Fund had positive significant impact on these three agricultural subsectors as well as on agricultural productivity. The study recommends that Government should ensure that bank claims as a result of default and borrowers’ interest draw backs are paid without delay. This will not only motivate both participating banks and farmers in the scheme but will also attract others who are skeptical about the scheme. Also, farmers should be encouraged to be applying for loans from the participating banks to enhance their agricultural activities and productivity.

  4. Dorcas Kanana Muketha

    This article highlights fundamental indicators of discrimination against single women in the Methodist Church in Kenya and in society. It aims to examine gender-constructed cultural norms that result in discrimination against single women. Single women face challenges due to the tradition and cultural belief that everyone should marry apart from those who are not allowed to because of religious duties. This notion has been integrated into the contemporary church and society, making it more difficult for those who are single by choice and those forced by circumstances. This article also presents how single women regard themselves and how they are understood and labelled by others. This paper is the result of a preliminary empirical study carried out in the months of June-August, 2007. The data was gathered predominantly through face-to-face interviews and focus group discussions with single women, church leaders, elderly men and married couples. Empirical materials were employed as primary sources that provide a backdrop to help understand the situation of single women in the contemporary church and society. For clarity, fluency and privacy, the names given to the informants are not their actual names.

  5. Godwin Chigozie Okpara and Joseph Chukwudi Odionye

    This study examines the causal relationship between exchange rate and stock prices in Nigeria using quarterly data for the period of 1990-Q1 to 2009-Q4. The ADF and PP tests suggest that the series are random walk processes in their level form. Pair-wise Granger Causality was tested within multivariate co-integration and vector error correction model (VECM) framework. Three different stock exchange indicators were used as proxy for stock prices to test the direction of causality between the variables. Thus we have three VAR models. The empirical findings suggest evidence of long run equilibrium relationship between exchange rate and stock prices. It further shows that there is strong unidirectional causality running from stock prices to exchange rate irrespective of the stock market indicator used. The result supports the Stock Oriented Model (SOM). The estimated co-integrated vector showed that exchange rate exerts negative impact on Nigerian stock prices. Evidence from vector error correction term revealed that the speed of adjustment is high when SMC was used as proxy for stock prices, followed by ASI and VST. The Impulse Response Function (IRF) shows that shocks in foreign exchange market and macroeconomic environment tend to worsen the Nigerian stock market. The ASI accounted for 84.7% while EXR explained about 12.3% of forecast error variance in the stock market. This suggests that information in the stock market seems to be the driving force behind stock market variance.

  6. Mohammad Hassan Kaffashan

    The Holy Koran is a very well known book that says to all muslims and even non-muslims to know about existence of the other world after this world we are living in. And that , light as the right surely dominants on default exhibiting as a darkness. This well known as the most useful one learn live way for people and cause to know them applied methods to acts well in true and correct forms appropriate to reach to real good vital marks. In the Holy Koran there are ugly acts; to select the best things equip themselves to be victory in life. If we think about it deeply, we do find a good and harmless way with facilities to live better. In this paper following a one year research in the Koran, some of these signs will be analyzed to show the optimum way for living.

  7. Adeyemi Aderogba

    Poverty is one of the major problems facing many African countries today. The struggle against the menace has subsequently become a major political slogan for politicians and successive governments of the continent. Nigeria, just like most African nations has for the past few decades introduced several programmes aimed at solving the problem of abject poverty which is said to be affecting over 70% of the country’s population believed to be living below poverty level. This paper examines the media for effective dissemination of information on poverty alleviation programmes of the government of the present democratic dispensation in semi-urban setting by studying the situation in Iwo town in Osun State, Nigeria. Survey method was adopted for this study using stratified sampling technique with questionnaire as the instrument for data collection. A total of 500 respondents formed the population of the study. It was discovered that an overwhelming majority of the sampled population (77.8%) were aware of the poverty alleviation programmes of the Federal Government with the Radio (16.3%) being the single most effective media. A combination of non- conventional media, electronic and print media were preferred by 23.9% of the respondents which constitutes a marginal majority while over 22.9% of the respondents preferred the combination of both electronic and print media. Preference for print media was however the lowest with just 0.6% respondents. It was therefore recommended that radio programmes of different formats be designed for the purpose of reaching the semi-urban dwellers. Infrastructure facility such as power supply should also be strengthened to further broaden the populace’s access to information.

  8. Sanghamitra Debnath

    National Integration is the awareness of a common identity amongst the citizens of a country. It is the process of uniting differently people from all walks of life into a single whole. It signifies a condition of unity in diversity. According to Taylor “National Integration is a socio-psychological and educational process through which a feeling of unity, solidarity and cohesion develops in the hearts of the people and a sense of common citizenship or feeling of loyalty to the nation is fostered among them”. It implies a sense of belonging, a feeling of togetherness and unity. India is a vast country inhabited by many races, castes, subcastes and communities. The most serious problem faced by India at present is, how to create and maintain the sense of integrity among the people. Various factors can contribute to develop such sense of integrity. In this regard the contribution of Swami Vivekananda is worth mentioning .He has not written a treatise on this issue, but his views regarding human values and the inherent unity of all human species sprinkled throughout his various lectures, discussions and writings.

  9. John Kamau Njoroge and Kennedy Ole Kerei

    Secondary education in Kenya takes four years to complete, catering for students aged 14 to 17 years; it leads to the award of the Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education (KCSE). In 2008 free Day Secondary Schooling was rolled out as stipulated in Kenya Education Sector Support Programme (KESSP) launched in July, 2005, where government committed herself to ensure that Free Education went beyond primary school. Under the secondary education plan, each student is allocated Sh10,625 per year, with 1.7 million students benefiting from the programme in the year 2011. In fact, the transition rate from primary to secondary has risen to 72% in 2011, up from 47 percent in 2002 according to 2011 Economic Survey. Education Ministry takes the lion’s share of the budget. In the financial year 2002/2003 the ministry was allocated 64.1 Billion shillings with figure raising astronomically to 193.3 billion shillings in this financial year according to 2011 Economic Survey (RoK, 2011). In addition education is well funded through bursaries, Constituency bursary Fund, Economic Stimulus program and NGO funds. Learning as a Kenyan secondary boarding student remains a preserve of a few. This is because of the Rogue Head Teachers who are untouchable, Cash ‘Commissions’, The ‘Silent’ corrupt Ministry, Mega projects Motivational fees for teachers, Remedial teaching programmes and Misuse of already acquired resources. Ways in which schools would save on fees charged to parents include use of Biogas or Solar, use of workable Strategic Plans and Service Charters, income generating projects and introduction of School Vouchers. It’s possible to reduce amount of fees paid to as little as 20,000 shillings per annum for all boarding schools if prudence is exercised in financial management and of course various cost saving measures are put in place. Education is the only social service that can guarantee universalism in life claims. There is no better equalizer than education. It is the only weapon that can help fight impunity, ethnicity and mushrooming of outlawed sects. This is what foundation of Vision 2030 should be all about.

