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February 2015

Background: Although recent advances in psychiatry have increased our understanding of psychiatric disorders, many people may be unaware about mental illness and its treatment. Several studies reveal poor knowledge about mental illness in nurses and stigmatizing attitudes toward people with mental illness which is known hindrance to provide quality service to mental ill people. Mental health problems are of serious concern across the world.

Phytoconstituents such as, Wedalolactone Demethylwedalolactone, Valeranone, Jatamansin, Gamma gurjunene, beta-caryophyllene alpha humulin, Oleic acid, Palmitic acid, Linoleic acid, Gallic acid, Ellagic acid, Withafirin A, Withanolide D, Bacoside A, Bacoside B, Asiaticoside, Trans Asarone, Beta/cis asarone Glycyrrhizin, Glycyrrhizic acid and Licoisoflavanone were included in the present in silico analysis to evaluate their Anti-Alzheimer’s potential. The adsorbtion, distribution, metabolism, excretion (ADME) properties of these phytochemicals were assessed through Lipinski rule of Five.

Background: Self-care is a multidimensional construct that includes all activities related to maintaining health, preventing and treating disease by themselves. Adoption proper behaviors needs good knowledge, perception and behaviors of individual. The aim of this study was to assess knowledge, attitude and practice of middle age and elderly women about self-care. Methods: The study included 440 middle-aged and elderly women attending to public health centers in Ahvaz, Iran. Middle age and elderly women who were resident of Ahvaz were chosen from six health clinics.

The aim of the study was to evaluate clinical response of the hydroxyapatite as graft materials in the periodontal bony defects due to localized developmental tooth anomalies. Systemically healthy Male patient age 32 with a recurrent gingival swelling in relation to upper left side of tooth. Clinically there was periodontal pocket probing depth of 9mm (Williams marking periodontal probe) in relation to maxillary left lateral incisor │2 due to presence of palatal groove. The lesion was treated surgically with the application of hydroxyapatite (HA) as grafting material without membrane.

Background: Maternal death and disability rates prevails the huge differentials that exist between mainstreamed and excluded groups across the country. The low level of Maternal-Child Health service utilization, lack of awareness and education, early age at marriage, and poor nutritional status and more affect the total well being of Dalit mothers. Objective of this is to assess the maternal health care practices and services utilized by the Dalit and Non-Dalit mothers in Eastern Terai, Nepal.

Dengue is one of the most emerging vector-borne viral diseases. Prevalence has enlarged 30-fold in the last 50 years with the increased geographic expansion to new countries. An estimated 50 million dengue infection occurs annually and approximately 2.5 billion live in dengue endemic countries where more than 21,000 deaths occur each year. Dengue is anticipated to rise due to factors as contemporary modification of climate, travel, globalization, trade, viral evolution, socioeconomics and settlement.

Background: Epistaxis is most common E.N.T. emergency. The present study is a prospective observational study to study effectiveness of non surgical methods to controll epistaxis, even in minimally equiped set ups in our peripheries. Objective: To evaluate and compare the outcome of various treatment modalities. Methods: After taking history and through clinical and E.N.T. examination, baseline investigations, diagnostic nasal endoscopy, radiological examination whereever needed reassurance and non surgical methods were sufficient to effectively control epistaxis in most cases.

Background: Thoracic epidural anaesthesia (TEA) in coronary bypass surgery provides an excellent analgesia and helps in early recovery but the use of 0.2% Ropivacaine in TEA for off pump coronary artery bypass surgery (OPCAB) is not well documented in the literature. Methods: After ethics committee approval, sixty patients were randomized into two groups. The General Anesthesia (GA) group (n=30) received Inj. Midazolam (0.1mg/kg) and Inj. Fentanyl (10mcg/kg) for induction.

The musculocutaneous nerve is a nerve of anterior compartment of arm and also cutaneous nerve on lateral side of anterior compartment of the forearm. Root value of this nerve is C5-C7. The variations in origin, course and distribution is not uncommon. The knowledge of variable origin and course is important for surgeons, traumatologist and orthopedicians. Operative treatment in arm should be done with keeping in mind such variations which will prevent the chances of iatrogenic injuries to the musculocutaneous nerve.

Resin-retained FPDs are particularly useful in treating younger patients because much less tooth reduction is required than for a conventional retainer design. Contrasted with conventional fixed prostheses, which depend on the geometric shape of a circumferential tooth preparation, these prostheses rely in part on adhesive bonding between etched enamel and the metal casting. Nevertheless, specific, conservative tooth preparations are necessary to achieve optimal retention.

Introduction: Breast carcinoma is the most common malignancy in females and ranks amongst the leading causes of cancer deaths in females in Nigeria and worldwide. Aim: To analyze the breast cancers in Bayelsa state histopathologically, providing baseline data for management, education and awareness. Methods: A retrospective descriptive histopathological multicentre study of malignant breast diseases in the three histopathology enabled centres in Bayelsa state from January 2009 to December 2013. Results: A total of 106 (31.7%) malignant breast diseases were seen during the study period.

Objective: To study the prescribing pattern of antimicrobial agents in medical intensive care unit and to determine the outcome in these patients. Materials and methods: Study was conducted by the Department of Pharmacology by obtaining the data of patients admitted to medical intensive care unit (MICU) of RLJH & RC attached to SDUMC, Kolar during January to June 2012. The demographic data, diagnosis, dosage schedule of the antimicrobials used, duration of stay and the outcome were recorded as per predesigned proforma. Results: There were 408 patients of which 242 were males (59%).

Celiac disease is an autoimmune-based digestive disease and it is an immune-mediated enteropathy due to the ingestion of a gluten containing diet. Individuals predisposed to risk are genetically predetermined. Symptoms of the disease at a large usually start at the very early part of life just after weaning, however, a small group of patient present late we called it ‘latent celiac sprue”. We present a rare case of young patient having celiac disease with symptomatic idiopathic portal hypertension.

Ozone is acquiring its place in the field of dentistry and in day to day dental practice. Since many years, it has been used owing to its oxidizing property, which makes it an excellent antimicrobial agent. Because of its potent anti-inflammatory property, favorable cellular and hormonal immune response, ozone acts as an effective therapeutic agent. Versatility of ozone therapy, its unique properties, non-invasive nature, absence of any side effects or adverse reactions were responsible for its wide spread use.

Mucoid variant of Pseudomonas is most commonly isolated from Cystic Fibrosis patients. We have isolated a hugely mucoid variant of it from sputum of two non-cystic fibrosis patients, one aged 75 years and another aged 35 years, both having chronic lung disease, admitted at Calcutta School of Tropical Medicine, West Bengal, India. Isolation of this variant of pseudomonas from non-cystic fibrosis lung prompted us to report the cases. Both the strain further tested found to produce biofilm by the qualitative detection method, the Tube method.

We report an inexplicable case of recurrent multiple discharging sinuses, on labia majora and mons pubis in a 28 year old female patient with history of pulmonary Kochs. The discharge was related to the menstrual cycle. The pus collected from the lesion showed plenty of acid fast bacilli on microscopy but enigmatically culture showed no growth of Mycobacteria even after several tries.

The objective of this study was to assess the food intake of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) women attending Omdurman Maternity Teaching Hospital. The sample included 163 diagnosed GDM with 150 non-diabetic controls. Methods included interviews and anthropometric measurements. The results showed that GDMs were significantly older than non-diabetics (31.28±5.52 and 28.39±5.7 years old, respectively).

