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February 2015

  1. Ayat Saif-elyazal Abd-elraof Oka, Dr. Nahed Ahmed Morsy, Dr. HossamEldeenElsawy and Dr. Shereen Mohammed Abo-Elyazeed

    Background: Although recent advances in psychiatry have increased our understanding of psychiatric disorders, many people may be unaware about mental illness and its treatment. Several studies reveal poor knowledge about mental illness in nurses and stigmatizing attitudes toward people with mental illness which is known hindrance to provide quality service to mental ill people. Mental health problems are of serious concern across the world. Objective: The aim of the study was to measure the effectiveness of an educational program on the psychiatric nurses' perception and attitudes toward mental illness. The study followed a quasi experimental study design. Subjects and Methods: The study was carried out at Tanta Mental Health Hospital. The study Subjects included all nurses working in Tanta Mental Health Hospital (71 nurses). Two tools were used to collect the study data. Tool I: A structured interview questionnaire sheet that assesses nurses' perception toward mental illness. Tool II: the Opinion about Mental Illness in the Chinese Community (OMICC) scale by (Ng and Chan, 2000). It measures the general attitude to mental illness. This scale has six domains: benevolence, separatism, stereotyping, restrictiveness, pessimistic prediction, and stigmatization. Each nurse was interviewed individually by using Tool (1) and (2) (pre-test) to assess the nurses' perception and attitudes toward mental illness, the program was developed in order to provide the nurses with knowledge to enhance their perception and attitude toward mental illness. At the end of the program implementation, the nurses' perception questionnaire sheet, (tool I) and Opinions about Mental Illness in the Chinese Community (OMICC) (Ng and Chan, 2000) scale, (tool II) were re-applied on all the study subjects (post- test 1) and after three months (post- test 2), to evaluate the effectiveness of the program. The overall data collection took about one year. Results: The study revealed that the majority of the studied nurses had poor perception about mental illness in pre intervention assessment which significantly improved after intervention which indicates the effectiveness of educational program on perception change of the nurses. Regarding attitude about mental illness of the studied nurses, it was found that nurses had moderately good score of attitude in pre intervention assessment which increased slightly immediately post intervention, but significantly increased in three months post intervention. As a whole, the total mean scores of attitude significantly improved in three months post intervention. In conclusion, the educational program was more effective on perception and attitude change of the nurses. Recommendations: Knowing the attitudes of this fundamental group of mental health professionals has implications for the educational preparation and organized educational programs of all nurses, to ensure that patients are treated with dignity and respect in a therapeutically effective and ethically sound environment. Nurses' training that includes greater use of teaching strategies that challenge beliefs and assumptions and promote a commitment to positive attitude and effective mental health practice.

  2. Lalit R. Samant, Anuya Rege and Abhay Chowdhary

    Phytoconstituents such as, Wedalolactone Demethylwedalolactone, Valeranone, Jatamansin, Gamma gurjunene, beta-caryophyllene alpha humulin, Oleic acid, Palmitic acid, Linoleic acid, Gallic acid, Ellagic acid, Withafirin A, Withanolide D, Bacoside A, Bacoside B, Asiaticoside, Trans Asarone, Beta/cis asarone Glycyrrhizin, Glycyrrhizic acid and Licoisoflavanone were included in the present in silico analysis to evaluate their Anti-Alzheimer’s potential. The adsorbtion, distribution, metabolism, excretion (ADME) properties of these phytochemicals were assessed through Lipinski rule of Five. The Bioactivity properties and Phytoconstituents-likeness of the selective phytoconstituents were calculated using Molinspiration and Molsoft tools and their toxic properties were determined by employing the Osiris server. Interestingly, after application of Lipinski’s rule of five, our results revealed that all these selected phytoconstituents have fully satisfied the Lipinski’s rule of five and thus shall be recommended as safe phytoconstituents for effective treatment of AD though in vitro and in vivo study required in preclinical and clinical phases.

  3. Solmaz Mohamadi, Parvin Abedi, Seyedeh Zahra Pazhohideh and Elham Maraghi

    Background: Self-care is a multidimensional construct that includes all activities related to maintaining health, preventing and treating disease by themselves. Adoption proper behaviors needs good knowledge, perception and behaviors of individual. The aim of this study was to assess knowledge, attitude and practice of middle age and elderly women about self-care. Methods: The study included 440 middle-aged and elderly women attending to public health centers in Ahvaz, Iran. Middle age and elderly women who were resident of Ahvaz were chosen from six health clinics. Women who resident of elderly house and who with disability were excluded from study. A questionnaire consisting of two parts (a-satisfaction with health, preventive factors, enabling factors, sources of information (b) improve the symptoms of menopause) was used to collect data. Results: The mean age of middle age and elder women was 51.6% and 48.4% respectively. Only 34.5% of participants had a good performance in healthy lifestyle and self-care. Most of women had poor knowledge, attitude and practice regarding self care (69.6, 57.8%- and 88%- respectively). There was no significant relationship between age and the applied self-care activities to relieve menopausal symptoms. Conclusions: The findings of this study showed that knowledge, attitude and practice of Iranian middle age and elderly women about self care were not satisfactory. Therefore there is need to some interventional program to improve the level of knowledge, attitude and practice of women about healthy lifestyle and self -care.

  4. Dr. Lomtu Ronrang

    The aim of the study was to evaluate clinical response of the hydroxyapatite as graft materials in the periodontal bony defects due to localized developmental tooth anomalies. Systemically healthy Male patient age 32 with a recurrent gingival swelling in relation to upper left side of tooth. Clinically there was periodontal pocket probing depth of 9mm (Williams marking periodontal probe) in relation to maxillary left lateral incisor │2 due to presence of palatal groove. The lesion was treated surgically with the application of hydroxyapatite (HA) as grafting material without membrane. Clinical response of the tissue, regenerative potentiality and effectiveness of hydroxyapatite as a bone graft material for the treatment of periodontal intrabony lesion was observed. Pre and Postoperative treatment like bleeding on probing, probing depth, clinical attachment level, gingival recession was observe after periodontal therapy and Intra-Oral Periapical radiograph was also compared before and after 6 months of therapy. The present case shows that there is decrease in depth of periodontal pocket, increases in clinical attachment level, and increase in gingival recession, no bleeding on probing and presence of bone formation in the post operative Intra-Oral Periapical radiograph was found. From the present study it’s concluded that hydroxyapatite (HA) can acts as effective bone graft substitute materials for the treatment of periodontal intrabony bony defect.

  5. Kafle, T. K., Singh, G. P. and Singh, S. P.

    Background: Maternal death and disability rates prevails the huge differentials that exist between mainstreamed and excluded groups across the country. The low level of Maternal-Child Health service utilization, lack of awareness and education, early age at marriage, and poor nutritional status and more affect the total well being of Dalit mothers. Objective of this is to assess the maternal health care practices and services utilized by the Dalit and Non-Dalit mothers in Eastern Terai, Nepal. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out with 720 Dalit and Non-Dalit mothers during July to December 2011. Direct interview was held by using interview schedule with the selected mothers in three districts of eastern Terai, Nepal. Mothers having at least one live birth 5 year preceding the survey were included. Results were analysed by using SPSS software version 16. Results: The socio-economic and demographic status of Dalit mothers was comparatively lower than the Non-Dalit mothers. Significant difference in the MCH care and service utilization is also observed. Dalit mothers made less Antenatal Care visits, less pregnancies were checked in health facilities and by health professionals (P<.001). Similar trend are also observed in the institutional delivery and delivery attendance by health professionals (P=<.001). Postnatal Care visits was less among the Dalit mothers (13.4 %) in compared to Non-Dalit (P<.001). Lack of awareness, lack of family support, poverty and lack of transportation facility were key barriers for the utilization of MCH services. Conclusions: Significant differences in MCH care and service utilization is observed between Dalit and Non-Dalit mothers; hence, a special focus has to be provided for the Dalits by the government as well as other concerned agencies.

  6. Bhrigu Kumar Das

    Dengue is one of the most emerging vector-borne viral diseases. Prevalence has enlarged 30-fold in the last 50 years with the increased geographic expansion to new countries. An estimated 50 million dengue infection occurs annually and approximately 2.5 billion live in dengue endemic countries where more than 21,000 deaths occur each year. Dengue is anticipated to rise due to factors as contemporary modification of climate, travel, globalization, trade, viral evolution, socioeconomics and settlement. Poor disease scrutiny, misdiagnosis, limited public knowledge, low levels of reporting have found it hard to establish the accurate impact of dengue internationally. Dengue disease with accessible statistics possibly underestimates the pathophysiological, economic, social and ecological problems. Target of numerous vaccines now in progress is to bring out defensive neutralizing antibody responses are going on through clinical evaluation. The need of balanced immune response against all four DENV serotypes with a single vaccine is the main challenges encountering by the developers. The mortality can be reduced with prompt case detection, appropriate clinical management, and reporting but a safe and effective vaccine is probably the only long-term solution. Hence there is a need to build up an efficient, low-cost and safe vaccine that can target all the four serotypes of dengue virus.

  7. Dr. Aijaz A Wani, Dr. SajadHamid and Dr. Qazi Najeeb

    Background: Epistaxis is most common E.N.T. emergency. The present study is a prospective observational study to study effectiveness of non surgical methods to controll epistaxis, even in minimally equiped set ups in our peripheries. Objective: To evaluate and compare the outcome of various treatment modalities. Methods: After taking history and through clinical and E.N.T. examination, baseline investigations, diagnostic nasal endoscopy, radiological examination whereever needed reassurance and non surgical methods were sufficient to effectively control epistaxis in most cases. Surgical methods were needed in less than 4% of cases in our set up. Results: In our study, Non- surgical procedures were the main stay of treatment of epistaxis in 96.5% of cases. Surgical measures account to 3.5%. The overall success of treatment was 85%. Conclusion: We concluded that epistaxis affects all age groups and both sexes, with males more than females. Non-surgical treatment is still useful to arrest nasal bleeding, safe and cost effective. Surgical intervention should be the last resort of treatment.

  8. Dr. Sanjeeta Umbarkar, Dr. Pushkar Desai, Dr Poonam Bharambe and Dr. Manjula Sarkar

    Background: Thoracic epidural anaesthesia (TEA) in coronary bypass surgery provides an excellent analgesia and helps in early recovery but the use of 0.2% Ropivacaine in TEA for off pump coronary artery bypass surgery (OPCAB) is not well documented in the literature. Methods: After ethics committee approval, sixty patients were randomized into two groups. The General Anesthesia (GA) group (n=30) received Inj. Midazolam (0.1mg/kg) and Inj. Fentanyl (10mcg/kg) for induction. TEA was installed more than one hour before giving heparin at T5–T6 / T6-T7 level in GA+TEA group (n=30) and continuous infusion of 0.2% Ropivacaine @ 5-7 ml/hr intraoperatively was started and continued 24 hours in the postoperative period after extubation. Results: TEA decreased heart rate (HR) but maintained arterial pressures and reduced the consumption of fentanyl and pancuronium significantly (P<0.001) as compared to GA group. In the postoperative period following extubation, heart rate, arterial pressures and CVP were maintained as pain control was superior in GA+TEA group. There was no neurological complication related to TEA. Conclusions: We conclude that TEA using 0.2% Ropivacaine along with GA improves hemodynamics during and after OPCAB surgery, significantly reduces the intraoperative anaesthetic drug requirement and more effective in postoperative pain control.

  9. Gurbachan Singh Gindha, Ratesh Munjal, Sidharth Sankar Maharana and Rakesh Kumar Agarwal

    The musculocutaneous nerve is a nerve of anterior compartment of arm and also cutaneous nerve on lateral side of anterior compartment of the forearm. Root value of this nerve is C5-C7. The variations in origin, course and distribution is not uncommon. The knowledge of variable origin and course is important for surgeons, traumatologist and orthopedicians. Operative treatment in arm should be done with keeping in mind such variations which will prevent the chances of iatrogenic injuries to the musculocutaneous nerve.

  10. Poonam Malik and Manu Rathee

    Resin-retained FPDs are particularly useful in treating younger patients because much less tooth reduction is required than for a conventional retainer design. Contrasted with conventional fixed prostheses, which depend on the geometric shape of a circumferential tooth preparation, these prostheses rely in part on adhesive bonding between etched enamel and the metal casting. Nevertheless, specific, conservative tooth preparations are necessary to achieve optimal retention. This review article provides a basic outline regarding the fabrication techniques in different tooth of resin retained fixed partial denture.

  11. Udoye Ezenwa Patrick, Uwaezuoke Stanley Chibuzo and Fente Beleudanyo Gbalipre

    Introduction: Breast carcinoma is the most common malignancy in females and ranks amongst the leading causes of cancer deaths in females in Nigeria and worldwide. Aim: To analyze the breast cancers in Bayelsa state histopathologically, providing baseline data for management, education and awareness. Methods: A retrospective descriptive histopathological multicentre study of malignant breast diseases in the three histopathology enabled centres in Bayelsa state from January 2009 to December 2013. Results: A total of 106 (31.7%) malignant breast diseases were seen during the study period. All the malignant breast lesions occurred in females. The age range was 25-85 years with a mean age of 46.8years. The peak age incidence was in the 4th decade (32.1%) and 69.8% of the breast cancers occurred in premenopausal women. Invasive ductal carcinoma not otherwise specified (78.3%) was the most common. Majority was high grade cancers (46.6%) and most occurred in the left breast (53.6%). Conclusion: Breast cancers were predominantly invasive ductal carcinoma of high grade mainly in premenopausal women. The presence of high grade tumours with poor prognosis at young ages call for more rigorous approaches to management including early and targeted screening, better education, increased public awareness and subsidization of treatment cost.

  12. Nandish, C. and Sarala, N.

    Objective: To study the prescribing pattern of antimicrobial agents in medical intensive care unit and to determine the outcome in these patients. Materials and methods: Study was conducted by the Department of Pharmacology by obtaining the data of patients admitted to medical intensive care unit (MICU) of RLJH & RC attached to SDUMC, Kolar during January to June 2012. The demographic data, diagnosis, dosage schedule of the antimicrobials used, duration of stay and the outcome were recorded as per predesigned proforma. Results: There were 408 patients of which 242 were males (59%). The mean age was 46.63 ± 18.28 years. Indications for admission were respiratory tract infections (20.83%) followed by fever for evaluation (16.91%) and poisoning (15.44%). Commonest being pneumonia, COPD, dengue fever and OP poisoning. 353 patients (86.51%) received antimicrobial therapy. Prophylactic and therapeutic use was 55.52% and 44.48% respectively. In 111 patients (27.20%) two antimicrobials were used, 94 (23.03%) and 87 (21.32%) patients received one and three antimicrobials respectively. Commonly used agents were third generation cephalosporins – ceftriaxone (71.67%) followed by metronidazole (33.71%), doxycycline (24.64%) and penicillins – piperacillin and tazobactum (23.79%). Only in 10 patients (2.45%) antimicrobial therapy was changed after culture and sensitivity report. The mean duration of stay in MICU was 3.01 ± 2.27 days. 307 (75.24%) patients recovered. Conclusion: Majority of the patients in MICU received antimicrobials, commonest being cephalosporins. Most of our patients received 2 antimicrobials and only 15% received more than three. Change in the drug following culture and sensitivity was observed in few patients

  13. Dr. K. C. Das, Dr. Navjot Singh, Dr. Sumeet David, Dr. Nitin and Dr. Rohit Masih

    Celiac disease is an autoimmune-based digestive disease and it is an immune-mediated enteropathy due to the ingestion of a gluten containing diet. Individuals predisposed to risk are genetically predetermined. Symptoms of the disease at a large usually start at the very early part of life just after weaning, however, a small group of patient present late we called it ‘latent celiac sprue”. We present a rare case of young patient having celiac disease with symptomatic idiopathic portal hypertension.

  14. Deepa Shori, Pratima Shenoi, Yogesh Rathod, Arshia Baig and Swapnil Pandey

    Ozone is acquiring its place in the field of dentistry and in day to day dental practice. Since many years, it has been used owing to its oxidizing property, which makes it an excellent antimicrobial agent. Because of its potent anti-inflammatory property, favorable cellular and hormonal immune response, ozone acts as an effective therapeutic agent. Versatility of ozone therapy, its unique properties, non-invasive nature, absence of any side effects or adverse reactions were responsible for its wide spread use. Ozone’s potentiality of arresting and reversing carious lesions in a predictable way has led to a new chapter in minimal invasive dentistry. It has a wide application in conservative dentistry and in endodontics which includes treatment of carious lesions, root caries, hypersensitivity, disinfection of the root canal, bleaching, etc., without any toxic effects. It is important to look ozone as a synergistic part of the dental treatment, bacterial elimination and site of oxygenation. This poster summarizes the ability of ozone in treating various dental diseases and its possible clinical applications in future

  15. Dr. Mandira Chakraborty, Dr. Indrani Bhattacharyya, Dr. Dipankar Paul, Dr. Abhisek Mitra Dr. Sangeeta Das Ghosh and Md Samidul Hoque

    Mucoid variant of Pseudomonas is most commonly isolated from Cystic Fibrosis patients. We have isolated a hugely mucoid variant of it from sputum of two non-cystic fibrosis patients, one aged 75 years and another aged 35 years, both having chronic lung disease, admitted at Calcutta School of Tropical Medicine, West Bengal, India. Isolation of this variant of pseudomonas from non-cystic fibrosis lung prompted us to report the cases. Both the strain further tested found to produce biofilm by the qualitative detection method, the Tube method. During the years following initial colonization, the wild-type strains uniformly mutate into mucoid variants and the mucoid matrix is believed to allow the formation of protected biofilm. Once biofilm formed, it becomes a real challenge for the physician to eradicate the organism.

  16. Dr. Sangeeta Das Ghosh, Dr. Indrani Bhattacharya, Dr. Mandira Chakraborty, Dr. Arpita Das Dr. Abhisek Mitra and Md Samidul Hoque

    We report an inexplicable case of recurrent multiple discharging sinuses, on labia majora and mons pubis in a 28 year old female patient with history of pulmonary Kochs. The discharge was related to the menstrual cycle. The pus collected from the lesion showed plenty of acid fast bacilli on microscopy but enigmatically culture showed no growth of Mycobacteria even after several tries. After excluding the probable differential diagnosis, we came to the conclusion that probably we are dealing with a case of Mycobacterium ulcerans but unfortunately neither could we cultivate the fastidious organism to speciate it nor could we perform the molecular diagnosis. The unusual site of Mycobacteria Other Than Tuberculosis (? M.ulcerans) infection prompted us to report the case.

  17. Mofida Y. Elkhalifa and Sitelbanat M. Ahmed

    The objective of this study was to assess the food intake of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) women attending Omdurman Maternity Teaching Hospital. The sample included 163 diagnosed GDM with 150 non-diabetic controls. Methods included interviews and anthropometric measurements. The results showed that GDMs were significantly older than non-diabetics (31.28±5.52 and 28.39±5.7 years old, respectively). No significant differences between the two groups regarding their body mass index .The 24-hours food recalls showed that the mean number servings of cereals and sugars were significantly lower among the GDMs compared to the non-diabetics (11.6±4.4 vs. 13.5±3.9 for cereals and 4.8±4.7 vs. 8.3±6 servings for sugars, respectively). However, GDM women still take high amounts of cereals and sugars compared to the recommended amounts. Fruits intake was very low among both groups (less than one serving). The effect was compounded by the reduced intake of vegetables especially among the GDMs (2.7±1.3 vs. 3±1.3 servings, respectively). Fat intake was found to be very high especially among the GDMs compared to the non-diabetics (15.66±10.20 vs. 13.4±7 servings, respectively). In conclusion, the dietary intake of the studied GDM women is unhealthy. Therefore, to achieve safer maternity outcomes, strict intervention programs that promotes healthier dietary intake should be adopted.

