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June 2011

  1. Sonela Stillo and Gentisa Furxhi

    Albania as a developing country, which is involved in integration processes, needs to improve immediately the productivity of civil servants and to intensify the reforms in public management. Reforms in public management can be seen and analyzed in many dimensions. Firstly, we can say that reform in public management is constituted by changes in organization’s structures and processes to improve them. Secondly, reform in management involves continuously changes in systems which are used to hire, train and assess civil servants. Our researches are focused in public administration training. Our analyses are comparative, because it involves a study on private business and its results. In the meantime that we want to increase the efficiency of our public administration and to create an administrative elite, although the problems that we have with constant circulation of civil servants, we want an administration to serve in a quality way to the public. These are the reasons that we arise some questions: which is the extent of trainings in public administration? How often do these training happen? How much trainings are accomplished during these last five years? And the most important question is: what is the assessment that the participants give to the training programs? The aim of the study is not to show only the facts that we have found, but side to side of them to give our recommendations to improve the quality of training programs. We have used the same questionnaire both for public administration and private business to collect dates on public service reformation in Albania and to complete the analyses on public sector effectiveness. It is chosen a sample of 500 (five hundred) questionnaires, which were divided in a equal way, 250 questionnaires for public administration and 250 questionnaires for private business. Our research was extent in the main cities of Albania as Tirana, Korca, Durres, Fier, Elbasan, Shkodra. To accomplish our survey in private business, it was accomplished a multistage choice (selection). The first stage was the selection of the districts, where the survey would be done. The second stage was the delivery of the questionnaires in the chosen districts. The third stage was the selection of businesses in the chosen districts.

  2. Nishanth, T* and Satheesh Kumar, M K.

    Carbon Monoxide is one of the prominent pollutant species mainly produced out of fossil fuel burning, motor vehicles and other industrial activities. Being a toxic trace gas, its impact to human health is a serious concern all over the globe. The rapid increase in Carbon Monoxide enhances the production of surface ozone which adds a pace to the global warming. This work is an attempt to retrieve the seasonal variation of the vertical profile of Carbon Monoxide column at the prominent hotspots along the coastal belt of the Arabian Sea using MOPITT version 3 of level 2 data. A strong seasonal dependence of Carbon Monoxide abundance is observed and it is validated with global 3Dimensional chemical transport model for atmospheric composition. The increasing trend in the Carbon Monoxide column abundance is estimated at these sites and it is found that a sharp rise in the concentration of Carbon Monoxide has been observed at this region lying along the coastal region of the Arabian Sea where industrial activities are fairly weak compared to other regions in India.

  3. Elbasri A. Mohamed, Ahmed M. El Naim, Bashir E. Ebeadallah and Khalid A. Ibrahim

    A field experiment conducted in North Kordofan state of Sudan for two successive rainy seasons (2007/08- 2008/09) to investigate the effect of tillage and farm yard manure on vegetative growth indices of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Monech) in gardoud soil (Red and black). The treatments consisted of three tillage depth (0, 15 and 25 cm) and five concentrations of manure (0,6,12,18 and 24 t/ha). Split plot design with four replications was used. Character studied were plant height, stem diameter, number of nodes per plant, plant density. The results showed that, the tillage and manure had significant effect on most growth measured. Tillage depth (15 cm) was highest in stem diameter, number of nodes per plant and plant density. Concentration manure of 6 and 24 (t/ha) were superior in growth indices of stem diameter and number of nodes per plant. Tillage and manure had no significant different in number of tillers and. Generally black gardoud soil had higher vegetative growth than red soil.

  4. Anitha, P. and Palanisamy, V

    The paper aims at providing a solution for secure storage of the records in a database. The solution should be prone to less security attacks and should take the optimal time for storage. The algorithm used is AES of stream cipher category. The input and the key can be of variable length. Regarding the key for the algorithm, it is the hashed value of the original key along with the Salt value. Since stream cipher, we will encrypt byte by byte using the key. We have a Permutation box (p-box) and Substitution box (s-box) logic to make the algorithm quite complex and to avoid the security breaches. The Key will be in the rotation mode based on a simple logic being implemented in the algorithm thus making it quite complex for attacks. Thus, the records are stored in the encrypted format in the database.

  5. S. B. Zimare and N. P. Malpathak

    Nodal explants were inoculated with basal cut surface down on medium MSB with BAP. The different concentrations BAP ranging from 0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2 mg/lit, were used for obtaining multiple shoots. After 45 days maximum number of multiple shoots were obtained on medium containing 2.0mg/ lit of BAP which was approximately 88 / culture. In the present study 2.0mg/ lit of BAP concentration was found to be the ideal concentration for high frequency of multiple shoots induction. This is the first report of such high frequency of multiple shoot induction. Maximum hyoscyamine 0.0390 mg/g DW and scopolamine 1.660 mg/g DW content was found at 2 mg/lit BAP. Minimum hyoscyamine and scopolamine content was found at 1 mg/lit BAP (0.0164 and 1.154 mg/g DW respectively). We found that difference in content of hyoscyamine and scopolamine was also affected by concentration of BAP i.e. increased concentration of BAP and increased number of multiple shoots showed correlation with increased concentration of hyoscyamine and scopolamine.

  6. Sivagurunathan, P1 and Hajasharif, P2

    The dielectric relaxation of substituted benzyl alcohol (benzyl alcohol, o-aminobenzyl alcohol, o-methylbenzyl alcohol, o-fluorobenzyl alcohol, o-chlorobenzyl alcohol, o-bromobenzyl alcohol, o-iodobenzyl alcohol and o-nitrobenzyl alcohol) with Ethyl methacrylate in dilute solution of carbon tetrachloride is measured at 9.37 GHz using Frequency Domain (X-band) technique. Different dielectric parameters like dielectric constant ('), dielectric loss ("), dielectric constant at static frequency (o), dielectric constant at optical frequency () are determined. The relaxation time and activation energy are calculated using the measured dielectric data. All the dielectric parameters that vary with the substitutent of benzyl alcohols were observed and discussed.

  7. C. P. Ukpaka

    A number of studies on the bioremediation techniques on the degradation of benzene, toluene and xylene (BTX) contaminants by microorganisms were reported in the 1980s and 1990s. Petroleum exploration, exploitation and production in Niger Delta Area of Nigeria has resulted to high environmental degradation. However, challenges have existed for the implementation of degradable environment due to BTX contaminants as well as instability of soil characteristics due to high production effect. The research was carried out to determine the usefulness of bioremediation techniques in the degradation of BTX contaminants in soil environment. This paper thus reviews the effect of soil characteristics and its overall performance of microbes as functional parameters of BTX contaminants degradation as well as discusses the evalution of rate constant of Benzene, Toluene, Xylene and maximum specific rate constant. The result obtained from the research showed that there was significant decrease in the concentration of toluene from 46.07 mg/kg to 40.05 mg/kg, Benzene (39.06 – 36.42) mg/kg and Xylene (53.09 -52 .72) mg /kg meaning that the microorganisms are friendly with Toluene compared to other contaminants as investigated. It was recommended that bioremediation should be used in monitoring and predicting the degradation rate of BTX contaminants in soil environments upon the influences soil characteristics and composition.

  8. Vincent Sudoi, Evelyne Cheramgoi, Joel K. Langat, Samson M. Kamunya and Francis N. Wachira

    Tea growers in Kenya are faced with a number of challenges; the major one being mite attack. It is therefore necessary to continuously breed and screen tea varieties that are not only high yielding but tolerant to mite attack. A five year study was conducted at two ecological sites namely: Kipkebe Tea Estate farm at Sotik, West of Rift Valley and Tea Research Foundation of Kenya (TRFK), Kangaita Sub-station, near Mount Kenya. These studies were done with the aim of screening some Kenyan tea clones for their resistance or tolerance to the Red Crevice Mites (RCM) prevalent in the East of Rift Valley and Red Spider Mites (RSM) prevalent at the west of Rift Valley. Mite sampling was done on an on-going clonal Field Trial which was laid out in a completely randomised block design (CRBD) and replicated three times in each of the two regions. Mite population was estimated every month by sampling 10 mature leaves and taken to the laboratory where the mites were counted under a dissecting microscope after extracting them using a mite brushing machine. The mite data collected were transformed and subjected to analysis of variance using MSTAT statistical package. Annual mite population varied significantly (P≤0.05) in the different clones. This study showed that a number of tea clones that were tolerant to mite attack at Kipebe, Sotik and TRFKs Kangaitasub-station. Based on the results of the 36 Clones, clone AHPCG28U864 was a unique clone. It had low resistance to both RCM and RSM. On the other hand, clone EPK C/12 had high resistance to both species of mites. It was found that the Red Crevice Mite (RCM) species is the most prevalent in the Mt. Kenya region while the Red Spider Mite (RSM) species was prevalent in Kipkebe Sotik area. In both areas mite numbers were observed to be low during the rainy season and high during the dry period. This explained the fact that moisture-stressed plants are more susceptible to mite attack.

  9. Muhammad Khalique, Abu Hassan Md. Isa, Jamal Abdul Nassir Shaari and Adel Ageel

    In a knowledge based economy the role of small and medium enterprises is very critical for the economic development. The main thrust of this study was on the competiveness of the SMEs in a knowledge-based economy. In addition, this study also explores the challenges which are facing the small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in Malaysia. The significance of the study will add the knowledge about the current issues relating with SMEs in Malaysia in intellectual capital perspective.

  10. Kerina Kwamboka Hellen

    This paper discusses the theoretical approaches used to explain issues relating to remittances among house-helps in Kenya. Two theoretical approaches are discussed, namely The Todaro Migration Model and The Rural Livelihood Diversification Approach. In this paper, the theoretical underpinnings are explained against available literature on past studies on remittances. Remittances, as used in this paper, refer to the money and/or the value of goods that migrants send to their family in the rural areas. Remittances are significant sources of income to households across the world. The aim of this paper is to create a conceptual framework for examining issues related to remittances amongst categories of workers such as house-helps. These issues include the proportion of income remitted; frequency of remittances; purposes for remitting and the factors that influence remittances. The paper is limited to a theoretical conceptualization of internal remittances. These are remittances that flow within different regions in the same country as opposed to external remittances that flow from migrants who are outside the country. The conclusions and recommendations are made based on emergent relationships of the available literature and theoretical applications to studies on remittances.

