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September 2014

Variations in the shape of aorta are very rare. These variations could be clinically significant and potentially fatal. Here we report a case of grooved ascending aorta with sinuous descending aorta associated with aneurysm formation and its clinical implications.

Antibiotic resistance bacteria are one of the major problems challenging the health care system in general. The Antibacterial activity of fresh (Onion) Allium Cepa and (Ginger) Zingiber officinale juices against multidrug resistance bacteria viz., Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus Subtillis was investigated using agar well diffusion method. This study indicates that the fresh juices of Allium Cepa and Zingiber officinale possess significant antibacterial potency against multidrug resistant bacteria.

The objectives of the study were isolation and speciation of malassezia, correlation of clinical condition with different species, identification of risk factors associated malassezia infection and comparison of clinically significant isolates with isolates from normal skin. Speciation of clinically significant normal samples were done by morphology of colony, colony colour, cell shape & size, budding pattern and biochemical reactions M.furfur (30%), M.pachydermatis (30%), M.globosa (20%), M.obtusa (20%) were isolated from patient scalp scrapings.

Background: The ability to respond quickly and effectively to a cardiac arrest situation rests on nurses being competent, prepared and up-to-date in the emergency life-saving procedure of cardiopulmonary resuscitation. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of educational training of cardiopulmonary resuscitation on nurse's practices regarding cardiopulmonary resuscitation in pediatric intensive care unit and Emergency Department. Materials and Methods: a quasi-experimental research design was used.

Background: Celiac disease (CD) is an immune-mediated systemic condition triggered by dietary gluten occurring in genetically susceptible individuals. CD has a wide range of clinical manifestations. A number of serologic tests were implemented in the diagnosis of CD. Objectives: This case-control study was arranged to evaluate the validity of clinical presentations and to assess the clinical utility of serologic tests in the diagnosis of CD in children in Diyala province.

Secondary school students are exposed to social, educational, vocational and psychological problems which they are unable to handle on their own. However, many students, instead of seeking counselling when they have problems, tend to keep them to themselves. This necessitated this study whose title was ‘a comparative study of factors influencing guidance and counselling help-seeking behaviour among public secondary school students in Nyeri and Nairobi counties, Kenya’.

This study sought to determine the presence and the prevalence of PTSD among children exposed to post election violence (PEV) in Eldoret Sub County, Kenya. The study applied ex-post facto correlational research design. The study drew its population from the 1,218 class eight children in 8 purposively selected public schools categorized as urban, peri-urban, rural and slum schools in Eldoret Sub-County. Stratified random sampling method was utilized to give a sample of 192 pupils.

Social support undoubtedly increases resilience following an adversity. This study examined the buffering effect of social support and resilience to post traumatic stress disorder among children in Eldoret Sub-County, Kenya. The study applied ex post facto correlational research design. The study drew its population from the 1,218 class eight children in 8 purposively selected public schools categorized as urban, peri-urban, rural and slum schools in Eldoret Municipality. Stratified random sampling method was utilized to give a sample of 192 pupils.

Introduction: Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are rapidly becoming major causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide, including the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries. Although Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and Diabetes mellitus (DM) are two important non-communicable diseases, the magnitude and the distribution of established as well as emerging risk factors for ACS have not been fully studied in the GCC countries in a large scale epidemiological context.

Objective of the experimental trial was to study efficacy of herbal methionine supplement Methiorep for improving growth, performance & carcass traits in broilers. Trial was conducted on 200 day-old unsexed broiler chicks (Vencobb), randomly allotted to two treatment groups, T0 & T1 comprising 100 chicks each. Group T0 supplemented with commercial feed only (no over and above Methionine- DLM supplementation was done) and in group T1 commercial feed supplemented with Methiorep (M/S Ayurvet Limited, India) @1.5 kg/tonne of feed.

Background: Good oral hygiene is believed to be the result of level of knowledge of the individuals about the oral health and its great importance. Low level of knowledge results in poor oral hygiene practices. Objectives: The objective of this study was to assess the level of knowledge of secondary school students in Ajman, UAE, and its association with age, grade of study and nationality. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted, among 175 children of grades 6-9 in the emirate of Ajman located in the United Arab Emirates.

The production and classification of sperm shape abnormalities in laboratory animals through administration of chemical agents, has in recent years developed into a very reliable, species and drug specific method of assay for testing the mutagenicity of pharnacotherapeutic agent. In this paper we present our observations on the number, percentages and types of dysmorphisms induced by the intraperitoneal introduction of Vincristine Sulphate, a well-known radiomimetic, poly-functional anti-carcinogenic alkaloid, in varying dosage in Male Swiss Albino mice.

Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) has been an uprising in the field of cancer therapy. It is based on the nuclear capture reaction and the fission reactions that occur when a non-radioactive element such as boron is bombarded with thermal neutrons. The primary concern in BNCT is the concentration of the boron compound within the tumor cells. More the concentration of boron compound within the tumor cells better is the action of BNCT. Thus, BNCT is considered to be a biologic mode of treatment rather than a targeted treatment modality.

The objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) has emerged during the past 2 decades as medicine (Oh et al., 2011). This examination type involves direct observation of clinical performance using standardized patients and structured checklists for marking. A variety of areas of medical performance can thus be evaluated, including interviewing skills, physical examination skills, and interpersonal skills (Brosnan et al., 2006 and Selim et al., 2011).

VAP is defined as development of bacterial pneumonia in patients on mechanical ventilation for > 48hrs. Lack of gold standard diagnostic criteria for VAP leads to either over-diagnosis (leading to overuse of antibiotics) or under-diagnosis (leading to delayed antibiotic use), both of which are potentially harmful situation for the patient. A review of literature shows only few studies have been published on VAP in ICU‘s of India.

The first feature of the face to be noticed is the eyes. Loss of eye due to any reason will cause psychological stress to the patient. Replacement of missing eye would definitely restore the patient’s psychological comfort and social well-being. Many techniques of fabrication of ocular prosthesis are described in this literature requiring artistic expertise. A simple and time saving technique of fabrication of ocular prosthesis without sacrificing the primary objective is presented in this article.

Background: Perianal fistula is a chronic inflammation that may be simple or complex. It mainly affects adult males. Their precise diagnosis is important as improper evaluation could result in many unnecessary operations or serious post-operative complications. Aim of work: Was to describe MRI findings of different types of perianal fistulas and to enhance its role in adding great information to the surgeon. Patients and Methods: The study population comprised of 58 patients ranging in age from 8 to 68 years with clinical evidence or suspicion of anal fistulas.