  10. P. Mary Elizabeth

    The advances in Satellite Communication and Remote sensing has led to the development of solutions for various national development programs like National Natural Resource Management (NNRMS), disaster management, Tele-Education and e-Health care using telemedicine. The advances in sensor technologies and image processing have resulted in sensors with increased spatial, spectral and radiometric resolutions and provide images with rich details for remote sensing applications. India is a vast country with 29 states and 6 union territories with more than 1 billion population, which is predominantly rural and distributed at distant geographical locations apart from the high-density urban areas. Ensuring basic minimum health care to masses living in remote rural areas is a top priority for any government. Tele-medicine using the satellite communication as well as Fiber Optic communications is playing an important role to address health care requirements of people living in remote areas, rural areas, soldiers in battlefields etc. The Image processing techniques and advances in Database management of images and text made it possible to create 3D virtual images of human organs by using imaging techniques from MRI, CT & Ultrasound. The universalisation of education has become the top priority, especially for the developing countries. But the extension of quality education to remote and rural regions becomes a Herculean task for a large country like India with multi-lingual and multi-cultural population separated by vast geographical distances, and, in many instances, inaccessible terrain. Satellites can establish the connectivity between urban educational institutions with adequate infrastructure imparting quality education and the large number of rural and semi-urban educational institutions that lack the necessary infrastructure. This paper describes utilization of Satellite Communication and remote sensing with advanced techniques in providing solutions to areas of primary importance in rural development such as harnessing of natural resources, education and healthcare.

  11. R. Ramya and G. Velraj

    Electron spin resonance (ESR) dating of ancient marine shell has been made using the paramagnetic defects produced by natural radiation. The total dose of natural radiation of the materials termed as archaeological dose estimated from ESR signals of defects in marine shell recently excavated from the archaeological site Alagankulam, Tamilnadu state, India. The sample was divided into nine sets which were given an artificial dose (AD) by using γ irradiation of 50Gy, 100Gy, 200Gy, 400Gy, 600Gy, 800Gy, 1600Gy, 2400Gy and 3200Gy respectively. From the observed ESR spectra with g factor 2.0036, 2.0007 and 1.9973 have been used to estimate the age by assuming the external dose rate to be 1.12 ± 0.08 mGy/a. The calculated age of the sample is 232 ± 74 ka, which correspond to the middle stage of the Pleistocene epoch. The ESR studies on marine shells have potential in evaluating the relative importance of sea level changes paleoclimate and events shaping coastal zones. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) reveals the preservation condition of the shell sample and evidences the diagenesis in the shell over the burial period.

  12. Y. Sujatha, Prof. K. Prahlada Rao, P. Sunil Kumar Reddy and M. Narendranath Reddy

    Entrepreneurial competence makes all the difference to the rate of economic growth. Entrepreneurship Development has become important in achieving the goals of all around development in the Country. An entrepreneurs’ initiative to start a unit is triggered by many factors both internal external factors. The granite cutting and polishing one such that exists industry that exists in the vicinity of almost all the major cities/towns through the country because of construction activities. This paper focuses on the factors responsible for setting up of granite cutting and polishing units as entrepreneurial units, problems faced by entrepreneurs in this industry and establishes that there is no significant relationship between Impetus Factors of Entrepreneurship and the demographic variables of entrepreneurs like Age, Sex, Educational qualification and previous occupation.

  13. D. Gladson and Dr. M. Sasikumar

    This paper presents the novel method that is used to improve the efficiency of a single phase transformerless photovoltaic inverter connected to the grid along with the elimination of ground leakage current, the result was simulated through computer software tool using MATLAB/SIMULINK VERSION 7.9. In the conventional method of grid connected system there is an drawback of lower isolation efficiency and presence of ground leakage current. This problem can be overcome by isolating both the grid and source individually using switching arrangements along with HERIC circuit. This topology improves the efficiency of the system and provides better isolation and minimizes the losses in the Single phase transformerless photovoltaic inverter connected to the grid [1].

  14. P.J. Rosario Vasantha Kumar

    This article analyses the role of libraries and information professionals in a digital library environment. The major focus for discussion is the availability of improved intellectual access to knowledge sources in a digitized world. With the growing emphasis on use of information technologies, libraries have undergone major structural changes in terms of their collection, organization and services. The traditional concepts of libraries are becoming absolute day by day with the emergence of new digital means of storage and dissemination of information. In the process of modernization, electronic resources and digital objects are replacing traditional library collections. The automation system and services of libraries are adapting new technology like electromagnetic, RFID etc.

  15. Rakesh Kumar Sharma

    Fiscal system of the country has undergone a significant change over the years especially with respect to imbalance in fiscal system of states vis-à-vis centre. Small states like Himachal Pradesh are mostly reeling under fiscal imbalance due to increasing scope of government sector obligation and the Fiscal Responsibility Act 2004. Himachal Pradesh is one of the small states of India that despite limited public finances is doing well on various socio-economic fronts. But the fiscal situation in the state is deteriorating with each passing day. Even Special Category States’ status has not recued it from financial hardship. This review paper analyzes the fiscal system of Himachal Pradesh for the better understanding of fiscal system and its challenges and opportunities.

  16. R. Gunasekaran , K. Kumaraswamy, R. Elanchezhian and P.P. Chandrasekaran

    Air Pollution is perhaps the commonest form of environmental degradation in the cities of both developed and developing countries. In the environment there are many pollutants which have been observed during different studies regarding air pollution. Among all the pollutants, gaseous and particulate pollutants are more important. In this paper an attempt has been made to study the status and trend of Sulphur dioxide (SO2), Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx), Respirable Suspended Particulate Matter (PM 10) and Total Suspended Particulate Matter (PM 100) in Salem Sowdeswari College premises where an air quality monitoring station have been established under National Air Quality Monitoring Programme of Central Pollution Control Board, New Delhi. Monitoring of pollutants for carried out for 24 hours (4-hour sampling for gaseous pollutants and 8 hour sampling for particulate matter) thrice a week (Monday, Wednesday and Friday), to have 156 observations in a year.

  17. R. Gunasekaran and K. Kumaraswamy

    In the present study, an effort has been made to study the status and trend of the gaseous pollutants such as Sulphur dioxide (SO2) and Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx) in the ambient air in and around the rural villages located around a Coal Based Thermal Power Plant. A large portion (85%) of the total thermal power generation is through coal burning. On combustion of coal, pollutants generally emitted into the atmosphere are Sulphur dioxide (SO2), Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx) and Carbon Monoxide (CO) along with ash. Probably the most common pollutant emitted is Sulphur dioxide (SO2). Here, the annual maximum 8 Hours concentrations of Sulphur dioxide (SO2) and Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx) data for the period of 10 years were analysed.

  18. S. Tamilenthi , K. Mohanasundaram and V. Padmini

    The religion and priests play vital role in the formation of a community and to society. Religious activity plays more roles in formation of character, faith and heritage so on. In the part of religious activity sometimes the priests or clergy performs the miracles or supernatural thing to attract and to draw the attention of society the perception on it may vary person to person and one religion to another. This article finds which religion is leading in this aspect. The comparative study is carried out with reference to Hindus and Christias. The samples of 50 in each religion with different age groups are taken from Dharmapuri, Salem and Thanjavur districts of Tamilnadu, India. The questionnaire is consisting of 20 questions with 4 sections. The collected information is converted to table form in order to analyze the perception. The software SPSS used for analysis and to draw the results. The recommendations were given to according to the results were drawn from the study to preserve the heritage, culture, religious faith and to make societies harmony without panic.