  11. Omulako Eman Jairo, Zachariah K. Kosgei, Kurgat Joyce and Saina Shadrack

    The purpose of study was to investigate students’ perception on head teacher’s role in implementation of girls’ re-admission policy. The study was to help highlight the plight of girls who drop out of school as a result of pregnancy with a view of giving them a chance to continue with education through re-admission. To achieve this objective the study examined students’ perception on head teachers’ administrative, counseling and support roles. Students’ perception was the dependent variable whereas the head teachers’ age, gender, educational level and teaching experience were independent variables. The study was based on Tinto’s (1975) model of student retention which stipulates that a student persists or drops out depending on their degree of both academic and social integration. The research design was a case study where questionnaires and interview schedule were used to collect data. Target populations were form three students, head teachers, counseling teachers, class teachers and the District Quality Assurance and Standards Officer. Sampling techniques used in the study were Simple Random, Stratified and Purposive. Reliability of the instruments was established through a pilot study in a school outside the study area. Cronbach’s alpha was used to assess the reliability coefficient that yielded 0.82. Validity of instruments was determined through expert judgment involving discussions with researcher’s Supervisors, Lecturers and Colleagues. Data was analyzed using both descriptive and inferential statistics .The study established that head teachers have not implemented the girls’ re-admission policy to the expectation as reflected in the poor discharge of administrative, counseling and support roles. It was also established that head teachers’ educational level and teaching experience have a positive influence on administrative role whereas teaching experience has a positive influence on both counseling and support roles. The study recommends that; the Ministry of Education to review the policy so as to come up with appropriate guidelines for implementation, counseling to be strengthened in schools , further training for head teachers and introduction of support program for the girls who drop out of school due to pregnancy.

  12. P. Bhuvaneswari and S. Ahmed John

    Human faecal samples were used as a source for Bifidobacterium, Gram positive bacteria found in normal microbiota of human beings. There are thirty faecal samples were collected from the new born infants (2- 4 months). Bifidobacterium strains were isolated (MRSc medium), Out of sixty three isolates twenty six showed positivity for bifidus shunt and its species identified based on the biochemical profile. According to the bile and acid tolerance only seven strains were isolated, among this S2 (Bifidobacterium bifidum) showed more resistant capacity against both pH – 2.5 and bile – 0.5% of oxgall (at 4 hrs of treatment).

  13. AJAO, Mayowa Gabriel

    This study examines the impact of stock market development on capital formation and growth in Nigeria. The main objective is to determine the relationship between gross fixed capital formations and other independent variables like market capitalization, new issues of instruments, gross domestic product and industrial production index that determine capital formation. Time series data obtained from Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) and Nigerian Stock exchange (NSE) for the period 1981 to 2009 were analyzed using Ordinary Least Square (OLS) analysis. The result of the regression analysis shows that a positive and significant relationship exists between gross fixed capital formation and gross domestic product as well as industrial production index. However, there is an inverse relationship between gross fixed capital formation and market capitalization as well as new issues of instruments; this indicates that the Nigerian Stock Market in its many years of existence has contributed marginally to long-term capital formation in Nigeria. This study concludes with a number of recommendations and suggestions all tailored toward how the stock market regulators and policy makers can improve the effectiveness and efficiency of the Nigerian stock market in the area of long-term capital formation and real-sector financing geared toward the growth of the economy.

  14. V. N. Bondre and V. N. Nathar

    Semecarpus anacardium L. (Family: Anacardiaceae) is a deciduous tree. It is well known for its medicinal properties and used as highly potent Ayurvedic medicine. The fruit is reported to be astringent, antirheumatic, carminative and vesicant. The oil obtained from the nut is used in rheumatic pain. The plant is having high ash content and low moisture content. Phytochemical composition of various extracts of plant parts and minerals were investigated. The results showed presence of secondary constituents comprising of alkaloids (3.18, 1.33 and 2.63 mg/100gm), flavonoids (2.12, 1.12 and 1.78 mg/100g) and phenols (3.22, 1.81 and 2.43mg/100gm) in roots, stems and leaves respectively. The plant is good source of minerals like Sulphur (S), Calcium (Ca), Magnesium (Mg), Phosphorus (P) and Iron (Fe). The IR and NMR spectroscopic analysis of petroleum extract revealed the presence of different functional groups.

  15. Rashmi H. Poojara and Hasna, K

    Objectives: To assess the nutritional status of school going children on the basis of anthropometric, biochemical and dietary variables, To estimate the incidence of overweight and obesity, To study the metabolic risk factors in the subjects by weight status. Methods: Sixty three nine to twelve year old children were purposively selected from two urban schools in Ernakulam district, Kerala and based on BMI percentiles the subjects were broadly classified into non overweight and overweight respectively. The subjects were assessed for the risk of the metabolic components proposed by American Dietetic Association (ADA, 2004) and categorized in to normal and high risk respectively. Results: The result of the study reveal that majority of the overweight subjects had increased levels of all investigated risk factors compared to non overweight subjects. Serum insulin and systolic blood pressure show a highly significant correlation (p<0.001) with weight status. The overall metabolic risk of subjects by weight status shows that 66.7 percent of the overweight children had clustering of one or two risk factors of metabolic syndrome when compared to 46.3 percent of non overweight subjects. Conclusions: The frequency of clustering of metabolic risk factors is higher among the overweight subjects compared to their non overweight counterparts.

  16. Dr. P. K. Srimani and Manjula Sanjay Koti

    Outlier detection has been a very important concept in the realm of data analysis and the complex relationships that appear with regard to patient symptoms, diagnoses and behavior are the most promising areas of outlier mining. This paper elaborates how the outliers can be detected by using statistical methods. The importance of outlier detection is due to the fact that outliers in data predict significant (and often critical) information in a wide variety of application domains. There are numerous different formulations of an outlier detection problem which have been explored in diverse disciplines such as statistics, machine learning, data mining and information theory. In fact, the study with medical data by using the DM techniques is virtually an unexplored frontier which needs extraordinary attention. In this study, the pima data set was used in the simulation carried out by TANAGRA. A total of 193 outliers were detected for the statistics namely leverage, R-standard, R-student, DFFITS, Cook’s D and covariance ratio. The results of the present investigation suggested that the extraordinary behavior of outliers facilitates the exploration of the valuable knowledge hidden in their domain and help the decision makers to provide improved, reliable and efficient healthcare services.

  17. Bhuvaneswari, P. and Ahmed John, S.

    This study evaluates the therapeutic effect of acidophilus soy milk against intestinal infection causing pathogens. Lactobacillus acidophilus strains were isolated from curd and identified based on the colony morphology and biochemical profile. Using Lactobacillus acidophilus fermented soy milk was prepared. Its antimicrobial efficiency was identified against five pathogens such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Shigella dysentriae, Vibrio cholera and Staphylococcus aureus. Among these five pathogens Vibrio cholerae was effectively inhibited by acidophilus soy milk.

  18. Elbasri A. Mohamed, Ahmed M. El Naim, Bashir E. Ebeadallah and Khalid A. Ibrahim

    Afield experiment conducted in North Kordofan state of Sudan for two successive rainy seasons (2007/08- 2008/09) to investigate the effect of tillage and farm yard manure on yield components growth and yield of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.monech) in gardoud soil (Red and black). The treatments consisted of three tillage depth (0, 15 and 25 cm) and five concentrations of manure (0,6,12,18 and 24 t/ha). Split plot design with four replications was used. Character studied were number of panicles/m2 , number of grains per panicle, 100-seed weight and final grain yield (t/ha). The results showed that, the tillage and manure had significant effect on yield and yields attributes measured. Tillage depth (15 cm) was highest in highest in number of panicles/m2, number of grains per panicle and final grain yield (t/ha). Concentration manure of 24 t/ha were superior in grain yield. Tillage and manure had no significant different in 100- grain weight. Black gardoud soil had higher grain yield (1.96 t/ha) than red soil (1.75 t/ha).

  19. J. K. Chumo, W. K. Ng’etich2, E. K. Ucakuwun, T. C. Sharma and M. S. Rao

    This paper analyses indices of the various drought scenarios developed and tested with data available from meteorological stations around Lake Victoria in a study to determine the spatial variability of droughts in the Lake Victoria basin. Palmer’s method was appropriate for describing the drought severity at the shores of the lake. The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and palmer’s indices were also used to compare the drought severity in the catchment. Severity maps were developed using GIS software based on both Palmer and NDVI indices, and using a soil map of the catchment, a rainfall map was also developed. These maps clearly depicted that most areas on the shores of Lake Victoria in Kenya were vulnerable to drought.

  20. Valarmathy, D., Govindaraju, M and K. Elumalai

    In the present investigation Plant Oil Formulation (POF) with different concentrations were tested for its ovicidal activity against the eggs of Anopheles stephensi (Liston), Culex quinquefasciatus (Say) and Aedes aegypti (L.). Results clearly indicated that among the five concentrations tested (15.62, 31.25, 62.5, 125 and 250 ppm) maximum cumulative mortality of eggs were obtained at 250 ppm concentration of POF against the eggs of the selected species. The present investigation paves the way for further exploration of possible way of utilizing the POF in IPM to control the important vector mosquitoes.