The purpose of this report is to report possible effect of patient posture to treatment process in patients receiving dexamethasone intravitreal implant. A 53-year- old man with diagnosis of ankylosing spondylitis followed by rheumatology department, was referred to us for uveitis. Patient had dorsal kyphosis and head bent position leading to his ankylosing spondylitis. Fundus examination showed macular edema in both eyes. Intravitreal administration of dexamethasone implant was performed, afterwards visual acuity increased and anterior chamber reaction reduced in both eyes.

Objective: Find out the outcome of surgical management of Urogenital Tract Fistulas in term of recurrence rate, complications and to understand the magnitude of this problem with its etiology. Methods: This was a retrospective study conducted in Department of Urology at Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre, Karachi from January 2004 to July 2012. All patients presented during study period with Urogenital Tract Fistulas secondary to obstetrics and surgical complications were included in this study. The patients with fistula secondary to malignancy and radiation therapy were excluded.

Despite routine vaccination programs against Newcastle disease (ND), sporadic cases have occasionally occurred that remain a constant threat to commercial poultry. Egypt is endemic for Newcastle disease virus (NDV) with continuous long-lasting outbreaks causing significant losses in the poultry industry since 1948.

Background: Progressive cell-mediated immunodeficiency with decrease of CD4+ lymphocyte count to less than or equal to 200 cells/mm3 is a major risk factor for colonization with Candida species and development of candidiasis. This study was done to investigate Candida colonization, speciation and their correlation with CD4+ cell counts in HIV-positive patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART) Methodology: A prospective, cross sectional study in HIV-infected patients receiving ART In total, 500 HIV-positive patients on ART treatment and 100 seronegative controls were enrolled in the study.

The effect of lunar cycle on human behavior has always been the area of interest for the researchers worldwide. It is accepted in academic literature as ‘The Transylvanian Effect’. While some has drawn results in favor of this, some also has rejected this hypothesis on the basis of negative results. This study aims to find out the effect of lunar cycle on suicidal deaths. This prospective study is done over a period of 18 and half months (1st January 2013 to 17th July 2014). During this period, a total of 152 cases were taken in this study which include unnatural death by suicide.

The poor bioavailability of ocular solution is caused by dilution and drainage from the eye can be overcome by using In situ gel forming ocular drug delivery system prepared from polymers that exhibit sol to gel transition. The objective of the study was to develop optimized formulation of In situ gel of Forskolin (FSK) antiglaucoma agent using pH and Ion activated polymers Carbopol 940 and Sodium alginate respectively as gelling agents, Hydroxy Propyl Methyl Cellulose (HPMC K4M) as viscosity enhancing polymer.

The combination of polyethylene glycol (pegylated interferon) interferon and ribavirin has been shown to be an effective treatment for chronic hepatitis C virus. In general, common side effects related to this combination therapy are mild and are well tolerated. However, peripheral neuropathy including mixed type of polyneuropathy related to PEG-interferon α-2a (pegylated interferon alfa-2a) is extremely rare. In the literature, few case of acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy related to PEG-interferon α-2a has been published previously.

Background: Candiduria is a relatively rare finding in otherwise healthy people but common in hospital settings. It may signal colonization or contamination which may not need treatment. It may also be a marker of lower UTI or upper UTI which may need treatment. Materials and Methods: A total of 350 isolates of Candida were included in this study. Candida isolates were identified by Gram stain, growth on Sabauraud’s dextrose agar, Germ tube test and sugar assimilation tests. Results: Out of 14,986 samples, 350 Candida isolates were identified. 176 were males and 174 were females.

Hydrogen is the fuel for the present and future, due to its recyclability and nonpolluting nature. Hydrogen generates no carbon based pollutants but produces water when it used as fuel. In comparison with fossil fuel, hydrogen has a higher energy yield also. Microbial hydrogen production provides some advantageous over the chemical process, it is clean, efficient and environmental friendly. Photochemical and fermentative systems are the two main system of microbial hydrogen production.

Background and objectives: Ever increasing population and lack of adequate health care facilities, particularly for the rural masses are a matter of concern for India. The major concern of India is the spread of vector borne diseases by mosquitoes. Mosquitoes are vectors of different pathogenic organism like protozoan, nematodes and viruses. They spread diseases like malaria, filaria, chikungunya, dengue and yellow fever etc. Culex transmits filariasis, Japanese encephalitis, Chikungunia, Ganjam and other Encephalitis diseases in the World.

Field experiment was carried out during spring season 2012 in a private field located at 50 km west of Baghdad, to investigate the effect of tillage and plastic mulching on some physical properties of silt loam soil and tomato yield. Split plots with R.C.B.D were used with three replications. The study included four treatments, conventional tillage, no tillage and both have been in sub plots treated with and without plastic mulching. Results indicated that interaction between tillage method and plastic mulching affected physical properties of the soil significantly (P ≤ 0.05).

Background: Male breast cancer (MBC) is an uncommon rare medical condition that is responsible for about 1% of all the malignancies in men as well as for 1% of all of breast carcinoma. Nearly all of the men with breast cancer do not have any distinguishable risk factors. The majority of males with breast cancer presents at older ages as opposed to females with breast cancer. Case presentation: Twenty three cases of MBC, diagnosed between October 2011 and September 2014. Azoospermia was found in eighteen patients, and five patients had oligospermia.

Shampoo is a hair care product packed in a convenient way for use to wash hair and scalp. The major function of shampoo is to clean the hair, removal of oils, dirts, scalp debris and accumulated sebum. Formulation of shampoo must be safe and efficient for long use. The major objective of the present study was to formulate an herbal shampoo powder by means of eliminating harmful synthetic ingredients and substitutse them with natural ingredients.

Pholcidae (Haplogynae) is the most diverse family which comprises 1,241 taxonomically defined species, of which only 19 have been cytogenetically analyzed. The two pholcids species, Crossopriza lyoni (Blackwall 1867) and Artema atlanta (Walckenaer 1837) are cytogenetically studied following Conventional, and AgNO3 impregnation techniques. The karyotype revealed presence of (2n=23) 22AA+X0♂ and (2n=32) 30AA+X1X2♂ chromosomes in C.lyoni and A. atlanta respectively. In both species, the chromosomes were exclusively biarmed, and the sex chromosomes are the largest elements of the karyotypes.

A basidiomycete fungus was collected from Jizan region of Saudi Arabia; described and illustrated. The fruiting bodies and spores showed some variations in size and shape, which match with the description of Podaxis pistillaris. This is the first record of the fungus in Jizan; southern region of Saudi Arabia. A noticeable variation on the colour of the spores and their maturity was recorded during the study.

Alangium salvifolium (L.F.) wangerin is an important medicinal plant belonging to the family Alangiaceae commonly known as Alangi in tamil was distributed in South India. The leaves of A. salvifolium are used as astringent, laxative, refrigerant and used to treat rheumatism, leprosy, syphilis and asthma. This study provides taxonomical, pharmacognostical and phytochemical details helpful in laying down standardization and pharmacopoeial parameters.

Greenbelts Ougeinia oojeneinensis (Roxb.) Hochr. is a very important medicinal plant in the deciduous forest. Whole parts of the plant are rich in secondary metabolite, which impart miraculous medicinal uses to the plants. Present investigation was designed to evaluate the preliminary phytochemical test on leaf and bark methanolic extract of Ougeniao oojeinensis.

An investigation was conducted to find out the "Study on the Effect of Different Planting Time and Various Concentration of IBA on the Rooting of Phalsa (Grewia asiatica L) Stem Cutting Under Different Growing Conditions" at Horticultural Research Centre, Chauras Campus, HNB Garhwal University Srinagar (Garhwal), Uttarakhand, India. Cuttings were planted January, February, March, June, July and August 2013, treated with IBA concentration 1000, 1500, 2000 ppm and control under two growing condition Shade house and Mist chamber.