  18. Sinan Bilgin and Ozcan Kayikcioglu

    The purpose of this report is to report possible effect of patient posture to treatment process in patients receiving dexamethasone intravitreal implant. A 53-year- old man with diagnosis of ankylosing spondylitis followed by rheumatology department, was referred to us for uveitis. Patient had dorsal kyphosis and head bent position leading to his ankylosing spondylitis. Fundus examination showed macular edema in both eyes. Intravitreal administration of dexamethasone implant was performed, afterwards visual acuity increased and anterior chamber reaction reduced in both eyes. However patient complained from shadowing in his right eye. The examination showed that the implant was behind the lens and in pupillary area especially in the right eye. In both eyes, posterior capsular and nuclear cataract were developed. Head-body posture should be considered as a factor for selection of intravitreal drug therapy and also possibly for injection site selection for implants.

  19. Naresh Kumar, Pooran Mal, Urooj Bhatti and Shahzad Ali

    Objective: Find out the outcome of surgical management of Urogenital Tract Fistulas in term of recurrence rate, complications and to understand the magnitude of this problem with its etiology. Methods: This was a retrospective study conducted in Department of Urology at Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre, Karachi from January 2004 to July 2012. All patients presented during study period with Urogenital Tract Fistulas secondary to obstetrics and surgical complications were included in this study. The patients with fistula secondary to malignancy and radiation therapy were excluded. Results: Forty-two (42) fistulas were repaired, among them 34 women had vesico-vaginal fistula (VVF), uretero-vaginal fistula (UVF) were found in 6 patients, while combined uretero and vesico-vaginal fistulas in 2 patients. In our study the mean age is 32.4 year + 3.7 (range 23-45 years). 85.7% (n=36) of patients belonged to rural areas of country and 14.28% (n=6) were urban in origin. Only 16.7% (n=7) were primigravida. Repair was successful in 97.62% (n=41) patients. Except 2.38% (n=1) had recurrence at 3 months follow up. Conclusion: The most common etiology was prolonged obstructed labor. Only one recurrence was noted in this series. The reason being the correct timing of surgery (3-4 months)following initial accident, meticulous tissue handling, control of infection and adequate nutritional support pre- operatively.

  20. Awad, A. M., Sedeik, M. E. and Abdelkariem, A. A.

    Despite routine vaccination programs against Newcastle disease (ND), sporadic cases have occasionally occurred that remain a constant threat to commercial poultry. Egypt is endemic for Newcastle disease virus (NDV) with continuous long-lasting outbreaks causing significant losses in the poultry industry since 1948. This study was designed to identify various NDVs associated with outbreaks occurred in different localities in Egypt (El-Behera and Beni-Swief governorates) from March 2014 to November 2014among chicken flocks by RT-PCRand estimate its virulence in chickens byintra-cerebral pathogenicity index (ICPI). Thirty seven samples were collected from chickens either alive or dead showing characteristic clinical findings and post-mortem lesions of NDV. Virus propagation in embryonated chicken eggs was confirmed by hemagglutination (HA) test and identified by hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test using NDV specific antiserum. The results indicated that 16 (43.2 %) out of 37 samples were NDV positive. This results confirmed by RT-PCR which revealed that 16 out of 37 samples were NDV positive;13 samples were virulentNo. (3, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 15, 16, 23, 31, 34 & 37) and 2 were avirulentNo.(5, 32). By partial sequencing of the F protein cleavage site for the selected tenfield isolates from the sixteen positive isolates(No. 3, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 15 and 31)revealed thatthese isolates were velogenic type resembling the genotype 7 strain (NDV strain Chicken/China/SDWF07/2011).The ICPItest also revealed that theselectedten field isolates(No. 3, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 15 and 31) have a range from 1.55-1.79 index which congruent to velogenic type. These results confirmed that the circulating NDV strains are virulent for chickens.

  21. Dr. Asima Banu, Dr. Khadeer Ahmed Khan, Dr. Manasa, S. and Sanjith Prahas Krishnam

    Background: Progressive cell-mediated immunodeficiency with decrease of CD4+ lymphocyte count to less than or equal to 200 cells/mm3 is a major risk factor for colonization with Candida species and development of candidiasis. This study was done to investigate Candida colonization, speciation and their correlation with CD4+ cell counts in HIV-positive patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART) Methodology: A prospective, cross sectional study in HIV-infected patients receiving ART In total, 500 HIV-positive patients on ART treatment and 100 seronegative controls were enrolled in the study. All HIV patients underwent clinical examination and were subjected to CD4+ cell counts. Oral rinse samples were obtained and processed. Identification of Candida species was performed by conventional methods. Results: In the study group of 500, 166 (33.3%) had Candida colonization and were culture positive and in 100 healthy controls 25 (25%) of these indivduals were culture positive. Candida species were isolated in 166/500(33%) and 25/100 (25%) of the HIV-positive subjects and controls respectively. Candida albicans was the most frequently isolated species. Patients with CD4+ cell counts ≤ 200 cells/mm3 were significantly (p<0.0001) more frequently colonized 39/70(56%). Conclusion: Candida colonizationoccur more frequently in HIV-positive patients with CD4+ cell counts ≤200 cell/mm3. ART significantly reduces OPC. C. albicans is the most frequently isolated species colonization, non candida species are also emerging.

  22. Dr. Mayank Gupta, Dr. Manoj Kumar and Singh, T. B.

    The effect of lunar cycle on human behavior has always been the area of interest for the researchers worldwide. It is accepted in academic literature as ‘The Transylvanian Effect’. While some has drawn results in favor of this, some also has rejected this hypothesis on the basis of negative results. This study aims to find out the effect of lunar cycle on suicidal deaths. This prospective study is done over a period of 18 and half months (1st January 2013 to 17th July 2014). During this period, a total of 152 cases were taken in this study which include unnatural death by suicide. These cases were brought to the Department of Forensic Medicine, IMS, BHU, Varanasi for medico legal postmortem examination from the various police station of Varanasi and have been analyzed prospectively. The incidences of suicidal deaths in and around full moon and new moon days were compared with that of other days of the month which are statically analyzed by employing the ‘one-way parametric ANOVA’. The study reveals a rise in incidences during the full moon and new moon days over the others but is statistically insignificant. It is concluded that there is no correlation between lunar cycle and occurrence of suicidal deaths.

  23. Shiva Kumar Yellanki, Balaji Anna and Radha Kishan, M.

    The poor bioavailability of ocular solution is caused by dilution and drainage from the eye can be overcome by using In situ gel forming ocular drug delivery system prepared from polymers that exhibit sol to gel transition. The objective of the study was to develop optimized formulation of In situ gel of Forskolin (FSK) antiglaucoma agent using pH and Ion activated polymers Carbopol 940 and Sodium alginate respectively as gelling agents, Hydroxy Propyl Methyl Cellulose (HPMC K4M) as viscosity enhancing polymer. The Forskolin (FSK) solid dispersion was prepared by kneeding method in various ratios (1:1 to 1:4) with β- cyclodextrinas solubility enhancing agent. Solid dispersion 1:4 was selected for further formulation of ocular pH and ion activated In situ gels. The 23 factorial design was employed to optimize the formulation considering Carbopol 940, Sodium alginate and Hydroxy Propyl methyl cellulose (HPMC K4M) as independent variables, Sol to gel transition time (sec) and In vitro percentage drug release as dependent variables. Formulations were prepared successfully and assessed for appearance, gelling capacity, pH, drug content, viscosity, in vivo ocular irritation and in vivo intra ocular pressure (IOP) reduction studies and results observed in acceptable range. Based on sol to gel transition time (sec) and in vitro percentage drug release F9 formulation was found to be best optimized formulation from the nine formulations developed by 23 factorial design. The study revealed that the in situ gel system of Forskolin (FSK) sustained the antiglaucoma activity up to 8 h for F9 formulation.

  24. Dass, K. C., Sumeet David, Nitin, Nirmala, Ashvin and Ritu Massey

    The combination of polyethylene glycol (pegylated interferon) interferon and ribavirin has been shown to be an effective treatment for chronic hepatitis C virus. In general, common side effects related to this combination therapy are mild and are well tolerated. However, peripheral neuropathy including mixed type of polyneuropathy related to PEG-interferon α-2a (pegylated interferon alfa-2a) is extremely rare. In the literature, few case of acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy related to PEG-interferon α-2a has been published previously.

  25. Saraswati Jayanthi R. and Jayanthi Savio

    Background: Candiduria is a relatively rare finding in otherwise healthy people but common in hospital settings. It may signal colonization or contamination which may not need treatment. It may also be a marker of lower UTI or upper UTI which may need treatment. Materials and Methods: A total of 350 isolates of Candida were included in this study. Candida isolates were identified by Gram stain, growth on Sabauraud’s dextrose agar, Germ tube test and sugar assimilation tests. Results: Out of 14,986 samples, 350 Candida isolates were identified. 176 were males and 174 were females. Candida tropicalis (74%), Candida albicans (16%), C.lipolytica (4.2%), C.glabrata (4.2%), C .parapsilosis (1.5%), C.krusei (1%) were the species isolated from urine. 175 isolates had colony counts of >105 Cfu/ml. Conclusion: The present study shows that incidence of non Candida albicans is more than Candida albicans. Species identification helps in choosing the appropriate antifungal agent.

  26. Nizzy, A. M., 1Kannan, S. and Anand, S. B.

    Hydrogen is the fuel for the present and future, due to its recyclability and nonpolluting nature. Hydrogen generates no carbon based pollutants but produces water when it used as fuel. In comparison with fossil fuel, hydrogen has a higher energy yield also. Microbial hydrogen production provides some advantageous over the chemical process, it is clean, efficient and environmental friendly. Photochemical and fermentative systems are the two main system of microbial hydrogen production. Various types of biomass are considered as the source for bio-hydrogen generation such as sago industry waste, dairy wastes, palm oil mill effluent, rubber industrial effluent, agricultural waste and rice mill effluent can be used for hydrogen production through suitable bioprocess techniques. This review article summarizes types of biowastes, bio-processing strategies, types of microbes, microbial cultures to be used and the recent developments are discussed with their relative advantages.

  27. Lavkush Kumar Brahman and Ramesh Chandra

    Background and objectives: Ever increasing population and lack of adequate health care facilities, particularly for the rural masses are a matter of concern for India. The major concern of India is the spread of vector borne diseases by mosquitoes. Mosquitoes are vectors of different pathogenic organism like protozoan, nematodes and viruses. They spread diseases like malaria, filaria, chikungunya, dengue and yellow fever etc. Culex transmits filariasis, Japanese encephalitis, Chikungunia, Ganjam and other Encephalitis diseases in the World. Puntius conchonius fish was used as a biocontrol agent against larvae of Culex. The predation potential of P. conchonius against Culex larvae was analyzed in the presence and absence of Hydrilla plant. Methods: The present experiment was designed and carried out in the laboratory of Biological Sciences, MGCGV, Chitrakoot, Satna (MP) . Fourth instars larvae of Culex were collected from stagnant water of natural pits, nearby university grounds (campus) and was reared in plastic cane (15-liter capacity) with unchlorinated tap water in the laboratory and was maintained at room temperature 28+ 20C & pH 6.5. P. conchonius fish were collected from Payaswani (Mandakini) river and reared in the aquaria with tap water at same temperature and pH. Results: The fish presented a high predation rate both in presence and in absence of aquatic weeds. Average feeding rate was 292.2 larvae / fish/day in the absence of aquatic weeds and 288.3 larvae/ fish/day in the presence of aquatic weeds in similar physico - chemical condition in the laboratory. Interpretation and Conclusion: The maximum feeding of the fish was 587 larvae / fish in the absence of weed where as minimum were 28 larvae/ fish with Hydrilla. The result was statistically analyzed by student‘t’ test. The value of t is 7.674 which is significant at P=<0.01 level.

  28. Mohammed A. A. AL-Janaby

    Field experiment was carried out during spring season 2012 in a private field located at 50 km west of Baghdad, to investigate the effect of tillage and plastic mulching on some physical properties of silt loam soil and tomato yield. Split plots with R.C.B.D were used with three replications. The study included four treatments, conventional tillage, no tillage and both have been in sub plots treated with and without plastic mulching. Results indicated that interaction between tillage method and plastic mulching affected physical properties of the soil significantly (P ≤ 0.05). The value of bulk density, soil penetration resistance, hydraulic conductivity, mean weight diameter, and yield of tomato were 1.02-1.37 Mgm.m-3, 0.743-1.847 kg.m-2, 5.50-9.48 cm.hr-1, 0.701-1.724 mm and 54.937-93.217 t ha-1 respectively. Lowest bulk density and soil penetration resistance were observed in conventional tillage with mulching was used, whereas highest bulk density and soil penetration resistance were observed in no tillage × no mulching treatment. Highest values of hydraulic conductivity, mean weight diameter and yield of tomato were obtained conventional tillage × mulching treatment, whereas lowest hydraulic conductivity, mean weight diameter and yield of tomato were obtained in no tillage × no mulching treatment.

  29. Kamal Eldin Ahmed Abdelsalam and Waleed Ibrahim Hamid

    Background: Male breast cancer (MBC) is an uncommon rare medical condition that is responsible for about 1% of all the malignancies in men as well as for 1% of all of breast carcinoma. Nearly all of the men with breast cancer do not have any distinguishable risk factors. The majority of males with breast cancer presents at older ages as opposed to females with breast cancer. Case presentation: Twenty three cases of MBC, diagnosed between October 2011 and September 2014. Azoospermia was found in eighteen patients, and five patients had oligospermia. For azoospermic MBC patients additional biochemical markers were done (Total testosterone, Follicle-stimulating hormone and total cholesterol) before starting treatment. Results: Follicle-stimulating hormone as well as cholesterol levels were significantly increased in MBC patients when compared to control group, whereas total testosterone level was decreased insignificantly in MBC patients. Conclusion: In this study, the results suggested that the presence of azoospermia increased the chance to develop breast cancer by a mutual mechanism which affects the function of androgen receptors.

  30. Rhea Jacob, Sakthivel, K. M., Kannan, N. and Guruvayoorappan, C.

    Shampoo is a hair care product packed in a convenient way for use to wash hair and scalp. The major function of shampoo is to clean the hair, removal of oils, dirts, scalp debris and accumulated sebum. Formulation of shampoo must be safe and efficient for long use. The major objective of the present study was to formulate an herbal shampoo powder by means of eliminating harmful synthetic ingredients and substitutse them with natural ingredients. Our formulated herbal shampoo powder consists of fenugreek, hibiscus, henna, lemon, vettiver, neeliamari, velvet flower, aswagandha, shikkakai, karisilaankanni, thulsi, amla, brahmi and rose petals in appropriate ratio. The following evaluation tests were carried out – pH test, solid content test dirt test, foaming capacity, wetting time and surface characterization analysis using scanning electron microscopy. As the selected ingredients have been used since long time in several formulations the present investigation will certainly help in standardization of good quality and purity of herbal shampoo powder. From the study, it is possible to formulate a complete herbal shampoo that is better than available synthetic shampoos.

  31. Sreeramulu Arunkumar and Jayaprakash

    Pholcidae (Haplogynae) is the most diverse family which comprises 1,241 taxonomically defined species, of which only 19 have been cytogenetically analyzed. The two pholcids species, Crossopriza lyoni (Blackwall 1867) and Artema atlanta (Walckenaer 1837) are cytogenetically studied following Conventional, and AgNO3 impregnation techniques. The karyotype revealed presence of (2n=23) 22AA+X0♂ and (2n=32) 30AA+X1X2♂ chromosomes in C.lyoni and A. atlanta respectively. In both species, the chromosomes were exclusively biarmed, and the sex chromosomes are the largest elements of the karyotypes. Silver nitrate stained NOR-specifications were noticed in C.lyoni at the telomeric regions of pairs of chromosomes (4 and 6) and sex chromosome in the complement. A. atlanta exhibited the NOR-specifications in 2 pairs of chromosomes in the complement.

  32. Ali, E. Gaafar and Deiaa A. El-Wakil

    A basidiomycete fungus was collected from Jizan region of Saudi Arabia; described and illustrated. The fruiting bodies and spores showed some variations in size and shape, which match with the description of Podaxis pistillaris. This is the first record of the fungus in Jizan; southern region of Saudi Arabia. A noticeable variation on the colour of the spores and their maturity was recorded during the study. Basidiomycota (Gasterocarp) is a medicinal fungus; it is 13-16 cm in height, 1.8-2.6 cm in diam.,whitish at early stages becoming yellowish to rusty-brown in color at the maturity, covered with a few scales when young .Also, the development stages of the fruiting body were noticed in this study.

  33. Prathyusha, P. and Modurpalayam S. Subramanian

    Alangium salvifolium (L.F.) wangerin is an important medicinal plant belonging to the family Alangiaceae commonly known as Alangi in tamil was distributed in South India. The leaves of A. salvifolium are used as astringent, laxative, refrigerant and used to treat rheumatism, leprosy, syphilis and asthma. This study provides taxonomical, pharmacognostical and phytochemical details helpful in laying down standardization and pharmacopoeial parameters.

  34. Wankhade, M. S. and Mulani, R. M.

    Greenbelts Ougeinia oojeneinensis (Roxb.) Hochr. is a very important medicinal plant in the deciduous forest. Whole parts of the plant are rich in secondary metabolite, which impart miraculous medicinal uses to the plants. Present investigation was designed to evaluate the preliminary phytochemical test on leaf and bark methanolic extract of Ougeniao oojeinensis. The results of the preliminary phytochemical studies confirms the presence of carbohydrate, saponin, starch, flavonoids, steroids, alkaloids, glycosides, terpenoids, and proteins in the methanolic extracts of Ougenia oojeinensis bark and leaves. This study also estimated the Rutin and Qurecetin present in the methanolic leaf and bark extract of the Ougeinia oojeinensis through HPTLC method. The solvent system used for the quantification of quercetin and rutin was Toluene: Ethyl acetate: Formic acid (6: 4: 0.8 v/v/v). The max Rf values of quercetin and rutin were 0.51 and 0.04 respectively. HPTLC fingerprint analysis of leaf and bark extract of Ougeinia oojeinensis can be used as a diagnostic tool for the correct identification of the plant. The present HPTLC profile is useful in differentiating the species from the adulterant and act as a biochemical marker for this medicinally important plant in the pharmaceutical industry and plant systematic studies.

  35. Singh, K. K., Tomar, Y. K. and Rawat, J. M. S.

    An investigation was conducted to find out the "Study on the Effect of Different Planting Time and Various Concentration of IBA on the Rooting of Phalsa (Grewia asiatica L) Stem Cutting Under Different Growing Conditions" at Horticultural Research Centre, Chauras Campus, HNB Garhwal University Srinagar (Garhwal), Uttarakhand, India. Cuttings were planted January, February, March, June, July and August 2013, treated with IBA concentration 1000, 1500, 2000 ppm and control under two growing condition Shade house and Mist chamber. For preparing the rooting media, sandy soil and farm yard manure (FYM) in ratio of 1:1 by v/v were mixed thoroughly, cleaned for stones and grasses, then the mixture was filled in root trainers. Thus, it can be suggested that hardwood cuttings of Phalsa planted in August after treatment with 2000 ppm concentrations of IBA under mist chamber is an effective way to improve propagation under valley conditions of Garhwal Himalaya.

