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May 2013

  1. Muthukrishnan Ezhumalai, Ranganathan Harini, Kodukkur Viswanathan Pugalendi

    The objective of the study was to investigate the combination of carvacrol (CVL) and rosiglitazone (RSG) on non-enzymatic and enzymatic antioxidants in the plasma and tissues of high fat diet (HFD) induced diabetes in C57BL/6J mice weighing 20-30 g. The normal and diabetic mice were treated with CVL (20 mg/kg BW) dissolved in 0.5% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and RSG (4 mg/kg BW) dissolved in water for 35 days. Diabetic mice had an elevation in the levels of lipid peroxidation markers, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), lipid hydroperoxides (LOOH) and conjugated dienes (CD) also a reduction in non-enzymatic antioxidants, vitamin C, vitamin E and reduced glutathione (GSH) in the plasma and tissues, and enzymatic antioxidants, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione-S- transferase in the erythrocyte and tissues. Treatment with CVL and RSG in combination brought the non-enzymatic and enzymatic antioxidants to near normality when compare to other groups.

  2. Mohd Ashraf Khan, Tasaduq H. Rather, Maqsood A. Dar and Rajdeep Kudesia

    Random Amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis was applied to brinjal genotypes in order to assess the degree of polymorphism among genotypes. Three RAPD Primers ( OPB-07,OPL-04 and OPC-07) were used to estimate genetic diversity in five brinjal cultivars. A total of 30 bands were scored corresponding to an average of 10 bands per primer with 10 bands showing polymorphism (33.33%).One out of three primers (OPB-07) gave 50% polymorphism. Dice`s similarity coefficient ranged from 0.857-0.980.Similarity matrix computed with dice`s coefficient reveals maximum similarity between cultivars Swarna mani (S1) and Punjab-70 (S2), Arka kranti (S4) and Swarna abhilamb (S5) i.e, 0.980 and 0.923 respectively while distantly related cultivars were Swarna mani (S1) and Swarna abhilamb (S5) with similarity coefficient 0.857.A dendogram constructed based on UPGMA clustering method revealed two major clusters-cluster-1 and cluster-2.The cluster – 1 comprises of Swarna mani (S1) and Punjab-70 (S2) and cluster -2 comprises of Arka kranti (S4) and Swarna abhilamb (S5), while as Arka shree (S3) occupies a distinct place as revealed in dendogram.

  3. Pal, R. S., Singh, K. S. and Tripathi, M. K.

    An experiment on 24 lactating crossbred cows assessed the possibility of utilization of poultry litter (PL) in replacement of conventional protein supplement (soybean meal) in lactating cow diets. Cows of similar age and lactation were randomly divided in four equal groups and fed for 90 days with ad-libitum sorghum fodder and the concentrate mixture was offered to meet energy and protein requirements as per NRC (1988) recommendation. Concentrate fed to control (concentrate I) animals contained de-oiled soybean meal (DSM) as protein supplement while DSM protein was replaced at 25, 37.5 and 50 % with PL in concentrate II, concentrate III and concentrate IV, which accounted 28, 42 and 56 % PL levels respectively, and these concentrate mixtures were fed to cows of T1, T2, T3 and T4 groups respectively. The PL contained OM 71.5, CP 18.0, NDF 55.5, ADF 41.2, Ca 5.4, P 1.7 % and energy 3.75 Mcal/kg DM. The dry matter intake (DMI), milk production and milk composition were similar among four cow group. The DMI varied from 2.54 to 2.72 % of body weight, while milk production ranged from 5.06 to 6.59 kg. Although, milk production and organic matter intake were similar among four groups, however reduction in milk production 6 (T2), 19 (T3) and 22 (T4) % compared to T1 was accompanied by reduced organic matter intake 3, 5 and 9 per cent respectively in cow groups consuming concentrate having PL 28, 42 and 56 percent. PL inclusion in concentrate mixture reduced organic matter and energy contents, while NDF, ADF, Ca and P increased. Digestibility of DM was higher in T1, whereas intake and digestibility of OM, CP, NDF and ADF were similar among four cow groups. Present study concluded that poultry litter can be included in the concentrate mixtures of lactating cows up to 56 percent in replacement of 50 % conventional protein source, without significant reduction in nutrient digestibility and milk production. However, economics of PL inclusion in relation to milk production needs further studies.

  4. Mohammad Azizur Rahman, Reza Ul Karim and Ruhul Amin

    The community based cross sectional study explored age and sex variations in under nutrition using mid‐upper arm circumference (MUAC) cut‐off values among 2196 (1037 boys and 1159 girls), 3‐5 years old children in a food insecure rural Bera sub district of Pabna district in Bangladesh. MUAC was measured using standard technique. The response rate was approximately 96%. Mean MUAC among boys was higher than girls at all ages except 5 years. Significant sex differences were not observed over ages. The age‐combined rates of overall (moderate and severe) under nutrition among boys (38.49%) was higher than among girls (32.22%).The age combined rates of moderate under nutrition were 36.34% and 31.03% among boys and girls, respectively. The rates of severe under nutrition were 2.15% and 1.20% among boys and girls, respectively. There were sex differences in both moderate and severe under nutrition. There was an increasing trend in the rates of overall under nutrition from 3 to 5 years in both genders. Education of mothers, housing space, family size, religion, and sex of children had significant effects on the nutritional status of children. Results of the study suggest that MUAC is a potential anthropometric indicator of child nutrition.

  5. Jaimin N. Undavia, Prashant M. Dolia and Nikhil P. Shah

    The major aspect of Data Mining is in education for various purposes. Prediction is the most widely used technique in Data Mining. In recent research, Data Mining in education is at its peak. Higher education institutes are preparing professional with expertise in discipline, high moral values and with extensive knowledge. To achieve this, they required candidates who are meant for the concern subject or institutes. So, Student Performance Prediction (SPS) become very much important for the higher education institutes. We may achieve the highest level of quality in higher education is by discovering knowledge of prediction regarding the academic history of particular student. So it is always better to have some prediction of student performance before admitted for particular course. Currently, EDM tends to focus on pattern discovery and that discovered pattern will be used in some learning analytics. The academic performance of the student may be influenced by many factors, so it becomes necessary to develop predictive data mining model for students. In this paper we have analyzed students of MCA/MBA 2012 batch of Charutar University of Science & Technology. At the end we will conclude the result against our parameters.

  6. Arvind Arya, Sandeep Kumar and Kasana, M. S.

    A substantial and low cost DNA isolation protocol is the prerequisite of many molecular biology experiments for the genetic improvement of highly economical medicinal plants. The present study was undertaken to explore the best DNA isolation protocol for Stevia rebaudiana Bert., an artificial sweetener. Four methods were evaluated for extraction of DNA namely Kit GeNeiTM Genomic DNA extraction (Bangalore GeNei), Kit GeNeiTM Plant DNA isolation (Bangalore GeNei), Phenol-Chloroform Method and CTAB method. All four methods evaluated effectively to isolate the DNA from the young and old leaves of Stevia plant and produced consistently positive results. The quantity and quality of the DNA extracted was compared using UV-spectrophotometer and agarose gel electrophoresis. It was found that the Kit GeNeiTM Plant DNA isolation (Bangalore GeNei) had good quality as well as quantity (A260/280, 1.5655) of DNA as compared to other three methods. The present findings will certainly play a vital role in genetic improvement of Stevia rebaudiana Bert.

  7. Sharma Ishan, Gupta Nakul, Mohammed M. Safhi, Meetu Agrawal and Chauhan Prerna

    Objective: The study was designed to evaluate antipyretic activity of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of seeds of Caesalpinia crista linn. in various experimental animal models. Material and methods: After collection of seeds, ethanolic and aqueous extract were prepared and the phytochemical screening was performed. Then ethanolic and aqueous both extracts of Caesalpinia crista linn. were evaluated for antipyretic activity using Brewer’s yeast induced pyrexia in rats, TAB-vaccine induced pyrexia in rabbits and Boiled milk induced pyrexia in rabbits models. The differences between the temperatures were recorded. Results and Discussion: The preliminary phytochemical screening of the ethanolic and aqueous extracts of the plant Caesalpinia crista linn. showed the presence of phytoconstituents such as Flavonoids, Tannins, Proteins, Alkaloids, Carbohydrates Reducing Sugars, Phytosterols, Saponins and Triterpenoids. After the administration of extracts, when the rectal temperatures were compared with 0 hour temperature at a time interval of 1 hour for six hours, there was a significant decrease in the temperature by the plant extracts and the standard drug (Paracetamol). Flavonoids are known to target prostoglandins which are involved in the late phase of acute inflammation, pyrexia and pain perception. Flavonoids reduce lipid peroxidation by preventing or slowing the onset of cell necrosis and by increasing the vascularity. The anti-pyretic action of Caesalpinia crista linn. may be due to the inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis. Conclusion: The study shows that ethanolic and aqueous extracts have antipyretic activity, but the ethanolic extract shows more significance then aqueous extract.