Continuing education for professional nurses is essential for effective nursing care. The rapid changes taking place within healthcare systems have increased the pressure on nurses to engage in continuing education programs. Continuing education improves knowledge base, skill level, change behaviors, attitudes and improve clinical outcomes which have an important role in staff development. The present study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of two teaching methods on nurse’s knowledge regarding hepatic encephalopathy.

Background: Alpha -2 agonists are used in subarachnoid, epidural, regional blocks for their onset, duration and postoperative analgesia.(1-3)We compared the effects of adding clonidine and dexmedetomidine, as both are alpha -2 agonist, to a 35 ml solution of 0.25% bupivacaine in supraclavicular brachial plexus block. Materials and Methods: Eighty patients of ASA 1 and 2 posted for upper limb orthopaedic surgeries were enrolled for a prospective, randomized, double-blind trial. Patients were divided into two groups, the Clonidine group C and the Dexmedetomidine group D.

Teaching anatomy faces challenge as a huge portion has to be covered in a limited time frame. The attitude of students towards learning anatomy is also changing as they are constantly attracted to newer methods of teaching which also involves active participation from their side. With the dearth of cadavers in most of the medical institutions it becomes imperative on the part of anatomy teachers to make learning anatomy more attractive, effective and learner centric.

Children deserve safe and stable violent free parents, who will love, protect and see them grow in a violent free homes or environments. Therefore, for a child to grow normally without major developmental or psychological challenges, it is important to shine a light on domestic violence also known as family violence and its effects on children in all aspects of development, such as cognitive impairment, suicide attempt, damage to social, physical or emotional development and the way forward in order to address this predicament.

Objectives: a case-control study has carried out on term neonates with birth asphyxia, whom were admitted to 1st neonatal care unit at Basra Maternity and Children Hospital, to assess the frequency of birth asphyxia, its clinical features and some related neonatal, maternal (labour and delivery) variable as well as its outcome. Method: a total of (85) full term neonates, 50(58.82%) males and 35(41.17%) females, were recruited in the study from the first of December 2011 to 1st of December 2012.

The ecological distribution of enteric bacteria in Clarias gariepinus was studied in Gubi reservoir, Bauchi State, Nigeria. The study, showed the presence of some members of the Enterobacteriaceae family in the samples analyzed. From the gills, the following were isolated and identified such as Escherichia coli (13.3%), Shigella species (15.6%), Salmonella species (11.1%). From the intestines, the following bacteria were isolated such as Escherichia coli (8.5%), Klebsiella species (8.5%) Pseudomonas aeruginosa (25.4%), Shigella species (5.0%), Salmonella species (25.4%).

Protein profiling during ex vitro multiple shoot regeneration has been reported in three Rhizophoraceae mangroves viz. Bruguiera parviflora, Kandelia candel and Rhizophora apiculata occurring in Odisha. The effect of exogenous application of NaCl and proline on protein changes was evaluated during the process of multiple shooting in treated and non-treated hypocotyls. The polypeptides of the molecular weight (MW) 29 & 20 KDa appeared to be common in untreated hypocotyls of all the studied species. R. apiculata synthesized an unique polypeptide of MW 14 KDa in normal hypocotyls. In K.

Ocular trauma is the principle cause of unilateral blindness in the world today. Commonly occuring in young, ocular injuries impose an enduring burden through out the most productive years of their life. A prospective study of 50 cases of open globe injury from the casualty and out-patient department of Bapuji Hospital and Chigateri General Hospital, Davangere, India. Details regarding whether the patient was under the influence of alcohol at the time of injury, mode of injury, type, grade and zone of injury was noted.

96 garlic accessions assembled at Pune were evaluated using RAPD and ISSR markers to determine the genetic relationship among accessions exhibiting morphological variations. A total of 160 decamer RAPD and 100 ISSR primers were used, of these 20 RAPD and 14 ISSR primers showed good amplification and polymorphism. RAPD Primers generated total 189 bands out of which 65 were polymorphic, showing 34.39% polymorphism. OPM 09 exhibited the maximum polymorphism (63.63%) while OPE03 shown the least polymorphism (12.5%).

During the present study, water quality index (WQI) was calculated to assess the water quality of Barna stream network of Narmada River basin in Madhya Pradesh. A total of eight physicochemical parameters viz., pH, conductivity, dissolved oxygen, total hardness, nitrate etc. were considered to estimate the water quality index. The methodology for physicochemical analysis was followed from APHA (1998) and Adoni (1985).

A soil pot culture experiment was carried out in wire house condition to investigate the response of Onion (Allium cepa cv. N-53) grown in saline water and amended with supplementary Phosphorus (P). Plants were subjected to different electrical conductivity (EC) solution viz. 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 dS/m prepared by mixing NaCl, Na2SO4, CaCl2 and MgCl2. For remediation approach two salinity levels (EC 6 and 8 dS/m) were subjected with combination of 40ppm Phosphorus. The results demonstrated that salt stress hampered the plant growth such as fresh and dry weight of plant.

The anxiolytic effect of hydroalcohol extract of Feronia limonia (HEF) was investigated in the present study. The extract was orally administered to the Balb/C mice for a period of 7 days at the graded dose of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg, bd.wt. Mice treated with 100 and 200 mg/kg bd.wt extract, significantly increased the time spent by the mice in open arm in elevated plus maze test (EPM), increased the square crossing in open field test (OFT) and increased the numbers of punished lick and shocks received in Vogels conflict test (VCT).

Pulmonary function tests are useful in evaluation of respiratory health of a person. Peak flow meter is the one of the simplest means of objectively assessing and monitoring the airway function. The normal peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) is 400-600 L/min or 6-10 L/sec. PEFR increase in male till third decade and in females till second decade, and later decline with as age increases. Peak flow meter helps to regularly monitor and in self management of asthma.

Background: Inflammation plays a central role in atherosclerosis. In multiple epidemiologic studies, inflammatory biomarkers such as high sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), has been associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) and it has been directly implicated in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis The present study was designed to show the anti-inflammatory and anti-lipemic effect of 6-8 months of statin treatment via the measurement of serum hs-CRP and lipid profile parameters.

An experiment was conducted during kharif, 2012 to evaluate the efficacy of seven insecticides viz., emamectin benzoate 5 SG at 11 g a.i.ha-1, emamectin benzoate 5 SG at 22 g a.i.ha-1, profenophos 50 EC at 500 g a.i.ha-1, profenophos 50 EC at 1000 g a.i.ha-1, spinosad 45 SC at 100 g a.i.ha-1, bifenthrin 10 EC at 100 g a.i.ha-1 and Bacillus thuringiensis at 5 WP at 25 g a.i.ha-1 against DBM (Plutella xylostella) on cabbage of which profenophos 50 EC (1000 g a.i.ha-1), applied twice as foliar spray was found to be most effective in controlling the P.