  21. Yasuko Kitagishi, Yuri Nishimura, Hitomi Yoshida, Naoko Okumura, Mutsumi Murakami and Satoru Matsuda

    JMJD1B is a promising molecule involved in tumor suppressor, whose gene loss or inactivation may lead to MDS and AML. The present study aimed to determine the effects of certain herbs and spices on JMJD1B expression. RT-PCR was used to quantify the expression level of the gene. Protein samples were then analyzed by Western blotting. Both RT-PCR and Western blotting revealed the up-regulation of JMJD1B expression in Daudi cells treated with ethanol extracts of Peppermint or Lemongrass. In conclusion, component(s) of certain herbs and spices may induce the up-regulation of JMJD1B.

  22. John Nyangena and Joseph Misati

    The overall objective of this paper is to determine the role played by forestry in alleviating poverty in Kenya. It also seeks to examine and analyse the extent of poverty among people living in Cherangani Hills, West Pokot; assess the benefits of forestry to rural communities; investigate the relationship between forest dependence and poverty and to make policy recommendations on ways of enhancing the contribution of forests in alleviating poverty. Two methods were used to derive data for the study. Secondary data was obtained by review of existing literature related to the subject while primary data was obtained through a survey among 200 households. The survey was based on Multistage sampling procedure. Data was collected through a structured questionnaire, an interview schedule and discussions with key informants and analysed using descriptive statistics and regression analysis techniques. The findings revealed that 69.5% of the population had incomes falling below the official poverty line. Two categories of forest products had a net effect on rural poverty; timber products were mainly commercialised and traded by people with sufficient capital, while the poor mainly utilized non-timber forest products. The findings further revealed a significant positive relationship between poverty level and household size. There was a significant difference in poverty level among households having forestry as a source of income compared with those without it. On the basis of these findings, it was concluded that forests act to ameliorate the incidence of poverty in the study area. It was recommended that to further enhance this contribution, it was imperative to undertake conservation programmes that were sensitive and responsive to community needs and that aimed to strike a balance between utilisation level of forest resources and their renewable rate.

  23. Satish Kumar, Mir Yousuf Ali, P. Sailaja, S. Mahesh, M.V. Surekha, N.V. Giridharan and N. Harishankar

    Aim of the study: Mucuna pruriens is often used in Unani medicine as an aphrodisiac and to improve male reproductive functions. Since systematic study on these aspects are few and far in between, we studied its androgenic effect on an established obese mutant rat model at our centre, which is obese and infertile. Materials and Methods: 18 obese male rats with their corresponding 18 lean littermates were taken and divided in to three groups and were fed with the herbal seed extract at two different dose levels. Blood samples were collected from control and experimental rats to measure hormones like testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and prolactin. Levator ani (LA) muscle weight and complete semen analysis, gonadial index and testis histology were investigated. Results: Testosterone, LH, FSH and prolactin hormone levels showed significant increase in experimental rats compared to controls. The LA muscle weight significantly increased and also sperm count and motility as well, in treated rats. The testis histology of experimental rats showed significant improvement in the architecture with densely packed spermatids in the seminiferous tubules. Conclusions: M. pruriens ethanolic seed extract has definite positive effect on male reproductive functions in terms of hormone profile, organs weights, semen quality and quantity.

  24. Tomar, Y.K.

    Studies was conducted to find out the effect of various concentrations of IBA, NAA (i.e. 5000, 10000, and 15000 ppm) and Keradix at four times of air-layering operations (i.e. 2-3 July, 25-26 July, 17-18 August, 9-10 September) on the rootability in jackfruit through air-layering. A critical study of present findings show that the treatment of 10000 ppm concentration of IBA was found to produce highest percentage of rooted layers (82.8 %), profuse callus formation, maximum number of primary roots (19.95), longer length of longest root (15.59 cm), thickest diameter of longest root (1.45 mm), maximum percentage of layers showing secondary roots (66.6%), higher fresh (0.924 g) and dry (0.466 g) weight of roots with higher survival percentage (71.37) of layered plants in nursery beds. The best time of air-layering was recorded 2-3 July in respect of higher percentage of rooted layers (73.78), profuse callus formation and maximum weight of fresh (0.808 gm) and dry (0.404 gm) roots, higher survival percentage of layered plants (62.83%) and percentage of plants showing new growth (62.83%), while 25-26 July time of air-layering was found better in relation to maximum number of primary roots (13.68), longest length of root (13.43 cm), diameter of longest root (1.3 mm), higher percentage of layer showing secondary rooting (26.85%), length of new growth (1.87 cm) and number of leaves on new growth (2.05).

  25. Krishnasamy, K, Manickavasakam, S and Nalla Mohamed, K.E.N

    The kinetics of oxidation of diphenyl sulphoxide (DPSO) by bispyridinesilver (I) dichromate (BPSDC) has been studied in 50% (v/v) aqueous acetic acid medium at 308K. The reaction is first order with respect to [oxidant] and fractional order dependence with respect to [DPSO]. This reaction is catalysed by [H+] and oxalic acid. Decrease the dielectric constant of the medium increases the rate. The reaction has been conducted at four different temperature and the activation parameters were calculated. From the observed kinetic results a suitable mechanism was proposed and substantiated with the rate law.

  26. Akilandeeswar, K.

    Almost every student sincerely believes that he or she listens effectively. Consequently, very few students think they need to develop their listening skills. But, in fact, listening effectively is something that very few of us can do. It's not because listening effectively is so difficult. I have observed most of the student has just never developed the habits that would make the student effective listeners. By using different listening techniques, the student will get more information from the different sources and will increase others' trust in you, and will reduce conflict, better understand how to motivate others, and also will inspire a higher level of commitment in people you manage.

  27. Gloria Meli Musau, Ismail Ateya Lukandu and Bernard Shibwabo Kasamani

    tumultuous business environment. In order for firms to evaluate alternatives and make informed choices they must have reliable and timely data upon which to make their decisions. Consequently, the development of effective information management techniques is critical. In this research a web-based information management system is developed for better decision-making. Two agents are integrated in the system, namely; mapping agent and extraction agent. The mapping agent reduces the workload for users charged with the responsibility of data entry. The extraction agent is designed to aid in the retrieval of current, timely and relevant data, eliminating unnecessary information. The critical information requirements are identified and a prototype is developed for verification. The prototype is developed using PHP language for the system interfaces with GD for providing a graphical reporting supported by a MySQL database. The system is implemented and tested at a Kenyan based Internet Service Provider. As a result, the organization under study increases its sales through improved targeted marketing and monitoring of the outcome. The user load is also reduced by half and the risk of data input errors minimized by 80%.

  28. Owolabi, Adenike Olanrewaju and Magbagbeola, Joshua A.O.

    Marketing goes beyond developing a good product, pricing it attractively and making it accessible to target consumers. The effectiveness of advertising as a marketing tool depends on good planning and control of advertising media. The effectiveness of advertising leads to an increase in the sales of the products advertised based on the awareness and the promotion of the products to target consumers. Insurance as a service product has its characteristics which makes it consumable. A random sampling technique was adopted in administering one hundred questionnaires to insurance consumers. Statistical and descriptive methods of data analysis were employed.

  29. Ramalingam, C., Vanaja, N., Ritupriya Yamujala and Karthik, A.

    The study focuses on developing a ready use product with the advantage of the probiotics supported with the prebiotics. The approach taken was that of the ones used in the flavour industry that is the encapsulation technique. The spray drying was adopted for encapsulation. The technique is found to be encouraging and needs further standardization as a successful product for the market

  30. Nicolaides, A and CM van der Bank

    Business Ethics is a relatively new concept in which the theory of the Categorical Imperative, as postulated by Kant, who said that “to a bloodless category, a categorical imperative of a purely formal kind of universal application but without material content” plays a critical role. Utilitarianism or moral philosophy also plays a great role in current business ethics and this view is spearheaded by John Stuart Mill who said “one simple principle, as entitled to govern absolutely the dealings of society with the individual by way of compulsion and control, whether the means used be physical force in the form of legal penalties, or the moral coercion of public opinion”. Utilitarianism is essentially teleological. According to utilitarian criteria one ought to do that which will result in the best ends, do the most good or maximize utility. These two views are widely held in the world of business ethics and greatly influence contemporary business conduct. The 19th Century German philologist who studied theories of culture and language theories, and who is renowned for concepts such as ‘the Will to power’ and ‘the Death of God’, is surprisingly omitted from literature dealing with the concept of business ethics. This is uncanny given that he wrote a dozen works dealing with moral philosophy. He was the most celebrated and abused philosopher of his era and numerous apocryphal myths and misconceptions surround Nietzsche’s work. By encouraging more direct engagement with Nietzsche’s work, this article strives to examine Nietzsche’s ideas and questions if these would be more suitable as a means of explaining the business world. This article in which the approach taken is descriptive-analytical seeks to evaluate the potentially huge contribution Nietzsche could make in the field of business ethics and also seeks to make his work better known to management scholars.

  31. Jimmy Macharia and Catherine Thuo

    Practice has shown that the Internet and other information and communication technologies (ICTs) offer astonishing opportunities for innovation in customer relations management by offering businesses the potential to extend their markets beyond their nations, regions, continents and enable them reach and serve any customer in the global market place, and thus increase their revenue base. Consequently the application of e-business methods in Electronic Customer Relations Management (e-CRM) provides such an opportunity for Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs). Unfortunately, the adoption of e-CRM by SMEs has been slow and uneven between regions. It is for this reason that this paper investigated, the factors that can influence e-CRM adoption by SMEs to enable them enjoy the same benefits like the large companies of being enabled to reach and serve customers in any part of the globe.