  36. Gabaidze, M., Memarne G. and Beradze, L.

    In 2012-2014 in citrus farmers private plots of Adjara region, as a resultof monitoring, the following diseases were fixed according to their severity and negative marketing impact: Scab, Phytophthora root rot, Melanose, Anthracnose, Sooty Mould, Gray Mold, Green Mold, Black Aspergillus, Alternaria Brown spot, Citrus Blast and other.

  37. Devendra, N. K., Vijaykumar B. Malashetty, and Seetharam, Y. N.

    Efficient plant regeneration via organogenesis was established for medicinally important Trichosanthes cucumerina L. var. cucumerina using hypocotyl and leaf derived calli. Seeds were surface sterilized in 0.1% HgCl2 for two minutes and germinated in vitro in MS media without plant growth regulators. The maximum morphogenic callus induction rate (86%) was observed from a hypocotyl explant by culturing in MS medium supplemented with 0.5 mg-l 2, 4-D + 1.0 mg-l BAP. Calli size and fresh weight increased substantially through sub culturing. The highest percentage of regeneration (85%) and highest mean number of shoots 15.2 per culture were obtained with 1.5 mg-l BAP + 0.5 mg-l GA3. Hypocotyl explants were more responsive than leaf explants in terms of callus induction and subsequent plant regeneration. Regenerated shoots were rooted in MS ½ strength medium supplemented with 1.0 mg-l IBA. About 80% of regenerated plantlets were survived and showed new branch development under ex vitro condition.

  38. Aravind Barad, Vijaykumar B. Malashetty and Seetharam, Y. N.

    Diosgenin, a steroidal sapogenin found in most of the Dioscorea spp is extensively used in the manufacture of cortisone and allied drugs. Increased transport and labour cost and decline in the diosgenin availability due to over exploitation of Dioscorea spp. led to deficit supply in world steroid market. Therefore a protocol for production of Diosgenin by biotransformation of cholesterol feeding exogenously as a precursor to the cell suspension and immobilized cell cultures of E. hyssopifolium was developed. Prior to the experiment the viability of the cells from node derived callus was tested using fluorescein diacetate. The viable cells that fluoresce yellow upon excitation were used for further studies. Cell suspension and immobilized cell cultures were treated with 50 and 100 mgl-1cholesterol. Cell growth and diosgenin content was examined starting from 8th day to 16th day after culture at intervals of 2 days. The maximum growth index of 1.96 was recorded in cell suspension culture treated with 50 mgl-1 after 16 days culture. The highest accumulation of diosgenin was obtained in immobilized cell cultures treated with 100 mgl-1 cholesterol on 12th day after culture. In all the cultures, the highest concentration of diosgenin on 12th day where as on 14th and 16th day there was a marginal decline.

  39. Ronald Adamtey, Kafui Afi Ocloo and Charles Yaw Oduro

    The literature on HIV and AIDS management has identified religious beliefs as obstacles to condom acceptance to minimise the spread of the disease. Ways to overcome such beliefs do not appear to have received adequate scholarly attention and so little is known about how to deal with religious beliefs to promote condoms. The purpose of this study is to show that although informal ties that are neo-patrimonial have been claimed to undermine the implementation of public policy, the trust that inheres in such informal relations across the local state and sections of civil society that mobilize around the disease can help to overcome these beliefs and win peoples’ support for condoms. Five out of the ten municipalities that top in HIV and AIDS prevalence in Ghana were purposively selected and studied through a cross-case approach. Detailed qualitative interviews were held with health officials and leaders of Civil Society Organisations that mobilize around HIV and AIDS. The study revealed that informal relations between these key officers enabled the Health Directorates and CSOs to develop joint efforts around the disease. These enabled them to shape religious beliefs positively towards condoms. The findings suggest that the conventional view that informal relations have the tendency to undermine policy implementation cannot be entirely correct. These ties can equally have positive developmental effects. The organisation of joint programmes among policy implementers and beneficiaries need to be encouraged for informal ties to be built widely and dense to promote transparency and minimise their weaknesses.

  40. Abdullah Bedeer Hussein and Gaber Ahmed Saad

    Knowledge of the maturation process is vital to understand the relationship between spawning stock andrecruitment. The purpose of the present study was to validatethe reproductive cycle of Doryteuthis forbesii using histological and statistical procedures. The changes in gonad during sexual maturation permitted the determination of different histological stages for oogenesisin 12 phases and spermatogenesis in 7 phases. This species spawns throughout the year with two peaks during spring and summer. During oogenesis the oocyte becomes progressively more elongated, with a subsequent narrow elongation of the apical zone forming the oocyte peduncle. Finally the oocytes turn smooth (chorion becomes the outer surface when the follicular cells disintegrate) and free, finally reaching the oviducts. The spermatogonia and the primary spermatocytes are difficult to distinguish from each other, both being relatively large cells with a large, distinct nucleus. The first meiotic division occured, and the primary spermatocytes become secondary spermatocytes. A second meiotic division occurred immediately afterwards, so the secondary spermatocytes become spermatids. The transformation of the spermatids to spermatozoa occurs by a process of differentiation known as spermiogenesis. Morphologically, this differentiation involves the transformation of the cell from a round to an elongate shape. The spermatozoa are grouped around the lumen, towards the centre. As spermatozoa matured and released from the testis they passed directly to the spermaduct which is surrounded by complex accessory glands. The first glands inactivate the spermatozoa and others cover the sperm mass with different secretions to form the spermatophore. Spermatophores usually accumulate in the Needham sac. Spawning season was determined by calculating the different stages of oocyte development in the four seasons of the year using three methods. One Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) with p˂0.05 and Newman-Keuls Multiple Comparison Test with P < 0.01and P > 0.05 were applied to compare the different stages of oocyte development in the four seasons of the year. The gonadosomatic index (GSI) for both sexes and the nidamental gland–somatic index (NSI) for the females, were calculated and commented.This study provided evidence suggesting that Doryteuthis forbesii is an intermittentspawner.

  41. Deepu Sivadas, Pandurangan, A. G. and Padmesh, P.

    Morphotaxonomic observations on juvenile and seedlings stages of Lagerstroemia speciosa were observed upto 6th leaf stages during germination in natural habitat. The features of seedling like collet, hypocotyl, epicotyl, shape and arrangement of paracotyledons, leaf base, colour, phyllotaxy etc. represent high level of constancy within taxon and thus, have been found useful from taxonomic point of view in identification and conservation of this species at juvenile stage itself which facilitate a healthy recruitment.

  42. Neeta Dwivedi, Kalpana Singh, Sonia Goel and Rosin, K. G.

    Plant growth substances are the organic substances synthesized by the plant that regulate, retard or modify plant physiological activities. They can move within the plant from the site of synthesis to the site of action. Growth regulating chemicals that have positive influence on major agronomic crops are of immense value. These growth regulators are mainly important for preventing lodging in cereals, preventing pre-harvest sprouting, fruit drop, synchronizing maturity to facilitate mechanical harvest, hastening maturity to decrease turnover time, reducing labour requirements. Studies conducted on major grain crops, such as corn, soybean, wheat and rice have identified material capable of altering individual agronomic characteristics like lodging, plant height, seed number and maturity. Commercial application of plant hormone have been limited to the use of gibbrellic acid, Indole acetic acid and cytokinins. Crop performance have been shown to increase significantly with the application of these growth regulator.

  43. Ganapathi Jayanthi, Kannan Karthikeyan and Johnpaul Muthumary

    Taxol is that the most renowned and best antineoplastic agent belonging to the massive family of taxane diterpenoids. To stare for the taxol manufacturing endophytic fungi, nearly seventy seven Coelomycetes fungi were isolated as associate endophytes from five medicinal plants viz., Anisomeles malabarica (L.) R. Br., Mesua ferrea L., Piper nigrum L., Rauvolfia tetraphylla L. and Vitex negundo L. procured from Aliyar, situated in Anamalai foothills, Western Ghats, Southern India, Tamilnadu. Seventy seven endophytic coelomycetous fungi obtained from the plants were subjected to screening for the production of taxol. Presence of taxol was detected by chromatographic and spectrometric analysis. High Performance Liquid Chromatography showed that the amount of taxol produced by P. longicolla was 381µg/L. The present work accomplish that the formation of taxol by endophytic fungi can serve as a potential species in genetic engineering for improving the production of taxol to overcome the urgent need in clinics.

  44. Odunjo, Oluronke Omolola and Okanlawon, Simon Ayorinde

    The issue of Sustainable housing development for the low income workers is still a mirage in Nigeria today. This arises as a result of financial and technological incapability. However, it is believed that if importation of expensive construction materials could be substantially reduced using locally available alternatives that are based on appropriate construction technology, such a measure can reduce cost of construction, increase housing stock and also increase foreign reserve of the economy of the country. It is against this background therefore, that the paper examines the salient issues in Public Housing provision in Nigeria making use of Historical Survey approach as well as Personal observations. The paper found out that the issue of Public Housing provision in Nigeria did not yield much result due to high cost of provision and excessive and unnecessary delays in the planning, execution and construction of housing project which invariably add to housing cost among others. The paper therefore concludes by recommending the use of Laterite, a local building material for Housing construction in orders to reduce the cost of housing and make Sustainable Housing provision a reality in Nigeria especially for the low income workers.

  45. Ajayi, O.O., Odunjo, O.O., Adeoye, O.O. and Soyebo, O.O.

    The unprecedented increasing size and densities of human activities in the urban cities have not only created enormous problems of congestion and overcrowding but have also resulted into degradation and haphazard development. The high proportion rate of urbanisation in the less developed countries (LDCs) and the inability of these countries to provide basic services and infrastructure have resulted in the development of slums thereby creating an urban sprawl and decline in the inner city. The rapid rate of urbanization in Nigeria is noted in the uncontrolled density of the urban city, the urban environments seems unable to support the healthy human population at tolerable levels of stress and the provision of rich social and cultural opportunities. These has accounted for the depreciating quality of housing in the country’s urban centre as man had created urban complexes at odds with his behavioral and perceptual patterns which are increasingly dependent on it. The research explores the architecture of urbanisation and the dynamics of housing qualities in Nigeria and furthermore discusses the provisional challenges of urban housing sustainability in Nigeria.

  46. Umesh Luthra, Harish Kumar, Sneha Khadpekar, Aditi Trivedi and Apoorva Shetty

    Mycobacterium spp. was used for biotransformation of phytosterol to androstenedione. The study signifies the importance of media design and that medium constituents play a crucial role in the biotransformation process. Various statistical experiments namely, categorical, numerical factorial design and central composite design were applied to optimize the medium. The carbon and nitrogen sources, emulsifier source and the type of phytosterol were screened through categorical design. The significant components among the four were analyzed through full factorial design. Based on the results obtained, the optimal concentration of the significant components was determined using central composite design. With the tween 80, soya oil and phytosterol concentration to be 15 g/l, 25 g/l and 40 g/l there was a 50% enhancement in the yield of androstenedione. The methods used were very effective in screening the significant components in a limited number of experiments.

  47. Abdul Wahab, Shumaila Shumaila, Syed Abdus Subhan, Syed Tariq Ali and Talat Yasmeen Mujahid

    Twenty strains of actinomycetes were isolated from a soil sample in Karachi and screened for antimicrobial activity both by primary screening method (perpendicular streak and spot inoculation method) and secondary screening method (agar well diffusion method) against several test organisms including bacteria and fungi. Out of twenty strains eight showed broad spectrum activity in primary screening. The secondary screening was done with those strains which gave activity against test microorganisms in primary screening. The strains were identified using various biochemical tests and their optimum growth conditions (temperature, pH and at different concentrations of NaCl) were also determined. The most promising strain amongst all was SZ020 which was identified as Pseudonocardia sp.

  48. Dr. Dhanalekshmy, T. G.

    Urinary calculi formation is a very complex phenomenon taking place in a step-wise manner leading to urinary stone disease. Formation of urinary crystals is an essential step in stone disease. Common known stone components are calcium oxalate, calcium phosphate and uric acid. In- vitro studies was done by growing crystals in silica gel medium. Urine samples of the non-diabetic non-calculogenic, diabetic non-calculogenic, non-diabetic sodium oxalate induced calculogenic, non-diabetic ethylene glycol induced calculogenic, diabetic sodium oxalate induced calculogenic and diabetic ethylene glycol induced calculogenic were collected and added in requisite amount on the top of the gel. Length of the crystal column and size of the crystals were noted on days 1, 7, 14, 21 and 30 respectively. Comparative study of the mean length of crystal column in- vitro showed the maximum crystal growth in non-diabetic ethylene glycol induced calculogenic rat urine added set. Comparative study of mean length of crystal column between the diabetic non-calculogenic and diabetic calculogenic showed maximum crystal growth in the diabetic calculogenic rat urine added set. Analysis of Variance showed statistically significant difference in mean values among the groups and the size of the calcium oxalate crystal in- vitro showed significant difference in mean (p=0.001). Highest mean of 398.75+1.25µ was seen in the diabetic sodium oxalate induced calculogenic rats. Duncan’s Multiple Range Test showed maximum crystal size in the diabetic sodium oxalate induced calculogenic rats compared to other groups. In- vitro growth of calcium oxalate crystals was maximum in the diabetic urine added set. This indicates the tendency of diabetes along with calculogenesis for promoting maximum crystal growth.

  49. Mahajan Akanksha R., Zade Varsha, S., Chede Sandeep M. and Sreenath J.

    In Yavatmal district the SCD has been investigated in past but unfortunately there is a dearth of detailed data in tribal population. Aims: The present study would prove to be a small effort to find out the actual magnitude of the sickle cell disease in the tribal groups under study Settings and Design: Small screening camps were held in easily approachable villages with the official permissions of the medical facilities available there. Methods and Material: Screenings of samples for the presence of the sickle gene was done by solubility test and confirmation was done by Capillary Electrophoresis. Statistical analysis used: Allele frequency was calculated by using Hardy Weinberg Principle. A dendrogram was drawn as per UPGMA clustering method using Phylip (v 3.69) and MEGA (5.2) Results: The population studied showed 12% prevalence of HbS gene with a higher frequency among the Dravidian language family than the Indo-European language family. Screening results showed more numbers of AS individuals than the SS individuals. The prevalence was found to be more in age group (11-20Yrs) compared to other age groups. The number of affected females was much more than the males. Consanguineous marriages among the parents of affected individuals were found to be important factor to the increased number of SCD individuals. Conclusions: The higher number of AS individuals than SS shows that the disease is spreading at an alarming rate with the major problem of more number of carriers. Dravidians being predominant among the population of Yavtmal, showing higher frequency than the Indo-European group.

  50. Raja B. D. Sormin, M Ch. A. Latumahina, T. H. E. A. Matrutty, A. M. Tapotubun and H. Nanlohy

    The objective of the research was to study quality profile of dried smoked julung and economics social of dried smoked julung processor, in Banggoi Village, District of Eastern Seram. Research method applied was descriptive by using field survey, followed by procsimate and microbiology analisis to get the quality information of julung dried smoked. In order to get the economics feasibility, it was used revenue cost ratio analysis. The revenue cost ratio analysis indicated the number of 1,27, it was mean that this business is feasible to develop in the future. The quality of dried smoked julung was indicated good based on the procsimate and microbiology analysis. The rate of procsimate value was stay at the range allowed by SNI (Standar National Indonesia). Nevertheless, the handling due to processed fish performance should be considered.

  51. Yagi, M. I., Gafar, M. O. and Awad A. Taha

    This study was carried out to investigate the effects of treatments with manure fertilizer and spacing on growth and quality of Zinnia elegans flowers. Zinnia is a popular garden annual flower. The results revealed that, application of sources of manure promoted growth of Zinnia elegans. It gave the highest values of growth. Addition 300kg/fed manure gave the best vegetative growth of Z. elegans. compared to 150kgs manure. High doses of both urea and manure delayed flowering in plant Z.elegans. Moreover, flowers yield and quality, seed yield and quality were affected positively by addition of manure. Increasing of plant spacing decreased plant height but increased number of branches/plant in the season. However, there were no significant effects on flower initiation of Z elegans. Maximum flowers yield and quality (number of flowers /plant or inflorescences, flower diameter and flower age) of Zinnia were recorded at spacing of 30and 40cm.Maximum number of seeds germination rate and uniformity of Zinnia elegans were recorded at closer spacing (20,30cm).

  52. Abdullah Bedeer Hussein

    Females of Portunus pelagicuswere collected from shallow water of three localities in Arabian Gulf, Saudi Arabia namely Ad-Dammam, northern Khobar and southern estuarine beaches during October and November 2012 and June 2013. Three collections in the form of twenty females were chosen in each collection from each locality. Gill tissues and hepatopancreas were isolated and analysed for heavy metal accumulations. Each trail was made three times. The heavy metalsMn, Cd, Zn, Pb, Al, As, Ni, Cu, Fe, TBTwere determined using Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (Perkin-Elmer model 2300) under the recommended condition limits (DL) in the manual for each metal. At each location water samples were collected using polyethylene bottles (2-litres capacity). The polyethylene bottles were previously cleaned with detergent rinsed several times with distilled water. Soaked in in HCL for several days and finally rinsed with redistilled water. Results are presented as means and standard errors. This study concluded that crabs live in southern Khobar estuarinebeach contain percentage of heavy metals ≥ Saudi Arabian Standards whereas the crabs live thenorthern Khobar and Ad-dammam easuarine beaches contain percentage of heavy metals ≈ SaudiArabian Standards.GSH,AST, SOD, ALP and LDH activities were measured in hepatopancreas and commented. Data obtained were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) means signif. Different P > 0.05 or P < 0.05, column comparison test Df 2-10 and Tukey post hoc test. For all statistical tests, Bartlett's test for equal variances P value 0,5569 has been applied.

  53. Mr. P. Gershom Jebaraj and Dr. K. Mohanasundaram

    In this era of modernization, possibilities are emerging to provide technical education in an innovative way to meet global demands with the tremendous developments in technology. Educational Technology has been widely used all over the world. The Engineers of today and tomorrow are expected to be far more creative. A study was undertaken to develop an e-Content on ‘Crystal Systems’ which is prescribed in the Syllabus of First Year Engineering Physics subject of “Anna University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu”. This study also measured the effectiveness of the developed e-Content. A pre-test, post-test two group experimental design was adopted. Samples of 60 First Year Engineering students were exposed to different treatments such as e-Content and conventional method of teaching. Their achievement scores were analyzed using different statistical techniques. It is found that the experimental group students who taught with the help of e-Content material scored more than the control group in learning “Crystal Systems”.

  54. Avneet Pal Singh Khosa, Anand Chopra and Karmandeep Singh Brar

    The Present study shows that the solar home lightening system in the remote village can influence the life of people very significantly for the better. The paper addresses the solar rural electrification in India. Although most of the developing countries have initiated rural electrification programs, progress has often been slow. The IEA estimates that developing and transition countries needs investment requirements in their energy sectors of US $ 9.6 Trillion in period of 2001 to 2030. Renewable energy in India achieves potential of 12.95% by 2014 and is expected to grow further.