Acanthaceae is a family of dicotyledonous flowering plants containing almost 250 genera and about 4,000 species. Acanthaceae is a family well known for its medicinal values due to the presence of valuable phytochemical compounds. The knowledge of the properties of the medicinal plants is growing as a result of which research and testing are been carried out throughout the world s they could be a alternative option for allopathic medicine.

An attempt was made to find out the effect of sub lethal concentration of heavy metal mercury (25 ppm for 48h ) on the ovarian tissues of Loccotrophes ruber the insects the ovaries are composed of several ovarian tubes termed ovarioles . The classification of the ovary is essentially based on the general architecture of the ovariole. The female reproductive systems of the Loccotrophes ruber is composed of two ovaries, each consists of five telotophic type of ovarioles.

Gelabeel is an oxbow lake of upper Assam. A wide range of fishing gears and methods are used by the fisher folk of the wetland. The survey results revealed that about 14 categories of fishing gears and methods are in use for fishing in Gelabeel. Use of fine meshed net, over exploitation of fish during festival seasons, use of poison are some of the harmful practices of fishing observed in the study area. ‘Katal mara’ or ‘jeng fishing’ is another destructive fishing technique observed during the study. These are potential threats to the fish biodiversity of the wetland.

Despite the importance of cyclopoid copepod community in the global carbon cycle, diversity studies on copepods in Lakshadweep islands have usually been concentrated on calanoid group and little is known about the marine cyclopoid groups. The seasonal abundance, diversity and community structure of cyclopoid copepods in Kavarathi atoll, from April 2013 (premonsoon), September 2013 (monsoon) and January 2014, is presented. A total of 28 cyclopoids belonging to 4 subgenera, 4 genera and 3 families were identified of which 21 are new records to Kavarathi lagoon.

The study assessed the effectiveness of the IFAD Community-Based Natural Resource Management Programme (CBNRMP) in the reduction of income inequality among beneficiaries in Edo Stale. The objectives were to determine the effectiveness of the programme in reducing income inequality among beneficiaries and examine constraints faced by the beneficiaries in the CBNRM programme.

The waste water discharged from distilleries unit after processing is called distilleries effluent. In a developing country like India distilleries have become a major source of pollution as 88% of its raw materials are converted into waste and discharged into the water bodies, causing water pollution. Though there are many methods to treat polluted waste water and effluent biobased treatment is considered to be the best because of its low cost and simplicity. Hence an attempt was made in this study to treat distillery effluent with plant material.

Aqueous (AEHW) and Methanol (MEHW) extracts of Hypericum wightianum was prepared in different dilutions and screened for antibacterial activity against 4 gram negative and 4 gram positive pathogens. The antibacterial activity of extracts (100, 50, 25 and 12.5%) was evaluated using a standard well assay method. The MEHW showed good antibacterial activity comparing to that of AEHW and MEHW also exhibited higher activity upon gram positive pathogens than gram negative pathogens tested.

Nickel (Ni) is an indispensable micronutrient for plants. At higher concentration Ni becomes toxic for various plant species. Black gram (Vigna mungo L.) seed was grown on different concentration of Ni to study its toxic effect on seedling growth and biochemical parameters. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of nickel on photosynthetic pigment, protein and sugar content and catalase activity in black gram leaves.

In this study, 24 local isolates of Pseudomonas fluorescens have been isolatedfrom soil of different agricultural areas during the period from January to February 2011. The bacteria were identified using biochemical tests and the isolates were tested for their ability to produce secondary metabolites. The secondary metabolites have been identified using gas chromatography mass spectrophotometry (GC-MS), which revealed the four compounds as: (E) dodec-3-ene M.W. 168.32 Dalton, (R )-2 ((s)-amino-4-methylpentanamido)- 4-methypentanoic acid M.W.

A study was conducted to know the variation in the effects of various tillage methods on growth and growth components and the cost of production of wheat cultivation. The methods of tillage studied were zero tillage with residue management and without residue management, bed planting and compared with conventional practice. Number of tiller plant-1 was 4.4, 3.36, 2.44 and 1.3 and plant height was 44.15, 43.42, 39.8 and 36.3cm in zero tillage with mulching, zero tillage without mulching, bed and conventional method respectively.

The present study aims to analyze the monthly variations of heavy metals like Cu, Cd, Zn and Pb in water and sediment samples collected from Cuddalore coast during January to December 2011. The result showed that the accumulation of heavy metals in sediments was higher than the water due to the metal sink in sediment as well as the fresh water runoff. The Cuddalore coast receives the waste from SIPCOT industries, municipal wastes, mining wastes, aquaculture and agricultural discharges are the sources to pollute the study area.

The present study was designed to evaluate the antihypertensive and antihyperlipidemic effect of sinapic acid (SA), a phenolic acid against Nω-nitro-L arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (L-NAME) induced hypertension in male Wistar rats. Hypertension was induced by oral administration of L-NAME (40 mg/kg body weight (bw)) in drinking water for 4 weeks. Rats were treated with SA (10, 20 and 40 mg/kg bw) for four weeks. L-NAME treated rats showed significant increase in heart rate and water intake.

Prawns contain good amount of organic and inorganic constituents. The major constituents are protein, carbohydrate and lipid. The proximate composition including moisture, fat and protein ash are good indicators of physiological condition of an organism. However, quantities of these constituents vary considerably within and between species with respect to size, sexual condition, feeding season and physical activity.

The comparative evaluation of different bioformulations, viz., vegetative cell application, co-inoculation and co-aggregates application of efficient PGPR cells viz., Pseudomonas fluorescens (PF.3) and Bacillus polymyxa (B.19), together with challenge inoculation of Pyricularia oryzae on the enhancement of induced systemic resistance (ISR) in Rice. Pyricularia oryzae pathosystem was studied under pot culture condition with rice cv. ASD.19.

Adjusting the calculation related with the parameters that control the physical behaviors for the fusion phenomena occurs in the controlled thermonuclear fusion reactions needs to fix a very suitable and compatible data or formula for the common factor such as cross sections and/or astrophysical S-factor that play important rules for arriving in acceptable theoretical results for other parameters that give a good agreement with corresponding experimental data.

This paper compares three converter topologies for the implementation of custom power flexible ac transmission system (FACTS)controllers, (DSTATCOM): three multilevel topologies (multipoint clamped (MPC) or Diode clamped multilevel converter (DCMLC), chain or flying capacitor (FCMLI), and nested cell or H –Bridge or Cascaded multilevel). In keeping with the need to implement high-power inverters, switching frequency is restricted to line frequency. The study addresses device count, restrictions on voltage control.

