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IJCR is following an instant policy on rejection those received papers with plagiarism rate of more than 20%. So, All of authors and contributors must check their papers before submission to making assurance of following our anti-plagiarism policies.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

November 2013

  1. Usha Raja Nanthini, A., Athinarayanan, G., Ranjitsingh, A. J. A., Mariselvam, R., Chairman, K. and Narayanan, K.R.

    In the present investigation antimicrobial activity of leaf extracts and various column eluted fractions of the medicinal plants Andrographis paniculata and Melia azadirach L. were evaluated against the clinical bacterial strains viz. Pseudomonas fluorescence, Vibrio cholerae, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus and the fungal strains viz., Trichophyton rubrum, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus and candida albicans. The antimicrobial activity was carried out by agar disc diffusion and well cut methods. The methanol extracts of Andrographis paniculata and Melia azadirach L were found with potential antimicrobial activity against Pseudomonas aueruginosa (22mm), Staphylococcus aureus (21mm) and moderate activity was recorded against Vibrio cholerae (14mm).

  2. Raja, K. and Dr. Soundararajan, M.

    The study examines the relationship between the Adjustment and Personality of higher secondary students in Cuddalore district. Normative survey method was employed. A random sample of 1000 higher secondary students was selected. The Adjustment and the Personality test were used to collect the required information. The results of the study reveal that, both the level of Adjustment and Personality of the students are high. Further there is a statically significant relationship between the Adjustment and Personality of the higher secondary students. The researcher also feels that the guiding of their study helps the educationalists and executives to plan their future activities.

  3. Dr. Asha Menon

    Early childhood is the most crucial period in the development of an individual so it is important that a child gets a conducive and a stimulating environment in the crucial periods of his/her life, which would enable him/her to thrive. Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE) is assuming importance for the holistic development of very young child. Case study approach was formulated for this study. Five ECE Teacher training programs were randomly selected and analyzed on pedagogical aspects. The results show that there marked variation in duration of training. The curriculum content of the existing ECE teacher education programs lacks relevance. Many training colleges do not emphasize enough on developmentally appropriate practices. It is concluded that Government policy with respect to pre-school education should be formulated, implemented and regulated. Age of admission to this course should be increased to 18 years and minimum qualification should be of class XII. The training atmosphere should be flexible, warm and permissive. The universities, which are implementing self-financing courses, may also be encouraged to opt for this model.

  4. Albert O. Ehiozuwa and Joy N. Anaso

    The effect of student factors such as their intellectual capability, their attitude to learning, and their general study habit in academic performance are areas not fully investigated by myriad of efforts directed at unraveling causes of abysmal performance by Nigerian students in public examination in recent times. It is as a result that this study was undertaken to assess the study habits of secondary school science students in North West Nigeria, a zone that is considered educationally less advantaged. Consequently, 1,796 students who were offering the basic science subjects (Biology, Chemistry and Physics) in 22 secondary schools in four North West states (Kaduna, kano, Katsina and Zamfara) of Nigeria during the 2011/2012 school session were selected by means of stratified random sampling. The students’ study habits were assessed by administering the Bakare’s (1977) Study Habit Inventory on them and their science scores (academic performance) were obtained from their first term’s school results. The independent t-test and one way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) statistics were employed for data analyses that were used to test five null hypotheses stated for the study at alpha value of 0.05. All the null hypotheses were significant, indicating that difference exists between the study habits of male and female, older and younger, private and public schools’, low and high academic performing, and among the students in the four states. It was therefore recommended that school counsellors, teachers, administrators, examination bodies and governments should, among other things, do the following so as to improve students’ study habits - carry out routine study needs assessment of secondary school science students, teach students how to study, and how to prepare and use personal time-table in effective study.

  5. Nevin Gürbüz

    In this paper, we derive intrinsic equations for r-normal elastic on non-null surface in Minkowski 3-space.

  6. Seethalakshmi, A. N., Balasubramanian, K. and Muthuchelian, K.

    Vickers and Knoop micro hardness tests were carried out on the pressed pellet form of Prosopis juliflora and Casuarina equisetifolia biomaterials subjected to a load range of 25–100g. Vickers (Hv) micro hardness for the above loads was found to be in the range of 29–57 kg/mm2 and 107-136 kg/mm2, for P.juliflora and C.equisetifolia respectively. Knoop (Hk) micro hardness number was found to be in the range 22–51 kg/mm2 and 82-127kg/mm2, for P.juliflora and C.equisetifolia respectively. Vickersmicrohardness number (Hv) and Knoop micro hardness number (Hk) was found to increase withincreasing load for both materials. Yield strength(σv) was calculated using Hv. Meyer’s index number (n) calculated from Hv shows that the materials belonging to the soft material category. Using Wooster’s empirical relation, the elastic stiffness constant (C11) was calculated from Vickers hardnessvalues. Young’s modulus was calculated using Knoop hardness values. Our study reveals that C.equisetifolia having high modulus of elasticity than P.juliflora.

  7. Orjiekwe, C. L., Solola, S. A. and Chinedu, N. B.

    The pollution of Ogbese River in Ovia North-East L.G.A. of Edo State, Nigeria was studied. Parameters like pH, temperature, electrical conductivity, colour, odour, chlorides, nitrates, phosphates and heavy metal ions such as lead, chromium, zinc etc, were analyzed. Also various techniques such as titrimetric methods, atomic absorption spectrophotometry were employed in the determination of these ions. The results show that most of the pollution indices of the water samples analyzed indicate that the Ogbese River water falls within the acceptable range for natural waters according to the World Health Organisation (WHO, 2006) standards. However, the Ogbese River water falls short of potable water on account of high presence of coliforms bacteria found in the river water. Defeacations of human, wild animals and runoffs from agricultural farmlands are believed to be the source of the coliforms bacteria.

  8. Kiruthikajothi, K., Chandramohan, G. and Chandraleka, S.

    Various species of mosquitoes transmit different types of disease like malaria, yellow fever, dengue fever, chikungunya, filariasis and encephalitis to more than 700 million people annually with millions of resultant deaths. The aim of the work is to evaluate larvicidal activity of Cu(II) complex against mosquito. These reduced Schiff base pyridine/ triphenyl phosphine Cu(II) complex were found to have effective against anopheles and Culex mosquito.

  9. Ravi, M., Veeraiah, T. and Venkata Ramana Reddy Ch.

    Three simple and sensitive extractive spectrophotometric methods have been described for the assay of pantoprazole either in pure form or in pharmaceutical formulations. The developed methods involve formation of coloured chloroform extractable ion-pair complexes of the drug with Bromo Thymol Blue (BTB), Bromo Phenol Blue (BPB) and Bromo Cresol Green (BCG) in acidic medium. The extracted complexes showed absorbance maxima at 412 nm for all three methods. Beer’s law is obeyed in the concentration ranges 2.0-25, 2.0-20 and 2.5-25 μg/mL with BTB, BPB and BCG, respectively. The effects of concentration of dye, pH and interference of excipients have been studied and optimized. The limits of detection and quantification have been determined for three methods. All the three methods have been validated as per the guidelines of ICH. The methods have been applied to the determination of drug in commercial tablets and results of analysis were validated statistically through recovery studies.

