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March 2015

  1. Gopala, G. T., Sasidhar, P. V. K., Veeranna, K. C., Shettar, V. B., Veerannagowda, B. G. and Umesh, B. U.

    The objective of this study was to identify and rank constraints in contract and non-contract broiler poultry farming in India’s Karnataka state. The data was collected from 90 contract and 90 non-contract broiler poultry farmers from Shivamogga, Davanagere and Chitradurga Districts. The data was analysed by using Garrett’s ranking technique. The most significant constraints faced by the contract broiler poultry farmers were high mortality due to diseases, commercial tariff for electricity charges, lack of financial support, quality of medicines and feed and inadequate extension advisory services. Most significant constraints faced by the non-contract broiler poultry farmers were, fluctuation in the market price, high mortality due to diseases, non-availability of chicks in time, inadequate extension advisory services and commercial tariff for electricity charges. The related implications for policy are discussed.

  2. Shivanand L. Karigar, Dr. Narendra, P. L. and Dr. Vijayakumar, T. K.

    Armoured tubes are used to facilitate kink free access to airway. We report a case of airway obstruction and difficult ventilation soon after intubation due to retained mucus/material in a reused armoured tube. Several cases of intraoperative obstruction and high airway pressures have been reported with armoured tubes. This article highlights the propensity of armoured tube inner wall for dissection and intraoperative obstruction with its reuse and suggests clinical and manufacturing measures to reduce the chances of obstruction.

  3. Dr. Vijayalakshmi, G. N.

    Background: Surgical site infection is one of the most common post operative complications and causes significant post operative morbidity and mortality. SSI rates are reported to range from 2.5% to 41.9% globally resulting in high morbidity and mortality. Aim: This study was aimed to determine the prevalence of SSI and some determinants that can affect surgical site infection rate. Methods: This is a 2 year prospective study carried on 350 patients operated in surgery department. The various parameters studied were age of the patient, presence of comorbidities, length of preoperative hospital stay, type of surgery, duration of surgery, the wound classes and antimicrobial prophylaxis. Results: Surgical site infection rate was found to be 12.85% with higher infection rate in males and patients above 50 years of age. SSI rate is more with emergency surgeries, longer preoperative stay and longer duration of surgery. Escherichia coly is the most commonly identified organism in the culture. Conclusion: In view of the high rate of SSI this study suggests that by reducing the average operation time to less than 2 hours, the average preoperative stay to less than 10 days and with proper prophylactic antibiotic use the SSI may be reduced to a more acceptable level.

  4. Arjun Agarwal, Alok Ranjan, Atul kumar, and Cheena Garg

    Inguinal hernias are very common in surgical practice. They are broadly subdivided into indirect and direct hernias on the basis of their entry into the inguinal canal. While indirect hernia have narrow neck, direct hernia are broad necked, therefore incidence of obstruction and strangulation is rare in direct hernia. A rare complication of hernia is “Reduction en masse” which is reduction or migration of a hernial sac into the preperitoneal space. It presents as persistent pain, obstruction or perforation even after disappearance of hernia. In this article we describe a case of reduction en masse hernia and its management along with literature review. As the complications can be fatal, it is important to keep this rare entity as a differential diagnosis while managing patients of acute abdomen.

  5. Dr. Sabale Rupali Vishal, Dr. Kowli Shobha Sunil, Dr. Patil Dipak Chandrakant and Dr. Chowdary Padmaja Hari

    Program effectiveness of School Based Weekly Iron and Folic acid Supplementation (WIFS) in Urban setting – Mumbai Introduction: Various studies have shown efficacy of WIFS in school children which involves the evaluation of an intervention under ideal, controlled conditions. However effectiveness trials help determine if interventions can reliably be used under real-world conditions. Objective: To find the program effectiveness of school based WIFS in the urban setting in relation to the awareness of anaemia, perceived effects of the tablet, dietary practice, willingness to continue Weekly Iron and Folic Acid tablets and compliance to the tablet. Method: The cross-sectional, observational study was conducted in the 2013-14 academic year for class X students. Ethical committee approval was taken prior to the study. Out of total 317 students, 214 students gave consent for WIFS. After one year of WIFS, all the students of class X were interviewed with pre-tested questionnaire. Results: Awareness of anaemia was significantly high in those who consume WIFS as compared to those who did not consume WIFS. Perceived negative and positive effects were seen in 8.4% and 49.07% of the students respectively. Almost 70% of the students were willing to continue WIFS. Implementing supervised administration of Iron and Folic-Acid tablets during exam and vacation period was difficult. Due to this, mean compliance was 3 Iron and Folic Acid tablet / month. Conclusion: School based WIFS program in the urban setting may require few modifications in the operational guidelines in the program for its effectiveness

  6. Elizabeth Mathew Iype, Sisha Liz Abraham, Sivaraman Ganeashan, Arun Peter Mathew and Santhosh Kumar, N.

    Primary malignant neoplasms of trachea and tracheal invasion by thyroid malignancies although rare are serious causes of morbidity and mortality. Management of tracheal tumours in general includes interventional endoscopy, surgery and radiotherapy. This paper describes the surgical and functional results of tracheal resections done in the surgical oncology department of a tertiary care cancer centre. Methods: This is a retrospective analysis of all patients with malignant tracheal tumours who underwent resection and anastomosis in the period 2005-2009. Nine consecutive patients with tracheal involvement either from locally invasive thyroid malignancy or from primary tracheal adenoid cystic carcinoma were included in the study. Results: Six patients had locally invasive differentiated thyroid cancer and three had adenoid cystic carcinoma. The male to female ratio was 2:1. All thyroid cases were papillary carcinoma with involvement of tracheal lumen. These patients underwent thyroidectomy along with tracheal resection- sleeve resection in four patients and window resection in two patients. Among the adenoid cystic carcinoma cases two patients were subjected to sleeve resection and one to window resection. Anastomosis was done after suprahyoid release and digital peri tracheal dissection. There were no major post op complications and all patients had normal voice after surgery. Eight out of nine patients are on regular follow up and are disease free till date. Conclusion: Tracheal resection is the treatment of choice for trachealtumours and is a safe procedure with good functional outcome.

  7. Dr. Sinu, E. and Dr. Udaya Mahadevan

    Background: Health aspects of the tribes in general and Irular tribe in particular were less studied. AIM: To study the health aspects of the Irular tribes. METHODS: 44 households were selected through census method from Devathanam pet and Poondhamalli village, Senji taluk, Villupuram dist, Tamilnadu. Results: Few (15%) felt anxious often, 18% had sleep related problems often and 66% were currently using alcohol and tobacco. Conclusion: Substance abuse is major public health concern among irulars.

  8. Dr. Tanushree, V., Dr. H.T. Venkate Gowda, Dr. Uma Balakrishnan and Dr. Amar Kulkarni

    Web Purpose: To report the clinical profile and histopathology of orbital tumors in patients presenting at a tertiary care centre. Methods: This is a retrospective case series of patients with orbital tumors who presented to the hospital from May 2010 to May 2014.Details on patient’s history, clinical examination, radiological investigations, histopathological profiles were retrieved from medical records. Results: 48 patients were studied (22 males & 26 females). Mean age of presentation was 38.5 (range 2 – 75 yrs). 31 of the tumors were benign, 5 were malignant and the rest 12 being pseudotumors. Conclusion: This study demonstrates the prevalence of dermoid cysts, pseudotumors, hemangiomas and lacrimal gland tumors to be the common space occupying lesions in the orbit.

  9. Sonia Puri, Alka Sehgal, N. K. Goel, Nancy Gupta and Anupama Dhiman

    Background: Global decline in ante partum fetal deaths has been cited in many countries, but the count still remains high in low income and developing countries. In this scenario, precise knowledge of the cause of death is needed as the basis for counseling, prevention and treatment of the problem. A cross sectional observational prospective study was conducted from April2013- April 14 in the Department of Community medicine in collaboration with Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Govt Medical College and Hospital Sec 32,Chandigarh. Objectives: To find the incidence of still birth and to compare the difference in incidence of stillbirths in the patients referred from outside GMCH-32 vs those receiving care in the institute. Also to study the medical etiology of the stillbirths in reference to the varied determinants of still births. Material and Methods: The sample comprised of antenatal mothers who were visiting the hospital for antenatal care/ referred from outside for delivery of child and gave birth to still birth. The ethical approval for the research study was taken from the ethical committee of the institute. Results: In the study period of 1 year, of the total 5969 deliveries, around 247 women had stillbirth. Majority of women were in age group 19-25 yrs followed by that in 26-35yrs. The most common cause for still birth came out to be hypertension, 58(23.4). Conclusion: A well established protocol for the investigation of still birth should be there in all tertiary care hospitals and referral.

  10. Shigoli, P., Jumba, M. and Bii, C

    Objective: Soil is a significant reservoir for enteric bacteria and other pathogenic bacteria, as it is a frequent recipient of waste materials. The study was aimed at determining the prevalence of enteric bacteria from various soil samples collected in Nairobi and environs and to compare their drug susceptibility profile with those from clinical samples. Methods: Soil samples were collected from randomly selected GPS coordinates in Nairobi within a radius of 30km from Nairobi city center. Ten grams of each of the soil samples were serially diluted then plated on Mueller-Hinton agar and incubated at 30°Centigrade overnight, the colonies were Gram stained and the Gram-negative colonies inoculated on Analytic Profile Index kit for further identification. Antibiotic sensitivity testing was done and the results compared with that of clinical isolates. Results: Out of the soil samples (n=236) inoculated onto Mueller-Hinton agar, 17 (7.2% prevalence) were positive for Proteus salmonicida. Other isolated Gram negative bacteria were Myroides spp, Pseudomonas putida, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Stenotrophomonas maltophila and Alcaligenes spp. Proteus salmonicida showed a higher sensitivity to the antibiotics compared to the clinical Proteus except for Cefotaxime antibiotic which was resistant to it. Conclusion: Soil may be a significant a reservoir of drug resistant enteric bacteria contributing to antibiotic resistance as indicated by Proteus salmonicida resistance to Cefotaxime antibiotic, compared to Proteus species from the clinical source.

  11. K. C. Dass, Sumeet David, George Kurian, Clarence J. Samuel, Pradeep Kumar and Sana Grace

    Context: The prevalence of cryptogenic cirrhosis ranges from 5% to30% of cirrhotic patients in past series. Several explanations may be offered as possible underlying etiologies include occult alcohol abuse, occult viral (non-B, non-C hepatitis, silent autoimmune hepatitis, or progression of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Aims: To compare the clinical, biochemical and histologic features between the advanced cryptogenic chronic liver disease and decompensated chronic liver disease with known etiology. Setting and Design: Hospital based retro-spective study Materials and Methods: This study was conducted in the Department of Gastroenterological Sciences, CMC, Ludhiana. There were a total of 100 subjects, (50 subjects were cases and 50 were controls). The reports of liver biopsies were examined. All sequential cases of those with histological evidence of Steatohepatitis were chosen and their records examined. This group formed the cases for the study. From the records of the same years a further 50 patients were chosen arbitrarily if they had a known cause of the disease, so a definite disease aetiology the basis of choosing the second 50 (i.e. controls). Results: In the current study, we found that controls were more likely to have Jaundice, ascites and gastrointestinal bleeding. The cases were more likely to have pedal edema and low albumin that indicates more pronounced parenchymal injury associated in this group. These differences were statistically significant (p<0.005). Conclusion: This comparative study is well co related with decompansated chronic liver disease between the crypto group and known causes of liver disease. In an end stage of both the conditions due to loss of bio-synthetic, and other metabolic function of liver, one can not differentiate these two condition by histologic or calculating MELD , so early stage of liver biopsy is mandate for crypto groups to look for any features of NASH.

  12. Anjali, K., Anamika, V., Mrithunjay, K., Dalal, A. S. and Amritesh Kumar

    Microbial contamination of air/surfaces/articles in operation theatre (OT) is a major cause of surgical site and nosocomial infections. Approximately 10% of nosocomial infections have serious outcomes leading to longer duration of hospital stay and cost burden. Currently there is no uniform consensus on either the standards for surveillance, methodology for monitoring or the levels of acceptable contamination and the risk of nosocomial infections borne by OT. The present study was conducted with an aim to isolate and identify the microbial contamination of the air, surfaces and equipments of the OT of a tertiary care post graduate teaching hospital. Air quality surveillance of OT’s was done by settle plate method and note of bacterial CFU/ m3 count was made. For surface sampling, wet swabs were taken from different sites and equipments. Bacterial species were isolated and identified by conventional methods. In the settle plate technique, mean CFU/m3 was recorded for 8 different OT’s. Ophthalmology OT recorded least bacterial CFU rate of air(114 CFU/m3) followed by ENT OT(166 CFU/m3) and in Gynaecology and Obstretics OT(255CFU/m3), highest bacterial CFU rate was noted. Out of total 68 surface and articles sampled from different OTs, only 9(13.2%) showed growth of bacteria. The most common isolate was Coagulase negative Staphylococcus species (5.8%) followed by Bacillus and Klebsiella species (4.4%) each.

  13. Pankaj preet Singh, Paramvir Singh and Supreet Bindra

    The case study has been done to evaluate volkmann’s ischaemic contracture (vic) which is one of the common complications caused as a result of bone setting. This paper presents a report of a young male who developed this complication as sequelae of bone setting which led to a permanent disability besides fasciotomy. Such sorts of cases have affectively occurred in nations where medical care services have not been provided to the mark especially in rural area.

  14. Abhisek Mitra, Mandira Chakraborty, Sangeeta Das Ghosh, Siddhartha Bhowmik, Palash Das and Dilip Kumar Bera

    Infection with Hymenolepis diminuta is rarely reported in humans(Tena 1998). In Eastern India only one case had been reported till now from Odisha (Tadepalli Karuna, 2014). So we are reporting this case of isolation of Hymenolepis diminuta from a 3 year old child who was referred to our laboratory for examination of stool sample. To the best of our knowledge this is the first case of human infection reported from West Bengal (Tadepalli Karuna, 2014).

  15. Majumder, M.I., Ahmed, T., Harun, M. A. S. I. and Al Amin, M.

    Introduction: Osteoporosis and periodontal diseases are silent diseases which are caused due to loss of bone minerals triggered by local and systemic factors. The present study designed to establish the relationship between osteoporosis and periodontal diseases. Methods: This is a descriptive observational study done on 100 patients from June’2013 to November’2013in department of medicine, Comilla medical college hospital, Comilla. All patients had age 40 years or more having symptoms suggestive of osteoporosis were selected. Detailed information was collected according to protocol.BMD was done on lumbar spine and neck of femur with Dual Energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). BMD T-score -2.5 or less is considered osteoporosis and selected for study. Orthopatomogram (OPG) and periodontal examination was done. Results: Among the 100 collected samples mean age was 58.91(±8.02) years. There is negative correlation between probing depth and BMD (r-values -0.61 & p<0.001) for femoral neck and (r-values -0.55, p<0.001) for lumber spines was statistically significant. This study also showed femoral neck and lumbar spine T-score have statistically significant relation with missing teeth, [-3.91(±0.58) and -3.41(±0.43) respectively (p <0.001)]. There is negative correlation between clinical attachment loss with Femoral neck and Lumbar spine BMD (r-values -0.66, p<0.001) and (r-values -0.55,p<0.001) respectively. Conclusion: There is significant correlation between probing depth, missing teeth and clinical attachment Loss with osteoporosis. Osteoporosis is a risk factor for periodontal diseases and its progression.