  55. Bableen Osan, Ekta Lakhwani and Divya Mulchandani

    When it comes to security, most mobile devices are a target waiting to be attacked. This arises the need for security. There are certain domains wherein the confidentiality of information is of utmost importance and needs to be protected from unauthorized users. Hence, authentication is used for protection of this information. The usage of authentication techniques has been persistent in the domain of security. However, older techniques are now more vulnerable and fail to provide the same level of protection as they once did. Hence, there is an arising need for the advent of new techniques that make use of authentication at increased complexity so that level of security is enhanced. Two Way Mobile Authentication Systems (2WMAS) describes the methods for implementing stronger authentication in smart phones. The two approaches being used in two way mobile authentication system are- Something you know: Personal Identification Number (PIN) something you are: Facial Scan

  56. Dr. Manisha Bajpai and Dr. Anil Kumar

    For physics learning, labs plays very active and significant role as it is essential to develop science process skills because students are continuously required to identify the hidden concepts, define and explain underlying laws and theories using high level reasoning skills. It is time and again observed that traditional real time physics laboratory has some limitations and problems in developing science process skills. In present given scenario of ICT, virtual lab through computer simulation based method of teaching physics is emerging as one of the most powerful method of experimentation in lab. The present study was conducted to see the effectiveness of virtual lab on Students’ Achievement in physics. The findings of the present study clearly revealed that student learned concepts of photoelectric effect through virtual lab in a better way as compared to real lab. The study also suggested the use of virtual labs in physics teaching, especially for teaching of concepts.

  57. Suraj Kumar

    In this paper we create a self similar analogous image of spiral structure of elementary particles with that of sea shells, using the mathematical description of pigmentation pattern of sea shells, which describes the various potentials of the spiral structure of elementary particles. It also introduces the sea shells analogous parameters for spiral structure of elementary particles for quantising the property of the elementary particles. It applies the Reaction-Diffusion equation for Activator-Inhibitor model to produce the ingredient activated potential which once after the formation of the spiral structure of elementary particles is being described by the Activator- Substrate model.

  58. Parag S. Dawane and Sagar M. Gawande

    Waste management is been a crucial environmental issue since the second half of 19th century. It has been seen that the generation increases with increasing population, industrialization and urbanization etc. Cities like Mumbai, Delhi, Bangalore, and Kolkata are facing problems in managing their waste, these examples tell us the need of solid waste management in growing cities, therefore by keeping approach of prevention from future threats this work is executed. This study is a review of solid waste management in Gadhinglaj which is situated in the Kolhapur district, the population of the city is 27,185 in 2011, which generates waste 5MT/day. The growth ratio of city is very high, present work evaluates all aspects of waste management and elaborates the situation and also highlights the deficiencies in the system. The overall study of generation, collection, transportation, treatment of waste in the city has been made with physical observations and review from the people, also some information is collected from municipal council office and some web references are utilize for the same. After a genuine review of the system few interesting outcomes are come forward those are discussed in the paper. As scope of work is very wide and available resources are less, there are some limitations of work. The depth of investigation can be increased in upcoming studies; there is good scope for some betterment of waste management system in the city.

  59. Mrs. Anjali K. Shinde

    Technology in various branches of science, business and marketing is changing rapidly. As a result, Mathematics is undergoing a revolution, Computational as well as conceptual. A major issue that needs to be addressed when thinking about impact of technology on Mathematics is the research in Mathematics. In this paper, an attempt has been made to review some basic issues about Mathematics research which comes in the mind of newcomers such as ‘How one goes about doing mathematical research? ’and ‘What are its most important achievements? ’ Some recent trends in mathematical research and worldwide challenges for the future of research in the mathematical sciences are also briefly discussed.

  60. Anita Sharma and Ashu Rani

    This paper is a critical overview on the experimental results on development of activation techniques to improve the catalytic activity of coal fly ash, in relation to its use as solid acid catalyst and catalytic support materials. Mechanical activation results in slight increase in silica percentage, amorphous nature, specific surface area and surface roughness, as evident by analytical measurements using XRF, XRD, FT-IR, BET surface area, TGA-DTA and SEM techniques. The mechano-chemical activation cangenerate sufficient activity on fly ash surface rendering its potential application in heterogeneous acid catalysis.

  61. Zhenguo Zhang and Jiahong Wen

    In this paper, with a case on Jinsha Community in Putuo District in Shanghai, 32 rainstorm water logging disaster risk scenarios were simulated and analyzed using PGIS and scenario analysis methods. The exposure analysis results showed that: (1) under various scenarios, the exposed families were mainly concentrated in the central region of the study area; (2) under the same drainage scenario, the number of exposed families increased with the increase of storm return period; (3) the number of exposed buildings decreased with the displacement increasing, but the degree of decreasing was in inverse trend with the return period.

  62. Akintoye Oluwole Samuel and Ariyo Oluwabukola Oluwaseun

    The issues in focus constructions in Yoruba language have generated lots of arguments among Yoruba scholars. Some of these scholars are of the opinion that focus constructions are noun phrases. The other scholars claim that focus constructions are derived sentences which express a complete statement. Another area of debate among Yoruba scholars is the numbers of the focus marker in the dialects of Yoruba, especially, Èkìtì dialect, and that whether the anaphoric ó is a subject resumptive pronoun or preverb. In this paper, we examine and contribute to the various arguments on these two topics.

  63. Saleem Mukhtar

    This article has been based on the analysis of CSR practices of financial institutions in Pakistan and their evaluation on the performance of organizations. The objectives of this article are: a) analyzing the literature regarding CSR practices in the financial industry, b) evaluating the CSR practices followed by organizations in financial industry in Pakistan, c) identifying the perceptions of customers and general public towards CSR practices of organizations in Pakistan and d) proposing suggestions to organizations in Pakistan for improving their CSR practices. For evaluating the objectives of study, primary data has been used in this study. For this purpose, the researcher targeted a sample of 170 employees of financial institutions from Rawalpindi. This sample was selected through random sampling technique. 152 appropriately filled questionnaires were obtained and it resulted in 89.41% response rate. Through statistical analysis of study, it was found that environmentally sustainable practices, philanthropic practices and stakeholder relations are positively related with the organizational performance. On the other hand, this study also concluded that legal compliance has not been related with the organizational performance. This article concluded that CSR practices do influence organizational performance in Pakistan’s financial industry. This study provided a foundation to future researchers to take a large sample of organizations and expand scope of the current study.

  64. Yasir Abdullah

    With the transformation of technology, the banking industry has also changed in terms of innovations in the digital era. This article has been aimed at analysis of implications of digital innovation for banking industry of Pakistan has been conducted. The objectives of this article included: a) analysis of literature regarding digital innovation in the banking sector, b) evaluating the extent to which banks in Pakistan have embraced electronic banking, c) analyzing the influence of digital innovation on performance of banks in Pakistan and d) proposing recommendations to banks for adopting successful digital innovation in Pakistan. This study has been conducted through primary data collected from 300 employees of 5 major banks in Islamabad. The survey has been personally administered that generated 94.33% response rate. This study found that Pakistan’s banking industry has also been going through digital transformation. It was found that from cost reduction to increase in customer base and profitability, digital innovations and internet do have impact on banks. This study found that banks do face challenges from multiple perspectives such as investment availability, availability of technology and customer acceptance. The technological adoption and innovations reduce cost of banking operations, increase banks’ profitability and enhance its customer base.

  65. Katta Ashok Kumar

    Employee Satisfaction in Vijayawada Railway Division is very much interesting topic for me. Most of the employees are satisfied with this company performance. Company has a very good image among its employees. Most of the employees know organizations strategy; they have confidence in its leadership. Most of the Employees are getting appropriate recognition for their contribution. Railways providing fair salary to its employees further work. Organization is like a family where employees have to put share of responsibilities and work in accordance with the organization goal. People always get chance to show their talents and get recognized. Management is quite approachable.

  66. Katta Ashok Kumar and Dr. Ch. Bala Nageswara Rao

    Employee Satisfaction in Vijayawada Railway Division is very much interesting topic for me. Most of the employees are satisfied with this company performance. Company has a very good image among its employees. Most of the employees know organizations strategy; they have confidence in its leadership. Most of the Employees are getting appropriate recognition for their contribution. Railways providing fair salary to its employees further work. Organization is like a family where employees have to put share of responsibilities and work in accordance with the organization goal. People always get chance to show their talents and get recognized. Management is quite approachable.

  67. Ardeshir, Jahani

    Reading comprehension research within the framework of schema theoretical view has shown that the ability to understand texts is based not only on the reader's linguistic knowledge, but also on his/her general knowledge of the world (schemeta) and the extent to which that knowledge is activated during the actual process of reading (Carrell, 1983a; 1983b; Carrell and Wallace 1983; Carrell and Eisterhold, 1983). But few empirical data are available about the processes by which schemata are evoked (Carrell, 1987). This study is an attempt to see how much of the schema is activated. An experiment was designed to investigate to see the 'how' of schema activation, to see whether the relevant part of the schema or the whole schema is activated. Sixty first semester students (30 males and 30 females) majoring English in Isfahan Teacher Training Centers(Teachers’University), participated in the experiment. The subjects were first asked to read a list of ten sentences(Read list) about the kitchen in their native language (Farsi).To forget what they had already read, they were given some math problems. Then, they were asked to search in the 'Test list' and check the ten sentences of the 'Read list' in it. The 'Test list' consisted of the ten sentences in the 'Read list' and other sentences not existing in the 'Read list ' concerning both the kitchen or the other parts of the house. The mistakes the subjects made in checking the ten sentences were of two kinds: Relevant (about the kitchen but not existing in the Read list) and irrelevant (about the other parts of the house). The results of t-value computation indicate that most subjects activated the relevant part of the schema (the kitchen). No significant difference was found between males and females in this regard, though the male subjects had proportionally more relevant mistakes.

  68. Ardeshir, Jahani

    A fundamental tenet of all recent theories of comprehension, problem solving and decision making is that success in such cognitive arenas depends on the activation and appropriate application of relevant pre-existing knowledge (Spiro et al., 1987; Cited in Richards and Renandya, 2002). In this sense, understanding texts is based on the reader’s general knowledge of the world (schemata) and the extent to which the relevant pre-existing knowledge is activated during the actual process of reading. But few empirical data are available about the processes by which schemata are evoked (Carrell, 1987).This study is an attempt to see how much of the schema is activated in L2 reading by adult ESL students who are proficient readers in their native language. An experiment is designed to investigate to see the ‘how' of schema activation to see whether the relevant part of the schema or the whole schema is activated. Sixty third semester students (30 males and 30 females) studying ESL at Isfahan teacher training centers (Teachers’ university), participated in the experiment. The subjects were first told to read a list of ten sentences (Read list) about the kitchen in English. To forget what they had already read, they were given some math problems. Then, the subjects were asked to search in the Test list (consisting of the ten sentences in the Read list and other sentences not existing in the Read list concerning both the kitchen or other parts of the house) and check the sentences they had already read in the Read list. The mistakes they made in checking the ten sentences were of two kinds: Relevant (about the kitchen but not existing in the Read list) and irrelevant (about other parts of the house). The results of t-value computation indicated that most subjects activated the relevant part of the schema (the kitchen). It also showed that significantly more male subjects activated the relevant part of the schema than females.

  69. Arzish Shaukat and Hina Affandi

    The research is intended to investigate the association b/w financial distress and financial performance. The sample companies selected are 15 and the study period is six years from 2007-2012. The study performed on non-financial companies that are listed on Karachi stock exchange selected from Fuel and Energy sector. The Altman’s Zscore model is used for diagnosing the financial health of the companies and then impact of financial distress is measured on financial performance. The study shows that there exist a significant association between financial distress and financial performance. The outcomes of the research also exhibit that financial performance of companies increase with rise in Z score values and with decrease in financial distress.

  70. Dr. Ahmed R. Kasim

    Greenbelts within and around cities are sites retained to discourage human habitation and hence forestall population density and encroachment into some areas. Biological gardens, tracks of open spaces as well as forests play invaluable roles in ecological stability, urban beautification and preservation of species. This study examines the significance, infringement and management of greenbelts. A3-stage stratified random sampling technique combined with physical field observations and reference to relevant literature were used to derive information for the study. Over 87%of the sampled population agreed to a changing ecological characteristic of the area arising from transformation of ecosystems and monotony of infrastructural development with implications. In order to avoid a society devoid of naturalness or habitat inversion, and ensure quality environment, 168 respondents solicited for joint management of green areas. The study revealed that ex-situ conservation promotes city beautification, air purification, preservation of species, maintenance of ecological stability as well as scientific and recreational up liftment. Protect and maintain ex-situ conservation schemes, greenbelts not necessarily continuous in nature as well as explore other areas for designation as in-situ sites.

  71. Dr. Sławomir Czarniewski

    In the current market situation, running a business requires a constant search for areas in which one can gain competitive advantage, all the while consistently improving operations and demonstrating the superiority of the company over the competition. In a competitive market, the success of many organizations depends on their ability to adapt to constant changes in the environment. This is a necessity in order to survive and develop in a situation of ever-changing conditions and needs of the emerging market. Currently, the main characteristics of modern enterprises are organizations that quickly react to changes, have an innovative approach, minimize functional divisions; and invest in people and their professionalization. This paper is an attempt to show the mechanisms companies use to obtain competitive advantage in the market.

  72. Jana, N. C. and Prasanta Kumar Ghosh

    Being socio-economically backward and culturally rich Odisha (previously known as ‘Orissa’) is one of the important states in Eastern part of India. It occupies a special position in the tribal map of India. Out of 30 districts 9 are considered as tribal district (according to Location Quotient value) and of the total population (41,947,358) a significant share (22.1%) goes to tribal people (8,145,081). According to 2011 Census the literacy rate of the state is 73.45% which is almost same as of literacy rate of India (74.04%). Though previous researches show that in case of education there are significant disparities in the state among the districts. In this paper an attempt has been made to investigate the spatial disparity in education at block levels in terms of caste and gender in Mayurbhanj District of Odisha, as this district has the second highest proportion of STs (56.6 per cent) and highest concentration of schedule tribe population (Location Quotient value is 2.56). The overall objective of this study is to obtain a better understanding of disparities and variations in educational status in Mayurbhanj, Odisha. This study includes: (1) an analysis of present educational status at block level; (2) an intra-regional educational disparities; (3) identification of probable factors responsible for such variations, and (4) remedial measures required to overcome the problems of educational development. To measure the disparities we have used (i) Disparity index in literacy with the help of Sophers’ Disparity Index, (ii) Co-efficient of Equality in Education, (iii) Gender Parity Index in Enrolment and (iv) Teacher- Student ratio. Maps have been prepared on the above-mentioned indicators based on secondary data using Arc-GIS software v.9.3. It is clear from the analysis that the educational conditions in the district has improved remarkably over the years but educational disparities in terms of caste and gender continue to be a major problem mostly in tribal and backward areas.

  73. Taimur Wardag and Dr Qaisar Ali Malik

    It seems like a puzzle whether stocks have the ability or not to protect from inflation. This study empirically investigated such relationship whether stocks provide hedge or not against the inflation. Monthly data of inflation and stock returns is used for the study to identify and measure the relationship. Period of the study was taken from year 2001 to 2012. Data stationarity is checked through augmented dickey fuller (ADF) and Philipp’s Peron (PP) unit root tests. For testing long term relationship between stocks returns and inflation, WALD test is used. For short term relationship Error Correction Mechanism (ECM) test is used. Evidence comes in favor that relationship exist in short term as well as in long term, because both the WALD and ECM tests support the findings of the study as per theory.

  74. Sapam Ashalata Devi and Ch. Tomba Singh

    Adolescence is the most vulnerable period to various forms of risk taking behaviours as it is the age of experimentation, adventure and expiration. We study on the substance abusers among the students of Higher Secondary Schools of Imphal East and West District of Manipur. Samples were collected from the class XI and XII students of Governments and Private schools in the Imphal West and East district of Manipur through a questionnaire package that ascertain reasons for substance abuse with reference to the relation between substance abuse and psychological factor, peer group pressure, joyfulness, tension remover, rebelliousness, curiosity, intercultural influence, climatic conditions, easy availability, future insecurity and modernisation. Chi square test showed the peer group pressure, tension, rebelliousness and curiosity as the main reason that influence significantly to take to substance abuse while the other parameters did not show any variations in the opinion among the students. No single measure would be effective to prevent the use of drugs until and unless parents, school and society all the three collectively and cooperatively tackle the problems of substances abuse from different angles. Parents can help through early education about psychoactive substances, open communications, good role modelling, and early recognition if problems are developing. Thus, further study covering large sample sizes is needed to come to a conclusive result about the substance abuse among the adolescent.

  75. Umesh Acharya, Sarada Thapa and Narayan Sharma Rimal

    The study was conducted in farmers' field at Manohora, Bhaktapur during 2012-13 to study the effect of different organic manures on growth and yield of broccoli var. Centauroand on soil nutrient status. There were seven treatments replicated thrice laid out in Randomized Block Design. Treatments applied were FYM @ 20 ton/ha (T1), Compost @ 6.66 ton/ha (T2), Vermicompost @ 4 ton/ha (T3), Poultry manure@ 2 ton/ha (T4), FYM+PM @ (10 ton FYM + 1 ton PM)/ha (T5), FYM+VC @ (10 ton FYM + 2 ton VC)/ha (T6) and control (T7). The treatments were applied as basal application of fertilizer in this experiment. The result revealed significant differences in yield per plant, yield per plot, and yield per hectare among treatments. The highest yield per plant (803.33 gm/plant), yield per plot (9.64 kg/plot) and yield per ha (24.1 ton/ha) was observed in treatment T4 whereas lowest yield was recorded from T7. It was found that there were significant differences in plant height and canopy area between the treatments. However, tallest plant height (46.83 cm) and highest canopy area (47.62 cm) was recorded from T4 and the lowest value in both from T7. Number of green leaves per plant was significantly influenced by the applied manures. Maximum number of green leaves (10.25) was recorded in T5. Applied treatments influenced significantly in soil nutrient status after harvesting the crop. Maximum pH value (7.15) and maximum OM % (3.99 %) in soil after harvesting the crop was obtained in T1. Similarly, the highest available nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium was obtained from plots treated with poultry manure.

  76. Sundus Tariq

    Changing competitive and complex business environment has accounted to highlight the importance of the employee’s performance and outcome. Presently, employees are more focused and professionalized in comparison to past. However, it is analyzed that there are number of factors which directly as well as indirectly impact on the employee’s outcome and performance. This research study will be revolving around to investigate the impact of impact of organizational justice, compensation and monetary benefits on employee’s outcome. This research study is quantitative in nature. Simple Random Sampling has being utilized. Questionnaire research instrument has being applied for the extraction of the data from the selected number of respondents. Respondents are the employees working in the private sector of Pakistan. SPSS has being utilized for the analysis of the collected data. The research findings have reflected that organizational justice, compensation and monetary benefits positively impact on the employee’s outcome and performance.

  77. *Dr. Lucy Eraikhuemen and Dr. I. K. Oteze

    This study is informed by the researchers’ concern for the government’s determination to upgrade all Teachers’ Grade II certificate holders in the teaching field to holders of the Nigeria Certificate in Education (NCE), since NCE is now the minimum qualification for entry into the teaching profession in Nigeria. The study is designed to evaluate the extent to which the programme objectives are being achieved. The focus of the evaluation is on the content of the Mathematics modules, the educational qualifications of Mathematics Course Tutors, the adequacy of the materials and facilities for programme implementation and the way the entire programme is being coordinated. A total of fifty five subjects (2 centre managers, 7 Mathematics Course Tutors and 46 Students) from five study centres of the National Teachers’ Institute (NTI) in Edo State, Nigeria, participated in the study. The data for the study were collected with the aid of three questionnaires (questionnaire for Teacher Trainees, questionnaire for Mathematics Course Tutors and questionnaire for centre Managers). Analysis of data was done with the aid of percentage, pie chart, Kendall co-efficient of concordance (W) & Friedman (T), and t-test of difference of means. The results showed that the NCE programme have adequate number of Mathematics Tutors who have relevant qualifications and the content of the NCE Mathematics Modules is not significantly adequate for the realisation of the objectives of the programme.