In 2012-2014 in citrus farmers private plots of Adjara region, as a resultof monitoring, the following diseases were fixed according to their severity and negative marketing impact: Scab, Phytophthora root rot, Melanose, Anthracnose, Sooty Mould, Gray Mold, Green Mold, Black Aspergillus, Alternaria Brown spot, Citrus Blast and other.

Efficient plant regeneration via organogenesis was established for medicinally important Trichosanthes cucumerina L. var. cucumerina using hypocotyl and leaf derived calli. Seeds were surface sterilized in 0.1% HgCl2 for two minutes and germinated in vitro in MS media without plant growth regulators. The maximum morphogenic callus induction rate (86%) was observed from a hypocotyl explant by culturing in MS medium supplemented with 0.5 mg-l 2, 4-D + 1.0 mg-l BAP. Calli size and fresh weight increased substantially through sub culturing.

Diosgenin, a steroidal sapogenin found in most of the Dioscorea spp is extensively used in the manufacture of cortisone and allied drugs. Increased transport and labour cost and decline in the diosgenin availability due to over exploitation of Dioscorea spp. led to deficit supply in world steroid market. Therefore a protocol for production of Diosgenin by biotransformation of cholesterol feeding exogenously as a precursor to the cell suspension and immobilized cell cultures of E. hyssopifolium was developed.

The literature on HIV and AIDS management has identified religious beliefs as obstacles to condom acceptance to minimise the spread of the disease. Ways to overcome such beliefs do not appear to have received adequate scholarly attention and so little is known about how to deal with religious beliefs to promote condoms.

Knowledge of the maturation process is vital to understand the relationship between spawning stock andrecruitment. The purpose of the present study was to validatethe reproductive cycle of Doryteuthis forbesii using histological and statistical procedures. The changes in gonad during sexual maturation permitted the determination of different histological stages for oogenesisin 12 phases and spermatogenesis in 7 phases. This species spawns throughout the year with two peaks during spring and summer.

Morphotaxonomic observations on juvenile and seedlings stages of Lagerstroemia speciosa were observed upto 6th leaf stages during germination in natural habitat. The features of seedling like collet, hypocotyl, epicotyl, shape and arrangement of paracotyledons, leaf base, colour, phyllotaxy etc. represent high level of constancy within taxon and thus, have been found useful from taxonomic point of view in identification and conservation of this species at juvenile stage itself which facilitate a healthy recruitment.

Plant growth substances are the organic substances synthesized by the plant that regulate, retard or modify plant physiological activities. They can move within the plant from the site of synthesis to the site of action. Growth regulating chemicals that have positive influence on major agronomic crops are of immense value. These growth regulators are mainly important for preventing lodging in cereals, preventing pre-harvest sprouting, fruit drop, synchronizing maturity to facilitate mechanical harvest, hastening maturity to decrease turnover time, reducing labour requirements.

Taxol is that the most renowned and best antineoplastic agent belonging to the massive family of taxane diterpenoids. To stare for the taxol manufacturing endophytic fungi, nearly seventy seven Coelomycetes fungi were isolated as associate endophytes from five medicinal plants viz., Anisomeles malabarica (L.) R. Br., Mesua ferrea L., Piper nigrum L., Rauvolfia tetraphylla L. and Vitex negundo L. procured from Aliyar, situated in Anamalai foothills, Western Ghats, Southern India, Tamilnadu.

The issue of Sustainable housing development for the low income workers is still a mirage in Nigeria today. This arises as a result of financial and technological incapability. However, it is believed that if importation of expensive construction materials could be substantially reduced using locally available alternatives that are based on appropriate construction technology, such a measure can reduce cost of construction, increase housing stock and also increase foreign reserve of the economy of the country.

The unprecedented increasing size and densities of human activities in the urban cities have not only created enormous problems of congestion and overcrowding but have also resulted into degradation and haphazard development. The high proportion rate of urbanisation in the less developed countries (LDCs) and the inability of these countries to provide basic services and infrastructure have resulted in the development of slums thereby creating an urban sprawl and decline in the inner city.

Mycobacterium spp. was used for biotransformation of phytosterol to androstenedione. The study signifies the importance of media design and that medium constituents play a crucial role in the biotransformation process. Various statistical experiments namely, categorical, numerical factorial design and central composite design were applied to optimize the medium. The carbon and nitrogen sources, emulsifier source and the type of phytosterol were screened through categorical design. The significant components among the four were analyzed through full factorial design.

Twenty strains of actinomycetes were isolated from a soil sample in Karachi and screened for antimicrobial activity both by primary screening method (perpendicular streak and spot inoculation method) and secondary screening method (agar well diffusion method) against several test organisms including bacteria and fungi. Out of twenty strains eight showed broad spectrum activity in primary screening. The secondary screening was done with those strains which gave activity against test microorganisms in primary screening.

Urinary calculi formation is a very complex phenomenon taking place in a step-wise manner leading to urinary stone disease. Formation of urinary crystals is an essential step in stone disease. Common known stone components are calcium oxalate, calcium phosphate and uric acid. In- vitro studies was done by growing crystals in silica gel medium.

In Yavatmal district the SCD has been investigated in past but unfortunately there is a dearth of detailed data in tribal population. Aims: The present study would prove to be a small effort to find out the actual magnitude of the sickle cell disease in the tribal groups under study Settings and Design: Small screening camps were held in easily approachable villages with the official permissions of the medical facilities available there.

The objective of the research was to study quality profile of dried smoked julung and economics social of dried smoked julung processor, in Banggoi Village, District of Eastern Seram. Research method applied was descriptive by using field survey, followed by procsimate and microbiology analisis to get the quality information of julung dried smoked. In order to get the economics feasibility, it was used revenue cost ratio analysis. The revenue cost ratio analysis indicated the number of 1,27, it was mean that this business is feasible to develop in the future.

This study was carried out to investigate the effects of treatments with manure fertilizer and spacing on growth and quality of Zinnia elegans flowers. Zinnia is a popular garden annual flower. The results revealed that, application of sources of manure promoted growth of Zinnia elegans. It gave the highest values of growth. Addition 300kg/fed manure gave the best vegetative growth of Z. elegans. compared to 150kgs manure. High doses of both urea and manure delayed flowering in plant Z.elegans.

Females of Portunus pelagicuswere collected from shallow water of three localities in Arabian Gulf, Saudi Arabia namely Ad-Dammam, northern Khobar and southern estuarine beaches during October and November 2012 and June 2013. Three collections in the form of twenty females were chosen in each collection from each locality. Gill tissues and hepatopancreas were isolated and analysed for heavy metal accumulations. Each trail was made three times.

In this era of modernization, possibilities are emerging to provide technical education in an innovative way to meet global demands with the tremendous developments in technology. Educational Technology has been widely used all over the world. The Engineers of today and tomorrow are expected to be far more creative. A study was undertaken to develop an e-Content on ‘Crystal Systems’ which is prescribed in the Syllabus of First Year Engineering Physics subject of “Anna University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu”. This study also measured the effectiveness of the developed e-Content.

The Present study shows that the solar home lightening system in the remote village can influence the life of people very significantly for the better. The paper addresses the solar rural electrification in India. Although most of the developing countries have initiated rural electrification programs, progress has often been slow. The IEA estimates that developing and transition countries needs investment requirements in their energy sectors of US $ 9.6 Trillion in period of 2001 to 2030. Renewable energy in India achieves potential of 12.95% by 2014 and is expected to grow further.