  16. Mohammed Azmathullah, Nishikant N.Gujar, Mansour A. Binfayed, Sajid Ahmed Mudhol, Shiraz Ahamed Sharief, Mohammed Khasif Habeeb, Sachin and Vipin Balachandran

    Cellulitis is a potentially serious life threatening bacterial infection of skin and soft tissue is a common emergency in our area. Several other conditions have similar presentations. In order to arrive at correct diagnosis it is vital that clinicians are able to distinguish cellulitis from other conditions. In order to begin appropriate pathway. In present series we are presenting our experiences regarding associated conditions, precipitating causes/risk factors, site wise distributions, clinical presentation, etiological agents, treatment and outcome of cellulitis.

  17. Dr. Sonal Kothari

    Nicotine replacement therapy replaces temporarily the nicotine from cigarettes which reduces motivation to smoke and nicotine withdrawal symptoms, thus easing the transition from cigarette smoking to complete abstinence. Nicotine replacement therapy replaces nicotine in blood, thus reduces urge to smoke. NRT is available as chewing gum, patches for the skin, nose spray, inhalers, and tablets. It is better to wait until the smokers feel ready to stop, and then make a quit attempt. All of the commercially available forms of NRT can help people who make a quit attempt to increase their chances of successfully stopping smoking. It is a cost effective way of reducing ill health and prolonging life.

  18. Dr. Suhail Majid Jan, Dr. Reyaz Ahmad Mir, Dr. Roobal Behal, Dr. Prabhati Gupta and Dr. Mehraj Kirmani

    Leukemias represent a varied group of malignancies of hematopoietic stem cell origin. A subgroup of thesemalignancies is represented by the myeloid leukemias which generally affect adults.Chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) is a myeloproliferative disorder of pluripotent haemopoietic stem cells, affecting mature myeloid white blood cells. More than 90% of cases of CML result from a cytogenetic aberration known as the Philadelphia chromosome. CML accounts for 15% of all leukemias and males are more commonly affected than females. Most patients with CML are older than 60 years of age. It is a rare case as its annual incidence is one to two cases per 100000. A case of CML having all the characteristic features of the disease is presented. Due to its high morbidity rate, early diagnosis and appropriate medical therapy are essential andthe oral signs and symptoms may reflect an undetected serious systemic disease.

  19. Amanpreet Kaur, Nidhi Sagar, Mamta, Jasbir Kaur and Promila Jindal

    Comparative interventional study to assess the effectiveness of alternative hot & cold compresses vs. Cold cabbage leaves on breast engorgement and pain among postnatal mothers. This study was carried out to assess the effectiveness of “alternative hot and cold compresses and cold cabbage leaves” application on breast engorgement and pain as despite of numerous strategies, there is lack of knowledge regarding the most effective method in treating breast engorgement among postnatal mothers. A comparative interventional research design was used with convenience sampling technique consisted of 60 postnatal mothers out of which 30 subjects in the experimental group 1 were given intervention with application of alternative hot and cold compresses while 30 subjects in the experimental group 2 were given intervention with application of cold cabbage leaves. Assessment was done in terms of breast consistency and breast tenderness scores before intervention and at the end of each day. Data was collected by using interview schedule to assess the socio demographic data and observational checklist for assessing breast consistency and tenderness. Analysis was done using both descriptive and inferential statistics. The mean breast consistency score in experimental group 1 had a decrease of 2.70 to 0.96 while mean score in experimental group 2 had decrease of only 2.80 to 1.50 (p < 0.001). Similarly in mean breast tenderness score in experimental group 1 had decrease of 5.73 to 1.00 whereas breast tenderness score in experimental group 2 had decrease of only 6.30 to 2.70. Thus the study concluded that application of alternative hot and cold compresses are more effective than application of cold cabbage leaves in reducing breast engorgement and pain.

  20. Debanjali Saha and Jayasankara Reddy K.

    Thisqualitative study explores the role of surrender through self-compassion among young adults in long-term relationships and is primarily based on the premise that attempting to meticulously control certain aspects of life such as romantic relationships may hinder rather than help relationships to flourish. Semi-structured interviews were conducted on the samplefound to possess high levels of self-compassion, and thematic content analysis was employed. The findings indicate that an individual’s positive outlook towards himself/herself (Attitude towards Self) appears to positively influence his/her outlook towards his/her romantic partner (Attitude toward Partner). The practice of self-compassion thus appears to enable individuals to cease controlling behaviour towards their partner, expanding the likelihood of surrender, which has been observed to have multiple benefits especially in terms of harmonious interpersonal relationships and a higher sense of inner well-being.

  21. K. C. Dass, Sumeet David, George Kurian, Clarence J. Samuel, Pradeep Kumarm and Sana Grace

    Background: The anti-mitochondrial antibody (AMA) is frequently tested in cryptogenic cirrhosis (CC) with elevated alkaline phophatase (ALP) levels. Like other group of chronic liver disease of known etiology may , on the course of time, lead to decompantion , liver failure and Hepatocellular carcinoma, Cryptogenic liver disease has similar course which need to be evaluated early. Aims: To determine how frequently AMA test is positive in the above mentioned clinical situation and to identify the discriminating value of clinical features in patient who tested positive in both study groups. Setting and design: Tertiary care hospital based retro-spective case control study. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective study where 120 patients with chronic liver disease for whom the anti mitochondrial test (AMA) was done because of a raised alkaline phosphatase (ALP) formed the population from which cases and controls were drawn. 10 patients who tested AMA positive served as cases and 20 subjects that were randomly chosen from the AMA negative group served as controls. Results: AMA was rarely positive (about 8.33%) in this group of cryptogenic chronic liver disease with high ALP values in Indian. The only discriminating investigations are a high Total Bilirubin, and activated Partial Thromboplastin Time in cases which are AMA positive. The liver biopsy of one patient having AMA negative found to have features of Primary biliary Cirrhosis in our study. Conclusion: We need to do liver biopsy in the early part of the disease to ascertain the pathogenetic mechanism of liver injury in the crypto group, because in the advanced stage we hardly find the accurate sample for histopathologic evaluation. This is not an argument for discarding the AMA test in Indians but it may throw light on the evolution of this disease.

  22. Dr. Zafar Gondal, Dr. Bina Nasim, Dr. Zafar MehmoodKhan, Dr.Tanvir Yadgir, Dr. Omer Al Skaf, and Dr. Ahmed Sajjad

    The aim of this study is to compare ertapenem and piperacillin/tazobactum for the treatment of diabetic foot infection (DFI), in terms of measurable end points as efficacy, safety, compliance of treatment and decreased microbial resistance. We are also looking for cost effectiveness while choosing these two antibiotics. Methods: This is a retrospective study involving patients who were admitted under General surgery through A and E of Rashid hospital with diabetic foot infection. Patient selection was done by reviewing the history, complete physical examination, limb and ulcer examination. Culture and sensitivity of blood, wound swabs and deep tissue swab were checked, along with the imaging. Patients were then divided in two groups, one received intravenous ertapenem (1gm daily), the other group received intravenous Piperacillin-Tazobactam (4.5 gm every 8 hours). Results: Results were analysed statistically and conclusions were drawn. Conclusion: Overall results show that in terms of wound healing, length of stay, and debridement ertapenem is superior to tazocin. Ertapenem is also more cost effective as compared to Tazocin. However as more patients had to be switched over from ertapenem to tazocin as they were notresponding, therefore further big scale studies are required to compare the effectiveness of these two antibiotics in DFI patients.

  23. Dr. Asish Kumar Das, Dr. Ajoy Kumar Gupta, Dr. Virendra Kumar Prajapati and Dr. Monimoy Bandopadhyay

    The mandibular angle is a frequent site of fracture and has a high rate of complication. In order to minimise complications a functionally stable fixation is required. Different methods of internal fixation have been advocated with varying degrees of success. The use of mini bone plate helps in immobilising the fractured bony fragments and thereby maintaining quality of life. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of mini bone plate to immobilise the fractured fragments in the region of the angle of the mandible by two different approaches-intraoral technique only and transbuccal with intraoral technique. Patients were randomly divided in two groups, A and B. In Group A one non-compression 2.0 mm miniplate was used on the lateral surface of mandible, in the region of the angle approached both intraorally and transbuccal. In Group B one non-compression 2.0 mm miniplate was placed on external oblique ridge of mandible intraorally. Peak incidence of isolated mandibular angle fractures was seen in males within the age group of 21-30 years. Mean age was 29.75 years; males had a higher incidence than females. Most common aetiology of the trauma was RTA (45%) followed by assaults (35%). Stability of fracture fragments; tooth damage, facial nerve weakness and hardware failure have been found with statistically no significant difference. Scar became invisible at the end of 6 months in all patients of Group A. 1 patient of Group B had gross displacement between the fractures fragments for which paresthesia did not recover till the end of 6 months. The intra-operative time was significantly higher in Group A patients compared to Group B. The combined use of transbuccal & intraoral technique produces excellent results as screws are placed perpendicular to stress across the fracture line and the provision for placement of a second plate, if required, still remains. It is possible to maintain better reduction, with minimal or no plate bending with the clinical impression of better stability.

  24. Seham A. Abd El-Hay and Nagwa A. Ibrahim

    Intensive and critical care nurses are contributing to care for critically ill patients in the intensive care units through their participation on the multidisciplinary team and in collaborative with physician during practice roles. Objective: This study was conducted to assess perceptions of the physicians and nurses about the role of the intensive and critical care nurses in the intensive care units. Setting: The study was carried out in the three intensive care units (neurology, cardiology and medical) at Tanta University Hospital in Gharbia Governate. Subjects: The subjects of the study consisted of fifty five physicians and nurses (23 physicians, 25 intensive and critical care nurses and 7 supervisor nurses). Tool: One tool was used, it is divided into two parts related to socio-demographic data and assessment of perception about role of the intensive & critical care nurses, it was included (50) items covered six responses; accessibility (5) items, knowledge (10) items, performance (10) items, care coordination and communication (15) items, psychological role (5) items and system issues (5) items. Results: Intensive and critical care nurses were seen as less competent in critical thinking, case judgment, manage complex problems, education of new staff, communication skills with family and interdisciplinary team. In addition to the psychological role and social care aspects not involved into nursing care plan as well as less skills in the care of system issues. Discussion and Conclusion: Responses reflected advantages of the intensive and critical care nurses as a member of medical management team in the intensive care units, but many other roles of critical care nurses in the intensive care units must be cleared and identified.

  25. Joseph-Browne, R., Onuoha, P. C. and Ezenwaka, C. E.

    Aim: The purpose of this study is to investigate the practices of parents of children (ages 2 to 5 years) at one of the government owned Pre-Schools in Antigua as it relates to the nutritional needs and appropriate level of activity. Methods: The design is an exploratory descriptive study of the practices of parents of children in Antigua regarding their children’s nutritional needs as well as their children’s levels of activity. It used a combination of structured questionnaire to capture responses pertinent to the study from the parents, a semi-structured interview with the teachers of the school, and an observation of the children’s activity while in school. The structures of these instruments were based on the food and nutrition guidelines for health of children and young people of the Ministry of Health (2012), of Antigua and Barbuda. Result: Results indicate that 22 of the parents participated from the expected 30 representing 73.3% of the population. Of this, 56% report that their children are active (active and very active), and spending an average of 61.3 minutes in outdoors physical activities. Results also show that the children are packed an average of 3.5 items each day to come to school and drink an average of 4.4 ounces of fluid daily. These are at variance with the recommendations of the Ministry of Health. Conclusion: The importance of early nutrition interventions and their relationship to cognitive ability in the short- and long-term is very clear (Kleinman, 2014). It is also clear that both nutrition and early stimulation programs work better when children benefit from them simultaneously (Kleinman, 2014). These results should concern any parent or teacher who has or interacts with preschool age children – ages 2 to 5 years old because they are the future, and if they are fed improper diets of inadequate amounts of fruits, vegetables and water they will become inactive, overweight, and obese

  26. Udoye Ezenwa Patrick, Odogu Victor and Komolafe Rhoda

    Meningiomas of the Sphenoidal wing occur most commonly in the 5th decade in males and in the 6th decade in females. The diagnosis is confirmed by neuro-imaging using Computerized Tomography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging with contrast, facilities that are uncommonly found in our hospitals. We herein present a case of Sphenoid Wing Meningioma diagnosed in a 78year old urban dwelling woman 5 years after initial presentation, highlighting the late presentation and the need for availability of adequate diagnostic facilities in our hospitals.

  27. Dr. Awdhesh Kumar, Dr. Surender Kumar Pondey and Dr. Singh, T. B.

    Thanatology deals with death in all aspects. Section 46 IPC death denotes death of a human being unless the contrary appears from the context. The cause of death is the disease or injury responsible for starting the sequence of events, which are brief or prolonged and which produce death. Present study is carried out at forensic medicine department, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi. Relevant information and subjective data like age, sex, marital status and manner of death have been collected from medico legal autopsy register. Data are analyzed retrospective for periods of five years from 2009 to 2013. Aims of the present study are to find out to know how pattern of unnatural deaths affect incidence, age, sex, marital status, religion, manner of death in community and to out find remedial measures to bring down the incidence. Road traffic accident 38.9% contributes most common. 21 to 30 year ages were most common age group affected 28.7%. Male were outnumber 70.5 %, female 29.4%, married people 21.6%, Hindu were major cause 84.9%, accidental 45.1. Strict implementation of traffic rules regulation, with special attention to be paid to: Drunken drivers, Unskilled or semiskilled drivers.

  28. Masudi Sheetal, Vishal, S., Nimbal, Satish Patil, Praveen M. M. and Saurabh Rathi

    Maple Syrup Urine Disease (MSUD) is a rare inherited autosomal recessive disorder caused by a deficiency of the branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase complex (BCKDC), leading to a buildup of the branched-chain amino acids (leucine, isoleucine, and valine) and their toxic by-products (ketoacids) in the blood and urine. It can present with life-threatening cerebral edema and dysmyelination in affected individuals. Imaging is characterestized by MSUD oedema affecting the myelinated white matter. We report diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) findings in a newborn child with MSUD who presented with acute metabolic encephalopathic crisis.