Stability of power system is an important factor in electric system operation. In this paper, power system stabilizer (PSS) based on four controllers were implemented on a single machine infinite bus system for attaining stability. Four controllers used were PI, PD, PID and lead-lag. Then a comparison study was done with the above controllers. These results were simulated in MATLAB. Each controller has its own advantages and disadvantages. The comparative study was done for speed deviations, load angle deviations and terminal voltage deviations.

Engineering properties of an extremely soft marine clay (locally known as Chikoko) were determined using tap water and compared with its properties when Oyorokoto sea water is used. Test results show considerable improvement in its properties when sea water is used. There was a reduction in plasticity index, free swell value, swell pressure and in the maximum dry unit weight, while the unsoaked CBR and optimum moisture content increased. There was however no significant improvement in the unconfined compressive strength (UCS).

The Gain flattened EDFA plays a major role for modern WDM optical application. Use of a Low Pass Cosine Roll OFF Filter and tuning numerical aperture and fiber length for a specific pump power optimizes the gain flattening. The design is simulated using OPTISYSTEM software. The gains are flattened within 29.61dB-30.401dB from 1546nm-1558nm band of wavelength with noise figure (NF) < 5.5dB and bit error rate (BER) <10-36for 16 channel simultaneous amplification in a single stage EDFA.

As the optical signal travels in a fiber waveguide, it suffers attenuation (loss of power). For very long fiber spans, the optical signal may be so attenuated that it becomes too weak to excite reliably the (receiving) photo detector, however the signal may be detected at an expected low bit error rate (-10-9 to _10- 11). To reach destinations that are hundreds of kilometers away, the optical power level of the signal must be periodically conditioned.

In spite of research work in last few years, much information still lacks in our knowledge about migration. Expectancy table procedure gives the expectancy of various demographic events such as to determine the probable life time earnings of a person in a given industry or in a given occupation. Expectancy tables of migration gives information on the expected number of moves a person may make during his remaining life time. In the present study, we have tried to find out the pattern of migration expectancy characterized by age.

Implementation of Good Agricultural Practices, establishing MRL for each combination agricultural crop/pesticide and determination of PHI, is an extensive process involving a lot of interested parties, such as agriculture scientists, analytical chemists, farmers, representatives of legislative and executive bodies, etc.

The present paper describes and studies the flow of two immiscible fluids in a cylindrical porous medium. Initially, the porous medium is partially filled with oil and then water is passed through it. Since oil and water are non-mixing nature of fluids, the instabilities occur at the interface. In this paper, the phenomenon of instabilities in the polyphasic flow through homogeneous porous medium is discussed under the assumption of mean capillary pressure.

Allergy is a steadily increasing health problem for all age groups all over the world. Food allergies mostly against milk, eggs, peanut, soya bean, wheat, nuts, fruits, grass and pollens affect all age groups. Soya bean a member of the legume family, has universal distribution. Both the oil and the flour are used in many sorts of foods as it contains all the essential amino acids required by the human physiology.

The present study is an attempt to undertake the task of verifying the various factors influencing the production of pulses but especially it focuses on Area due to the availability of the data. Hence Production relation revealed that the production of pulses mainly depends on area since from many decades. Though India is a major pulses growing country in the world, it has faced the problem of supply and demand gap in pulses since mid seventies.

Foreign direct investment (FDI) plays a very important role in the economic development of our country. Many development countries like India are facing the deficit of saving. This problem can be solved with the help of foreign direct investment. In this article an analysis is made to find out the merits and demerits of foreign direct investment in India. Oppositions have raised concerns about employment losses, promotion of unhealthy competition among organized small domestic retailers from the market and distortion of culture development.

While the policies of the external agents of development place emphasis on building institutions to assist the poor and women, the practice – oriented reality has to deal with the structural barriers that people, women and the organizations face. Though micro enterprises are Nat a panacea for the chronic problems of unemployment and poverty, yet income generating activity is a viable and effective strategy for achieving significant gains in incomes and assets of even the poorest among the poor.

The aim of this study was to analyze the factors that affect the implementation of banking intermediation include Capital and Profitability. The methods used are descriptive and verificative, with secondary data from financial statements all over 26 Indonesian Regional Development Banks as a research object’s units.

This study emphasizes the predictive ability of aquatic plant as bio monitoring agents of water exposure to pollutants (especially heavy metals) in some rivers passes through Jallawla, Hemrin and Al- Wajeehia cities in Diyala province, Iraq. Chemical profiling of five heavy metals (Fe, Ni, Co, Cd, Pb) was under taken in tissues of two aquatic plants (Ceratophyllum demersum and Myriophyllam spicatum). The sample was collected during November and December 2013. Concentrations of these elements was determine using atomic absorption spectrophotometer.

Multiculturalism is the social hallmark of both developed and developing nations. Countries having a large population, big geographical landscape, diverse flora and fauna such as USA, Canada, Russia, India, and China have also multicultural societies. These countries are not only accommodated their socially diverse groups with great harmony but also integrate them into mainstream national development. Basically plural and multicultural societies are characterized by the existence of multiple ethnic and others socio-cultural groups within the same country or nation-state.

Capacity building is often referred to mean training to advance individual knowledge, in some cases introducing new infrastructure, or quite often exposing staff to better environment through study to improve resource management skills and capabilities. Geoinformatics broadly includes mapping and surveying techniques, remote sensing, photogrammetry, cartography, Global Positioning Systems (GPS) and Geographical Information Systems (GIS).

The introduction of Microfinance Institutions (MFIs) in some Asian countries and the subsequent impact of the scheme on poverty reduction prompted the Nigerian government in 2005 to replicate microfinance scheme in Nigeria as a strategy for poverty reduction. This paper investigates the impact of MFIs in Nigeria. A total of 40 respondents comprising 30 females and 10 males were interviewed through questionnaires. From the investigations, the paper found that microcredit from MFIs impacted positively on clients in the areas of income, employment and household well-being.

There are multiple potential uses for cfDNA in cancer diagnosis and prognosis for example, cfDNA can be used to detect somatic alterations when biopsies are not available. It may also represent a valuable source of tumor DNA when the exact position of a suspected primary lesion is not clearly defined. Aside from these clinical applications, cfDNA may also represent a very important source of biomarkers in population-based studies. The fact that cfDNA can be obtained without invasive or painful procedures makes it particularly.

This paper is part of a larger study into university education for police managers and presents the preliminary findings of the study. The article strives to disclose the higher police education at the Faculty of Public Security Mykolas Romeris University in Lithuania. The trends and developments in higher police education in Lithuania have generally confirmed the principal challenges identified in the Bologna Declaration – standardizes and integrates the Lithuanian education in the European Higher Education Area.