  78. Iram Naveed Sheikh

    This research aims to examine the ways to ascent the efficacy of man within an organization and to understand the system and the impact of personal abilities to personal behaviour relating to organization. In this study, relationship between Organizational Citizenship Behaviour and Perfectionism has been examined through surveys primary data collection method. Results show that there is positive correlation between Organizational Citizenship Behaviour and Perfectionism. The research includes some recommendations as well.

  79. Adnan Sikandar and Hina Affandi

    Employee The ultimately purpose of the research is to investigate the respond of Pakistani cement industry during the long March headed by Mr. Imran Khan Chairman PTI against the existing regime of Pakistan. The data of daily share prices of the top 14 companies of the cement industries have been gathered by developing the event windows from 4th August, 2014 to 30th December, 2014. The data of daily KSE index has also been collected for the same period and abnormal returns (AR) and cumulative abnormal returns (CAR) have been calculated. The data has been collected from Yahoo Finance and business recorder. The significance of daily change of AR and CAR has been tested by using t-statistic, which depicted that both the AR and CAR has shown significantly change in pre-event, Post event and during the event windows. Furthermore, the results also depicted that average (Mean) of both the actual returns (ACR) and expected returns (ER) are significantly different to each other. The CAPM has been applied to determine the expected returns (ER). The study is helpful for the investors that they should beware and conscious during the political instability in Pakistan as the cement industry responds significantly during the said situation. Furthermore, the study is also helpful for the management of cement industry to be conscious during the scenario of political instability as the systematic risk will be high during this situation.

  80. Dr. Sajjadjafer and Dr. Kalu Ram Meena

    Introduction:-Gender determination is one of the important parameters in the forensic science. The forensic odontologist is to identify the sex from whatever human dental remains are presented as a specimen. No two teeth have similar morphology and the purpose of this study was to investigate whether sexual dimorphism can be established by odontometric study of permanent maxillary canines’ teeth as well as canine arch width. Morphology of individual teeth is unique and is determined by genetic factor. Aim and objective:- • To identify role of maxillary canines in sex determination. • To find out maxillary canines index & sexual dimorphism methods for sex determination. • To review the findings in light of available literature. Material & methods:-The study was carried out on 100 objects 50 males and 50 females selected from NIMS medical college Jaipur (raj) belong to northern central region of India for role of maxillary canine in sex determination. The mesiodistal dimension of permanent maxillary canines was measured with the help of verniercalliper. Results:-The mesiodistal dimensions of the right and left maxillary canines were significantly different in male greater then female. Permanent maxillary canine exhibited larger mean values of mesiodistal dimension in males compared to females in northern central region of India Conclusion- The results of the present study showed that maxillary canines exhibiting significant sexual dimorphism and can be used for sex determination in individual as well as in group such as in mass disasters like earthquakes, floods.

  81. Manoharan Pillai, P. M. and Dr. Vijayakumar, A.

    Information is a common term, often used by people of different professions. It is a resource that is naturally needed in all human endeavors, very crucial to the development of a nation, without which there would be no society. With the deluge of available information, each person needs information of increasing variety. The library has come to play a significant role as a repository of knowledge to the information needs of all groups in the community where it is located. The librarian should be aware of what kind of information is being sought and how it can be obtained. Because of the rapidly escalating cost of purchasing and archiving printed scholarly journals and electronic media, the library has the duty to provide and maintain efficient services. Many electronic resources are available in the library. The increase in information available on the web has affected information seeking behaviour. Information seeking behaviour differs among user groups. It is expressed in various forms from reading printed material to research and experimentation. Factors that affect information seeking behavior include personal reasons for seeking information, the kind of information being sought, and the ways and sources with which needed information is being sought. Information users make active and international attempts to seek up-to-date information from the library resources, including electronic sources.

  82. Dr. Prasenjit Deb and Mr. Gour Sundar Ghosh

    Various organizations of the Globe have launched various schemes and programmes to promote and educate in each and every corner of the world. Education is a fundamental right of human development; hence the present study was conducted on the tea garden parents in Jalpaiguri district of West Bengal. This study analyses the roles, responsibilities and functions of parents in the education of their children and also study the perception of the parents and experiences of the participating children, dropouts and school completers in this education process. For the purpose of the present study, the information/data collected from the sample households based on the parents of dropout children and their opinion towards the present day system of education. The study is an experimental type of study. This study conducted in Jalpaiguri, a Sarva Shiksha Mission (SSM) district of West Bengal since 2002 to evaluate and assess the Socio-Cultural and Geo-Spatial Predictors and distribution of Retention problems in Scheduled Caste and Scheduled Tribe of Nagrakata Block of Jalpaiguri District of West Bengal. To identify the effects, we use structured schedule containing sixteen independent variables viz. Age of Father (X1), Age of Mother (X2), Father’s Education (X3), Mother’s Education (X4), Father’s Occupation (X5), Mother’s Occupation (X6), Family Size (X7), Monthly approx. income (X8), Home environment(X9), Climatic Factor (X10), Expenditure (monthly) on Education (X11), Attitude towards Education (X12), Financial Condition (X13), Social Interaction (X14), Role of forest/tea garden in controlling financial hardship (X15) and Use of Mass media (X16), against dependent variable Level of Retentivity (Y).

  83. Fadil Hassan Jasem

    May be this research attempt at tent into the necessary that result Future studies for high education in Iraq into Future and to do civilizational changing in society locally and worldwide, and enter element refer to Future and what is carrying from changes in clued aims, plans and high education programs and keeping instructions twenty one (21) century in clued the knowledge economy. Researcher sees from seek the titles studies found on the internet and some libraries which Future studies have future impact of higher education in Iraq on the knowledge economy and meet future requirements through build programs for these needs and this isn't from level Future studies in the developed countries of the world , if unless support for scientific material special for Future studying or to make Future build on facts and in this case , the aim of research is putting imagine suggest to do Future studies in build programs for needs the knowledge economy for higher education in Iraq. Now, we depend on research material descriptive analytic to achieve research goals. The research contents Future studies by mention aims, problem and some manners search found in it. As we show the relation between the knowledge economy and higher education by mention concept the knowledge economy and the relation between the knowledge economy and human resources and stage an establishments higher education in human development, as we show some programs used in introduce knowledge and the summary of these sides which high education an establishments are very important and active in human development and the studies arrive to imagine a proposal to activate the role of future studies in build programs for needs the knowledge economy through the following points : • Doing Future studies in every side from these sides knowledge in high education joins it with the knowledge economy. • Search about the main reasons which using in the development knowledge economy. • Focus on future possibilities and effects between them and what is happing from results. • To establish the Future research places in the higher education establishments in Iraq. • Study the multiple Futures. • Make standards for Futures studies.

  84. SEEMA MAHANT, DR. C. M. REDDY, MISS SUPRIYA MAHANT, DR.UPASANA SHOBHANE AND DR. P. D. MAHANT

    Forgotten Baby Syndrome (FBS) is a term refers to unintentionally leaving a baby or young child in a locked car, often with heartbreaking results. Every year, at least a dozen children die in overheated cars and that incidence increases day by day, somewhere 15 to 25 times a year in the United States. Numerous studies have shown that our stressful, busy lifestyles are causing more forgetfulness. The main reasons behind the FBS is car-safety rules, in that experts recommendation that child seats be moved to the back of the car, so most parents now put their children in the backseat, with babies facing the rear, means that parents may not interact with their children during a car ride and that they may not even be able to see their children. Children left in a MV for even short time periods in moderate ambient temperatures (210C) are at risk for hyperthermia. The greatest increase in temperature happens in the first ten minutes. Many studies have shown that there can be up to 55% rise in temperature in the first five minutes and up to 90% rise in temperature in the 15 minutes even if the car windows are partially open. Excessive heat (usually temperature > 42.2° C [108 ° F]) denatures proteins, destabilizes phospholipids and lipoproteins, and liquefies membrane lipids, leading to cardiovascular collapse, multi-organ failure due to cellular death, and, ultimately, death.

  85. Suresh Kumar Saini, Gopal Ram, Mohmd Salim, Parbhu Kumar Sinwar, Sunil Rawat, Vijay Haralgat Seetharamaiah and Akhil Kapoor

    Peptic ulcer perforation is a serious complication which affects almost 2-10% of ulcer patients on the average. The patients suspected of peptic perforations undergoing emergency laparotomy were divided into 2 groups of 30 patients each based on the technique of Simple Randomization. Patients were allotted group A: Omental pluging and group b Ometopexy. Pain was present in 8 and 11 patients of omental plugging and omentopexy group respectively. On 1 month follow up, pain was present in 9 patients and out of them 4 were in omental plugging group and 5 were in omentopexy group while no healing wound was present. On 3 months follow up no complication was found in any patients.In present study maximum patients were male (57 out of 60) while maximum patients were in 51-60 years of age group. Omental plugging, a relatively newer and less utilized technique was found to be a superior surgical technique over free omentopexy in the treatment of giant peptic perforation.

  86. Sumayya Wani, Ishrat H. Dar, Ambreen Bashir, Sair B. Mir and Madan L. Khurana

    Background: Patients with Diabetes mellitus (DM) develop low levels of High Density Lipoprotein (HDL) during the initial progression of disease. There is growing appreciation that Insulin resistance is associated with lowering of HDL. The exact prevalence of the Insulin resistance syndrome among those with low HDL in the general population has not been clearly established. Methods: One twenty one patients and one twenty one controls were taken. Precipitation reagent (0.06 ml) containing 1071 U/ml Heparin, 500 mmol/l Magnesium Chloride and 12 mg/ml Dextran Sulfate was added to a Serum (0.3 ml). Sample was incubated and centrifuged at 10,000 rpm for 10 minutes. HDL3 was measured by a homogenous HDL assay in the supernatant and HDL2 estimated by subtracting the HDL3 from direct HDL. Results: Mean HDL of patients and controls was 35.74 ± 8.18 and 49.27 ± 37.28 respectively. HDL3 was 23.84 ± 5.97 and 31.08 ± 4.60 respectively.HDL2 resulted18.27± 5.55 and 11.84 ± 3.61 respectively. Mean Insulin levels were 11.33 ± 8.46 and 9.14 ± 5.60 respectively. Conclusions: HDL2 is higher than HDL3in off springs of patients with Type 2 DM.HenceHDL2 may serve as an initial marker for Type 2 DM

  87. Amandeep, Nidhi Sagar, Mamta, Dr. Jasbir Kaur and Dr. P. Jindal

    Postnatal women are prone for puerperial infection and any trauma such as episiotomy, tear, laceration can increase the tendency for the development of infection, pain and discomfort in the postnatal period which can be reduced by proper hygienic measures, especially perineal care, therapeutic cleansing soak, such as warm water sitz bath for rapid healing. Considering this, a quasi experimental study was undertaken to assess the effectiveness of sitz bath in reduction of episiotomy pain and wound healing among postnatal mothers admitted in postnatal units of DMC&H and Deep Hospital, Model town, Ludhiana, Punjab. The sample consisted of 60 postnatal mothers with episiotomy (30 in each experimental group and 30 in control group). Experimental group received sitz bath and control group received routine care. Assessment of pain was done with Numeric pain rating scale and assessment of wound healing was done with Modified Davidson REEDA scale. The findings revealed that application of sitz bath was effective in relieving episiotomy pain and improving wound healing (p=0.001)

  88. Banu, M. R. and Lalitha, K.

    Interaction style is so vital to the patient because when asked about their perceptions of nursing care, patients almost exclusively described the nurses’ interactive style and not what task she was doing. Nurses often express anxiety and lack of confidence regarding communicating with patients diagnosed with psychiatric illnesses. Nurses are the high resource person who spends time with the patients round the clock and the work of the nurses is generally highly regarded by patients Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of interacting skill training program to the nurses working towards patients with mental illness. Materials and Methods: A quantitative Quasi-experimental study with two groups was adopted for the study. A total of 17 subjects in experimental group and 15 in control group were selected using convenient sampling technique to complete the self administered “Interacting Skill Scale for Mental Health Nurses” questionnaire. Results: The experimental group subjects had significantly high score in all five interacting style dimensions from the control group at either p<0.05 or <0.001. Conclusion: Providing adequate training in the interacting skill for the nurses working with mentally ill patients can significantly improve their interacting pattern towards the patients more therapeutically.

  89. Sharmila Torke, K. Ramnarayan and Reem Rachel Abraham

    Background: Assessment contributes directly to the way students approach their study and therefore contributes indirectly, but powerfully, to the quality of their learning. A well designed assessment programme will use different types of question appropriate for the content being tested.Meaningful interpretation of course evaluation results requires collecting evidence of validity. One of the method employed for gathering evidence of validity involves collecting student feedback about the various components of the evaluation system. In this perspective, this study was conducted to explore student perspectives on multi-component evaluation system in Physiology at Melaka Manipal Medical College (Manipal Camus), India. Methods: Students’ perspectives on different components of evaluation system in Physiology were collected by administering a questionnaire containing 9-12 items. Results and Conclusion: In general, students agreed that our evaluation system is quite fair. However, in some areas there is a lack of consensus amongst students. The results of our study was comparable with the earlier observation that a single assessment tool does not fulfill all the functions of assessment such as assessing knowledge, comprehension and skills, motivation and providing feedback. The multi-component evaluation system allows one to assess numerous elements of the knowledge and competence required of a successful doctor.

  90. Irshad Hussain Ghanghro, Aneela Atta ur Rahman, Ali Raza Memon, Muhammad Najeeb Memon and ALLAH Bux Ghanghro

    Objectives: Evaluation of Physical and Chemical quality of drinking water available in Educational institutes of city Hyderabad of Sindh Pakistan near Indus River. Background: Drinking water quality is the great public health concern because it is a major risk factor for various viral, bacterial and protozoan diseases, globally. Over 25 million deaths are blamed due to waterborne-diseases. Pakistan has been facing the same problem due to improper water management, bad sanitary condition and poor drinking water quality. Human activities also contribute further more impurities and ultimately it affects the quality of water. If this contaminated water is used for drinking water, it may cause health problem. The educational progress of students depends on health. The water is one of the vital components of human health, because about 60-65% diseases are spread through water. Study design: Cross sectional study Study setting: Thirty two Educational Institutes randomly selected in the field practice area of Department of Community Medicine, LUMHS, Water Testing & Surveillance Laboratory, LUMHS, Jamshoro, Sindh. Material and Methods: The drinking water samples from Thirty two Educational Institutes located in Hyderabad were collected as per standard procedure. Analyzed from various physico-chemical parameters and Microbiological parameters as per PSQCA(Pakistan Standard Quality Control Authority)/ WHO standards. For analysis samples were transported to Water Testing & Surveillance Laboratory, Department of community medicine, LUMHS, Jamshoro, Sindh. Results: Data revealed that the pH of all samples ranged from 7.7-7.9, conductivity 750 µS to 879µS, Salinity 0.5 %, Total Dissolved Salts 592mg/L to 736mg/L, The Turbidity of sample No: 2, 15,25,26,27,28,29,30,31 & 32 is higher than the permissible limit of WHO i. e; 5 NTU, Arsenic level of all samples shows within the limits of WHO standards, while Total coliform, Total Fecal Coliform and E-Coli were positive in all the samples.

  91. Dr. Vithal Narayan Dhadke, Dr. Mrs. Shubhangi Vithal Dhadke and Dr. Nikhil Raut

    Introduction: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is defined as a disease state characterized by airflow limitation that is not fully reversible. The Global Burden of Disease Study has projected that COPD, which ranked sixth as the cause of death in 1990, will become the third leading cause of death worldwide by 20202.The pooled global prevalence of COPD in adults 40 years or older is approximately 9 to 10% and is higher in smokers than non smokers, and is higher in men than in women. COPD includes emphysema, chronic bronchitis and small airway disease. Aims and Objectives: To study the clinical profile of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary disease patients. Evaluation of COPD patients with spirometry and 2D Echocardiography. To correlate between spirometry and 2D Echocardiography findings. Evaluation of left ventricular function in COPD patients by 2D Echocardiography. Material s and Methods: The proposed study is comprised of 100 patients of COPD admitted in Dr. V. M. Govt. Medical College, Solapur. (Maharashtra) (India) They were studied clinically and with routine laboratory investigations, ECG, chest x ray, pulmonary function tests on spirometry and 2D and Doppler Echocardiography during their hospital stay. Inclusion criteria: Patients who present with symptoms suggestive of COPD like dyspnea, chronic cough with or without sputum production. Spirometry showing ratio of forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) to forced vital capacity (FVC) expressed in percentage less than 70%. Exclusion criteria: Pulmonary tuberculosis, Pneumonia, Bronchiectasis. Pneumoconiosis. Primary cardiovascular or renal disease particularly if these result in pulmonary edema. Patients with rheumatic valvular heart disease, Ischemic heart disease and hypertension. Patients with Bronchial Asthma. Results: All patients in our study were more than 40 years of age indicating a rising trend of COPD in patients above the age of 40 years. The mean age was 62 ± 9 years. In our study COPD was predominantly found in males, comprising 80% of the total patients and Male: Female= 4:1. 75% of the patients in our study were smokers indicating higher incidence of COPD in smokers than non smokers. The common symptoms were dyspnea and cough with expectoration. Most common sign was wheeze present in 70% of COPD patients in our study. Conclusions: 1) 25% of the patients had normal chest x-ray. Changes observed in chest x-ray were prominent bronchovascular markings, changes of emphysema, prominent central pulmonary artery and cardiomegaly. 2) 50% of the patients had normal ECG. Most common ECG finding in our study was P pulmonale present in 40% of the patients. 3) Spirometry is an essential tool to establish the diagnosis and grading of severity of COPD by calculating FEV1 % predicted and FEV1/ FVC.

  92. Ali Raza Memon, Nasreen Qazi, Muhammad Qasim Memon, Muhammad Yousuf Memon, Hina Riaz and Keenjhar Rani

    Back ground: Diabetic Retinopathy is one of the main complication of both types; type I and II Diabetes mellitus. HbA1c is the gold standard parameter to estimate the glycemic index nowadays. Poor glycemic index means high blood sugar level which is the proceeding factor for development of retinopathy. Methodology: Total 80 subjects were include in the study, from which 40 were type II diabetes without retinopathy and 40 were diabetes type-II with retinopathy. HbA1c was estimated by Bio Red Variant. Retinopathy was assessed by indirect ophthalmoscope. Results: The mean of HbA1c Type II diabetic patients without retinopathy was11.05 ± 1.27%and in Type –II diabetes mellitus with retinopathy as, 13.05 ± 0.83% respectively. These results showed that glycemic control in type II diabetes with retinopathy highly poor than type II diabetic patients without retinopathy. Conclusion: Poor glycemic index take a part in proceeding diabetic complications like retinopathy.

  93. Uloneme, G. C., Agu, G. C., Akukwu, D. and Ekezie, J.

    Two hundred individuals whose ages ranged from forty years to eighty years, and above were used for the study. The aim of the study was to examine the eye-condition of the subjects with a view to finding out definitely, which of the age-related ocular diseases were most commonly suffered by residents of Owerri Metropolis. The One hundred and Ten (110) men and ninety (90) women that constituted the population probed responded with maximum co-operation while under investigation for both internal and external examinations carried out on them. The study revealed that the most common age-related ocular diseases suffered by the subjects who are residents of Owerri metropolis were glaucoma, cataract, diabetic retinopathy, hypertensive retinopathy, retinitis pigmentosa, age-related macular degeneration (ARMD), and senile ectropion. Every individual subject aged seventy one (71) years and above was found to be living with one ocular disease or the other and some were even living with many of such diseases. Glaucoma was found to be most prevalent, being suffered by as high as 33% of the individuals investigated; while age-related macular degeneration was the least, affecting only 1.5% of individuals examined. Cataract, however, was found to be second major threat to normal vision among the subjects investigated, having affected about 24% of the subjects. It also sounds surprising to note that among the subjects investigated, the number of females affected by the most common age-related ocular diseases was more than that of the males affected. 69% of males, as opposed to 90% of females were affected.