  29. Dr. G. Balaji Babu, Dr. A. Raja, Dr. R. Saranyan, Dr. R. Mythili, DR. Mano Vijay and Dr. Priya, K.

    Background: This study examined the efficacy of Ibuprofen, Diclofenac sodium and Placebo on the intensity of pain relief and on the gingival crevicular fluid levels before and after periodontal surgery. Methods: A double blind study was conducted on 25 male patients. Pain intensity and, GCF levels were assessed by Cooper and Beaver’s criteria and Mann’s method respectively. Statistical analysis was done by Kruskall Wallis and Friedmans test and p values were obtained. Results: Post operative mean pain intensity scores were significant (p value<0.01). Mean pre and post operative GCF levels were statistically significant at 1%. Conclusion: Patients who had Diclofenac sodium showed greater analgesic effect when compared to Ibuprofen and placebo. Similar reduction in the levels of GCF were observed with Ibuprofen and Diclofenac sodium than placebo.

  30. Kanta Bhattacharjee, Prabhat Chandra Sarmah, Dipak Kumar Sarma, Parikshit Kakati, Debesh Chandra Pathak and Ramgopal Laha

    A female adult Labrador dog adequately vaccinated and trained in explosive detection suddenly developed nervine symptoms characterized by foreleg paresis and lateral recumbency in about 20 days of sickness which started with fever, inappetence and depression. Examination of giemsa stained blood smear revealed presence of Babesia gibsoni and PCR analysis showed presence of B. canis in addition to B. gibsoni. Antibabesial treatment first with Clindamycin hydrochloride, Quinine sulphate upon microscopic detection of B. gibsoni followed by diminazene diaceturate and imidocarb dipropionate against B. canis detected in Polymerase Chain Reaction resulted clinical, parasitological and haematological improvement with gradual correction of the gait due to knuckling and impaired motor function in the left foreleg. Ten months later, oxytetracycline and doxycycline treatment consequent upon detection of inclusions indistinguishable from Ehrlichia canis and Anaplasma platys during microscopic examination of blood of the animal with symptoms of anorexia, hemiplegia and absence of pedal reflex also resulted in clinical and haematological improvement as before. However, in another 3 months, the animal developed incoordination, circling movement, convulsion, chorea and coma leading to death. Post mortem examination revealed haemorrhages in many organs. Histopathological examination showed intranuclear and intracytoplasmic acidophilic inclusions of canine distemper in the epithelial cells of the urinary bladder, bronchioles and stomach. The present analysis discusses vaccine failure or infections with haemoparasites precipitating vaccine induced canine distemper as the cause of death.

  31. Ruby Khatoon, JP Srivastava, Pratibha Gupta, Beena Sachan, Pankaj Bhardwaj, Daya Prakash and Zeeshan H. Zaidi

    Introduction: Approximately 80% of maternal and infant death could be averted if pregnant women and newborns had access to basic healthcare services, says UNICEF, State of the World’s Children Report 2009. The place of delivery has an influence on whether the child has been exclusively breastfed or not. Many studies confirm the positive role of institutional deliveries on the Breastfeeding practices. Objective: Natal care services utilization by urban and rural population of Lucknow and it’s association with Breastfeeding practices. Materials and Methods: A community based cross-sectional study was carried out in rural and urban areas of Lucknow. Multistage random sampling was used. A pre designed & pretested questionnaire was used and house to house survey was done. 528 infants with their mothers as respondent were interviewed and information about their socio-demographic factors, natal care services utilization and breast feeding practices were collected. Results: Out of total 528 respondents, (46% ) delivered at Govt. hospital. Most of them (73.9%) delivered by normal vaginal delivery and (48.3%) of delivery was conducted by Doctor. Initiation of breastfeeding within 1 hr, Colostrum feeding and Exclusive breastfeeding were significantly higher in Government hospitals. These practices were also significantly associated with normal vaginal delivery and delivery conducted by ANM/Nurse.(P-value <0.001). Conclusion and Recommendation: Natal care services play a pivotal role in determining breast feeding practices. Breast feeding is the single most cost effective intervention for good health in childhood.

  32. Dr. Mugdha Kowli, Dr. Radha Verma, Dr. Kiran Gaikwad, Dr. Zaffar Sayed and Dr. Chirag Vaja

    Thyroid tuberculosis is an uncommon clinicopathological condition. The prevalence varies from 0.1% to 0.6% in histologically diagnosed specimens, including areas with endemic TB.1The diagnosis is often difficult as the clinical presentation has no distinct characteristics. The existence of this condition should be recognized when goiters or thyroid nodules are being treated because of more frequent involvement of extra-pulmonary sites of tuberculosis these days. We present a rare case of thyroid tuberculosis in a middle aged female, mimicking as a recurrent multinodulargoiter.

  33. Dr. Awdhesh Kumar

    Introduction: Fire was perhaps man’s first double-edged sword, evidenced throughout history; it has served as well as destroyed mankind. Burns are one of the most devastating conditions encountered in medicine. The injury represents an assault on all aspects of the patient, from the physical to the psychological. Aim of the study: To find out how dry thermal burn affect epidemiological factors and to height problem regarding burn deaths. Material and Methods: Present study conducted at forensic medicine department, institute of medical science, Banaras Hindu University. Study data was collected and analyzed prospectively for the duration from 1st January 2013 to 30 June 2014. During this period total of 450 burn death cases were recorded out of 3149 medico-legal postmortem conducted. Observations and Result: Prevalence of fatal burn victims were 14.29%. Most of the victims of burn deaths were recorded at 21-40 year with peak incidence at 21-30 year 44.89%.The male-to-female ratio were 1:4.6 i.e. male 81(18%) and female 369 (82%). Showing married females (84.01%) outnumbered the unmarried female (15.99%), in male, married (80.22%) outnumber the 19.33 % unmarried male. Majority of studied burn victims like 90.67% were from rural area and 9.11% are from urban area. Studied cases like 91.11% were Hindu and 8.22% are Muslims. Majority of the burn victims (30%) were uneducated i.e. illiterate, followed by education obtained up to junior high school level cases were 93 in No. i.e. 20.67% and primary school level include 13.33%. Maximum number of cases in summer season 53.33%. Most of the victims were housewives 67.11% followed by students 11.33%. Most of the burn victims were from upper lower SESS 245 cases (54.44%). Conclusion: Educating the people about safety measures. For cooking food using domestic liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and solar cooker and need to discourage the use of kerosene burner. Encouraging anti-dowry campaigns by registration of burn cases and maintaining legal procedures.

  34. Dr. Mehnaz Rajab, Dr. Ajmal Mir and Dr. Sehrish Ashraf

    Aromatherapy is one of the emerging vistas in the science of healing. Recent trends focuses on going back to natural modalities of treatment. Aromatherapy has found to work wonders in different aspects of dentistry. The various applications of aromatherapy in dentistry has been overviewed.

  35. Chirag Vaja, Radha Verma, Kiran Gaikwad, Zaffar Sayed and Mugdha Kowli

    Skeletal muscle metastasis from the squamous cell carcinoma of larynx is very rare. Distant metastasis in squamous cell carcinoma most commonly involve the lungs, liver and bone. We report here on a patient who was diagnosed as carcinoma of larynx with T3N0M0 disease and had been given curative radiotherapy presented with the right lumbar subcutaneous swelling with no evidence of recurrent disease at the primary site. He presented one year after therapy with discrete lump in right lumbar region and diagnosis of metastatic lesion was made by excision and biopsy of the lesion. From stand point of topography, skeletal muscle metastasis is exceptional.

  36. Hala Almobasher Abdollah

    Embryogenic callus induction and subsequently plant regeneration using mature embryos as an explant for six Sudanese elite wheat cultivars were investigated in the present study, mature embryos were placed indifferent MS salt strengths supplemented with 2.0 mg/l 2,4-D. Relatively callus induction frequencies were observed over all concentrations and cultivars; however significant differences were detected in callus induction ability, embryogenic callus differentiation and plantlet regeneration among MS salts concentrations and cultivars. Wadi Elnile and Sasaraib cultivars achieved the best value for callus proliferation at the normal concentration (1X); followed by Khaleefacultivarat the same concentration, the least call genesis was obtained in Bohain cultivar. The calluses produced were subjected to somatic embryogenesis and regeneration studies. Maximum embryogenic callus formation was obtained in MS medium supplemented with different concentrations of TDZ singly and TDZ in combination with 0.1 mg/l2,4-D in all treatments, while 0.5 mg/l2,4-D concentration inhibitedembryogenic callus formation. Takana cultivar was the most responsive cultivar among other cultivars; whereas plant regeneration was occurred in almost all TDZ concentrations for this cultivar. The present study cleared that somatic embryogenesis and regeneration abilities are highly genotypic dependent; whereas cultivars responded differently to the different abilities.

  37. Nagham Y. Al-Bayati, Hadi R. Rasheed, Karim S. Al-Jeeli and Entsar M. Al-Hussuny

    Giardia lamblia is Giardia lamblia is a single-celled flagellated eukaryote microorganism that infects the gastrointestinal tract of human and a variety of other mammalian hosts (Marangi et al., 2010). Many methods was used to diagnose Giardia such as which is still being recommended as the reference standard (Gharavi et al., 2005), immune methods which have been shown to be sensitive and cost-effective compared with microscopic examination (Gharavi et al., 2005) but they still require numerous reagent, washing procedure and incubation steps (Harba et al, 2012). A recently Polymerase Chain Reactions (PCR) is developed technique that offers the greatest potential for the detection of a wide range of microorganism including Giardi a in stool. In this study, three method including:Direct smear method, iodine stain method and PCR method was used to detected Giardia in stool samples. The results show that the Direct smear method revealed 53/ 424 Giardia positive cases (12.5%), while iodine stain method diagnosed 55/ 424 cases (12.97%). PCR method detected 62/424 Giardia positive cases (14.62%). More number of males were found to be positive than females and the highest number of positive cases was in the age group <5 years. There was significant difference between infections according to the source of drinking water and the highest rate of infection was in group whose used river as a source of drinking water. The infection was related with the residence of individuals and more number of positive cases were in rural compared with urban. An analysis of number of infection according to number family members showed statistically significant difference among groups and the highest rate of infection were in group with 12 ≥14 members .the recent study concluded that PCR was sensitive method for diagnose of Giardia and the poor sanitary and health habits number of family in addition to age group still the risk factors of infection.

  38. Manimekalai, D., Dr. Padmavathy, P., Dr. Rani, V., Dr. Aanand, S. and Divya, M.

    Heavy metals are metallic elements which have a high atomic weight and a density much greater (at least 5 times) than water. There are more than 20 heavy metals, but four are of particular concern to human health: lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), and inorganic arsenic (As). Phytoremediation, an eco-friendly technology which is both ecologically and economically viable is an attractive alternative to the current clean-up methods that are very expensive. This technology involves efficient use of aquatic plants to remove, detoxify or immobilize heavy metals. It is best applied at sites with shallow contamination of organic, nutrient or metal pollutants that are amenable to one of the five applications; phytotransformation, rhizosphere bioremediation, phytostabilization, phytoextraction and rhizofiltration. Phytoremediation of heavy metals and its effect on plants have been compiled to provide a wide applicability of phytoremediation.

  39. Tahir Hussain Shah, Moni Thomas and Rita Bhandari

    Lac- a natural resin of wide industrial applications, is a secretion of Lac insect Kerria lacca Kerr belonging to the family Tachardiidae (Kerriidae) and order Hemiptera. Lac consists of resin, wax and dye, thus has a wide range of applications in food, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, perfumes, varnishes, paints, polishes, adhesives, jewellery and textile dyes, since ancient times. India is the largest producer of Lac in the world with a production of 20,000 tons and 75 per cent of it is exported. Lac sector has a socio-economic importance as it employs 3-4 million people mostly forest dependant and tribals. Lac production promotes biodiversity and conserves host plants. Lac crop being vulnerable to both biotic and abiotic factors results in lowering of the yield. The present review of the work is to help understand earlier work done to generate information to increase the production.

  40. Benluvankar, V. and Mary Dorothy Anitha Sebastian

    The utilization of microbes has been suggested as an eco-friendly alternative to traditional chemical deinking in the recycling of used paper. The aim of this study was to decolourize inkjet ink and to achieve deinking of printed paper pulp using Pseudomonas sp. OWS1 isolated from extreme habitat. Initially the bacterial strains screened for inkjet ink decolourizing and deinking of printed paper pulp were isolated from oil-contaminated effluent water sample and were biochemically characterized. Decolourization of inkjet ink was optimized using various parameters such as pH, glucose concentration, and medium supplemented with 1% starch and 1% Tween 80, inkjet ink concentration, anaerobic and aerobic conditions and cell immobilization. Partial decolourization of the paper pulp was achieved within 5 days at 28 ºC. The immobilization of bacterial cells was effective in decolourization of inkjet solution within 2 days at 28 ºC. The isolate Pseudomonas sp. OWS1 has the ability to decolourize the well-known commercial dyes. Preliminary screening for extracellular enzyme was also done. The present investigation clearly demonstrated that decolourization of inkjet ink and deinking of printed paper pulp was more effective by using the culture Pseudomonas sp. OWS1. It also has a high potential to decolourize the well-known commercially available dyes.

  41. Souradut Ray, Amal Kumar Mondal and Nagendra Kumar Verma

    Herbal as health solution has regained its popularity because many studies have substantiated it. A Qualitative analysis was conducted through standardized accepted laboratory technique for screening and study of bioactive compound present in Loranthus parasiticus , a hemiparasitic taxa collected from South west Bengal, India. Qualitative phytochemical analysis of this plant confirmed the presence of phytochemicals such as: alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, terpenoids, reducing sugars, carbohydrates and cardiac glycosides in aqueous extract. This study deals with the significance of these phytochemicals with special reference to their use in traditional medicinal system. Initial study has indicated the significant anti-microbial activity of the leaf extracts of Loranthus parasiticus against Bacillus subtilis, Klebsella pneumoniae, Vibrio cholerae and Escherichia coli.

  42. Kanton, R. A. L. Afribeh, D. Inusah, I. Y. Baba, Asungre, P. Ansoba, E. Y. Kusi, F. Mawunya, M. Sugri, I. Lamini, S and Yirzagla, J.

    Field trials were conducted to investigate the effects of variety, intra-row spacing and nitrogen fertilizer rates on the performance of pearl millet in a semi-arid agro-ecology in north-eastern Ghana The research was conducted at the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) - Savanna Agricultural Research Institute (SARI), Manga Agricultural Research Station near Bawku in the 2004 and 2005 cropping seasons. The pearl millet varieties evaluated were Bongo Short Head and Tongo Yellow in 2004 and Bongo Short Head, Tongo Yellow and Arrow in 2005. The intra-row spacing adopted were 20 and 30 cm and the fertilizer levels were 20 and 40 kg/ha of nitrogen. The trial was established as a factorial in a randomised complete block design with 4 replications. Plot dimensions were 4.5 m x 6.0 m. Data was taken on all standard agronomic traits and analysed using GenStat software. In 2004, panicle length was significantly (P≤0.0001) affected by millet variety; with Tongo Yellow producing longer panicles than Bongo Short Head. 100 -grain weight of pearl millet was not affected by any of the factors studied. Bongo Short Head produced the highest grain yield, though not significantly (P≤0.05) higher than Tongo Yellow. Similarly, closer spacing produced higher grain yield compared to wider spacing though the differences were not significant (P≤0.05). There was a general increase in millet yields with increase in nitrogen fertilizer application; with nitrogen fertilizer levels of 40 and 20 kg/ha significantly (P≤0.013) out-yielding the No Nitrogen treatment. In 2005, Tongo Yellow produced the highest grain yield. Planting at closer intra-row spacing produced higher grain yield than at wider spacing. Similarly millet yields were higher at 20 and highest at 40 kg N ha-1. The study enhanced the options available to pearl millet farmers in terms of improved agronomic practices and varietal choice.