  10. Dhanalakshmi, A., Amutha, C., Lawrence, B., Kulathuraan, K., Ramadas, V. and Natarajan, B.

    The effects of Polyvinlypyrrolidone (PVP) on ZnO thin films prepared by sol-gel dip-coating method were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer (FTIR) studies. The optical absorption and transmittance spectra of ZnO thin films have been recorded using UV Spectrophotometer. In addition, the Photoluminescence (PL) has also been obtained to investigate the optical properties of ZnO and PVP/ZnO thin films. The XRD patterns exhibited that, the films were formed in the preferred orientation along c-axis as a function of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) concentration and which also confirms the formation of Wurtzite structure. The crystallite size was calculated using the Scherrer’s formula. The SEM images of ZnO, PVP/ZnO (0.05M) and PVP/ZnO (0.07M) prepared films have depicted a fairly uniform distribution of particle size, such as, 1.2μm, 0.7μm and 1.1μm respectively. The FTIR spectra confirm the presences of ZnO and PVP/ZnO peaks. A remarkable increase in the band gap of PVP/ZnO was observed by UV Spectrophotometric analysis, further it was noticed that, the band gap values were larger than the optical band gap of bulk ZnO material. Whereas,the PL excitation spectra have depicted a strong UV emission and blue emission.

  11. Manjula V. Katageri and Mutsaddi, M. M.

    The innovative technique of realising floating inductor using OTA’s as an active element and grounded capacitor for the realisation of the floating inductor was comparitively studied in developing four stage LC ladder low pass filters. A comparitive study of 3 OTA’s and grounded capacitor of different configarations, as modified technique of floating inductor in ladder filter applications was studied in comparision with gyrator concept. The response of each stage exhibits the shootng characteristics of the output voltage in respect of filtering characteristic property with sharp roll off ratio in the modified technique of floating inductor. A comparative study on four stage LC ladder low pass filter using gyrator concept was exhibiting best performance in filtering action which has high frequency application in instrumentation.

  12. Rajkumar Singh, R., Raja, K., Gopalakrishnan, A., Kannan, D. and Sakthivel, A.

    The present study is the report on the growth performance of L. vannamei in the bore well and brackish water fed ponds. Crab fencing and antibird netting were done before pumping water to prevent the carries of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). The water quality parameters such as temperature, salinity, pH, dissolved oxygen and alkalinity were measured during the entire culture period. The daily growth rate (DGR) was ranged between 0.05 and 0.38 g in the bore will fed pond and in the brackish water fed pond the DGR varied between 0.11 and 0.33 g. The maximum growth 27.33 g attained on 175th days of culture in the bore well fed pond and in the brackish water fed pond the maximum growth of 31.44 g reached on 140th days of culture. From the present study it is concluded that the brackish water fed pond is suitable for L. vannamei culture when compare to bore well water fed pond.

  13. Rajalakshmi, S.,Velvizhi, S. and Maharajan, A.

    The breeding sites of Culex quinquefasciatus (Say) was investigated with seasonal prevalence during 2012-2013 in south west region of Puducherry. The study revealed the density of vector immature of L3 stage was dominant during pre monsoon and post monsoon seasons (420 and 390 individuals). The significant high numbers was due to the onset of monsoon rains available in the gutters, tree holes followed by earthen pots. Few numbers were identified in plastic bottles, coconut shells and tyres. The container-type breeding sites yielded approximately 1455 individuals in gutter and 1050 in tyres. The results indicate that Culex quinquefasciatus had invaded almost all different types of containers and significant (p<0.05) during post and pre monsoon seasons and non-significant during summer and monsoon. The present study highlights that Cx. quinquefasciatus had invaded urban areas of south west region of Puducherry with seasonal prevalence. The results also indicate the needs for studies locally, prior to larviciding.

  14. cyprian bankakuu gandeebo

    In Africa, education policies normally never go beyond the formulation phase because there appear a ‘disconnect’ between policy formulation and implementation. The thesis of this paper is that stakeholder involvement in education policy development is key to the success of policy implementation. Hence, we contend that there is a positive relationship between stakeholder involvement in the policy development and its implementation

  15. Florence A. Undiyaundeye

    Infants learn new words by listening to the speeches they hear from parents and other adults. Even though not much is known about the degree to which these words are meaningful for young infants, the words still play a role in early language development. Words guide the infants to their first synaptic intuitions and in the development of the lexicon and it may help infants learn phonetic categories. The focus here is to glorify the intervention between cognition and language development through play during the first two years of the child’s existence. The three major questions on the list of findings is: 1. How do babies learn? 2. How do babies develop a language through play? 3. How do the variables interact? Studying how infants learn and what they already know requires an understanding of the manner in which babies generalize information from one situation to another, develop abstract concepts and form categories which provide coherence to a baby’s world. Studying how infants develop a language needs an understanding of how babies develop words for objects and actions. In understanding how language and learning interact in every day circumstance as it relates to infants, one needs to understand how babies learn words and how learning language helps to solidify what babies already know. Perhaps also how it leads babies to learn what they may not have learned otherwise.

  16. Dr. Himanshu Gupta, Priyanka Guleria and Dr. Megha Sharma

    Tobacco in any form has an injurious impact on health. This paper reviews the existing literature relevant to the specific context of Tobacco Advertizing, Promotion and Sponsorship (TAPS), relation between TAPS and tobacco consumption behavior of youth in India and the gaps in the existing tobacco legislation in India, using online databases and exploring grey literature. Since direct advertisement and promotion of tobacco in any form is legally banned in India since 2004, tobacco industries have adopted unique strategies for TAPS to attract youth, especially. Albeit tobacco manufacturers claim that they do not target youth; studies show that there exists a direct link between the exposure to tobacco marketing practices found appealing by youth and an increase in the likelihood of their tobacco consumption behaviors. Research exploring linkages between TAPS as a whole and the youth tobacco consumption behaviour are missing and needs to be prioritised. The research findings reflect the weak enforcement of Section 5 of the Cigarettes and Other Tobacco Products (Prohibition of Advertisement and Regulation of Trade and Commerce, Production, Supply and Distribution) Act (COTPA), 2003 and calls for an immediate action for the policy makers. Anti-tobacco policies should involve public health education especially targeting youth, making them aware of the myriad ways adopted by tobacco companies to attract them towards tobacco experimentation and use. The tobacco legislation should be enforced stringently ensuring that the tobacco industry would not target youth.

