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May 2014

  1. Utoh-Nedosa, Uchechukwu, A., Anowi Chinedu, F., Nedosa, Kenechi, S. and Uzondu Akueyinwa, L. E.

    Diabetes Mellitus is characterized by increased frequency of urination (polyuria) and increased appetite (polyphagia) due to loss of glucose. As a result of a parallel exponential increase in the incidence of diabetes and fatality due to diabetes vis-à-vis the disappearance of the pumpkin-eating culture of the native Igbo populations of Eastern Nigeria since the late 1960s, this study investigated the effect of admixed ground pumpkin flesh on the texture, particle size and carbohydrate content of a protein food, Voandzeia subterranean seed flour paste meal, as a possible adjunt diet in diabetes management; The paste formed from a mixture of Voandzeia subterranean seed flour; palm oil; cold, warm or hot water and sodium chloride were deep-fried in scoops, alone or were mixed with cooked or ground raw pumpkin and deep-fried to produce a composite meal. Blended-in sliced onions or sliced leafy vegetables of Ocimum gratissimum, Ocimum basilicum, lufa cylindrica or ground Zingiber officinale were included as additional enrichments of the meal but were not essential factors in the study. A comparism of the fried cakes of the Voandzeia subterranean seed flour paste alone with the fried cakes of the Voandzeia subterranean seed flour mixed with ground flesh of pumpkin showed that the flesh of cooked or ground raw pumpkin softened the texture of the Voandzeia subterranean seed flour cake; eliminated particulation of the fried Voandzeia subterranean seed flour paste cake; made the consistency of the cake homogenous; reduced the carbohydrate nature of the cake; increased the protein content of the cake and reduced its shelf life. The efficacy of pumpkin (Cucurbitaceae) species in the remission of diabetes is exemplified by Momordica charantia (which is itself a Cucurbita specie),fruit, juice or powder which several studies reported that they produced decreases in blood glucose levels and/or improvements in the glucose-tolerance tests of diabetic patients who received various doses of them. And, since the flesh of Cucurbita spicies have been found to contain 0.5-1.5% protein; calcium, phosphorus; Iron; traces of vitamin B and C and vitamin A in yellow-fleshed forms, the results of this study enable us to conclude that the flesh (and leaves) of pumpkin species should be incorporated with or eaten alongside largely protein meals for the efficacious remission of diabetes.

  2. Piroux Mélanie, Thorin Chantal, Farrera Isabelle, L’hostis Monique, Vigues Bernard and Lambert Olivier

    Botanical inventories were performed in a 1.5 km-radius area around an apiary in a cultivated landscape in North-Western France. Palynological analyses were performed on pollen pellets collected from five colonies of the apiary during one year. Species and phenology of field-inventoried plants were analyzed and compared against the taxa identified in the pollen pellets. Foraging area was characterized by a large cultivated landscape with little -variability in cultivated species and broadly-diverse wild species in grasslands, ditches, roadsides, woods, copses and hedgerows. Palynological analyses found numerous wild-plant pollens throughout the year, with woody perennials predominant at the start of the beekeeping season. The pollens from cultivated species appeared from April and were abundant in spots but little diversified. Taken together, the data indicates that maintaining a high richness and diversity of flowering species over the beekeeping season ― which means preserving perennial and natural habitats ― may be crucial to provide honeybee colonies with sufficient pollen resources in rural landscapes.

  3. Muddasir Jan, Nelofar Jan and Imtiyaz Ahmad Khan

    Fecundity and Gonadosomatic Index (GSI) of Tor putitora (Hamilton) collected from Anji Mahseer Hatchery, Reasi was calculated monthly for a period of six months from (March 2011 to August 2011). The observations related to fecundity and GSI are based on 30 female specimens of Tor putitora ranging from 260mm to 550mm in total fish length and weight ranging between 280 gm to 800 gm. The mean value of fecundity was estimated as 5566 eggs for a fish with a mean total body length of 395mm and mean body weight of 455gm. The relationship of fecundity with other parameters such as Total length (TL), Total weight (TW) and Ovary weight (OW) were found to be linear, whereas, the values of GSI were found to increase from March onwards and reaching its peak values during the months of June, July and August. The highest value for GSI was calculated as 10.812 in the month of August indicating the spawning period of Tor putitora.

  4. Ismail A. Abdul-Hassan, Ghazwan A. M. Al-Ramahy and Ashwak B. Jassim

    Eighty two clinical samples were collected from suspected gonorrhoeae-infected patients (urethra swab and blood sample were taken from each patient). During a period from the beginning of December 2012 to the end of April 2013. In Al- Yarmouk teaching hospital ( Baghdad, Iraq) and private laboratories, all of the patients were married and have children compared with 20 samples were taken from apparently healthy control. All samples were bacteriologically examined by traditional methods for detection of N. gonorrhea, 82 isolates were identify by microscopic examination,76 isolates on Modified Thayer martin media and 61 isolates by PCR technique targeting Orf1 gene. The results revealed that all samples which give positive results with Orf1 gene yielded negative results for both SY 254 (85pb), BPY-2(90pb) genes. In the present study show no correlation between Y chromosome (AZF locus) microdeletions and N. gonorrhea infection.

  5. Sanoop Surendran, Pushparajan G. and Harinarayanan, M. K.

    Bhindi [Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench], is the most important vegetable crop grown in tropical conditions. It is used to cure goiter, leucorrhoea, diabetes, constipation, catarrhal jaundice etc. With the objective of producing disease resistant variety gamma irradiation was done in bhindi. The effect of gamma radiation on seed germination, survival of seedlings and root growth were recorded in the present study.

  6. Krishnamoorthy Rajeshwaran, Pandiyan Arunagiri, Thiyagarajan Rajeshwari and Elumalai Balamurugan

    The present study was designed to explore the effects of lithium and ethanol in the markers of lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzymes and reduced glutathione activities on oxidative stress induced by methylphenidate (MPD) and corticosterone (CORT) in the brain tissues. The studies were conducted on the brain of adult male mice for 21 days. The concentrations of MPD 2.0 mg/kg BW and CORT 20.0mg/Kg BW were administered via intraperitoneally. However, LiCl 50.0 mg/kg BW and EtOH 2.0 g/kg BW was dissolved in water and administered via oral gavage. We observed thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) levels, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (Gpx) enzymes and reduced glutathione (GSH) activities by the spectrophotometer. Our results demonstrated that MPD and CORT treatment triggers oxidative stress in brain as revealed by an increased level of lipid peroxidation, and decreased levels of glutathione peroxidase and reduced glutathione respectively. We also noticed that the SOD and CAT activities were significantly higher in the CORT groups. Histopathological evaluation demonstrated that lithium did not show visible improvement in the MPD and CORT treatment groups. In addition, long-term ethanol treatment increased reactive oxygen species level in the brain. From these results it is possible to conclude that concomitant administration of LiCl with EtOH may enhance the toxicity in the brain tissues. Studies with larger samples are warranted to further clarify this issue.

  7. Oday, A. Mahdy and Ismail A. Abdul-Hassan

    The present study was conducted to estimate the copy number of mitochondrial COXI gene in the sperm cells from Iraqi asthenozoospermic patients by using q PCR. Cases were established of Asthenozoospermia from Kamal AL.Samraee Hospital for Infertility and In Vitro Fertilization in Baghdad-Iraq. The relative quantification of mtDNA copy number was performed for 28 sperm extracts (28 fractions 80 % layers and 28 fractions 40% layers) obtained from 28ejaculates, 16 samples were from asthenozoospermic patients and 12 samples were from control subjects. The content of mtDNA per haploid mitochondrial genome in sperm cell was significantly different (p≤ 0.05) between non- progressive motile sperm cells and mtDNA content corresponded to the progressive sperm (119.9 ± 26.89 and 58.99 ± 22.68, respectively). Increasing of relative mtDNA copy number of defective sperm fraction and normospermic fractions were 74.2-271.3 and 1.9-92.8/copy per cell, respectively. No significant difference between progressive motile sperms of infertile subjects and progressive motile sperms of control subjects that were isolated from 80% percoll layer as well as to non progressive motile sperms of both groups that were separated from 40% Percoll fraction. There is a highly significant difference (p≤0.05) between infertile subject and control subject on average 128.4 ± 14.76 and 60.90 ± 6.83 copy per cell.

  8. Wia'am Ahmed Al Amili, Abdul Hussein Moyet AlFaisal, Norrya Abdul Hussein and Khalid Tobal

    NOTCH families are transmembrane proteins that have dual functions as both cell surface receptors and nuclear transcriptional regulators. If NOTCH1 pathway goes awry, it contributes to cellular transformation and tumorigenesis. Here we have investigated mutations in the NOTCH1 gene, in 50 Iraqi patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. We determined the occurrence of mutations in NOTCH1 using HRM-PCR and sequencing of polymerase chain reaction products as a sensitive assay for the detection of genetic mutations. This study assessed the feasibility of using HRM-PCR to screen for NOTCH1 mutations in blood samples obtained by from ALL patients in routine clinical practice. Blood samples obtained from ALL patients were evaluated according to our standard clinical protocols. DNA extracted from these samples was subjected to HRM-PCR to amplify exons 26, 27 and 34 of NOTCH1 followed by sequencing. Mutations were identified in 28% (14/50) of NOTCH1 including two novel mutations. This suggests that NOTCH1 is good prognostic for ALL Iraqi patients. Further studies with a wide range of sampling to confirm these findings are required.

  9. Arathy, M. S., Prasannakumari A. A., Ganga Devi, T. and Jayaraman, P. R.

    Trace metals like Copper, Zinc, Cadmium, Chromium and lead in the macroflora associated with a deserted pond were analysed seasonally and annually. The results indicated that the macrophytes such as Jussieua repens L. and Limnocharis flava L. accumulated the trace metals in a seasonal pattern with Cu >Zn > Cd > Cr > Pb. The concentration factors revealed a high accumulation efficiency of these plants which could be exploited in waste water treatment

  10. Bhaure, M., Gyanendra Tiwari, Jhankare, A., Tiwari, R. and Singh, O. P.

    Research experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of growth regulators on phenology, growth and yield of Ashwagandha / Winter Cherry [Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal.) during late rainy seasons 2008-09 and 2009-10 at Research Farm, College of Horticulture, Mandsaur (M.P.) India. The results revealed that spray of IBA 100 mg.l-1 effected maximum delay in floral initiation, 50 per cent flowering, 50 per cent fruiting; first fruit maturity and physiological maturity as compared to other growth regulators viz. MH, BA, Ethrel and water spray (control). There was no generalized specific trend found in LAI with respect to different growth regulators during crop growth stages SLA was maximum with IBA 150 mg.l-1, while SLW was maximum with BA 30 mg.l-1. MH 100 mg.l-1 and BA 30 mg.l-1 were found equally effective and the best treatments in increasing RGR and CGR during flowering (60-90DAS), while IBA 50mg.l-1 was the best responding spray for RGR and CGR enhancement during fruiting to physiological maturity at (90-150 DAS). Growth regulators did not produce any definite trend in LWR and LAR but MH 100 mg.l-1 is the best in increasing LWR and LAR in general. Spray of BA 10 mg.l-1and IBA 100 mg.l-1increased leaf persistence (LAD) in the crop, while that of BA 40 mg.l-1 and MH 100 mg.l-1 individually got maximum BMD. IBA 50 mg.l-1 produced maximum plant height (41.27 cm) while MH 250 mg.l-1 was highly effective in suppressing plant height (31.40 cm) as compared to other treatments. Sprays of IBA 100/150 mg.l-1 and Ethrel 100/150 mg.l-1 individually were very effective in increasing root length while BA spray suppressed the root length. IBA 100mg.l-1 and BA 40 mg. l-1 were found equally effective in producing the maximum root yield (11.45 q/ha) which was 37.45% higher than control.

  11. Ms. Ghodake Santoshi, R., Dr. Suryakar Adinath, N., Mrs. Pingle Sangita and Dr. Padalkar Ramchandra, K.

    Context- The mechanisms of oxidative stress in neuropsychiatric disorders patients are not fully understood. Increased levels of Homocysteine (Hcy) are associated with risk of some neuropsychiatric disorders. Hcy may cause this risk by depleting the antioxidant system or generation of ROS. Objectives – The present study planned to investigate the association of elevated level of with Hcy oxidative stress, by measuring biochemical markers namely Malondialdehyde (MDA), an index of lipid peroxidation in plasma, the level of Vitamin E, Reduced Glutathione (GSH) and plasma Total Antioxidant Capacity (TAC) in schizophrenic and major depression patients. Results- Significantly increased plasma Hcy, MDA levels and significantly lower levels of plasma vitamin E, TAC and blood GSH in schizophrenia and depressed patients were observed. The obtained results indicates that the pro-oxidant disturbance occur in neuropsychiatric disorders. Conclusion- The data indicates a link between Hcy and neuropsychiatric disorders. Our results showed that in schizophrenic patients the amount of homocysteine in plasma was higher in comparison with the control group. We also observed a statistically increased level of biomarkers of oxidative stress such as MDA, vitamin E, GSH and TAC in patient groups. Considering the data presented in this study, we suggest that the elevated Hcy may acts as stimulant for the oxidative stress in neuropsychiatric patients. Finally our results support the further studies of the possible neuro-protective role of antioxidants as therapeutic strategies for neuropsychiatric disorders.