  43. Huidrom Puinyabati, Maibam Shomorendra and Devashish Kar

    This article deals with the nematode parasites infecting in some freshwater fishes of Manipur and Assam where the knowledge of fish parasites are less explored. The present study was carried out from 2009-2011. Seven species of nematode parasites were collected during the study period viz., Paraquimperia manipurensis Shomorendra and Jha, 2003; Camallanus anabantis Pearse, 1933; Procamallanus (Procamallanus) saccobranchi Karve, 1952; Goezia sp.; Spinitectus sp.; Philometra sp.; Cosmoxynemoides colisi Gambhir et al., 2006.

  44. Dr. R. Karthiyayini

    Digera muricata (L.) Mart. Leaves were selected to screen pharmacognostic and phytochemical studies. Plant material was collected from farmlands in Coimbatore district, Tamilnadu, India. Digera muricata (L.) Mart. is a well-known leafy vegetable and also a medicinal plant, which has been valued in ancient system of medicine. The leaf extracts of various solvents were subjected to organoleptic, fluorescence analysis, physicochemical analysis and preliminary phytochemical screening. The study contributes to the development of standardization parameters of herbal drugs used in our system of medicine

  45. Uma, T., Saravanan, N., Inbaraj, R. M. and Narendiran, N. J.

    Steroid genesis is regulated by several enzymes. P450c17 is the single enzyme mediating both 17α-hydroxylase and 17,20lyase activities in the synthesis of steroid hormones. P450c17 is a universal enzyme which converts progesterone and pregnenolone to their 17α-hydroxylated products, and then to Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and androstenedione respectively P450c17 is needed for final maturation of oocytes, which is necessary for fertilization. Present attempt made to find out the expression of Cyp17 mRNA of different region of brain in the Cirrhinus mrigala. The gene was observed by PCR amplification with a specific primer for Cyp17. Our results confirm the presence of the gene cyp17 that codes for the enzyme p450c17 in the various regions of brain of an Indian major carp, especially C. mrigala by catalyzing the gene expression through PCR techniques. The further study was require to analyse characterization of Cyp17 gene in these fish species along with different classes of vertebrates and with fishes to know its similarity, evolutionary distance and relationship with other organisms.

  46. Nongkling, P. and Kayang, H.

    AMF status of two local upland rice varieties, Kba Soh-pieng (KP) and Kba Saw (KS) was investigated from two sites (Site I-KP1 and KS1; Site II- KP2 and KS2)in the year 2012. Site I exhibited higher AMF colonization in comparison to those in Site II. In site I, the colonization ranged from 24.05% to 70.77% in KP1 and 28.00% to 76.01% in KS1 whereas in Site II, the AMF colonization ranged from 21.90% to 70.36% in KP2 and 24.76% to 71.64% in KS2. In both the varieties of site I and II, the percent AMF colonization was lowest during the initial stage of plant development that increases gradually and it was highest during the booting and maturation period i.e., in the month of September and October2012.ANOVA shows no significant variation in AMF colonization in different varieties of the same sites. While, there was significant variation in the same varieties at different sites.

  47. Nwadiaro, P. O., Ogbonna, A. I., Itelima, J. U., Sila, M. D. and Buoro, E. O.

    The fungal flora of selected quail farms in Jos, Plateau State Nigeria was investigated. Three prominent farms were sampled in Utan, Angwa Rukuba and Kufang areas of the metropolis. The quail droppings and air spora of the farms were sampled using Sabouraud Dextrose Agar medium. 8 genera of fungi including 2 yeasts, Candida species and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were isolated from the poultry droppings. There was no significant difference (P>0.05) in the frequency of occurrence of the fungal isolates. The C. sp was the dominant species (28.7%) in the three farms under investigation. This was followed by S. cerevisiae (26.0%) and the least by Alternaria alternata (0.4%). In the poultry droppings investigations, the Angwan Rukuba farm had the highest number of isolates 178(38%). Utan farm had 168(36.3%) while Kufang farm had the least number 119 (25.7%). The air spora of the 3 farms harboured 13 species of fungi with Aspergillus species the most dominant. A. niger had the highest frequency of occurrence of 22.7 % from the farms while Mucor racemosus had the least occurrence of 1.5%. Some of the fungal isolates are known to be opportunistic pathogens and mycotoxins producers. The health implications of the isolated fungal species have been discussed.

  48. G. S. Sreekala

    Field experiment was conducted at College of Agriculture, Vellayani, Kerala ,India for two years to study the effect of organic manure biofertilizer combination in ginger intercropped in coconut garden on nutrient utilization and improvement of soil nutrient status. Different combinations of organic manures like FYM, vermicompost, neem cake and green leaves along with biofertilisers like Trichoderma and AMF were evaluated and compared with Package of Practices Recommendation of Kerala Agricultural University. Nutrient balance sheet for N, P and K was prepared for two consequent years. The soil nutrient status showed a build up of available nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium) for all the organic manure combinations with AMF and Trichoderma over the Package of Practices Recommendation of Kerala Agricultural University. A substantial reduction in net loss of soil nutrients was also noticed in all organic manure biofertilizer combination. The actual nutrient status analyzed was found to be less than the expected balance in the case of nitrogen and phosphorous for both years whereas a positive buildup was manifested in potassium status at the end of second year. The experiment is an indication of the beneficial effect of organic manure biofertilizer combination in enhancing the soil nutrient status over the two years.

  49. Saima Mohsin and Asma Saeed

    A total of 51 gram negative bacterial cultures including E.coli, Pseudomonas, Salmonella, Enterobacter and Klebsiella species were obtained from different labs and hospitals. The bacterial isolates were screened for their antibiotic resistance against six commonly used antibiotics i.e. Streptomycin, Sulzone, Cefotaxime, Fosfomycin, Amikacin, Tazocin at six different concentrations (3µg, 5µg, 10µg, 30µg, 50µg and 100µg/ml).The clinical isolates showed significant resistance to commonly used antibiotics and some of them were found to be multidrug resistant. The frequency of resistance of bacterial isolates to individual antibiotics is found to be 78% for Cefotaxime, 70% for Sulzone, 73% for Streptomycin, 52% for Fosfomycin, 48% for Tazocin and 23% for Amikacin. The resistance frequency of gram negative bacteria at a concentration of 100µg/ml of individual antibiotic was found to be 51% for Cefotaxime, 20% for Sulzone, 25% for Fosfomycin, 37% for Streptomycin, 4% for Tazocin and no resistance was noted in case of Amikacin.

  50. Ravikumar, P.

    16S/18S ribosomal deoxyribonucleic acid sequencing, polymerase chain reaction and deoxyribonucleic acid sequencing has played a pivotal role in the accurate identification of bacterial isolates and the discovery of novel bacteria and fungi in explosive laden soil. Ten different Bacterial isolates and three different Actinomycetes belongs to the genera Acinetobacter, Bacillus, Enterobacter, Enterococcus, Staphylococcus, klebsiella, Aspergillus, Coriolopsis were isolated and identified with their 16S and 18S rDNA sequences and deposited in the The GenBank Maryland USA. All the isolates were named after the discoverer P Ravikumar, will be preserved in MTCC, India. Sanger dideoxy sequencing technology was employed and the number of base pairs, the base count of A, T, G and C was also studied. To fully utilise 16S/18S rDNA sequencing of bacteria and fungi in explosive laden soils and their bioremediation, the presence of xplA and xplB and other biodegrading gene/s were to be investigated. Aspergillus sojae PRK2 18S ribosomal RNA gene, with the base count 216 a 184 c 256 g 228 t partial sequence with Accession KJ938684, Version KJ938684.1 GI: 675621795 (bases 1-884) a novel strain present in the explosive laden soil of cracker industry was deposited in the The GenBank Maryland USA is discussed here.

  51. Rolli, N. M. and Gadi, S.B.

    The Pongamia tree was evaluated as a phytotool of heavy metals such as Lead (Pb), Copper (Cu), Cadmium (Cd), Manganese (Mn), Zinc (Zn), Chromium (Cr) and Nickel (Ni) around Bagalkot. The soil samples at a depth (0-20cm) and Pongamia glabra leaves were taken from different sampling sites viz, S1, S2, S3, S4, S5 on state high-way with high traffic roads passing through the Bagalkot (Karnataka) were determined by AAS. Results showed that both soil and Pongamia contained elevated levels of the metals. It was found that the primary source of the contamination occurs mainly by the vehicular emissions. The increased circulation of toxic metals in soils and Pongamia may result in the inevitable build up of such xenobiotics in food chain. The variation in heavy metal concentrations is due to changes in traffic density and anthropogenic activities. It is concluded that Pongamia glabra can be used as a phytotool to monitor heavy metal pollution in roadside plants.

  52. Shinde, S. N., Siddharth Kshirsagar, Aniruddha Patil, Tejas Parge and Ritesh Lomte

    Fixtures are essential elements of production processes as they are required in most of the automated manufacturing, inspection, and assembly operations. For supporting and clamping the work piece, device is provided. Frequent checking, positioning, individual marking and non-uniform quality in manufacturing process are eliminated by fixture. This increase productivity and reduce operation time. Fixture is widely used in the industry practical production because of feature and advantages. In industrial ergonomics a manipulator is a lift assist device used to help workers lift, maneuver and place articles in process that are too heavy, too hot, too large or otherwise too difficult for a single worker to manually handle. As opposed to simply vertical lift assists (cranes, hoists, etc.) manipulators have the ability to reach in to tight spaces and remove workpieces.

  53. Bostami, A. B. M. R., Selim, A. S. M., Hoque, S. A. M., Rabbi, A. K. M. Z. and Siddiqui, M. N.

    Medicinal herbs are the source of bioactive compounds beneficialboth for human and animal health. Owing to that, an experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of the medicinal herb (Emblica Officinalis)on growth performance, fecal microbiota and diarrhea prevalencein sheep. A total of 48 growing sheep were randomly allocated to 4 treatments with 3 replications having 4 sheep in each replication in a completely randomized design. The treatments groups were: Control (T0) = Basal diet without Emblica officinalis, T1= Basal diet + 0.4%Emblica officinalis, T2= Basal diet + 0.6% Emblica officinalis; and T3= Basal diet + 0.8% Emblica officinalis. The present study revealed that, average daily gain was significantly improved (P <0.05)in the Emblica officinalissupplemented groups T1, T2 and T3 with highest being observed in T2 compared to T0. While average daily feed intake and feed efficiency was improved in the Emblica officinalisadded groups (T1, T2 and T3) but there were no significant differences (P >0.05). In addition, it was observed that, Emblica officinalis supplementation suppresses the pathogenic E. coli and decreased the diarrhea prevalence in sheep. To sum up, medicinal herb (Emblica officinalis) could be supplemented and T2 could be preferred for sheep production.

  54. Ekhlas A. Morfeine

    This study was conducted at the tissue culture laboratory of Sudan University of Science and Technology during the period from April to July 2010 to investigate the effect of different concentrations of naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) with 5mg/l 6-benzyl amino purine (BAP) on multiplication of banana (Musa sp.) cv. Grand Naine using meristematic stem cuttings ex-plant. MS medium .The highest significant number of shoots was recorded by 0.05 mg/l NAA with 5mg/l BAP this concentration induced also highest length of shoots and maximum number of roots and highest length of roots . Low numbers of shoots wasrecorded by the control and 0.4 mg/l NAA.

  55. Sylas, V. P., Mary Jaimol Antony, John C. Mathew and Thomas, A. P.

    The distribution and diversity of phytoplankton in relation with the water quality of Alappuzha – Changanasserry canal in the Kuttanad wetland ecosystem, part of Vembanad Kol Ramsar site in Kerala was assessed in the present study. The results showed that in total, 78 species were recorded from the whole stretch of the canal. Out of these, 39 species belonged to Chlorophyceae, 1 species of Chrysophyceae, 15 species of Bacillariophyceae, 10 species of Eugleninae and 15 species of Myxophyceae were recorded. Anabaena utermohli (47992/l organisms) Anabaenopsis arnoldii var. indica (46680 organisms/l) of Myxophyceae were abundant followed by Melosira granulata (13032 organisms) of Bacilariophyceae. Nitrate nitrogen showed high positive correlation with all phytoplankton group which indicates that nitrate is one of the major controlling parameter of the phytoplankton standing biomass. Phosphate is the most important controlling factor responsible for the growth of Euglenophyceae and Cyanophyceae members resulting in Euglenoid blooms. Dinobryon sociale is an indicator of clean water algae which is present only at the pollution free sites of the canal.

  56. Sandesh, S., Balaji, T., Duraivarun, G. and Anandhakumar, R.

    The management of health care waste is a subject of considerable concern to public health and infections-control specialists, as well as the general public. Careless disposal of wastes may lead to transmission of communicable disease spreading through air, water and direct human contact with blood and infections of body fluids. Diseases are spread by improper treatment and disposal of wastes while handling items like needles, surgical gloves, blood bags. This paper is about segregation of medical waste automatically instead of the conventional colour coding method. Colour codes cannot be memorised by any one and interpreted correctly. There is also a possibility of infections when hospital staff try to dispose the waste themselves without the knowledge of becoming infected. So to prevent the disease spreading and color-codes identifications, we have proposed the idea to develop an automated waste segregation unit without human contact.

  57. Vishwas S. Patil and Deshmukh Hanmantrao V.

    The world is facing energy crisis problem today. Reliable energy sources are thus necessary to meet the present energy needs. Most of the nations are dependent on non-renewable energy sources as fossil fuels and nuclear energy. These non-renewable energy sources have several limitations and disadvantages. The sustainable development of renewable energy alternatives offer many benefits both in socioeconomic and ecological principles. Biomass comprises any organic matter of either plant or animal origin. Biomass energy is the stored solar energy, carbon and hydrogen captured initially through photosynthesis into chemical bonds as organic matter. Biomass accounted for the largest share of renewable energy resources. Biomass is a vital source of energy for household and industrial energy requirements. Biomass has always been an important energy source for the country considering the benefits it offers. Thus, the purpose of the present review paper is to focus onto detailed aspects of biomass as a source of renewable energy.