  32. Salee Damaris Nthenya

    This study investigated the participation of secondary school administrators in school safety and implementation of safety policies with regard to physical infrastructure and waste disposal in some selected public schools in Kenya. The study adopted a descriptive survey research design; purposive sampling was used to select the respondents comprising of school administrators i.e. 35 Head Teachers (HT), 28 Deputy Head Teachers (DHT) and 12 Head of Departments (HOD) drawn from 75 public secondary schools and 3 Quality Assurance and Standards officers (QASO) as key informants. Data collection instruments included head teachers and QASOs questionnaires, interview schedules and observation schedule. Data collected was analyzed by use of descriptive statistics and presented in tables. The study found out that only 20% of the schools had constituted safety sub-committees, none (0%) of the HTs and DHTs served as secretary or member of the sub-committee respectively as required by policy. All respondents ranked school safety last with curriculum, extra-curriculum and guidance and counseling respectively being given more priority. The study also established that HTs attitude on implementation of school safety was positive with an average score of 64.29%. Whereas 92% and 82.67% of the schools had fitted fire windows/doors without grills and fire extinguishers respectively, a paltry 16% had fitted fire alarms while none (0%) posts evacuation maps in its buildings nor has established a monitoring and evaluation system of school safety. With regard to waste disposal, a majority 65.33% employed unsustainable means of waste disposal where they would abandon pit latrines once they are filled up and excavate others and another 21.33% manually emptying them with buckets exposing workers to the risk of contracting communicable diseases. Further, only 29.33% provided learners with gloves wherever they cleaned their sanitation facilities while none (0%) undertook waste segregation. Based on these findings, it was concluded that the participation of school administrators in school safety issues was low and the overall implementation of safety policies was way below the requirements as stated in the safety manual. It was therefore recommended that: Ministry should enforce school safety programmes by ensuring all schools institute school safety sub-committees to implement safety policies and carry out induction of all school administrators on school safety.

  33. Simon Gisege Omare

    The paper is set to establish the role of African religion in environmental conservation. Specifically, it intends to determine the role of Isukha religious beliefs and practices in the conservation of vegetation in Kakamega forest. The paper also sets out to recommend ways of disseminating African indigenous knowledge on flora. The research revealed that African religion has employed various techniques to conserve natural vegetation in the said forest. Such methods include taboos, rituals and their knowledge of sacred and profane.

  34. Pandian, U. and Ramachandran, R.

    This study is based on the risk taking behaviour of secondary school students in Pondicherry region. The main objective of this study is to find out the secondary school students who are taking high risk to future or general activities. Pondicherry is having different types of community so who are taking risk to live in this society. The sample for the present study comprised of 1026 students from secondary schools at Pondicherry region. Purposive sampling method was used to draw the sample.

  35. Muhammad Khalique, Dr. Jamal Abdul Nassir Shaari and Prof. Dr. Abu Hassan Md. Isa

    The purpose of the present paper is to re-examine a number of major theoretical and empirical contributions in the field of intellectual capital with an attempt to identify the major components of intellectual capital. Today the concept of intellectual capital is increasingly recognized as one of the most important strategic assets of organizations in knowledge-based economy. In knowledge-based economy, modern and high tech enterprises not only focus on innovation of new products, services, marketing, research and development activities but also pay particular attention to the development and management of organization intellectual capital.

  36. Ahmad H. Al-Fraihat

    Two field experiments were conducted at a farm in South Ghor area, Jordan, during the two consecutive summer seasons of 2008 and 2009 to study the effect of nitrogen fertilizer levels, i.e., 0,100 and 200 kg/ha and biofertilizer nitrogen at the rate of 0 and 5.0 kg/ha on growth, productivity and quality of melon (Cucumis melo L) cv. Galia especially cultivated under sandy soil conditions and using drip irrigation system in south Ghor area. Results showed that , application of 200 kg/ha of nitrogen significantly increased plant growth i.e., plant length, both number of leaves and branches and leaf area as well as total dry weight for each plant. The uptake of N, P and K by shoots was also increased, early and total yield of fruits/ ha was higher than other levels of nitrogen treatments, while the highest values of TSS in fruits were recorded at 100 kg N/ha. On the other hand, melon plants treated with nitrogen biofertilizer at the rate of 5 kg/ha gave the best results for plant growth and yield and its components as well as fruit quality compared with untreated plants. The interaction between 200 kg/ha and treated plants by nitrogen biofertilizer at 5 kg/ha gave the highest values of total dry weight/ plant , leaf pigments , early and total yield / plant compared to other treatments.

  37. Sumathi, M , Kumarasamy, K, Thiyagarajan, M and Punithavathi, J

    The present study aims to find out the land use/ land cover of Pudukkottai District. The total area of the District is 4,663 Pudukkottai District is situated in the centre of Tamil Nadu State. The study has made use of satellite imagery for identifying the land use/ land cover of the study area. Arc-GIS software was used to demarcate the land used/land covered divisions of Pudukkottai District. The District has been classified into five classes in Level I and 11 sub classes of level II. The major land use is under agriculture 1, (39%) Built up land use 1,292.65 (27.72 %), waste land 1,079 (24.32 %) and water bodies 321 (6.88%).

  38. Kansal S., Akhtar M.A. and Alok Kumar

    The study was carried out to assess the coverage & quality of maternal health care in an urban setting. All delivered females who were registered (116) at centre were interviewed. The results indicate that about one fifth of the total pregnant females were below 20 years & only 25 per cent were registered in first trimester. 60 per cent were received three or more ante natal visits. Majority (about 66 per cent) was having Hb concentration in the range of 9-11gm% despite that 74 per cent reported to receive more than 90 IFA tablets. More than 50 per cent of the deliveries were conducted at home. Only one third received postnatal check up. Therefore it shows that there is a strong need to concentrate on these components of maternal health care to achieve fifth MDG.

  39. Geetha Kumari, K., Ramesh, M., Sudhakar, G. and Lakshmi Kalpana, V.

    Immunological and inflammatory reactions play a pivotal role in the initiation and perpetuation of Diabetic Neuropathy (DN). The present study is an attempt to estimate the levels of adenosine deaminase (ADA) and C-reactive protein (CRP) activity and for genotyping TNF alpha (-308) polymorphism in patients with Diabetic neuropathy. Methods: 50 cases presenting Diabetic neuropathy and 50 cases of age and sex matched healthy controls were included in the study. Serum ADA activity was measured spectrophotometrically at 630 nm and serum C-reactive protein was detected using Avitex CRP kit, which is a rapid latex agglutination test and ARMS PCR was done for genotyping of TNF alpha (-308) polymorphism using allele specific primers. Results: The mean ADA levels were 37.2 ± 5.0 in patients and 18.2 ± 5.6 in controls, significant at p< 0.01. CRP test was found to be positive in 20/20 cases of Diabetic Neuropathy and none of the controls. SNP at position −308 promoter gene of TNF-α was not significantly associated with development of Diabetic Neuropathy. Interpretation & conclusions: The present study observed the importance of ADA as a serum marker in addition to CRP for better therapeutic management of DN. SNP at position −308 promoter gene of TNF-α was not significantly associated with development of Diabetic neuropathy. The odds ratio and relative risk estimates of AA phenotype showed an increased risk to have the disease when compared with the other phenotypes.

  40. Arumugam, S.

    Species of the freshwater prawn genus Macrobrachium are distributed throughout the tropical and subtropical zones of the world. Many species are of regional or local fishey important however only half a dozen species of genus Macrobrachium are of major economic value in India. A detailed analysis on the availability of information pertaining to the knowledge on freshwater prawns (Macrobrachium spp.) of Tamil Nadu are found in most inland freshwater areas such as lakes, rivers, swamps, irrigation channels, canals, ponds as well as estuarine areas. The present paper concludes that there are 24 species of freshwater prawns in Tamil Nadu, India.

  41. Sekar, S , Vijayarakavan, M and Manonmani, A

    In recent years it has been acknowledged that to significantly improve biological system performance and productivity, control, including optimal control, should be implemented online. The dynamics of biological processes are highly non-linear and key variables are difficult to measure. As an aid to contributing solutions to the twin difficulties of complex dynamics and measurement difficulty a relatively simple mathematical model has been developed for the purpose of evaluating optimal controllers. In this paper a simulation of fed-batch fermentation is developed which includes the no-linear dynamics of the process using single-term Haar wavelet series (STHW) method.

  42. Revathy, E. and Arumugam, S.

    India has a varietal emporium of medicinal plants and is one of the richest countries in the world with regard to the genetic resources of medicinal plants. Santalum album is an economically important tree harvested for heartwood and heartwood oil. Heartwood oil is useful in medicines of many diseases. A reproducible system for somatic embryogenesis and plantlet formation of sandalwood has been developed. High number of direct somatic embryo proliferation from leaf explants was observed in MS medium containing 2,4-D 13.50 µM showed 60.0 ±5.0 percentage of response. The maximum rooting response achieved on medium supplemented only with 2.46µM IBA was 70 per cent with an average of 5.3 ±0.25 roots per shoot. Rooted plantlet was transferred to paper cups containing sterile soil, sand and vermiculite.

  43. Geethanjali, S and Anitha Subash

    A preliminary study on the isolation and characterization of proteases from the crude extract of visceral organs of Labeo rohita were carried out. In order to estimate the number of proteases and their mass, the crude protease extract were separated by SDS-PAGE and then the activity was revealed by Zymogram. The crude enzyme extract showed two clear bands on casein and gelatin Zymogram, which indicated the presence of two major proteases. The optimal pH and temperature of the proteases obtained in crude extract were 8.0 and 400 C respectively, using casein as a substrate. Furthermore, the crude enzymes were characterized by protease inhibitors namely phenylmethylsulphonyl fluride (PMSF), EDTA and β mercaptoethanol, in which the protease enzymes were strongly inhibited by PMSF (serine protease inhibitor). In addition, the enzymes were found to be highly active in the presence of activators like Mg2+, Ca2+, Mn2+ and Na+. The protease kinetic constants, Km and Vmax of the crude enzymes for casein, were 0.65 mM and 2.5 U/ml/min respectively. With respect to properties of the enzyme and its capacity for degradation of different protein sources, these proteases finds potential application for waste treatment used in detergent and leather industry.