Training is the process of teaching or learning the skills you need to be a teacher in a school. This article studies the effectiveness of training on Male Primary Teachers of West Bengal during the period of Sarva Siksha Avijaan (SSA). It uses a feature of the Primary Education system in which some teachers have been receiving different training during District Primary Education Programme (1997-2002) and Sarva Siksha Avijan (2002-2014). Four categories of teachers are included in the sample viz.

The research undertook an econometric analysis of Nurturing Entrepreneurship in Kenya through Training of Intellectual Property (I.P.) in Universities using the classical or traditional methodology of econometrics (Gujarati and Porter, 2009).

The need for excellence in the satisfaction of stakeholders to an organisation had gained momentum in the last three decades. Initial emphasis had been on manufacturing sectors but later emphasis extended to service sectors like higher education institutions. To achieve this excellence and achieve world class status, transformational leadership had been seen to triger organisational excellence. Studies on organisation excellence in higher education institution had been concentrated in foreign European, American, Asian and few African countries.

Objectives: This study aims to determine the prevalence of various premolar positions and to identify the interach features that are associated with these variations. Materials and Methods: Using a cross-sectional epidemiological study design, individuals meeting the selection criteria were randomly selected from the 15-35 years old Malaysian population. Dental impressions of 1000 subjects were obtained using alginate and poured into dental casts. Clinical data of the premolar positions and interarch features were made using these dental casts.

Objective: 1) Aim of knowing the incidence of Human rabies. 2) To assess the level of consciousness on wound treatment. 3) Also to assess the attitude, knowledge, regarding treatment, vaccination and other parameters of rabies. 4) To study the yearly trend of rabies among different age and sex groups. 5) Observe the exposure site of bite and time taken to develop rabies from the day of exposure. Methods: The study was designed on the basis of epidemiological and clinical evaluation among the admitted rabies cases in communicable Disease Center, B.R. Ahmedkar Hospital, District Govt.

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a common global public health problem. HCV is considered as the main cause of chronic liver diseases. In patients with liver disease, substantial changes within the haemostatic system are frequently observed. This study aimed to evaluate haemostatic changes among chronic liver disease patients due to hepatitis C infection in Sudan. The study included 97 patients, their fibrinogen levels, PT, APTT, TT, platelets count and liver function tests were measured and compared with 50 healthy subjects as controls.

A female child of 12 years presenting with cystic swelling in the left arm for the past two months the differential diagnosis eg.LymphangiomaHaemartomas’, liquefied lipoma lastly Cysticercosis was discussed .MRI of the arm revealed Cysticercosis.

Cardiovascular complications account for nearly 50% of deaths in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Several studies reported that haemostatic factor especially hyperfibrinogenemia is implicated as a source of atherosclerosis and its complications. This study aimed to determine fibrinogen level among type 2 diabetic Sudanese patients with coronary arterial diseases (CAD).

Introduction: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common childhood onset psychiatric disorders that affect 2.0 – 14.0% of school age children. The World Health Report 2001 estimated that 10% to 20% of children experience one or more mental health problems. Children with mental health problems are also at risk of later psychopathic conditions. Maternal employment and time spent with children is assumed to be important as the time mothers spend with children has a significant impact on congenital developments and overall well-being of children.

The hyalluronidases are a family of enzymes that degrade hyaluronic acid. Any ingredient that inhibits the hyaluronidases could serve as therapeutic targets in alleviating the age related functions. Curcumin was extensively used as an anti aging agent and in cosmetic creams. The main drawback of curcumin is its poor bio availability. This problem was encountered and made a novel bio available formulation known as “cureit”.

Pollution of ground and surface waters by nitrates is a widespread and serious global problem. The objective of this study was to evaluate of nitrate and nitrite in drinking water of some rural areas of Shahrekord, Iran. We collected 490 drinking water samples from49 villages in the rural areas of Shahrekord, Iran and analyzed them for NO3-N and NO2-N. Nitrate and nitrite ions were analyzed by Spectrophotometer 2100 UV-Vis, at 220 and543nm.

Students come into nursing education with inherent lay beliefs of nursing that evolve over years of education, enabling them to be professionally socialized into nursing career. The study was carried out to compare the perception of newly admitted and outgoing B. Sc (N) students towards nursing perception. Comparative research design was used in this study to compare the perception of newly admitted and outgoing B. Sc (N) students towards nursing perception. 250 newly admitted and 250 outgoing B.

Aims and Objectives: To study incidence, signs, symptoms, response to treatment & follow up of patients with thyroid disorders. Methods and Material: One hundred fifty patients of thyroid disorder are studied for signs, symptoms and investigations like thyroid function test, lipid profile, ECG, 2-D echo, USG neck. All patients are followed up after 2 months of treatment. Observations and Results: Thyroid disorders are common in females (80%). Ninty three patients (62%) are hypothyroid, 35 are hyperthyroid and 22 euthyroid patients having nodular disorder.

While anticoagulants are useful in many circumstances, their use during pregnancy increases the risk of hemorrhage and other adverse effects, including heparin induced thrombocytopenia (HIT). This study aimed to determine the frequency of HIT among pregnant women receiving either unfractionated heparin (UFH) or low molecular weight heparin (L.W.W.H) in Sudan.

Purpose of the Study: A retrospective cross sectional study to determine the recipient site outcome of alveolar bone grafting in cleft lip and palate patients. Material and Method: All patients operated between 1st January 1999 until 31st December 2009 who fulfilled the inclusion and exclusion criteria were included in this study. The recipient sites were the alveolus clefts. Medical records, radiographs, clinical findings and interviews were used as the study instruments.

Objective: this was a retrospective descriptive study aimed to assess the role of latent membrane protein-1 (LMP-1) Monoclonal Antibody in the detection of Epstein- Barr virus (EBV) in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) lesions in Sudanese patients. Methods: Forty-five paraffin-embedded formalin-fixed tissue sections of nasopharyngeal carcinoma lesions were stained by Anti- EBV LMP-1 and results were correlated with the available clinical data. Results: EBV was positive in 23 cases and negative in 22 cases. Most positive results were in elderly males with undifferentiated carcinomas.

Background: Primary health care is the key to achieving Health For All at national and international level. Objectives: The present study was to find out the effectiveness of community participation through community health volunteers and village leaders to improve the quality of maternal and child health services and thus reduce the maternal and infant mortality and morbidity. Materials and Methods: A cohort study was conducted over a period of two years from December 2009 to November 2011.

The objective of the present work was the synthesis of N-(2-(4-substituted phenyl)-4-oxo-1,3-thiazolidine-3-yl)-2-(naphthalene-2-yloxy)acetamide and evaluation of in-vitro anticancer activity. Based on this a new series of compound had been planned to synthesize by reacting β-naphthol, ethyl chloroacetate, hydrazinemonohydrate, ethylalcohol and various aromatic aldehydes in presence of anhydrous potassium carbonate The synthesized compounds were characterized by IR, NMR, and Mass spectroscopy.