  58. Devendran, G. and Balasubramanian, U.

    Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder which results due to chronic hyperglycemia associated with the imbalance in carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism. Presently available several drugs reduce the hyperglycemia in diabetes mellitus; unfortunately these drugs have side effects. While, herbal drugs are mostly out of toxic or side effect than the chemical drug. Hence, the aim of the present study was designed to compare the possible therapeutic effects of Channa punctatus bile content against Alloxan induced diabetic rats. The Bile content of Channa punctatus was administered orally in an aqueous solution at a dose of 5ml/kg body wt. to diabetic rats. Applied doses did not cause any acute toxicity or behavioural changes. The blood glucose levels was significantly (P<0.05) reduced when compared to the alloxan induced diabetic rats. In conclusion, Channa punctatus bile content produced a significant hypoglycemic effect and also hypolipidemic activity at dose level of 5ml/kg.

  59. Priyadharshini, R., Damodaran, R. and Kavitha, P.

    A study was conducted to determine the gonadosomatic index (GSI) and fecundity of Labeo rohita during the period of March 2013 to February 2014. From this study it has been shown that fecundity of fish increases with increase in size, weight of fish and gonad weight. The fecundity of Labeo rohita varied from 19,950 eggs in fish of 155mm length (TL) to 2,01,150 in fish of 300 mm length (TL).The gonads attain the maximum weight 5.75± 0.78 and 11.5±1.45 for males and females respectively in July and minimum (0.55± 0.25 male and 1.05 ±0.18 female) in November. The fish has only one spawning season of short duration running from June to August as indicated by the peaks of gonadosomatic index and Ova diameter.

  60. Vikram Singh

    To solve global solid waste crisis keeping in mind the rapid urbanization, increasing industrialization, increase in population, change in life-style and social development, alternative steps have been suggested. Various types of data have been used as per the requirement of the objectives of the study. The primary data sources comprise the frequent travels through the study area. The primary data includes collection accomplished including the field observation, data collected on various types of bins and the field verification of garbage disposal sites. The secondary sources encompass town plans and other plan documents, topographical sheets, guide maps. The data and information on agents involved in recycling the waste material is acquired from Department of Environmental study.

  61. Summyia Masood, Rehana Saeed, Maria Ashfaq and Saima Naz

    Viscosities for different concentrations of crude oil solutions from 10 to 50 %(v/v) have been studied using benzene as a solvent at temperature ranging from 303 to 318 K. Four different relations: Huggins, Kraemer, Martin and Schulz-Blaschke were used to study the oil solution interaction in benzene by viscosity measurement. Viscometric constant values in terms of solute-solvent interaction. These relations were successfully applied for the study of macromolecular interaction. The validity of these relations concerning the interaction of crude oils with benzene was studied. Thermodynamic parameters for viscous flow were also evaluated such as free energy change of activation (ΔG*), enthalpy change of activation (ΔH*) and entropy change of activation (ΔS*) as a function of concentration of crude oil solutions and temperature.

  62. Momoh, J. and Longe, A. O.

    The study was conducted to determine the phenolic contents, in-vitro antioxidant activity and in-vivo anti-plasmodial activity of methanolic leaf extract of Azadirachta indica (Dongoyaro) and its effect on some biochemical parameters in Swiss albino mice infected with Plasmodium berghei NK 65. Swiss albino mice were inoculated intraperitoneally with Plasmodium berghei NK65. The mice were grouped into six groups, five per group. Group I were not infected with P.berghei, Group II and III served as both the negative and positive control while Group IV, V, and VI were treated with 200, 400, and 800 mg/kg body weight of methanolic leaf extract of A. indica. The qualitative phytochemicals in the extract include tannin, anthraquinone, flavonoids, phlobatanin, saponin etc. The amount of total phenol, flavonoids, alkaloids and total proanthocyanidins present in the extract are 148.22 mg PE / g DW, 1.5%, 5.3% and 0.67±0.2 mg quercetin/g of dry plant material respectively. In the in-vitro antioxidant assay, A. indica was found to have FRAP, DPPH and H2O2 scavenging activity. The median lethal dose LD50 was estimated to be >5000mg/Kg body weight. The extract caused 47.80%, 50.96% and 52.30% suppression in parasitaemia at 200, 400 and 800mg/kg body weight respectively while Chloroquine exerted 100% suppression at 5mg/kg body weight. The curative test shows that the different concentration of the extract exert a growth inhibition of 50.1%, 74.57% and 73.68% at 200, 400, 800mg/kg body weight respectively while Chloroquine cleared the parasites by 94.07% at 5mg/kg body weight. The Hematological parameters showed that the extract is not hematotoxic since it significantly (P<0.05) reduced WBC count, and increase RBC, HGB, and HCT values in the treated mice compared to the infected untreated mice. The liver biomarker enzymes show that there was a significant increase (P>0.05) in plasma AST, ALT, ALP and GGT in the untreated infected group compared to other groups, this signify hepatic damage in group II animals. This may also signifies hepatoprotective effect of the extract on the Swiss mice infected with P. berghei. The infected untreated and the infected treated animals all have higher plasma creatinine and urea values compared to normal healthy animals. There was a significant decrease (P<0.05) in total plasma protein in group II mice compared to the mice in other groups.

  63. Mammadov Javanshir and Akhmadova Tamella

    One of important and priority directions providing economic development of Azerbaijan is automation of manufacture enterprises and their passing to intellectualization of control system. In this connection, creation of algorithm for option of elements of the sensor system of automated control of the flexible manufacture systems (FMS) is considered. On the basis of the generalized parameters of the automated functions of control system of FMS the block-scheme of stage-by-stage option of control computers and providing of efficiency of their work is proffered.

  64. Elisabeth Allognon-Houessou, Eusèbe Agoua and Antoine Vianou

    Knowledge of thermo physical parameters of local materials of construction has been essential when one considered the fast development of the market of building and especially the need for saving energy while ensuring the thermal comfort in housing. This work aimed to measure one of these parameters, the diffusivity, with an instrumentation based on “Flash Method”. It presented the results of measurement of the thermal diffusivity of dry clay and saturated clay, at different rates of cement, the clay has been taken in South of Benin. The results showed that the thermal diffusivity of dry samples was always lower than those of saturated samples. The first was about 0.468x10-6m2/s whereas the second was about 0.496x10-6m2/s. In the two cases, the values confirmed that the clay is good to be used as building and construction material.

  65. Akshay Gadekar, Pranav Nilawar, Amol Divekar and Nalawade, J. E.

    To propose an additive perturbation based PPDM to address the problem of developing accurate models about all data without knowing exact information of individual values. To preserve privacy, the approach introduces random perturbation to individual values, before the data are published to third parties for mining purposes. In Existing System, the PPDM approach assumes single level trust on data miners. Under the single level trust, a data owner generates only one perturbed copy of its data with affixed amount of uncertainty. In proposed system, the PPDM approach introduces multilevel trust on data miners. Here different perturbed copies of same data are available to data miner at different trust levels & may combine these copies to jointly add additional information about original data & release the data is called diversity attacks. To prevent these attacks, using multilevel PPDM approach where random Gaussian noise is added to the original data with arbitrary distribution. So, the data miners will have no diversity gain in their joint reconstruction of the original data. This allows data owners to generate perturbed copies of its data on demand at arbitrary trust levels. It provides data owner very flexibility.

  66. Snehal P. Jadhav and Vikram A. Mane

    The system proposed in this paper aims at monitoring the torque and efficiency in induction motors in real time by employing wireless sensor networks (WSNs). An embedded system is employed for acquiring electrical signals from the motor in a noninvasive manner, and then performing local processing for torque and efficiency estimation. The values calculated by the embedded system are transmitted to a monitoring unit through a Zigbee module. At the base unit, various motors can be monitored in real time. The embedded system was deployed on a workbench, and studies were conducted to analyze torque and system efficiency and at the base station a Graphical User Interface is given which give the user can interface with the system.

  67. Florance Mary, M. and Ananda Natarajan, R.

    The property of traditional Ziegler–Nichols tuned PI controllers (ZNPIs) are simple tuning rules with excessive oscillation and large overshoot. However, both the fixed set point weighted PI ( FSWPI) and ZNPI exhibit equally poor load regulation. Dynamic set point weighted PI controller (DSPWPI) shows better response than FSPWPI and ZNPI but only for very low sampling period. Here, an online modified dynamic set-point weighting technique (MDSPWPI) is proposed. Performance of the proposed modified dynamic set-point weighting based PI controller (MDSPWPI) for various processes shows a significant improvement and stable response for set point change at allowable sampling period range.

  68. Gaikwad, H. K., Bodke, M. R. and Lokhande, P. D.

    Undoped and 20at. % Al doped ZnO nanocrystals were successfully prepared by Sol-gel auto combusion route. Structural properties were studied from XRD pattern. The hexagonal wurtzite structure was detected. The crystallite size was calculated using Sherrer’s formula. Crystallite size determined 5.68nm and 4.05nm for undoped and 20at.% Al concentration. Optical study was completed by UV-Visible spectroscopy. Absorption peaks estimated at 352 nm and 366 nm. Energy band gap were calculated from Tauc’s plots. 3 eV and 3.05 eV are the values of Eg for ZnO and 20 at.% Al doped ZnO nanocrystals. It confirms that red shift in the energy band gap.

  69. Umair Ahmed Khan, Imran Ali Hashmi, Abdul Wahab, Muneera Naz Baloch, 1Shoaib Muhammad, Syed Kashif Ali and Firdous Imran Ali

    α-Cyanoacrylates were synthesized employing Knoevenagel condensation under solvent free conditions. The reactions with aromatic aldehydes were accomplished in exceptionally reduced time when instead of stirring, grinding of reaction mixture in a pestle and mortar was applied. To investigate the potential of these α-cyanoacrylates as antimicrobial agents these compounds have been tested against four bacterial strains S. aureus, P. aeroginosa, S. typhi and M. luteus. These compounds showed activity against S. aureus, P. aeruginosa and S. typhi while neither compound showed any activity against M. luteus.

  70. Muneera Naz Baloch, Wajeeha Asad, Tabbassum Kiran, Sana Aijaz, Talat Yasmeen Mujahid and Muhammad Kaleem Khan

    Millions of people around the globe suffer from various infectious diseases per annum. Extensive part of these infections is hand acquired infections. World health organization suggests hand hygiene as a primitive precaution focus to decrease the infection rates. We evaluated various aspects related to the occupational behavior and prioritization regarding hand hygiene measures among the university students, teachers, laboratory staff and canteen workers. Gram positive cocci were found in abundance followed by Gram positive rods. The antibiotics resistance profile showed that the isolated bacterial strains were mainly sensitive to streptomycin, whereas, majority of the isolates were resistant to cefixime-a third generation cephalosporin. Methicillin resistance was also found common among Staphylococcus spp. The study indicated the resistance spread among the opportunistic normal flora and the role of unhygienic hands in their transmission.

  71. Sheela, M. S. and Sugirtha P. Kumar

    Grain size analysis of Manakudy estuary around mangrove forest , Tamil Nadu, India has been studied and textural parameters namely mean, sorting, skewness and kurtosis. Textural pattern shows complicated profile as a result of the fluctuation in the physicochemical conditions due to the sediments and the marine interactions. Abundance of the medium sand to fine sand shows the prevalence of comparatively moderate- to low-energy condition in the Mankudy mangrove area. In monsoon the abundance of fine sand shows high energy condition. LDF results show the dominance of shallow marine deposits in the Aeolian beach and the influence of turbidity. The granulometric and CM pattern indicates most of the grains from by bottom suspension rolling to graded suspension condition. The comparison with the tractive current diagram, all the season fall in tractive current environment, that is by interaction with wave actions.

  72. Sakthivel, R., Arumugam, G. and Shabeer, T.K.

    Kinetics of phase transfer catalyst (PTC) assisted polymerization of Methyl acrylate (MA) initiated by potassium Peroxydisulfate (K2S208) – cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) system was investigated in ethyl acetate/water system at 60ºC under N2 atmosphere and unstirred condition. The effect of varying the concentrations of MA, K2S208, CPC, H+, and ionic strength on Rp were studied. From the study, reaction orders with respect to MA, K2S208 and CPC were found to be 1.5, 0.5 and 1. Thermodynamic parameters such as overall activation energy (Ea), entropy of activation (∆S#), enthalpy of activation (∆H#) and free energy of activation (∆G#) were calculated by conducting the reaction at different temperatures in the range 50-60ºC. Rate of the reaction was found to be unaffected by a change in the acid strength and ionic strength of the reaction medium. To account for the experimental observations, the most probable mechanism has been proposed and the rate expression was derived from it.

  73. Kuli-Zade, D. M. Samedov, Z. A. and Gadirova, U. R.

    By comparing observed and model characteristics of atmosphere, we determined fundamental and evolutionary parameters and chemical composition of giant HD 206731. Spectral class of stars G8 and luminosity class II. Spectral materials are obtained by CCD camera mounted on Cassegrain focus at Shamakha Astrophysical Observatory of NAS of Azerbaijan. It is found that Teff=5000±200 K, logg = 2.1±0.2, , , .By selected non-blended lines of Fe I, we determined the microturbulence velocity in stellar atmosphere which was found to be ξt=4km/h. The content of some chemical elements in the atmosphere of the studied star is determined. The results are compared with solar ones. Spectra processing is performed by program DECH 20. Equivalent widths of lines are averaged by the results of 4th series of observations. The error in determining equivalent widths makes about 5%.

  74. Jain, K. C. and Praphull Chhabra

    Many relations have been obtained among several divergences by using several information inequalities. In this work, we also relate the Relative Jensen- Shannon divergence, Triangular discrimination, Relative Arithmetic- Geometric divergence, Relative J- divergence, and Hellinger discrimination to the Chi- square divergence and Varitional distance independently in a specific interval by using two different new information inequalities on new generalized f- divergence, together with numerical verification by taking two discrete probability distributions: Binomial and Poisson. These new information inequalities are derived by using Ostrowski’s inequalities. Application to the Mutual information and numerical approximation are done as well.

  75. Pankaj Sharma and Jai Karan Singh

    License plate images usually suffers from low illumination and poor contrast due to motion of vehicles and large depth of fields. Therefore, license plate image segmentation and number extraction is a challenging task. This paper proposed an fast and efficient license plate character segmentation method using CLAHE pre-enhancement and by finding the morphologically connected region. CLAHE method is used as pre-enhancement stage to improve the contrast and illumination of number plate images. This helps to improve the performance of character segmentation. In the second stage the wiener filter is used to remove the noise and blur present in the image. The proposed method uses the label connected neighbourhood with 8-conect mask to segment the desired characters form the edge image. The shift invariant edge detector mask is used for detecting the edges. Using the combination of pre enhancement and filtering improves the convergence rate of the standard segmentation method. The proposed character segmentation method is tested on the various kinds of licence plate images. It is found that entropy of segmented object is improved with the proposed method.

  76. Baljeet Singh Patial

    Ultrasonic velocity, viscosity and density studies on solution of tetrabutylammonium bromide (Bu4NBr) have been carried outin N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF), ethylmethylketone (EMK) and DMF-EMK solvent mixtures containing 0, 20, 40,60, 80 and 100 mol % of DMF at 298, 308 and 318K. From the velocity, viscosity and density data values, various parameters namely, the adiabatic compressibility (β), Intermolecular free length (Lf), specific acoustic impedance (Z), free volume (Vf), internal pressure (πi)and relaxation time (τ) have been calculated. All these parameters have been discussed separately to throw light on the solute-solvent and solvent-solvent interactions.