  19. Dastgir Alam

    The over ambitious approach of mankind towards development has invited so many environmental problems. Rising temperature is one of them. It is expected that the rising temperature will have a dent over the cereal productivity despite the fact that a lot of improvement have been realized in farm mechanization. It was also expected that rising temperature will affect the soil fertility and may reduce/stop the process of bringing new land under the farm cultivation. To analyze these relationships simple statistical tools like correlation and regression are used. The statistical results are against the expectation. We have a positive regression coefficient between cereal productivity and temperature showing that with the rise in temperature cereal productivity has increased. The correlation value between temperature and capital states that the negative impact of temperature is eliminated by improving the process of adoptability since increase in temperature is accompanied by rise in the use of capital. At the same time the positive correlation value between temperature and land shows that temperature has not made any negative impact on soil quality and thus cereal productivity.

  20. Dr. John Mugun Boit

    The paper highlights the tremendous efforts that the Kenya Government has made in the provision of higher education opportunities. However, despite efforts to equalize opportunities at this level there is concern for disparities. Inequitable access and participation of the various socio-economic groups in education are considered the cause of such disparities. The quantitative expansion of higher education undertaken by the government since the 1960’s appears to have negatively impacted on equity.The paper argues that higher education is biased for and against certain groups of people in society terms of the social class composition of students. This is a worldwide phenomenon and needs to be addressed using multi-prong approaches. In higher education however, the government can reasonably enhance equity and increase participation of students from poor family backgrounds by providing financial support to needy students. To equalize opportunities the financial assistance that is managed through Higher Education Loans Board (HELB) should be selective and repayable when students have graduated and are working - delayed payment programme.

  21. Pradipta Dubey and Atonu Chatterjee

    Microfinance has assumed a seminal importance over the years. It is being considered a major avenue in socio-economic development and also as a tool of financial inclusion. In India, however, steep rates of interest in the field, multiple borrowing by the clients to repay the loans and a spree of suicides by the alleged defaulters have put Microfinance in a bind. Consequently there is a soaring demand for regulating the field. The article traces the efforts of regulating the field of Microfinance in India. In course of discussion the article conjures up a debate that whether regulating the field will ensure greater common good.

  22. Dr. J. P. Kumar and Ms. A. Abirami

    Even though India is a big country, it has many problems. One of the major problems is unemployment. There are more than six crore well educated youth in India who are unemployed. There has been a drastic increase in the literacy rate in India over the past few decades. Unfortunately, this has failed to curb the unemployment rate. Employment growth in the organized sector, both public and private combined, has been registering a steady decline. With the continuing economic recession, the number of unemployed is only increasing exponentially. It is widely feared that unless entrepreneurial activity is encouraged and developed, there will be social chaos. Entrepreneurship has never been more important than it is today in this time of financial crisis. At the same time, society faces massive global challenges that extend well beyond the economy. Innovation and entrepreneurship provide a way forward for solving the global challenges of the 21st century, building sustainable development, creating jobs, generating renew economic growth and advancing human welfare. Entrepreneurship and Innovation are considered as the important determinants of the economic development of a country. Entrepreneurship is a typical global phenomenon attracting millions of economists, politicians and social workers. In developed countries, entrepreneurship has gained attention in the last century. This research is undertaken to study the perception on entrepreneurship and Innovation among the college students.

  23. Dr. John Mugun Boit

    Higher education institutions in the world over play a fundamental role in the social and economic life of a country. This is reflected in respective government policy documents and in the level of budgetary allocation these institutions receive (GOK, 1976; 1981; Ziderman And Albrecht, 1995). Higher education promotes National growth and development, defines the quality of the society we live in, the ability of the society to react to change and equips man for adaptation to various environments. The concern for equity (or equality of opportunity) access and social class bias has been and continues to be a strong motivating factor underlying governments` intervention in the education sector. The Government has demonstrated its commitment to addressing these issues through various policy documents. The principal objective of these government policy documents has been to provide an effective and efficient education system that serves well the wider interests of society. That is, an education system that aims at removing social injustices and disparities between regions, sexes, social and economic groups and that equalizes economic opportunities among all the citizens. Equity issues and equality of educational access and participation considerations have also been the over-riding objectives of Kenya’s educational reforms since it attained its political independence from Britain forty-three years ago.Despite these efforts higher education is still characterized by disparities arising out of inequality of opportunity, access and social class bias. This paper therefore examines the distributive impact of higher education in particular issues relating to access, equity and social class bias, and recommends policy options to address these challenges.

  24. Isaac Waswa Shitubi and Mellitus N. Wanyama

    According to Hannaford (1995), learners tend to remember more when they are actively involved in the learning process than when they are passively involved. According to this model, also known as: Dale’s Cone of Learning (, we tend to remember 10% of what we read, 20% of what we hear, 50% of what we hear and see, 70% of what is discussed, 80% of what is experienced and 95% of what we say and do . Therefore, we tend to learn more when we see, hear and participate or do real things in the learning process. It is on this basis that this paper advocates for the use of music, movement and drama in early childhood education – a learner centred method that encourages total participation through seeing, hearing and doing. In this regard, Hannaford observes that music gets the whole child involved in the process of learning. In Kenya, Early childhood education degree programs are offered by various universities. In particular, Moi University, School of Education, offers Bachelor of Education in Early Childhood and Primary Education. In the four year program course, there are only four courses which focus on the use of music, movement and drama in early childhood education. The first course, which is done in second year of study, introduces students to the very basic fundamentals of music, drama/play, movement/dance with reference to their efficacy in early childhood pedagogy. Thereafter, two courses follow in third year: one discusses methodology of using music, movement and drama in early childhood education and the other focuses on creation, choice and use of music, movement and drama materials in early childhood education. The last course zeros in on elementary techniques of music composition, and script writing for dance and drama with particular reference to early childhood education. It is last course in the series and is offered in fourth year. It builds on the earlier third year course by introducing relatively advanced techniques in music composition and script writing, and interpretation in drama/play and dance/movement in early childhood education. This paper discusses challenges and shortcomings in the programme offered at Moi University and thereafter it suggests the way forward.

  25. Mellitus N. Wanyama and Isaac Waswa Shitubi

    African traditional cultural dance performances have entered a dynamic new phase as a result of the influence of globalization on culture and conversely, the impact of culture on globalization. Kenya is not an exception. This situation leaves the following questions unanswered: 1. Are African musical arts headed for extinction in the near future? 2. Considering the fact that culture is a dynamic phenomenon, what strategies can be put in place so as to preserve the diverse Kenyan expressive cultures such as traditional music and dance for posterity? 3. What are the identifiable indigenous culture-specific characteristics that can be adapted and yet retain identities and styles akin to the prototype traditional dances? 4. What are the key issues to be considered by an ‘African dance’ critic, analyst and choreographer in Kenya today? With the foregoing questions in mind, and other contextual ones that may arise the author go ahead to evaluate the nature and structure of ‘African traditional dance’ in modern times with a critical eye. The paper end by recommending a workable/practical choreography and dance criticism model for evaluation and documentation of contemporary culture-specific neo-traditional dances particularly in Kenya and generally in Africa.