  12. John Ama Ibiam and Princely Onyemere Anosike

    Palm kernel oil (pko) was extracted from its kernel using Soxhlet extraction techniques with normal hexane as the solvent. The oil extracted was light brown in colour with no offensive odour. Proximate compositions of the palm kernel oil were determined and physicochemical analyses were also carried out on the oil extracted. The physicochemical analyses revealed moisture content of 0.89%; oil yield of 47.5%; specific gravity of 0.91; refractive index of 1.46; ash content of 5.30%; pH of 6.84; peroxide value of 10Meq/Kg; iodine value of 45.6mg/g; acid value of 3.53mg/g; free fatty acid of 1.775; saponification value of 187.93mgKOH/g; ester value of 184.4 mgKOH/g. The results of the investigation also showed that the oil was soluble in chloroform and ethanol, partially insoluble in both petroleum ether and carbon tetrachloride; and was insoluble in water.

  13. Ranjana Kumar and Mishra, P. K.

    India is an agriculture based country and since independence, our agricultural productivity has increased significantly, but our success is largely confined to food grains and now it is urgent to increase production of pulses and other protein rich Legumes. Pisum sativum (Pea) is an important crop and is cultivated in almost all parts of India. Different types of pollutants, however considerably reduce agricultural productivity. Nodule formation is an important stage of life cycle of Pea and it has got significant impact on its productivity. In present study effect of fluoride on nodulation of Pisum sativum was investigated. It was observed that fluoride significantly reduces nodule formation, as well as dry weight of nodules. This ultimately reduces productivity of this crop.

  14. Khalid Mohammed Adam, Waddah Eisa Balla Ibrahim and Enshirah Awad Hassan Saeed

    Background: Magnesium plays an important role in carbohydrate metabolism. Hypomagnesaemia associated with diabetes mellitus may play a role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Aim: The aim of this study is to explore the influence of serum magnesium (Mg) level on concentration of serum lipids in Sudanese diabetes mellitus (DM) patients Materials and methods: A case control study included 179 diabetic patients and 200 diabetes-free apparently healthy controls, recruited from Jabir Abu Eliz centre for diabetic patients, Khartoum –Sudan, between May and September 2013. Serum magnesium (Mg) and serum lipids, consisting of triacylglycerol (Tg), cholesterol (Chol) and high density lipoprotein (HDL) were determined in both cases and controls. Results: Both serum Mg and HDL-C showed low levels in diabetic patients, while LDL-C was higher in the control group as compared to the diabetics. A strong positive correlation was noticed between serum Mg and HDL-C in diabetic patients, r=0.716 and P ˂0.05 Conclusion: Level of serum Mg has strong influence on serum lipids in diabetes mellitus patients, and hypomagnesaemia associated with diabetes can be a risk factor for CHD in diabetics.

  15. Agravat Amit, H., Gharia Amit, A., Dhruva Gauravi, A. and Mahesh Kakadia

    Background: In spite of extensive promising research, a true substitute for blood and blood components may not be available for many years (1).Therefore; blood donation by humans will continue to be the major source for blood and blood components the attitude, beliefs, and level of knowledge associated with blood donation may affect the disposition of potential donors to blood donation. Health workers are expected to have a good knowledge of blood usage, to be aware of the increasing demand and scarcity of the products, and are thus expected to donate as well as encourage voluntary blood donation among the public Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional descriptive study carried in February 2014 at PDU Medical College Rajkot. Pretested questionnaires were used to assess their knowledge, attitude, and practice of voluntary blood donation. A total of 150 students were recruited from the 2 year, Prefinal and final year MBBS by quota sampling to participate in the study Result Knowledge of Blood Transfusion: A total of 128 (85.3%) respondents expressed good knowledge of the common blood group types, and 144 (96%) knew their own blood groups. Attitude towards Blood Donation: A 145(96.6%) respondents said blood donation was good. Voluntary donation was accepted as the best source of blood donors by 120 (80 %), replacement donors by 20 (13.3%), remunerated by 10 (6.6%). Fifty (33.3%) said blood donation may have adverse consequences. Practice of Blood Donation: Thirty-six (24 %) have donated in the past. Only 5 (3.3%) were regular blood donors. Only 20 (13.3 %) are voluntary, and 16 (10.6%) donated to a friend or relative in need of blood Conclusion: In conclusion medical students are reasonably informed and have positive perception towards blood donation; however, only few of them have donated and are positively disposed to donate blood. There is a need for active education program to encourage all and if this happens adequate and safe blood from this group will be guaranteed.

  16. Ephraim-Emmanuel, Benson Chukwunweike, Ideede Victor, Dotimi, Doris Atibinye, Vincent Prescilia, Baraka Bodeiwari and Udeaja Chidi

    Background: This research was aimed at determining the relationship between the oral hygiene practices and the dental caries status of students of the Bayelsa State College of Health Technology, Otuogidi, Ogbia – Town. Method: A cross-sectional survey assessing their dental caries status as well as their oral hygiene practices was carried out. Results: Majority of the students presented with a lowdental caries status, with mean (DMFT) Index of 0.26 + 0.97 S.D. The use of toothbrush and toothpaste were the most commonly used oral hygiene aids. Majority of the students, n=167 (52.8%) clean their teeth once daily. Majority of the students, n=77.2%, also had never visited the dental clinic. Our study further revealed that dental caries status is dependent on the number of timesin a day that the mouth is cleaned. Conclusion: The dental caries status of the students of the Bayelsa State College of Health Technology is low and is dependent on thenumber of times in a day that their mouths are cleaned. Recommendations of improved oral health services, oral health education and awareness not just among these students but to all Nigerians and the world at large were made.

  17. Dr. Hadaf H.Mohammed, Dr. Duraid A. Abbas and Dr. Farhan A. Rabie

    Thirty female albino rats and their pups daily dosed with mercuric acetate during pregnancy and lactation period, rats equally divided into three groups given 0ral doses for T1 (1mg\kgb.w), T2 group given (5mg/kg b.w). Of mercuric acetate and control group which given distilled water during a period of experiment. The neurobehavioral results were obtained in 10 randomly selected suckling pups at the end of lactation period showed significant decrease in locomotor activity and exploration, stimulation in autonomic nervous system activity (number of bolus faces), defect in vestibular function, disturbance in proper reflex, defect in degree of cognitive function and neuromuscular coordination, Microscopic examination results showed that the severity of the brain pathological lesions increased with increasing standard mercuric acetate doses received through their dam's milk or transferred through placenta during pregnancy exposure.

  18. Nishikant Gujar, Sushila. P. Garag, Sajid Ahmed Mudhol, Adil Ahmed Karnul and Sachin, D. M.

    Giant duodenal ulcer perforations are common in surgical practice and very less series are reported in literature. The actual size of perforation is known definitely only intraoperatively. Giant duodenal ulcer is defined as perforation of size equal to or greater than 2 cm in diameter. Various techniques such as omentopexy, omental plugging, control tube duodenostomy, partial gastrectomy, jejunal-serosal patch, jejunal-pedical graft, proximal gastrojejunostomy, or even gastric disconnection have been described in literature. Here we are presenting comparative study of 36 cases of giant duodenal ulcer perforation collected prospectively from 2000 to 2014.Al-Ameen Medical college, Bijapur.

  19. Manzoor A Mir, Raid S Albaradie andAbdul RAlharbi

    Cerebral ischemia initiates a cascade of detrimental events including glutamate associated excitotoxicity, membrane lipid degradation, DNA damage, formation of reactive oxygen species andacute inflammation, which lead to the disruption of cellular homeostasis and structural damage of ischemic brain tissue. Inflammation is increasingly recognized to be the key element in pathological progression of ischemic stroke. Therefore, reducing oxidative stress and downregulating the inflammatory response are options that merit consideration as potential therapeutic targets for ischemic stroke. Consequently, agents capable of modulating both elements will constitute promising therapeutic solutions but as of now no such therapies have been translated to clinical application. Hence we hypothesized that contribution of oxidative and inflammatory response through TNF receptors in the course of ischemic cell death and its modulation by natural herbs may be of prime significance.Natural agent Gingko biloba extract (GBE) has been previously reported to be useful in the treatment of various cardiovascular diseases and neuronal degeneration. Here in this study we used an in vitro murine model of ischemia (PC-12 cells exposed to oxygen–glucose deprivation[OGD]/reperfusion) andinvestigated the effects of this natural agentin neuroprotection and cell survival after ischemic injury.We observed that the treatment of cultures with GBE significantly increased cell viability and decreased NO generation in a dose-dependent manner. GBE (50 and 100 μg/ml) treatment of OGD exposed cellsmarkedly reduced the injury associated with increases in inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and active caspase-3 protein expressions as well as the mRNA expression of TNF-a. This effect may be partiallymediated by the inhibition of TNF-α activation, followed by the inhibition of inflammatory responses in PC12 cells. Therefore, GBE treatment may represent a novel approach for lowering the risk of or improving function in ischemia-reperfusion brain injury-related disorders.

  20. Anurag, A., Himanshu, V., Rajiv, T., Lalit, S., Mirinda, J. and Nirmal, Y.

    Re-expansion pulmonary oedema (RPE) is a rare but often fatal complication which occurs due to rapid re-expansion of collapsed lung following treatment of conditions like a spontaneous pneumothorax or massive pleural effusion. The patho-physiology is still largely unknown, some of the reasons postulated include decreased surfactant levels, regional hypoxia, and hardened pulmonary microvasculature in collapsed lung and pro-inflammatory environment. Clinical manifestations vary from mild or no symptoms to life threatening hypoxia and cardio-respiratory failure. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment can save lives. Because of rarity of this fatal condition, we report a case of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) with spontaneous pneumothorax who developed RPE following insertion of intercostal drainage (ICD) tube.

  21. Jyoti.S.Kabbin, Shwetha, J. V., Nagarathnmma, T., Sandhya, K. and Subhas, G. T.

    Purpose: Commissioning must occur before an operating theatre (OT) is first used and after any substantial modifications that may affect airflow patterns in preexisting theatres (as part of a re-commissioning process). It is important that the infection control team (ICT) or microbiologist is involved at all stages from pre-design through to opening and that adequate time for commissioning is built in to the schedule, including an allowance of time for microbiological assessments. In the present study special emphasis laid on the process of commissioning OT with respect to microbiologist perspective. Material and Methods: The study was carried at the tertiary care hospital to commission newly built 6 OTs and one CATH lab. The sterilization of all 6 OTs and CATH lab was done in 3 cycles. First formaldehyde fumigation was done followed by two cycles of fogging using hydrogen peroxide. After fumigation, the sterile surface swabs were collected from representative areas from all OTs and CATH lab. The air sampling was done by settle plate method. Then all the swabs were processed in microbiology laboratory according to standard guidelines for aerobic, anaerobic and fungal cultures. Results: The OT and CATH lab surfaces were free from anaerobic contamination. The samples which were taken from door side AC duct in CATH lab grew Aspergillus niger. The settle plate did not yield any growth. Conclusion: It is necessary to perform Microbiology evaluation of the newly built OT before commissioning to ensure that ventilation system in the OT are functional, environmental parameters and the microbial load in the theater environment are at the acceptable level. It forms the integral part in the process of commissioning the OT.

  22. Lamyaa A. Elhassan, Alsadig Gassoum, Sawsan A.H. Aldeaf, Mohamed A. Arbab and Ahmed M. Elhassan

    Introduction: Meningiomas are usually globular in shape and well-demarcated neoplasms. They have a wide dural attachment and invaginate into the underlying brain tissue without invading it. According to (WHO) classification, there are three grades, grade 1 that are benign, grade11 which are intermediate and grade 111 that are malignant. However, atypical (WHO grade II) and anaplastic (WHO grade III) meningiomas show a more aggressive biological behavior with a high risk of local recurrence and a less favorable prognosis. Case 1: A 28 years young man, a farmer, was presented to our referral clinic with history of 4 months duration of headache, generalize convulsions that associated with loss of consciousness. Case 2: 17 years old female child, an other wise healthy before, presented to neurosurgery clinic with history of slowly progressing headache and Rt scalp swelling for one year duration. Neurological examination is unremarkable.