  17. Yalo Nicaise, Alle Christian and Descloitres Marc

    The study was realized with the aim of showing the variation of the freshwater lens morphology in a unconfined coastal aquifer on a site of 360.000m2 between the Atlantic Ocean and the coastal lagoon. For this study 115Time Domain Electro Magnetism (TDEM) soundings were realized in rainy season and in dry season. For two various seasons, the static levels and the electric conductivities of waters in 17 wells were measured. A porosity of 34 % of the aquifer was determined using Archie’s law. That has allowed determining the limit of resistivity value of ground containing freshwater lens. At each season 12 TDEM resistivity maps and 7 TDEM vertical sections are been built for mapping the extent of freshwater lens. The obtained results show that under the pressure of sea water intrusion the freshwater lens moves towards the lagoon in dry season. The consequence of this movement is that few wells inside the freshwater lens in rainy season are found outside the freshwater lens in dry season and are thus contaminated. This TDEM study for monitoring the variation of freshwater lens morphology between rainy and dry season can contribute to the choice of wells with sustainability sanitation.

  18. Dr. Jeyakumar, K. R. and Dr. Sreedevi, N.

    Marine fisheries in India is accorded priority in the planned development process due to its significant contribution to the economy for generating income in the most backward regions and creating employment to the people who are in the lowest rungs of the social ladder besides providing foreign exchange earnings and ensuring food and nutritional security. Tamil Nadu is one of the important coastal states in the east coast which has the highest fishing population in India. With this background the study was carried out with the objective of examining the performance of marine fish production in India and Tamil Nadu and to find out the annual growth rate. The study was based on secondary data taking twenty one years of marine fish production in India and Tamil Nadu. Ordinary Least Square Method and AGR were applied for analysis.

  19. Ehikwe Andrew Egede

    Integrated Marketing Communications is the conglomeration of the various promotional tools put into a central message presentation to a target market population, with the objective of achieving consistent and reliable effects on consumers’ choice of products. The programmes of IMC is a marketing communications plan that incorporates advertising, personal selling, sales promotions, public relations, publicity, direct marketing and word of mouth under an agency that is responsible for coordinating promotional activities, including the internet facilities. The difficulties associated with integrated marketing communications are on the implementations of the programme, between the use of an internal coordinating unit within an organisation especially in advertising and an external agency. Thus, the challenges of coordinating the different professional services in the promotion mix for coherence and consistency in messages presentations is paramount. The strategic impact of IMC is in the complementary and interdependency of the different communications and promotion tools required to stimulate and motivate the consumers. However the consumers often see and interpret the various messages from the perspectives of the problems to be solved, the needs for the products, and the perception of the situation. The use of integrated marketing communications is necessary in the different circumstances on the prevailing marketing requirements in the sale of particular products and the needs of a particular target market.

  20. Chander Pal Thakur, Rakesh Mehra, Chahat Narula, Swati Mahapatra and Tapan Jyoti Kalita

    A study was done to assess food safety and hygiene practices amongst street food vendors in Delhi, India. Practices and hygiene status of 200 street food vendors was studied by a questionnaire based findings and observations at the vending site. Data was entered and analyzed with the help of MS- excel. Result: It was found that majority of the respondents (33 %) were in the age group of 25 to 34 years of age and 24% were illiterate. Around 36% of the vendors were permanent residents of Delhi and from rest of the respondents, 55% were from Uttar Pradesh only. None of the respondents were registered or licensed. Seventy two percent were disposing garbage in open lid bins and 16% were throwing it on the road, only 3% of the vendors were using hand gloves and from rest only 2% were washing hands before and after handling raw or cooked food. Majority of respondents (72 %) had short clean nails and few (4 %) had open wounds present. Presence of flies/mosquitoes was observed in 45% of the vending sites. 19 % were washing utensils in open. Conclusion: Food vended is of different flavor, cheap and tasty, which becomes popular among people easily. This study highlighted few points which need to be addressed for better hygiene status and food practices amongst street food vendors. There is a need of generating awareness amongst street vendors and WHO’s five “keys to safety” should be incorporated.

  21. Dr. A. Vijayakumar and K. Muraleedharan

    It is often termed that the present day society as an ‘information society’, where information is being generated every now and then. This new addition of information is ultimately leads to the modification of the existing knowledge or the creation of new knowledge which definitely has to pass on to the needy. The ‘knowledge boom’ or the’ information explosion’ has paused a situation, where a genuine information seeker feels some sort of “poverty” in the midst of plenty, where the information is abundant, and how it could be make best use of it? And here the real problem arises-how far the accumulated information is accurate and apt. Hence a mere collection of information is not enough for utility, but the ‘raw’ information is to be processed, to yield systematic and integrated information needed for a specific purpose. The fact that fruit ful education is in process in every sect of schools where students are undergoing apt and up-to-date education. The dynamic nature of modern education envisages right and accurate information to the student at the right direction.

  22. Dr. Vijay Kumar Tiwari and Narendranath Guria

    Wastewater may even contain bacteria and other organisms which, when eaten by animals, may in turn infect the people who eat the contaminated meat. The health risks in relation to the level of contamination and the re-used wastewater control measures. The Sanitary workers will be allotted some specified area and after sweeping they would collect the waste in the form of heaps on the street side. In the Bilaspur city, office complexes etc. sweeping should be carried out by the sanitary workers daily. For proper solid waste water management, suitable tools, equipment & vehicles in sufficient numbers are necessary for handling, lifting and transportation of waste. The sanitary workers involved in drain cleaning may be given tools like seamless handcarts and shovels. It is also recommended to maintain separate roster for cleaning of drains. Burning of waste causes hazardous/toxic gaseous pollutants and must be avoided.

  23. Nithya, N. R.

    The world consumption has expanded at an unprecedented pace over the 20th century. Consumption is viewed by most South Indians as a path to better, freer life; it will bring social status, increased convenience and new forms of mobility and entertainment. Kerala, a state in southern India is known for its consumerism. This article explores the emergence and recent trend in the consumption pattern of Kerala. This paper argues that exposure to outer world, use of credit card, modern technology and advertising; money order economy, social prestige, globalization etc have contributed to the changes in the consumption pattern of people.

  24. Choubey, M., Guha, P. and Mohapatra, R. L.

    Paradigm shift in the Indian financial sector has taken place during the past five decade with transformation from class banking to mass banking (1969), coverage expansion through introduction of RRB and lead bank scheme, financial sector reform (1991) transforming banking structure from traditional brick-and-mortar branches to mechanized banking through technological up-gradation. Despite all such financial sector progress in breadth and length, inability of providing basic banking services to the unprivileged sections has been an unproved assertion of recent years. Low propensity to save and invest has constrained capital formation which in turn affected growth process of LDCs and developing nations. The urgency of pro-poor growth has been felt in the current five year plan as an alternative formula for economic inclusion of vulnerable sections which in turn has been expected to accelerate the growth process. Initiative in this direction has been taken by GOI, RBI and NABARD jointly since 2005 aiming at enrolling the unreached sections through banking services and facilities. The skewed pattern of the banking sector growth regionally has been assumed to be a source of disparity in the financial sector and one of the parameters of financial exclusion. The present study is an attempt to understand if any regional disparity exists or not in the growth of scheduled commercial banks in India in terms of deposit, credit, number of branch offices and population group wise distribution of banking centers. An attempt was made to understand the pattern of financial inclusion in Assam in terms of district level banking coverage and progress of various public sector banks in branch expansion across various districts till 2010 end.