  94. Agim Gjikopulli, Sonila Tomori, Petrit Hoxha, Laureant Kollçaku, Lindita Grimci, Paskal Cullufi and Zamira Ylli

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of recombinant growth hormone for increasing adult height in children treated for idiopathic isolated growth hormone deficiency (IGHD). Design: Observational follow up study. Setting: Population based registry. Participants: All Albanian children diagnosed with idiopathic isolated growth hormone deficiency and attained final height. Their treatment started between 2001 and 2011. Main outcome Measures: Annual changes in height, and change in height between the start of treatment and adulthood. Results: 71 patients were diagnosed with idiopathic isolated growth hormone in the period mention above. Adult height was obtained for 13 (13.3%) patients. The male: female ratio was 9:4. HAZ score at the start of treatment was -4.69±1.18. The mean dose of growth hormone at start of treatment was 0.21 IU/kg/week for 3 patients and 0.24 IU/week for 10 patients. Height gain was 2.31±0.75 z-scores, resulting in an adult height of -2.15±0.99 z-score (girls, -2.25±1.50 z-score; boys, -2.11±0.78 z-score). Patients who completed the treatment gained 2.31±0.75 z-score of height in 4.54±2.14 years. Conclusion 69.2% our patients with idiopathic isolated growth hormone deficiency treated with growth hormone able to achieve their genetic height potential. Despite starting treatment late, they managed to gain 2.31±0.75 HAZ score in height and the final height for majority of them was within the target height range. This study highlighted the importance for early diagnosis and treatment in children with growth hormone deficiency. This is to ensure adequate duration of treatment to optimize the prepubertal growth so that height prognosis of these children can be further improved.

  95. Iqbal M. Pandit, Syed Naseer Ahmad, Salim Khan, SM. and Inaam Ul Haq

    Objective: To assess the nutritional status of school going children in Rural health block. Methods: School children from various primary and middle level educational facilities from a rural health block were surveyed during the School Health Program. Height and weight was measured following standard procedures. MS Excel and Interactive statistics page were used for analysis of data. Results: Both mean weight and height were higher in females than males. The overall prevalence of under nutrition was 19.2%. The prevalence of underweight was lowest in 5 year female (0.0%) and highest in 6 year male (21.5%). For Stunting 7 year males recorded the lowest (0.0%) and 12 year males the highest (28.5%) prevalence. The highest and lowest prevalence of wasting was recorded in 6 year old females (2.56%) and 9 year old males (24.6%) respectively. Prevalence of thinness was lowest in 13 year old females (14.2%) and highest in 13 year old males (47.1%). Conclusion: The nutritional status of school age children in this health block are comparatively better even though a large number of children still fall below the cutoff for various nutritional indicators.

  96. Dr. Bharath Prabhu, M., Pradeep, M. R., Sanket Kamurti, Mallikarjun Ragher, Satendra Singh, Amrita Sandhu and Aarti Desai

    The goal of current dental implant treatment is more than just the successful Osseo integration of the implant. It includes an aesthetic and functional restoration surrounded by stable peri-implant tissue levels that are in harmony with the existing dentition, Crestal bone remodelling starts immediately after implant placement, Platform switching is a technique which can preserve the crestal bone loss. The purpose of this article is to carry out are view of studies dealing with the platform switching concept to preserve the Crestal bone, the mechanism by which it contributes to maintenance of biological width, how the stresses are distributed and influence of micro gap on Crestal bone loss.

  97. Muhammad Yousuf Memon, Muhammad Azhar Mughal, Hajira Naila Rahu, Ali Akbar Rahu, Khemo Mal A Karira and Ali Raza Memon

    Non-insulin dependent diabetic subjects have higher morbidity and mortality for various vascular events than does those in general population. Cerebrovascular and renal diseases related to the progression of atherosclerosis are well known to be the frequent cause of death and microalbuminuria has been shown to predict increased morbidity and early mortality in non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus.

  98. Dr. Sushma Bommanavar, Dr Yashwant Ingale, Dr Noopur Kulkarni, Dr Vishwajeet Kale, Dr Manjusha Ingale, Dr Sachin Gugwad

    Unicystic ameloblastoma is a rare, benign tumor of odontogenic epithelium. It refers to those cystic lesions that show clinical, radiographic and gross features of a mandibular cyst but on histological examination show a typical ameloblastomatous epithelium lining the cyst cavity with or without luminal and/or mural tumor growth. Most of the cases are associated with tooth impaction, the mandibular third molar being most often involved. This is the dentigerous variant. Sometimes, UA can occur in the ramus area without a relationship with teeth, the so-called ‘Nondentigerous’type. As per the literature, both the dentigerous and non dentigerous variant usually demonstrates unilocular radiolucency, although multilocular features also occur. Hence, it is essential that further studies should be conducted on a large scale in order to know whether both variants i.e. dentigerous and non dentigerous with unilocular and multilocular features can alter the prognosis and treatment plan of the lesion. We present a case of unicystic ameloblastoma – Nondentigerous type in a 38 year old patient showing multilocular radiolucency.

  99. Dr. Dhaval Mahadevwala

    Objective: This study was carried out to determine Caesarean Section rate and its related risk factors in urban area. Material and Methods: Total 370 deliveries occurred in last 3 years were included in study and various epidemiological risk factors related to Caesarean section were identified. Results: Total 370 deliveries were included in study, out of which 139 were Caesarean section. Majority of deliveries were conducted in institutions (98.9%). Among institutional delivery also majority done in private sector only (341 out of 366). Majority CS occurred in private facilities (134 out of 139) only. CS is more common in higher socio economic class. Majority of CS occurred during 1st birth order followed by 2nd and 3rd. with increasing birth order, the outcome of CS becomes more and more favoring male child. Conclusions: Majority of CS in present study were conducted in private sector, which suggests some commercial interest may be at work. CS is more common in higher socioeconomic class due to their affordability. Good job status also associated factors for occurrence of CS.

  100. Koerniasari, Setiawan, Ngadino, Rustanti, I. E. W. and Sudjarwo, S. A.

    Lead is one of the most toxic metals, producing severe organda mage in animals and humans. Oxidative stress reported to play an important role in lead acetate induced liver injury. This study was carried to investigate the role of ethanol extract of mangos teen pericarp in protecting against lead acetate-induced hepatoxicity in male mice.The sample used 50 male mice were divided into 5 groups: negative control (mice were given daily with aquadest); positive control (mice were given daily with lead acetate 20 mg/kg BW orally once in a day for 21 days); and the treatment group ( mice were given the mangos teen pericarp extracts200 mg; 400 mg; 800 mg/kg BW orally once in a day for 25 days, and on 4th day, were given lead acetate 20 mg/kg BW one hour after the mangos teen pericarpextracts administration for 21 days). On day 25 measured levels of Serum Glutamic Oxaloacetic Transaminase (SGOT), Serum Glutamic Pyruvate Transaminase (SGPT), Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP), Malondialdehyde (MDA), Superoxide Dismutase (SOD)and Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx). The SGOT, SGPT, ALP, MDA, SOD and GPx data were analyzed with one-way ANOVA, followed by LSD test. The results showed that, Oral administration of lead acetate 20 mg/kg BW for 21 days resulted in a significant increase in SGOT; SGPT, ALP and MDA level. Moreover, significant decrease in SOD and GPx. Treatment with the mangos teen pericarpextracts800 mg/kg BW but not 200 mg/kg BW and 400 mg/kg BW significantly (P< 0.05) decreased the elevated SGPT; SGOT, ALP and MDA levels as compared to positive control group. Treatment with the mangosteen pericarpextracts 800 mg/kg BW also significant increase in SOD and GPx as compared to positive control group. From the results of this study concluded that the mangos teen pericarpextractscould be a potent natural herbal product provide a promising hepato protective effect against lead acetate induced hepato toxicity in mice

  101. Ashwathy, V.T., Lokesh, B.N. and Vineeth, V.T.

    Objectives: Memory is major tool for an individual to achieve successful career in this competitive world. The present era created lot of stress, anxiety and disturbance in sleep, which adversely affect individual performance. Hence, we evaluated the effect of six months yoga training on short term memory in school going boys. Materials and Methods:This was a cross sectional study involving 40 yoga trained and 40 yoga untrained school going boys aged 11 - 15 yrs. Short term memory evaluation was done using various memory tests. Results:We observed that there was a statistically significant increase in short term memory quotient in yoga trained when compared to yoga untrained group. Conclusion: The present study showed that thesix months of yoga training showed significant improvement in short term memory

  102. Dr. Md. Hamid Ali, Dr. Kapildev Mondal and Dr. Arijit Sinha

    Addison’s disease usually presents with non-specific symptoms like fatigue, nausea, vomiting, hyper-pigmentation and generalized weakness. These symptoms are most often ignored or misinterpreted with other more common diseases (Depression, Somatoform disorder). This is the major reason that this disease is under-diagnosed. Therefore, to establish a diagnosis, high index of suspicion is needed. We are reporting a case of 30 years old female who presented with recurrent episode of acute abdomen and severe hypoglycaemia. Careful history (long lasting fatigue, weakness, lack of energy, nausea, anorexia, weight loss, hyper-pigmentation etc.) and careful interpretation of laboratory value (Hyponatremia, Hyperkalemia, hypoglycaemia, anaemia, hypercalcemia, neutropenia, eosinophilia, normal lipase etc.) will dictate the diagnosis of adrenal insufficiency. After that only confirmatory ACTH stimulation test (Synacthen) to be done.

  103. Mohamed El-Fatih Mohy El-Deen, Esam Mohamed Abdul Raheem and Ashwag Mohamed Mokhtar

    Study Design and Objective: This was a prospective case control hospital based study aimed to identify the allelic variation of p53 codon 72 “exon 4” in colorectal cancer lesions in Sudanese patients. Material and Methods: Endoscopic biopsies were obtained from 82 Sudanese patients with colorectal mucosal changes, DNA was extracted, and genotyping was performed using Allele Specific PCR (AS-PCR) to detect proline and arginine alleles. Results: In the cancer-free group specimens, the genotype distribution for p53 polymorphism showed 8.6 %, 60 %, and 31.4 % for the Arg/Arg, Arg/Pro, and Pro/Pro genotypes, respectively. In the colorectal cancer group specimens, 12.8 % were Arg/Arg, 51 % were Arg/Pro, and 36.2 % of the cases were Pro/Pro. Conclusion: Proline Homozygosity may be correlated with possible increased risk of colorectal cancer in Sudan.

  104. Dr. Vinitra Vasan, Dr. Balaji, P., Dr. Poornima Chandra and Dr. Latha Shankarnarayan

    Mucocele of paranasal sinuses is a benign, expansile cyst-like lesion filled with mucus and lined by the mucoperiosteum of the involved sinus. Mucoceles develop when the drainage of normal sinus secretion is obstructed, followed by mucous accumulation and expansion. Among the paranasal sinuses, the frontal sinus is most commonly involved. Mucoceles of the maxillary sinus usually present as an incidental finding, radiographically appearing as opacification of the involved sinus. Here, we present a case of mucocele of the right pmaxillary sinus with an unusual clinical presentation as an asymptomatic swelling of the palate and maxillary alveolus on the right side.

  105. Abhisek Mitra, Siddhartha Bhowmik, Palash Das, Indrani Bhattacharyya and Dilip Kumar Bera

    Dipylidium canium, also called cucumber tapeworm or the double pored dog tapeworm has been rarely implicated in causing human infection. It is a cyclophyllid cestode that causes human Dipylidiasis which is one of the rarely reported disease throughout the world (Wong, 1955). Although the disease is prevalent in all over the world, most reported cases are from North America (Parija, 2006). Till date only 120 cases have been reported globally (Parija, 2006). So we are keen to report this case who attended the Helminthology clinic in our Hospital and was subsequently diagnosed to be a case of Dipylidiasis. To the best of our knowledge this is the second case of human infection reported from West Bengal.

  106. Dr. Sajjad Jafer and Dr. Kalu Ram Meena

    Introduction: Gender determination is one of the important parameters in the forensic science. The forensic odontologist is to identify the sex from whatever human dental remains are presented as a specimen. No two teeth have similar morphology and the purpose of this study was to investigate whether sexual dimorphism can be established by odontometric study of permanent maxillary canines’ teeth as well as canine arch width. Morphology of individual teeth is unique and is determined by genetic factor. Aim and objective: • To identify role of maxillary canines in sex determination. • To find out maxillary canines index and sexual dimorphism methods for sex determination. • To review the findings in light of available literature. Material and methods: The study was carried out on 100 objects 50 males and 50 females selected from NIMS medical college Jaipur (raj) belong to northern central region of India for role of maxillary canine in sex determination. The mesiodistal dimension of permanent maxillary canines was measured with the help of verniercalliper. Results: The mesiodistal dimensions of the right and left maxillary canines were significantly different in male greater then female. Permanent maxillary canine exhibited larger mean values of mesiodistal dimension in males compared to females in northern central region of India. Conclusion: The results of the present study showed that maxillary canines exhibiting significant sexual dimorphism and can be used for sex determination in individual as well as in group such as in mass disasters like earthquakes, floods.

  107. Mohanambal, K., Selvaraju, G., Palanivel, K. M. and Johnson Rajeswar, J.

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the immunopotentiating effect of medicinal plant products such as Withania somnifera, Tinospora cordifolia, Allium sativum and Azadirachta indica in commercial layer flock vaccinated against Newcastle disease. The HI titre values in all the groups were above the protective level throughout the study period. Withania somnifera treated group showed highest mean HI titre of 234.66 and high HI titre from 26th week to 40th week of age when compared with other groups. For normal egg production, HI titre value should be greater than 256, which is obtained in W. somnifera, T. cordifolia and A. sativum treated groups only at 32 weeks of age.

  108. Gehan Mohammed Diab and Faten Abdelghani Ahmed

    Safety climate and teamwork are two variables that might be considered as satisfying factors and might affect retention levels as well as patients’ and nurses’ outcomes. Understanding such concepts will help in designing economic interventions to retain more professional and expert nurses, and in preventing extra costs for recruitment and orientation of new nurses. The aim of this study was to examine the relationships between safety climate and teamwork as perceived by Shebien El-Kom hospitals’ nurses. Design: This study demonstrates a non-experimental, descriptive co-relational design. Setting: The study was conducted at two hospitals, namely Shebien El-Kom University Hospital and Shebien El-Kom Teaching Hospital, in Menoufiya Governorate, Egypt. Subjects: A convenience sample of 140 nurses was taken from the two hospitals. It consisted of all nurses available at the time of the study. Tool: One tool was used to collect the necessary data: the study’s questionnaire consists of three parts: Socio demographic data, safety climate scale, and teamwork scale. Results: Indicates that the highest percentages of nurses (92.2%) who had high level of team work climate had high level of safety climate. Conversely, the highest percentages of nurses (81.8%) who had moderate level of team work climate had moderate level of safety climate. They were highly statistically significant, strong positive correlation between nurses’ overall perception level of safety climate from one side and their overall perception level of team work climate (r = 0.492 , p<0.001). Conclusion: This study concluded that teamwork climate has an effect on patient safety climate among nurses. Recommendations: Developing strategies that create a culture of safety and teamwork climate to improve nurses satisfaction and retention as well as patient outcomes in hospitals, nurse educators should increase the involvement of the concepts of safety climate and teamwork in nursing curricula for improving nurses appreciation of collaboration and team spirit, further studies are needed for examining the relationships between perception of nurses working in critical care units and perception of nurses working in general wards in two dimensions. And further in-depth exploration in this issue is recommended to study an effect teamwork climate on patient safety climate from the perspective of nurses, head nurses and physicians in selected hospitals.

  109. Geethambigai, C. S. and Prabhakaran, J.

    Various concentrations (5%, 10%, 15% and 20%) of aqueous extracts prepared from two weed species namely Chrozophora rottleri L. and Parthenium hysterophorus L and used for the present experiments to determine their allelopathic potential on growth and developmental changes on Rice (Oryza Sativa L.). The weed extracts showed an inhibitory effect on germination percentage, root and shoot growth, and fresh and dry weight of rice seedlings. The extracts of P.hysterophorus had more inhibitory effect at 20%concentration,than that of Parthenium hysterophorus L on growth parameters of rice.

  110. Abdul Wahab Siyal, NosheenAkhtar, Amen Sajid, 2SadafNoureen, AnjumanShaheen

    Self-sufficiency in energy is the assurance to excel any country’s economy. Energy is most important source for economic growth of a country. Unfortunately Pakistan has to face a major energy crisis in natural gas, power and oil. With the present situation of increasing energy demand, rising energy prices and reinforcement of countermeasures for global warming, renewable energy sources have taken the spotlight. Among all renewable energy sources, the most suitable option for meeting the energy requirements in developing nations is Biogas technology that has become more widespread in most recent decade. Livestock represents an important component of the agricultural sector in Pakistan which is the major contributor in biogas production process. Manure is a valuable fertilizer that improves the soil, obtained as a byproduct of biogas production process, and dung provides the basis for this process. The study identified the major biogas potential areas of Pakistan by using Geographic Information System. Livestock census data for 2006 was used. Livestock residues of cattle and buffalo out of all stock-raising animals were evaluated. The GIS software i.e. ArcView 3.2 is used as a tool for mapping of biogas potential areas. This information could help all stakeholders in deciding where to expand livestock production without putting the environment at risk.The results of the study showed that Punjab has maximum biogas potential which is followed by Sindh, KPK, Baluchistan and AJ& K.

  111. Gaafar, A., Kasem, W.T., Marei, H. and Hanan Ghali El-Fadaly

    Stem anatomy, stomataltypes and stomatal index in addition the morphological charactersfor 6 species of genusAmaranthus named A.caudatus, A. graecizens A. hybridus, A. retroflexus, A. spinosusand A.viridisare collected from Jazan, Saudi Arabia.Two types of stomata are recognized; anomocytic and anisocytic. Anomocytic type found only in A. graecizens while anisocytic found in the remaider. The different stem anatomical characters are discussed and revealed a distinct characters for each species.Both Leaf epidermal and anatomical features revealed a great taxononmical values which in turn will used for the correct identification of each species. An artificial key is provided for the identification of the studied species.

  112. Bhagwan N. Rekadwad, Vikas B. Maske and Anil E. Jogdand

    Most potable number (MPN) method was used to reckon microorganisms per 100 mL in water samples collected from hot springs, ground water sources, domestic water sources and urban area. This method provided sufficient and accurate results to prove the presence of contamination in potable and recreational waters. Of the total 90 samples, six samples showed highest number of total coliform. Selected six samples found MPN total coliform greater than permissible value have detected the presence of E. coli ranging from 2 to 140 MPN per 100 mL. Total 15 isolates were isolated from these samples. Of 15 isolates, selected three isolates showed colourless to bright pink coloured colonies, highly motile small rods, positive for glucose, inositol, lactose, maltose, mannitol, salicin, sucrose, TSI test and negative for sorbitol. LATEX REAGENT TEST shows identified Escherichia coli isolate has serogroup O157:H7 antigen. Three biochemically identified Escherichia coli confirmed using16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Obtained results indicate the presence of pathogenic microorganism in water samples. Hence, attributor to strict sanitation, high level of hygienic sanitary conditions, strict preventive practices should be adopted to reduce possibilities of infection.