  8. Shruthika Ravel, A. and Jency, S.

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive neurological disease of the brain. It’s is the most common form of dementia which demolishes the vital brain cells causing trouble with memory, thinking and behaviour, brutal enough to affect work. Recognized factors in Alzheimer’s disease include acetylcholine deficiency, free radicals, and inflammation of the brain tissue. Many of the current drugs used to treat the disease like Donepezil have unpleasant side effects and doctors are keen to find alternatives. There is no cure for Alzheimer’s disease, but drugs designed to slow disease progression are available. Herbal medicines are being used by 80% of the world population in developing countries for primary health care. Some herbs may help to improve brain function, but scientific evidence to prove that they can treat Alzheimer’s disease, is limited. A list of medicinal plants curing AD were collected from literature and its phytoconstituents were tabulated. The chemical structures of the phytoconstituents (ligands) were drawn in Chemsketch and converted into mol format. The target molecule was found from literature and downloaded in PDB format. Phytoconstituents and few commercially available drugs for AD were docked against Alzheimer’s disease target. The phytoconstituent present in plants were found to have better results than the commercially available drugs with a highest docking score of -6.845 for the phytoconstituent Bacoside A and B of Bacoppa monneira. The descriptor properties were found out using Qikprep and QSAR model was built with a SD (Standard Deviation) of 1.08 was obtained.

  9. Vasantha, S., Varatharaj, V. and Shalini, P.

    Consumer is the king of any business .Understanding consumer needs and wants is important and foremost task of any marketer. Consumer satisfaction is a judgment made by the consumer .Consumers normally has a general objective of creation and maintaining a collection of goods and services that provide present and future satisfaction. The good are produced only to meet the needs of the consumer. So the analysis of consumer behavior is one of the foundation on which future marketing depends. Every producer interested to increase the profitability, loyalty and retention and repeat purchases of the product. Consumers have wide variety of choices in toilet soap and they were influenced by many factors internal and external. The study is focused to identify the factors which influence consumers while purchasing toilet soap and to examine the brand loyalty with regard to toilet soaps.

  10. Katana, S. J. S., Munyao, T. M. and Ucakuwun, E. K.

    Land cover changes have significant impacts on hydrological processes at the watershed level. The objective of the study was to apply a rainfall-runoff model derived using Hydrologic Engineering Centre-Hydrologic Modeling System (HEC-HMS) to predict hydrological impacts of land cover changes in Upper Athi River Catchment, Kenya. The derived HEC-HMS rainfall-runoff model was first calibrated and validated in the period 1984-1990 using six events in the study area. Land cover data used in the study were obtained from Land sat TM images of the years 1984, 1988 and 2010. The hydrological impacts were predicted using the calibrated HEC-HMS model in the period 1984-2010. Changes in peak discharges and runoff depths at the outlet of the study area were used to quantify hydrological impacts of land cover changes. The land cover change detection between 1984 and 2010 revealed that agricultural land and built-up land increased by 8.67 % and 23.70 % while closed/open woody vegetation, broadleaved evergreen forest and rangeland decreased by 9.98 %, 2.52 % and “19.88 %” respectively. The HEC-HMS model performance was found satisfactory with mean values of coefficient of efficiency (COE) during calibration and validation of 0.9514 and “0.9003” respectively. Impacts of land cover change analysis between 1984 and 2010 showed that peak discharges and runoff depths increased by 4-23% and 6-18% respectively. The increase in peak discharges and runoff depths were associated with the increase in impervious surfaces resulting from agricultural and built-up lands. The HEC-HMS model is recommended for prediction of hydrological impacts of land cover changes in the study area.

  11. Gebremedhin, S., Budusa, M., Mingist, M. and Vijverberg, J.

    The study was conducted from June 2011 to November 2012. We investigated the contribution of Lake Tana fisheries to the livelihoods of the people living around the lake. Random sampling techniques were used to select respondents. In total 145 respondents were drawn. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, one way ANOVA and correlation analyzes. We found that there were significant income difference between fishers using modern and traditional boats (P<0.01); perform fishing daily and occasionally (P<0.01); and fishing in groups and fishing alone (F=23.71; P0.01). Fisheries contributed 48% to the total annual income of the fishers’. Age (R = 0.372), fishing gears (R = 0.613), fishing experience (R = 0.466) and fishing frequency (R = 0.326) were associated positively with fishers income and correlations were significant (P < 0.01). However, distance from market (R = -0.457) and catch per unit effort (R = -0.342) were negatively associated with fishers income (P < 0.01). We conclude that, fisheries are a vital means of livelihood for fishers living in villages surrounding the lake. Therefore, the government, none governmental organizations and the community themselves should give due attention to fisheries.

  12. Rathi Priyanka, Nath Rajendra, Pant, K. K., Natu, S. M., Dixit, R. K., 1Sachan, A. K. and Katiyar, D. K.

    Ethnopharmacological relevance: Ficus religiosa (FR) commonly known as Bo tree or Peepal, has been extensively used in traditional medicine for a wide range of ailments including diabetes mellitus. However, the plant has not been widely studied for its hypoglycemic/ anti-hyperglycemic effects, except for a few preliminary studies. In this study we provide the experimental evidence for the clinical use of FR in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Aims and 0bjectives: The present study was aimed to evaluate the hypoglycemic and anti-inflammatory effects of Ficus religiosa and their comparison with the standard oral hypoglycemic (2nd generation sulfonylurea - Glibenclamide) drug in diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: 30 Wistar Albino rats were included in the study.A base line body weight was recorded and baseline biochemical analysis of fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and plasma TNF-α levels of rats in all the groups was done. Type 2 diabetes mellitus was induced by feeding rats with a high fat diet (HFD) for 4 weeks followed by a single intraperitoneal injection of low dose of streptozotocin (STZ, 30 mg/kg b.w.). Rats with FPG ≥ 160 mg/dl were included in the experiment and were randomly divided into 5 groups, each comprising of 6 rats. Ficus religiosa powder at a dose of 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg b.w., and standard drug (Glibenclamide) at a dose of 0.3 mg/kg was given orally, once daily, to the desired group of animals for a period of 4 weeks. After 4 weeks of drug treatment, the above mentioned parameters were analyzed again. Statistical Analysis: The data was expressed as mean ± SD and was analyzed by one way analysis of variance (ANOVA), multivariate analysis of variance, and one-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. Statistical significance was based on p value < 0.05. Results Ficus religiosa powder at all the three doses i.e. 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg produced a significant decrease in the elevated FPG levels in diabetic rats. A dose dependent response was also noticed, with a more pronounced effect at a dose of 400 mg/kg than at 200 mg/kg which in turn was more effective than 100 mg/kg dose. The hypoglycemic potential of Ficus religiosa at a dose of 400 mg/kg was nearly as effective as the standard drug. Plasma TNF-α levels also showed a dose dependent response with a maximum mean percent reduction at a dose of 400 mg/kg and minimum at a dose of 100 mg/kg. Conclusion: An effective and dose dependent curative effect of Ficus religiosa against hyperglycemic and elevated TNF-α in all the three doses i.e. 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg was evident with the most pronounced effect at 400 mg/kg. This favorable modulation of cytokine TNF-α by Ficus religiosa may be responsible for its potent anti-diabetic activity.