  77. Dr. Indra Gandhi, M. P. and Andiyammal, P.P.

    Nowadays, overseas commerce has increased drastically in many countries. Plenty fruits are imported from the other nations. Manual identification of defected fruit is very time consuming. The proposed paper presents defect segmentation of fruits based on surface color features with unsupervised K-Means clustering and Fuzzy C-Means algorithms. As the first step, the digital color images of defective fruits are pre-processed using Gaussian low-pass filter (GLPF) smoothing operator to remove noise. The images are then segmented with the purpose of separating the defects from the edible regions using proposed clustering algorithms. We used color images of fruits for Defect Segmentation. Defect segmentation is carried out into two stages. At first, the pixels are clustered based on their color and spatial features, where the clustering process is accomplished. Then the clustered blocks are merged to a specific number of regions. We have taken three fruits as a case study and evaluated the proposed approach using defected fruits. The experimental results clarify the effectiveness of proposed approach to improve the defect segmentation quality in aspects of precision and computational time. The simulation results reveal that the proposed approach is promising.

  78. Vishal S. Dabhade, Rahul N. Dabhade and Shrikant U. Gunjal

    PAKO is German machinery on which we pair nozzle body with required needle class, so that we can adjust the required clearance. Our project on PAKO is related to the improvement in clearance to increase the Matching rate. It is found that, in today’s condition Matching rate is about 60-65% and our aim is to improve it. We have to find out factors affecting matching rate as per their priority of impact and find out ways of improvement of Matching rate. So by taking no. of readings on different benches /machines with one as group of sample parts. We compare it with another readings and we find changes while pairing.

  79. Kannan, R., Jayaraman, D. and Aravindhan, S.

    Pure and 2 mol% Amaranth dye doped L-Alanine Thiourea (LATU) crystals were grown by slow evaporation technique. The cell parameters and crystallinity of pure and dye admixtured LATU crystals were confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction, powder crystal X-ray diffraction and high resolution X-ray diffraction analyses. The doping of the Amaranth dye in the grown crystal has been confirmed qualitatively by the FTIR spectroscopy. The optical transparency of the crystals was identified from the UV-vis-NIR transmission spectrum. The laser damage threshold value significantly enhanced for Amaranth dye admixtured LATU crystal in comparison with pure LATU crystal. Thermo Gravimetric Analysis shows that the thermal stability of the crystal increases with dopant concentration. The crystals were further subjected to other important characterizations such as dielectric measurement, micro hardness and NLO studies. The improvement in Second Harmonic Generation efficiency of doped crystal has also been reported.

  80. Hajira Tahir, Masooda Qadri, Uroos Alam and Roohina Muhaammad Hashim

    Water contamination is increasing day by day that not only alarming to human beings, but it is also alarming for animals, plants and aquatic life. The discharge of Industrial wastes in the main water channels which contain large amount of chemicals, pesticides and metal pollutants. The present study emphasizes towards the water pollution and composite present in waste water like dyes, which are the major constituents of industrial effluent. The removal of contents was carried out by using a low cost adsorbent. The carbonized coir pith (CCP) was used for removal of Reactive Red 223 dye. Batch adsorption experiments were adopted for investigating the removal of Reactive Red 223(RR 223) dye. The overall experimental procedures were carried out as a function of initial dye concentration, contact time, adsorbent dose temperature and pH. Adsorption data were analyzed by Langmuir, Freundlich, Dubnin–Radushkevich, isotherms. The maximum %removal of RR 223 was found to be 99.06% in 40 minutes with the initial concentration of dye 1.15×〖10〗^(-4)M at 313K. The results showed that adsorption of RR 223 on CCP follows Langmiur isotherm model. Thermodynamic parameters such as free energy (ΔGo), enthalpy (ΔHo), and entropy (ΔSo) of the system were calculated. Thermodynamics data showed that the adsorption was spontaneous and endothermic. The Kinetics study revealed that the CCP-RR 223 system followed the pseudo second order reactions. Analytical techniques like Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was also employed for investigation of functional group and surface morphology. pH at point zero charge of carbonized coir pith was determined by employing pH drift method. photocatalytic activity was also investigated.

  81. Hamida Mohammed Bakr Darwish

    Polypyrrole (PPy) thin film has been used to investigated the sensor response properties against humidity (HO2), carbon Dioxide (CO2) and Oxygen (O2) in the atmospheric environment. TEM and AFM micrographs of thin films show PPY structures of big grain sizes which ranging from 200 nm- 500nm. The adsorption-desorption kinetics of the PPy data of the materials have been obtained by using Quartz Crystal Microbalance technique (QCM). Langmuir model has been used to investigate H2O, CO2, and O2 gases and to compare their adsorption and desorption kinetics of polypyrrole thin films, high-purity nitrogen gas was used as references and cleaning the desorption process. Both QCM and electrochemical deposition technique results polypyrrole coated sensors exhibited promising environmental gas sensor response at room temperature.

  82. Vijay Mohan Das

    Universe started neither with quasars nor ended with black holes (As said by Prof .S.W Hawking) rather it started with cold reaction with formation of sphere of cold dark matter layer with few empty canals in it all around (non expanding phase of universe). Later by virtue of unconditioned working it started expanding with velocity of light and hot reaction triggered with formation of H2 clouds and lot of radiations making empty canals Quasars. With the contraction phase, This Hot reaction would stop and once again canals would be empty. There would be no gravity effect in these empty canals. Now they will be called black holes as they will be seen black (not complete black) to us engulfing star’s matter in it. After star’s matter would be engulfed, the nuclear reaction would stop by unconditioned working of nature in canal and in last they will become empty canals. Further, this structure would collapse and we would get infinite tachyons or symmetry phase of universe. In the last Almighty B.B.B power will stop functioning and universe once again would reach in dormant stage (Fig. 1)

  83. Govindarajan, D. and Nithya C. K.

    Zinc doped Cerium Oxide thin films were prepared by spray pyrolysis technique. The CeO2 and Zn doped CeO2 thin films were deposited on the glass substrates (350°C) with two different Zn concentrations (4 and 8%). The prepared film has been characterized by X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Ultraviolet-Visible Spectroscopy (UV-Vis), and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). XRD analysis revealed that the films are well crystallized in nature having cubic fluorite structure with a grain orientation along (111) plane. CeO2 thin films exhibits transparent in visible region and strong absorbance in the UV-Vis region. It was also observed that significant effect of Zn content on the transmittance and band gap energy of CeO2 thin films. SEM micrograph shows that the particles are spherical in shape.

  84. Prof. Dr. Sedat Cereci

    This is a discussing about cultural change and about migration from rural to urban and about military coup and impacts of television in Turkey on cultural axes. Almost all people live in popular culture and most of people live in urban areas in modern conditions and left their traditional culture in rural areas in Turkey because of television. People lived in traditional culture in rural areas during hundreds years and spent time in traditions. A cultural change was witnessed after a great number of people migrated from rural areas to urban areas in Turkey in 1970s and in 1980s and after people left their traditions in rural areas and television became the most popular media after migrations. Turkey is one of the country in where television is watched much and television determines the agenda of the people and guided administrators and television also plans lives of people. Most of people met television after they migrated from rural areas to urban areas in 1970s and in 1980s and also met modern life in rural areas and watched components of popular culture on television. People lived in urban areas in difficulties and tried to survive in modern conditions and had to embrace popular culture. Television was the most common and the most favorite media in Turkey and popular culture was mostly conveyed by television because of popularity of television. People learnt numerous realities and many knowledges about modern life and about global agenda via television in Turkey. Traditional culture changed into modern culture after numerous people migrated from rural areas to urban areas and television was began to use instead of traditional instruments and traditional sources.

  85. Agbanrin, R., Padonou, G., Yadouléton, A., Attolou, R.,Badirou, K.,Govoecthan, R., Gnangenon, V., Sovi, A., Anagonou, R. and Akogbéto, M.

    Background: To evaluate the risk of transmission of vector-borne diseases transmitted by mosquitoes, regular updates of the geographic distribution of theses vectors are required. Therefore, a study base on the abundance, richness and diversity of mosquitoes was conducted between December, 2013 and November 2014 at Cotonou, the economic capital of Benin republic. Method: A cross seasonal entomological study on larvae and adults of mosquitoes was carried in fourteen (14) locations randomly at Cotonouin Peri-Urban (PU) and urban areas (UA). The study was based on sampling mosquito immature stages (larvae/pupae) from domestic, peri-domestic and natural water sources and reared to adults. Additional adults mosquito were collected by Human Landing Catches (HLC), Indoor Pyrethrum Spray Catches (PSC), Biogents (BG) sentinel traps and Windows traps (WT) in PU and UA in order to assess the richness of mosquito fauna in this city. Results: Adult’s mosquitoes from larvae collected in our study sites showed thirteen species of mosquitoes (including 3 Anophelesspecies, 5 Culexspecies, 4 Aedesspecies and 1 Uranotaenia species) belonging to 4 genera. However, when the adults came directly from HLC and the different traps cited above, 15 species of mosquitoes including 3 Anophelesspecies, 5 Culexspecies, 2 Mansonia species, 4 Aedes species and 1 Uranotaenia species belonging to 5 genera (Culex, Aedes, Anopheles, Uranotaenia and Mansonia). The abundance of the mosquito genera recorded at PU and UA varied significantly (p<0.05), with the Culex genera recording the highest abundance. Moreover, the mosquito species recorded at PU regardless the collection methods was higher significant than those obtained at UA (P< 0.05). Conclusion: The presence of Culex, Aedes, and Anopheles species highlighted by this study in the city of Cotonou is posing a serious epidemiological concern to the inhabitants of this city. Therefore, larviciding of breeding sites before the onset of the rainy season and public enlightenment on the environmental factors and/or human activities that encourage mosquito breeding are recommended

  86. Chelimo Sarah

    In most African societies, land provides one with identity, a sense of belonging and is a pillar for human development. Gender is an essential factor in determining the social and relational aspects of individuals in any society. This is particular true when it comes to the question of land inheritance. In most African communities the inheritance of land is governed by the community’s social structure and culture. The general objective of the study was to examine the influence of gender in land ownership among the Samor community of Baringo County. The study adopted a descriptive research design. A purposive sampling procedure was employed to select Kabarnet Mosop location. The study was conducted in all the four sub-locations of Kabarnet Mosop. The study employed survey method with questionnaire as the main tool of quantitative data collection. Three hundred and sixty-four (364) questionnaires were administered. In addition 10 in-depth interviews with key informant were carried out to obtain qualitative data. Quantitative data was coded and managed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences program and the data was presented using tables, figures and percentages. Qualitative data was manually analyzed according to themes and narratives developed, analyzed and presented in form of verbal quotations. The results of the study showed that much of the land in Samor community is owned by men. The study also showed that the women who own land acquire it through purchase. Thus even though men do not allow women to inherit land, they sell it to women or allow them to buy without any negative socio-cultural impacts. The study concludes that for men and women to have equal access to land gender relations as they are informed by historical, legal and political factors need to be addressed. The findings of this study are thus relevant as they can be used to address inequalities in access to and ownership of land between the two genders in Samor community and, indeed, other communities in Kenya.

  87. Dr. K. Kanaka Raju and Ramana Murthy, K. V.

    The buy -back of shares is reverse of issue of shares by the company to the public. It is a repurchase of outstanding shares by a firm in the market to defend from the unfriendly takeover. This paper made to an attempt to the critical comparative analysis between to the pre-buy-back of shares to the post-buy-back of shares. The paired sample test, e factor analysis applied to analyze the data. The study found that there was a significant difference between the public shareholding of pre-buy-back of shares to the public shareholding of post buy back of shares, and also came out with the there was no significant difference between the shareholding promoter of pre-buy-back to post-buy-back and also conclude that there was no significant difference between the total number of shares of pre-buy-back of shares to post-buy-back of shares. The study also came out with that there was a very strong relationship between shareholding of promoter of pre-buy-back to post-buy-back and public shareholding of pre-buy-back of shares to post—buy-back of shares. The strong relationship existed between the variable of total number of shares of pre-buy-back of shares to the post-buy-back of shares. The study finally came out with the conclusion that the only one factor was identified as a major factor.

  88. Maria Kalathaki

    The basic research question of this survey was the assessment whether of the used methodology in the students Environmental Programs of Greek Secondary Education if meets the methodology of Adult Education Programs, so these programs could function as in-school teachers’ training programs. The research sub-queries referred at self-directed learning, inter/multi-disciplinary approach of the issues, development of the critical capacity of trainees, innovative elements of the program, ensuring of the active involvement of trainees, analysis of local/topical /of personal interest of learners’ issues. The Research Method was Case Study with Content Analysis of archival material of the student environmental programs that were materialized during the school year 2005-2006 in Gymnasiums of Heraklion prefecture.

  89. Nemavathi, K. S. and Dr. Nedunchezhian, V. R.

    The first chapter is mainly deals with the Introduction, about the study, about the industry and company profile. The objectives are to find out the performance of opening week and closing week of the select securities; to compare the price behavior of the gainers and losers of the selected securities. The research methodology, data sources, limitation, data collection methods & sampling design and review of literature are discussed in the second chapter. The third chapter says about the analysis of data and interpretation. Analysis consist of top 5 and bottom 5 bank returns. The last chapter is includes the findings, suggestions and Conclusion. The study results that the axis banks shows a better performance among gainers and SBI shows a better performance among losers. Thus the investors should have more attention in the closing week. Volatility is a symptom of a highly liquid stock market. Pricing of securities depends on volatility of each asset. An increase in stock market volatility brings a large stock price change of advances or declines. Hence in this paper an attempt has been made to analyses the return and volatility.

  90. Munkaila Alhassan

    The study was aimed at investigating the major challenges confronting the manufacturing sector, in particular master craftsmen. The study was carried out in the Tamale Metropolis. The target population was stratified into their trade areas such as mechanics, welders, electricians, blacksmiths, etc, and a total of 200 artisans were sampled using the simple random method. The results revealed that majority (97%) of the master craftsmen lack the requisite financial support to boost their firms irrespective of level of education and age in business. Rate of expansion of business was also slow as most of the respondents (69.7%) rated their businesses were slow in terms of growth. Lack of access to market was another major constraint to the master craftsmen. It was concluded that most Master Craftsmen lack financial support to enable them expand their businesses. In view of the increasing youth, as well as graduate unemployment, it is evident that the manufacturing sector is capable of absorbing most of the youth only if it is given the necessary attention it deserves. It was recommended that Master Craftsmen be given in-service training to enhance their technical and managerial skills. They should also be given financial support, irrespective of the size of the firm, to booze it.