  23. Hima, C. R. and Manimegalai, M.

    In the present study the larvicidal effect of botanical insecticide, Gloriosa superba against Aedes aegypti was administrated. The plant extract showed higher mortality in lower doses and it exhibit better protection against the different developmental stages of Aedes aegypti. Based on the probit analysis,the LC50 values and 95% upper and lower fiducial limit and regression values of the plant extract on Aedes aegypti were also noticed. The treatment of seed extract against III and IV instar larvae of Aedes aegypti showed that III instar larvae are more susceptible than IV instar larvae. These morphogenetic abnormalities are commonly caused by botanical extract and the disturbance from the growth regulating hormones. It is because the active principle compounds such as terpenoids, alkaloids, flavonoids, phenols and tannins present in this plant. Activity of alkaline phosphatase has been drtermined during different hours of larval development of Aedes aegypti. The activity has been determined during III instar mould to IV instar mould with a period of 24 hours in Aedes aegypti, activity increased from 35ppm to 40ppm. It is therefore suggested that Gloriosa superba derivatives can be effectively used as a biocide for vector control operations.

  24. Silvy Mathew, John Britto, S. and Sinjumol Thomas

    In recent times, medicinal plants and their extracts have received the attention of scientific communities for their therapeutic value. Several pharmacological studies confirm the above. Members of Zingiberaceae constitute a vital group of rhizomatous medicinal and aromatic plants characterised by the presence of volatile oils and oleoresins of export value. Alpinia is a large genus most widespread and taxonomically complex with 230 species. Alpinia calcarata and Alpinia galanga are known for their medicinal values. The present investigation was carried out on these two species to study the anatomic variations in rhizome and leaf. In Alpinia galanga Linn. the rhizome is highly branched with yellowish colour, cylindrical, 2-8×2-3 cm, while Alpinia calcarata rhizome is less branched with creamy yellow, cylindrical, 2-6×2 cm. The leaf anatomy in both species shows numerous vascular bundles and presence of bundle sheath and its extension upto lower epidermis.

  25. Vivekin Pachauri, Singh, A. K. and Tripathi, A. K.

    An experiment was conducted with fifteen healthy goat’s kid of 4-6 month of age and divided into three groups. Experimental feeding was done for 90 days during which a metabolic trial was conducted. At the end of 45 days feeding of tree leaves Albezia lebbek, Ficus glomerata and Sorghums sudananse, the results indicated that the requirement of crude protein and calcium have been made adequately. The weekly body weight gain was 152.52±3.12, 152.52±3.12, 180.54±3.82 gram, whereas, the daily body weight gain was 21.78±0.44, 21.78±0.44, 25.78±0.54 gram in groups I, II and III respectively, showing a significant difference. Feed gain ratio (g/day) revealed that the group II animals fed with (Dumer) Ficus glomerata tree leaves as a sole feed had the highest feed conversion efficiency (2.6:1 g) followed by the group I (Serias) Albezia lebbek showed (3.22:1 g) while the group III (Sudan grass) Sorghums sudananse had the lowest feed conversion efficiency (4.61:1 g).

  26. Dr. Puja Archana Sahu and Mrs. Sakshi Relan

    The change in the stock price market is an everyday occurrence. The buyers & sellers cause the changes & thus decide the price of each stock. Various factors influence the changes of the stock market such as GDP of the country, recession, growth in industrial production, irrational behaviour of the investors, changes in the political scenario, influences from the other stock exchanges of the world, economic reforms after liberalisation etc. out of which changes in the political environment are given more preference in this research paper. The reason being for this selection are the political parties who reign in the country decide the legal restriction as well as pass laws to ensure the all round development of the country. The researcher has tied to find out whether the political events in the political scenario caused any significant changes in the stock markets. In this paper, the researchers have dealt with two companies of each sector i.e. banking & Heavy industry. The companies selected from the heavy industry sector are Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited( BHEL) & Larsen & Tubro where as for the banking sector the banks selected were State Bank of India (SBI) & Punjab National Bank (PNB). This paper has also dealt with the calculation of systematic & unsystematic risk of each stock for the month of December.

  27. Bulus Joseph Azi, Guyit Peter Morgak and Odewumi Shola Christopher

    An engineering geophysical investigation of the site of the proposed Jarawa Kogi small earth dam, located in Joseast Local Government Area (L. G. A), Plateau State, Nigeria, was carried out. The investigation involved the electrical resistivity method which utilized the Schaumberg array. A total of twelve (12) vertical electrical sounding (VES) stations were occupied along the proposed dam axis. Four subsurface layers were delineated. These include, from top to bottom, the topsoil, a laterite layer, a weathered basement layer and the bedrock. Overburden thickness along the axis is quite significant, with depth to the competent bedrock in the range of 4.9 - 39.3 m. Generally, the Basement slopes onto the current position of the river channel. This disposition will aid base flow into the river channel from the shoulders. The bedrock is characterized by two major depressions and two minor depressions. These depressions act as receptacles for thick accumulation of alluvium. The fracture zone delineated in the bedrock is limited, so that it may not pose serious problem to the integrity of the proposed dam. The bedrock is directly overlain by a thick layer thought to be weathered material. This material may not help prevent water seepage through the foundation of the dam embankment. Also, all metallic objects to be buried underground must be treated against corrosion.

  28. Akanbi, Timothy Adeyẹmi

    This paper discusses names in Fágúnwà’s novels in the perspective of code-talking – a kind of language game (Fromkin et al., 2011). Name is very important to Yorùbá and the Yorùbá culture therefore, every concept in Yorùbá is given one name or the other. Yorùbá believe that name serves as identification for people and that name indicates who a person is and where he belongs. Name, to the Yorùbá, destines an individual for his future and what he will become in life. This is why Yorùbá will say “Orúkọ ọmọ ní í ro ọmọ”. Meaning that ‘a man’s name predisposes him to do certain things’. Virtually all Yorùbá names have an underlying meaning apart from the surface one. Indeed, Yorúbá names are euphemisms. Data used in this present paper are extracted from the various novels of Fágúnwà. Each name presented is given a loose translation for the understanding of the reader. Even though many of the names used by Fágúnwà are restricted to the happenings in his novels, yet, they have consequences for the larger world. The paper therefore concludes that names in the novels are given to reflect the happenings in the larger society.

  29. Manpreet Kaur

    Globalization has ensured that the Indian economy and financial markets cannot stay insulated from the present financial crisis in the developed economies. Global financial crisis is commonly believed to have begun in July 2007 with the credit crunch. The credit crunch may have its root in the US but now its global problem. The impact of this will be three fold: the element of GDP growth driven by offshore flows will be diluted; correction in the asset prices which were previously pushed by foreign investors and demand for domestic liquidity putting pressure on interest rate. India should quickly focus on alternative remedial measure to limit damage.

  30. John Migwi Mwaniki and John Aluko Orodho

    This study sought to establish the socio- economic factors that affect the academic performance of boys in national examinations in Subukia District, Nakuru County, Kenya. The study had three-fold objectives, namely i) to profile students performance in the study locale, ii)to assess the extent to which family background affected boys academic performance ;and , iii) examine the mechanism adopted by school managers to address the dismal performance of boys in the Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education in Subukia District. The study was premised on the theory of Educational productivity by Walberg (1981). A descriptive survey research design was employed. A combination of purposive and random sampling techniques was used to sample of 429 subjects comprising of 372 students and 57 principals to participate in the study. The main research instruments were questionnaires for students and interviews for principals. The quantitative data obtained from questionnaires was analyzed using SPSS to generate mean, percentages and frequency. Qualitative data from principals was analyzed using thematic analysis. The major findings of the study were that the performance of boys in the study locale declined as they progressed within the school system and that parents’ income and their levels of formal education positively correlated to the boys’ performance in KCSE Examinations. The study concluded that as boys progress within the school system their performance declines due to social economic factors such as lack of latent education levies thereby forcing them to enter casual employment and lapse into indiscipline. It is recommended that secondary schools should consider fully operational guidance and counseling departments to mitigate on the effects of social-economic factors effecting boys performance in national examinations in Subukia District, Nakuru County, Kenya[277 words]

  31. Sohou, E. B., Houndénou, C. and Boko, M.

    Forest formations in Zounzounkan have undergone two major periods of their degradation. Anthropogenic pressures have contributed to 63, 26 % degradation of the forest cover between 1990 and 2000, while climate risks of erosion contributed to 16,68%. Between 2000 and 2010, major anthropogenic pressures are expressed by baresoil with a relative contribution of 31,65% to the degradation of forest cover, 19,14% for climate risks represented by erosion. From vegetation matrix transition, we notice that between 1990 and 2000, woodlands and wooded savannahs have been replaced by the tree and shrub savannah (37,98 %), grassland and saxicolous (20,41 %), the mosaics of crops and fallow (32,11 %), bare soil (3,85 %), wetlands (1,45 %), and soil altered by erosion (4,20 %). During this period, tree and shrub savannas were replaced by woodland and savanna woodlands (26,91 %), grassland and saxicolous (30,54 %), mosaics of crops and fallow (15,34%), bare soil (31,65%), wetlands (5.94 %) and soils altered by erosion (16,54 %). From 2000 to 2010, woodlands and woodlands have been replaced by the tree and shrub savannah (29,27 %), grassland and saxicolous (4,73 %), mosaics of crops and fallow (10,83%), bare soil (31,15 %), wetlands (7,34%), and soil altered by erosion (16,68 %). During this same period, tree and shrub savannas were replaced by woodland and savanna woodlands (16,10%), grassland and saxicolous (34,43%), mosaics of crops and fallow (16,64%), bare soil (18,80%), wetlands (10,98%) and soils altered by erosion (19,14%).

  32. Indulekha, C.

    ‘The Movement’ poetry was a new poetic build upon the old, emphasizing transparency, rational impassivity, and formal perfection with Philip Larkin as its poetic exemplar. His poetry anticipates on telling the truth about life as it is and signifies the voice of an accumulated experience of Larkin as a poet and Larkin as a person of the time. Most of his poems show the poet’s ambivalent attitude towards religion, which was also the general attitude of the time. As he examines various sacramental motifs in his poems, he muses on how they once provided humanity with ideas and objects invoking the reality of transcendent meaning. The connotations of the words in Larkin's poems are used to disarm the skeptical reader of his own skepticism for long enough to persuade him to admit the necessity and legitimacy of metaphysical speculation. This paper aims to show the agnostic-self of the poet persistent in some of his poems.

  33. Sreenivasulu, G., Jayaraju, N., Nagalakshmi, K. and Lakshmi Prasad, T.

    Geospatial analysis is used in a wide range of disciplines as a research tool, a decision-making tool, data analysis tool, and/or as a planning tool. Remote Sensing and Geographic Information Systems are used to predict, manage and learn about all kinds of phenomena affecting the earth, its systems and inhabitants. Land use/land cover (LULC) changes play a major role in the study of global change. In this study, Landuse/ Landcover changes are investigated by using of Remote Sensing and Geographical Information System (GIS) in and around Rayachoty, Kadapa District, Andhra Pradesh, India by using satellite image IRS- P6, LISS-III data. Under this study three thematic maps such as location map, drainage map and landuse/ landcover maps were prepared. The land use and land cover analysis on the study area has been attempted based on thematic mapping of the area consisting of built-up land, cultivated land, water bodies, forest land, barren land and uncultivated land using the satellite image. The result shows that the cultivated lands are well distributed throughout the study area and it covers 253.18 sq. km (35.61 per cent). Forest occupies 105.44 sq. km and sharing about 14.83 per cent of the total land use land cover of the study area. The built-up land occupies 3.98 sq. km (0.56 per cent) and there was a rapid expansion of built-up lands. Barren land occupies 156.13 sq. km (21.96 per cent). Water bodies and uncultivated lands occupy 5.19 sq. km (0.73 per cent) and 186.92 sq. km (26.29 per cent) respectively. About the annual rainfall data of six years from 2007 to 2013 shows that the significant decreases tend was observed graphically. Well developed dendritic drainage pattern is there in the study area. The spatial information of the surface will help in the optimal land use planning at the macro and micro level.

  34. Naganathan, N. and Sankar, K.

    In order to assess the groundwater quality, 100 groundwater samples have been collected in year 2010. The water samples collected in the field were analyzed for electrical conductivity, pH, total dissolved solids (TDS), major cations like calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, and anions like bicarbonate, carbonate, chloride, nitrate, and sulfate, in the laboratory using the standard methods given by the American Public Health Association. The results were evaluated in accordance with the drinking water quality standards given by the World Health Organization (WHO 1993). To know the distribution pattern of the concentration of different elements and to demarcate the higher concentration zones, the spatial distributin maps for various elements were also generated, discussed, and presented.

  35. Baimenova Botagoz, Zhubakova Saule, Meyramgul Bulakbayeva and Albytova Nazymgul

    The article presents the current state of political culture of Kazakh society as an important factor of the objective, holistic understanding of the social-political reality. Authors analyze various approaches of the definition "political culture” in detail. Political culture is a kind of indicator of the development of the political system of the state and is a reflection of the degree of political life. Therefore, the authors reveal its development features in the condition of modernization and integration of Kazakhstan into the global cultural space. The article also contains the results of a mini-research devoted to this problem.