  26. Wangila Violet Muyoka, Patrick Kafu and Charles Nyandusi

    The study sought to determine the relationship between policy framework governing ECDE and actual practices in Early Childhood Development Centres (ECDCs) in Bungoma South District, Kenya. This paper examines whether or not the ECDCs were monitored according to the quality assurance standards, how ECDCs in the District were funded and how allocation and accounting was done. A total of 40 ECDCs was used, all of whose head teachers participated. The teachers were selected through simple random sampling. Data was collected using questionnaires, interview and observation schedules, and analysed using descriptive statistics. Majority of the ECDE programmes were run and funded by parents while few were funded by the management and directors of the ECDE centres. The funding was not reliable. The funds management challenges included lost receipts, parents miscalculating balances, insufficient funds and poor fees payments. As such, there was no significant relationship between the policy framework governing ECDE programme in Kenya and practices in ECDCs in the District. The study recommended increase in the number of QASOs in ECDCs, extension of Free Primary Education (FPE) Programme to ECDE to reduce financial challenges, and review the education act to cater for trained ECDE teachers among others.

  27. Wangila Violet Muyoka, Patrick Kafu and Charles Nyandusi

    This paper is based on a descriptive survey of the relationship between policy framework governing ECDE and actual practices in Early Childhood Development Centres (ECDCs) in Bungoma South District, Kenya. It examines the training that teachers of ECDE underwent, the terms and conditions of their work, and head teachers’ level of awareness on ECDE policy. A sample size of 40 ECDCs was used. All the head teachers of the selected ECDCs participated. The teachers were selected through simple random sampling. Data was collected using questionnaires, interview and observation schedules. Data analysis was done using descriptive statistics and presented thematically. It emerged that policy framework governing ECDE programme in Kenya was not being fully practiced in the District. Most teachers had a certificate while a few had a diploma in ECDE. The training content was sufficient to make teachers competent. However, majority had never attended refresher courses since training. Moreover, most teachers did not enjoy harmonized terms and conditions of services, though the conditions of services were emphasized during inspection by QASOs. The study recommended facilitation of ECDE teachers by educational officers, cooperation of parents, administration, community leaders and MOE to improve the working conditions of ECDE teachers.

  28. R. Prasannasrinivas and D. Chandramohan

    Composite materials with thermoplastic matrices and a reinforcement of natural fibers are increasingly regarded as an alternative to material replacement for various applications. The substitution of the traditionally used composite of natural fibers such as sisal, banana and Roselle can lead to a reduction of the component's weight and furthermore to a significant improvement of specific properties like impact strength, crash behavior. One of the major fields of application for such materials can be found in structural components manufacturing of helmets. The helmet manufacturing aspects are reviewed. Both the thermoplastic and the natural fiber composite shell manufacturing techniques are presented with specific mentioning of the advantages and disadvantages to each type from the manufacturing point of view. Then the properties such as stiffness, strength young’s modules, and Poisson ratio of helmet from existing model is compared with the natural fiber composite material.

  29. Krishnamoorthy, S and Muthugobal, B.K.N.

    Necessary and sufficient conditions are determined for a schur complement Pivotal Transformation in a con-s-k-EP matrix to be con-s-k-EP. Further it is shown that in a con-s-k-EPr Matrix, every secondary sub matrix of rank ‘r’ is con-s-k-EPr. Also discussed the question of expressing a matrix of rank r as a product of con-s-k-EPr matrix. A necessary and sufficient condition for products of con-s-k-EPr Partitioned matrices to be con-s-k-EPr is given. AMS classification: 15A09, 15A15, 15A57

  30. Borokini, T.I

    Carica papaya is widely cultivated and consumed in Nigeria. However, most Nigerians are not aware of the vast ethnomedicinal significance of various parts of the plant. This study involved the administration of questionnaires to herbalists, herb sellers and old rural dwellers in various parts of Oyo state for complete and comprehensive list of the ethnomedicinal significance of papaya; while information on the mineral composition and phytochemical constituents were obtained through secondary data mining. The results indicated that 22 human ailments can be treated using 46 different herbal formulations involving papaya. The plant parts used include the fruit (ripe and unripe), seeds, roots and leaves (green, yellow and brown/dry). Most frequent in the responses to the questionnaires were the use of the seeds in treating tuberculosis; milky sap to dress wounds, leaves to treat malaria and unripe fruit to treat typhoid fever. Furthermore, the secondary data indicated that the ripe and unripe fruits have wide range of nutrients, vitamins and minerals needed for the normal functioning of the body, thus justifying the necessity for constant eating papaya fruits. The phytochemical composition of the plant include tannins, alkaloids, flavonoids, cardiac glycosides, phytates, steroids, as well as papain and chymopapain found in the milky sap, all with their pharmacological effects on the body. This paper concludes with the call for research for drug development from parts of the plant, as well as more awareness creation on the ethnomedicinal uses of the plant.

  31. Sreerangegowda Thippeswamy, Devihalli Chikkaiah Mohana and Kiragandur Manjunath

    The present investigation evaluates the anti-Candida albicans and anti-Cryptococcus neoformans activity of different extracts of thirty plants belonging to 16 families. Standard agar disc diffusion method was employed for determination of antifungal activity and standard two fold broth dilution methods was used for determination of the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC). The test strain Cryptococcus neoformans used in the present study exhibited complete resistance to antifungal drugs clotrimazole and itriconozole. The result of the present study revealed that extracts of Acacia catechu, Acacia ferruginea, Adenanthera pavonia, Albizia amara, Caesalpinia coriaria, Decalepis hamiltonii, Holoptelea integrifolia, Prosopis juliflora, Samanea saman and Solanum indicum showed promising antifungal activity. The best antifungal activity was observed in toluene extract of A. pavonia and C. coriaria, chloroform extract of A. amara and methanol extract of P. juliflora and S. saman with zone of inhibition ranging from 9.2mm to 18.9mm against C. albicans and 10.5mm to 24.5mm against C. neoformans at 1mg/disc. The MIC and MFC values ranging from 0.125mg/ml to 0.5mg/ml and 1mg/ml to >2mg/ml against C. albicans and 0.0312mg/ml to 0.25mg/ml and 0.5mg/ml to 2mg/ml against C. neoformans respectively. The subsequent fractionation and phytochemical analysis confirmed that alkaloid fraction of A. amara, P. juliflora and S. saman and steroid fraction of A. pavonia and C. coriaria responsible for antifungal activity. Further investigations are required to identify active compounds responsible for activity and toxicological study using animal models before clinical application.

  32. Borokini, T.I. and Clement, M.

    The study involved an ethnobotanical survey of tree barks sold in herbal markets in Ibadan Metropolis, their ethnomedicinal uses and their conservation status. Three herbal markets were visited, while 15 herb sellers were interviewed. Thirty-nine tree barks were collected from three herbal markets, and their ethnomedicinal uses were documented, ranging in their use for the treatment of fevers, respiratory infections, skin infection, gastro-intestinal problems and reproductive problems among many others. Twenty-one of them are considered abundant, while the rest were found to be endangered, critically endangered or vulnerable, with three of the tree barks yet to be identified. The identified tree species cut across 24 plant families with Caesalpiniaceae having the highest frequency of plant representatives. Information from 15 herb sellers interviewed were also documented. The authors advocated for sustainable harvesting of tree barks for the trees to survive and undergo bark re-growth.