  91. Azhar Ud Din and Shafeeqa Khurshid

    Parliamentary form of government has become the most desirable mode of governance throughout the world. But the efficacy of parliaments in providing effective governance is not up to satisfaction in many democracies. India is the only country in the developing world were parliamentary democracy has survived. Therefore it is interesting to know how parliament works and tries to carry out its duties so that it can be an effective instrument of democracy. The present research study was proposed to study the attitude of intellectuals of J&K towards parliamentary practices in India. The study has based its analysis on primary data from intellectuals. The observations are based on surveys and interview, while performing the field work through questionnaire. For this, Kulgam district of J&K was selected using stratified sampling method. Sample consists of 100 intellectuals. It is found that the working of Indian parliament, its proceedings and practice has declined due to daily adjournments and walkouts. Also the number of politicians with criminal background has increased to a large extent. Government and their ministers should realize that it is their own advantage to consider parliamentary debates, scrutiny and criticism as props of genuine democracy in their efforts to steer, guide, lead and control the administration.

  92. Truphena E. Mukuna

    The Global Assessment Report on Disaster Risk Reduction for 2009 acknowledged the importance of good governance for sustained efforts in disaster risk reduction. Natural and manmade disasters put development gains at risk, but development choices in turn can increase disaster risks. Despite these escalating losses, more than 95% of humanitarian finance is still spent on respond¬ing to disasters and their aftermath, with less than 5% spent on reducing the risk of disasters. The challenge for the DRM community is to ensure that risk management is prioritized in these policy frameworks and fully integrated in institutional and sector practices, to help save lives, protect livelihoods and reduce economic losses. Good governance is expected to elevate disaster risk reduction into a policy priority, allocate the necessary resources to it, ensure and enforce its implementation and assign accountability for failures, as well as facilitate participation by all relevant stakeholders. Decentralization and devolution of power is seen as a means of promoting good governance and participatory development regarded as critical for achieving national goals of poverty eradication as well as the Millennium Development Goals. The New Kenyan Constitution views devolution and decentralization of power as the best means to realize Vision 2030.However, the institutional and legislative arrangements for disaster risk reduction in Kenya are weakly connected to development sectors. Despite the prevailing recognition that good governance and DRR are mutually supportive objectives, understanding of the linkage is still at a nascent stage in Kenya. Although increasingly risk management and reduction is mentioned in governmental development policies, plans and strategies it is not treated as a truly multi sectoral concern. A study was done on integration of DRR education into the education sector policy using Budalangi flood plain as a case study. This paper is advocating for a move towards a more holistic approach premised on the adoption and enforcement of new regulations, action plans, the integration of disaster management into the education system, and the maintenance of a strong institutional framework for coordination, as the main aspirations of the Government.

  93. Mulugeta Tesfay and Dawit Zekiros

    The study is focused to point out the factors affecting academic performance of female university students taking the case of Akusm University. For this purpose, the study utilized the econometric and descriptive tools to obtain the reliable estimates of the contribution of school, student and family attributes to academic success. The empirical evidence indicates that tension, distance travelled to attend college and harassment have statistically significant adverse impacts on student performance. On the contrary, the academic level of parents and the amount of fund students receive monthly have positive statistically significant effects while the effect of college admission results and family size were found to be statistically insignificant. Besides, the students indicated that the major constraints on the their academic success have been lack of adequate financial support, absence of female counselors and special tutorial programs, limited contact with University management and pervasive tension and student harassment. On the basis of these empirical findings, it may be proposed that the University should help students fill their financial gap, employ female counselors, introduce special tutorial programs, increase contact with students and reduce situations that induce tension and harassment.

  94. Mulugeta Tesfay and Abrha Gebreslassie

    This paper examines the determination of the role TFPG to aggregate output growth in Ethiopia for the post 1991 period and checks if growth can be sustained with enhanced factor efficiency or not . It used the regression based growth accounting technique to decompose output growth. The research finding shows that the post-1991 notable growth in Ethiopia has been a result of factor accumulation. Physical capital explained more than half of the growth in output. However, the role TFPG has been significant that it accounted for above 34 percent of the GDP growth. On the basis of these empirical findings, it may be proposed that an economic policy focused on the promotion of public and private investment on physical capital could further enhance economic growth. Along with this, investments to augment the quality and employment of labor are also vital sources of growth. Furthermore, more openness, political stability and higher investment to GDP ratio are related to better factor productivity. Finally, policy makers should intensify their efforts to encourage investment in the industrial sector as the share of capital investment to GDP growth is strong.

  95. Waqas Ahmed

    Purpose: The study aims to determine and analyze if the prices of stock are related with exchange rates for the SAARC countries. Methodology: GMM model is used by the researcher to seek if exchange rates and stock prices are related to each other for SAARC. This GMM methodology is adopted because our independent variable of exchange rate has the problem of endogamy. The data for different variables used in the study will be obtained from yahoo finance and oando.com. Findings: The findings reveal a significant negative relationship between the two factors in case of Sri Lanka and India. However, in case of Pakistan, coefficient of exchange rates is positively and significantly correlated with stock prices. Originality: The study suggests that both variables are significantly correlated with each other for the SAARC countries, however for India and Sri Lanka this relationship is found to be negative but positive for Pakistan.

  96. Guru Balamurugan, Somnath, B. and Ramesh, V.

    This study is focused on the post disaster damages and recent trend of bank erosion in part of Bhagirthi River koil Bhatwari village. The changes in the river channel for the years 2004, 2011 and 2014 were analyzed using geoinformatics techniques The area of the river of the particular area is extended laterally from 141916.38 sq.m in 2004 to 51642.41 sq.m in 2011 and 226055.70 sq.m in 2014. As a result of it 90592.13 sq.m road, 10895.26 sq.m settlement, 1605141.05 sq.m grass land, 17123.59 sq.m and the agriculture land has been eroded away. It is happen mainly due to increases of intensity of rainfall and increases of frequency of flash flood. Due to increase of sudden discharge in river basin, the kinetic energy of the river is also increased. As a result of the lower part of the river is eroded more than the upper part. It leads to subsidence. But still now the human activities are going on in this hazard prone area. It is a big threat of this area. This study is helpful for planner to development of this area.

  97. Samuel Stella Nduku, Dr. Lilian Mwenda and Dr. Anita Wachira

    The main objective of this study was to explore the effects of working conditions on performance of employees of Kenya Commercial Bank. Specifically the study sought to; assess the effect of physical conditions, explore the effect of occupational health and safety and analyse the effect of internal organisational communication on performance of employees of Kenya Commercial Bank. A sample of 172 employees was subjected to stratified random sampling. Primary data was collected by use of questionnaires. Data was Analysed with the aid of Microsoft Excel and SPSS (version 20) and presented in the form of frequency distributions, means and standard deviations. A regression model was developed to establish the relationship between the independent variables and the dependent variable. The regression model showed that Physical Conditions had the greatest effects on the performance of employees of Kenya Commercial Bank followed by Internal Organisational Communication while Occupational Health and Safety had the least effect. Working conditions have a positive effect on performance of employees. The study recommends that Kenya Commercial Bank should put more effort in ensuring that working conditions are favourable and focus more on the physical conditions which has the greatest effect on performance of employees.

  98. Dr. Pawan Kumar Sharma Dr. Praveen Kumar Sharma and Ravindra Kumar Verma

    Urbanization affects the heterogeneity of the landscape and consequently the distribution, abundance and resources upon which birds depend. Birds are sensitive indicators of the cumulative effects of urbanization and provide a powerful signal of changes in landscape configuration, composition and function. The study was done through point count method around the study area (Jaipur city). The intent of this study was to examine the effects of urbanization on the avian habitat preference by assessing (1)the structures used by the birds for nesting,(2)the nesting/roosting site preference of different species and (3)the density and richness of communities. The study revealed that habitat used by urban birds appeared to be strongly influenced by the structure of habitat, food availability predators and parasites. The study of Jaipur urban birds showed that out of the total 167 species frequenting the urban area only few species were found to utilize the man made structure for nesting purpose. Apparently other species have adapted themselves to human environment for various other activities such as feeding and resting.

  99. Jadranka Denkova, Suzana Dzamtovska Zdravkovska, Andon Majhosev and Strasko Stojanovski

    Main direction in the process of reforms in the public administration is creation of professional, depoliticized, effective and efficient and citizen oriented public administration in accordance with parliamentary democracy and responsibility. The purpose of this paper is to perceive the organizational structure and legal and sub legal act which are concerning to the responsible working of public administration. The ascent of these analyses refers to the responsibility of the administration from all aspects: prevention, confirmation and the proof of the responsibility. Precise and clear legal and sub legal acts are bases for responsible working and that represents disciplined public administration responsible and civil oriented, that will efficiently answer to citizen’s necessities and the other subjects and that overall will reflect towards all spheres of the social living. That means that even the non production activity of the administration, if it executes its services in a transparent effective and efficient way, it will reflect the economic progress of the country. The purpose of this paper is to cover the most essential laws of the state management and the state power, the rule books, codex and other policies which directly or indirectly are connected to the work of the state and the public administration in Republic of Macedonia. The results in the paper are based on the empiric research with using of the methodology of analyses of the content of documents (legal and sub legal acts). Over 50 legal and sub legal acts have been analyzed where the regulations that refer to the set organization, the management control, corruption, discipline and material responsibility as well as the strategic documents by which the working of the state and public administration in the department of the have been checked. The results from the analyses are based on equal references that direct to same conclusions and recommendations. In the laws there should be clear directions how to control and evaluate the working of the state and the public administration and by that the irresponsible working of the administration can be proved. The conclusion of this paper is that in Republic of Macedonia the legal and the sub legal acts should be changed in the direction of clear completion of the responsibility of the state and the public administration.

  100. Dr. Asha Menon

    The merits of Cooperative classroom strategy and competitive classroom strategy are often debated by educators. These two teaching strategies can be quite different and opposite to each other nevertheless have their strengths and weaknesses. It is reasonable to assume that any given classroom should emphasize or combine different structures at different times. This paper discusses the difference between a cooperative classroom and a competitive one and which is one of these teaching strategies is better than the other and characteristics of an effective classroom.

  101. Ngala, C. O. and Ong’anyi, O. P.

    Work study programme has been put in place by many institutions of higher learning to help needy students cope with daily financial needs. However, very little information exists about its effectiveness as an intervention programme. This study sought to determine its efficacy at Masinde Muliro University of Science and Technology. Descriptive research design was used. Purposive and Simple random sampling was employed to select a sample of 70 students on the programme, and 8 departmental heads. Data was collected using questionnaires and analyzed descriptively. Though 60% of the respondents reportedly met their personal needs from work study programme, a series of challenges including its limited opportunities, low pay rates, delay in pay processing and stigma. Policy makers at the university should increase slots to accommodate more needy students and increase pay rates commensurate to the local standards of living.

  102. Wasif Ali Ikram and Naeem Ullah

    Purpose: The study is undertaken to look into the particular under-researched relationship between ‘possession structure’ and ‘money structure’ in an emerging industry. It falls in the list of first research, to help apply both equally one and reduced-form formula procedures using a screen data strategy. Methodology: The study applies econometrics modeling, using both single equation and reduced equation models, for panel data. Findings: Credit card has been an enough experience for the credit card users. The capital is intensive in nature, in order to have a long-term relationship between capital and techniques for users. Institutional stakeholders are included in this perspective as the substantial potential knowledge for the collection and the interpretation of the information for any efficiency in the research. Practical implications: The reasonable ramifications of this study explain financial specialists and supervisors ought to consider both capital structure and possession structure when they take their speculation choices. Originality: This is the first investigation of cooperation between institutional proprietorship and capital structure in Jordan, where there are contrasts in terms of institutional and budgetary structures, as compared to those in created markets.

  103. Fathi ben Basheer Tenzakhti

    Web Based Training (WBT) is an electronic learning technique in which the material is made accessible on the Internet by applying Web technologies. Typically, it has text and graphics, animation, audio and video. WBT is also referred to as "online courses" and "Web-based instruction"(http://www.commlabindia.com/elearning-articles/cbt-wbt.php). WBT offers a stimulating environment where the learner can learn at his own pace and can take the course at his convenience without any expense of time or travel. WBT can also be conveniently used by the physically challenged and can have Multi-platform capabilities, such as Windows, Mac, UNIX, PDA, phone, among others. In this study, we will show how we can use web technologies to develop web-based training tools. The web technologies will include HTML5, Php, Mysql, JQuery, Ajax, CSS, and SVG (TorstenIllmann et al., 2001). In particular, we will show how to use these technologies in a university environment to train students in a particular subject. The training tools will include assessments and knowledge reinforcement exercises as well as visual aids to electronic courses (Vincent et al., 2002) to deepen student understanding of the subject. These technologies and techniques can be used in companies, hospitals, plants to train the staff on a new system, new software, new medicines (Demetrios Sampson, 2006; Yazhen Zhang and Jian Li, 2011), or new procedures.

  104. Gavade Vaishali and Dr. Patil, R. R.

    The improvements in technology and procedures of data acquirement have been responsible for more faith in remote sensing and GIS application by researchers for site suitability studies. Study was conducted in Western part of Kolhapur District, Maharashtra to identify suitable sites for wildlife habitat. Habitats were evaluated using analytic hierarchy process (AHP) integrated with remote sensing and geographic information system. The evaluation process for wildlife habitat site was conducted based on 7 important factors viz. NDVI, River, Slope, Aspect, Elevation, Roads and Settlement. Each factor received a weight and a score which represented its relative importance in the suitability evaluation. The overall results recorded were in form of a pair wise comparison matrix. Thematic maps for each factor were created in ArcGIS 9.3 environment according to their score value. Result showed that out of total area 10.68% area was found very highly suitable, 14.76% as highly suitable, 20.72% as moderately suitable, 32.97 as less suitable and 20.85% as unsuitable.

  105. Ramon Marquès Sala

    I hereby introduce a few key aspects of the Cosmology of Vacuum. Despite the fact that they have not been proven, nor recognized, by the scientific community, I hope that they will be someday. In a Science like the Cosmology of Vacuum, where empirical proof is so complicated, I believe that intelligence, intuition and imagination should take precedence.

  106. Jing Ma, Elsheba Mathew, Ahmed Nabil Abou-Taleb and Jayadevan Sreedharan

    Introduction: Work ability is "the ability of the workers to do work which can fit the demands of mental and physical health, and how good the worker can present currently and in the future". It can also help in understanding the balance between demands and resources of the workers'. This study aimed at assessing work ability index (WAI) as among expatriate in Sharjah and Ajman. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 397 workers from different work sites in Sharjah and Ajman, United Arab Emirates (UAE). Among those who gave written consent, data was collected using WAI questionnaire in addition to their personal details. Data was entered into Microsoft Excel and analyzed on SPSS version 20. Results: The sample had more male workers(61.5%); more than 80% were aged less than 40 years; most (65.5%) were service employees or technicians and in the current position for less than 5 years (75.3%). The study sample was mostly(56%) at good WAI level, no subject at poor level, and 16% at moderate level. Significantly higher WAI was seen in the married group and experts by job classification. Conclusion: The proportion of poor-moderate WAI was 16% and no subject at poor level.