  36. Raphael Avornyo

    In view of the stigma attached to HIV and AIDS, many family members and friends of Persons Living with HIV and AIDS (PLHIV) neglect them. In Ghana, some PLHIV voluntarily provide care and support for other PLHIV newly diagnosed of HIV. This study sought to ascertain what motivates them to undertake this task in Ghanaian hospitals, clinics and homes and what impact they make. Data for the study were obtained from 120 purposively selected PLHIV serving as ‘models of hope’. Data collection methods employed for this study were questionnaire administration and in-depth interviewing. Quantitative data of the study were analyzed using the Statistical Product and Service Solutions (SPSS), version 17.0., formerly called Statistical Package for the Social Sciences. Additionally, qualitative data were manually analyzed. The theoretical framework for the study is the hope theory. A major result of the study was that the respondents were motivated to care for and support their fellow PLHIV newly diagnosed of HIV with a view to helping them have some hope and live positively with HIV. Although they were faced with financial problems, stigmatization and discrimination, the refusal of some clients to religiously take their drugs after adherence counselling, etc., they still provided the needed care and support. Through their services most of their clients gain a lot of hope, particularly when they regain their health, live positively with HIV and overcome self-stigma. The study recommends that stakeholders encourage these ‘models of hope’ by giving them adequate training and consistently motivating them through the recognition they give them.

  37. Mekwanent Tilahun Desta Yoseph Gebrehiwot Tedla Seid Ebrie Hussen

    The paper has sought to cover a panorama of issues related to postgraduate students’ challenges in writing research proposals and reports. It used experience survey and insight-stimulating design and therefore, it falls under the category of exploratory research (formulative research study). The data of the research was obtained from 32 postgraduate students and 18 thesis supervisors who were selected using convenience sampling technique. Semi-structured interview and focus group discussion were used to gather data. The findings of the study indicated that among others, lack of relationship between the theoretically acquired knowledge and its application, course delivery technique, English language proficiency level, rapport between supervisors and advisees, and students’ intellectual and psychological readiness were the most prevalent threats posed to postgraduate research undertakings. This paper concluded that post graduate students’ selection criteria should consider test results of applicants’ language proficiency and knowledge in the field to which the students apply as key criteria. In addition, the course delivery techniques should be molded towards applicability of the acquired knowledge.

  38. Maha F. Nazzal, Hazima M. K., Al-Abassi Ali, H. and Ad'hiah

    Serum level of IL-31 and IL-33 was assessed in sera of 79 inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) Iraqi patients; 54 ulcerative colitis (UC) and 25 crohn's disease (CD), as well as 10 apparently healthy controls. The patients attended the Gastrointestinal Teaching Hospital in Baghdad for diagnosis and treatment during the period March-August 2012. Serum level of IL-31 was approximated in UC and CD patients and controls (1.69 ± 0.09, 1.71 ± 0.31 and 1.56 ± 0.24 pg/ml, respectively). In contrast, IL-33 was significantly increased (P ≤ 0.001) in UC and CD patients (3.29 ± 0.44 and 6.41 ± 0.18 pg/ml, respectively) compared to controls (0.74 ± 0.28 pg/ml). These results suggest a role of IL-33 in the pathogenesis of both clinical groups of IBD, especially CD.

  39. Dardir M. M., Farag. Ab, Ramdan, M. A., Emam, D., ahmed, H. E. S. and Fayyad, M. M.

    Bentonite clay is the main component of the water- based drilling fluid. In this study the Egyptian bentonite from (south Hammam) was tested for its potential use in drilling fluids. The drilling mud quality of the bentonite from (south Hammam) was significantly improved by using low molecular weight polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as a viscosifier additive. The Egyptian bentonite was characterized by X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and transition electron microscopy (TEM). The treated Egyptian bentonite was evaluated as drilling mud for oil–well drilling. The evaluation involves the study of the rheological properties (apparent viscosity, plastic viscosity, yield point, gel strength and thixotropy), filtration properties before and after treatment with polyvinyl alcohol as viscosifier additives. Effect of temperature on the formulated mud at different temperatures was also studied and the results were compared with the commercial grade bentonite according to American Petroleum Institute specification (API) and O.C.M.A specification.

  40. Chandrashekar, Radhika, R. T., Venkatesha, B. M. and Ananda, S.

    Kinetics of oxidative decolorisation of indigocarmine(IC) dye by CAT in pH 5.8 buffer medium catalyzed by nitrite ion has been studied at 300K spectrophotometrically at λmax= 610 nm. The reaction is first order with respect to [IC], [Nitrite ion] and second order with respect to [CAT]. It also shows an inverse first order on p-toluenesulphonamide concentration [TSA] and inverse fractional order on [H+]. The additions of the reaction product p-toluenesulphonamide and halide ions have no significant effect on the rate of the reaction. The variation of ionic strength of the medium did not affect the rate indicating that non ionic species are involved in the rate determining step. The dielectric effect is positive. The reaction was studied at different temperatures and the activation parameters have been deduced. Oxidation products were characterized. Test for free radicals was found to be negative. The derived rate law based on the proposed mechanism is in complete agreement with the observed kinetic data.

  41. Hunge, S. S., Rahangdale, P. K. and Lanjewar, M. R.

    Environment is deteriorating day to day due to the industrial pollution, toxic chemicals etc. which lead to the accumulation of contaminants inclusive of heavy metals in waste water. The water polluted by industrial effluents disturbs its normal use for agriculture and aquatic/terrestrial life. In view of toxicity, non-biodegradability and persistent nature their removal becomes an absolute necessity. Hexavalent chromium metal ion is one of the major pollutants in the environment and is frequently present in waste water released from various industrial units. Several conventional physical and chemical treatment techniques are reported in the literature for the removal of hexavalent chromium. However these processes are not only expensive and energy intensive, but also lead to the production of harmful by products. The present research article reports, the potential application of self prepared activated carbon derived from the bark of Tamarindus indica followed by chitosan (deacetylated derivative of chitin) coating as an adsorbent for removal of hexavalent chromium from aqueous solution. The batch experiments were carried out to investigate the effect of significant process parameters such as pH, contact time, adsorbent dosage and initial Cr(VI) ion concentration. The maximum adsorption of Cr(VI) on bio-sorbent was found at pH 4.5. The removal of hexavalent chromium from aqueous solution increases with increase in contact time and adsorbents dose. The maximum removal capacity for Cr(VI) have been noticed to be 96.50%. This investigation verifies that the chitosan coated activated carbon derived from Tamarindus indica bark (a bio-sorbent) can be used as a valuable adsorbent material for removal of hexavalent chromium from contaminated water and may contribute in pollution control.

  42. Ravi Tomar and Anshuman Saurabh

    Proxy credentials are commonly used in security systems when one entity wishes to grant to another entity some set of its privileges. We have defined and standardized X.509 Certificates issuing procedures for the purpose of providing more secure and remotely available certificate, with the help of Client Authentication via Virtual Smart Card. We present here our motivations for this work coming from our efforts in Grid security, the Proxy Certificate itself, and our experiences in implementation and deployment.

  43. Kathirarasi Hasmi, M., Mrs. Karthikeyini, C. and Dr. Bommanna Raja, K.

    Nowadays Automated Fingerprint Identification systems are most widely employed in verifying / identifying the physiological characteristics of individuals. The traditional privacy algorithms are inefficient to ensure security as there is more chance of duplicating the single fingerprint. So to enhance security in this work, a system is proposed which advocates acquisition of two fingerprint images (from that of thumb and index finger) from a single individual. From the Acquired image, minutiae points from thumb finger and the orientation angle from the index finger are extracted. The combined minutiae template is generated by detecting the reference points from each which is used in Reconstruction Technique. The, generated template is stored in a Database. In the authentication, the system requires two query fingerprints from the same two fingers which are used in the enrollment. Matching Process is done by calculating feature distance of the two query fingerprints. Combined minutiae template is similar to the original minutiae template; it is difficult to distinguish both the template by the attacker.

  44. Pralhad K. Rahangdale

    Dye pollutants are alarming hazardous compounds causing serious diseases such as cancer, hormone deficiency and bronchitis. Research is essential to develop alternate/more effective technique for removal of dye pollutants. In the present investigation, initially, 2-hydroxyacetophenone–biuret–trioxane (2-HABT) terpolymer was successfully synthesized, purified and characterized in the laboratory. Then, titanium oxide photocatalyst was anchored on 2-HABT terpolymer using molecular adsorption–deposition method. The titanium oxide particles, deposited on the 2-HABT terpolymeric molecules, formed a coating of about 100 nm in thickness. This newly modified functional photocatalytic material was characterized by means of infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron studies. An anatase-type titanium oxide was uniquely developed. This new TiO2-2-HABT photocatalyst exhibited an excellent photocatalytic activity in the photodegradation of quite concentrated dyes. The dye molecules in bulk solution was supposed to be condensed around titanium oxide particles because of the adsorption phenomenon on 2-HABT polymer molecules, and, therefore, the photocatalytic process was enhanced due to the combined effect of adsorption by 2-HABT terpolymer macromolecules and photocatalytic activity on anatase-type titanium oxide. It was observed that the decolorization of contaminated water occurred within a short-time interval. Thus, it can be concluded that the functional photocatalytic material, reported in article, can be successfully used for water and wastewater treatments.

  45. Gopalan, M. A., Mallika, S. and Vidhyalakshmi, S.

    We exhibit a method of constructing Diophantine quadruples with property ,where P is a prime number and is of the form (6m+1).Some relations between the members in the quadruple and special numbers are given.

  46. Vijaya Lakshmi, K., Suhasini, D. M., Jayachandra Reddy, N., Ravi Kumar, K., Chowdoji Rao, K. and Subha, M. C. S.

    Densities and ultrasonic velocities of binary liquid mixtures of methyl acrylate (MA) with benzene (B), methyl benzene (MB), ethyl benzene (EB), chloro benzene (CB), bromo benzene (BB) and nitro benzene (NB) have been measured at 308.15 K. The observed data have been utilized to calculate various acoustical parameters like Isentropic compressibility (KS), Intermolecular free length (Lf) and acoustic impedance (Z). The various excess properties like excess ultrasonic velocity (uE), excess acoustic impedance (ZE), excess Isentropic compressibility (KSE) and excess Inter molecular free-length (LfE) were calculated and fitted to the Redlich-Kister equation. The results were discussed in terms of the existence of intermolecular interactions between the components in the liquid mixtures under study.

  47. Ziad T. Khodair

    In this study samples of pure polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and polyvinyl alcohol films doped with methyl yellow with percentage doping of (0, 2, and 4 %) have been prepared by using solvent casting method. The optical properties, absorption and transmission of films were investigated through the transmission measurements at room temperature in wavelength range of (190-1100 nm). The films show indirect allowed transitions that influenced by the doping, the optical energy gap has been decreased from about (5.732 eV) before doping to about (4.821 eV) and (3.819 eV) after doping. Optical constants like refractive index, extinction coefficient calculated and correlated with doping.

  48. Marcia Fortes Wagner, William Weber Cecconello, Simone Nenêportela Dalbos and Carlisa Peccin

    The main symptom of Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) is a persistent fear in situations involving social interactions. In the academic environment, the presence of this disorder may result in several problems for the individual because of the constant social interactions this environment requires.The present study aimed to identify the prevalence of social anxiety symptoms in a sample of Brazilian higher education students. The sample included 134 students of both genders, aged at least 18 years, from a Brazilianuniversity. Hence, a sociodemographic data record and the Social Anxiety Questionnaire for Adults (SAQ-A30 – Brazilian version) were used. The sample was composed by 73.1% (n=98) of women and 26.9% (n=36) ofmen; the mean age was 26.83 years (SD=9.32). The findings showed that 41.8% (n=56) of the sample presented SAD symptoms. Regarding the SAQ-A30 dimensions, the highest means were found in the 5th dimension (criticism and embarrassment), and the 1st dimension (speaking in public/talking with people in authority), followed by the 4th dimension (assertive expression of annoyance, disgust or displeasure), and 2nd dimension (interactions with the opposite sex). The 3rddimension(interactions with strangers) presented the lowest mean. The relation and implication of these findingson academic performance are discussed

  49. Gauresh Kumar Patel, Suramya S., Sheela Kumar Gujjari and Pramod T. M.

    Smoking is considered to be a classical risk factor for periodontitis. It leads to a subsequent state of circulating lipid peroxidation byproducts in blood, such as lipid hydroperoxides and superoxides resulting in oxidative stress worsening periodontal health. In the past, studies have proved that the intake of fruits and vegetables can reduce oxidative damage in patients who smoke. Ellagic acid, a primary constituent of pomegranate fruit is one of the natural polyphenols with potent antioxidant capacity. In the present study we evaluated the effect of 40% ellagic acid supplementation on total antioxidant capacity and periodontal status in heavy and light smokers with chronic periodontitis. This was a randomized controlled trial with 40 smoker patients as part of the study. The patients were divided into two major groups (20 patients each): GROUP A - heavy smokers and GROUP B - light smokers. At baseline, clinical measurements and total antioxidant capacity were evaluated. Scaling and root planing was performed for all patients. Each of the major were then groups then were randomized into two subgroups each (A1, A2, B1 and B2).Groups A1 and B1 were given 40% ellagic acid supplementation, while A2 and B2 were not. Clinical parameters and total antioxidant capacity were reevaluated after 1 month. There was a significant improvement seen in the total antioxidant capacity (TAOC) in all the groups.This improvement was significantly higher in the groups which received the adjunctive ellagic acid supplementation. Within the groups; TAOC was maximum in light smokers who received the supplementation (B1) followed by heavy smokers who received the supplementation (A1). Significant improvements were seen in the clinical parameters in all groups. The results of the study show that the supplementation of Ellagic acid as an adjunct to scaling and root planing shows a promise in reducing the periodontal destruction and the total antioxidant capacity.