When it comes to security, most mobile devices are a target waiting to be attacked. This arises the need for security. There are certain domains wherein the confidentiality of information is of utmost importance and needs to be protected from unauthorized users. Hence, authentication is used for protection of this information. The usage of authentication techniques has been persistent in the domain of security. However, older techniques are now more vulnerable and fail to provide the same level of protection as they once did.

For physics learning, labs plays very active and significant role as it is essential to develop science process skills because students are continuously required to identify the hidden concepts, define and explain underlying laws and theories using high level reasoning skills. It is time and again observed that traditional real time physics laboratory has some limitations and problems in developing science process skills.

In this paper we create a self similar analogous image of spiral structure of elementary particles with that of sea shells, using the mathematical description of pigmentation pattern of sea shells, which describes the various potentials of the spiral structure of elementary particles. It also introduces the sea shells analogous parameters for spiral structure of elementary particles for quantising the property of the elementary particles.

Waste management is been a crucial environmental issue since the second half of 19th century. It has been seen that the generation increases with increasing population, industrialization and urbanization etc. Cities like Mumbai, Delhi, Bangalore, and Kolkata are facing problems in managing their waste, these examples tell us the need of solid waste management in growing cities, therefore by keeping approach of prevention from future threats this work is executed.

Technology in various branches of science, business and marketing is changing rapidly. As a result, Mathematics is undergoing a revolution, Computational as well as conceptual. A major issue that needs to be addressed when thinking about impact of technology on Mathematics is the research in Mathematics. In this paper, an attempt has been made to review some basic issues about Mathematics research which comes in the mind of newcomers such as ‘How one goes about doing mathematical research? ’and ‘What are its most important achievements?

This paper is a critical overview on the experimental results on development of activation techniques to improve the catalytic activity of coal fly ash, in relation to its use as solid acid catalyst and catalytic support materials. Mechanical activation results in slight increase in silica percentage, amorphous nature, specific surface area and surface roughness, as evident by analytical measurements using XRF, XRD, FT-IR, BET surface area, TGA-DTA and SEM techniques.

In this paper, with a case on Jinsha Community in Putuo District in Shanghai, 32 rainstorm water logging disaster risk scenarios were simulated and analyzed using PGIS and scenario analysis methods.

The issues in focus constructions in Yoruba language have generated lots of arguments among Yoruba scholars. Some of these scholars are of the opinion that focus constructions are noun phrases. The other scholars claim that focus constructions are derived sentences which express a complete statement. Another area of debate among Yoruba scholars is the numbers of the focus marker in the dialects of Yoruba, especially, Èkìtì dialect, and that whether the anaphoric ó is a subject resumptive pronoun or preverb.

This article has been based on the analysis of CSR practices of financial institutions in Pakistan and their evaluation on the performance of organizations. The objectives of this article are: a) analyzing the literature regarding CSR practices in the financial industry, b) evaluating the CSR practices followed by organizations in financial industry in Pakistan, c) identifying the perceptions of customers and general public towards CSR practices of organizations in Pakistan and d) proposing suggestions to organizations in Pakistan for improving their CSR practices.

With the transformation of technology, the banking industry has also changed in terms of innovations in the digital era. This article has been aimed at analysis of implications of digital innovation for banking industry of Pakistan has been conducted.

Employee Satisfaction in Vijayawada Railway Division is very much interesting topic for me. Most of the employees are satisfied with this company performance. Company has a very good image among its employees. Most of the employees know organizations strategy; they have confidence in its leadership. Most of the Employees are getting appropriate recognition for their contribution. Railways providing fair salary to its employees further work. Organization is like a family where employees have to put share of responsibilities and work in accordance with the organization goal.

Employee Satisfaction in Vijayawada Railway Division is very much interesting topic for me. Most of the employees are satisfied with this company performance. Company has a very good image among its employees. Most of the employees know organizations strategy; they have confidence in its leadership. Most of the Employees are getting appropriate recognition for their contribution. Railways providing fair salary to its employees further work. Organization is like a family where employees have to put share of responsibilities and work in accordance with the organization goal.

Reading comprehension research within the framework of schema theoretical view has shown that the ability to understand texts is based not only on the reader's linguistic knowledge, but also on his/her general knowledge of the world (schemeta) and the extent to which that knowledge is activated during the actual process of reading (Carrell, 1983a; 1983b; Carrell and Wallace 1983; Carrell and Eisterhold, 1983). But few empirical data are available about the processes by which schemata are evoked (Carrell, 1987). This study is an attempt to see how much of the schema is activated.

A fundamental tenet of all recent theories of comprehension, problem solving and decision making is that success in such cognitive arenas depends on the activation and appropriate application of relevant pre-existing knowledge (Spiro et al., 1987; Cited in Richards and Renandya, 2002). In this sense, understanding texts is based on the reader’s general knowledge of the world (schemata) and the extent to which the relevant pre-existing knowledge is activated during the actual process of reading.

The research is intended to investigate the association b/w financial distress and financial performance. The sample companies selected are 15 and the study period is six years from 2007-2012. The study performed on non-financial companies that are listed on Karachi stock exchange selected from Fuel and Energy sector. The Altman’s Zscore model is used for diagnosing the financial health of the companies and then impact of financial distress is measured on financial performance. The study shows that there exist a significant association between financial distress and financial performance.

Greenbelts within and around cities are sites retained to discourage human habitation and hence forestall population density and encroachment into some areas. Biological gardens, tracks of open spaces as well as forests play invaluable roles in ecological stability, urban beautification and preservation of species. This study examines the significance, infringement and management of greenbelts. A3-stage stratified random sampling technique combined with physical field observations and reference to relevant literature were used to derive information for the study.

In the current market situation, running a business requires a constant search for areas in which one can gain competitive advantage, all the while consistently improving operations and demonstrating the superiority of the company over the competition. In a competitive market, the success of many organizations depends on their ability to adapt to constant changes in the environment. This is a necessity in order to survive and develop in a situation of ever-changing conditions and needs of the emerging market.

Being socio-economically backward and culturally rich Odisha (previously known as ‘Orissa’) is one of the important states in Eastern part of India. It occupies a special position in the tribal map of India. Out of 30 districts 9 are considered as tribal district (according to Location Quotient value) and of the total population (41,947,358) a significant share (22.1%) goes to tribal people (8,145,081). According to 2011 Census the literacy rate of the state is 73.45% which is almost same as of literacy rate of India (74.04%).

It seems like a puzzle whether stocks have the ability or not to protect from inflation. This study empirically investigated such relationship whether stocks provide hedge or not against the inflation. Monthly data of inflation and stock returns is used for the study to identify and measure the relationship. Period of the study was taken from year 2001 to 2012. Data stationarity is checked through augmented dickey fuller (ADF) and Philipp’s Peron (PP) unit root tests. For testing long term relationship between stocks returns and inflation, WALD test is used.

Adolescence is the most vulnerable period to various forms of risk taking behaviours as it is the age of experimentation, adventure and expiration. We study on the substance abusers among the students of Higher Secondary Schools of Imphal East and West District of Manipur.

The study was conducted in farmers' field at Manohora, Bhaktapur during 2012-13 to study the effect of different organic manures on growth and yield of broccoli var. Centauroand on soil nutrient status. There were seven treatments replicated thrice laid out in Randomized Block Design. Treatments applied were FYM @ 20 ton/ha (T1), Compost @ 6.66 ton/ha (T2), Vermicompost @ 4 ton/ha (T3), Poultry manure@ 2 ton/ha (T4), FYM+PM @ (10 ton FYM + 1 ton PM)/ha (T5), FYM+VC @ (10 ton FYM + 2 ton VC)/ha (T6) and control (T7).