  25. Suresh. V. Nadagoudar and Chandrika, M. P.

    The road to electronic banking has not been smooth. Technology has played a pivotal role in all the sectors and banking was no exception to it. There are numerous advantages due to invention of e-banking. These advantages have attracted customers who want easy access to their accounts as well as safety. In India the safety is regulated by the Reserve Bank of India. RBI from time to time has been providing guidelines to all the banks incorporated in India to regulate their business in era of globalization. Apart from this, law has also extended its hands to safeguard the interest of the customer of the bank.

  26. Bui Ha Phuong, M. A.

    Purposes: This paper is based on a Masters’ dissertation submitted to the University of Social Sciences and Humanities, Vietnam National University, Hochiminh city, which provides the overall picture of the use of library services by users at hospital libraries of Hochiminh city, Vietnam. A question are is conducted with the aim of investigating 400 users in four hospital libraries in Hochiminh city in May 2012. Methodology: Question are analysis was used in terms of quantitative approach. Data were collected by investigating users’ need by a question are as well as interviewing librarians in four hospital libraries. Besides, this paper has a combination of some various methods of research. Then, Microsoft Excel was utilized as a main tool to synthesize and analyze data in this paper. Findings: This article analyses the missions, role of hospital libraries in a medical modern environment at hospital of Hochiminh city, Vietnam. The main findings are examining users’ characteristics and users’ need and information behavior in hospital libraries of Hochiminh city, Vietnam. Recommendations and future research: Four main recommendations were proposed including broadening many groups of users; Investigating annually users’ need; Enhancing in marketing hospital libraries; and guiding users. The study recommends that researchers should carry out research on “The satisfaction of information need of users at the hospital libraries of Hochiminh city” in order to provide bases to improve the status and effectiveness of hospital libraries.

  27. Rajalakshmi, S., Velvizhi S., Maharajan, A., and Shyamaladevi, K.

    Docking of small molecule compounds into the binding site of a receptor and estimating the binding affinity of the complex is an important part of the structure-based drug design process. For a thorough understanding of the structural principles that determine the strength of a protein/ligand complex, both, an accurate and fast docking protocol and the ability to visualize binding geometries and interactions are mandatory. Here we present an interface between the popular molecular graphics system PYMOL and the molecular docking suites Autodock and demonstrate how the combination of docking and visualization can aid structure-based drug design efforts, made in the elimination of lymphatic filariasis using mass drug administration.

  28. Rajalakshmi Sundar, Velvizhi Sundar and Gunasegaran Sakkarapani

    Objective: To evaluate the larvicidal, ovicidal and repellent activities of methanol extract of Sargassum ilicifolium (Phaeophyta), Caulerpa sertularoides (Chlorophyta) and Gracilaria verrucosa (Rhodophyta) against Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus. Methods: The selected seaweed extracts were dissolved in DMSO to prepare graded concentrations. Larvicidal efficacy of selected seaweed were tested at various concentrations against the early third instar larvae of Ae.aegypti, An.stephensi and Cx.quinquefasciatus. Bioassay test was carried out as per the guidelines of WHO (2005). The 24h LC50 values of the selected seaweed extracts were determined by probit analysis. For ovicidal activity modified method of Su and Mulla was used. Ovicidal activity was determined against selected mosquitoes at various concentrations ranging from 25-200 ppm under laboratory conditions. The hatch rates were assessed 48h post treatment. The Gracilaria verrucosa repellent efficiency was determined against selected mosquitoes at three concentrations such as 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 mg/cm2 under laboratory conditions. Results: The LC50 and LC90 values of methanol seaweed extract of Gracilaria verrucosa against early third instar larvae of Ae. aegypti, An. stephensi and Cx. quinquefasciatus were 0.125, 0.131, 0.135; ppm, respectively. The crude extract of seaweed exerted 100% egg mortality (zero hatchability) at 240, 300 and 360 ppm for Ae. aegypti, An. stephensi and Cx. quinquefasciatus. Similarly, a higher concentration of 8 mg/cm2 provide 100% protection up to 210, 180 and 150 min against Ae. aegypti, An. stephensi and Cx. quinquefasciatus. Conclusions: The present results suggest that the Gracilaria verrucosa methanol seaweed extract provides an excellent potential for controlling selected medically important vector mosquitoes.

  29. Mythrashree, S. R. and Amruthesh, K. N.

    2,6-Dichloroisonicotinic acid (INA) seed treatment at different concentrations (0.5, 1, 2.5 and 5 mM) for 3 and 6 h was evaluated during the interaction of pearl millet with Sclerospora graminicola in association with chitinase activity. Susceptible pearl millet seeds treated with INA at 1 mM concentration for 3 h showed significant (P<0.05) downy mildew disease resistance compared to 3 h treatments. The present study revealed that INA treated @ 1 mM provided the maximum seed germination 95% and seedling vigor 1552 in comparison to control which offered 79% and 923 of seed germination and seedling vigor, respectively. The results on growth parameter studies revealed that INA treated plants showed enhanced growth parameters when compared to control under greenhouse conditions. Application of INA @ 1 mM reduced the severity of disease with a highest protection of 62% under greenhouse conditions at 6 h treatment and highest reduction found on third day of inoculation in time gap studies. The enhanced chitinase activity was observed at all test points in INA @ 1 mM treated seedlings as compared to the control and peak activity of 10.11 and 3.44 respectively, was found at 24 hai.

  30. Chaturvedi Jaya and Saksena, D. N.

    The quantitative study of reproductive cycle of Mystus cavasius has been done in respect of gonadosomatic index and fecundity of fish. The gonadosomatic index of Mystus cavasius from Chambal River was observed from September, 2011 to August 2012 and fecundity was studied from May to August, 2012. The gonadosomatic index increased with the progressively development of gonad of the fish. The gonadosomatic index of this fish was increased significantly in May (6.06 ±0.09) and it reached its peak point in month of June (7.97±0.14) and lowest value of the gonadosomatic index of this fish was observed in the month of January (3.04±0.08). Therefore, the gonadosomatic index is in perfect positive correlation with the gonad weight. The correlation coefficient between gonadosomatic index and gonad weight were r = 0.9936. The fecundity of female species was varied from 6442.68±1293.38 to 18,707.95±1355.59 depending on gonad weight, body weight and age of fish. The maximum fecundity was observed in month of July and lowest was observed in the month of August. It has also shown a strong correlation with the gonad weight. The coefficient of correlation between fecundity and body weight was r = 0.888, fecundity and gonad weight was r = 0.993 and fecundity and body length was r = 0.496. The water temperature and photoperiod has also shown a close correlation with the gonadosomatic index and fecundity of the fish. The correlation coefficient between gonadosomatic index and water temperature and photoperiod were r = r = 0.654 and r = 0.872 respectively and regression equation between gonadosomatic index and water temperature and photoperiod were Y=0.1822x-0.2174 and Y= 1.0194x+7.451 respectively. The correlation coefficient between fecundity and water temperature and photoperiod were r = 0.1311 and r = 0.9399 respectively and regression equation between fecundity and water temperature and photoperiod were Y= -1733.8X+72494 and Y= 18338X – 236447 respectively.