  13. Tasaduq H. Rather, Ashraf Khan, M., Maqsood A. Dar and Rajdeep Kudesia

    The present study was carried out to assess the genetic variation in oats (Avena sativa L.) at DNA level. The three decamer primers, RAPD primers (GLD-18, GLE-08 and GLA-03) were used to estimate genetic diversity in Avena sativa genotypes. The assay revealed a large amount (65%) of polymorphism. The total of 20 bands were scored for three RAPD primers ranging from 4-9 corresponding to an average of 4.2 bands per primer and 13 bands of these were polymorphic. Polymorphic bands for each primer ranged from 0-100%. One primer out of three generated a total of 9 bands of which 9 (100%) were scored as polymorphic. Similarity matrix reveals the maximum similarity between varieties JHO 99-1 (S1) with JHO 822 (S3) and JHO 851 (S4) with JHO 2000-4 (S5) (Similarity Indices 0.880 and 0.903 respectively). While distantly related varieties were JHO 99-2 (S2) and JHO 99-1 (S1) (similarity indices 0.609). The RAPD cluster showed two major clusters namely cluster-I and cluster-II comprising of two varieties each. Cluster-I includes two cultivars namely JHO 99-1 (S1) and JHO 822 (S3). The major cluster-II includes JHO 851 (S4) and JHO 2000-4 (S5). The cultivar JHO 99-2 (S2) occupies a distinct place as revealed in the dendogram constructed. In present investigation RAPD markers revealed high degree of polymorphism (100%) among the five accessions of Avena varieties using GLE-08.

  14. Shiralashetti, S. C. and Kantli, M. H.

    Wavelet analysis is a recently developed mathematical tool for many problems. In this paper, we apply Haar wavelet transform method to solve typical Initial value problems. Numerical examples are shown which including first, second, higher order differential equations with constant and variable coefficients, singular non-linear initial value problems. The results show that the haar wavelet transform method is quite reasonable when compare to R. K. Method and exact. R. K. Methods they are distinguished by their orders in the sense that they agree with Taylor’s series solution up to terms of hr, where r is the order of the method. These methods do not demand prior computation of higher derivatives of y(t) as in Taylor’s series method. Fourth-order Runge –Kutta methods are widely used for finding the numerical solutions of linear or non-linear ordinary differential equations, the development of which is complicated algebraically. Also, Numerical accuracy of the R. K. Method is not quite good as compared to exact and haar wavelet transforms method in case of higher order and typical initial value problems.

  15. Demissie, T. A., Saathoff, F., Yilma Seleshi and Gebissa, A.

    Gilgel Gibe 1 hydropower reservoir is highly threatened by siltation/sedimentation problem due to excessive erosion from the upper catchment. To mitigate the serious erosion from the upper catchment and reduce the sediment delivered to the reservoir so as to increase the life span of the project, implementing a suite of best management practices (BMPs) is needed. However, as climate changes, the effectiveness of the BMPs will be affected. Hence, understanding the effectiveness of the best management practices as climate changes will be important for better planning of watershed management. The objective of this study was to evaluate how the BMPs performance varies due to changes in precipitation and temperature using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool. Sediment loads from the whole watershed was estimated on the annual basis before and after implementation of agricultural BMPs. Climate change data were obtained by the delta change method. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool model was calibrated using Sequential Uncertainty Fitting 2(SUFI2) to simulate the sediment load. The results of the study indicate that the BMPs tested are sensitive to climate change. Therefore, further investigations should be made and caution should be exercised in the decision making process.

  16. Dr. Nabi Rasool, D., Dr. Prabhakar, D. and Narayana Gowd, T.

    The Primary objective of a business undertaking is to earn profits. Profit earning is considered essential for the survival of the business. Profitability analysis measures how will a firm is performing in terms of its ability to generate profits. Profitability of the firm is highly influenced by internal and external variables, i.e., size of organizations, liquidity management, growth of organizations, component of costs and inflation rate. In this paper an attempt has made to measure the profitability performance and to analyze the impact of selected profitability ratios on ROE of the company, for fulfillment of the objectives the data collected from the annual report from 2002-03 to 2011-12; the collected data is analyzed and computed to fit for drawing inferences. In this investigation correlation and multiple regression analysis were used to find out the impact of selected profitability ratios (Gross Profit, Operating Profit, Net Profit, Earning per Share and Return on Total Assets) on ROE. The result reveals that selected profitability ratios have significant impact on ROE.

  17. Manab Kumar Saha and Bidhan C. Patra

    Ornamental fishes are often called as ‘living Jewell’ due to their colour, shape, behaviour and origin. They are peaceful, generally tiny, available in attractive colours and capable of living in confined spaces. The brilliant, flamboyant colour and uncommon appearance of the fish appeal to one and all children and aged alike. The trade in ornamental fish and aquarium supplies is a multi-million dollar industry that spans the globe. In West Bengal with its highly conducive climatic conditions provides scope for the development of indigenous ornamental fisheries. In the present study, different water resource (rivers and water bodies) of all the districts of West Bengal have been surveyed for make a database of natural ornamental fishes. During the survey period a total number of 77 natural indigenous ornamental fish species were collected and identified belonging to 09 orders, 26 families and 50 genera. From the survey order, Cypriniformes shows the maximum species variation, followed by Perciformes and Siluriformes. Many of them have huge market demand and value also. This sector assumes special significance due to its huge potential in providing employment and income to the young people of West Bengal.

  18. Aruljothi B., Sivanandan M. and Sankar Samipillai S.

    The present study is aimed to investigate the impact of arsenic on gill and liver tissues of fresh water fish, Labeo rohita. In the present study, the protein, amino acids, glucose and glycogen were observed in gill and liver tissues of arsenic treated fish. At the arsenic treatment, the level of protein decreased and amino acids increased and glucose increased and glycogen decreased in the gill and liver tissues of fish. The present study concludes that the toxicity of arsenic alters the protein and carbohydrate metabolism of fresh water fish, Labeo rohita.

  19. Sekar, T., Praveena, P., Dr. D. Sudarsanam and L. Helenmary

    There are about more than 3000 species of mosquitoes have been recorded in the world. The four different nucleotide sequences of mosquitoes of culex, anopheles aedes aegypti in mosquito biodiversity of their sequence similarities and evolutionary relationship were analysed.

  20. Prabakaran, S. and Senthil Kumar, V.

    Optimal Load Dispatch (OLD) plays an important role in power system operation. The objective of Optimal Load Dispatch of electric power generation is to schedule the committed generating units outputs so as to meet the required load demand at minimum operating cost while satisfying all units and system equality and inequality constraints. This paper presents a new optimization approach to solve the Optimal Load Dispatch (OLD) problems with power flow constraints. The proposed Hybrid PSO method employs PSO combined with EP technique. In this approach the best features of both PSO and EP are incorporated. The proposed method, PSO and EP have been tested on IEEE 14, IEEE 118 and 66 Bus Utility System. The results clearly shows that the proposed method outperforms standard PSO method and EP method on the same problem and can save considerable cost of Optimal Load Dispatch problems and this proposed method is well suitable for large and practical systems.

  21. Mahdi Hussein A. Abdalla, Mogtaba Elsaman A. Abdelsalam, Ahmed Modawi Musa and Eltahir Awad Gasim Khalil FRCPath

    BCR-ABL leukemic fusion gene types in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) correlate with the disease clinical course and outcome. There is limited reported data regarding the frequency and types of BCR-ABL leukemic gene in the Sudan. This study aims to determine the frequency and types of BCR-ABL fusion transcripts and investigate their possible diagnostic role in patients with persistent myeloid leukocytosis. Following informed consent, one hundred and fifty-one patients with persistent myeloid leukocytosis for >8 weeks and in the absence of infection were enrolled. Peripheral blood was used for RNA extraction and RT-PCR technique with specific primers was used for BCR-ABL amplification. Ninety-seven per cent of patients (147/151; 97.4%) had BCR-ABL transcripts. The frequencies of BCR-ABL transcripts were 53.7% for b3a2, 27.3% for b2a2 and 19% for other atypical and co-expressed transcripts. Platelets counts were significantly higher in patients with the b3a2 positive transcript compared to those with the b2a2 (p=0.02). All patients with BCR-ABL transcripts and persistent myeloid leukocytosis were diagnosed as CML and were treated accordingly with good response. BCR-ABL fusion gene is seen in the great majority (97.4%) of Sudanese patients with persistent myeloid leukocytosis and is a good diagnostic aide for CML.

  22. Smruti Swain and Nilamadhaba Prusty

    Vascular lesions are one of the most common tumours of the oral cavity. Treatment is based on the clinical behaviour and natural history of individual lesion. Deciding the line of treatment has been the most difficult part for a surgeon in most cases. Several conservative methods have been tried and tested, but the defininite one is still to be explored. Sclerotherapy with setrol appears to be one of the better treatment options with minimum toxicity. This paper present a case of hemangioma treated successfully with setrol.