  50. Dr. Manjari Sarkar (Basu)

    Human resource provides a group with an effective workforce in order to meet its mission. Human development relies mainly on training and developmental activities. Effective human resource uses system and tools to bring together: the right number of people, with right attitude and skills, in right place, at right time”. Microfinance, the development buzzword of the nineties was meant to cure the illness of rural poverty. The Indian microfinance scene is dominated by SHGs and their linkage to bank with self-reliance, self-sufficiency and self-help gained momentum. The goal of human resource system, tools and activities is to help the individual employees who make up his/her microfinance institution to be successful at their jobs. Self Help Groups or SHGs represent a unique approach to financial intermediation. The SHG approach combines have access to low-cost financial services with a process of self management and development for the needy people, who are SHG members. SHGs are having link not only with banks but also with wider development programmes. But there are also some questions. How effective are the groups in managing their financial transactions? Individuals cannot only enhance the success of the individuals, but can encourage a team effort capable of reaching goals beyond what one person can do alone. So, microfinance is helping the individuals in group formation. The success of group approach in rural micro-finance among the poor has inspired the tendency to look at all networking as essential and desirable in rural community development. This paper examines to find out how microfinance is helping the human resource development and what are the real situations of that group for the development? The major issues addressed in this study are the effect on human resource development by the formation of microfinance in this region which includes the nature of activities, work space, training and development of skills and marketing of finished products which are main parts of human resource development.

  51. Parveen, M. and Mudasir Jan

    The present investigation was carried out to monitor the Physico-chemical characteristics of Shalabugh wetland. Physico-chemical parameters like water temperature, Transparency, pH, Dissolved oxygen, Free carbon dioxide, Total alkalinity, Conductivity, total Hardness, Chloride, Ammonical nitrogen, Nitrate nitrogen, Nitrite nitrogen, Total phosphorus were analyzed on monthly basis for a period of one year from January 2013 to December 2013 .Among various parameters recorded the water temperature ranged from 4.6 0c to 29 0c ,transparency from 0.22 m to 0.82 m, pH from 7.25 to 8.57, dissolved oxygen 4.0 mg/l to10.3mg/l, free carbon dioxide from 3.1mg/l to15.7mg/l, total alkalinity 119.5mg/l to 272.7 mg/l, conductivity from 300.7µs/cm to 412.5 µs/cm, total hardness from 241.7 mg/l to346mg/l, chloride from 23.5mg/l to44.7 mg/l, Ammonical nitrogen from 117µg/l to363.5µg/l, Nitrate nitrogen from 165µg/l to 500µg/l, total phosphorus from 147µg/l to341.7µg/l. The high values of physico-chemical parameters obtained during the present study indicate the eutrophic nature of the wetland.

  52. Dr. Sathish.V.Shivamallaiah

    Appendicitis is a very common disease in all age groups it requires surgey if the lumen is obstructed i.e., if appendicolith is present. Worms in particular enterobius is indicated in nearly 40% of cases of appendicitis with mostly recurrent and also presents acutely. Appendicectomy in such cases will releave symptoms permanently and patient can have symptom free life after elective appendicectomy. (Sabiston's text book of surgery)

  53. Alsadig Gassoum, Mohamed A. Arbab, Sawsan A.H. Aldeaf, Lamyaa A. Elhassan and Ahmed M. Elhassan

    Introduction: Meningiomas are predominantly benign tumors, which arise from the arachnoids’ cap cells. The development mechanism is unknown but they may result from an adverse effect of cranial irradiation and trauma. Antigen KI-67 also known as Ki-67 or MKI67 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MKI67 gene (antigen identified by monoclonal antibody Ki-67). The antigen KI-67 is a nuclear protein that is associated with and may be necessary for cellular proliferation. Inactivation of antigen KI-67 leads to inhibition of ribosomal RNA synthesis. Ki-67 is an excellent marker to determine the growth fraction of a given cell population, the fraction of Ki-67-positive tumor cells (the Ki-67 labeling index) is often correlated with the clinical course of cancer. Materials and Methods: This is a cross-sectional study that had been performed at the National Center for Neurological Sciences during February 2011 to December 2013. The study included samples from intracranial meningioma patients histologicaly diagnosed at the National Center of Neurological Sciences, during the above mentioned period. The study was conducted in accordance with the guidelines of the local ethical committee. For immunohistochemistry, all meningioma tumors at Elhassan Medical Laboratory for histopathology and cytology during the above mentioned period were processed for ki 67 antigen. Results: Positive immmuno-staining for Ki67 was identified in 88% of the patients. Labelling indexes of 11-20% were reported in 40% of the Ki 67 group. Mostly in fibrous and atypical subtypes of meningioma.

  54. Alsadig Gassoum, Mohamed A. Arbab, Sawsan A. H. Aldeaf, Lamyaa A. Elhassan, and Ahmed M. Elhassan

    Introduction: Meningiomas are predominantly benign tumors, which arise from the arachnoids’ cap cells. They account for 20% of all primary intracranial neoplasms. The p53 tumor suppressor is a key regulator of cell cycle progression, such that its inactivation promotes increased cell growth and tumorigenesis. Inactivation of p53 as a consequence of p14 ARF loss and MDM2-mediated degradation may contribute to meningioma progression. Material and Methods: This is a cross-sectional study that had been performed at the National Center for Neurological Sciences during February 2011 to December 2013. All meningioma tumors at Elhassan Medical Laboratory for histopathology and cytology during the above mentioned period were processed for P53 protein immunohistochemistry. Data were analyzed using SPSS 13 software with reference P.value of 0.05 was considered statistically significant Results: The sequencing results showed heterozygosity of T>G in exon 4 at protein position ( Ala 70Ala) in 16 samples (10 fibrous, 5 atypical and one anaplastic). Within the afore-mentioned 16 samples, 6 samples showed heterozygosity of C>T in exon 4 at position Ala 69 Val, (this polymorphism had 5 features). Positive immmuno-staining for p53 was identified in 76% of the patients . Labelling indexes of 11-20% were reported in 32.8% of the p 53 group, mostly in fibrous and atypical subtypes of meningioma.

  55. Mohamed Ali

    Friesian cows were used to determine the effect of undernutritionon concentrations of the follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) in serum and emergence of new follicles after estradiol cypionate (ECP). Cows of G1 and a control group were fed on concentrated feed and dry clover while G2 was fed on hay only (restricted diet) for a period of 60 days before initiation of the treatment with ECP. After 60 days, cows of G1 and G2 were given 1 mg of ECP. On Day 0 (day to receive ECP),blood serum from all groups was collected at 12 hour interval for 3 days, and concentrations of FSH were quantified in blood serum. A well-defined increase and synchronization in FSH concentration was observed in G1.FSH concentrations were greater for G1 (0.86 mIU/ml) than for other groups. Emergence of a new wave of follicular development was observed 48 hours after beginning the study in G1 and contrasted with delayed emergence of a new follicular wave in the control group (48±24 hours). However, long-term feed deprivation decreased FSH concentrations in serum and absence emergence of new follicular waves.

  56. Prasad, K. N., VinothKumar, P. S. and Poovitha

    Background: The information on mean age at first nocturnal ejaculation and first masturbation among male individuals are sparse in India. In the era of computers, improved education level, social networks, and entertainment and level, it is necessary to know the onset of nocturnal ejaculation and sexual activity among males at frequent intervals. Objective: to find the age at first nocturnal ejaculation and first masturbation (Orgasmic experience) among collegiate young adult men. Methodology: A community based descriptive cross sectional survey was undertaken in the selected 16 colleges on different education courses during October 2013 to February 2014 by using the pilot tested, self administered anonymous questionnaire. The detailed information was collected on nocturnal ejaculation and masturbation related variables. Analysis was done using SPSS software package. Results: The number of young adults participated in this study was 686 and the response rate to all the questions was 90%. Eighty percent of the subjects were aged less than 23 years. Nearly 20 percent of the participants did not share information on nocturnal ejaculation and masturbation practices. The mean age at experiencing first nocturnal ejaculation was 15.3 + 1.5 years (95% CI 15.13 – 15.45) and first orgasmic experience (Masturbation) was 15.4+ 1.6 years (95% CI 15.21 - 15.55). There was statistical significant difference between students of difference courses on age at first nocturnal ejaculation and first masturbation (p<0.003). Conclusion: The mean age at the onset of sexual maturity among males is 15 years. The difference between onset of nocturnal ejaculation and first solitary masturbation was narrow and a periodical study on these factors is needed in future in India.

  57. Anil Kumar Patel, Neeraj Kumari, Naresh Kumar and Sukhvinder Singh Purewal

    Various microbes were isolated from air, water and soil from Barkatpura, Hyderabad, India. The characterization of these microbes was done using the Gram staining technique. DNA was isolated from the cultures for the pattern study of DNA .The cultures of these microbes were then exposed to UV light and ethidium bromide for mutational study. DNA was isolated from different mutated colonies of the microbes and they were then observed for changes.

  58. Senthamarai Selvan, P. and Jebanesan, A.

    Water-filled tree holes are important temporal ecosystem for a number of different aquatic and semi-aquatic organisms. The study of tree-hole breeding mosquitoes was carried out in the Annamalai University campus, Tamilnadu, India between June 2013 - February 2014, by using standard entomological procedures. The tree holes are sampled for various mosquito species around the campus. Types of mosquito species encountered, their relative abundance, as well as genera varied significantly during the study. Three genera of mosquitoes: Aedes, Culex, Anopheles were recovered while 14 species of mosquitoes encountered include: Aedes aegypti, Ae.albopictus, Ae.africanus, Ae.simpsoni, Ae.taylori, Culex quinquefaciatus, Cx.nebulosus, Cx.tritaeniorhynchus, Cx.pseudovishnui, Cx.pipens, Anopheles stephensi, An.sundaicus, An.culiciformis and An.fluviatilis. Most of the mosquitoes showed preference to tree holes for their oviposition. Tree hole mosquitoes are studied by α-biodiversity like Margalef index (DMg), Simpson’s index (λ), Shannon-Wiener (H’), Pielou’s index (J’). The presence of Ae.aegypti and Ae.albopictus indicate that the study areas were at risk of dengue fever epidemic. The presence of Anopheles and Culex species ensured endemicity of malaria and filariasis, while the recovery of Ae.aegypti in this region suggests a possible outbreak of dengue fever in future if not properly controlled.

  59. Mingist, M. and Gebremedhin, S.

    In the present study we evaluate the diversity and abundance of fishes in Aveya River during the wet season (September-October 2011) and dry season (March-April 2012). Fishes were collected from seven sampling sites by using multi-mesh gillnets of stretched mesh sizes 6, 8, 10, 12 and 14 cm. Eight hundred six fish specimens, all belonging to the Cyprinidae, were collected. All the studied rivers were dominated by cyprinids. The sites harbors large flock of Varicorhinus beso population which is IUCN red list category. Gumara site had the highest diversity (average H' = 3.47) in both seasons. All the fish species showed significant differences in abundance between seasons with overall catch composition of 55.5%, 17.2%, 16.0% and 11.3% for V. beso, Labeobarbus nedgia, L. intermedius and L. forskalii, respectively. Varicorhinus beso, L. nedgia and L. intermedius were the most important species in both seasons and in most of the sampling sites. Our results showed that the studied habitats are in danger of being destroyed and therefore catchment rehabilitation should be considered and the massive seasonal fishing by the local communities should be reduced.