Every normal person desires to live a happy, joyful and above all enjoys long and fruitful life on earth. Good quality (REM) sleep is therefore one of the factors that contribute immensely to a proper brain development and efficient total functioning of people especially adolescents. On the contrary, poor quality (Non-REM) sleep leads to incapacitation of the structural as well as hormonal development and functioning of the brain thus resulting in several poor health conditions and maladaptive behaviors.

Classical dengue fever is commonly seen in children and young adults. It commonly presents with fever, severe headache, body ache and retro-orbital pain. Unlike other arboviral infections, dengue virus does not usually cause neurological manifestations. We report a 14-year-old girl with dengue encephalitis. Dengue encephalitis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of acute viral encephalitis especially in countries like India where dengue has assumed epidemic proportions. These undiagnosed cases are at risk of developing complications of dengue haemorrhagic fever.

Pilodyns have been successfully used for indirect estimation of wood density in tree breeding programmes of many softwoods and hardwoods. However no reports are available on its use in clones of Casuarina equisetifolia. Fifty nine landrace clones of C. equisetifolia were subjected to Pilodyn penetration and direct wood basic density estimation at four years of age in India. Strong negative correlation was observed between Pilodyn penetration and wood basic density (-0.847). As Pilodyn observations were completed in one day, it took 8 days for the direct estimation of wood density.

Three field experiments viz. fertility gradient experiment with fodder maize, test crop experiment with preseasonal sugarcane and test verification trial with preseasonal sugarcane cv. were conducted at at Central Sugarcane Research Station, Padegaon (M.S.), India during 2007 to 2011 to develop the Soil Test based yield target equations for newly released variety CoM 0265 and to test the validity of these equations on Inceptisols. The basic data of nutrient requirement, contribution of nutrients from soil, fertilizer and farmyard manure were calculated and the equations were developed.

Bulbophyllum careyanum (Hook.) Spreng. is one of the important sympodial epiphytic orchid species among the 700 species of the genus Bulbophyllum. It is popularly known as Carey’s Bulbophyllum. The flowering season for this orchid species starts from September and ends in December. The flowers last for 15-25 days. Due to its medicinal properties, the tribal people of Southern Assam use the bulb of this orchid species for curing different ailments. Nowadays, population of this orchid species is depleting due to over exploitation, habitat destruction and some other anthropogenic activities.

Comparative study on relationship between condition factor and parasite density of gold fish (Carassius auratus) and koi carp (Cyprinus carpio) was carried out during wet and dry seasons. The study was conducted at the Rambadagalle Ornamental Fish Breeding and Training Center in Sri Lanka. A sample of 30 gold fishes and 50 koi carps in the same cohort were collected from two separated harvesting ponds. Standard length and weight were recorded and condition factor was estimated for each individual. Their gills, fins and skin were observed for external parasites.

This study aimed at determining the length-weight relationship (LWR), condition factor (K) and length at first maturity of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) in Lake Naivasha, Kenya. The fish were sampled monthly using a gill net of mesh size between 1.5 to 5 inches. The lake was accessed using an engine boat from November 2013 to February 2014. A total of 520 fish of C. Carpio were sampled. Total length and weight of the fish were measured using measuring board (0.1cm) and digital weighing balance (0.1g) respectively.

Green leafy vegetables are valuable in maintaining alkaline reserve in the body is valued mainly for their high vitamin, dietary fiber and mineral contents. Dry leaf extract of Sesbania grandiflora (L.) Pers was evaluated for biochemical compositions like total carbohydrate, starch, proteins, aminoacids, Vitamin B1 and Vitamin B2. The cooking qualities were also analyzed for total carbohydrate, starch and proteins at different intervals of time.

Body Mass Index (BMI) is a commonly used anthropometric measurement to estimate the level of nutritional indices (underweight/overweight) of adolescents and adults. Factors affecting BMI is essential for developing intervention programs. The present study was thus undertaken with the objective to assess the agro-socio-economic factors related to body mass index (BMI) content of farm women, of West Bengal, India. The study was confined to the women of age group of 19-60 years. A total of 211 women were selected randomly.

The present study deals with the erosion of biodiversity (plants) knowledge between older and younger generations (both male and female) regarding their identification and respective uses. During the study it was found that the older generations comparatively has a vast knowledge about the local biodiversity including its identification, uses and conservation. An average total of 139.6 plant species were identified and listed by the older generations with their various uses, while the average total of only 88 plant species could be identified by the younger generations.

Background: The prevalence of secondary amenorrhea in general female population during reproductive years is 1.8 to 3%, the prevalence in college age women is 2.6 to 5% and amenorrhea may be seen as often as 20% of patients complaining of infertility and 10-20% of women with subfertility. (Morey et al., 1994 and Crosignani et al., 1996) Diseases of thyroid affects normal ovarian functions. Hypothyroidism causes failure of ovulation in women of reproductive age group. Hypothyroidism causes anovulatory cycles, luteal phase defects, hyperprolactinemia and hormonal imbalance.

The teaching process at the all level (Primary, Secondary and Tertiary) is too weak and our classroom environment is totally based on rote memorization. Moreover the role of teacher in making classroom climate conducive to improved learning is highly crucial. The classroom climate is built up by the pattern of interaction between the teacher and student verbal exchanges, asking questions and responding and reacting. The most important factor in a classroom situation is the interactions and exchanges initiated by the teacher and students.

Simarouba is an important oil yielding plant. Twenty decamer RAPD primers were tested on male and female plant to identify sex specific marker. Out of twenty markers fourteen RAPD primers produced polymorphic banding patterns. Out of fourteen polymorphic primers, primer OPU8 (5’GGCGAAGGTT3’) produced a unique band of 1000bp only in male individual. The RAPD method successfully discriminates among male and female plant, therefore providing an easy and rapid tool for identification of gender in plants at early stage.

The present research exercise was conducted to assess the perception of adolescent members of Mirpuri community about the impact of divide created by displacement from across the LOC in 1947 on their lives. It further aimed to investigate the effects of displacement at personal, familial and social levels from phenomenological perspective and documentation of the extent of transmission of ideas/ feelings related to displacement to younger members of the community.

The toxic effects of copper and ameliorating capacity of vitamin C on biochemical and histopathological parameters in the teleost fish, Anabas testudineus were investigated. The 96 hour LC 50 value of copper was determined by Probit method and was found to be 1.74 mg/L. Fishes from two sub-lethal concentrations of copper, two vitamin supplemented and control media were analysed.