  44. Eluozo, S. N., Ademiluyi, J. O. and Ukpaka, P. C.

    This paper explain the level E.coli transport influenced by porosity, where by a mathematical model where developed including experimental analysis to generate a better solution to the rapid migration of microbes E. coli at Okrika mainland of Rivers state in the Niger Delta of Nigeria, from the result of both parameter it shows that the concentration of the microbes migrate in fluctuation form decrease at a distance of thirty meters has some high concentration of E.coli at thirty meters with a duration of hundred days, comparing it with the recommended value of World Health Organization (WHO), both result did not meet up the required water quality standard, therefore it is recommended that any ground water abstraction at the study location, should be design and those existing one that have cause a lots of water related diseases should undergo treatment analysis before it is allowed for human consumption , in other to stop the threat of human life.

  45. Lakshmiprabha, S., Biswajit Mohanty, Pradipta Kumar Mohanty, Diwakar, A., Dhanyasi Anil Kumar, Viyatprajna Acharya and Suganthy, K.

    Objective: In India Pre eclampsia contributes to 15.2% maternal mortality. The present study was undertaken to compare the changes in lipid profile and oxidative stress marker (MDA) in normal pregnancy and in preeclampsia. Methods: A case control study was done on 26 PIH patients and 24 healthy controls. Serum Total Cholesterol, Triglycerides, HDLc, LDLc, VLDLc, Urinary proteins and Malondialdehyde (MDA) were estimated. Maternal Blood pressures were recorded. Results: Serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDLc, VLDLc were elevated. HDLc was decreased.MDA was thrice that of the controls. Conclusion: This study indicates that, dyslipidemia and oxidative stress leading to endothelial damage can contribute to cardiovascular risk in future in pre eclamptic women.

  46. Arun, N., Subramanian, P. and Boobathy, S.

    Diacure a polyherbal formulation of eleven medicinal plants against some Microorganisms was investigated for this purpose methanol extract of diacure samples were in vitro with Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococcus faecalis, Micrococcus luteus, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans as test strains. The disc diffusion method was applied in the trial was found to be the most effective against all the test strains except M. luteus.

  47. Revathi, G and Subramani, J.

    Ghee has quite a long history, as it has been used in Indian cooking for thousands of years and also in religious ceremonies and various healing arts in Indian culture. Additionally, Ghee's nutritional and health benefits are touted as ideal for anyone from athletes to simple dieters. It is necessary for the Indian families to keep the procured ghee for a longer period due to its fluctuation in the price and the availability in the market. It has motivated us to study the behaviour and to improve the keeping quality of ghee characteristics. For fats, in general, significance of carbonyl compounds in the off-flavour produced is well established. The carbonyl compounds are formed by chain reactions which can be checked by the removal of carbonyls by extraction (with water) method. The purpose of this paper is twofold. The first one is to study the impact of the keeping quality of ghee characteristics to preserve the ghee for a longer period and the second purpose is to use the statistical techniques to analyze the data pertaining to various problems in dairy science. As a result we have used several statistical techniques including graphs, tables, t-tests and one way analysis of variance to analyze the data. This study reveals that the removal of the carbonyls extends the shelf-life of ghee by delaying the formation of undesirable flavour by free fatty acids, phospholipids and phenols.

  48. Bupesh Kumar and B.B. Gupta

    The present investigation was carried out during rabi 2004-05 at the experimental area of Division of Plant Breeding and Genetics, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology -Jammu. Eight genetically diverse bread wheat varieties i.e five drought tolerant (PBW 175, RSP 81, PBW 500, K 9943 and HUW 576) and three drought susceptible (RSP 312, RSP 303 and WH 542) screened on the basis of drought response index were crossed in all possible combinations to produce twenty eight crosses (excluding reciprocals).Hybrids along with parents were evaluated for various morpho-physiological and biochemical determinants under normal (E1) and moisture-stress (E2) environments in earthen pots in a polyhouse. Both additive and dominance components of variance were significant for most of the traits under study in both E1 and E2. Significance of non-additive genetic component was indicated by number of tillers per plant, spike length in E2 and proline content in both E1 and E2, however, the additive genetic component was predominant in all other characters. To exploit both additive and non-additive gene action, biparental mating and diallel selective mating approaches are suggested.

  49. Borhan Mansouri, Zahra Rezaaei and Ali Mansouri

    This study was conducted out in the stabilization ponds of Birjand city for two seasons; autumn, 2007 and winter, 2008. For this reason, quality parameters, such as pH, TSS, BOD5, COD, total chloroform and pathogen egg in the influent and effluent of wastewater stabilization ponds, and heavy metals such as As, Hg, Pb, Cd, Zn and Cr in the effluent of wastewater were determined. The mean levels of these parameters were measured: 8.0 for pH, 76.2 mg/L for TSS, 68.67 mg/L for BOD5, 163.0 mg/L for COD, 1600 < MPN/100ml, while no mean level was found for pathogen egg. Also, the mean concentrations of heavy metals were measured: 0.091 mg/L for As, 0.005 mg/L for Hg, 0.001 mg/L for Cd, 0.020 mg/L for Zn and 0.125 mg/L for Cr. According to Standards of Environmental Protection Agency of Iran, the effluent of wastewater stabilization ponds is found to be useful for irrigation. The results also showed that the removal efficiencies of biological factors were high, so that the amounts of BOD5, COD and TSS were decreased 78.84%, 75.25% and 72.15% in the effluent of wastewater compared to the influent of wastewater.

  50. Ravi Sankar, N and Swapna Sree, D

    A severe outbreak of leaf blight was observed in money plant (Scindapsus aureus) for the first time in Andhra Pradesh state of India during 2009-2010. Based on pathogenicity, morphology and rDNA spacer sequences, the pathogen was identified as Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissler. This report is the first of Alternaria leaf blight of money plant.

  51. Selvan Nallaiyan and Haripriya Doraiswamy

    This may be the first report were two plants screened for its potential antimicrobial activity in poultry industry. In this experiment, evaluating antimicrobial activity, there are four solvents were used such as petroleum ether, benzene, methanol and water. The plants screened were Selaginella involvens and Selaginella inaequalifolia. Antimicrobial activity was tested against five bacterial strains; Klebsiella, Salmonella, Staphylococcus, Proteus and Bacillus isolated from poultry farms by agar diffusion method or well diffusion method were used. The results showed that Selaginella involvens and Selaginella inaequalifolia extracts exhibited antimicrobial activities at a concentration of 100-300mg/ml. The zones of inhibition exhibited by Selaginella involvens extract ranged between 7-17mm while that of Selaginella inaequalifolia varied between 7- 15mm depending upon the solvents used. Therefore this can be selected for further investigation to determine its therapeutic potential. Its leaf extracts can also be used as a lead molecule in combating the diseases caused by the bacterial strains present in poultry industry.

  52. Varsha S. Dhoran, Varsha N. Nathar and Smita P. Gudadhe

    Pollen germination and Pollen viability plays a vital role in flowering plants. Fertilization and seed set, is the principle outcome of pollen germination and pollen tube growth. These two aspects were worked out in a monocot plant, Asparagus L. family Liliaceae. Two species Asparagus racemosus Willd. (2n=20) and Asparagus densiflorus cv. Meyeri. (2n=40) were undertaken for comparative study. Pollen viability was evaluated in Acetocarmine Jelly and TTC, whereas in-vitro germination was tested in different basic medias of various concentration. It was observed that, pollen viability was high in both the species in Acetocarmine compared to TTC. It was 93% and 1.96% in diploids and 85% and 1.96% in tetraploids. In-vitro Pollen germination was good in sucrose media of concentration 10%-20% for diploid and 20%-30% for tetraploid. The genotype has an important role in germination.

  53. Jitendra Kumar Pal and Major Singh

    Gene construct for resistance against tomato leaf curl virus (ToLCV) using replicase (rep) gene sequences of Tomato leaf curl virus from natural host plant was developed. A binary vector carrying the antisense rep gene along with the npt II gene was used for development of truncated rep gene construct. The mechanism of resistance appears RNA-mediated, The concept of pathogen-derived resistance was introduced in plant virology based on the report that transgenic tobacco expressing tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) coat protein showed a resistance to TMV infection This type of resistance generally referred to as coat protein-mediated resistance, has been described for many virus/host systems, but is restricted to the virus closely related to the expression of functional or altered introduced viral replicase gene. Viral gene suppression involves a coordinated series of sub cellular events that ultimately lead to the post-transcriptional silencing of gene expression

  54. Nobel Surya Pandidurai, R., Kalaiselvan, P.T., Mukesh Kumar, D.J. and Gnanaraj, M.

    A bacterial strain that produces glucose isomerase was isolated from garden soil and identified as Enterobacter agglomerans. Enzyme activity was screened by the formation of cherry red colour and the chemical assay was determined by glucose oxidase enzyme using fructose as substrate followed by the measurement of the amount of glucose. The highest level of extracellular glucose isomerase obtain (41U/ml), temperature around 37°C, pH.6, xylose as a carbon source, peptone as a nitrogen source and incubation time for 36 hours for its higher enzyme productivity. The SDS-PAGE analyses of crude enzyme shows multiple bands, more over along with glucose isomerase some other protein can be produced by the organism.

  55. Nazir Hussain and Mohd Mehdi

    The earths claimed have been relatively stable for thousand years. We know intuitively that its hot, humid and rainy in the Amazon and that corn grows well in the us Midwest. We know that at a particular altitude we should plant a crop during a certain week of the year because conditions for it are just right then. for most our memory as humans our claimed have closely oscillated around predictable patterns, and this has allowed as to feed ourselves and flours. When a stable claimed system is modified beyond its “tipping point” it gets out of balance and losses is equilibrium while the system reach around variability and uncertainty are the norm. This in essence, is the nature of challenge that we are not facing.