  60. Suchetha Kumari, N., Yogish Somayaji, T., Tejashvi, R., Damodara Gowda, K. M. and Chandrika Rao

    The leaf, pulp and seed extracts of Carica papaya (Linn.) were tested for the presence of various phytochemicals like tannins, saponins, alkaloids, flavonoids, carbohydrates and proteins. The invitro antioxidant potential of Carica papaya (Linn.) extracts were evaluated by different methods like DPPH assay. FRAP assay, Nitric Oxide assay and Total antioxidant capacity. The erythrocyte membrane stabilizing property was studied using heat induced hemolytic assay and osmotic fragility test. The thrombolytic potential was assessed by determining the percentage of clot dissolved by the extract. The results show that aqueous, ethanolic and methanolic extracts of Carica papaya (Linn.) contains varying amount of phytochemicals and a remarkable antioxidant potential. The results of membrane stabilizing and the thrombolytic properties demonstrate that papaya is one of the obvious choices for various medicinal applications.

  61. Gurumayum Suraj Sharma, Moirangthem Kameshwor Singh, Khaling Mikawlrawng

    Glucosinolates, a well-defined, sulfur-rich class of plant secondary products mainly confined to various crops of the family Brassicaceae, are of prime importance in agriculture and plant biotechnology since the discovery of their role in plant defense against insect herbivory. Till date more than 120 different types of the compound have been reported. The enzyme myrosinase (thioglucosidases), which is stored in specialized plant cells, converts glucosinolates to the several toxic products (e.g., isothiocyanates, thiocyanates, and nitriles). The hydrolysis products have many different biological activities for plants, e.g., as defense compounds as well as attractants. In case of human, they may play several roles as biopesticides, flavor compounds and cancer-preventing agents. In the present article, we try to discuss broadly the biochemistry and the roles of the compounds, their break-down products in the insect-plant relationships and multitrophic interactions. Major focus has been laid on Brassicaceous crop plants, where they are most abundantly found.

  62. Shirke Madhuri A., Magdum Chandrakant, S. and D’isouza John, I.

    Diabetes is a condition in which the body does not make enough insulin or the body cells cannot use insulin properly. Insulin is a hormone that helps the body use glucose (sugar) for energy. Without insulin, glucose (the body's main energy source) builds up in the blood, resulting in high blood sugar. There were an estimated 40 million persons with diabetes in India in 2007 and this is no is predicated to rise to 70 million people in 2025.Due to this sheer number economic burden due to diabetes in India is amongst highest in the world. Type 2 diabetes is due to progressive insulin resistance is increase in insulin secretion by pancreatic cell causing hyperinsulinaemia. Insulin resistance is a characteristic feature of most of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The complications of diabetes are preliminary due to high level of blood glucose and also poor glycemic control. Short terms complications happen very quickly and long term complications are comprises of microvascular and macrovascular complications. Prediabetes is most important term and it provides information of those metabolic states that occurs when blood glucose levels are high but remain below level that is established for clinical diagnosis. Prediabetes is the term which includes impaired fasting glucose or impaired glucose intolerance. The therapeutic consequences to treat T1DM and T2DM are proper nutrition, exercise, education and proper pharmacological therapy. In pharmacological therapy many of drugs or medications includes such as Secretagogues, Metformin Thiazolidinediones, alpha glycosidase inhibitor.

  63. Smita, G., Himanshu, V., Nirmal, Y., Neeraj, K., Mirinda, J. and Nigam, P.

    Saridon (Propyphenazone 150mg, Paracetamol 250 mg & Caffeine 50mg) is a very commonly prescribed analgesic and also a easily available over the counter pain killer. Methemoglobinemia is a known but rarely reported complication of saridon, probably because the drug has been banned in many countries. We describe our experience of 25yr old male patient with cyanosis. The key points instrumental in suspecting methemoglobinemia in our case were history of drug overdose, lethargy, cyanosis and the presence of saturation gap (low SpO2 on pulse oximeter & normal/high arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2) in Arterial Blood Gas analysis). Prompt administration of methylene blue and improvement of cyanosis helped us in confirming drug induced methemoglobinemia much before the lab results of methemoglobin levels arrived, thus establishing our diagnosis.

  64. Dr. Sathish.V.Shivamallaiah

    Necrptising fasciitis is a dreaded disease with high mortality and morbidity, can affect any part of the body, mostly in patients with immunocompromised idividuals such as diabetics, patients on immunosuppresants, old debilitated bedridden patients, cancer patients etc. It requires high index of suspicion like Dish water discharge will help in early diagnosis and prompt treatment which inludes serial surgical debridements and directed antibiotic treatment, here I have made an attempt which will help in early diagnosis which in turn decreases its high mortality and morbidity.

  65. Alaeldin M. E. Abouh and Mahdi H. A. Abdalla

    Sickle cell anaemia (SCA) is an inherited blood disorder that is characterized by chronic haemolysis and episodes of acute clinical complication. SCA is associated with hypercoagulable state with increased thrombin generation and elevated D-Dimer level which is reported as a marker for SCA related complication. This study aimed to determine the D-Dimer level in Sudanese children with SCA in a steady state and to correlate it with the haematological parameter. Following informed consent, one hundred and one subjects; fourty one children with SCA in steady state, and age and sex matched sixty healthy subjects as controls were enrolled. Blood count was performed by automated cell counter (Sysmex KX-21N). D-dimer was measured using i-CHROMATM. Mean D-Dimer level was significantly higher among SCA cases when compared with the controls (p value 0.000). Mean TWBC count and mean platelets count were significantly higher in the SCA patients than in controls (p value 0.000 and 0.005 respectively). There was no significant correlation between D-Dimer level and all haematological parameters. In conclusion, the study confirms the hypercoagulable state in SCA. The study highlights haematological reference values for Sudanese patients with SCA.

  66. David K. Njeru

    Despite the increasing level of interest in Occupational Safety and Health Management Systems (OSHMS), there have been few formal evaluation studies published. There is a relative paucity of information about how these systems work and how effective they are in preventing occupational injury and diseases. A general observation shows that hazards are present at work places in universities despite existence of overwhelming information on the importance of occupational safety and health management system (OSHMS). An Occupational Safety and Health Management System is a planned, documented and verifiable tool for managing hazards and their associated risks. The effectiveness of an OSHMS, and its ability to adapt and improve, hinges on how well its performance can be evaluated. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the factors that influence implementation of OSHMS at public universities in Kenya. OSHMS was developed in response to widespread demand for a recognized standard against which to be assessed and certified. This study was conducted at Egerton University’s four campuses within Nakuru. The method of study was a case study descriptive survey research design. Data was collected using; observation check lists, structured interview schedules and questionnaires. Findings obtained showed that the factors affecting implementation of OSHMS included; lack of initial review of hazards (10%), inefficient development of systems (25%), failure to formulate OSH Objectives (30%) and inadequate hazard prevention mechanism( 30).Data were analysed qualitatively using content analysis and also statistical package for social science (SPSS) version 16 computer program.The study recommended that an OSH policy be developed and implemented, participation of workers be encouraged, collaborative and support from the government be promoted and a system for continual improvement be designed.

  67. Khartoum Sudan

    Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the most common non-communicable disease world-wide. As the style of living in Sudan is changing to a more westernized way, with less physical activity and more dependence on carbohydrate and fat-rich diets the incidence of the disease is increasing. The management of the disease requires continuous monitoring of the patient's blood sugar, The two commonly used methods are bedside, home-based glucometers and laboratory-based chemical analyzer. The current study aimed to determine the accuracy of bedside glucometer (ACCU, CHEK) for blood glucose measurement as compared to laboratory-based automated chemical analyzer Material and Methods: A cross-sectional study included 79 diabetes mellitus patients, 49% males and 51% females, with age ranged from 20-70 years, recruited from Omdurman military hospital during the period between June to December 2012. From which venous blood was collected from each participant in lithium heparin container for measuring blood glucose using the chemical analyzer (Mindray200), simultaneously, one drop of capillary blood was placed on the strip of the glucometer (ACCU check). The data was analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) and the data were expressed as mean ± standard deviation Result: No statistical significant difference was observed between blood glucose readings using the chemical analyzer (191.5±126.7 SD) and the glucometer (176.6±126.1 SD) with P. value 0.460, although glucometer showed lower readings than chemical analyzer. Conclusion: We concluded that the bedside glucometer was as accurate as laboratory based auto analyzer, and can be used at home to monitor the glucose level.

  68. Mrinal Ranjan Srivastava, Jyoti Prakash Srivastava, Pankaj Bhardwaj,Beena Sachan, Pratibha Gupta and Sarita Choudhary

    Background: It is estimated that the no. of elderly persons would grow to 137 million by 2021 in our country. Aging is an universal process. Old age is associated with physical, mental and social problems. Life style characteristics are important in determining the quality and quantity of life. Objective: To determine the biosocial characteristics and morbidity profile of elderly and to suggest measures to reduce morbidity among the elderly. Material and Method: A cross-sectional study was done among elderly in two small urban slums(population<5000) >=60 yrs. A total of 100 elderly were selected and multi stage random sampling technique was employed. A predesigned and pretested questionnaire was used and house to house survey was done. Data was entered in MS Excel and analyzed using SPSS 11.5 version and the results were recorded as frequencies, means ± standard deviations and p-values. . Chi-square test was used for categorical variables. A p-value of <0.05 was taken as the criteria of significance. Results: The Mean age was (SD) 63.98(4.26) yrs. The mean age (SD) of males was 65.06 (4.39) yrs. The mean age Of females was 62.90(3.90 yrs).Majority of respondents were married (64.16%) belonged to lower SES(71.12%).Most of the respondents were vegetarians (53.44%0.Among men the major addiction was Smoking (63.0%).Whereas among women the major addiction was tobacco chewing(21.0%).Besides Emotional problems (75%),senile cataract (64.5%)was the common illness followed by osteoarthritis (56%).Most (29.77%) of women spent their leisure time in religious activities whereas most(33.15%) of the men spent the leisure time in socializing. Conclusions: In our study the emotional problem of the elderly was high and the eye problems were also significant so measures should be undertaken to address this aspect of the elderly health. Measures should also be undertaken to address the problem of tobacco addiction among elderly.

  69. Ahmed Siddig Akasha, Abdelrahman Tambal, Sana Altahir and Fathelrahman Mahdi

    Background: Hemorrhage after cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) remains a clinical problem. Many risk factors associated with excessive blood loss have been identified, but postoperative bleeding remains poorly explained because of the complexity of the hemostatic process and the technical difficulties imposed by operative procedures. It suggests a need for patient testing to determinate hemostatic disorder after CPB and to be able differentiate a surgical cause for abnormal bleeding. Objectives: The study objective was to determine the prothrombin time (PT) and international normalized ratio (INR) in predicting bleeding in Sudanese patients among Mechanical valve replacement undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass. Design: Descriptive Cross sectional study Methodology: A prosthetic valve was implanted in 150 patients between July 2013 to January 2014.The age of patients ranged between 20 to 80 years with mean of 41years. The PT and INR were determined using coagulation analyzer model Spinreact- (BIOBAS10). One hundred and fifty patients underwent valve replacement: 60 patients(40%) had isolated mitral valve replacement (MVR), 46 patients(30.7%) had isolated aortic valve replacement (AVR), 26(17.3%) had duple valve replacement( DVR) and 18 (12%) had coronary artery bypass graft (CABG), and 50 healthy individuals were recruited as control group. Results: The mean of prothrombin time(PT) was (34.5±14.02) seconds and there was significant variation (p.value ˂ 0.05) between the patients and controls(13.1±1.8)seconds. The mean international normalized ratio(INR) was (3.2±1.6) however there was a significant variation (p.value ˂ 0.05) between the patients and controls(1.0±0.25). Among Sudanese patients with prosthetic heart valve, bleeding was the major complications rather than thromboemboloism. About 129(86%) patients from 150 had prothrombin time more than 20 seconds and about 44(29.3%) patients show international normalized ratio more than 3.5. The mean PT-INR was 2.4±0.6 in the cases without hemorrhage complications, and 4.2±1.5 in the patients associated with excessive bleeding. There was significant difference in mean PT-INR between the bleeding complication group and non complication group (p.value ˂ 0.05). More than 72% of patients with hemorrhage complications showed the PT-INR more than 3.97. Conclusion: PT and INR had high sensitivity and specificity in predicting blood loss among patients with valvular replacement and represent good indicators of platelet and fresh frozen plasma transfusion in these patients. The Prothrombin time and INR correlated with blood loss and transfusion requirements for predicting excessive blood loss after cardiopulmonary bypass.

  70. Jyoti S. Kabbin, Shwetha, J. V., Sathyanarayan, M. S. and Nagarathnamma, T.

    An Operation Theatre (OT) complex is the heart of any surgical hospital. The outcomes of surgical interventions depend on a range of factors like- Good surgical skills, scientific design of the OT, proper sterilization/ disinfection techniques and infection control practices. A well equipped OT with the above mentioned factors generally results in fewer Hospital Acquired Infections (HAIs). The present article lays emphasis on the various methods of sterilization and disinfection presently available. A variety of sterilants and disinfectants are being used in health care facilities across the world. Merits and demerits of various currently used sterilization and disinfection techniques have been discussed. Of the available techniques for disinfection of OT, fumigation using formaldehyde is no longer recommended. Fogging has widely been accepted as an alternate method as it is less labor intensive and quicker and poses minimal health hazard to the health care personnel. Microbiological sampling and surveillance of OT is also recommended to prevent HAIs.