Changing competitive and complex business environment has accounted to highlight the importance of the employee’s performance and outcome. Presently, employees are more focused and professionalized in comparison to past. However, it is analyzed that there are number of factors which directly as well as indirectly impact on the employee’s outcome and performance. This research study will be revolving around to investigate the impact of impact of organizational justice, compensation and monetary benefits on employee’s outcome. This research study is quantitative in nature.

This study is informed by the researchers’ concern for the government’s determination to upgrade all Teachers’ Grade II certificate holders in the teaching field to holders of the Nigeria Certificate in Education (NCE), since NCE is now the minimum qualification for entry into the teaching profession in Nigeria. The study is designed to evaluate the extent to which the programme objectives are being achieved.

This research aims to examine the ways to ascent the efficacy of man within an organization and to understand the system and the impact of personal abilities to personal behaviour relating to organization. In this study, relationship between Organizational Citizenship Behaviour and Perfectionism has been examined through surveys primary data collection method. Results show that there is positive correlation between Organizational Citizenship Behaviour and Perfectionism. The research includes some recommendations as well.

Employee The ultimately purpose of the research is to investigate the respond of Pakistani cement industry during the long March headed by Mr. Imran Khan Chairman PTI against the existing regime of Pakistan. The data of daily share prices of the top 14 companies of the cement industries have been gathered by developing the event windows from 4th August, 2014 to 30th December, 2014. The data of daily KSE index has also been collected for the same period and abnormal returns (AR) and cumulative abnormal returns (CAR) have been calculated.

Introduction:-Gender determination is one of the important parameters in the forensic science. The forensic odontologist is to identify the sex from whatever human dental remains are presented as a specimen. No two teeth have similar morphology and the purpose of this study was to investigate whether sexual dimorphism can be established by odontometric study of permanent maxillary canines’ teeth as well as canine arch width. Morphology of individual teeth is unique and is determined by genetic factor. Aim and objective:- • To identify role of maxillary canines in sex determination.

Information is a common term, often used by people of different professions. It is a resource that is naturally needed in all human endeavors, very crucial to the development of a nation, without which there would be no society. With the deluge of available information, each person needs information of increasing variety. The library has come to play a significant role as a repository of knowledge to the information needs of all groups in the community where it is located. The librarian should be aware of what kind of information is being sought and how it can be obtained.

Various organizations of the Globe have launched various schemes and programmes to promote and educate in each and every corner of the world. Education is a fundamental right of human development; hence the present study was conducted on the tea garden parents in Jalpaiguri district of West Bengal. This study analyses the roles, responsibilities and functions of parents in the education of their children and also study the perception of the parents and experiences of the participating children, dropouts and school completers in this education process.

May be this research attempt at tent into the necessary that result Future studies for high education in Iraq into Future and to do civilizational changing in society locally and worldwide, and enter element refer to Future and what is carrying from changes in clued aims, plans and high education programs and keeping instructions twenty one (21) century in clued the knowledge economy.

Forgotten Baby Syndrome (FBS) is a term refers to unintentionally leaving a baby or young child in a locked car, often with heartbreaking results. Every year, at least a dozen children die in overheated cars and that incidence increases day by day, somewhere 15 to 25 times a year in the United States. Numerous studies have shown that our stressful, busy lifestyles are causing more forgetfulness.

Peptic ulcer perforation is a serious complication which affects almost 2-10% of ulcer patients on the average. The patients suspected of peptic perforations undergoing emergency laparotomy were divided into 2 groups of 30 patients each based on the technique of Simple Randomization. Patients were allotted group A: Omental pluging and group b Ometopexy. Pain was present in 8 and 11 patients of omental plugging and omentopexy group respectively.

Background: Patients with Diabetes mellitus (DM) develop low levels of High Density Lipoprotein (HDL) during the initial progression of disease. There is growing appreciation that Insulin resistance is associated with lowering of HDL. The exact prevalence of the Insulin resistance syndrome among those with low HDL in the general population has not been clearly established. Methods: One twenty one patients and one twenty one controls were taken.

Postnatal women are prone for puerperial infection and any trauma such as episiotomy, tear, laceration can increase the tendency for the development of infection, pain and discomfort in the postnatal period which can be reduced by proper hygienic measures, especially perineal care, therapeutic cleansing soak, such as warm water sitz bath for rapid healing.

Interaction style is so vital to the patient because when asked about their perceptions of nursing care, patients almost exclusively described the nurses’ interactive style and not what task she was doing. Nurses often express anxiety and lack of confidence regarding communicating with patients diagnosed with psychiatric illnesses.

Background: Assessment contributes directly to the way students approach their study and therefore contributes indirectly, but powerfully, to the quality of their learning. A well designed assessment programme will use different types of question appropriate for the content being tested.Meaningful interpretation of course evaluation results requires collecting evidence of validity. One of the method employed for gathering evidence of validity involves collecting student feedback about the various components of the evaluation system.

Objectives: Evaluation of Physical and Chemical quality of drinking water available in Educational institutes of city Hyderabad of Sindh Pakistan near Indus River. Background: Drinking water quality is the great public health concern because it is a major risk factor for various viral, bacterial and protozoan diseases, globally. Over 25 million deaths are blamed due to waterborne-diseases. Pakistan has been facing the same problem due to improper water management, bad sanitary condition and poor drinking water quality.

Introduction: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is defined as a disease state characterized by airflow limitation that is not fully reversible. The Global Burden of Disease Study has projected that COPD, which ranked sixth as the cause of death in 1990, will become the third leading cause of death worldwide by 20202.The pooled global prevalence of COPD in adults 40 years or older is approximately 9 to 10% and is higher in smokers than non smokers, and is higher in men than in women. COPD includes emphysema, chronic bronchitis and small airway disease.

Back ground: Diabetic Retinopathy is one of the main complication of both types; type I and II Diabetes mellitus. HbA1c is the gold standard parameter to estimate the glycemic index nowadays. Poor glycemic index means high blood sugar level which is the proceeding factor for development of retinopathy. Methodology: Total 80 subjects were include in the study, from which 40 were type II diabetes without retinopathy and 40 were diabetes type-II with retinopathy. HbA1c was estimated by Bio Red Variant. Retinopathy was assessed by indirect ophthalmoscope.

Two hundred individuals whose ages ranged from forty years to eighty years, and above were used for the study. The aim of the study was to examine the eye-condition of the subjects with a view to finding out definitely, which of the age-related ocular diseases were most commonly suffered by residents of Owerri Metropolis. The One hundred and Ten (110) men and ninety (90) women that constituted the population probed responded with maximum co-operation while under investigation for both internal and external examinations carried out on them.

Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of recombinant growth hormone for increasing adult height in children treated for idiopathic isolated growth hormone deficiency (IGHD). Design: Observational follow up study. Setting: Population based registry. Participants: All Albanian children diagnosed with idiopathic isolated growth hormone deficiency and attained final height. Their treatment started between 2001 and 2011. Main outcome Measures: Annual changes in height, and change in height between the start of treatment and adulthood.

Objective: To assess the nutritional status of school going children in Rural health block. Methods: School children from various primary and middle level educational facilities from a rural health block were surveyed during the School Health Program. Height and weight was measured following standard procedures. MS Excel and Interactive statistics page were used for analysis of data. Results: Both mean weight and height were higher in females than males. The overall prevalence of under nutrition was 19.2%.

The goal of current dental implant treatment is more than just the successful Osseo integration of the implant. It includes an aesthetic and functional restoration surrounded by stable peri-implant tissue levels that are in harmony with the existing dentition, Crestal bone remodelling starts immediately after implant placement, Platform switching is a technique which can preserve the crestal bone loss.