  23. Venkatesh, G. and Aravinthan, M.

    This paper elaborates on how technological innovations have led to the improved information management and library services. Information technology (IT) and Information Communication Technology (ICT) have changed the information seeking behavior of the users and services being provided by the librarians. Journey from print phase to the era of Electronics (E) has been discussed. How information needs have been changed from asking for a book or a journal to an article or a topic with the provision of E-resources has also been discussed. A survey has been conducted to know the changes in the information-seeking behavior and needs of the medical professionals and librarians in this era of “E”. Increase in the demand of E-resources by the users as well as librarians have been observed with the growth of knowledge to use these resources. In spite of some problem in using E-resources almost every user need E-resources in one or the other form. Provision of E-resources has shown a rapid growth in research. This information explosion, increasing needs of users, lack of self sufficiency and financial crunch has led to the formation of consortia all over the world.

  24. Hemal Pandya and Hetal Pandya

    Fundamental analysis is an approach to arrive at the ‘correct price’ of the security. Its objective is to identify the under priced and overpriced securities in the market place so that the investment decision-buying and selling of securities can be made. A security is said to be under priced if its current market price is less than the ‘correct price’ known as ‘intrinsic value’ or ‘true value’. Conversely, it is overpriced if the current market price is above its intrinsic value. Fundamental analysis is a method of evaluating a security that entails attempting to measure its intrinsic value by examining related economic, financial and other qualitative and quantitative factors, and company specific factors. TOP- DOWN APPROACH E-I-C approach: Economy (E)- industry(I)- company(C) is used for carrying out Fundamental Analysis. The present study aims at carrying out the Fundamental analyses of two leading companies of Indian automobile industry and estimating their intrinsic value to assist investment decisions. The automobile industry is one of the core industries in India and is optimistic of posting good sales in the coming years. So, the investment in the shares and securities of automobile companies seems to be profitable. Two leading automobile companies Tata motors and Maruti Suzuki listed in the National Stock Exchange are selected for this study. The study is done using secondary data collected from Reserve Bank of India website, BSE website and Company Annual Reports for the period of last five years from year 2007 to 2011. Fundamental Analysis of both the companies is carried out and their intrinsic value ranges are obtained from the EIC Analysis of these companies to help investor decisions.

  25. Sindhuja, S., Hema, R. and Pavithra, G.

    Cadmium Sulphide (CdS) thin films were prepared by Chemical Bath Deposition, SILAR and by Spray pyrolysis techniques onto a cleaned glass substrates. The films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and various structural parameters were reported. The spherical shaped clusters and the presence of elemental constituents were characterized using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive X-Ray analysis (EDAX) respectively. The absorption coefficient α of the investigated samples was calculated from transmission and absorption spectra and the direct band gap energy were obtained from the optical absorption measurements. The photoluminescence spectra show the green emission band of the samples.

  26. Amit Kumar Yadav, Hari Mohan Saini and Sandeep Khobrai

    Rotavirus is causative agent of diarrhea resulting in mortality in children up to the age group of 5 years. The first infection occur between age group of 6-9 months. However, the need for screening of rotavirus is important to access the incidence of severe disease or effectiveness and its serotype distributions. To detect any new ideotype in re-assortment a continuos screening of existence genotype is required. Multiple assay now exist for measuring the serological response to Rotavirus infection. ELISA and RNA-PAGE are considered to be highly sensitive tool for screening of Rotavirus because its abilty to detect even at low concentration.

  27. Andrew Ratanya Mukaria

    This paper is written following an evaluation of the church role towards ecological crisis that is happening at the Mau forest complex in Kenya. The place of the church in Kenya, and Africa is central, and the church theology still plays a normative role. Mau forest complex is a very important ecological feature in Kenya, and a major catchment area. As much as this very vital ecological feature and a major catchment area is experiencing degradation, churches in Kenya have remained aloof silent, and if anything is happening, it is not something tangible in comparison to the actions taken by the churches in Kenya towards other socio-economic and political issues in Kenya. It is within this understanding therefore that this paper is written to evaluate the reason behind this silence.

  28. Getachew, F., Saathoff, F., Woldemichael, A. and Gebissa, A.

    Research results have shown that soil compaction caused by agricultural machinery traffic can have an adverse effect on crop production. Various authors have tried to numerically model and investigate the degree of compaction in relation to machinery axle load, traffic, and the mechanical characteristics of the soil. Assuming a uniform soil/tire interface contact pressure distribution is one of the main problems with most of the FEM-based numerical models. Soil/tire interface contact pressure is not uniformly distributed; it varies depending on the soil properties and tire characteristics. We used PLAXIS to numerically model the soil/tire interface contact pressure perpendicular to the vehicle movement direction. The soil/tire interaction was modeled with a PLAXIS beam element of varying flexural rigidity placed on the soil surface loaded with a uniform pressure intended to simulate the load on the soil from the tire. Depending on the mechanical parameters of the specific soil and flexural rigidity of the beam element, different types of contact pressure distribution were obtained. A U-shaped soil/tire interface contact pressure distribution was obtained for a soft beam element while a parabolic type of distribution was observed for a rigid beam element. The results agree with what we have found in the literature. We also determined the dry bulk density profile in the soil caused by compaction using the PLAXIS simulation technique. These simulation results were compared to the measured field data available and it was found that the two are in agreement. Hence, beam elements with appropriate flexural rigidity can be used in machinery-traffic-based compaction modeling.

  29. Arpita Banerjee and Pravat Kumar Kuri

    The persistence of regional disparity has been one of the major policy concerns of the Government of India since 80’s. The accentuation of regional income inequality particularly during the period of liberalization and globalization raises question about the role of market controlled regime in bringing about equitable development all over the country. Still after twenty years of performance in neo-liberalised environment, the debate continues about whether excessive reliance on market creates development distortion by aggravating inequality further. Under this backdrop, this paper makes a renewed attempt to evaluate the growth performances and the trend & pattern of inequality in PCNSDP of India. The paper also examines the nature of convergence of PCNSDP of Indian states using panel data framework for nearly forty years period (1970-71 to 2009-10). The results reveal that Indian states have experienced with an unprecedented acceleration in growth rates along with sharp increase in inequality and polarization especially in the post reform period. The econometric analysis establishes the trends of absolute divergence but conditional convergence of PCNSDP for the period 1980-81 to 2007-08. The pattern of distribution of public and private investment is found to play the crucial role in bringing about inequitable development in India.

  30. Probodh Kumar Mondal,

    Distribution of resources is not uniform over the earth surface. At the early stage of human civilization, people were habituated to lead their livelihood from natural resource base. Later on they identified new resource base from nature and produced new resources with the invention of new technology. By these ways, different types of economic activity have been creating through dynamic resource process or utilization. This paper is an endeavor to search the reflection of the economic surface by the influence of resource base change of Rampurhat-I and II C.D. Block, Birbhum District, West Bengal.

  31. Mohammed Awad, Hongtao Wang and Fengting Li

    Moringa oleifera is the most common natural water coagulant that concerned by many researchers. In this study coagulation-flocculation apparatus was employed, low turbidity water 32 NTU and Moringaseed extract were used to investigate the optimum dosage for turbidity removal, settling time, total organic carbon (TOC) and pathogen removal. Different concentrations 0, 200, 300, 400, 500 and 600 ml/L were applied. The results showed that, the removal efficiency increased with the concentration of the dosage, and the permissible limit according to WHO was achieved at 300ml/L. The optimum time for the settlement was 1 hour for different turbidity levels 29.6, 236 and 543 NTU. Total organic carbon increased steadily with the increase of the dosage and the final concentrations in the treated water were 12.43,17.51, 23.36, 27.05 and 34.78 ml/Lrespectively. A considerable amount of pathogens was removed.