  33. Samreen Quareshi, Pratima Akolkar and J.K. Garg

    Present investigation has been carried out for assessment of the suitability of the river Yamuna in the upper stretch for bathing purpose. Accordingly, ten sampling locations were selected, two in Uttarakhand, one in Himachal Pradesh, six in Haryana and one in outskirts of Delhi. Sampling was done in the month of November, 2011. A total of five parameters, namely, pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), Total Coliforms and Faecal Coliforms were studied. Results of this study were compared with the water quality standards prescribed by the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) for designated best-use. The sampling sites of Uttarakhand (Dakpathar U/S and Dakpathar D/S) showed physico-chemical and biological parameter within the prescribed limits of water quality standards and the quality of water was good and fit for bathing purpose. All other sampling stations were found to harbour coliform organisms in numbers greater than the required CPCB standards for outdoor bathing and hence are not suitable for bathing.

  34. Krishna Tiwari, Dileep Tiwari, Sunil Shebannavar, Santosh Pokalwar, Maheswari Mishra

    Suitability of protein quantification method for intended application largely depends on tolerance due to interfering substances in the assay. PEGylation is commonly used procedure to enhance the bioavailability of biotherapeutic proteins. In a PEGylation reaction methoxy-polyethylene glycol aldehyde (mPEG-ALD) is conjugated to protein of interest in presence of cyanoborohydride (CBH) and conjugation reaction is stopped by addition of glycine. Therefore, in the present study components of PEGylation reaction mixture namely mPEG-ALD, CBH and glycine were tested for interference in Lowry, Bradford and Bicinchoninic acid (BCA) assays. The differences in sensitivity of these assays were observed for interfering substances. The mPEG-ALD and glycine interfered in Lowry and BCA assays whereas CBH interfered in all the three assays. Overall Bradford assay was superior to Lowry and BCA assays in quantification of proteins in presence of mPEG-ALD and glycine.

  35. Somayeh Hosseinzadeh and Valiollah Dabidi Roshan

    The pro-oxidant effects of air pollutants can exacerbate the age-related increase in oxidative stress in brain that is related to the decline of the antioxidant defense systems. The present study investigated the protective effect of regular exercise and/or Curcumin (an active ingredient of turmeric) against lead-induced neurotoxicity in rat cortex. Forty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into following groups: lead acetate, curcumin, endurance training, training + curcumin, sham groups. The exercise training protocol consisted of running on a treadmill at a progressive intensity for 8 weeks. The rats in sham group received curcumin solvent (ethyl oleat) while the others received lead acetate (20 mg/kg). Moreover, the curcumin and training + curcumin groups received curcumin solution (30 mg/kg), intraperitoneally. Exposure to lead acetate caused an increase in lipid peroxidation (MDA) and a decrease in nerve growth factor (NGF) levels in cerebral cortex and plasma TAC as compared with control. Whereas, regular exercise and/ or supplementary Curcumin reversed this process. Interestingly, co-treatment with Curcumin and exercise caused a significant decrease in MDA with concomitant increase in NGF and TAC levels, as compared with those treated with Curcumin or lead alone. The results suggest a lifestyle-induced neuroprotective potential in ameliorating lead-induced neurotoxicity.

  36. S. K. Yadav, M.M. Singh, V. Kumar, A. K. Pathak

    Ambient air quality in rural residential area nearby granite mining is directly linked with activity level in the granite crushing site including drilling, blasting, loading of waste, crushing of ore and transport of overburden. Surface mining creates more pollution in comparison to underground mining. The mining activities mainly contribute RSPM and SPM to the surrounding environment. Seasonal average and range value also been calculated. It has been observed that the average concentrations of the SPM and RSPM are high in winter in comparison to the summer, monsoon, spring and autumn season. It was noticed in this study SPM and RSPM levels at all selected sites exceeds the prescribed limits as stipulated by central pollution control board (CPCB) New Delhi besides SPM in monsoon season. The average ambient air concentration of SO2 and NOx were found below the permissible limits of CPCB at all the sites. Comparatively higher concentration of SO2 and NOx were observed during winter season at all the sites.

  37. Balakrishnan C., Saravanan R., Subramanian S Iyer., Gnanadev G., Rajesh Gupta and Indu Bhushan

    A simple and efficient reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed for assay and dissolution of Potassium chloride in Potassium chloride extended release tablets and capsules. The analyte was detected by Evaporative light scattering detector (ELSD) at a Nitrogen gas flow rate of 1.6 mL/min. Phenomenex Luna Hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) column was used to separate both potassium (cation) and chloride (anion) in a single run. The proposed method was validated as per USP and ICH recommendations for Precision, Ruggedness, Accuracy, Linearity, Specificity, Filter interference and Robustness. The linearity of the method ranged from 125 µg/mL to 1500 µg/mL, accuracy results ranged from 99.7% to 101.6% and the overall Relative Standard Deviation (RSD) for Method precision and Intermediate precision was 1.2% to 1.4%. The method can be used successfully to analyze potassium chloride drug product for its potassium chloride content.

  38. Baladev Das, Debasis De, Subhasis Mukhopadhyay, Kazi Monjur Ali, Kausik Chatterjee, Debidas Ghosh

    Main objective of this study is to observe the success of directly observed treatment, short-course (DOTS) programme in West Bengal in respect of safe disposal of acid-fast bacilli (AFB) positive sputum specimens. The present study focused the mycobateriocidal effect of supplied phenyl in the DOTS clinics at Hooghly and Burdwan districts, West Bengal, India, where the standard direction of disposal is being followed. Viability of Tubercle bacilli in different concentrations and contact times with that Phenyl has been observed in this study. Sputum samples were examined for (AFB) by Ziehl-Neelson (ZN) staining technique. The existing protocol for using the phenyl with sputum sample is equal volume of sputum and 5.0% Phenol i.e (1:7 dilution of phenyl). The contact time required is about 18 hours approximately. The study focused that concentration of phenyl may be lowered upto 1% without disturbing the mycobacteriocidal effect. So, the dilution which is used in DOTS center is above the threshold dilution of phenyl and so there is no question about the bio-safety in this connection with quality of disposal of sputum of positive patients in this concern.

  39. V. Vinod Prabhu and R. Selvaraj Pandian

    Mycobacterium leprae (M. leprae) and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) cause leprosy and tuberculosis respectively are considered chronic pathogens causing disease that take months sometimes year‘s to develop and without treatment eventually result in death. Lepromatous leprosy individuals have tuberculosis as co-infection, which means one organism weakens the patient and reduces the ability of the immune system to respond adequately or rapidly enough and this allows a more virulent organism to infect the patient some time lepromatous leprosy patients were well protected from tuberculosis infection by cross immunity. In this context the 73 lepromatous leprosy patients from leprosy rehabilitation centre were screened for tuberculosis as co-infection. The prevalence of oral pathogens among lepromatous leprosy patients shows the presence of Staphylococcus sp (30%) as predominant followed by Bacillus sp (23%), Streptococcus sp (21%), and Diplococci- S. pneumoniae (1%). The dominant of Staphylococcus sp in the sputum specimens of lepromatous leprosy patients shows that they were suffering from respiratory infections such as sinusitis, pneumonia, tonsillitis and pharyngitis.