Studies carried out in various populations have reported an association between some HLA specificities and susceptibility to pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB). In this study, the distribution of class II HLA-DQB1 alleles was determined in 94 PTB patients and 80 apparently healthy subjects from Iraqi population by single specific primer-polymerase chain reaction (SSP-PCR). Out of the five encountered HLA-DQB1 alleles, DQB1*03 showed a significant (P = 0.005) increased percentage frequency in PTB patients compared to controls (71.3 vs. 50.0%).

A total of 164 Alternaria isolates were obtained by following standard tissue isolation method on potato dextrose agar media plates. Based on morphological features viz., growth, sporulation pattern, 45 isolates were identified as A. alternata and 28 were A. sesami and the remaining ones were non-sporulating. The colour of the isolates ranged from grey to light brown and both fluffy (37) and smooth type (30) of growth were observed with regular to irregular margin. Majority of the isolates were fast growing (119) and some were moderate (45) in growth.

We shall show that the rank of maximal subgroup of a full transformation semigroup on a finite set equal to the lower bound for the rank r_n (T_n)

This paper reports the temperature variation of the principal components of static electrical conductivity i.e., and in the nematic and smectic phases of p-butoxybenzylidene p-heptylaniline. The results obtained are inferred in terms of the basic understanding of nematic and smectic phases.

Symptoms based diagnosis of a disease is one of the challenging tasks in the medical field. Several techniques are available for classification. In this paper,used ANFIS for classification of TB disease on the available data. Hybrid system is a learning algorithms that utilizes the training and learning networks to find parameters of a fuzzy system based on the symptoms created by the mathematical model. In this paper, an expert system is proposed to detect the Tuberculosis disease, which are very common and important disease using an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS).

In order to provide a reliable source of energy we have to think for some other sources of energy because the fossil fuel is limited and can last for another 50 years. The other source of energy must be clean and easily accessible to anywhere. The efficiency of the system can be increased by integrating the solar and wind to the grid. Harvesting the energy from these type of renewable sources of energy is nature dependent and hence are not reliable for the grid. However the integration of these sources with some storage devices can increase the reliability of the system to a great extent.

Soft storey or open ground storey is an unavoidable feature in the multi-storey building. It is open for the purpose of parking or reception lobbies. It is also called as stilts storey. A large number of buildings with soft storey have been built in recent years. But it showed poor performance during past earthquake. Therefore it is need of time to take immediate measures to prevent the indiscriminate use of soft first storey in buildings, which are designed without regard to the increased displacement and force demands in the first storey columns.

The objective of this study is to apply the concept of lean manufacturing and find out the different approaches to measure customer expectations. The lean concept is applied for reducing waiting time of passengers at various sections of the airport. A value stream mapping is designed, to improve the delay time and enhance customer satisfaction. During the Flight travel the checkpoint wait times for airport passengers were becoming excessive.

In this study, undoped (CdO) films and Cr doped (with 2,4,6 and 8 wt%) were deposited on glass sub strate at (400 ºC) by chemical spray pyrolysis technique using cadmium acetate as the Cd source. The effect of Cr doping on structural and optical properties has been investigated. XRD investigations showed that all the films were polycrystalline in nature and had a cubic structure with preferred orientation along (111) plane for all doping percentages.

The present work reports the recycling of SCBA waste as a raw material in brick making industries, through replacement of natural clay up to 20wt. %. Initially the samples SCBA and BMC were characterized by XRF. The results of XRF reveal that both SCBA and BMC contain a large amount of silica and tracer amount of oxides of aluminium and iron. Using SCBA in different proportions clay brick pieces were prepared, and then tested, so as to determine their mechanical properties such as linear shrinkage, water absorption, porosity and compressive strength.

Unitary bimatrices are studied as a generalization of unitary matrices. Some of the properties of unitary matrices are extended to unitary bimatrices. Some important results of unitary matrices are generalized to unitary bimatrices.

Friction stir welding process is used for joining material such as Aluminium, copper, magnesium etc., which are otherwise difficult to weld by the conventional welding processes. The tool pin profile plays a critical role in determining the end properties of the welding joint apart from other parameter like rotation speed, traverse speed, welding speed, and axial load. The purpose of the investigations was to elaborate a set of FSW parameters for connecting 6061 aluminium alloy sheets allowing to produce welds of highest strength.

A novel method has been developed for the solvent extraction of Potassium (I) from 0.001M picric acid with 0.001M Dicyclohexano-18Crown-6in nitrobenzene. Potassium (I) from the organic phase was determined flame emission spectroscopy at 767 nm. Extraction was found to be quantitative in the range of 7-10 Mpicric acid. When the concentration of Dicyclohexano-18Crown-6 was varied from 0.05-20% in nitrobenzene, it showed that optimum concentration was 3%. Amongst diluents like nitrobenzene was found to be an effective diluent. Effect of shaking time, concentration of metal ion.

4-acetyl-3-(4-substitutedphenylamino)-isoxazole-5(2H)-one, substituted on nitrogen with a 2-chlorobenzo[d] oxazole group, reacts with triethylamine (TEA) in ethanol under reflux conditions to provide a convenient synthesis of 1-(2-(4-substitutedphenylamino)-imidazo-[2,1-b]-benzoxazol-3-yl)-ethanone.

Hydrazones derived from aromatic acid hydrazides and aromatic or heterocyclic aldehydes have a wide variety of applications in many fields. 3-aldehydosalicylic acid (3ASA) serves as precursor for the formation of hydrazone ligand. The condensation of 3-aldehydosalicylic acid with Phenyl hydrazine hydrochloride in the molar ratio 1:1 yield the corresponding hydrazone, ligand respectively. The structure of ligand was elucidated by FT-IR, 1H, NMR and mass spectrometry. The results are in consistent with bidentate chelation of ligand with azomethine nitrogen and ring nitrogen donors.

Titanium dioxide and Titanium dioxide loaded groundnut shell activated carbon photocatalytic activity were synthesized by sol-gel technique. The preparation of TiO2 and TiO2/GNSAC photocatalysts were achieved by titanium tetra isopropoxide and 2-propanol as common starting materials and annealed the product at 500 °C for 2 h to get anatase phase, respectively.

Carbonaceous material has been derived from a domestic biomass waste viz., onion peel and assessed its suitability as electrodes in electrochemical double layer capacitors (EDLC). Onion Peel Carbon (OPC) has been obtained from pyrolysing onion peel under N2 atmosphere without any porogens or activating agents.

Objective: The study was designed to investigate the effects of specific basketball drills on selected shooting performance of High school male basketball players. Thirty school male basketball players selected from Ragavendra Matric Higher secondary school, Vadavalli Coimbatore Methods: The age ranged between 15and17 years. They were divided into two equal groups considered as experimental group and control group. Experimental group underwent specific basketball drill training for the period of 8 weeks. The control group was not given any training.