Non-insulin dependent diabetic subjects have higher morbidity and mortality for various vascular events than does those in general population. Cerebrovascular and renal diseases related to the progression of atherosclerosis are well known to be the frequent cause of death and microalbuminuria has been shown to predict increased morbidity and early mortality in non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus.

Unicystic ameloblastoma is a rare, benign tumor of odontogenic epithelium. It refers to those cystic lesions that show clinical, radiographic and gross features of a mandibular cyst but on histological examination show a typical ameloblastomatous epithelium lining the cyst cavity with or without luminal and/or mural tumor growth. Most of the cases are associated with tooth impaction, the mandibular third molar being most often involved. This is the dentigerous variant. Sometimes, UA can occur in the ramus area without a relationship with teeth, the so-called ‘Nondentigerous’type.

Objective: This study was carried out to determine Caesarean Section rate and its related risk factors in urban area. Material and Methods: Total 370 deliveries occurred in last 3 years were included in study and various epidemiological risk factors related to Caesarean section were identified. Results: Total 370 deliveries were included in study, out of which 139 were Caesarean section. Majority of deliveries were conducted in institutions (98.9%). Among institutional delivery also majority done in private sector only (341 out of 366).

Objectives: Memory is major tool for an individual to achieve successful career in this competitive world. The present era created lot of stress, anxiety and disturbance in sleep, which adversely affect individual performance. Hence, we evaluated the effect of six months yoga training on short term memory in school going boys. Materials and Methods:This was a cross sectional study involving 40 yoga trained and 40 yoga untrained school going boys aged 11 - 15 yrs. Short term memory evaluation was done using various memory tests.

Addison’s disease usually presents with non-specific symptoms like fatigue, nausea, vomiting, hyper-pigmentation and generalized weakness. These symptoms are most often ignored or misinterpreted with other more common diseases (Depression, Somatoform disorder). This is the major reason that this disease is under-diagnosed. Therefore, to establish a diagnosis, high index of suspicion is needed. We are reporting a case of 30 years old female who presented with recurrent episode of acute abdomen and severe hypoglycaemia.

Study Design and Objective: This was a prospective case control hospital based study aimed to identify the allelic variation of p53 codon 72 “exon 4” in colorectal cancer lesions in Sudanese patients. Material and Methods: Endoscopic biopsies were obtained from 82 Sudanese patients with colorectal mucosal changes, DNA was extracted, and genotyping was performed using Allele Specific PCR (AS-PCR) to detect proline and arginine alleles.

Mucocele of paranasal sinuses is a benign, expansile cyst-like lesion filled with mucus and lined by the mucoperiosteum of the involved sinus. Mucoceles develop when the drainage of normal sinus secretion is obstructed, followed by mucous accumulation and expansion. Among the paranasal sinuses, the frontal sinus is most commonly involved. Mucoceles of the maxillary sinus usually present as an incidental finding, radiographically appearing as opacification of the involved sinus.

Dipylidium canium, also called cucumber tapeworm or the double pored dog tapeworm has been rarely implicated in causing human infection. It is a cyclophyllid cestode that causes human Dipylidiasis which is one of the rarely reported disease throughout the world (Wong, 1955). Although the disease is prevalent in all over the world, most reported cases are from North America (Parija, 2006). Till date only 120 cases have been reported globally (Parija, 2006).

Introduction: Gender determination is one of the important parameters in the forensic science. The forensic odontologist is to identify the sex from whatever human dental remains are presented as a specimen. No two teeth have similar morphology and the purpose of this study was to investigate whether sexual dimorphism can be established by odontometric study of permanent maxillary canines’ teeth as well as canine arch width. Morphology of individual teeth is unique and is determined by genetic factor. Aim and objective: • To identify role of maxillary canines in sex determination.

The present study was undertaken to evaluate the immunopotentiating effect of medicinal plant products such as Withania somnifera, Tinospora cordifolia, Allium sativum and Azadirachta indica in commercial layer flock vaccinated against Newcastle disease. The HI titre values in all the groups were above the protective level throughout the study period. Withania somnifera treated group showed highest mean HI titre of 234.66 and high HI titre from 26th week to 40th week of age when compared with other groups.

Safety climate and teamwork are two variables that might be considered as satisfying factors and might affect retention levels as well as patients’ and nurses’ outcomes. Understanding such concepts will help in designing economic interventions to retain more professional and expert nurses, and in preventing extra costs for recruitment and orientation of new nurses. The aim of this study was to examine the relationships between safety climate and teamwork as perceived by Shebien El-Kom hospitals’ nurses. Design: This study demonstrates a non-experimental, descriptive co-relational design.

Various concentrations (5%, 10%, 15% and 20%) of aqueous extracts prepared from two weed species namely Chrozophora rottleri L. and Parthenium hysterophorus L and used for the present experiments to determine their allelopathic potential on growth and developmental changes on Rice (Oryza Sativa L.). The weed extracts showed an inhibitory effect on germination percentage, root and shoot growth, and fresh and dry weight of rice seedlings. The extracts of P.hysterophorus had more inhibitory effect at 20%concentration,than that of Parthenium hysterophorus L on growth parameters of rice.

Self-sufficiency in energy is the assurance to excel any country’s economy. Energy is most important source for economic growth of a country. Unfortunately Pakistan has to face a major energy crisis in natural gas, power and oil. With the present situation of increasing energy demand, rising energy prices and reinforcement of countermeasures for global warming, renewable energy sources have taken the spotlight.

Stem anatomy, stomataltypes and stomatal index in addition the morphological charactersfor 6 species of genusAmaranthus named A.caudatus, A. graecizens A. hybridus, A. retroflexus, A. spinosusand A.viridisare collected from Jazan, Saudi Arabia.Two types of stomata are recognized; anomocytic and anisocytic. Anomocytic type found only in A. graecizens while anisocytic found in the remaider.

Most potable number (MPN) method was used to reckon microorganisms per 100 mL in water samples collected from hot springs, ground water sources, domestic water sources and urban area. This method provided sufficient and accurate results to prove the presence of contamination in potable and recreational waters. Of the total 90 samples, six samples showed highest number of total coliform. Selected six samples found MPN total coliform greater than permissible value have detected the presence of E. coli ranging from 2 to 140 MPN per 100 mL. Total 15 isolates were isolated from these samples.

The Bundelkhand region of M.P. is rich in natural resources including vegetation. The Ethno-medicinal survey of the region was carried out during April 2013 to November 2014 frequently. Various tribes of the region such as Kols, Gonds, Gujars, Lodhas and Naths were surveyed. Information on plants used as abortifacients by tribals was obtained through interview of local medicine men and elderly women and local vaidaya (Ayurvedic medicinal practioners), who had knowledge of such use of folk drugs. To gether reliable and authentic information, repeated verification of data was done.

Nigella sativa seed (Black cumin seed; Kalonji) was used since many years as medicinal product for the treatment of many infections. In the present study antibacterial effect of aqueous extract of seeds was studied against few of clinical isolates including both gram positive and gram negative species. Results were also compared with standard drugs. Most of the drugs were found to be non effective against isolates. Interestingly, during the recent study all isolates were resistant to oxacillin.

Our environment is blessed with plants and vegetables which form part of our food. Amongst the different fruits which play a vital role as dietary food, Banana has an important role. The fruit, which is grown in the most of the world’s tropical areas, is harvested while still green. When stored at room temperature, most bananas ripen in a few days. The consumption of fruits are thought to be associated with a reduced risk of many diseases including cancer, atherosclerosis and neurodegenerative diseases, which are related to elevated levels of oxidative stress.