  40. Ezhilarasi, K., Thanigaivelan, K., Parthiban, M. and Vijay Viswanathan

    Alpha 2-Heremans-Schmid glycoprotein (AHSG) is a negative acute-phase reactant and extra osseous calcification inhibitor. Decreased serum concentration of AHSG is independently related to insulin resistance. To identify the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the alpha2-Heremans-Schmid glycoprotein (AHSG) gene and assess their association with Type 2 diabetes in South Indian population. The study included 110 normal healthy volunteers, (68 M: 42 F, mean age 50 ± 7.97 yrs) and 101 T2DM subjects (65 M: 36 F, mean age 52.33 ± 11.12 yrs) of MV hospital for diabetes, Chennai, India. Anthropometric and biochemical parameters were measured. Polymerase Chain Reaction was carried out in the genomic DNAs using primers 5’-GTA AGG CAA CAC TCA GTG A-3’ and 5’-TCA TCA CTG CCA TGT CTA G-3’. PCR-RFLP was performed with the amplicon of 731 bp; using the restriction enzyme SacI that cleaves between T and C (GAGCT*C) and produces 709 and 22 bps bands in agarose gel electrophoresis. Results from our study shows that 98 (89.09 %), 12 (10.91%) and no Controls had, CC (Thr/Thr), CG (Thr/Ser) and G/G (Ser/Ser) polymorphism respectively. 68 (67.32 %), 32 (31.68 %) and 1(0.99%) T2DM patients had CC (Thr/Thr), CG (Thr/Ser) and GG (Ser/Ser) polymorphism respectively. This is statistically significant (p< 0.001). AHSG gene Thr256Ser SNP was significantly associated (p< 0.001) with T2DM among south Indian population.

  41. Adegbamigbe, O.J, P.O. Olatunji, Adewuyi, J.O

    Objective: One of the factors determining susceptibility to infection is the socioeconomic environment of individuals. This study is therefore to determine the effect of socioeconomic factors on the clinical stage of HIV at which patients present. Patients and Methods: One hundred and sixty-five (165) adult HIV positive patients who were managed at HIV clinic of University of Ilorin teaching hospital, Ilorin were recruited for the study. The patients were recruited before the commencement of antiretroviral (ARV) drugs over a period of 13 months. Fifty (50) age and sex matched, HIV negative patients served as controls. A questionnaire was administered to the patients to assess their socioeconomic class as well as demographic factors. The subjects were grouped into the stages using clinical and immunological criteria. The clinical staging was done through clerking and physical examination while immunological staging was by CD4 cell count. The CD4 count was done by flow cytometry using Partec cyflow counter machine made in Germany, with strict adherence to the manufacturer’s standard operating procedure. Total lymphocyte count were determined using standard haematological technique. They were also grouped into various socio-economic class using the Oyedeji social class categorization (similar to Registrar General social class). Statistical analysis of data was done using statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) and statistical significance of data was based on P value of less than 0.05. Result: Statistically significant association was observed between the socioeconomic class and the stages of HIV infection (p-value 0.001). Majority of the patients in socio economic class 1 (SEC1), which are the high socioeconomic class were found in clinical stage 1. Most of the SEC 3 and 4 which are the low socioeconomic class group were found in late stages of HIV infection irrespective of high CD4 count. Conclusion: It can be concluded from this study that patients with high socioeconomic status tend to present with less severe disease than their low socioeconomic counterpart. Thus improving the socioeconomic status of the populace (especially people living with HIV infection) may facilitate early detection with eventual reduction in morbidity and mortality due to their better quality of life.

  42. Neeta V. M. Joshi and S. Srisudha

    The marine algae, namely, Amphiroa fragilissima, Caulerpa scalpelliformis, Gracilaria edulis, Halimeda gracilis, Sargassum wightii, and Ulva reticulata found in the Mandapam coastal region have been screened for agglutinin activity against human (A, B, AB, and O) erythrocytes and sheep, rabbit, and fish erythrocytes. Carbohydrate (0.98 mg/g) and nitrogen (0.14 mg/g) concentration was higher in Halimeda gracilis. Lipid (0.25 mg/g), protein (0.93 mg/g), and mannitol (0.069 mg/g) content was higher in Sargassum wightii. All 6 seaweed species showed positive agglutinin reactions against rabbit erythrocytes. Halimeda gracilis exhibited high hemagglutinin activity against fish and sheep erythrocytes. Caulerpa scalpelliformis and Ulva reticulata exhibited positive reaction against human A, B, AB, and O erythrocytes. The agglutinating activity of both the species was inhibited by simple sugars. Extracts of Caulerpa scalpelliformis showed cytotoxic activity against Hep 2 cell lines in vitro with a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 250 µg/mL.

  43. Pramod C. Mane and Deepali D. Kadam

    The main aim of this study is to screening the potential of freshwater alga Spirulina platensis to remove Cr, Fe, Mn and Se from aqueous solution. The effects of initial metal concentrations, pH and algal biomass dose on metal biosorption were investigated. The results shows that the increase in an initial concentrations of Mn, Fe, Cr and Se led to decrease in the percentage of removal for all the metals, also it was observed that as the dose of algal biomass increases the amount of metal removed decreases. The maximum uptake for Mn, Fe, Cr and Se was found to be at 0.025 gm of algal biomass dose. The initial pH of the metal solution is an important parameter affecting the biosorption of metal ions. The effect of pH on metal biosorption has been studied, and the results indicated that the pH value of solution could significantly influence the biosorption. A trend of increasing metal ion binding with increasing pH could be observed for all the metals. The optimal removal efficiencies of all the metals were observed at the pH 6. The maximum uptake at pH 6 and initial metal concentration of 5 mg/L, for Mn, Fe, Cr and Se using immobilized cells of Spirulina platensis observed as 4.97 mg/L, 4.99 mg/L, 4.99 mg/L and 4.98 mg/L after 24 hours of incubation period.

  44. Kwedho, G., Opata G. P. and Ayonga, J.

    Kenya is urbanizing rapidly with a population growth rate of 8% per annum. Currently, 35% of the country’s population lives in urban areas. This is estimated at 60% by the year 2030. This urbanization, if not properly managed, implies significant dynamics that impact negatively on the urban environment. The situation is worse in dense residential areas of urban centres, where the main environmental challenge is the proper management of wastes. Hips of garbage are common in low income areas of most Kenyan towns, Eldoret included. In most cases, uncollected wastes, often mixed with human and animal excreta, are dumped indiscriminately in the streets and drains. Such acts lead to contamination of surface and ground water through leachate and soil contamination, hence the spread of water-borne diseases such as cholera and dysentery. The discharge of untreated or inadequately treated human wastes from dwelling places and raw sewerage often harms the environment and human health. Based on the study carried out in Eldoret town, this paper critically analyses and identifies problems of the human waste management systems in low income residential areas of the town, and makes recommendations towards a more sustainable urban environment.