  31. Bera, S., Acharya S. K. and Ahmad, G.

    The social ecology of tea gardens in north-eastern part of India has been characterized with polymorphic interactions amongst and between three sets of sub- ecological cybernetics viz physical ecology(x), biological ecology (y) and social ecology (z). Each of these sub- ecosystems is being comprised of sets of constituent characters. The present study has envisaged polyhedral interactions amongst and between the constituent characters of these three sub-ecological characters. Accordingly, the above mentioned sub- ecologies (x,y,z) have been conceived to have sub-systems. The variables pertaining to all these sub-ecologies again have been articulated into the set of socio-economic characters(X) of respondents. All these .have been done to establish and estimate the pattern, direction and intensity of interaction to ultimately estimate the ecological behaviour of that tea garden setup. The respondents have been selected through both purposive and random sampling approaches to ultimately derive and elicit their behavioural traits in the changing meteorology, biological and physical setup. The results depict that a change in physical ecology, like, a change in rainfall pattern conspicuously enters the social echelon by impacting on income, market behavior and strategic interactions. The biological components like declining fish species and local weed sp. have entered the social echelon, by setting its livelihood generation to a new direction. So, the interdependent and mutually synchronized relationship amongst and between the physical, biological and social echelons have been the prime mover for ushering a social change viz. a viz. an ecological transformation as well. All these analytical outcomes can be networked to formulate a policy echelon to make clandestine intervention to protect the ecological health of that tea garden based mega-ecological setup from both decadence and destruction. The study would go a long way to make a series of interventions here in this area or can be replicated elsewhere having the same or near similar ecological setups and operational interactions.

  32. Chandrasekar, K., Srinivasan, M. and Balasubramanian, T.

    Distribution of marine reptiles (Family: Hydrophiidae) has revealed that presence of fourteen species included in five genera, in the Tamil Nadu (Southeast Coast of India) coast during 2011-2012. Sea snake species Hydrophis cyanocinctus and Enhydrina schistosa were frequently recorded and turtles olive ridley (Lepidochelys olivacea), green turtle (Chelonia mydas) and hawksbill (Eretmochelys imbricata) occurred during the study period. A great number of reptiles are slowly disappearing mainly due to the human interference with rapid growth of industrializations and land exploitation. Snakes and turtles are hunted for skin as leather, sometimes for meat. Turtle breeding beaches have also been threatened by sand quarrying, egg poaching and pollution. Sea turtle populations in this area have been reported to have declined due to their over-exploitation for trade and from accidental drowning in fishing gear such as gillnets and trawlers. This study therefore recommends that Government officials should periodically for TEDs (Turtle Excluder Devices) in their trawler nets.

  33. Gajbhiye, B. R., Tate, U. A. and Adsul, P. B.

    A field experiment was conducted to study the effect of nutrient management on growth and nutrient uptake in sunflower crop during rabi, 2010 at Oilseed Research Station, College of Agriculture, Latur. Twelve treatments were tried in randomized block design with three replications. Growth parameters such as plant height (186.98 cm), number of leaves per plant (35.83), leaf area (4658 cm2), stem girth (7.89 cm), head diameter (12.76 cm) and dry matter production (76.13 g) were increased significantly due to application of 150 % RDF (T6) at various critical growth stages of sunflower followed by 60 kg N + 30 kg P2O5 + 30 kg K2O ha-1. Uptake of N, P, K, S, B, Zn and Fe were also recorded maximum i.e. 47.36, 31.08, 98.86 30.45 kg ha-1, 0.67,5.81 and 3.47 mg kg-1, respectively with treatment T6 (150 % RDF) over rest of the treatments.

  34. Mélila, M., Bilabina, I., Awaga, K. L., Houndji, B. V. S., Tchaou, M., Badanaro, F., Abalokoka, E. -Y., Poutouli, W., Ameyran, K., Doh, A. N., Tozoou, P., Doh, A., Tchangbédji, G.,Glitho, A. I., Sanni, A., Gueant, J. L. and Amouzou, K

    The treatment of the phosphates in Togo constitutes an important source of pollution through the dismissal of the wastes after the treatment. The wastes are rejected in the sea and on soils. It entails the contamination of marine and farm products by cadmium, lead and fluorine contained in the wastes in the surrounding zones. Also, gases and dusts rejected in the atmosphere entail the contamination of water from the wells by these elements. A regular consumption of this contaminated food and a frequent use of the water from wells are sources of contamination of people by the heavy toxic metals and fluorine. The effects of these elements on the human health can then cause some concerns to the populations who live in the zone of treatment of the raw ore of the phosphates in Togo. The goal of this survey is to determine the frequency of consumption of food contaminated by the cadmium, lead and fluorine and the proportions of the individuals that suffer from the pathologies related to these xenobiotics in the surrounding zones of Société Nouvelle des Phosphates du Togo (SNPT) factory. The results show that food contaminated by the xenobiotics is frequently consumed in the households and the contaminated water from wells constitutes the first source of water supply for the daily needs of the households. This could be the reason why the prevalence of some illnesses is noticed in this zone. The decrease in number of the affected individuals as one move away from the factory and the sites of dismissal of the wastes indicates the function of this industrial activity in the appearance of these illnesses among the people. The method of management and treatment of the phosphates wastes by the SNPT in Togo presents harmful impacts on the health of the surrounding populations. It is therefore necessary to improve the management of these wastes in order to protect the people against the consequences of the pollutants in this zone.

  35. Dr. Himanshu Gupta

    Organizational failure can be defined as a failure against some pre-set criteria of performance, or a failure to accomplish an objective that is expected to be achieved, either by a person or the system. For example, a healthcare organization (hospital) can be said as failing if does not meet the criteria of treating a pre-set number of patients in an outpatient department in a day, or an industry if it is not cost-effective. Given the resources available, an organization may be highly proficient in its working but for example, if it is not able to

  36. Kavita Vasudevan, P., Umamaheswari, K. and Vedapriya, D. R.

    Research question: what is the magnitude of domestic violence in a rural community in Pondicherry Setting: Community based cross-sectional study done in the field practice area of JIRHC Participants: Currently-married women Methodology: All subjects were asked for history of any physical violence in the past one month. Details about the person(s) responsible, history of similar episodes in the past, reasons for violence and whether the perpetrator was in an inebriated state; were collected. Results: 21.3% reported having faced domestic violence in the past one month. Age distribution, occupation and number of children showed significant association with domestic violence. Husband in an inebriated state was the most common perpetrator; Inobedience and arguing were reported as the most common reason for violence.