  71. Manyacka Ma Nyemb, P., Ehode, C., Badiane, S. M., Diao, M. L., Tendeng, J. N. and Ndaw, A. L.

    Appendiceal pregnancy is a rare form of abdominal pregnancies. The occurrence of this type of pregnancy is under the influence of risk factors of ectopic pregnancies such as sequelae of genital infections, a low socio-economic level and inadequate medical care. The authors report the case of a patient of Saint-Louis in Senegal, aged of 36, who presented an appendiceal pregnancy simultaneously with a gangrenous appendicitis. The appendiceal location of abdominal pregnancy is exceptional in our context. If clinical examination is sometimes inconclusive, the abdominopelvic ultrasonography confirms the diagnosis as in most of ectopic pregnancies. The treatment of choice is surgical.

  72. Dr. Richa Bhartiya and Dr. Ranvijoy Narayan Singh

    Cytodiagnosis of subcutaneous nodules are mainly done in the investigation of lesions clinically suspicious of tumour recurrence or metastasis. The FNA in the initial diagnosis as compared to open biopsy is not preferred. We have done a prospective cytopathological study in 142 cases to evaluate the efficacy of FNA in these lesions. The study was done in 142 cases of subcutaneous nodules who had come to Patna Medical College & Hospital (PMCH), Patna and a Private Laboratory situated near PMCH in between December 2010 to November 2012. FNA was done by using 23 gauge needle. The smears were stained by PAP, H&E and air-dried MGG stain and evaluated with clinical & radiological correlation. Cytohistological correlation was done wherever possible. A total number of 142 cases of subcutaneous nodules were aspirated. There were 88 males (62%) and 54 females (38%). Age ranged from 1-68 years. Aspiration done from different sites with maximum from lower extremity 55 (38.7%), followed by chest 26 (18.3%). Out of 142 cases, benign neoplasms were 75 (52.8%), infective were 29 (20.4%), malignant were 21 (14.7%) & cystic lesions were 17 (11.9%). Among the neoplasms, lipoma was the commonest followed by tubercular cold abscess in the infective group

  73. Mehnaz Rajab and Dr. Sehrish ashraf

    As a diagnostic fluid, saliva offers superiority over serum due to both aninexpensive n noninvasive collection method by specially trained persons and a cost-effective approach for screening of large populations. These noninvasive tests offer advantages over other tests that involve invasive techniques such as sampling of the subgingival flora or taking a blood sample. Collection of saliva offers a reduced risk of infection compared to the collection of serum. Moreover, obtaining saliva samples from infant, disabled or anxious patients, is much easier than obtaining other samples. There is a lot of useful components-changing information in saliva when a person is in sick. Therefore, we define these changing components as “biomarkers”. As better diagnosissaves lives, utilization of biomarkers as early predictors for clinical disease not only contributes to the effective prevention and treatment of diseases, but also enhances the assessment of potential health risk.

  74. Gayathri, V. and Kiruba, D.

    Medicinal plants are the most exclusive source of life saving drugs for majority of the world’s population. The use of medicinal plant extract increases the body’s immune system and lowers the allergies and asthma. The four medicinal plants taken for the present study possess digestive property. The experiment conducted to study the biochemical parameters of the leaves of the four medicinal plants viz., R. tomentosa, P. guajava, C, aurantium and C. limonum showed a significantly higher protein, carbohydrate and chlorophyll content in C. aurantium. The chlorophyll 'b' and total chlorophyll content was found to be significantly higher in R. tomentosa.

  75. Sudha Sambyal Malik and Laura, J. S.

    Many plant derived compounds have been used as drugs both in their original form and in semi-synthetic form. Camptothecin (CPT), a pyrole quinoline alkaloid, is one of the most promising anticancer drug of 21st century. It was first extracted from Camptotheca acuminata, since then it has been reported to exist in several plant species and also in plant endophytic fungi. Indiscriminate harvesting of these species for drug has led to a serious threat to these species. The distribution of CPT in the plant kingdom is being described here, so that the stress on the existing sources of CPT can be relieved by finding alternative sources.

  76. Uma Mageshwari, S., Thilagamani, S., Mary Jenefer Sharmila, P. and Arul Mozhi, R.

    Modern day changes in lifestyle and dietary pattern have favoured an increase in the occurrence of non- communicable yet chronic and degenerative diseases called as lifestyle diseases. Among the lifestyle diseases, heart diseases occupy a primary place. Changes in lifestyle, rising consumption of sugar, junk foods, animal fat and less physical activity account for the rising global rates of heart diseases. This study was undertaken with the objective to study the risk for cardiovascular disease among industrial women employees. One eighty women in the age group of 20- 40 years working in a textile mill were selected for the study. The selected industrial women were assessed for the risk of cardiovascular diseases using a formulated risk assessment index (RAI).

  77. Behkami, A. N. and Bordoo, R.

    Statistical scission model has been applied to study fission fragment angular distributions induced in heavy-ion reaction on 232Th and 237Np target. The ratio of spherical to effective moments of inertia as a function of spin I has been investigated for 16O+ 232Th fission reactions.

  78. Dadasaheb Mhaske, Mayur Kshirsagar, Namrata Singh, Samreen Khan and Prof. Rahul Kulkarni

    Fog screen is patented technology that creates a seamless, thin and flat layer of screen floating in the air. Fog screen is a miracle in itself – here fog is generated using normal fog machine, so it won’t make you wet. Fog screen captures the light from the regular projector, so anything you can see on computer screen you can also project in the air. “In this paper we are presenting a new and fascinating way of human computer interaction, because we are developing a fog screen for computer screen projection with 3D gesture implementation. Developing solution for 3D gesture implementation and building an inexpensive low budget fog screen is important part of this paper.”

  79. andhikumar, R. and Dr. Subramani, K. N

    A novel method for the synthesis of a terpenoid, Mikanecic acid diesters from Baylis-Hillman adducts, (alkyl-3-hydroxy-2-methylenepropanoates by treatment with aldehyde react with various acrylates catalyzed by TiCl4) which on treatment with potassium carbonate led directly to the formation of Mikanecic acid diesters, through Diels-Alder type self-dimerization of 1,3-butadiene-2-carboxylate is reported using with potassium carbonate. The product is obtained in good yield.

  80. Ahmad AbuKashabeh, Priyabrata Pal, Sameer Al-Asheh and Fawzi Banat

    The objective of this research work was to study the formation of heat stable salts (HSS) during thermal degradation of Methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) solvent and to check the corrosion rates for different alloys. HSS such as acetate, formate, sulfates, thiosulfate, glycolate, nitrate etc. were formed with varying concentrations during thermal degradation of MDEA. The corrosion rates of three different specimen of alloys, namely SS-304, SS-321 and Hastelloy-x, under thermal degradation of lean MDEA (46.34 weight %) from Gasco, Habshan (Abu Dhabi) and 46 weight% fresh MDEA loaded with H2S and RSH at 130ºC were observed. The corrosion rate using lean MDEA at a stirring speed of 700 rpm and at 130°C were observed as SS-321 (0.2977 millimeter/year as ‘mmy’), Hastelloy-x (0.1859 mmy) and SS-304 (0.11396 mmy). The fresh MDEA solutions were degraded at 130ºC with and without stirring pat 700 rpm. Formation of HSS was much higher when fresh MDEA degraded thermally without stirring. Thermally degraded fresh MDEA solution without stirring has no effect on SS-304 but corroded the Hastelloy-x at 1.0214 mmy. Thermally degraded fresh MDEA solution loaded with H2S and RSH and stirred at 700 rpm corroded the specimens most as SS-321 (64.7144 mmy), SS-304 (60.8032 mmy) and Hastelloy-x (0.2678 mmy).

  81. Chellapandian Kannan, Ilavarasi Jeyamalar, J. and Anitha Mary Maybel, S.

    The conventional risks in the production of petrochemical products are higher than that of the bio-based products. Glycerol is the major byproduct of biodiesel industry. Due to the increased environmental awareness and cost effectiveness, we have developed an eco-friendly catalyst for effective utilization of glycerol by converting it into polyglycerol. The heterogeneous catalytic polymerization of glycerol was investigated with the influence of green carbon as a catalyst. The catalyst is characterized by various spectroscopic techniques. The FT-IR analysis of the catalyst reveals the absence of OH group. The XRD analysis reveals that the green carbon synthesized has a modified graphite structure. SEM and EDX analysis gives details of the surface morphology and the percentage of carbon present in the green carbon. Experiments were carried out in a batch reactor containing 1.26 wt% of glycerol, 0.01 wt% of catalysts at 300oC and 3 hr duration which proved to be the optimum conditions for maximum conversion of glycerol. The resultant biocompatible lower molecular weight polyglycerol were characterized by FT-IR, 1H NMR and MALDI-TOF techniques. The results obtained reveal the synthesized green carbon as a promising low cost material for the production of polyglycerol.

  82. Vahid Motamedi, Majid Aliasgari and Azar Karimi

    Given the importance of the employment of women and its impact on the formation of the character of the children, the main purpose of this study was to compare moral judgment of children with employed mothers and children with housewife mothers. The population of this study consisted of 5th grade primary school girls in Rey city of Tehran. Sampling method was based on cluster random sampling. Sixty students with employed mothers and 60 students with housewife mothers were selected as the statistical sample. To collect the data, the moral judgment questionnaire was used. In order to analyze the data, in addition to descriptive statistics, conclusive statistics such as T test was also used. The results indicated that the average moral judgment among students having employed mother was higher than the ratio of the housewife mothers.

  83. Dr. Ravi, P. and Subhalakshmi R.

    This study aims at identifying the factors that influence Brand Loyalty of cosmetic products in Tirunelveli city. Many factors were identified in prior researches such as brand name, product quality, product design, price, store environment, promotion, service quality, expiry date, purchase decision and so on. This study aims at focusing only six major factors that is to say, brand name, product quality, product design, price, store environment and promotion. The population of the study comprises of all female consumers of Tirunelveli city. The sample of 120 female consumers is randomly chosen from important vicinity of the city. The data is collected using a structured questionnaire. Descriptive statistics, one way Anova and Pearson correlation are used to analyze the data. The findings signify that the factors brand name, product quality, product design, price and store environment have significant relationship with brand loyalty. The factors product quality and brand name have the highest impact on brand loyalty of cosmetics, whereas price has the lowest impact on it.

  84. Dr. Ravi, P. and Thangaraja, A.

    This study is initiated to understand and analyse real happening of Supermarkets and their marketing intelligence system in Tirunelveli city. The researcher would tend to study real applications and systems of supermarket towards marketing intelligence that becomes vital and many organizations recent times concentrate highly on this way.

  85. Mariammal, A. and Dr. Rajalingam, N.

    With the influence of the Internet booming and global competition expanding, E-Commerce (EC) is receiving considerable attention worldwide. Currently, most people in this new era are thinking about whether or not EC could bring unlimited business opportunities and new competitive advantages. Among all EC applications, Internet-based stock trading is really one of the best ways to understand the attraction and popularity of EC. The purpose of this paper is to figure out the decision factors that affect the online stock trading system. This study had scrutinized some factors that are related to affect customers decision in adopting an online stock trading system and the level of stock market awareness among the share trading customers with respect to their socioeconomic factor, trading preferences, strategies, evaluations, perception and identified which category people are mostly attracted by the online share trading and the risk factors were analyzed. A sample of 178 online share trading customers was used for the study. In addition, this study provides some useful findings and implications for the academician, customers, and practitioners in the area of online stock trading.

  86. Basile KokouNouatin, Polycarpe Gouthon, Pierre HoundjoviDansou, Jean-Marie Falola, Folly Messan, Daniel Amousou-Guénou, Issiako Bio Niganand Brigitte AffidéhomèTonon

    The objective of this study was to compare the physical capacities and the match physiological data of back players with those of front players, belonging all to the handball elite of the Republic of Benin. The study sample included 17 players (23.52 ± 0.79 years) with 9.5 ± 0.5 years of competition handball practice. For an experimental match, they were randomly separated in two teams (A and B), each of which included back players (BP) and front players (FP). The main data were the playing positions (BP and FP) and the results of the following tests: 30 m isolated sprint (S30), repeated-sprint ability (RSA), squat jump (SJ), counter movement jump (CMJ), physiological match data, body mass index (BMI), as well as heart rate (HR). The results of BP were better than those of FP for RSA (p < 0.01) and the distance covered in match (p < 0.05). This study provides the first analysis as well on the physical and physiological parameters as on the match data in Beninese elite handball players, according to their playing position. The results suggest that the physical and anthropometric characteristics should be included in any testing process of young handball players in the Republic of Benin. This could be added to the data of the literature and contribute to talent identification and development.