  32. Surinder Singh Parihar

    The world is divided into two categories where majority have to walk miles for the meal and few walk to digest the meal. Among the former category are the third world countries especially from Asia, Africa and L.America which came out of colonial clutches in 1950s.Since 1950s these countries have embarked on the tempo of the development. India is one among them which can be called divided India with 70% poor and 30% non-poor at 2$ poverty line, so Public-Private-Foreign Collaboration (PPFC) model should work just not only for the short term profits but for improving the living standards of these 70% consumers to ensure sustainable demand in the future .As the WDR 2013 calls for jobs provisioning to escape the poverty, such type of jobs which ensure freedom to exit the poverty. In India we have five year plans which are divided into the annual plans reflected through budgets. Thus budgeting has an important role in the planning to meet the objectives and targets set by the planning authority. It is now the 12FYP which started on 1st April 2012 and will end on 31st march 2017. Since the 11FYP the Govt. Of India (GOI) is having turned the attention of the common masses towards the inclusive economic growth i.e. the growth with human face to ensure the sustainability in the economy. The budget reflects the behaviour of the fiscal policy so has much to do with the inclusive growth. The underlying assumption beyond the present study is that economic planning facilitates the inclusive growth. The objectives of the area(I) to assess the impact of the budget on the poverty, unemployment and the inequities(II)to measure the indicators of the inclusive growth and(III) to find the loopholes and their corrective measures. The methodology used is Time Series Analysis based on secondary data and the use of graphs, tables and diagrams has been made for precision and attractiveness for different periods of time. The sources of the data are the budgets, the Economic Surveys, the WB, the IMF and other online or printed sources. The present study has been divided into five section as 1st section introduces the problem,2nd deals with meaning and the concept , indicators and strategies for inclusive growth,3rd with the budgeting process,4th with data analysis and findings ,5th and the final section is the conclusive part.

  33. Ramasamy, K. and Padma, P.

    Customer is the king in any profession and so are our library users. Librarians have started striving all the ways and means, utilizing all the available formats and forms and using all channels of communication in fulfilling the information needs of library users – who are techno savvy in this modern web era. The tools of web 2.0- library 2.0- have come handy to LIS professionals to reach the wider online users easily. Reaching library users with the required information or a note on the information at their desktops have become feasible due to the comprehensive technological applications available in this information superhighway. Blogs are the best vehicles for online information dissemination. Blogs facilitate keeping the library web pages interactive and attractive. Managing the blogs involve a) general managerial functions like planning, organising, staffing, directing , co-ordinating and reporting and b) technical management functions like post management, page management and link management. This paper attempts to depict the various aspects of library blog management at wordpress domain – a free web hosting –cum-weblog software. It elaborates multi-faceted components of library blog management – layout management, content management, home page management, web 2.0 tools incorporation management, interactive management, Export-Import management, user survey management, widget management etc. This paper mirrors the blog management experience of the authors in creating and maintaining the library blog at Kendriya Vidyalaya, Narimedu, Madurai, Tamilnadu, India – the blog which has got more than 10,66,000 online users as on 27/04/2013

  34. Saravanan, P., Chandramohan, G., Saivaraj, S. and Deepa, D.

    The present investigation was carried out to revive the old art of dyeing with natural dye from barks of Odina wodier. L. Odina wodier belongs to family Anacardiaceae, commonly known as votiyar tree. The dye has good scope in the commercial dyeing of SILK in garments industry. In the present study, bleached silk fabrics were dyed with chemical and natural mordants. Dyeing was carried out by pre-mordanting, post mordanting and simultaneous mordatning. The dyed samples have shown good washing, light, rubbing fastness and perspiration fastness properties properties. The various colour changes were measured by computer colour matching software. ICPMS studies have proved that, heavy metals such as antimony, arsenic, cadmium and lead were not present in the dye extract. Anti-bacterial and anti-fungalactivities of the dye were also studied.

  35. Iya, I. B., Gabdo, Y. and Aminu, U.

    The study analyses the impact of external on economic growth in Nigeria. The time series data were derived from various secondary sources such as: the Central bank of Nigeria statistical bulletins, Economic and Financial Review and Annual reports and statement of accounts and Federal Office of Statistics (FOS).Data were also extracted from Debt Management Office (DMO) publications and website. The macroeconomic data cover gross domestic product (GDP) and external debts from 1992-2012. The estimated techniques includes the Ordinary Least Square (OLS) method, Augmented Dickey- Fuller (ADF) unit root test, Johansen Co-integration test and Error Correction Method (ECM). The results revealed that external debt impacted positively on the economic performance of Nigeria. The paper also revealed that external debt is not significantly affecting economic growth in the country, but all the same, a good performance of an economy in terms of per capita growth may be attributed to the level of external debt in the country; therefore external debt is a stimulant to the economic progress of the country. The paper found that external debts if properly manage can lead to high growth level. A major policy implication of this result is that concerted effort be made by policy makers to manage the debt effectively by channeling them to productive activities (real sector) so as to increase the level of output in Nigeria, hence achieving the desire level of growth. Another policy implication of the study is that most developing countries contract debt for selfish reasons rather than for the promotion of economic growth through investment in capital formation and other social overhead capital. For debt to promote growth in Nigeria and other highly indebted countries fiscal discipline and high sense of responsibility in handling public funds should be the Watchword of these countries’ leaders. External debt can only be reduced to the barest minimum by increasing output level (GDP).

  36. Joydeb Majumder, Partha Pratim Bhattacharjee and Basant Kumar Agarwala

    The diversity of predacious Coccinellids is of great practical and scientific importance due to their worldwide utilization as natural enemy of phytophagous insect pests. Present inventory was carried out in two types of habitats namely, agro- and forest habitats for predacious coccinellids in Tripura, northeast India. Random collection was made by hand picking and sweep netting during January 2008 to December 2010. A total of 1627 individuals of coccinellids representing 24 species under 17 genera were collected. Overall rank distribution of species based on relative abundance showed that 24 species distributed in 21 ranks. Diversity indices, richness estimate and individual based rarefaction curve revealed that species richness and diversity of coccinellids was more in forest habitats than the agro-habitats.

  37. Dhan Bahadur Karki and Ganga Prasad Kharel

    Finger millet is the fourth most important food crop of Nepal. In many countries millet has been used as a major ingredient in the manufacture of malt. Millet malt is extremely used in the preparation of weaning foods, infant foods and beverages. Today there is a growing demand for gluten free food and beverages from people with celiac disease. Information regarding the malting of finger millet in Nepalese context is scarce. The aim of this study was to investigate the malting characteristics of some Nepalese finger millet varieties. Six finger millet varieties were germinated at 28±1 ºC for 48 to 84 h, kilned at 50±2 ºC and analyzed for amylase and carboxypeptidase activities, total free amino acids and free amino nitrogen contents in the malts. All native millets had negligible α-amylase activity (0.05–0.11 units) while 72 h germinated Juwain millet showed the highest α-amylase activity (22.96 units). Beta amylase activity in native millets were in the range of 0.1–2.4 units and it reached maximum value on 48h of germination in all millet varieties with a highest value of 385 units in Kabre millet. Diastatic activity ranged from 8.3 to 17.3 ºDP (db) in 48 h germinated millet malts. Forty-eight hour germinated Juwain millet exhibited the highest carboxypeptidase activity (242.5 units), total free amino acids (310 mg glycine/100 g dry malt) and free amino nitrogen (57.8 mg glycine/100 g dry malt) contents of all the millet malts. Although Juwain millet variety seemed best for malting, further investigation on malt extract and wort analyses are suggested for their brewing quality assessment.

  38. Elegbeleye Ayotunde O.

    A supportive environment is critical to the realization of the full potential of any child, not excluding orphans. Being institutionalized – although much better than living on the streets or with abusive relatives – can never substitute for the benefits of being raised by caring parents. The surest way of providing a child with a simulation of an experience of parental care and affection is by ensuring a supportive environment for the child right in the midst of institutionalization, and the way to achieve this is by putting the necessary support facilities in place. This paper examined the support facilities needed to create a supportive environment for institutionalized orphans; as well as the adequacy of such support facilities in institutions/orphanages in Nigeria. Recommendations for improvement were further made.

  39. Nadaraj, V. and Thamarai Selvi, S.

    3-Formylquinolin-2(1H)-ones have been synthesized efficiently by dechlorination of 2-chloro-3-formylquinolines with acetic acid and sodium acetate in just 1.5 to 2.5 min. under microwave irradiation. Consequently, microwave irradiation significantly reduced reaction times compared to traditional heating methods. Particularly synthesis by solvent-free solid supported microwave irradiation was found more eco-friendly and had higher reaction efficiency. The purity of the synthesized compounds was confirmed by their C, H and N analysis and the structure was analyzed on the basics of Mass, FT-IR and 1H NMR.