A study was conducted to examine the clonal variation, effect of cutting type and IBA treatment on adventitious rooting of Taxus baccata. Six clones were selected from different provenances in East Khasi Hills districts of Meghalaya, India. From each clones two types of cuttings (lignified and non lignified) were made and given four IBA treatments (0, 1000, 2000 and 5000 ppm). Results revealed that clonal variation was significant for all the cutting parameters.

Diversity of acridids in Muthupet mangrove forest in Thiruvarur District of Tamil Nadu was assessed for a period of one year from April 2013 to March 2014. 1310 grasshoppers belonging to 8 family and 8 species were recorded.

Glucosamine has attracted much attention owing to its therapeutic activity in osteoarthritis and widely used dietary supplement. A search for a new potential source is going on due to the allergies caused by glucosamine extracted from shell fish and to reduce the cost involved in extraction of vegetarian glucosamine which are presently used as sources. The present investigation describes the effective extraction of glucosamine from sweet potato. (Method) A maximum yield of 16.3g/kg was obtained.

Probotics are microorganisms which has a potential to put positive health effect upon the health of human and animals. Their antagonistic potential is being utilized to overcome the increasing drug resistance of common pathogens. Present study is an attempt to further evaluate their antagonistic potential against resistance pathogen Klebsiella Pneumoniae. For this the synergistic antagonistic activity of probiotics and antibiotic combinations was carried out by using Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method.

Glioblastoma (GBM) is a highly malignant brain cancer characterized by uncontrolled cellular proliferation, diffuse infiltration, a tendency for necrosis, significant angiogenesis intense resistance to apoptosis, and widespread genomic aberrations.

Modern industrialisation has resulted in wide spread use of water for the industrial chemical processes and thus resulting not only in depletion of natural resources but also the large scale environmental pollution by the discharge of the untreated or partially treated waste water to land and water bodies. The present study covers the waste water pollution resulted by several CETPs located in an around Tiruppur area which discharges to the river Noyyal.

The study was conducted at Anti Retroviral Therapy (ART) centre of Susheela Tiwari Hospital, Haldwani, Distt. Nainital, Uttarakhand. The data for the study was collected by personal interview and case study. The study revealed that majority of the subject, 41.84 and 55.45 per cent were in the age group 18-30 and 30-60 years, respectively. A 77.28 per cent subjects were literate but only 10.92 per cent subjects were graduates. Heterosexual transmission was observed in 82.73 per cent subjects. Majority of subjects were on ART and only 1.81 per cent subjects were not on ART.

Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) is a biological leavening agent used in wheat breads, pizza dough, pita bread, crackers and many other bakery products. The organism converts the fermentable sugars present in the dough into Carbon dioxide gas and ethanol.CO2 gas acts as a major leavening agent during bread dough processing while small amount of leavening is also contributed by alcohol production during fermentation. An enormous number of strains of S.cerevisiae exist, many of which have already been selected for baking.

Allergies are fetching more severe and complex and interactive towards many other environmental factors such as pollutants, infections, lifestyle and diet. Children and young adults are more prone to allergies. The aim of this paper is to analyze the prevalence of allergies among youngsters in Karachi, Pakistan. In order to recognize the causes of allergies, the study has used direct source of information by first hand data which was collected through questionnaire filled by students of 14-21age groups.

Nanoparticle research is currently an area of intense scientific interest, due to a wide variety of potential applications in biomedical, optical, and electronic fields. A nanoparticle (or nanopowder or nanocluster or nanocrystal) is a microscopic particle with at least one dimension less than 100 nm. Metallic nanoparticles have fascinated scientist for over a century and are now heavily utilized in biomedical sciences and engineering.

Lactic acid bacteria play an important role in a large number of various traditional dairy products. This study investigates isolation and identification of some lactic acid bacteria from Domiate cheese. Six isolates were selected and identified; Domiate cheese isolates had an inhibition and bactericidal effects on the growth of some pathogenic microorganisms as Staphylococcus aureus; E.coli ATCC 25922 and Bacillus subtilis NCIB3610. The isolates had antibacterial effect in deferent degree. Lactobacillus acidophilus CH5 isolate was the best effect on the three indictor strains.

We present a new record of the pondweed (Potamogeton gramineus Linnaeus) (Potamogetonaceae Berchtold & J. Presl) from the sub-Himalayan wetland of West Bengal, India. This record extends the known geographical distribution of P. gramineus Linnaeus from Europe, North America, Russia, SW Asia (Iran), Japan, Mongolia, Pakistan, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan and China, to sub-Himalayan region of West Bengal. This discovery modified the current distribution and floral diversity of India.

Adults of Strongylocentrotus purpuratus were collected during September to June (2012) and July to August (2014) along the northern estruarineharbor of the Arabian Gulf – Saudi Arabia. Procurement of gametes has been carried out by potassium chloride injection using a one ml tuberculin syringe equipped with a 26 or 30 gauge needle. Gentle shaking of the animal anticlockwise 90◦ after few minutes of injection aided in gamete shedding. Gently sperm and eggs were mixed with a clean stirring rod. The different embryonic stages till the complete metamorphic plutei were described.

The aim of this research is to primarily determine the effect of calcium on isolated rat liver mitochondria and to discover the possible effects of adenosine and adenosine monophosphate on calcium induced mitochondrial swelling. About 100 male albino rats weighing between 180-260g were recruited into the study. The male albino rats were from animal house of Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of Nigeria, Nsukka.

The present paper deals with preliminary phytochemical screening and antioxidant activity of an ethno-medicinal plant, Thottea tomentosa (Blume) Ding Hou (Aristolochiaceae). The study detects different phytochemicals and observed antioxidant activity by using the DPPH radical scavenging assay.

The results of studies made on the impact of Biofertilizer (Azotobacter sps.) of bread wheat Triticum aestivum L. and its integrated effect in combination with organic fertilizer I,e Farmyard manure and and Jinong (a liquid humic acid containing organic fertilizer) that has been newly introduced, on yield and yield parameters of bread wheat Triticum aestivum L.variety k -9107. Globally wheat is a leading source of vegetable protein in human food and in terms of total production is currently second to rice as main food crop.

This paper represents personalization in terms of web usage mining and e-commerce. This paper gives useful information in the world of web personalization. To introduce web personalization we require to know about data mining with its application like web mining. It also gives detailed description about aspects of web mining with introduction of data mining. Due to this the user can relate importance of web mining to extract the knowledge from the web called as a web personalization.

Find my college is an IOS navigation application which will help people to get directions to JIT college and will also help people with the intra navigation of the college, that is, it will give directions for the various classrooms, labs, sports room, etc inside the college campus. Moreover, the application provides text indications when users touch intra interface, telling them where they are and how they can reach destination along with polylpine interface.

A performance index (PI) is computed for each single line contingency using both conventional and Fuzzy based approach. To obtain the magnitudes of various parameters, a computer aided power system study software package which employ iterative methods are used. This paper presents an approach using fuzzy logic to evaluate the degree of severity of the conventional contingency and to eliminate the masking effect in the technique.

Objective: to describe the steps development for a software prototype that provides assistance with a safety view to orthopedic patient on anticoagulant therapy. Methods: was based on concept of prototyping life cycle in stages of planning and defining requirements for a software future construction. Results: using Microsoft Access® to build the instrument presented as partial result, 4 pages, initially, and proposed use of the nurse and medical professional therapeutic treatment with anticoagulant by an admitted patient in Orthopedic’s clinic.