  45. Prof. Dr. P.K. Srimani and 2Sujatha, D

    This paper studies the cumulative effect of uniform rotation of the system and the heating/cooling from below on the stability of a suspension of motile gravitactic microorganisms in a shallow sparsely packed horizontal porous layer. The bioconvective system is described by the continuity, momentum, cell conservation, flux of micro-organisms and thermal energy equations. The basic state solution is determined and the perturbed equations are solved using a fast computational technique with the MATLAB tool. The Eigen value problem is solved and the profiles of the stream function, cell concentration, temperature along with the neutral stability curves are presented through graphs. The present results show an excellent agreement with the available results in the limiting cases.

  46. Wankhade Nitin A. and Dr. Thakre S.B.

    The focus of the research paper is to investigate the importance of biogas as an alternate energy source. Biogas production is one of the number of tools that may be used to alieviate the problems of global warming ,energy security and waste management. Biogas fuel production from blends of biological wastes such as pumpkin pod (P), cow(C) and swine(S) dung with maize bract (M) waste was understudied. The wastes were combined in the ratio of M: P (1:1), M:C(1:1), M:S (1:1) and M:P:C(1:1:2) and charged separately into biodigester of the same capacity (20.0L). Maize bract waste alone acted as the control. Its initial experimental study gave rise to the present investigation. The blends were thereafter subjected to anaerobic digestion batch process for 35 days on the prevailing atmospheric ambient temperature and pressure conditions. cumulative biogas yield of blends (MP, MC, MS and MPC) were 7800, 11235,15140,10540 ml/10gm respectively. The lag days (waiting period before flame production from each system) were also different; maize bracts alone – 24 days, while MP, MC, MS and MPC were 15, 6, 27 and 4 days, respectively. Results also indicated increased biogas production from MS, MC and MPC systems. However, MS had lower quality biogas because of longest onset of flammable gas production (27 days). Comparison of volume of gas production from the blends with that of control using least significant differences (LSD) of means showed that gas yield was highly significant for MS,MPC and MC blends (P<0.05). Again, analysis of biogas produced from the blends showed that MP contained 75.9% moist methane, 4.5% O2, 19%CO2, 0.05% NO2 and NO2, MC- 79.21%, 1.75%O2, 17.0%CO2, 0.02%NO2 and NOx, MS- 79.94% moist CH2, 1% O2, 19% CO2, 1.03% NO2 and NO2 , MPC – 74.94% moist CH2, 3% O2, 22% CO2, 0.03% NO2 and NO2. CO and NO were not found in all the blends during the analysis. Overall results indicated that the low flammable biogas from the maize bract waste could be enhanced significantly by blending with cow and swine dung.

  47. Kavitha, K. and Ramaraj, E.

    Data mining promises to discover actionable patterns to users. However, patterns generated from traditional association mining are often difficult to understand and put into action, thus cannot satisfy the needs of real world completely. Actionable patterns address that patterns are deemed actionable if the user can act upon them in her favor. Recent studies present combined association rule mining can help extract useful knowledge from learned single rules, but even in this case, there still exists some interesting rules which cannot be found out by combined association rule mining. We propose a generic framework that uses utility in decision making to drive the data mining process. We use concepts from meta-learning and build on earlier work by Elovici and Braha, that uses decision theory for formulating an utility measure, to specialize the framework for classification tasks,and use the combined association rule mining to extract further actionable pattern and perfect combined association rule mining. This study proposes a novel approach to discover actionable combined patterns with composite items.

  48. Veerabadran, V., Bhuvana Madhesh, Rakul, R. and Mukesh Kumar, D.J.

    This study evaluated the feasibility of easily available substrates in solid state fermentation (SSF) for the production of protease by Bacillus sp. MPTK 712. The production parameters were optimized against incubation period, moisture content, initial pH, extraction medium, various carbons, nitrogen, and metal salts sources and optimum temperature of enzyme activity. It was found that green gram husk, 96 h, 30% moisture, 50C, arabinose, beef extract and ferrous sulphate influenced protease production. Considerable increase in protease production was noticed after the optimization process. The optimized media was subjected to purification process which yielded a specific activity of 3506 U mg-1 after Q-sepharose chromatography.

  49. Kaviarasan, T ., Yogamoorthi, A and Siva Sankar, R

    This study was aimed to analyze six heavy metals such as Cu, Zn, Mg, Lb, Cd, Cr. Were estimated in sediments, shells, tissues of three gastropod Rapana rapiformis, Chicoreus virgineus, and Hemifusus pugilinus, and analyzed in AAS, We ensure that the heavy metals present in sediment is high concentration in this study area fallowed by tissue and shell of gastropod, tissue and shell has the homogeneity, samples Cr not present. But tissue samples having the diverge the concentration as well as order, the high concentration of heavy metals present in the sediment is due to the anthropogenic inputs and fishing activity, this study conclude that Evan though the accumulation of heavy metals is in low concentration we should take some measurements to safe the our marine system in the form of reducing the pollution loads in to the marine environments.

  50. Ravi Sankar, N., Deepthi, Y., Kiran Kumar, V., Lavanya, P., Potu Ravi, Sadhana, Ch ., Rajanikanth, P., Kartheek, D ., Bharath Kumar, R ., and Naidu, N.V

    An alkaline serine protease producing strain was isolated from local soil samples and identified based on morphological and biochemical characteristics as Bacillus subtilis NR18. The enzyme was purified in three step procedure involving ammonium sulfate precipitation, followed by gel filtration and ion-exchange chromatography. Through the process 13.7-fold increase in purity with a specific activity of 283.1 U/mg proteins was obtained. The molecular weight of the purified enzyme was found to be 21 kDa by SDS-PAGE. The enzyme was most active at 500C and pH 9.0. It was relatively stable between pH 7.0-10.0 and temperature between 40 and 500C. Influence of metal ions on enzyme activity revealed that, Ca2+, Mg2+ and Mn2+ slightly enhanced the enzyme activity; whereas Co2+, Fe2+, Hg2+ and Zn2+ strongly inhibited the enzyme activity. Among the protease inhibitors that were tested, the PMSF and DFP completely inhibited the enzyme activity, indicating that the protease is a serine protease. The enzyme retained more than 50% activity after 60 min incubation at 500C in the presence of commercial detergents indicating its suitability for application in detergent industry.

  51. Yadav, Saurabh K, Kumar Vinit and Singh M.M

    Utilization of fuel-wood as a source of energy is a major source of indoor air pollution in the study area. Two villages nearby Jhansi City have been selected for the study purpose. Indoor and outdoor air quality in both rural residential areas has been monitored in winter, summer and monsoon seasons. In has been observed in the study that at all the selected sites, the average concentrations of the SPM and RSPM are high in winter in comparison to the summer and monsoon season. It was also noticed that SPM level at outdoor sampling sites in winter and summer the exceeds the prescribed limits as stipulated by central pollution control board (CPCB) New Delhi. The average concentration of SO2 and NOx were found below the permissible limits of CPCB at all the sites but NOx concentration was higher than the outdoor NOx concentration. SPM and RSPM were monitored through gravimetric method. West and Gaeke method was used for analysis of SO2 (West and Gaeke, 1956) and Jackob and Hochheiser (1958) modified method for analysis of NOx. From the entire study it has been found that maximum families especially in rural area having improper ventilation and used of solid biomass.