  113. Archana Verma

    The Bundelkhand region of M.P. is rich in natural resources including vegetation. The Ethno-medicinal survey of the region was carried out during April 2013 to November 2014 frequently. Various tribes of the region such as Kols, Gonds, Gujars, Lodhas and Naths were surveyed. Information on plants used as abortifacients by tribals was obtained through interview of local medicine men and elderly women and local vaidaya (Ayurvedic medicinal practioners), who had knowledge of such use of folk drugs. To gether reliable and authentic information, repeated verification of data was done. The plants collected were identified and authenticated by the herbarium present in Dept. of Botany, Dr. H.S.G.V.V. Sagar (M.P.). The preparation of remedies includes infusion, decoction, and preparation of paste of leaves, stem, bark flowers seeds or whole plants. A total of 19 plant species belonging to 15 Angiospermic plant families were found to be commonly used by the tribes for the termination of pregnancies either for social or medical region or for family planning. In the paper, various plants used as abortifacients have been discussed with their mode of application. However further phyto-chemical investigations are required to provide information on the extact role of the various active components present in the plant which are used as abortifacients. This information can be utilized scientifically to develop contraceptives, which can be popularized among civilized communities for the benefit of mankind.

  114. Komal Anjum, Tanveer Abbas, Mohib Raza Kazimi, Syed Abdus Subhan, Abdul Wahab, Nayyar Mehmood, Talat. Y. Mujahid and Najmul Hasan

    Nigella sativa seed (Black cumin seed; Kalonji) was used since many years as medicinal product for the treatment of many infections. In the present study antibacterial effect of aqueous extract of seeds was studied against few of clinical isolates including both gram positive and gram negative species. Results were also compared with standard drugs. Most of the drugs were found to be non effective against isolates. Interestingly, during the recent study all isolates were resistant to oxacillin. Zones of inhibition were evaluated by disc diffusion and well diffusion method in all three preparation of Nigella sativa. Minimum inhibitory concentration was also determined by broth dilution method (aqueous extract) and agar dilution method (methanolic extract and Kalonji oil). Miles and Misra also performed and Log of cfu/ml calculated in aqueous preparation. Streptococcus pyogene found to be more sensitive to both aqueous and methanolic extract while among gram negatives Pseudomonas aeruginosa given larger zones of inhibition in the presence of methanolic extract, even in comparison of all gram positives. Killing time and growth curve of Staphylococcus aureus revealed that aqueous extract have bacteriostatic rather bactericidal activity while methanolic extract and oil given bactericidal effect against few isolates but Kalonji oil found to be more effective as it required least concentration to kill the organisms.

  115. Dr. Nimmi Maria Oommen and Abraham, K. J.

    Our environment is blessed with plants and vegetables which form part of our food. Amongst the different fruits which play a vital role as dietary food, Banana has an important role. The fruit, which is grown in the most of the world’s tropical areas, is harvested while still green. When stored at room temperature, most bananas ripen in a few days. The consumption of fruits are thought to be associated with a reduced risk of many diseases including cancer, atherosclerosis and neurodegenerative diseases, which are related to elevated levels of oxidative stress. Banana is one such fruit yielding tropical plant that may protect itself from the oxidative stress caused by strong sunshine and high temperature by producing large amounts of antioxidants. Through the process of education there should be ample opportunities to identify and understand the natural and common fruits which shall be the integral part of our food. This study is conducted among B.Ed. students to create a responsible environmental behaviour in this area to educate the society.

  116. Saumitro Das and Jha, L. K.

    A study was conducted to examine the clonal variation, effect of cutting type and IBA treatment on adventitious rooting of Taxus baccata. Six clones were selected from different provenances in East Khasi Hills districts of Meghalaya, India. From each clones two types of cuttings (lignified and non lignified) were made and given four IBA treatments (0, 1000, 2000 and 5000 ppm). Results revealed that clonal variation was significant for all the cutting parameters. Among the six clones studied; C2 (Botanical Survey of India, Shillong, Meghalaya, India) have given the highest rooting response (45%).The influence of IBA treatment was significant only for rooting percentage and root length, where 1000 and 2000 ppm was most effective in stimulating the rooting. However effect of type of stem was insignificant for all the parameters except root number where lignified (2.16) cuttings exhibited higher value than the non lignified ones (1.54).

  117. Muthukumaravel, K., Bose Raja, R., Kumarasamy, P. and Prabakaran, S.

    Diversity of acridids in Muthupet mangrove forest in Thiruvarur District of Tamil Nadu was assessed for a period of one year from April 2013 to March 2014. 1310 grasshoppers belonging to 8 family and 8 species were recorded. The sub family Atractomorphinae (Atractomorpha crenulata) recorded a maximum density of (376) grasshoppers with a population density of 28.7 % followed by the sub family, Orthacris robusta (27.2 %), Oxyinae (Oxya hyla hyla) (13.59 %), Acridinae (Acrida exaltata), (12.4 %), Catantopinae (Diabolocatantops pinguips), (9.16%), Eyprepocnemidinae (Eyprepocnemis alacris alacris) (4.43%), Cyrtacanthacridinae (Cyrtacanthacris tatarica tartarica) (3.05%) and Locustinae (Lucusta migratoria migratoria) (1.91%). Grasshopper population density exhibited temporal variations with the maximum during summer months and a minimum in monsoon months.

  118. Rashmi Kurli, Shruti Humsagar, Roopa Melinamani, Uday M. Muddapur, Hrishikesh Mungi and Shanmuga Priya¬¬, V. G.

    Glucosamine has attracted much attention owing to its therapeutic activity in osteoarthritis and widely used dietary supplement. A search for a new potential source is going on due to the allergies caused by glucosamine extracted from shell fish and to reduce the cost involved in extraction of vegetarian glucosamine which are presently used as sources. The present investigation describes the effective extraction of glucosamine from sweet potato. (Method) A maximum yield of 16.3g/kg was obtained. The study also focuses on effect of conventional drugs in interaction between cytochrome P450 receptors- Cyp2C9 and Cyp3A4 with glucosamine. In the presence of conventional drugs, the E-value of binding between glucosamine and Cyp2C9 receptor was increased by 20% and with Cyp3A4 receptor it was increased by 34% which indicates the decrease in affinity between them. Hence, the current research reports two vital findings with respect to extraction and efficacy of glucosamine in presences of conventional drugs.

  119. Jagriti Sharma and Chauhan, D. S.

    Probotics are microorganisms which has a potential to put positive health effect upon the health of human and animals. Their antagonistic potential is being utilized to overcome the increasing drug resistance of common pathogens. Present study is an attempt to further evaluate their antagonistic potential against resistance pathogen Klebsiella Pneumoniae. For this the synergistic antagonistic activity of probiotics and antibiotic combinations was carried out by using Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method. Out of the total tests in 68.75% cases probiotics were found to enhance the antagonistic activity of antibiotics while in 31.25% antimicrobial activity of antibiotics remained the same. None of the probotic strain caused reduction in the antimicrobial activity of the antibiotics in combination. Probiotics must be tried as an agent to overcome the leading drug resistance of the pathogens.

  120. Akhil, R., Vigneshkumar, S., PremKumar, S., Yuvaraj, K., Karthik, N., Vinodhini, S. and Mohana Sundaram, S.

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is a highly malignant brain cancer characterized by uncontrolled cellular proliferation, diffuse infiltration, a tendency for necrosis, significant angiogenesis intense resistance to apoptosis, and widespread genomic aberrations. Glioblastoma multiforme results from a cascade of genetic alterations that begin in a target brain cell and, through unregulated cell division and a panoply of other molecular abnormalities, lead to an expanding mass lesion Among the therapeutic triad of surgery, radiation therapy, andchemotherapy only radiation therapy has been shown to improve survival. Despite aggressive treatments, malignant GBM hasremained difficult to treat, and its overall response to treatment hasremained poor, as has outcome in patients harbouring this lesion. Greater understanding of the tumour biology of GBM has been achieved in the past decade, leading to the prospect of novel targeted therapies and biomarker-based individualization of therapy. The aim of this review is to analyse the tumour biology and the pathologic features of GBM which includes guidelines for classification and diagnosis, the current status of prognostic and predictive biomarkers, and the role of the blood-brain barrier in delivering therapy for GBM.

  121. Abhilash, P. R. and Govindaraju, M.

    Modern industrialisation has resulted in wide spread use of water for the industrial chemical processes and thus resulting not only in depletion of natural resources but also the large scale environmental pollution by the discharge of the untreated or partially treated waste water to land and water bodies. The present study covers the waste water pollution resulted by several CETPs located in an around Tiruppur area which discharges to the river Noyyal. Over a period of years with the increase in the production, quantity of waste water getting generated and discharged got increased which eventually depletes both the Noyyal river as well as the surrounding ground water quality. Some of the chemicals such as Sodium chloride used in textile bleaching process without proper treatment and recovery reaches to the water bodies and land resulting in high level of Total dissolved solids in the entire area. This ultimately affect the availability of good drinking water and resulting in dependency of tanker water for drinking water which is brought from places which are around 30 km away from Tiruppur city. In late nineties, the industrial units in Tirupur area have started putting up effluent treatment plants, either individually or collectively depending on their convenience and location in order to prevent water pollution as well as to revive and restore the health of the already damaged environment. Apart from the individual ETPs, 7 CETPs with physicochemical treatment facilities were commissioned during 1998-99 to treat about 40450 KLD of effluent and let-out the treated effluent into drainage canals which join Noyyal river. Due to inadequate treatment facilities, these CETPs as well as the individual ones failed to meet the quality criteria especially the total dissolved solids level of less than 2100 mg/l prescribed for treated effluent (Central Pollution Control Board Standard, 2000). Hence, they were directed to incorporate Zero Liquid Discharge (ZLD) system during the year 31st July 2007 so as to ensure recovery & reuse of water and salt as well as minimize sludge generation.

  122. Baghel, S. S., Srivastava, S. and Verma, A.

    The study was conducted at Anti Retroviral Therapy (ART) centre of Susheela Tiwari Hospital, Haldwani, Distt. Nainital, Uttarakhand. The data for the study was collected by personal interview and case study. The study revealed that majority of the subject, 41.84 and 55.45 per cent were in the age group 18-30 and 30-60 years, respectively. A 77.28 per cent subjects were literate but only 10.92 per cent subjects were graduates. Heterosexual transmission was observed in 82.73 per cent subjects. Majority of subjects were on ART and only 1.81 per cent subjects were not on ART. Majority of the subjects (56.37 per cent) were diagnosed HIV infection within a period of one year while 60.18 per cent subject ART was initiated in that period. Majority (73.64 per cent) of the subjects were in I stage of infection with a mean CD4 count and Hb of 303.05±133.5 cells mm–3 and 10.88±2.15 g/dl, respectively. The mean scores of all the six domains of QOL fell in the moderate category (12.24-14.23). The subject achieved maximum score in physical domain (14.34±3.86) and minimum (12.56±2.29) in social relationship. No significant difference was found between means scores of male and female subjects. CD4 cell count was highly correlated (P<0.01) with physical and social domain.

  123. Ayeza Naeem, Tanveer Abbas, Tahira M. Ali, Feroz Jafri, Sajjad Haider and Abid Hasnain

    Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) is a biological leavening agent used in wheat breads, pizza dough, pita bread, crackers and many other bakery products. The organism converts the fermentable sugars present in the dough into Carbon dioxide gas and ethanol.CO2 gas acts as a major leavening agent during bread dough processing while small amount of leavening is also contributed by alcohol production during fermentation. An enormous number of strains of S.cerevisiae exist, many of which have already been selected for baking. The potential characteristics of a particular baker’s yeast are determined by the strain of yeast that is selected. The actual characteristics of baker’s yeast, from a particular strain are determined by its composition. Baker’s yeasts belong to the different strains of S. cerevisiae and are available in different forms such as Active Dry yeast, Instant yeast, Cream yeast, compressed yeast and rapid rise yeast etc. After comparing the leavening activity of 6 different commercially available brands of baker’s yeasts i.e. DCL (E.U.),Saf-instant (France), Efkay (U.A.E), Saf-levure (France), Rossmoor and English. The results showed that the brand name as DCL (E.U.) had the highest leavening activity while the brand name Saf-instant (France) had the least leavening activity.

  124. Fauzia Munir, Tanveer Abbas, Saadia Razi, Syed Abdus Subhan, Syed Sajjad Haider Naqvi, 3Syed Tariq Ali, Feroz Alam and Mohib Raza Kazimi

    Allergies are fetching more severe and complex and interactive towards many other environmental factors such as pollutants, infections, lifestyle and diet. Children and young adults are more prone to allergies. The aim of this paper is to analyze the prevalence of allergies among youngsters in Karachi, Pakistan. In order to recognize the causes of allergies, the study has used direct source of information by first hand data which was collected through questionnaire filled by students of 14-21age groups. The conclusion of our study suggested that there was no much difference in the life style of allergic with non-allergic individuals. It was also identified by the questionnaire that the youngsters generally, do not have much consciousness about their allergies and misinterpret allergic conditions with manifestation of infection. The focused factors somehow contribute to allergies but mainly allergies may be inherited and based on immunity of individuals. It is very difficult to identify complete etiology for the development and expression of allergy. In this study with the help of data collected by different individuals, we concluded that allergy is caused recurrently by exposure to perennial and seasonal allergens that exist in our indoor and outdoor environment. It is recommended that the other factors also need to be studied to clearly identify allergies such as WBCs count, reactive IgE Antibodies, Mast Cell and Basophil Activation.

  125. Rajesh Singh Tomar, Sharmistha Banerjee and Shuchi Kaushik

    Nanoparticle research is currently an area of intense scientific interest, due to a wide variety of potential applications in biomedical, optical, and electronic fields. A nanoparticle (or nanopowder or nanocluster or nanocrystal) is a microscopic particle with at least one dimension less than 100 nm. Metallic nanoparticles have fascinated scientist for over a century and are now heavily utilized in biomedical sciences and engineering. Today these materials can be synthesized and modified with various chemical functional groups which allow them to be conjugated with antibodies, ligands, and drugs of interest and thus opening a wide range of potential applications in biotechnology such as targeted drug delivery and more importantly diagnostic imaging. The greater demand of nanoparticles has therefore led to the development of an eco-friendly method for the synthesis of nanoparticles using biological sources as a potential alternative to numerous chemical and physical methods.

  126. Eman M. Badran, Hoda Mahrous and Abdel-Rahman M. El-Bagoury

    Lactic acid bacteria play an important role in a large number of various traditional dairy products. This study investigates isolation and identification of some lactic acid bacteria from Domiate cheese. Six isolates were selected and identified; Domiate cheese isolates had an inhibition and bactericidal effects on the growth of some pathogenic microorganisms as Staphylococcus aureus; E.coli ATCC 25922 and Bacillus subtilis NCIB3610. The isolates had antibacterial effect in deferent degree. Lactobacillus acidophilus CH5 isolate was the best effect on the three indictor strains.

  127. Anurag Chowdhury, Chowdhury, M. and Das, A. P.

    We present a new record of the pondweed (Potamogeton gramineus Linnaeus) (Potamogetonaceae Berchtold & J. Presl) from the sub-Himalayan wetland of West Bengal, India. This record extends the known geographical distribution of P. gramineus Linnaeus from Europe, North America, Russia, SW Asia (Iran), Japan, Mongolia, Pakistan, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan and China, to sub-Himalayan region of West Bengal. This discovery modified the current distribution and floral diversity of India.

  128. Gaber Ahmed Saad and Abdullah Hussein Bedeer

    Adults of Strongylocentrotus purpuratus were collected during September to June (2012) and July to August (2014) along the northern estruarineharbor of the Arabian Gulf – Saudi Arabia. Procurement of gametes has been carried out by potassium chloride injection using a one ml tuberculin syringe equipped with a 26 or 30 gauge needle. Gentle shaking of the animal anticlockwise 90◦ after few minutes of injection aided in gamete shedding. Gently sperm and eggs were mixed with a clean stirring rod. The different embryonic stages till the complete metamorphic plutei were described. The time schedule for different stages has been tabulated. Embryonic stages were stained with Nile blue and were placed on glass slides with embedding mixture of PBS / glycerol / DABCO. Immediate viewing and photographing were performed under an Axiomicroscope (ZEISS-Axiophot). Sperm are very small and extremely motile while the egg (70 to 180 µm in ϕ) had yellow to orange jelly-coat. Zygote (3 min. after fertilization) has undergone radial holoblastic cleavage till the blastula stage (3.50-4.15 hrs. after fertilization).The early blastula had a blastoderm enclosing a central blastocoel (6 hr 20 min. after fertilization). Cilia were developed on the exterior of the blastoderm and gradually this embryonic stage hatched and became a free-swimming blastula (8 hr 40 min. after fertilization). At the animal pole an apical plate was formed in the form of a thickened region of epithelium with a tuft of long cilia while the epithelium at the vegetal pole flattened and thickened to form the vegetal plate (16hr 45min.. after fertilization). Ingression of primary mesenchyme cells into the blastocoel took place and a new cavity was formed referred to enteron. The larval mouth was formed (19hr 15min. after fertilization). The blastopore developed into the anal opening of the digestive tract. During the prism stage the embryo took the shape of a rounded pyramid (21 hr 20 min. after fertilization). Pluteus larva with two arms was developed (24hr 30 min. after fertilization). A pluteus larva developed into four-armedpluteus (29hr 40 min. after fertilization). The later fed and developed into eight-armed pluteus (145 hr 50 min. after fertilization). A period of extensive feeding and continued larval development was required before metamorphosis to a juvenile sea urchinr. Free swimming blastulae were subjected to certain bioactive inducers which had been claimed to induce metamorphosis, involved in signaling systems, serve in neuronal control, control morphogenetic and behavioral reactions or interact with members of several signal transduction proteins pathways under normal physiological conditions. Results of these trails were introduced to One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with P < 0.05 and Dunnett's Multiple Comparison Test with P > 0.05 or P < 0.01. It has been concluded that Acetyl choline 0.5 mM, Serotonine10 g/ml, NOS 2.5 mM, C81 µ M, NH4ClNH4Cl and cGMP 1 g/ml accelerated the transformation of blastula stage to an advanced pluteus larval stage with 8 arms whereas Acetyl choline 30 µ g/ml & 1 mM, NOS 1.5 mM, C8 10 µM and NH4Cl 300 µM exereted no role in metamorphosis and antibiotic sea water had negligible effect.

  129. Onochie Anthony Uchenna

    The aim of this research is to primarily determine the effect of calcium on isolated rat liver mitochondria and to discover the possible effects of adenosine and adenosine monophosphate on calcium induced mitochondrial swelling. About 100 male albino rats weighing between 180-260g were recruited into the study. The male albino rats were from animal house of Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of Nigeria, Nsukka. The effects of calcium, adenosine and adenosine monophosphate on isolated normal male rat liver mitochondria were studied and also the effects of adenosine and adenosine monophosphate on calcium-induced mitochondria were also studied by use of standard biochemical techniques and read at 520nm in spectrophotometer. From the study, we could infer that calcium at lower concentration will induce swelling of the mitochondria and invariably rapid swelling at higher concentration of calcium. It was also inferred that the magnitude of the effect of concentration of adenosine or adenosine monophosphate was invariably related to calcium concentration, hence prevented swelling in the presence of high concentration of calcium.