  37. Abhishek Chandra, Munesh Kumar Gupta, Diksha Prakash, Ragini Tilak and O.P.S. Maurya

    Keratomycosis is defined as infiltration of the cornea by fungi. Majority of cases are infiltrated by filamentous fungi. Keratomycosis is an ophthalmic emergency as prompt and reliable diagnosis with efficient treatment can prevent vision loss. Improper diagnosis with injudicious use of medical therapy may result in worsening of the condition with poor clinical outcome. Traditional diagnostic methods like staining and culture are highly specific but with low sensitivity. Newer diagnostic methods like Confocal Microscopy, Fluorescent Microscopy and PCR have greater sensitivity as compared to traditional methods. With better diagnostic tools a good clinical outcome can be ensured, thus the reducing ocular morbidity especially in tropical countries like India. Prompt and reliable diagnosis is the main-key to reduce the ocular morbidity in infectious keratitis.

  38. Manal Hamed Mahmoud and Ahmed Morad Asaad

    Background: Surgical asepsis practices should maintained by the surgical team to prevent contamination of the open surgical wound. Aim: This study aimed to evaluate the surgical asepsis practices in the operating theatre of King Khalid Hospital, Najran. Methods: The researchers utilized a three data collection forms to collect the needed data about practices of surgical asepsis. Swabs obtained from surgical site and from OR surfaces for bacteriological examination. Results: only 55% of patients showered the day of surgery, there was no cleaning of light and scrubbing sinks at 60% and 75% of surgeries respectively. Sterile persons touch only sterile items at 55% of surgeries, 84.9% of them performed surgical scrubbing correctly. There was a contamination of OR floor and conditioning system in 55% of surgeries, there was a surgical site infection(SSI) after suturing among 40% of patients and there was a correlation between contamination of scrubbing taps and SSI post- preparation (P < 0.05). Conclusion: There was an improper surgical asepsis practices performed by OR surgical team, we recommend the importance of continuing education among OR staff to keep them updated with the new trends and developments in surgical asepsis.

  39. Wong Hendra Wijaya, Abdul Mun’im, and Joshita Djajadisastra

    There are many causes of hair loss, among others is estrogen deficiency. External estrogen administration could change the hormonal cycle and increased cancer risk. One of the natural alternative estrogen therapy can be found in various plants containing natural product among which are compounds with weak estrogenic activity, termed phytoestrogen. Phytoestrogen compete with estrogen by filling or binding to the estrogen receptor and producing the estrogen effect. Phytoestrogen in fenugreek seeds (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) is believed to increase hair growing process; however, up to now there is no scientific study to prove it. Therefore, the objection of this study is to prove the effect of hair tonic containing fenugreek seeds extract in different concentration on hair growing activity of New Zealand strain rabbit; and to get the optimal concentration of fenugreek extract as well as the safety data. Hair growing activity is determined by hair length, hair diameter and hair weight measurement, while toxicity test is determined by Draize skin test and Draize eye test. The result of the activity test using 10% fenugreek extract seed hair tonic showed significant difference (p < 0,05) compare to placebo and resemble the result using minoxidil 2% hair tonic. Sensitivity test results showed mild irritation effect.

  40. Safaa I. Tayel, Abeer A. Alrefai, Waleed A. Ibrahim and Hany Elbarbary

    Emerging evidence that the cannabinoid type 1 receptor (CB1) and its endogenous ligands, endocannabinoids, involved in regulation of feeding behavior and body weight. Over-activation of ECS is associated with metabolic diseases as dyslipidemia and insulin resistance involved in CAD and diabetes. The aim was to determine whether G1359A polymorphism of CNR1 associated with CAD with and without T2DM, and with T2DM patients free of CAD and elucidate the association of CNR1 polymorphism with CAD risk factors. The study was carried on 50 patients with CAD (25 patients with and 25 patients without T2DM), 25 patients with T2DM free of CAD and a group of 20 healthy subjects as a control group. Coronary artery angiography for patient group, serum lipid profile (TG, TC, LDL and HDL) and assessment of G1359A polymorphism of CNR1 by RFLP method were done. CAD patients with and without T2DM had significantly higher age, fasting blood glucose, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, male gender, smoking, and body mass index (BMI) compared with control. GG genotype and G allele of G1359A polymorphism were significantly associated with CAD patients with T2DM (p<0.05). G allele increased risk of occurrence of CAD with diabetes by 5.22 (OR) 95% CI (1.32-20.54). GG genotype was significantly associated with higher TC (p<0.01), LDLc (p<0.001) and BMI (p=0.001). Association of G1359A polymorphism with BMI and disordered lipid may explain in part its association with CAD patients with T2DM and may encourage use of cannabinoid receptor antagonist in treatment of these disorders.

  41. Tariq Ahmad Lone, Sarath Chandran, R. and Reyaz Ahmad Lone

    An extracellular chitinase producing bacterium Bacillus subtilis TS22 was isolated from shrimp shell waste. It was identified by as gram positive rod shaped bacteria, Indole, Citrate, Oxidase, Catalase, Nitrate positive and Methyl Red, Vogeus Proskauer negative. The carbohydrate fermentation occurs by producing acid but not gas in Glucose, Maltose and Sucrose. The genomic size of Bacillus subtilis TS22 was 870bp confirmed with the help of 16s rRNA primer viz forward primer F5- AGAGTTTGATCMTGGCTCAG-3| and reverse primer 5|AAGGAGGTGWTCCARCC-3|.The obtained gene sequence were submitted and deposited to NCBI under accession number JQ 727436. When plotted for phylogenetic tree showed 98% similarities with Bacillus species. The Bacillus subtilis TS22 produced the extracellular chitinase having 127U/ml of chitinolytic activity. The molecular weight of chitinase was 50KDa in 12% sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The Bacillus subtilis TS22 showed antifungal activity against three fungal pathogens such as Phytophthora parasitica, Alternaria solani and Pythium aphanidermatum.

  42. Amrut G. Gaddamwar

    The second largest producer of cotton in the world after china is India, accounting for about 18% of the world’s cotton production. In the world 12.2 million hectares area is under cotton cultivation. Per hectare yield is low. From 2002-2012 the range of yield of cotton kilogram per hectare was 350-500. The yield of cotton in India is low due to traditional methods used in the cultivation of cotton. Textile sector is the second largest provider of employment after agriculture (Maheshkumar, 2013). Most of micronutrients are present in the water when we supply the water after sowing the seeds, water soluble micronutrient increase the cell wall strength and preventing it from wilting (Zhang F.S., et al. 1991); pH of water is 7.0-7.5 which maintained the pH of soil and increases the yield of cotton crop from 740 kg/acre to 1260 kg/acre; the hardness of river water is 600-624 ppm due to the presence of chlorides, sulphate, carbonates, nitrates and phosphates of calcium, magnesium and other metal ions which play vital role in the yield of cotton crop. Zinc is an essential component of various enzyme systems for energy production, protein synthesis and growth regulation. A primary function of boron is related to cell wall formation, Sugar transport in plants, flower retention, pollen formation and germination. Seed as well as grain production are reduced with low boron supply. Iron is involved in the production of chlorophyll and iron chlorosis is easily recognized on iron sensitive crops growing on calcareous soils. Iron is also a component of many enzymes associated with energy transfer, nitrogen reduction, fixation and lignin formation. Iron is associated with sulfur in plants to form compounds that catalyze other reactions.