  56. Bindhu, S ., Nerli, R.B., Dhanesh Kumar, K.U and Avadhani, RK

    Hypospadias is a birth defect of the urethra in the male that involves an abnormally placed urethral meatus .Instead of opening at the tip of the glans penis , a hypospadiac urethra opens anywhere along a line running from the tip along the ventral aspect of the shaft to the junction of the penis and scrotum or perineum. Aphallia is the penile agenesis is a very rare genitourinary anomaly that has profound surgical and psychosocial implications. Penile agenesis cases have 46,XY karyotype .Early assignment of female gender and feminizing reconstruction of the perineum is the goal treatment in cases of Aphallia. Disorders such as severe hypospadias presenting ambiguous genitalia have serious and potentially life long consequences for affected individuals and, depending on the underlying cause ,are likely to entail surgery in childhood and in later life ,psychosocial and psychosexual support and possible fertility treatment including assisted conception. Genetic males with severe hypospadias who will wrongly bring up as females has to be reassigned as males .These disorders results partial or complete failure of the fusion of urethral groove and failure of the development of genital tubercle.

  57. Ramakrishnan, V.

    Congenital heart disease (CHD) is a major factor in increased mortality in infancy and childhood. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of chromosomal abnormalities in Down syndrome (DS) children is important in understanding the etiology of congenital malformations. Down syndrome also called Trisomy 21, is a condition in which extra genetic material causes delays in the way a child develops, both mentally and physically and also is a major cause of congenital heart disease and the most frequent known cause of atrioventricular septal defects (AVSD). Twenty four cases of Down's syndrome were found among 160 children with congenital heart disease under the age of 1day to 14 years, of which 14(58.3%) were males and 10(41.6%) were females, while the remaining 26(16.2%) cases had normal karyotype, Among 74(46.2%) cases with multiple system malformations and 36(22.5%) cases with known and unknown congenital defects. Consanguinity was observed in normal karyotype 30(75%) and abnormal karyotype 10(25%) results in CHD patients. Down syndrome is usually identified soon after birth by a characteristic pattern of dysmorphic features. The diagnosis is confirmed by karyotype analysis and also this study was undertaken to obtain more information about the nature of heart defects associated with Down's syndrome.

  58. Ejikeme Nwachukwu and Henrietta O. Uzoeto

    The antimicrobial properties of ethanol, hot and cold extracts of some mushroom species (Russula vesca, Auricularia auricular, Pleurotus squarrosulus, Volvariaella vulvae) on some Gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Salmonella typhi), Gram positive bacteria (Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae) and yeast (Candida albicans) were investigated. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MIC) was evaluated for each of extracts of the mushrooms. Antimicrobial activity was performed by agar disc diffusion. The hot water extracts of R. vesca inhibited growth of E. coli, S. typhi, P. mirabilis and C. albicans. Ethanolic extract of A. auricular showed wide spectrum of antimicrobial effect against test organisms with the exception of S. typhi and P. aeruginosa. P. squarrosulus showed antimicrobial activity against K. pneumoniae (6.14mm), S. pneumoniae (5.12mm), and C. albicans (4.10). P. aeruginosa was resistant to almost all extracts of the four species of mushroom except the hot water extract of P. squarrosulus which showed zone of inhibition (3.41mm). V. vulvae showed antimicrobial activity against S. typhi (4.60mm). Ethanol and hot water extracts of most of the mushroom species contained more bioactive substance than cold water extract. The significance of antimicrobial activity of mushroom extracts was compared with the standard antibiotics (gentamicin, 5µg/disc) using chi – square. There were significant difference between the mean zone of inhibition of the ethanol extract of P. squarrosulus and the standard antibiotic against test organisms at 5% level. The results obtained in this study suggest that P. squarrosulus possessed broad-spectrum of activity against microbial isolates used.

  59. Nwachukwu, Ejikeme

    Five samples each of zobo, yoghurt and kunu were purchased from different hawkers in Umuahia and Okigwe metropolis in the Eastern part of Nigeria. The microbial qualities were determined according to standard methods. The antibiotic sensitive patterns of the bacterial isolates were also determined. Microbial count ranges from 3.5-8.9cfu/ml in zobo, 2.0-8.0 cfu/ml in yoghurt and 1.8-4.2cfu/ml in kunu. Bacteria isolated from the samples included, Pseudomonas species, Streptococcus species, Proteus species, Klebsiella species with high occurrence of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Most of the isolates were resistant to Tetracycline, Ampicillin, Gentamicin, Colistin and Cotrimoxazole. The occurrence of antibiotic resistant organisms in these drinks is of public health importance and may be responsible for prolong treatment of illness. Therefore proper quality control of these products should be encouraged so as to reduce the microbial load as well as antibiotic resistant bacteria.

  60. Kouser Parveen Wani, Pradeep Kumar Singh, Sumati Narayan, Khan, S.H. and Asima Amin

    Cold Arid areas are usually confined to high altitudes. Sixteen percent of total land mass is under cold arid zone. Indian cold arid region come under the trans-Himalayan zone. Such regions are confined to Ladakh (J&K), Lahual & Spiti (H.P.) and small pockets in Uttranchal (Niti and Mana Garhwal). Ladakh contitutes 87.4 percent of total cold arid zone of India). It is situated at an elevation of 2550 to 8000m amsl along the valley of river Indus. Intensive sunlight, high evaporation rate, strong winds and fluctuating temperature characterize the general climate. Vegetation is sparse, rains are very rare and most of the land is mountainous desert of rocks, sand & dust. Region has short agriculture season & production of maximum edible biomass is possible only through vegetable cultivation, moreover it plays an important role in balanced diet of human being by providing not only energy rich food but also ensure supply of vital protective nutrients like minerals & vitamins. The region receives abundance sunshine, 300 sunny days per year (2150 kwh per year) even in December the minimum radiation is 4.32 kwh per day. For trapping these natural resources, various types of forcing structures (polyhouse, Ladakhi polyhouse, low tunnel & trench) have been successfully introduced and being popular among the farmers at commercial level also. Vegetable production in Ladakh has great potential, inspite of many restrictions. If the sustainable production of the vegetable to meet the demand of growing population is to be realized then this sector must be given top priority.

  61. Purushothaman, A., Meenatchi, P., Kathiravan, MN., Shahjahan, M and Deepalakshmi, J

    Heavy metals accumulation in soil has become a worldwide problem, leading to loss of agricultural productivity. Lead and cadmium are the toxic elements of primary importance. A study was conducted to determine the effect of different concentrations of cadmium and lead on seed germination, seedling growth, oxidative stress and antioxidant response of Chick pea (Cicer arietinum L.). Seeds were grown under laboratory conditions at 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2 and 4 mM l-1of metal ions. All of these metals were added as single metal solution, i.e. one experimental set contained a single metal in particular concentration. A slight stimulatory effect on seedling growth was observed, especially at low metal concentrations (0.25-0.5 mM l-1). Both lead and cadmium treatments showed toxic effects on various growth indices of chick pea at high metal concentrations (1-4 mM l-1). The level of lipid peroxidation of germinated seeds was measured as Malondialdehyde (MDA) contents and were significantly enhanced by a high Cd and Pb concentration. The activity levels of some antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC, catalase (CAT, EC and glutathione peroxidase (GPx, EC, did not change much at low metal concentrations, but fluctuated drastically at high Cd and Pb concentrations. These results suggest that Cd and Pb toxicity causes oxidative stress in plants and the antioxidative enzymes SOD, CAT and GPx could play a crucial role against oxidative injury.

  62. Marathe, C.L. and Bhaskar, V. V.

    Finger millet is the second largest cereal crop grown (after rice) in tribal area of Thane district. Warli, Malharkoli, Thakar and Dorkoli are the major tribes inhabiting the Thane district of Maharashtra. Their traditional methods of agriculture and landraces of different crops they conserved are fast eroding due to the rapid urbanization of the district. .Tribals of Thane district has conserved 11 landraces of finger millet on farm by their traditional agricultural system. These land races are studied for their cultural, Morphogenetic and nutritional aspects. The analysis of 11 landraces collected from this region revealed that there are three reddish black grains, two copper red grains, five light brown colored grains and only one land race with white grains. Results of this study include identification of varieties for drought tolerance, disease resistance, high yield, high protein content, high amino acid content and low carbohydrate content. The importance of conservation of such rich finger millet diversity from this fast changing agro-ecosystem of Thane district is discussed.

  63. Selvin Pitchaikani, J. and Selvaraj, P.

    India has been identified as one among 27 countries which are most vulnerable to the impact of climatic changes and global warming relating to accelerated sea level rise. A mean sea level rise between 15 cm and 38 cm is projected by the mid 21st century along India’s coast. Climate is continuously varying on time scales ranging from seasons to the lifetime of the Earth. In this background there is about 15% projected increase in intensity of tropical cyclones in the coastal regions of India. The present study highlights weather changes between the years 2007-2008 in atmospheric variability over Kuttapuli coast, South Tamil Nadu, Southeast Coast of India. During this period atmospheric data viz. atmospheric minimum and maximum temperature, pressure, relative humidity, wind speed, direction, sunshine hours and rainfall measurement were collected. During this study period drastic variation could be observed in air temperature, wind speed and direction and rainfall. Thus it is imperative that year to year variation has started to prevail in this coastal belt, which is forming a vital zone of Gulf of Mannar.

  64. Thilagavathi, C. and Mullainathan, L.

    Induced mutagenesis used to investigate the different treatments of gamma irradiation viz., 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100kR and Ethyl Methane Sulphonate (EMS) viz., 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25mM on growth and yield parameters of black gram Vigna mungo var. VBN1. Present study revealed that based the physical and chemical mutagenic sensitivity of black gram was compared to control as well as treated plants. In this investigation, all the quantitative characters and yield characters were stimulated from 20 to 60kR and 5 to 15mM of gamma rays and EMS the inhibition occurred more in 60kR and 15mM. Among these two mutagens results showed EMS (15mM) was found to be more effective and improved the yield characters compared to those of gamma rays treatment.

  65. Sundari, J. and Selvaraj, R.

    The present study was under taken to investigate the antibacterial and antifungal activity of seeds of Jatropha curcas Linn. The powdered seed materials were extracted using chloroform and hexane solvent. The antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, (gram positive bacteria) Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium (gram negative bacteria) and fungi Candida albicans, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus fumigatus, Rhizopus sp., and Mucor sp. The antibacterial and antifungal activity in vitro using the disc diffusion method, Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC), Minimum Bacterial Concentration (MBC) and Minimum Fungicidal Concentration (MFC) is discussed.