  87. Priya, V. S., Ali Fathima Sabirneeza, A. and Subhashini, S.

    The inhibitive effect of Ceiba Pentandra (CP) seed extract on the corrosion of mild steel in Sulphuric acid was investigated using gravimetric, potentiodynamic and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) techniques. The results showed that CP seed extract could serve as effective inhibitor for corrosion of mild steel in Sulphuric acid. The percentage inhibition increased with increasing concentration of the extract at room temperature. Maximum inhibition efficiency of 90% was obtained with 0.5% v/v concentration. The inhibition efficiencies obtained from impedance and polarization measurements were in good agreement. Poteniodynamic polarization studies clearly revealed the mixed behaviour of the CP seed extract. The studies showed that the inhibition efficiency was significantly affected by the temperature of the medium.

  88. Bamini, B., Mani, P., Ganesan, S. and Natarajan, S.

    Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder which results due to chronic hyperglycemia associated with the imbalance in carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism. Presently available several drugs reduce the hyperglycemia in diabetes mellitus; unfortunately these drugs have side effects. While, herbal drugs are mostly out of toxic or side effect than the chemical drug. Hence, the aim of the present study was designed to compare the possible therapeutic effects of Ipomea sepiaria leaves extracts against streptozotocin (stz) induced diabetic rats. The ethanolic extract of I. sepiaria was administered orally in an aqueous solution at a dose of 500mg/kg body wt. to diabetic rats. Serum glucose level and lipid profile were estimated after administration of the extracts. Applied doses did not cause any acute toxicity or behavioural changes. The blood glucose levels was significantly (P<0.001) reduced when compared to the streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats. The lipid profile such as Total Cholestol, Total Glycerides, Low Density Lipo proteins and Very Low Density Lipoproteins levels were significantly decreased in I. sepiaria treated diabetic animals. In contrast, High Density Lipoproteins levels were increased when compared to the Diabetic control rats. In conclusion, I. sepiaria leaves produced a significant hypoglycemic effect and also hypolipidemic activity at dose level of 500 mg/kg.

  89. Usharani, R. and Lakshmi, U.K.

    Handloom Industry is the second largest industry next to agriculture providing livelihood to millions of weavers in India. Handloom sector plays a very important role in the country’s economy. Handloom weaving in India is an inherited art where weavers learn to weave from their ancestors and thus this craft is practised widely in rural areas and is providing employment to a wide section of rural artisans. Despite the fact that Indian handloom industry has made a distinct place in the world, this sector has not attained proper importance as far as weaving related health problems and their effects are concerned. Several health hazards are associated with weaving and related activities which may cause stress and strain to weavers and pose several health related risk factors to them. Majority of the weavers are facing severe occupational health problems such as Asthma, Tuberculosis, Inflammation of respiratory system, Blood pressure, Obesity, Cardiovascular diseases and Diabetes mellitus. The present research was planned to study the socio economic back ground, dietary pattern, life style and work pattern of the handloom weavers of Thiruvannamalai district, who form a sizable segment of the weaving community in the state. The study also aimed at assessing the nutritional status of the handloom weavers, identify the occupational health problems and to plan and implement functional food based approaches and nutrition education to overcome the health related problems.

  90. Ashoke Bhattacharya

    The present paper deals with melissopalynological analysis of honey samples collected from seventeen blocks of Nadia district, West Bengal, India. It showed the dominance of Parthenium sp. pollen in the pollen spectra of honey samples. The weed emerged as prominent pollen type in the spectra of seven ‘unifloral’ honey samples belonging to the blocks of Karimpur-I, Karimpur-II, Nabadwip, Krishnaganj, Hanskhali, Santipur and Ranaghat-I and contributed second highest percentage as individual pollen type in ten ‘multifloral’ honeys belonging to the blocks of Tehatta-I, Tehatta-II, Kaliganj, Nakashipara, Chapra, Krishnagar-I, Krishnagar-II, Ranaghat-II, Chakdah and Haringhata. This result affirms about the preference of bees to the weed as their forage. As most of the crop plants are cross pollinated, the role of the pollinators in crop yield is well documented and bees are considered to be the best performer in relation to the pollination service. In the context of the characteristic behavior of ‘floral fidelity’ of the bees, the findings of the present paper creates concern as presence of the weed Parthenium sp. in the vicinity of the crop field may distract the bees and pose potential hindrance to ensure pollination service to the local crops flowering synchronously.

  91. Gayathri, V. and Kiruba, D.

    The plant Rhodomyrtus tomentosa is native to Southern and Southeastern Asia. The variety parviflora occurs in India and Srilanka. Rhodomyrtus tomentosa has been employed in traditional Thai medicine to treat colic diarrhea, dysentery, abscesses, haemorrhage and gynecopathy. The present study was carried out to evaluate the phytochemicals present in the leaf powder and also to study the fluorescent characters of the leaf powder. The phytochemical study showed the presence of terpenoids, quinones, oil&fats and phenol in water, chloroform and ethanol extracts of the leaf powder. Flavonoid was present only in chloroform and benzene extracts. The fluorescence analysis of leaf powder of R.tomentosa showed varied colour with the treatment of different chemicals.

  92. Okello, Godfrey. Ouma, Evans., Ngode, Lucas., Mulongo, Leonard., Arogo, Philis., Adhiambo, Millicent and Musebe, Richard

    Bondo in Siaya County, Kenya experiences food insecurity due to irregular rainfall patterns and persistent drought. Irrigation farming is a means of solving this problem, but it has low adoption rates. This study examined the socio economic factors responsible for low adoption of irrigation farming among the predominant Christian community in the sub-county. The study used descriptive research design. A random sample of 75 farmers practicing rain fed farming and 75 farmers using irrigation were interviewed. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, gross margins and Chi-Square with emphasis on two major crops grown in the area. Results showed that irrigation had a positive effect on food production with a larger proportion of household members in the irrigated farming receiving higher incomes. Male headed households were better adopters in both irrigated (32%) and rain fed (35%) compared to the female headed household at 4% and 10% in irrigated and rain fed respectively. The age brackets 40-50 years old were better adopters at 68% for males and 41% for females. Married people were better adopters at (41%) in both irrigated and rain fed farming, implying that they are more concerned about food security compared to the other categories studied with only 8% of the younger generation involved in farming activities. Educated people were better adopters of irrigation. Gender and age of the household head also influence adoption of irrigation. These factors are key to adoption of irrigation technologies.

  93. Lavanya, C., Rajesh Dhankar and Sunil Chhikara

    Noise acts as an environmental stressor, activating the body's remunerative mechanisms to stress. The impacts on humans of noises above the acceptable range have been studied extensively. Other problems related to noise include compromised learning, stress, high blood pressure, sleep loss, disorder and lost productivity, and a general reduction in the quality of life and opportunities for composure. The World Health Organization strives to warn, raise awareness of and promote actions against noise pollution. Public education appears to be the best method as suggested by the respondents. However, government and NGOs can play a significant role in the noise pollution. The aim of the present review is to highlight the sources, effect along with noise law awareness.

  94. Boominathan, S., Sureka, M., Ramesh, R. and Deivendran, S.

    Laevicaulis alte is one of the important pulmonate pests infesting the vegetable crops. Mostly they feed on vegetation available in and around their habitat. According to the malacologist point of view the slug Laevicaulis alte is not inferior to any other insect in damaging the agricultural crops. The controlling of this particular slug pest is important to minimize the infestation on agricultural land. For the past two decades, malacologists recommend the use of inorganic synthetic compounds such as copper sulphate, calcium sulphate, calcium cyanide etc. to control the molluscan species. But, all these compounds may also affect non–target organisms, soil texture and other organisms which are living in the soil. Moreover these compounds are carcinogenic, highly non-degradable in nature and in residual concentrations may cause skin rashes in human beings. In the recent years, malacologists are severely attempting environmentally safe plant based phyto - compounds to control various types of terrestrial molluscan pests. Hence, the present study has been initiated to evaluate the efficacy of some specific plant extracts as molluscicides in controlling the slug Laevicaulis alte by studying their impact on intestine process.

  95. Dinesh Pandey, Devendra, K. Payasi and Narendra Pandey

    The experiment was carried out during kharif 2002 and 2003 at research farm, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur, Chhattisgarh India. Experiment was comprised of different levels of inorganic fertilizer and its conjunction with different organic fertilizers. In all 12 treatments, comprising of different N, P and K levels and its conjunction with organic fertilizers were laid out in randomized complete block design replicated thrice. Yield and yield attributing characters was significantly increased with increasing fertilizer levels from 50:30:20 kg, NPK ha-1 to 150:80:60 kg, NPK ha-1 during both the year of experiment. Seed yield and yield attributes were significant among different treatments. Application of 100:60:40 kg NPK ha-1 + blending of N with cow-dung urine (T9) or poultry manure (T10) resulted higher effective tillers, panicle length, and test weight which is statistically at par to that of inorganic level 150:80:60 kg NPK ha-1 (T1). Almost similar trend was noticed when said organic fertilizer was combined with lower level of inorganic fertilizer (50:30:20 kg NPK ha-1), which tended to produced above yield components comparable to that of inorganic fertilizer level of 100:60:40 kg NPK ha-1. Nutrient uptake by seed was higher if inorganic fertilizer were used with combination with organic fertilizer. Uptake of NPK kg/ha was maximum under in-organic level of 150:80:60 kg NPK/ha and was followed by inorganic level of 100:60:40 kg, NPK/ha along with organic sources i.e. blending of N with cow dung uren (T9), poultry manure (T10) or slow release nitrogen (T12).Thus it was concluded that use of inorganic fertilizer with different organic fertilizers sources are better for sustaining growth, yield and nutrient uptake by hybrid rice.

  96. Ali Saad R. Alsubaie

    The provision of good indoor air quality (IAQ) in schools is essential for students' health as well as for their academic achievement. The purpose of the present study was to assess the ventilation rates in a representative sample of (N= 36) primary schools in Eastern Province by using CO2 as an indicator of ventilation. The results revealed that only four schools (10%) of the total primary schools selected in this study have adequate ventilation. The average mean CO2 rates were 1333.9± 475.4 ppm and 1198.5± 303.6 ppm at 9:00 AM in rented and governmental schools building, respectively. On the other hand, at 12:00 PM the mean CO2 rates were 1780.4± 636.5 ppm and 1563.3± 595.7 ppm in rented and governmental schools buildings, respectively. Interestingly, the average mean of CO2 rates in rented schools were significantly higher at 9:00 AM and 12:00 PM (p= 0.020) and (p= 0.028), respectively. In conclusion, the ventilation rate is relatively poor since mean CO2 rates in schools exceeded the recommended guideline (1000 ppm) in the majority of schools. Raising awareness of schools and communities regarding the importance of ensuring good ventilation in classroom is highly required. Policy makers should work hard in parallel with community to ensure better healthy and safe schools environment. Emphasis should be given to the research conducted in different schools regarding broader aspects of school environment and their potential hazards.

  97. Aqsa Parveen and Raj Kumar Verma

    This paper presents the results of a study on ethnomedicinal plants used by rural inhabitants in the Jhansi district of Bundelkhand region, India. Since the information of ethnomedicinal plant is restricted to mostly few knowledgeable rural inhabitants and they are decreasing in number and there is a severe danger of traditional knowledge vanishing because the younger generations are not attracted to carry on this tradition. This analysis publicized that, the rural inhabitants used 39 plant species distributed in 34 genera belonging to 18 families to treat more than 41 ailments and diseases. Among all the plant species, found to be most dominant trees followed by shrubs. In this study most dominant families were Fabaceae and leaves were the most frequently used plant part for treatment of ailments and diseases. This study showed that various people in the remote villages of Jhansi district still continue to depend on ethno-medicinal plants for treatment of various ailments and diseases.

  98. Punitha, N. and Shettu, N.

    The present study was carried out to investigate the effect of fruit pulp extract of Carica papaya (seeded and seedless fruits) on male albino Wistar rats. The experimental animals were divided into three groups, One group served as control, Group- II , received papaya pulp extract from seeded fruits and Group - III received papaya pulp extract from seedless fruits. Both groups were orally administered with pulp extract (10ml/kg/body weight) for 60 days. Pituitary gonadotropins (LH, FSH) and steroid hormone (testosterone) analysis was carried out on 21st, 41st and 61st day. There was a significant decrease (p<0.05) in the concentration of LH, FSH and testosterone on the 20th, 40th and 60th day. These results may indicate that Carica papaya fruit pulp extract of seeded and seedless possess antifertility adverse effects.

  99. Dr. Ravi, P. and Dhanalakshmi, A.

    Green marketing is not only about green consumption but also about waste minimization. Based on literature review and data collection from 74 respondents the paper studied the consumption behavior towards soaps and shampoos. We infer from the analysis that consumers prefer FMCG products for their brand credibility and quality and not for their green marketing practices.





Rosane Cavalcante Fragoso, Brasil


Chief Scientific Officer and Head of a Research Group

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