  52. A. Jeyasankar, N. Raja and S. Ignacimuthu

    Quantitative and qualitative changes of haemolymph protein profile of S. litura was studied under the stress of subfractions isolated from S. lineare. The study was conducted at Entomolgy Research Institute, Loyola College, Chennai, India. Standard protcol was followed to estimate qualitative and quantitatiive changes of haemolymph protein. The estimation was done after fourth instar larvae of S. litura fed on castor leaves treated with 25, 50, 75 and 100ppm concentration of promising sub fractions II, III, IV and VI for 24h. Protein content in haemolymph of S. litura was reduced significantly (P<0.05; by LSD) in all treatments. The reduction of protein in sub fraction II and positive control azadiracthin did not show any statistical significance (P>0.05; by LSD). Maximum qualitative changes were observed only on storage proteins with the molecular weight of 68KD. The concentration of storage protein was reduced maximum in sub fraction II and III at 25ppm concentration and it was increased in sub fraction III at 100ppm and sub fraction IV at 25ppm concentration respectively compared to control. The dissimilarity in qualitative and quantitative changes may be associated with differences in biological and biochemical activities in the larvae of S. litura to overcome the stress of S. lineare.

  53. M. Rajeswari Prabha and B. Ramachandramurty

    Cu(II) - ninhydrin reagent is used to screen a variety of small peptides and amino acid derivatives by developing color on paper. Amino acids produce a pink color and their carboxyl derivatives produce a yellow color with this reagent. All compounds which produce a yellow color have been classified as Cu(II) - ninhydrin positive compounds. These compounds include amino acid esters, amino acid amides and small peptides containing upto 5 amino acids. Even though we have proposed a minimum structural requirement for the production of a yellow chromophore with these compounds, we are interested in elucidating a structural model for these compounds. In this report, we have proposed a square planar structural model for these complexes.

  54. Sandeep Arya, Vinit Kumar and Sudarshana Sharma

    The present study was carried out to assess the impacts of industrial activities on the ground water quality in and around the Diamond cement industry, Madora, Jhansi. The quality was assessed in terms of hydro chemical parameters. Groundwater samples were collected from ten sites (bore wells) in and around industry throughout the six months. Water quality parameters such as pH (7.58+0.21), EC(1.92+0.39 mmhos/cm), TDS (527.96+106.67 mg/l), alkalinity (226.50+27.58 mg/l), total hardness (161.38+14.60 mg/l), calcium (105.15+10.58 mg/l), magnesium (56.23+12.29 mg/l), chloride (172.78+10.81 mg/l), sulphate (198.56+34.63 mg/l) and fluoride (1.21+0.15 mg/l) were analyzed to know the present status of ground water quality. The results shows, that all the parameters were recorded under permissible limit.

  55. R. Kayalvizhi and K. Sankar

    This paper intends to assess the water quality with reference to drinking, agriculture and industrial uses in the ground water in Alangudi Taluk, Pudukkottai District. In this taluk has been evaluated by considering 50 water samples collected from bore wells. In this sampling was carried out using pre- cleaned polyethylene containers, this sampling analyzed the data collected from the Public Works Department (PWD), Ground Water Division (GWD), Thiruchirapalli, Tamilnadu, for the year 2010. The physical and chemical parameters of the analytical results of groundwater were compared with the standard guideline values recommended by the World Health Organization for drinking and Public Health Standard. Thematic map preparing to TDS, EC, Cl, NO3, SO4, and Na were maps was developed Using Arc GIS-9.3 platform. The data were used to compute chemical parameters as non-carbonate hardness, sodium absorption ration percentage of sodium, residual sodium carbonate, magnesium ratio, chloro alkaline index found to be used on evaluation of the chemical parameters quality of water is fit for drinking, industrial and agricultural uses, accept in a few isolated locations. According to Wilcox’s diagram indicates that less then 95 percent of samples fall in excellent to good and good to permissible types. According to the USSL diagram based on most of the samples fall in the field of C2-S2 indicating same salinity and sodium water, which can be used for almost all types of soil with no danger of sodium. Majority of the samples are suitable for domestic purposes and far from drinking water standards.

  56. Meena Thomas Irimpan, C. I. Jolly and D. Sheela

    Seven medicinal plants of the family Asclepiadaceae were characterised for their free radical scavenging activity, total polyphenol and flavonoid contents. Antioxidant activity was determined by DPPH (1, 1-diphenyl-2-picryl- hydrazyl) assay method. There was direct correlation between polyphenol content and antioxidant activity (correlation coefficient R2 = 0.6557). IC50 value and total flavonoid content were strongly correlated (correlation coefficient R2 = 0.8337). These plants represent promising sources of natural antioxidants and these findings give scientific bases to their ethno pharmacological uses.

  57. Jatinderpal Singh

    The process of oogenesis and egg shell formation in Haemonchus contortus, a blood sucking nematode parasite of small ruminants was studied. In the germinative zone, the oogonia having prominent nuclei and clear cytoplasm, divide mitotically and are arranged around a central anucleate tube like rachis which is not directly connected to the oogonia by their cytoplasmic extensions but sends out various branches in inter-oogonial spaces. In the growth zone of the ovary, the primary and secondary oocytes attain a substantial increase in size. This region of ovary is tightly coiled around the intestine suggesting trans-membrane flow of nutrients from the gut to the gonads. The secondary hexagonal shaped oocytes detach from the rachis and pass through the narrow oviduct and enter into seminal receptaculum. The process of fertilization initiates egg shell formation. The layers of the egg shell being an indiscernible vitelline layer, a chitinous layer and an outer uterine layer. Uterine lipids and proteins contribute to the formation of outer layer of egg shell which gets coated by acid mucopolysaccharides in the last portion of the uterus. The ova lying in the proximal part of the uterus have already completed the first segmentation division before their expulsion.





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Luai Farhan Zghair
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Elsadig Gasoom FadelAlla Elbashir
Eapen, Asha Sarah
United State
Dr.Arun Kumar A
Dr. Zafar Iqbal
Dr. Ruchika Khanna
Dr. Recep TAS
Dr. Rasha Ali Eldeeb
Dr. Pralhad Kanhaiyalal Rahangdale
Dr. Nicolas Padilla- Raygoza
Dr. Mustafa Y. G. Younis
Dr. Muhammad shoaib Ahmedani
Saudi Arabia
United State
Dr. Lim Gee Nee
Dr. Jatinder Pal Singh Chawla
Dr. Devendra kumar Gupta
Dr. Ali Seidi
Dr. Achmad Choerudin
Dr Ashok Kumar Verma
Thi Mong Diep NGUYEN
Dr. Muhammad Akram
Dr. Imran Azad
Dr. Meenakshi Malik
Aseel Hadi Hamzah
Anam Bhatti
Md. Amir Hossain
Mirzadi Gohari