  66. Bharathiraja, S. and Tholkappian, P.

    Crossandra infundibuliformis is one of the perennial crop needs more amount of phosphorus for the initial root formation and development unfortunately most of the Indian soil lack phosphorus and there is a need for supplementing the phosphorus nutrition without causing soil pollution. Hence the organisms like AM fungi and phosphobacteria recommended increasing the availability of phosphorus to the plants. The present study of AM fungi and phophobacteria were inoculated along with graded levels of N, P and K fertilizers. The treatments of AM fungi and phophobacteria with 75 percent NPK + G. fasciculatum + phosphobacteria (T10) and 50 percent recommended NPK + G. fasciculatum + phosphobacteria (T13) recorded significant increase in growth values and yield when compared with control.

  67. Ukpaka, C. P.

    The study was based on environmental assessment of petrochemical wastewater parameters discharged to Eleme River. Three methods: physical, chemical and biological were employed for the assessment on the physiochemical parameters. Laboratory tests were done on the sample using FEPA set standard for industrial effluent water test. The data obtained from the laboratory tests, further assessment was performed to examine the impact of these parameters to the receiving water body with respect to FEPA standard for industrial wastewater discharge to the inland water. The result showed that some parameters; Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), Total Suspended Solids (TSS), pH, Temperature and Total Dissolved Solid (TDS), TSS, pH, Temperature, and TDS of the wastewater exceeded the FEPA standard by 80%, 91%, 76%, 24%, and 71% respectively. The conceptual model used for the existing treatment plant in Eleme Petrochemical is inadequate and needs improvement. The paper presented a new model as a way forward to improve the quality of wastewater generate from Eleme Petrochemical. Therefore, a new treatment plant design calculations was carried out to modify the existing plant for optimum performance. Finally, the information obtained from this study should be useful tools for further assessment of petrochemical wastewater parameters even to other industrial wastewater in nature.

  68. Angelo Nicolaides

    South Africa is a country blessed with an abundance of natural resources and yet has wide disparities of wealth with implications for its broader socio-political environment. Small businesses in South Africa absorb over 50% of the people employed in the private sector and these contribute about 42% of the country’s GDP. There are approximately 3 million micro enterprises in the country. Given that entrepreneurship is globally recognised as a vital source of employment which contributes to economic growth and industrialization, increases the tax base of a nation and goes a long way to improving living standards, a key objective of the government is to create an enabling environment for small enterprises. It also wishes to strengthen cohesion between small enterprises and stimulate sector-focused growth whilst preparing small business to face the challenges of a globally competitive economy. The core of this paper is an attempt to answer four important questions: Are entrepreneurs trained to identify gaps in markets or are they born entrepreneurs and if they are able to be trained do they have support networks through which knowledge and necessary skills can be passed down to them? Which environmental forces motivate entrepreneurial thinking and what can we learn from the Singaporean experience in terms of strengthening entrepreneurship? What is the current institutional and governmental support framework for SMMEs like in South Africa? Why do some entrepreneurs succeed while others fail and how would support networks help ? Answering these questions will hopefully contribute to a greater understanding of the economic and social importance of entrepreneurship in South Africa and will throw light on the opportunities that exist in South African to make a strategic contribution to the furtherance of entrepreneurial awareness and training initiatives.

  69. Richard Nyaucho Nyangeri, Kyalo Benjamin Wambua and Paul G. Makori

    Literature reviewed, generally indicate that there has been and there still is a discrepancy between the actual practice and the expected role of primary school headteachers in education supervision. It is on this premise that the researcher sought to assess the training needs of primary school headteachers in educational supervision and also make recommendations on remedial measures. In order to carry out this, the research involved the study of eight macro-competency areas which included; motivation, communication, public relations, financial management, planning and co-ordination, curriculum and instruction, evaluation and staff development. These macro-competency areas were derived through content analysis and the researcher felt that they were the major ones and therefore included in the study. From these macro-competency areas, 37 specific competencies were generated and thus studied. The findings of this study revealed deficiencies between the current educational supervisory practice of primary school headteachers and the desired practice. This implied that the headteachers were inadequately equipped. On this basis, it was recommended that there was a dire need to introduce a separate, specialized and more comprehensive educational supervisory training programme alongside the traditional concurrent pre-service teacher training programmes.

  70. Swaminathan, J. and Gowri Shankar, U.

    Training is the act of increasing the knowledge and skill of an employee for doing particular job .The training is to acquire new skill, technical knowledge, problem- solving, etc. Training improves the performance of employees on present jobs and prepares them for taking up new assignments in the future. Training also helps in the development of the employees. The main objective of the study is to measure the effectiveness of the training in the organization and its impact on employee job performance in the organisation. For collecting the required primary data, a structured questionnaire, with multiple choice and close-ended questions was administered to 60 employees in the organisation through the simple random sampling method. In this study Chi-Square test, Correlation and Anova have been used to interpret the data collected. Based on the research findings the researcher offered suitable suggestions for improving the employee training and development in the organization.

  71. Francis M. Mwangi, Peter M. Wanderi, Edwin K. Wamukoya, Vincent O. Onywera and Elijah R. Gitonga

    Arm action should be efficient as it generates various components of running mechanics. While many authors recommend that the arms should be moved with elbows held at about 90 degrees, some distance running athletes have used different arms movements with varying degree of success and failure during competitions. The study investigated how different arm kinematics affected cardio-respiratory parameters and stride patterns during the steady phase of long distance running. Mean values of working heart rate (WHR), estimated percentage of maximum oxygen consumption (%VO2 max), ventilation rate (VR), and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were used to estimate energy cost of running with different arm actions. Ten elite Kenyan distance running athletes were tested in ten submaximal treadmill trial runs, each trial performed with different arm action for 15 minutes at a speed corresponding to individual’s 80% running effort. Repeated Measures ANOVA indicated significant difference in WHR, %VO2 max, RPE, and stride rate (SR) at p < .05. Medium effect size was observed; Omega Squared (ω2) = .20. Arm action consisting of about ±20 degrees oscillation of the hands around 90 degrees angle at the elbow is more efficient than running with arms held at 90 degrees angle at the elbows.

  72. Padmasree Jalandhar, K., Bharathi Devi Anchula and Achari, A.S.J.

    A spiraling wave of consolidation across the globe has heralded a sea change in the nature of the financial sector. Banking sector in India is not an exception to this phenomenon. By keeping the importance of Mergers and Acquisitions in Indian Banking Sector, the paper intends to study the performance evaluation of the merger Indian Commercial Banks in terms of their growth in Total Assets, Profits, Revenues, Investments and Deposits. In order to accomplish the objectives of the study the Mean, Growth Rate, Standard Deviation and t- test were employed. This study is also briefly peeps into some legal provisions providing room for consolidation and relevant provisions regarding Mergers, Amalgamations of banks under various Acts in India. It is found that the performance of sample banks is amplified in the post merger period over the pre merger period. Therefore if the banks plan the option of mergers carefully, they certainly improve their performance and may become the leaders of this sector to sustain their position in the global competitive world.

  73. Rejoice, P.R. and Ravishankar, A.K.

    Objective: To assess the utilization of antenatal care services among currently married scheduled caste women in India. Methods: The data have been extracted from National Family Health Survey -3 (NFHS-3) conducted during 2005-06, all over India. A total of 6212 currently married scheduled caste women in the age group of 15-49 were taken as the sample for the study. Cross tabulation and binary logistic regression method were applied for determining the influencing factors. Results: Out of 6212 respondents, 19.8 of the scheduled caste women not received even a single antenatal care during their pregnancy period. 15.8 percent of the women not received Tetanus Toxoid injection and one-third (33.3) of the women not received Iron Folic Acid tablets during their pregnancy period. Only one fifth of scheduled caste women (21.4) fulfilled the minimum recommendation with regard antenatal care services. Conclusion: Age, education and wealth index were significantly associated for getting full antenatal care service among scheduled caste women. However, there is an urgent need for improving the implementation of reproductive health programmes and strengthening health education for scheduled caste married women especially pregnant women.

  74. Arunakumari, G.L. and Renu Nekkanti

    Cloud computing is evolving as a key computing platform for sharing resources that include infrastructures, software, applications and business processes. This new approach to computing allows users to avoid upfront hardware and software investments, gain flexibility, collaborate with others, and take advantage of the sophisticated services that cloud providers offer. Security is a huge concern for cloud users. In this paper, we analyze some security requirements in cloud computing environment. One of the major threats to virtualization and cloud computing is malicious software that enables computer viruses or other malware that have compromised one customer's system to spread to the underlying hypervisor and ultimately, to the systems of other customers. This paper is concerned with discovery of the vulnerabilities in the landscape of clouds, discovery of security solutions, safeguard mechanisms by behavioral patterns and finding evidence that early-adopters or developers have grown more concerned with security

  75. Marijana M. Ačanski and Đura N. Vujić

    Retention behaviour of two pairs of 17-halogen-16,17-secoestra-1,3,5(10)-triene derivatives in RPLC was studied. Commercial column 5m- Spherisorb ODS-2, 124 × 4 mm was used. Mobile phase was acetonitrile-water in various proportions. Flow rate of mobile phase and column temperature varied. Correlation among various chromatographically obtained hydrophobicity parameters log kto and log kfro of 17-halogen-16,17-secoestra-1,3,5(10)-triene derivatives with log P, calculated by using commercial program ACD log P software Advanced Chemistry, Toronto, Canada was examined. The log kto and log kfro were obtained by linear extrapolation of retention of two pairs of 17-halogen-16,17-secoestra-1,3,5 (10)-triene derivatives to 0 of column temperature and to 0 of flow rate of the mobile phase.