Wastewater and its characteristics is an important factor to recognize surface water pollution, This study has made a sincere attempt to characterize the sewage in Gadhinglaj city. The study involves sample collection, testing of sewage and findings are interpreted in the paper, The physical, chemical, parameters like Temperature, PH, BOD, Suspended solids etc are tested in the laboratory and these parameters are compared with CPCB standard requirement, It is found that some values of BOD, PH, Suspended solids exceeds the required standards of CPCB.

In this work, Zinc-cobalt oxide (Zn(1-x)CoxO) thin films, where x = 0, 4, 6 and 8 % have been successfully deposited on glass substrates by chemical spray pyrolysis (CSP) technique at substrate temperature of (400 °C) and thickness of about 300 nm. The structural and optical properties of these films have been studied using XRD, AFM, and UV-Visible spectroscopy. The XRD results showed that all films are polycrystalline in nature with Hexagonal structure and preferred orientation along (111),(002),(101),(102),(110) and (103) planes.

In this paper we have investigated the steady flow in pipes of rectangular cross-section through porous medium with magnetic field. We have investigated the velocity, flux and vortex line.

The changes in mineral contents namely; Sodium, Potassium, Phosphorus, Magnesium and Iron were studied in ber cultivars Mehrun-Khedi, Mehrun and M.P.K.V. during development and maturity of fruit at 20 days, interval from 20 days after fruit-set upto 120 days. The sodium content of Mehrun-Khedi cultivar remained nearly constant upto 80 days after fruit-set. Afterwards, a marked decreasing trend was found in that cultivar, between 100 to 120 days. On the contrary M.P.K.V. variety showed a continuous decreasing trend.

The changes in protein content of fruit pulp were studied in ber cultivars Mehrun-Khedi, Mehrun and M.P.K.V. during development and maturity of fruits at regular interval of 20 days, from 20 days after fruit-set up to 120 days. The protein content of the Ber fruit pulp showed a sharp decline up to 40 days after fruit-set but thereafter the decrease in it was very fast in Mehrun- Khedi till maturity of fruits. At maturity, the protein content was comparatively more in M.P.K.V. Than Mehrun- Khedi and Mehrun cultivars.

The nanocrystalline copper (II) complex with hippuric acid have been synthesized by solvent-free Mechano chemical synthesis. Copper (II) hippurate complex was characterized by UV-Vis spectra, fourier transform Infra red spectra, powder X-ray diffraction, High resolution scanning electron microscopic analysis, Transmission electron microscopic analysis, Thermal analysis, and Elemental analysis. The process presented here is operationally simple, environmentally benign and affords excellent yields without the need for any solvent.

The absolute configuration of the Saquinavir myselate has been determined. The structural analysis confirms the absolute stereochemistry for (2S)-N-[(2S, 3R)-4-[(3S)-3-(tert-butylcarbamoyl)-decahydroisoquinolin-2-yl]-3-hydroxyl-1-phenylbutan-2-yl]-2-(quinolin-2ylformamido) butanedia midemyselate. Saquinqvir myselate exhibits monoclinic crystal system and P21 space group with unit cell dimensions of α=90 0 ,β= 114.848(2)0 and γ=900Stereochemistry observed using platon is N(1)-S, C(2)-S, C(7)-S, C(9)-S, C(16)-R, C(17)-S and C(26)-S.

Most nations strive to ensure that citizens choose their political leaders in a free and fair way during elections. It is also their responsibility to ensure that citizens are protected and live in a safe and healthy environment afterwards. However in the recent past years, various forms of violence have erupted soon after elections and caused a lot of damage on property and also death of its citizens. The general objective of the study was to establish the implications of the post election violence on the psychosocial adjustment of children between 10-18 years.

This study sought to identify competitive strategies used by privately owned business while competing for public tendering opportunities in Public Universities in Kenya. The study identified quality of service as a strategy for creating a competitive gain while competing for tendering opportunities in Chartered Public Universities in Kenya. To achieve its objectives the study adopted a descriptive design with quantitative approach where semi-structured questionnaires were administered.

Employee absenteeism is a very critical problem in today’s world. It has become of increasing interest for organizations to measure, understand and control absenteeism as much as possible). This study aims to explore the relationship between the employee motivation and absenteeism. Primary research was done in order to investigate this relationship. Questionnaires were used for data collection. The sample consisted of 10 employees of West Consultant. The results were that employee absenteeism and motivation had a negative relationship.

These days, in the world of globalization, competition and dynamic situations, human resources and its training and development are most important and usually stand at the front. The main purpose of this study was to assess the practices and problems of human resource training and development programs in health offices of Gedeo Zone. To achieve the aim of the study, data were collected from primary and secondary sources. The researchers took a descriptive method and mixed approach of a research. In addition to the questionnaire, the interviews and focused group discussions were used.

Many women in India are drawn towards the IT-ITES industries due to relatively high wages and the opportunity to be part of an upscale, globalized work environment. At the same time, such employment presents women with new challenges alongside the opportunities. It uncovers how IT-ITES employment affects their lives, mainly as it relates to stress and the anxiety that Indian families and Indian society have towards working women, earning a good salary, and being exposed to western culture. Coping with such situations becomes very essential part of their living.

This article focuses on environmental degradation in the African Sahel with a case study from western Sudan. The article aims at analyzing environmental degradation using environmental indicators, traditional ground based methods and secondary sources. Four hundred and twenty (420) headed households were randomly selected from twelve sample sites and questionnaire interviews were conducted to collect data on the environmental change indicators and causes. The descriptive statistical methods and Chi-square test were used in the data analysis.

This research aims to: 1) develop a hypothetical model of conflict management in form of a module to be used as a guideline in conflict management assessment and treatment, 2) determine the effectiveness of conflict management in improving the emotional stability of the eleventh graders in senior high school students, in Karanganyar. The research approach applied is “Research and Development”, and the subjects involved were senior high school students (11th Graders) in Karanganyar who had low emotional stability.

A specific factor ensuring economic development is knowledge, which is a resource that, in principle, does not run out. On the contrary, its creation and distribution increases its importance, and the economic benefits gained from its use are constantly growing. Thus, knowledge is increasingly important in the production process in the modern economy. The ability to create and transform knowledge into new technologies, products and services, affect the market success of companies, and thus the development of the entire economy.

This paper examined the determinants of foreign direct investment in Ethiopia. Five variables including market size, level of trade openness, inflation rate, infrastructure, and human capital were used. Time-series data covering a 21-year period (1990-2011) were obtained from the World Bank and analyzed using multivariate ordinary least square regression. The findings show that level of trade openness and inflation rate of Ethiopia have had a significant impact on the flow of foreign direct investments to Ethiopia.

Disasters like flooding have changed their dimensions in urban areas. The urban flooding in cities is mainly in the form of flash floods and water logging of streets due to high intensity short spell rainfall. But the extents of damage to these disasters have increased over time in the urban areas because of increased rainfall runoff volume and due to greater exposure of people and assets because of concentration of resources.

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EDITORIAL BOARD

Luai Farhan Zghair
Iraq
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Eric Randy Reyes Politud
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Eapen, Asha Sarah
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India
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Pakistan
Dr. SHAHERA S.PATEL
India
Dr. Ruchika Khanna
India
Dr. Recep TAS
Turkey
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Egypt
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Pakistan
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India
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India
Dr. Ali Seidi
Iran
Dr. Achmad Choerudin
Indonesia
Dr Ashok Kumar Verma
India
Thi Mong Diep NGUYEN
France
Dr. Muhammad Akram
Pakistan
Dr. Imran Azad
Oman
Dr. Meenakshi Malik
India
Aseel Hadi Hamzah
Iraq
Anam Bhatti
Malaysia
Md. Amir Hossain
Bangladesh
Ahmet İPEKÇİ
Turkey
Mirzadi Gohari
Iran