  40. Lekaa Hussein Khdeem

    In this work, adsorption of Rhodamine 6G, Carmine, Fast Green FCF,Safranine O from aqueous solution onto activated charcoal were prepared from Bamboo seed seed by physicochemistry activation with potassium hydroxide (KOH) as the activated agent at 700°C for 1hour and particle size 600µm analyzed results by U.V-Visible technique .The influence of variables parameters including PH, amount of adsorbent, sieve size of adsorbent, temperature and contact time on dyes removal were studied. The isotherm data was analyzed by Langmuir, Freundlich, Tempkin,Harkins-Jura and Dubinin-Radushkevich. Calculation of various thermodynamic parameters such as enthalpy (∆H), entropy (∆S), Gibb’s free energy changed (∆G), activation energy (Ea), sticking probability (S*). The positive values of (∆G) indicate that the dyes adsorption process is unspontaneous in nature and the negative values of (∆H) shows the exothermic nature of the process. The adsorption kinetics shows that, pseudo first order and pseudo second order rate equation, pseudo second order was fitted better than pseudo first order.

  41. Tandan Neeraj, Yadav Seema and Khan Shanawaz

    In this study we developed strain specific Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA molecular markers based on Polymerase Chain Reaction amplification of specific sequence in combination with dilution plating on semi-selective medium to detect and estimate density of propagules of a commercial strains of B. bassiana. Using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis, the fifteen primers of four Operon series (OPB, OPC, OPE and OPF) were selected for 16 accessions of B. bassiana. All Three Operon series primers (OPB-2, OPB-4 and OPC-4) were highly sensitive and yielded maximum amplification products with all Beauveria bassiana accessions. Analysis of Sixteen accessions of Beauveria bassiana revealed 90.97% of polymorphism. Besides molecular characterization of Beauveria isolates, RAPD markers proved to be very useful in selecting and identifying the specific sequences of B. bassiana for the selective strains which can be developed in future as a more effective bio-control agents.

  42. Thambidurai S., Venkatachalam M., Saroja M., Gowthaman P., Shankar S.

    Zinc Oxide (ZnO) nano rods arrays have been grown on glass substrates with different pH by using a seed layer. ZnO seed layer thin films were prepared by Chemical Bath Deposition (CBD) method on glass substrates. Ammonia was used to achieve the desired pH value. ZnO seed coated thin films were immersed in aqueous solution for 4 hours at 90°C. Zinc nitrate hexahydrate was used as source of zinc ion, while hexamethylenetetramine solution served as the complexing agent. The effect of pH of precursor solution on the structural and optical properties of ZnO nano rods was investigated. They were characterized by means of XRD, SEM, UV-Vis spectroscopy and PL. XRD results indicated that the prepared nano rods were hexagonal wurzite structure. The optical measurement shows that there is a change in the band gap of nano rod arrays with changing the pH of the starting solution. SEM images reveal that the change in the pH value from 6.5 to 9 leads to change in the size of nano rods grown on substrate.

  43. Ogbeide, Francis Oluwaseun and Ogunnaike, Olaleke Oluseye

    Between 1974, when the first food and drug decree was enacted, and 1994 when NAFDAC was established, no fake drug manufacturer or importer was prosecuted. Consequently, there was public outrage when no culprits were indicted over the death of 150 children in 1989 as a result of formulation error in a drug. It is interesting to note that this fight cannot be over unless various stakeholders come to collective agreement and working partnership that endures. The source of data for the study is primary and secondary and engages the historical method. The findings show that from April 2001, NAFDAC under a new management, led by Dora Nkem Akunyili engineered great transformation. Nigeria and the world could see the difference a well structured institution with good leadership can make within a very short period. This paper identifier the central position that the issue of food and drug is attracting globally and as well, highlights the numerous factors that account for the success of NAFDAC which can also be injected into the other sectors of the Nigerian Economy.

  44. Shampa Patra

    Protein alternatives in diets for warm water and cold water fishes should replace their natural proteins not only in quantity but also in quality to provide adequate levels of essential amino acids (EAA). After making a thorough survey in the district of Midnapore, West Bengal, India, an inventory of non-conventional protein alternatives with special reference to aquatic weeds/macrophytes has been made. On the basis of nutritional value, 12 aquatic macrophytes, has been identified and evaluated to make a data bank of protein alternatives available in West Bengal and also made ranking of the macrophytes on the basis of the dominance in this region.

  45. Praveena, P., Sekar, T. and Sudarsanam, D.

    Reverse transcriptase of the human immunodeficiency virus reads the sequence of viral RNA nucleic acids that have entered the host cell and transcribes the sequence into complementary DNA sequence. Reverse transcriptase protein structure was retrieved from NCBI and the similarity searches were made by using BLAST PDB Database, and further the protein structure is modeled using Modeler 9v1. Structural visualization of reverse transcriptase was done by Accerlys Discovery Studio. Using Q-Site Finder, prediction of ligand binding site was done. The three dimensional structure of inhibitots viz., 3,6-Pyridazinedione, 1,2-dihydro-4-methyl, 4-H-pyran-4 one, 2,3 dihydro-3,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl-, 1H-inden-1-one,2,3,dihydro, d-Mannose, 1,6-an hydro-a-D-gluco pyranose (Levoglucosan), m-toluic acid, allyl ester, Erythrocentaurin,1H-indole-2,3-dione,1 methyl ,3-hydrazone 2H-Pyra-2-one,5,6-dihydro-4-(2-methyl-2-propen-3yl)-, were obtained from GC-MS analysis and further the structure is drawn in ACD CHEM SKETCH software. Docking studies of 3,6-Pyridazinedione, 1,2-dihydro-4-methyl, 4-H-pyran-4 one , 2,3 dihydro-3,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl-, 1H-inden-1-one,2,3,dihydro, d-Mannose, 1,6-an hydro-a-D-gluco pyranose (Levoglucosan), m-toluic acid, allyl ester, Erythrocentaurin,1H-indole-2,3-dione, 1 methyl, 3-hydrazone 2H-Pyra-2-one,5,6-dihydro-4-(2-methyl-2-propen-3yl)-, against reverse transcriptase was undertaken to gain insight in to the binding mode of the investigated compounds at the active site of reverse transcriptase.1-6-An hydro-a-D-glucopyranose compound were found to be active againse reverse transcriptase as indicated by docking results; the best being 1-6-An hydro-a-D-glucopyranose. Results suggest that 1-6-An hydro-a-D-glucopyranose should be evaluated further for therapeutic use in combination of HIV/AIDS drugs. Further, this may be confirmed by drug trial to find out the effeciency in inhibiting reverse transcriptase activity to treat HIV/AIDS complications.

  46. Kumar, G. and Sankarakumar, R.

    Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) in agriculture is an emerging field focusing on the enhancement of agricultural and rural development in India. It involves application of innovative ways to use ICT in the rural domain. The advancements in ICT can be utilised for providing accurate, timely, relevant information and services to the farmers, thereby facilitating an environment for more remunerative agriculture. Given the development scenario in Indian Agriculture, ICT movement is still evolving. However, all the ICT initiatives are not uniform with disparities between regions in the level and quality of telecommunications, information and the effort of individuals, public and private organizations, and differentiated nature of demand of the farmers in different areas. As a result, there have been many successes, failures, lessons learned and experience gained, so far. In the agriculture sector here the farmers mostly stick on to tradition and traditional method of agriculture. Even though, science has gained importance and developed a lot, since most of the agriculturists are illiterate or some lacking in the awareness of technology and its change, there was not much influence of technology till late 1980's. But now thanks to mass media like T.V., mobile phone, radio and internet the benefits of technology in agriculture are known by the people. Hence, there is a need to study the nature of the problem. It attempts to analyze the role of ICT and its impact on production and marketing of various agriculture crops with special reference to Ramanathapuram district of Tamil Nadu. The agriculture is bound to adopt and implement ICT, as the Government of India aims to double the agricultural production, and to increase India’s share of the global export. This aim can be achieved only when there is proper utilization of ICT and more investment in it. As ICT helps in information dissemination in less time with effective ways of communication, its implications cannot be ignored by the government and its scope and coverage should be extended as a whole rural areas in India.