  43. Biplab Kumar Das, Binku Dutta, Sulata Kar, Prasanna Boruah and Devashish Kar

    The unique topography of North-East India and watershed pattern is an attractive field for Icthyological studies. This region has already recognized as a global spot of freshwater fish diversity. A great numbers of species have been reported from most of the North-Eastern region states. Subansiri River is the one of the major river of both Assam and Arunachal Pradesh. The present study on Icthyofaunal diversity of Subansiri River in Assam and Arunachal Pradesh was carried out from January 2011 to December 2011. Fishes are very important from the biodiversity point of view. The fishes are collected from the different parts of the river and the collected fishes were identified. A total 87 different fishes were collected under 55 genera; they are classified into 9 orders and 22 families. Cypriniformes dominates the whole river and found in higher numbers and Beloniformes and Tetradontiformes are found in less numbers. The River Subansiri is good potential of fish fauna.

  44. Rajalakshmi, S. and Velvizhi, S.

    Mathematical simulation models for transmission and control of lymphatic filariasis are useful tools for studying the prospects of lymphatic filariasis elimination. Two simulation models are currently being used. The first, EPIFIL, is a population-based, deterministic model that simulates average trends in infection intensity over time. The second, LYMFASIM, is an individual-based, stochastic model that simulates acquisition and loss of infection for each individual in the simulated population, taking account of individual characteristics. Nevertheless, published estimates of the duration of mass treatment required for elimination differed, due to the use of different indicators for elimination (EPIFIL: microfilaraemia prevalence

  45. Rajalakshmi Sundar, Velvizhi Sundar and Krishnamoorthy, G.

    Objective: To identify and preliminary screening on the biodiversity of marine seaweeds and sea fans extract against Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus in Puducherry. Methods: Monthly wild seaweeds were collected from coastal region of Puducherry. The identified seaweeds and sea fans were authenticated from the regional centre of CMFRI, Chennai. All the collected samples were washed thrice with tap water and twice with distilled water to remove the adhering salts and other associated animals. Results: 44 species of seaweeds and three species of sea fans were identified, belonging to three families such as, Phaeophyta (16 species), Rhodophyta (14 species), Chlorophyta (14 species) and three sea fans were collected from the Puducherry coast. Conclusion: From the results it can be concluded the coastal region of Puducherry highlights the ambient habitat for dominant occurrence of Phaeophyta, Rhodophyta and Chlorophyta species of sea fans having bioactive potentials against larvicidal, ovicidal activities for mosquitoe vectors.

  46. Gayathri, V.

    The abundance of cyanobacteria in paddy fields and the consequent sustenance of the nitrogen status of rice fields is an important aspect of economic relevance. Aerenchyma is a constitutive feature in rice, and has thus served as one of the two model plants (the other being corn) for studies on the formation of irregular lysigenic aerenchyma among the monocot, formed as a result of the breaking down of cortical cells. An increase in the proportion of aerenchyma is dependent on the rice cultivar, and the developmental stage of the plant. In the present study, the significant result is with reference to the increased diameter of vessels in all organs of plants associated with cyanobacteria.

  47. Mallick, G. K., Kundu, C., Ghosh, S. and Sinha, A. K.

    The aim of the present investigation was to identify promising rice genotypes from the 115 international rice varieties. The experiments were conducted in Rice Research Station, Bankura, West Bengal using an augmented block design. A field experiment was conducted during Kharif of 2006 and 2007 to assess the yield performance of 115 genetically diverse rice genotypes along with 6 international checks and one local check (Provat), in red and lateritic areas of West Bengal, India. Eight entries namely, WAB 880 SG 27 ( 50% flowering 98 days, yield 7500 kg./ha), 450-11-1-P28-1-HB (50% flowering 90 days, yield 6666 kg./ha.), WAB 450-11-1-1-P31-HB (50% flowering 95 days, yield 6111 kg./ha.), WAB 878-6-12-1-1-P1-HB (50% flowering 95 days, yield 5444 kg./ha.), D3 (50% flowering 108 days, yield 5555 kg./ha.), IR 78917-B-6-B-B-B (50% flowering 98 days, yield 5277 kg./ha.), WAB-878-6-37-8-2-P1-HB (50% flowering 98 days, yield 5000 kg./ha.) and B6144E-MR-6 (50% flowering 79 days, yield 4722 kg./ha.) were selected on the basis of yield performance.

  48. Abagale F. K., Kyei-Baffour, N., Ofori, E., and Mensah, E.

    Thirteen (13) different types of helminths were identified for both the wet and dry seasons with the dry season recording eight (8) different helminths and the wet season recording nine (9) different helminths. The typical fertile Ascaris lumbricoides and Strongyloides stercoralis as well as Schistosoma mansoni were observed to be the most predominant types of helminths in both seasons and this may be due to their environmental tolerance and resistance. Ascaris lumbricoides was the most predominant species recorded with arithmetic mean population of 12 and 17 for wet and dry season respectively. Exceeded the recommended level of <1 egg/liter for unrestricted irrigation (WHO, 1989). Variable concentrations of helminth eggs were recorded for the dry season and wet season for the period of study. During the current study, all the recorded helminths were noted to have a population density ranging from 2 to 17 eggs with a coefficient of variation being between 0 and 85%. Commonly observed dominant species of Ascaris lumbricoides and Strongyloides stercoralis for both seasons, a higher dominance index of 0.58 for the wet season was recorded compared to 0.52 for the dry season. Also, environmental factors such as temperature, sunshine amount and duration, rainfall, etc have been noted to impact greatly on the occurrence and concentration of helminth eggs in wastewater of a particular locality. These were noted to have contributed largely to a high number of helminth eggs in the wet season as compared to the dry season.

  49. Abagale, F. K., Amoah, A. K., Abagale, S. A. and Osei, R. A.

    In the Northern parts of Ghana, highly turbid rainwater runoff and intermittent streams are collected in earthen dams. These dams serve as main source of drinking and domestic water for many communities despite their physical and microbial contamination. This study was conducted at Builpela in the Tamale Metropolis of Ghana to analyse the levels of chemical properties in the dam water used by the people in the area. Eight water samples were collected in May 2012 for the analysis. Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS,) Flame photometer, Turbidimeter amongst others were used for laboratory analyses. The mean concentration of the parameters analysed were; 624.1 µS/cm for Electrical Conductivity (EC), 8.72 for pH, 57.3 mg/l for Chloride (Cl-) 50.1 mg/l for Potassium (K+), 260.2 for Bicarbonate (CHO3-),16 mg/l for Magnesium (Mg+), and 75 mg/l for Sulphide (SO4-). Apart from the mean Arsenic (As) concentration level of 0.0152 mg/l, all the heavy metals (Lead, Cadmium, Mercury) analysed were found to be absent in the dam water. Comparatively, most of the parameters were found to be within the WHO and Ghana EPA limits. pH, CHO3, K+ and As were however high in concentration. ANOVA on the concentration of these chemicals at the various banks of the dam realised significant difference for EC, pH and CHO3- with F probability (Fpr <0.05) of 0.005, 0.008 and 0.012 respectively. Even though pollution of the water was observed, concentrations were not alarming. The protection of the catchment and upstream activities which result in pollution of the reservoir should be controlled.