  130. Rekha Bora, Das, A. K., Raaman, N., Sharma, G. D. and Balan, L.

    The present paper deals with preliminary phytochemical screening and antioxidant activity of an ethno-medicinal plant, Thottea tomentosa (Blume) Ding Hou (Aristolochiaceae). The study detects different phytochemicals and observed antioxidant activity by using the DPPH radical scavenging assay.

  131. Kowsar Jan, Boswal, M. V. and Gunjan singh

    The results of studies made on the impact of Biofertilizer (Azotobacter sps.) of bread wheat Triticum aestivum L. and its integrated effect in combination with organic fertilizer I,e Farmyard manure and and Jinong (a liquid humic acid containing organic fertilizer) that has been newly introduced, on yield and yield parameters of bread wheat Triticum aestivum L.variety k -9107. Globally wheat is a leading source of vegetable protein in human food and in terms of total production is currently second to rice as main food crop. Use of organic farming has emerged as an important priority over the chemical fertilizers in order to meet the growing demand of food in the world. Experimental studies were conducted at Christ Church College, Kanpur. Observations were recorded on the influence of biofertilizer (Azotobacter sps.) and its comparison with organic fertilizers. Summarizing the recorded data one can conclude that Bio-fertilizer alone induced yield and yield parameters. Humic acid containing Jinong (0.2%) was superior to Biofertilizer and Farmyard manure under study. Combination of Jinong + Farmyard induced better growth than Biofertilizer + Jinong or Biofertilizer + Farmyard manure. Addition of both Farmyard manure and Jinong to Biofertilizer was least effective in increasing growth. The overall picture of Biofertilizer enhancing yield and yield parameters and the more promoting effect with humic acid containing Jinong is encouraging.

  132. Madhavi M. Mali, Sonal S. Jogdand and Deepali P. Shinde

    This paper represents personalization in terms of web usage mining and e-commerce. This paper gives useful information in the world of web personalization. To introduce web personalization we require to know about data mining with its application like web mining. It also gives detailed description about aspects of web mining with introduction of data mining. Due to this the user can relate importance of web mining to extract the knowledge from the web called as a web personalization.

  133. Mona Mulchandani, Nikhil Sawlani and Vinay Israni

    Find my college is an IOS navigation application which will help people to get directions to JIT college and will also help people with the intra navigation of the college, that is, it will give directions for the various classrooms, labs, sports room, etc inside the college campus. Moreover, the application provides text indications when users touch intra interface, telling them where they are and how they can reach destination along with polylpine interface.

  134. Gopala Reddy, K. and Sathish, K. R.

    A performance index (PI) is computed for each single line contingency using both conventional and Fuzzy based approach. To obtain the magnitudes of various parameters, a computer aided power system study software package which employ iterative methods are used. This paper presents an approach using fuzzy logic to evaluate the degree of severity of the conventional contingency and to eliminate the masking effect in the technique.

  135. Débora Matos de Azevedo Fontes, Annibal Scavarda, Carlos Henrique da Silva Fontes Filho and Luiz Carlos Santiago

    Objective: to describe the steps development for a software prototype that provides assistance with a safety view to orthopedic patient on anticoagulant therapy. Methods: was based on concept of prototyping life cycle in stages of planning and defining requirements for a software future construction. Results: using Microsoft Access® to build the instrument presented as partial result, 4 pages, initially, and proposed use of the nurse and medical professional therapeutic treatment with anticoagulant by an admitted patient in Orthopedic’s clinic. Conclusion: the evaluation of this resource as a basis for building a software will be studied later, in another opportunity.

  136. Sunil S. Pattanshetti and Sagar M. Gawande

    Wastewater and its characteristics is an important factor to recognize surface water pollution, This study has made a sincere attempt to characterize the sewage in Gadhinglaj city. The study involves sample collection, testing of sewage and findings are interpreted in the paper, The physical, chemical, parameters like Temperature, PH, BOD, Suspended solids etc are tested in the laboratory and these parameters are compared with CPCB standard requirement, It is found that some values of BOD, PH, Suspended solids exceeds the required standards of CPCB. The values of parameters at few stations shows excessive acidity where few shows excess alkalinity. The values of BOD at all stations are considerably high, which shows higher amount of organic loading. From these testing’s it can say that the sewage from city is heterogeneous and many of the selected sampling stations exceeds the permissible values. Therefore the primary and secondary treatment for the sewage is needed. On basis of findings some recommendations and suggestions are provided in the paper which is useful for treatment of sewage.

  137. Nabeel A. Bakr, Ziad T. Khodair and Israa A. Alghalabi

    In this work, Zinc-cobalt oxide (Zn(1-x)CoxO) thin films, where x = 0, 4, 6 and 8 % have been successfully deposited on glass substrates by chemical spray pyrolysis (CSP) technique at substrate temperature of (400 °C) and thickness of about 300 nm. The structural and optical properties of these films have been studied using XRD, AFM, and UV-Visible spectroscopy. The XRD results showed that all films are polycrystalline in nature with Hexagonal structure and preferred orientation along (111),(002),(101),(102),(110) and (103) planes. The crystallite size was calculated using Scherrer’ formula and it is found that the undoped ZnO sample has maximum crystallite size (23.11nm). AFM results showed homogenous and smooth thin films. The absorbance and transmittance spectra have been recorded in the wavelength range of (300- 900) nm in order to study the optical properties. The optical energy gap for allowed direct electronic transition was calculated using Tauc equation. It is found that the band gap increases as the Co concentration increases and the band gap values were in the range of 3.27-3.32 eV. The optical constants including (absorption coefficient, real and imaginary parts of dielectric constant) were also calculated as a function of photon energy. Refractive index and extinction coefficient for Zinc-Cobalt Oxide thin films were estimated as a function of wavelength.

  138. Dr. Anand Swrup Sharma

    In this paper we have investigated the steady flow in pipes of rectangular cross-section through porous medium with magnetic field. We have investigated the velocity, flux and vortex line.

  139. Abhang, A. R., Rohokale, G. Y., Pathare, S. A. and Rohokale, P. G.

    The changes in mineral contents namely; Sodium, Potassium, Phosphorus, Magnesium and Iron were studied in ber cultivars Mehrun-Khedi, Mehrun and M.P.K.V. during development and maturity of fruit at 20 days, interval from 20 days after fruit-set upto 120 days. The sodium content of Mehrun-Khedi cultivar remained nearly constant upto 80 days after fruit-set. Afterwards, a marked decreasing trend was found in that cultivar, between 100 to 120 days. On the contrary M.P.K.V. variety showed a continuous decreasing trend. Increase in potassium content up to 80 days and thereafter it decreased gradually upto maturity in all the three cultivars. However phosphourus, magnesium and iron content of the fruit pulp gradually decreased from fruit-set to maturity in all the three cultivars.

  140. Abhang, A. R., Rohokale, G. Y., Pathare S. A. and Rohokale, P. G.

    The changes in protein content of fruit pulp were studied in ber cultivars Mehrun-Khedi, Mehrun and M.P.K.V. during development and maturity of fruits at regular interval of 20 days, from 20 days after fruit-set up to 120 days. The protein content of the Ber fruit pulp showed a sharp decline up to 40 days after fruit-set but thereafter the decrease in it was very fast in Mehrun- Khedi till maturity of fruits. At maturity, the protein content was comparatively more in M.P.K.V. Than Mehrun- Khedi and Mehrun cultivars. This decreases in protein content of fruit pulp during development and maturity of Ber fruits in all the three cultivars which may be attributed to hydrolysis of protein by increased activity of enzyme protease of the fruit pulp.

  141. Rooba Vithiya, R. and Dr. Madhurambal, G.

    The nanocrystalline copper (II) complex with hippuric acid have been synthesized by solvent-free Mechano chemical synthesis. Copper (II) hippurate complex was characterized by UV-Vis spectra, fourier transform Infra red spectra, powder X-ray diffraction, High resolution scanning electron microscopic analysis, Transmission electron microscopic analysis, Thermal analysis, and Elemental analysis. The process presented here is operationally simple, environmentally benign and affords excellent yields without the need for any solvent.

  142. Subhas Chander Reddy, K. and Kista Reddy, P.

    The absolute configuration of the Saquinavir myselate has been determined. The structural analysis confirms the absolute stereochemistry for (2S)-N-[(2S, 3R)-4-[(3S)-3-(tert-butylcarbamoyl)-decahydroisoquinolin-2-yl]-3-hydroxyl-1-phenylbutan-2-yl]-2-(quinolin-2ylformamido) butanedia midemyselate. Saquinqvir myselate exhibits monoclinic crystal system and P21 space group with unit cell dimensions of α=90 0 ,β= 114.848(2)0 and γ=900Stereochemistry observed using platon is N(1)-S, C(2)-S, C(7)-S, C(9)-S, C(16)-R, C(17)-S and C(26)-S.

  143. Were, D. S., Wakhungu and Nato, J. A.

    Most nations strive to ensure that citizens choose their political leaders in a free and fair way during elections. It is also their responsibility to ensure that citizens are protected and live in a safe and healthy environment afterwards. However in the recent past years, various forms of violence have erupted soon after elections and caused a lot of damage on property and also death of its citizens. The general objective of the study was to establish the implications of the post election violence on the psychosocial adjustment of children between 10-18 years. The concern to carry out the study came after realizing that children’s psychological needs were not adequately addressed after 2007 post election violence. Specifically the objectives were to establish the forms of violence on children between 10-18 years went through during the post election violence 2007, determine the psychological effects of post election violence on children, to determine the influence of post election violence on the social adjustment of children and evaluate the mitigation strategies used to alleviate the effects of post election violence on children between 10-18 years. The aim was to come up with intervention measures to assist children affected by post election violence in future. Descriptive survey design was used to establish forms of violence children experienced during the PEV in Uasin Gishu County. Children who were directly not directly affected by the PEV in the same areas were included in the study. Teachers of primary schools in the affected areas, parents and their children between 10-18 years were involved in the study. Questionnaires were used for teachers in primary schools, Interview schedules were administered to parents of children affected by the 2007 PEV and key informants. Psychological tests were administered to children between 10-11 years while children between 12-18 years wrote essays on the 2007 PEV. Purposive sampling and snowballing sampling techniques were used to identify children affected by the 2007 post election violence and their parents, stratified and simple random sampling were used to select two groups children between 10-18 years in classes. Data from the interview and observation schedules was analyzed using descriptive statistics. Inferential statistics were used to analyze data from psychological tests and questionnaires using mean, modes and percentages. Data was presented in form of pie charts and graphical presentations. Discussions and conclusions were made from the findings on each objective. The findings will be shared with counselors, teachers, parents and other stakeholders to help children after election violence. Recommendations have been made to governments and organizations that help persons affected by disasters to improve services in future. It is hoped that from the study findings, mitigation strategies will be put in place to alleviate the effects of post election violence on children.

  144. Simon Chege Muchendu, Dr Anita WanjuguWachira and Dr. Lilian Karimi Mugambi Mwenda

    This study sought to identify competitive strategies used by privately owned business while competing for public tendering opportunities in Public Universities in Kenya. The study identified quality of service as a strategy for creating a competitive gain while competing for tendering opportunities in Chartered Public Universities in Kenya. To achieve its objectives the study adopted a descriptive design with quantitative approach where semi-structured questionnaires were administered. The target population was 149 prequalified suppliers of goods and services in Chartered Public Universities in the Rift Valley, Central, Nairobi and the Eastern Regions. Data collected was analysed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences to generate descriptive and inferential data. A regression model was developed to establish the strength and direction of the relationship between the variables and it was determined that the quality of goods and services had a β value of 0.182. The study established that the quality of service had an impact on the competitiveness of the business in public tendering opportunities. The study recommends that firms that seek to participate in tendering opportunities in Public Universities should capitalize on the quality of the services provided to their customers

  145. Syed Ali Mardan Naqvi and Naeem Ullah Khan

    Employee absenteeism is a very critical problem in today’s world. It has become of increasing interest for organizations to measure, understand and control absenteeism as much as possible). This study aims to explore the relationship between the employee motivation and absenteeism. Primary research was done in order to investigate this relationship. Questionnaires were used for data collection. The sample consisted of 10 employees of West Consultant. The results were that employee absenteeism and motivation had a negative relationship. We recommend that the employees be given extrinsic as well as intrinsic motivation in order for the organization to reduce employee absenteeism. Employees are valuable assets of an organization. Their work directly affects how productive the organization will be (Hawkins, 2007) in the 21st century, it is of utmost concern to the companies that their employees are properly trained, are working effectively and efficiently and are satisfied with their jobs. Owing to the increasing competition that organizations have to face today, absenteeism of employees has become a problem that employers need to grapple with successfully in order to succeed in the market. In USA alone, absenteeism costs $3600 per hourly employee and $2650 per salaried employee annually.

  146. Tagesse Mathewos Sugebo, Admasu Abera Lalisho and Eyoel Sileshi Belayneh

    These days, in the world of globalization, competition and dynamic situations, human resources and its training and development are most important and usually stand at the front. The main purpose of this study was to assess the practices and problems of human resource training and development programs in health offices of Gedeo Zone. To achieve the aim of the study, data were collected from primary and secondary sources. The researchers took a descriptive method and mixed approach of a research. In addition to the questionnaire, the interviews and focused group discussions were used. The major findings confirmed that the practice of conducting needs assessment was found very weak and individual trainees were not given chance to determine their own training and development needs. There were absence of clear criteria for selecting trainees and trainers for the programs. There was no internally developed system of evaluation by which the effectiveness of training programs was assessed. Besides, inadequate budget, low priority given to the programs and also absence of clearly stated training and development policy were found the most important constraints. From the study, it could be concluded that the health offices have lost money on training and development activities because it was poorly designed and not strictly linked to performance of employees. As a result, it is recommended that needs assessment has to be carried out systematically in the health offices. Regional health bureau and Zonal health department have to develop training and development directives which include guide for needs assessment, selection criteria and other related issues to make it effective.

  147. Prof. Bharathi and Dr. T. Babu

    Many women in India are drawn towards the IT-ITES industries due to relatively high wages and the opportunity to be part of an upscale, globalized work environment. At the same time, such employment presents women with new challenges alongside the opportunities. It uncovers how IT-ITES employment affects their lives, mainly as it relates to stress and the anxiety that Indian families and Indian society have towards working women, earning a good salary, and being exposed to western culture. Coping with such situations becomes very essential part of their living. Coping refers to the attitudes and behaviors that one uses to maintain ones emotional well-being and to adjust to the consequences of stress. To cope with stress can be exceedingly beneficial and in some situations, even life saving and some of these potential coping strategies that have shown to be quite beneficial include: social support, meditation, biofeedback and drugs. This study is an attempt to understand the stress coping styles adopted by women working in IT-ITES industries.

  148. Ahmed H. I. Elfaig, Hamid Hamed Ibrahim, Omer Egemi and Mokhtar, J.

    This article focuses on environmental degradation in the African Sahel with a case study from western Sudan. The article aims at analyzing environmental degradation using environmental indicators, traditional ground based methods and secondary sources. Four hundred and twenty (420) headed households were randomly selected from twelve sample sites and questionnaire interviews were conducted to collect data on the environmental change indicators and causes. The descriptive statistical methods and Chi-square test were used in the data analysis. The results showed significant change in vegetation cover including disappearance of some vegetation species, wide spread of shrubs as well as dominance of Prosopis glandulosa around settlements' centers which explained 48.3% of the variation in the data set. A considerable segment of the respondents (17.4%) showed that Giraffa camelopard dlis, Asimus africanus and Struthio camel us disappeared from the area. The study pointed out that repetitive droughts, expansion of agricultural area from 9.8% to 41.4% of the land, charcoal making and increase in animals and human population have been the main causes of environmental change ( = 0.01).

  149. Asrowi, Douglas Obura and Diah Putri Meitasari

    This research aims to: 1) develop a hypothetical model of conflict management in form of a module to be used as a guideline in conflict management assessment and treatment, 2) determine the effectiveness of conflict management in improving the emotional stability of the eleventh graders in senior high school students, in Karanganyar. The research approach applied is “Research and Development”, and the subjects involved were senior high school students (11th Graders) in Karanganyar who had low emotional stability. However, based on the results of the inventory scores distributed to students, among 292 students and there were 40 who had low emotional stability. The result of the inventory also functioned as a pre-test, and the research subjects were treated with conflict management technique, organized in the conflict management module, which were given in four sessions. After the treatment research subjects were given the same inventory pre-test, which served as a post-test, and analyzed with a proper module rational test and a t-test. The research designed one group pretest-posttest in order to determine the effectiveness of conflict management in improving emotional stability. Results have shown that conflict management module has proved to be effective; based on the subject matter experts, practitioners, and students, producing a percentage of 98.8% viability by experts and practitioners, and 84.25% by the students. Besides, to test the effectiveness of the t-test (t = 9672) the results obtained with the significance of 0000, compared with the table t (df = 39, sig 5%, t = 1.68488), then t count > t table, which proved to be significant. Thus, there are significant differences between pre-test emotional stability and post-test emotional stability with an improvement of 20.68%.

  150. Dr. Sławomir Czarniewski

    A specific factor ensuring economic development is knowledge, which is a resource that, in principle, does not run out. On the contrary, its creation and distribution increases its importance, and the economic benefits gained from its use are constantly growing. Thus, knowledge is increasingly important in the production process in the modern economy. The ability to create and transform knowledge into new technologies, products and services, affect the market success of companies, and thus the development of the entire economy. The purpose of this article is to show the mechanism for the transfer of knowledge and technology in the business and economic environments. Moreover, the author attempts to demonstrate how the technology transfer process can increase the efficiency of the use of knowledge as a factor of development.

  151. Amanuel Mekonnen Workneh

    This paper examined the determinants of foreign direct investment in Ethiopia. Five variables including market size, level of trade openness, inflation rate, infrastructure, and human capital were used. Time-series data covering a 21-year period (1990-2011) were obtained from the World Bank and analyzed using multivariate ordinary least square regression. The findings show that level of trade openness and inflation rate of Ethiopia have had a significant impact on the flow of foreign direct investments to Ethiopia. No clear relationship was obtained for market size, infrastructure, and human capital.

  152. Neha Bansal, Mahua Mukherjee and Ajay Gairola

    Disasters like flooding have changed their dimensions in urban areas. The urban flooding in cities is mainly in the form of flash floods and water logging of streets due to high intensity short spell rainfall. But the extents of damage to these disasters have increased over time in the urban areas because of increased rainfall runoff volume and due to greater exposure of people and assets because of concentration of resources. But it is clearly evident that different level of exposure and different extents of flood hazard characteristics vary the ‘urban flood risk’ nature from city to city. In order to be able to quantify the present and potential flood risk, an understanding of the causes of urban flooding, vulnerability and exposure is mandatory. These may be seen as -causing and impacting factors of flood risk, which may be specific to a given area. In this context a study is conducted to identify the reasons of flooding in the city of Dehradun, (the capital of Uttarakhand State), where these factors are studied as- (a) causes of flooding factors and (b) impact due to flooding factors, for Dehradun. River flooding and water logging of streets is one of the major problem of the area during monsoon period. The urban floods in the city causes great amount of destruction and inconvenience; causes heavy traffic jam due to street water logging, paralyzes day to day activities, damage the urban infrastructure viz, roads, bridges, electric poles etc causing severe economic damage. Therefore this evidence based study is taken up, where review of flooding incidents of last 5 years (2009-2013), highlighted the significant factors of causes and impacts of flooding where as primary survey and visual survey has also been conducted which helped in identifying the people’s perception of risk and the experts are also interviewed to get most accurate information.

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