  47. Wairagu, N. W., Kiptoo J., and Githiomi, J. K.

    The aim of this study was to carry out nutrient content of Sclerocarya birrea (Amarula) fruits as one of the Kenyan drylands indigenous fruits with a high potential. Mature fruit samples were collected from the field in Mbeere in Eastern part of Kenya and then taken to the Forest Products laboratories for analysis. Edible portions were analysed for the nutritional composition. The analysis carried out included energy, moisture, ascorbic acid, proximate and minerals (i.e. Ca, Mg, K, Cu, P, Fe and Zn). Flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer (FAAS) was used for elemental analysis, Ultra Violet-visible spectrophotometer (UV/VIS.) for phosphorous analysis, Kjedahl method for crude protein, bomb calorimeter for internal energy and soxhlet method of analysis for crude fat while various classical methods of analysis were employed for the other parameters. The results of analysis indicated that the kernel was rich in fat (57.36 ± 0.95%), energy (30.36 ± 0.04kj/g), protein (30.34 ± 0.36%), potassium (486.64 ± 2.6mg/100g), phosphorous (160.74 ± 2.6mg/100g) and calcium (449 ±18.59mg/100g) while pulp had significantly high values of ascorbic acid (190 ± 0.81mg/100g), Potassium (K) (3220.3 6± 4.32mg/100g), Phosphorous (P) 145.634 ± mg/100g), Calcium (Ca) (688.488 ± 20.74mg/100g). However iron (Fe) (2.792 ± 0.26 mg/100g), Magnesium (Mg) (155.82±1.044mg/100g), zinc (2.33 ± 0.03mg/100g) and copper (0.32 ± 0.075mg/100g) were present in low quantities.

  48. Ekwulo, E. O. and Agunwamba, J. C.

    Excessive fatigue and rutting strains due to traffic loading contribute significantly to the failure of asphalt pavement. In the design of asphalt pavement, it is necessary to investigate these critical strains and design against them. In Nigeria, the only developed design method for asphalt pavement is the California Bearing Ratio (CBR) method. Most of the roads designed using the CBR method failed soon after construction by fatigue cracking and rutting deformation. This study was conducted to develop a modified Nigeria CBR procedure for low volume asphalt pavement adopting the layered elastic analysis procedure which involves selection of materials and layer thickness for specific traffic conditions such that fatigue cracking and rutting deformations are minimized. Analysis were performed for hypothetical asphalt pavement sections using the layered elastic analysis program EVERSTRESS. Regression equations were developed for predicting pavement thickness in cement-stabilized base, low-volume asphalt pavement. The result was validated by comparing calculated maximum fatigue and rutting strains developed using the modified procedure and measured strain data from the Kansa Accelerated Testing Laboratory (K-ATL). The calculated and measured fatigue and rutting strain were calibrated and compared using linear regression analysis. The calibration of calculated and measured fatigue and rutting strains resulted in R2 of 0.999 and 0.994 respectively for subgrade modulus of 31MPa, 0.997 and 0.997 respectively for subgrade modulus of 41MPa, 0.996 and 0.999 respectively for subgrade modulus of 62MPa, 0.992 and 0.995 respectively for subgrade modulus of 72MPa, 0.999 and 0.998 respectively for subgrade modulus of 93MPa, and 0.999 and 0.999 respectively for subgrade modulus of 103MPa. The results indicate that the coefficients of determination were very good.

  49. Mitrajit Chatterjee

    Churni is a river in the Nadia district of West Bengal, India. It has been opined that the Churni is most probably an artificial canal, not a true river. Local history says, during the 17th century the river Churni was dug by the orders of Maharajah Krishna Chandra, the King of Nadia as a moat against the Bargees of Maharashtra. Only 80 years ago, in the 1930’s, it was the major trade route inside undivided Bengal. Now, the river has lost its navigability. The river is subjected to different anthropogenic activities throughout its course. The upper stretches receive discharges of sugar mill effluents from the Darshana sugar mill factory (situated in Bangladesh) and the lower stretch in India is subjected to water obstruction by bamboo-made barrages at several places. Retting of jute in the river water has caused a rise in the river bed and enhanced the problem of silting and aggravated the problem of flood. Weed infestation is an emergent problem of the river. Encroachment along the river bank has narrowed the river. Unscientific agricultural practices along the river bank is also adding to the problem. The catchment area of this river includes a medium populated Ranaghat municipality. The opposite bank of this river comprises village residential areas and unorganized small-scale industries, which release their untreated effluents and sewage into the river. Several fish species appeared to have been eliminated from the polluted Churni river since 1983. The present paper is an attempt to analyse the origin, evolution and present conditions of the river and also to highlight the modifications caused by natural hydrological changes as well as by human interference which can provide a right direction for combating the problems of the river.

  50. Devika Rani

    Against her profound belief in the inadequacy of any fictional work to perfectly represent the Holocaust, Cynthia Ozick wrote her novella The Shawl under the inexorable pressure imposed by her sense of belonging to the collective memory of Jewish suffering. But, unlike most of the Holocaust fiction, the two stories of The Shawl and Rosa do not so much integrate historical records of what actually happened, as much as they dramatically reenact the whole agony within a symbolic framework. Torn between the desires to retain silence and to let the world know, and between the nightmarish experience of the Holocaust and the surrealistic encounter with its memory, the stories use, evocative symbols that give the fictional world created by Ozick, its own fictive authenticity, making it as paradoxically close to and distant from the historical event. This paper shall examine the above-mentioned aspects of Ozick’s imaginative experience of the Holocaust, concluding how she could reconcile between two contradictory impulses: the impulse to keep the sacred intact and the counter impulse to unload the burden of expressing the self.

  51. Yousif E. El Amin, Arwa H. Elaagip, Ehab A. Frah, Mo’awia M. Hassan, Intisar E. El Rayah and Yassir O. Mohammed

    Knowledge of mosquito vectors fauna is crucial to disease control measures. Entomological surveys were conducted in endemic areas of malaria and lymphatic filariasis at Ed Damazin locality, Blue Nile State, to investigate mosquito species composition. Mosquitoes were caught throughout the year, in dry and wet seasons during July 2007–August 2008. Mosquitoes were collected as larvae using WHO standard dipping method and as adults by CDC miniature light traps, a local made light traps (Madeni light trap; MLT 2008) and pyrethrum spray collections. A total number of 1953 collected adult mosquitoes; 191 using light traps and 1762 using pyrethrum spray collections, while 599 larvae specimens were collected. Nine species were recorded in the area namely; An. arabiensis, An. squamosus, An. pharoensis, An. rufipes, An. funestus, Cx. quinquefasicatus, Cx. univitatus, Cx. anntenatus and Cx. sitiens and the apparent density was compared.

  52. Wafaa Sabri Mahood, Mohammad Ibrahim Nadir, Basim Ahmed Asker and Mohammad Ghanim

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second leading cause of cancer-related death in the United States. Iraq represent the sixth country incidence rates of colorectal cancer in Asia while India the first country followed by, Yemen, Bangladesh, Egypt and Pakistan. The purpose of presence study is the evaluation of the arginase activity of Iraqi Patient with colorectal disease and other intestinal disease in comparison with other colorectal cancer tests such as CEA, CA 19-9 in Iraqi patients and if it can be helpful in the diagnosis of patients with colorectal cancer and other intestinal disease. The activity of arginase was determined in blood serum was collected from 57 patients included 2 group of patients with colorectal cancer and other intestinal disease, in addition to The control group consisted of 20 healthy blood donors and compared with the level of CEA and CA 19-9. There is significant increase in arginase concentration in all groups versus the control group (P<0.05). CEA levels showed a significant increase only in colorectal cancer and inflammation versus the control group but there is no increase in the levels of in CEA in ulcerative and polyp groups versus the control group (P<0.05). We found the higher range for arginase, CEA and CA19-9 was in left colon rather than right colon and rectum.

  53. Rajasri, I., Avssks Gupta and YVD Rao

    Automatic transmission is used to maintain the equilibrium between power and torque produced by the engine. The power produced by the engine is transmitted to drive wheel through transmission unit, reduction unit and differential. A desired speed ratio, kinematic and dynamic requirements can be fulfilled by the equilibrium of torque and power. Accurate speed ratio’s can be achieved by using Planetary Gear Trains which are used to transmit motion between two or more shafts.

  54. Prasath Surendar, S. and Dr. R. Soureche Venguidaragavane

    Gait analysis is used in clinical evaluation of musculoskeletal system, design and assessment of prosthesis (especially for lower limbs), in the process of rehabilitation after injury and in biometrics. This paper reviews the general methodologies involved in kinematic gait analysis right from acquisition of data to processing and interpretation of meaningful results. The major components of kinematic gait analysis are: acquisition of data by cameras or instruments like accelerometer, electrogoniometer followed by processing and examination, measurement of general gait parameters, and electromyography (EMG).