  50. Nabi Shah G. H., Mathivanan, V., Mir, G. M. and Selvisabhanaykam

    Propolis is a resinous substance collected by bees from plants around the have. It is masticated by the bees, salivary enzymes and beeswax added, then applied to the combs and walls of the hive, thereby insulating and reinforcing the hives Propolis impurities were more, when less propolis was collected by the bees during spring (60.53 and 61.50%) and Summer (41.06 and 42.26%) as compared to those of Autumn season (34.00 and 35.00 %) from respective places Srinagar and Coimbatore. Impurities in propolis sample from low bee population (5100-7300 bees/colony) were more (66.60 and68.03%) as compared to the samples from stronger colonies (38.66 and39.63%) having bee population stronger of 12400 to 13700 bees form Srinagar and Coimbatore colonies respectively. May be due to less amount of propolis collected by weak colonies to meet propolis demand they add beeswax to it.

  51. Rufus Auxilia, L., Rachel Regi Daniel and Shenbagarathai, R.

    Macrtotyloma uniflorum (Horse gram) is one of the lesser known beans also called as “Poor man’s pulse”. In this study, the phytochemicals present in the horse gram were analysed with various solvent seed extracts. The solvent ranges from no polarity (hexane) to high polarity (water) were used for extraction. The qualitative and quantitative assessment of phytochemicals of the horsegram plant seed shows the medicinal value of the plant.

  52. Chaya, H. C., Mahesha, G. and Channaveerappa, H.

    Indian Cliff Swallows and Barn Swallows build gourd shaped and bracket shaped mud nests respectively, using mud of proper consistency. The nature of the soil and its plasticity in both these cases are almost similar. The chemical and mineral contents of these two types of nests analyzed show a slight variation. In addition total quantity of carbohydrates and protein contents in both these cases are compared in this study.

  53. Sudevi Basu, Anjani Kumari, Abhigyan, Rohith Kumar and Saikat Das

    Colour is the common notable pollutant in wastewater and is caused by variety of dyes, which are stable and less biodegradable. The elimination of the azo dye, methyl red, from aqueous solution by low cost naturally available adsorbents like neem leaves and papaya seeds were studied in a batch process. The experiments were conducted with both adsorbents to study the effect of different parameters like initial dye concentration, adsorbent dose, time and pH on dye removal efficiencies. Further the suitability of the adsorbents was tested by fitting the adsorption data with Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption isotherms. At a dye concentration of 500 mg/L with adsorbent concentration of 0.5 g, dye removal efficiency with neem leaves was 62.5% and papaya seeds was 87.5 %. The adsorption isotherm data for methyl red was best fitted to Freundlich isotherm using neem leaves adsorbent with R2 = 0.865 and Langmiur isotherm using papaya seed adsorbent with monolayer adsorption capacity of 17.241 mg/g. The dimensionless constant separation factor RL indicates that adsorption is more favourable with papaya seeds adsorbent than neem leaves adsorbent.

  54. Jassim M. Salman, Abbas T. Kalifa and Fikrat M. Hassan

    The present investigation involves the study of qualitative, quantitative study of epipelic algae and some environmental parameters of Al-Hilla River for the period from April 2009-March 2010. Six sites have been chosen along the studied river. The study included measuring some physical and chemical properties of water and sediments, and quality and quantity of epipelic algae as well as the measuring of chlorophyll a and phaeophytin pigments monthly. Results shown the following ranges: (7-40.5 ºC), (10-36.5 ºC), (11-35.5 ºC) for air, water and sediment temperature respectively. Values of pH showed a narrow range, TDS ranged (219-1280 mg/L), TSS ranged (12-75 mg/L), (600-895 μs/cm) and (0.384-0.572‰) for EC , S‰. While (0.15-0.45) m/Sec, (4.8-11) mg/l, (0.6-4.6) mg/l for water flow, DO and BOD5. Light alkalinity, very hardness values were recorded, while the concentrations of calcium were higher than magnesium. The concentration of nutrients ranged (N.D-9), (N.D.-82), (N .D-39-7) mg/l for nitrite, nitrate, and phosphate respectively. Silicates values varied between (0.35-39.5) μg/l. The sediment texture tended to be silty-clay and high values of TOC in sediments were recorded. Diatoms were the most dominant species among the identified algae followed by chlorophyceae, cyanophyceae and Euglenophyceae. A total of 58 genus with (116) species were recorded in site1, (55) genus, (121) species in site2, and (54) genus with (120) species in site3, (56) genus with (121) species in site4, and (55) genus, (112) species in the fifth place and (56) genus with (112) species in site 6. The most common taxa were Cyclotella, Scendesmus, Oscillatoria, Melosira, Synedra, Cocconeis and Nitzschia. High total number of epipelic algae observed in March 2010 in site 3, while the lowest number was recorded in August 2009 at site 4. Chlorophyll1 and Phaeophytin ranged (0.2-16.6) μg dm-2 and (N.D-9.05) μg dm-2 respectively. Closely values of Shannon index were recorded in all sites and Chandler scores was used in this study.

  55. Mohammed Ratoubi Alanazi

    This article highlights what makes killing wrong according to Marquis. Killing a human being is morally and legally prohibited, except in a few rare cases under which it is permitted and justified. Marquis claimed that it is unjustifiable to deprive a human being the future experiences he was bound to enjoy. Marquis’ claim that abortion is the same as killing a human being who is already born, and the difference lies only in the premise of the arguments. In conclusion, the arguments that justify or prohibit abortion are mainly based on biological and theological theories. The theory of personhood features prominently in these arguments, but Marquis omits them in his discussion on why killing is immoral. Life is precious to everyone including those unborn babies considered not to have an opinion; thus, it is necessary to center on appropriate ideals.

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Dr. Ali Seidi
Iran
Dr. Achmad Choerudin
Indonesia
Dr Ashok Kumar Verma
India
Thi Mong Diep NGUYEN
France
Dr. Muhammad Akram
Pakistan
Dr. Imran Azad
Oman
Dr. Meenakshi Malik
India
Aseel Hadi Hamzah
Iraq
Anam Bhatti
Malaysia
Md. Amir Hossain
Bangladesh
Ahmet İPEKÇİ
Turkey
Mirzadi Gohari
Iran