To bring awareness among the society since the last century, the perception of environmental education started. With the advent industrialization, followed by urbanization & rapid progress made in Science & Technology causes the degradation of our environment. The man not only used the nature, changed the nature but spoiled the nature beyond repair. So, Ministry of Environment and Forest of Government of India introducing a uniform syllabus and making the subject compulsory from primary to post graduation level.

For the people to stay comfortable in their houses suitable environment should be provided. The experts agree on the fact that relative humidity affects Thermal comfort and health of human beings. Therefore there should be temperature and relative humidity control system to achieve thermal comfort and good health for the persons inside the room, for comfortable living.

Nigerian secondary schools are faced with problem of supervisions. In this study, the aim is to assess the general roles of school supervisors in improving teaching quality and effectiveness of schools supervisions.

Old age is the closing period of life span. It is an inevitable phenomenon in all biological species. In this stage the living arrangement is very important in terms of providing support for the elderly and in general it guarantees their well being. In India where the family has an obligation to take care of the elderly is no more entrusted to serve them. The younger generation would like to be separated and expected to live away from the elderly and migrates towards cities and sometimes to abroad. Under this situation the elderly would be deserted or sometimes institutionalized.

Financial Management being the main core of any business organization has roles to play most importantly in small businesses. Testing the influence of financial management on small businesses operational activities in Iwo Local government of osun state Nigeria is expected to give insight into the economy and provide measuring guide to business performance .This study evaluate effect of financial management practices characteristics on small business development and.

Despite its strategic intentions about information technology, Tamale Polytechnic and perhaps many of the other polytechnics in Ghana continuously handles many of its processes manually. Hence there were general delays in administrative processes, in admission processes and in results processes in Tamale Polytechnic. The study assessed the extent of IT application in Tamale polytechnic. Data were mainly primary type and obtained through questionnaire. Both descriptive and quantitative methods of data analysis were used.

The purpose of the study was to evaluate the practices of occupational hazards management in Ghana Grid Company Limited. This was conducted against the backdrop of growing workplace accidents in Ghana. Data was collected using a five point Likert-type scale questionnaire. Respondents were selected based on stratified purposive sampling techniques. Management showed appreciable level of commitment to hazards management. Respondents exhibited an appreciable level of consciousness. Potential causes of hazards were generally human related but preventive methods lack some modern approaches.

The purpose of this manuscript is to review the applications of IT in e-commerce and to discuss how these applications could improve individual and organizational learning. The manuscript employed only secondary data and established that the convergence of IT and e-commerce enhance organizational learning in strategy formulation and orientation, design of business models and supply chain management.

Multivariate statistical process control is a branch of industrial statistics that involve monitoring quality specification of related variables simultaneously. Quality is the most essential target for manufacturing engineers and which mostly involves more than one variable in industry,i.e., a vector of variables (that conform to specification for measurement) which may be correlated. When these quality variables are correlated then the most well-known approach for multivariate process monitoring is the Hotelling’s T-square control chart.

Over the years, Calabar South Local Government Area has remained one of the area with increasing crime rate in Calabar, Cross River State. This paper seeks to evaluate the major socio-demographic indices that are responsible to the prevailing crime rate in Calabar South. Three major streets were used for this study which includes Palm Street, Etinyin-Abasi and Afokang. Four hundred and fifty questionnaires were used of which one hundred and fifty were distributed in major entertainment scentres.

This paper discusses the major Determinants of loan Repayments of GDCP micro credit scheme. Levels of poverty in the northern part of Ghana have been so alarming therefore many non-governmental organizations have intervened to ameliorate the situation. Most of these non-governmental efforts at alleviating poverty are directed at micro credit to the poor and vulnerable in society. The repayment performance of credits granted by the microfinance institutions determines the sustainability or otherwise of such programmes.

This study sought to establish the difference in access to Secondary School education before and after implementation of Subsidized Secondary Education (SSE). Self-administered questionnaires were used to collect students’ data from thirteen public secondary schools in Uasin Gishu County in Kenya. The data was processed using descriptive statistics and the results’ significance determined using t- test at 95% confidence level. In the year 2006 and 2007 the total number of students in the thirteen schools was 2475 and 2639, respectively.

The pabbajjāordination procedures currently being practised in Myanmar will bediscussed here. The prevalent standard procedures conform with the original VinayaPitakaof the Pālicanon. From these prevalent procedures, some items can be dropped tominimize the formality of the ceremony. Such procedures as banḍukammaare said in the Pācityādi Atthakathāto be a light action “(kamma)” 1. Prior to the actual ceremony, the applicantshould be trained to recite some important Pāliarticulately.

Metta is the most important thing should be cultivated or practiced. According to persons, there are so many metta such as Lord Buddha’s metta, parents’ metta, teachers’ metta, my metta and your metta etc. If metta is practiced by everyone, the world would be very peaceful. The following paragraphs will be mentioned what the Buddha taught on metta, the history of mettasuttara and how metta is should be developed. As matter of fact, it is not easy to practice metta by correcting way but we ourselves should try to practice.

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Luai Farhan Zghair
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Philippines
Elsadig Gasoom FadelAlla Elbashir
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Eapen, Asha Sarah
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Dr.Arun Kumar A
India
Dr. Zafar Iqbal
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Dr. SHAHERA S.PATEL
India
Dr. Ruchika Khanna
India
Dr. Recep TAS
Turkey
Dr. Rasha Ali Eldeeb
Egypt
Dr. Pralhad Kanhaiyalal Rahangdale
India
DR. PATRICK D. CERNA
Philippines
Dr. Nicolas Padilla- Raygoza
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DR. MUHAMMAD ISMAIL MOHMAND
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DR. MAHESH SHIVAJI CHAVAN
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DR. M. ARUNA
India
Dr. Lim Gee Nee
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Dr. Jatinder Pal Singh Chawla
India
DR. IRAM BOKHARI
Pakistan
Dr. FARHAT NAZ RAHMAN
Pakistan
Dr. Devendra kumar Gupta
India
Dr. ASHWANI KUMAR DUBEY
India
Dr. Ali Seidi
Iran
Dr. Achmad Choerudin
Indonesia
Dr Ashok Kumar Verma
India
Thi Mong Diep NGUYEN
France
Dr. Muhammad Akram
Pakistan
Dr. Imran Azad
Oman
Dr. Meenakshi Malik
India
Aseel Hadi Hamzah
Iraq
Anam Bhatti
Malaysia
Md. Amir Hossain
Bangladesh
Ahmet İPEKÇİ
Turkey
Mirzadi Gohari
Iran