  55. Ganapathi Naik, M. and Gangadhara Gowda

    Studies on transplantation of oysters in Mulky estuary was carried out from January 2010 to May 2010. The assemblages of macrobenthos with the transplanted oyster were recorded. The assemblages of macrobenthos increased gradually over the months. Overall, the population density and species of macrobenthos with transplanted oysters varied from 36 to 86No/m². Minimum number of macrobenthos was recorded during February 2010 and maximum during April and May 2010. The survival rate of transplanted oysters varied between 86.60 and 100%. The environmental factors such as the water temperature, sediment temperature, salinity, DO, pH, sedimentation rate, phytoplankton wet weight and sediment organic carbon varied from 29.89 to 34.45ºC, 31.60 to 35.20ºC, 24.20 to 33.62ppt, 4.69 to 4.85mg/l, 7.18 to 7.8, 0.28 to 1.33g/m²/month, 8.86 to 58.47 mg/m³ and 0.02 to 0.24% respectively

  56. Nishikant N. Gujar, Mahaboob A. Bagali, Mohammed Azmathullah, Ravikumar K. Choudhari, Jilani Awati, Wasim Ahemad Bennishirur, Sayan Kumar Das and Vipin Balachandran

    Large size perforations and delayed presentations are not uncommon in Indian surgical practice. Unfortunately this condition has remained largely unreported. The actual size of perforation is known definitely only intra-operatively. Therefore, definitive protocols for its management have not been formulated. Here we are presenting our experiences regarding giant duodenal ulcer perforations.

  57. Anchana Devi. C

    One of the most important and underappreciated reproductive health problems in developing countries is the high rate of infertility and childlessness. Many microorganisms seem to be involved in male & female reproductive systems. However, such infections, as well as those involving other and cases of endometritis, leading to uterine synechiae, are less common than tubal occlusions parts of the male genito-urinary tract, may cause a microbial colonization of the semen. Some conditions; however, seem to have a greater impact on female fertility. Vaginal infections are of doubtful impact resulting from salpingitis. Adhesions, caused by pelvic inflammatory disease, seem to affect the functional status of the tubes more harshly than that of the uterus. Molecular epidemiologic studies of tuberculosis (TB) have focused largely on utilizing molecular techniques to address short- and long-term epidemiologic questions, such as in outbreak investigations and in assessing the global dissemination of strains, respectively. In essence, molecular epidemiology focuses on the role of genetic and environmental risk factors, at the molecular/cellular or biochemical level, in disease etiology and distribution among populations. This is done primarily by examining the extent of genetic diversity of clinical strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The traditional identification of bacteria on the basis of a phenotypic characteristic is generally not as accurate as identification based on genotypic methods. Comparison of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequence has emerged as a preferred genetic technique. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis can better identify poorly described, rarely isolated, or phenotypically aberrant strains, can be routinely used for identification of Mycobacterium, and can lead to the recognition of novel pathogens and non cultured bacteria.

  58. Tarique Hassan, Munazir Bari and Zeba Nisar

    The present study aims to analyse the spatial and temporal variations in the levels of cropping intensity and farm mechanization among the six blocks of the Rampur district and examine the causal relationship between cropping intensity and farm mechanization in the district. The study is based on secondary sources of data collected from the district statistical handbook for the periods of fifteen years (1995-2010). The boundary of block has been considered as the smallest unit of study. The study reveals that the intensity of cropping has been decreased in the blocks of Saidnagar, Bilaspur and Milak and increased among the blocks of Suar, Chamrauwa and Shahabad. Moreover, the blocks of Shahabad, Bilaspur, Suar and Chamrauwa rendering the decreasing trend in the level of farm mechanization. However, the level of farm mechanization has been increased in the blocks of Milak and Saidnagar during the span of fifteen years.

  59. Nessim, M. I., Ahmed, M. H. M., Ali A. M., Bassoussi, Salem, A. A. and Attia, S. K.

    The oxidation stability of base stocks in the presence of some synthesized Benzothiazoles derivatives, 2-(benzothiazol-2-ylthio)-N-butylacetamide (Ia), 2-(benzo-thiazol-2-ylthio)-N-octyl-acetamide (Ib) and 2-(benzothiazol-2-ylthio)-N-dodecylaceta-mide(Ic), as oxidation inhibitors has been studied. The structures of these prepared compounds are elucidated by the common tools of analysis, Elemental analysis, I.R. and 1H-NMR spectroscopy. The oxidation reaction of these compounds with one of the base stocks that used in the formulation of the local lubricating oil was investigated, using the change in Total Acid Number (TAN), Viscosity, and Infra-Red (IR) spectroscopy. The data obtained, reveals that these prepared compounds gave good results. The efficiency order is shown as follows Ib and Ic > Ia.

  60. Amani O. Shakak, Eltahir A. G. Khalil, Ahmed M. Musa, Kawthar A. M. Salih, AbdElgadir A. Bashir, Ala H. Ahmed, FathElrahman M. Idris and Ahmed M. Elhassan

    Latent TB infections (LTBI) constitute a pool fornew TB cases, ~5% of LTBI individuals progress to overt disease during their lifetime. Simple and cheap progression risk factors are needed to triage individuals for treatment. In aprospective case control study and following informed consent, apparently healthy 98 household contacts (HHCs) and 186 community contacts (CCs) were enrolled. Tuberculin skin test (TST), whole blood stimulation/IFN-γ release assays and IL-4/IL-4δ2 mRNA copies were studied. Two hundred eighty-four volunteers were enrolled, five percent (5/98) of HHCs developed smear positive pulmonary TB compared to none in the CCs (p=0.004). The mean TST induration of the newly diagnosed TB patients was 16±2 mm at recruitment and the lapse of time to development of overt disease was 12±10 months. The majority of newly diagnosed TB patients had IFN-γ production levels below the cutoff level for LBTI diagnosis. A third of the HHCs and CCs had high IFN-γ levels, but none developed overt disease. The ratio of IL-4/IL-4δ2 mRNA copies in the newly diagnosed TB patients was significantly higher than that of the CCs (p0.0002). TST induration of ≥15was identified as a suitable simple and cheap test to triage individuals with LBTI for treatment.

  61. Ekezie Dan Dan and Nzenwa Udoka

    The study is about developing a class of line search exchange algorithm for solving linear programming problem using an experimental design procedure. The new algorithm, namely, minimum exchange algorithm has been developed and a first necessary condition for the existence of an optimizer of a linear programming problem has been obtained. This algorithm has been shown to converge. Numerical illustration and comparison show that the algorithm compares favourably with the simplex method for solving linear programming problems.

  62. Sibani Saha and Mihirlal Roy

    Being a part of North – East India, which is one of the hot spots of freshwater biodiversity in the world, Tripura afford lucrative habitats for variety of Ichthyo fauna in its lotic and lentic ecosystems and shares fish genetic resources with Indo-Gangetic plains. Among the North Eastern States, in terms of number of available fish species, Tripura stands third. It posses 147 species belonging to 79 genera under 34 families and 11 orders, which is 18% of Indian fresh water fishes and 54.3% of fish species of North East India. Among these species, 12 are exotic and rest are endemic, 5 species are endangerd and 10 are vulnerable.Except few almost all have food value and 64% have ornamental value. The state possess 6 species of cold water fishes. Barilius nelsoni, is a species, which has only been recorded from Tripura by Barman (2002). Marine/estuarine species (6 in number) are also available, which are migratory. Anthropogenic stress, which includes exploitation by wild collection and destruction of natural habitats is playing role in depletion of number of species. Though there are steady growth in fish production, emphasis on semi-intensive major carps culture playing negative role in depleting Inchthyo fauna resources of the state, which necessitates relook the issue.

  63. Ranjith, M. P. and Divya, R.

    Headache is the most frequent symptom in patients with cerebral venous thrombosis. However, patients presenting with solely headache in cerebral venous thrombosis are uncommon. We report a patient who is a smoker, presented with headache and a history of dehydration secondary to gastroenteritis. Magnetic resonance venogram of brain showed thrombosis of the left transverse, sigmoid sinus. Patient was treated with heparin and warfarin and improved on treatment. So in smokers with newer onset of headache and with history of dehydration, cerebral venous sinus thrombosis should be considered as a possible diagnosis.

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