  76. Sameh M. Metwalley, Shawki A. Abouel-seoud and Abdelfattah M. Farahat

    Concerns regarding global climate change have caused the transportation sector to look for alternatives to petroleum as a fuel for vehicles of all types. Bi-fuel vehicles have been recognized as being particularly efficient for urban traffic use. As these vehicles become more popular, there is a need for accurate vehicle performance test methods. Clearly the most accurate vehicle performance measurements would be obtained by using single axis dynamometers. In this paper, a research work was intended to study the performance characteristics of a bi-fuel vehicle, i.e. gasoline and compressed natural gas (CNG). Single axis dynamometers are commonly used for evaluating vehicle performance. The performance test procedure was carried out on a newly registered gasoline/CNG bi-fuel vehicle in Egypt market (Hyundai-star) and is now assessed from the European standard driving cycle. The European driving cycle shows the characteristics of vehicles operating conditions for various speeds and acceleration ranges, but does not represent realistic speed-time history of a vehicle in actual traffic. As the driving conditions are different, the assessment results using this driving cycle may not produce realistic results. The fuel injection system used is Multi-point (MP)-sequential injection. From the experimental results, it is seen that significant information can be for the bi-vehicle technology, consequently better design can be obtained.

  77. Prabudoss, V

    Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus, a true fruitful, sugar loving and acid producing endophytic diazotroph involved in N fixation, P solubilization, zinc solubilization and growth promoting substance production. It can also able to control fungal pathogens likes fusarium and Colletotrichum falcatum and helps the sugarcane plants to produce its maximum growth with the reduction of 50 per cent chemical fertilizers. The present field experiment was laid out with the following treatments. T0 -Absolute control, T1 - G. diazotrophicus alone, T2 - 50% NPK alone, T3 - 50% NPK + G. diazotrophicus, T4 - 75% NPK alone, T5 - 75% NPK + G. diazotrophicus, T6 - 100% NPK alone, T7 - 100% NPK + G. diazotrophicus and three replications were also maintained in the field studies. Among the eight treatments, the plants receiving G. diazotrophicus inoculation showed the vigour in the growth and developments of sugarcane, particularly the treatments. T3 - 50% NPK + G. diazotrophicus and T5 - 75% NPK + G. diazotrophicus recorded the growth values on par with the growth values of plants receiving 100% NPK + G. diazotrophicus (T7) and T6 - 100% NPK alone. Hence, by using G. diazotrophicus we can able to reduce 50% usage of chemical fertilizers and it leads to reduce the pollution to some extent in sugarcane cultivating soil and environment.

  78. Shanmugam, A., Ramasamy, P., Mukesh Kumar Bharti, Saravanan, R., Subhapradha, N., Vairamani, S. and Jayalakshmi, K.

    In the present study an attempt has been made to isolate and characterize the type I collagen from outer skin of Sepia pharaonis. The total protein content and molecular weight of acid soluble collagen (ASC) and pepsin soluble collagen (PSC) were determined. The structure of ASC and PSC from S. pharaonis was persistent by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and UV vis spectrum. The soluble collagen was extracted by treating the skin with 0.5 M CH3COOH and centrifuged (ASC). Then residue was resuspended in 0.5 M CH3COOH and was digested with 10% (w/v) pepsin (PSC). On the basis of dry weight the ASC and PSC content was observed as 1.70% and 3.61% and the total protein content of both ASC and PSC was found to be 16.4% and 44.6% respectively. The molecular weight of ASC and PSC was calculated as 107 kDa and 73 to 117 kDa respectively. Both ASC and PSC consisted of two different α chains (α 1 and α 2), and were characterized to be type I with no disulfide bond. PSC had a higher content with high molecular weight cross-links, than did ASC. The results of this study suggest that the skin of S. pharaonis could be used as another potent source for the exploration of collagen.

  79. Chukwu, G.U. and Asiegbu, A.D.

    Within the last two decades, Global Warming and Climate Change has been one of the most important discussed topics in many scientific colloquia and workshops. As the topic connotes it is a world-wide phenomenon in which the Earth’s surface is gradually being heated up due to some natural and man-made actions. The gradual temperature rise that ensued warms up the earth and causes vital climatic variations across the globe. This paper reviews the climatic changes and conditions with their impacts and implications in Nigeria. Possible remedies as panaceas to minimize further warming have been suggested.

  80. Lakshmi, S and Krishnamurthy, S.

    This investigation has been undertaken in order to study the Self-Esteem of Higher Secondary Students in Coimbatore District. For this purpose a representative sample of 246 Higher Secondary students have been selected by using the purposive random sampling technique. Normative survey method has been used. This study has been undertaken in order to find out the levels of Self-Esteem of Higher Secondary Students and if there is any significant difference between the selected pairs of sub-samples. Self-Esteem Inventory was used to collect the data. This study reveals that the Self-Esteem of Higher Secondary Students studying in various schools of Coimbatore District is high. There is significant difference between all the sub-samples in respect of their Self-Esteem. The findings of this study very clearly indicates because of the economic affluence and social benevolence, the students at Higher Secondary stage are possessing a high level of Self-Esteem. This is really an appreciable feature and this can be taken care of by the future researchers.

  81. Sushil Kumar Yadav, Mahendra Pratap and Anup Kumar

    The estimate of Infant Mortality rate and Child death rate are always required to policy makers of every country’s government for further planning to improve the health status of children and check the validity of present plans. Usually the data for such measures are available from the system of civil registration. However the quality of registered data especially in underdeveloped countries is inadequate both in content and coverage. So we need some indirect techniques to estimate these demographic parameters. The term ‘‘indirect estimation’’, used to qualify some of the techniques in demography, has its origin in the fact that such techniques produce estimates of certain parameters on the basis of information that is only indirectly related to its value. In this paper we have proposed a technique for the estimation of child mortality from observations on proportion of dead children amongst children ever born in a specified group of marital duration of currently married females using the data provided in NFHS-III and NFHS-II .The whole idea is based on regression analysis. The method is simple and the data requirements are also less.

  82. Agumba O. John., Katana G. Gabriel and Karimi M. Patrick

    In this work, a Remotely Accessible and Configurable Digital Cathode Ray Oscilloscope experiment system is designed in LabVIEW graphical development platform. The LabVIEW application is used to perform several tasks that include user interface design, publishing and sharing measured data over the web, instrument control and remote access to a system in the campus Physics lab. This paper describes how to control a digital CRO existing in a laboratory via a PC running LabVIEW from National Instruments. In addition, how to turn any LabVIEW application into a remote application accessed via a Web browser without any additional development time is explained in detail. The other instrument used in the work is a non-programmable signal generator. Ensuring instrument control and publishing the front panel on the web, students are allowed to access and control the system variables such as adjusting the CRO timebase, running Autosetup, Reading the Waveforms and acquiring continuous signals from the signal generator by the CRO. A student accesses the website through a web-browser (Internet explorer) by using an URL provided. Once the website is located, the student is required to login by putting in the name and the admission number. Once these details are verified, the user is allowed to proceed with the experiment.

  83. Suman Koner, Biswajit Kumar Saha, Rahul Kumar and Asok Adak

    The silica gel waste (SGW), collected from solid waste of a local factory at Kolkata, India was modified with cationic surfactant and was utilized as an adsorbing media for the removal of methyl orange dye from aquatic environment. The characterization of base adsorbent and modified adsorbent was carried out. In batch mode, the kinetic study, isotherm study and effect temperature and shaking speed were carried out. The removal efficiency of surfactant modified silica gel waste (SMSGW) in case synthetically prepared wastewater was also examined. The sorption was found to follow the pseudo second order reaction kinetics model and also Langmuir isotherm model. The chemisorption was the rate limiting step for the adsorption process.

  84. Pramitha, K., Padma Suresh, L., and Shunmuganathan, K.L.

    In order to improve the capacity of the hidden secret data and to provide an imperceptible stego image quality, a new image steganography method based on image contrast is presented. A group of 2×2 blocks of non-overlapping spatially adjacent pixels is selected as the valid block for embedding the secret message. The modulo 4 arithmetic operation is further applied to all the valid blocks to embed a pair of binary bits using the shortest route modification scheme. Each secret message is also encrypted by RSA encryption algorithm to provide the system with more security. Data will be embedded inside the image using the pixels. Then the pixels of stego image can then be accessed back in order to retrieve back the hidden data inside the image. However, a secret key is needed by the receiver in order to retrieve back the data. This secret key is generated using the RSA decryption algorithm. By using the secret key to retrieve the data, it maintains privacy, confidentiality and accuracy of the data. The proposed method was tested on different gray scale images. From the experimental results, compared with the some well-known adaptive and non-adaptive steganography algorithms, the proposed method provides larger embedding capacity, while being less detectable by steganalysis methods.

  85. Cletus N. Chukwu

    In this article, attempts have been made to show that true democracies constitute one of the major aspirations of the African people. Democracy is growing in Africa and there is ample evidence that some gains have been made in many countries namely: Tanzania, South Africa, Ghana, Kenya, Nigeria, Rwanda, etc. However, the practice of democratic system of governance has been a difficult exercise sometimes involving bloody conflicts in African nations. In this discourse, there are contentious postulations but the fact is that we have serious problems, both social and political, that pertain to human frailties, in-transparency, ‘negative’ ethnicity, corruption, distrust, bad leadership and electoral problems, which must be bridled through our collective efforts towards vibrant democracies in the continent. The paper opens by admitting that democracy is growing in Africa. However, it is noted that democracy is context-oriented. This fact forms the basis of the discussions that ensue onwards. A critique of African notions of democracy is made. The paper also critically analyses the relationship between liberty as a promise of democracy and democracy itself. It also examines the yearning for true democracy in light of limiting factors such as negative ethnicity and naive electorates. Upon these are conclusions and recommendations made.





Rosane Cavalcante Fragoso, Brasil


Chief Scientific Officer and Head of a Research Group

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Luai Farhan Zghair
Hasan Ali Abed Al-Zu’bi
Fredrick OJIJA
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