  107. Dr. Mahendra Bendre and Dr. Ravindra Ambardekar

    Solitary lymphatic cysts in neck of adults is a very rare clinical entity, as 90% cases of cystic hygromas are present in children below 2 years. Most of the solitary cystic hygromas in adults are benign and complete surgical excision is the preferred treatment. However, in all patients above 40 years of age, a solitary cystic lesion in neck must be thoroughly investigated to rule out presence of malignancy such as occult metastasis from papillary carcinoma of thyroid or squamous cell carcinoma arising from Waldeyer’s ring. We present a case of solitary lymphatic neck cyst in adult, along with a comprehensive review of the literature.

  108. Priyavanda Nikam, Dr. Sushma Bommanavar, Dr. Shambhavi Malik, Dr. Sachin Gugwad and Dr. Rajendra Baad

    Oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) is a potentially malignant disorder of oral mucosa associated with multifactorial etiology such as areca nut chewing, nutritional deficiencies, ingestion of chillies, genetic suspectibility and immunologic predisposition. This condition is well recognised for its malignant potential and is particularly associated with areca nut and tobacco chewing, which is a habit practiced predominately in Southeast Asia and India with the overall revalence rate of about 0.2% to 0.5 %. Since blood group antigens are also found in epithelial cells of oral mucosa, various studies have shown the relationship of ABO blood group with certain diseases. Based on this background the aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship of ABO blood grouping system in patients suffering from OSF. Materials and methods: The present study was undertaken at the Department Of Oral Pathology, Microbiology And Forensic Odontology, School of Dental Sciences; KIMSDU, Karad after obtaining the permission from the ethical committee of the Institution. The study sample comprised of 50 cases of Oral sub mucous fibrosis and 50 controls and statistical analysis were assessed to evaluate the relationship of ABO blood group and OSF. Results: The result for the study revealed that people with blood group B were at higher risk of developing OSF as compared to other groups.

  109. Sanaa M. Safaan, Enas A. Elkhouly, and Reda Abdel Latif Ibrahem

    Deficiencies in collaboration between healthcare professionals have a negative relation to the provision of healthcare and on patient outcomes. Collaborative practice has been shown to benefit civilian health care facilities by decreasing costs and increased patient, family, nurse, and physician satisfaction. This study aimed to investigate the levels of the collaboration between physicians and nurses and determine its relation to patient's satisfaction. Design: This study demonstrated a descriptive cross-sectional design. Setting: the study was carried out in Clinical Oncology Hospital, Menofiya University, Egypt. Subjects: Three groups of subjects included all staff nurses and physicians available at the time of the study, the third group was patients available at the time of the study. Tool: three tools were used; tool 1: Nurse–Physician Collaboration Scale. Tool II: Patient Satisfaction Questionnaire about nursing care .Tool III: Patient Satisfaction Questionnaire about Doctors. Results: Indicated that 94% of patients showed of high satisfaction about doctor, 66% showed high satisfaction for nurses' practice. When collaboration between doctors and nurses increase, the patients’ satisfaction increases. Conclusion: This study concluded that there was a positive relation to between collaboration among nurses and physicians and patient satisfaction. Recommendations: As nurse and physicians, it is essential that we should understand and tolerate our differences and foster our mutual interest in caring for patient better than ever.

  110. Arvind Yadav, Ketu Chauhan and Sharmada K. L.

    The occipital emissary foramen or vena obelionica is occasionally present as a solitary foramen in the squamous part of occipital bone at external occipital protuberance. It transmits occipital emissary vein which connects occipital sinus with the sub occipital venous plexus. Variations occur with regard to number and location. The aim of the present study was to ascertain the aforesaid parameters in North Indian population and compare it with the data available in the literature. One hundred and sixteen dry adult human skulls and occipital bones with intact foramen magnum of both sexes with unknown age group were obtained from in the neuroanatomy section of the of anatomy department, LLRM Medical College Meerut, and surrounding medical colleges Uttar Pradesh, India. The occipital emissary foramen was present in 29/116 (25%) skulls. In (7.7%) skulls the foramina was located on EOC. In (6 %) it was located on the right side, (10.3%) on left side and in (8.6%) it was median in position. Bilateral foramina were observed in (1.7%). The occipital emissary vein if present becomes significant in procedure like sub-occipital craniotomy where it becomes susceptible to injury.

  111. Dr. Nikhat Mukhtar Gazge, Dr. Balaji, P., Dr. Sowbhagya, M. B. and Dr. Yogesh Pawar

    It is well known that cross-sectional anatomical imaging techniques such as ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) etc. have important roles in non-invasive diagnosis and in tumour treatment strategies. Likewise, nuclear medicine procedures such as positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) are unparalleled in their ability to assess information about metabolic function. Despite their advantages over conventional imaging, they have their own limitations in oncologic imaging. These limitations can be overcome by combining anatomical and functional imaging techniques. These techniques have different working principles and consequently complement each other with respect to the information obtained. The combination (fusion) of two imaging techniques has been developed in recent years, defining the so-called “hybrid techniques’’ or “fusion imaging”. Combinations of anatomical imaging techniques (ultrasound with CT or MR imaging), as well as associations between anatomical (CT or MR imaging) and molecular (SPECT or PET) imaging modalities are currently being used in clinical practice. This paper highlights the fusion of various imaging modalities and their applications in the arena of head and neck cancers.

  112. Teelavath Kavitha, Mangilal, T., Shyamsunder, R., Jayaprakash, D., Ravindranath, A. Rao Patnaik, K. S. K.

    Bisoprolol is a cardio selective -blocker. It is given as the fumarate in the management of hypertension and angina pectoris. On oral administration, the drug undergoes extensive first pass metabolism. The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate Bisoprolol extended release tablets by the wet granulation method using different proportions of polymers and binder. Pre-formulation studies were done initially and the results were found to be within the limits. All the mentioned batches were prepared and granules were evaluated for pre-compression parameters such as loss on drying, bulk density, tapped density and compressibility index. Tablets were evaluated for weight variation, thickness, hardness, friability; disintegration time and assay were found to be within the limits. In vitro dissolutions were performed with 0.05M 6.8 PH phosphate buffer and effect of various polymers were explored. Final selection of formulation was based on dissolution profile, from dissolution studies, formulation 9 showed 80% drug release within 20 hours, so it will be compared with innovator. Similarity and difference factors which revealed that formulation (F 9) containing HPMC K 200, Eudragit L100 and binder are most successful as it exhibited in vitro drug release that matched with innovative products. In vitro drug release profile reveals that with increased concentration of Eudragit L 100. Accelerated stability studies were performed for the optimized batch, which indicated that there were no changes in drug content and in vitro dissolution.

  113. Katwa, Jospeh Kigen

    Ethical research demands that, among other things, the researcher obtains informed consent from the research participants before engaging them in research. This requirement is enforced by the Institutional Review Board (IRB) on behalf of the Government of Kenya through the National Council for Science and Technology (NCST). To enforce this, the IRB demands that consent form be attached to the proposal for it to be approved. The presence of a consent form is a reassurance that the researcher will provide adequate information to the participant. It seems that in most cases, research participants do give uninformed consent, as was evidenced by certain cases where participants seemed not to have understood the content of the consent forms they signed. There are instances where participants have taken part in research programmes whose aims they did not understand in the first place. In worse cases, some participants may not even be aware that they are involved in research for which they have given consent to participate in. Such cases are common in various parts of the world where health research is conducted and Kenya is no exception. The main objective of this research was to examine the extent to which research participants who had been involved in research before were made to understand informed consent before they accepted to participate in the research. A cross sectional study was done using in-depth interviews and qualitative data. Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) were used for data collection. The target population comprised exclusively people who had participated in health-related research and who resided at Kapseret in Uasin Gishu County, Kenya. Snowball sampling method was used to select 102 participants, both male and female. The respondents were divided into 12 focus groups discussion groups of 8 to 9 members each. To have homogeneous groups, gender, age and educational level were considered when forming the groups. To enable the FGDs to discuss intimate issues freely, participants of the same age group were placed together. Males and females were grouped separately. Collected data was transcribed and FGD-generated themes were finally analysed and presented. It was established in this research that a trained researchers were able to deliver understandable informed content process. Research participants respected a trained research assistant. At the same time the trained PI respected the participants and this was demonstrated by the way the respondents of the study said such PIs ensured that informed consent process was well understood. The trained PI ensured that the informed consent form was short and easy to read. The trained PI created good rapport with the participants to a level that they were able to own the project. The appreciation accorded to them made the participants own the research. Participants give more value to what they individually perceive more than getting to understand the concept of informed consent with respect to the research they are being asked to participate in. It is thus recommended that they should be educated on the value of understanding informed consent as opposed to the view of seeking to know the benefit they will get from the research if they take part in it.

  114. Houda Abaidi, Sabri Denden, Afef Ghazouani, Abdelmajid Trimèche, Chahira Snoussi, and Mohamed Hédi Hamdaoui

    Epidemiologic studies suggest that tea-polyphenols consumption may be beneficial in the prevention and control of type-2 diabetes. The objective of this work was to examine the effect of the absorbed polyphenols, assessed through their plasma and urinary concentrations, on the total antioxidant status, lipids peroxidation and other metabolic parameters in type -2 Tunisian diabetics. A sample of 244 type-2 diabetic patients was enrolled in this study. Green tea consumption, assessed as tea cups/ day was recorded. The malondihaldehyde, as early marker of lipid peroxidation, total antioxidant status, plasma and urinary polyphenols levels and other metabolic parameters were determined by appropriate methods. Uric acid and malondihaldehyde levels were significantly reduced in higher consumers of tea (>3 cups/day) compared to moderate consumers (<3 cups/day) (P=0.02 and P<0.001; respectively). Moreover, the urinary polyphenols was inversely correlated with total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol andtotal antioxidant status (P=0.011, P=0.008, P =0.028; respectively). These results suggest that the final flavonols metabolites found in urine may be responsible of the hypocholesterolemic; hypouricemic and the reducing of lipid peroxidation observed in type -2 diabetics.

  115. Dinesh Kumar, N. K. Goel, Sonia Puri and Nancy Gupta

    Menstruation is a physiological phenomenon unique to females that begins in adolescence. It is an important part of the female reproductive cycle. Although menstruation is a natural process, it is linked with several misconceptions and ignorance practices among young girls, which sometimes results into adverse reproductive health outcomes and may adversely affect their daily routine and quality of life. To explore the knowledge of menstrual hygiene practice and treatment seeking behavior for menstrual problems among unmarried girls, a community based cross-sectional study was conducted during April 08 to March 09 in Rural, Urban and Slum strata of UT Chandigarh. Methods And Materials-Stratified Multistage Random Sampling Design with probability proportional to size (PPS) was adopted and 744 respondents were selected. House-to-house surveys were conducted to collect the desired information by personal interview method. Results-The study showed maximum number of respondents (36%) attained menarche between 13-14 years of age. Branded napkins were found to be used by maximum number of respondents349 (46.9%). Abdominal pain was found to be the most common problem related to menstruation suffered by 429 (57.7%) respondents. Shyness was reported to be the main reason for not reporting to doctors for treatment by 58.8% of respondents. Conclusion-There is a need to impart health education to girls for clearing up their misconceptions and be offered them possible treatment options. Screening programs for menstrual related problems should be started at school level under School Health Programme.

  116. Narasimha Rao, Y., Prasada Rao, M., Durga Prasanna, D., Chandra Mouli, K. Rajya Lakshmi, K., Rama Devi, K., Rama Krishna, M., Anil Kumar, M.

    The present study is aimed at investigating the anti-ulcer activity of ficus racemosa leaves methanol extract against ethanol induced ulcer in albino rats. Anti ulcer activity was evaluated by measuring the ulcer index and percentage of ulcer incidence. The standard drug and the extract at 500mg/kg has shown almost similar action as that of Omeprazole should be replaced with the standard drug and the extract at 1000 mg/kg has shown almost similar action as that of Omeprazole

  117. El Hadji Oumar Ndoye, Sidy Ahmet Dia, Agbobli, Y. A., Serigne M. Badiane, Mame Coumba Fall, Mohamadou M Soumah, Mor Ndiaye and Mamadou Lamine Sow

    Total hip arthroplasty always implies short or long term complications. It is compulsory further to a first initial arthroplasty. In Senegal, after a rather shy beginning in 1970 and1974, the total hip prostheses are regularly made in many hospitals of the country; particularly in Dakar. This review, 40 years later combined with the occurrence of complications are the main reasons why we conduct this retrospective study to highlight the medico-legal implications of the revisions of total hip arthroplasty. This is a retrospective study based on folders from ill persons gathered between January 2000 and December 2010 in the Department of Orthopeadics-Traumatology of the Public Health Institution Aristide Le Dantec in Dakar. The record of these elements has been made for each patient, on the basis of a file including the epidemiological data relative to the revision (indication, the action and the results). All in all 14 folders were selected. The analysis of our results on the functional and anatomic level has allowed us show the different complications further to the revision of a total hip arthroplasty that can incur the liability of the orthopaedist surgeon. The risk of incurring one’s professional liability would necessarily help to strengthen the vigilance of practitioners and better warn the government on its responsibility towards public health institutions.

  118. Jamilu, R. Y., Umar, T. Y., Junaidu, S., Tinuke, A., Gide, M. N. and Bawa, J. A.

    A cross sectional study was conducted to directly observe and supervise Routine Immunization (RI) Sessions in Dutsin-Ma Local Government Area of Katsina State, to also assess the level of awareness about RI in caregivers through exit interviews. The study shows that caregivers in Dutsinma LGA are aware of RI (P<0.05). Traditional leaders, volunteer community Mobilizers and health workers have been identified to be the most effective social Mobilizers for Routine Immunization in the LGA. Community linkages is very effective in Dutsinma LGA as the survey shows that 80% of the HFs supervised do have an evidence of monthly Village development committees minutes of meetings. The impact of traditional leaders, volunteer community Mobilizers and Health workers on social mobilization for routine immunization is very effective. Based on the survey conducted, there is need for a continuous supportive supervision in the LGA as this will improve the quality of routine immunization.

  119. Neha Singla, Mamta, Ashima Taneja and Jasbir Kaur

    The main goal of care services is provide and promote mankind’s health. Patient satisfaction is recognized as an important parameter for assessing the quality of patient care services. Spatially mothers’ satisfaction from delivery is very important because it influence on family and society psychological health. So, keeping in view a descriptive study was carried out to assess the level of satisfaction regarding intrapartum and postpartum nursing care among 100 women admitted at selected hospital of Ludhiana, Punjab. Findings of the present study revealed that regarding intrapartum nursing care, maximum no. of women (73%) were highly satisfied, whereas 26% of them were satisfied and only 1% was uncertain and regarding postpartum nursing care, more than half of women (58%) were satisfied followed by less than half of women (40%) were highly satisfied and remaining 2% were uncertain. Furthermore, the study can be replicated on a large sample. The study findings concluded that level of satisfaction was more regarding intrapartum nursing care than postpartum nursing care. Also assessment regarding patient’s level of satisfaction help to know about the quality of hospital services.

  120. Dr. Mishil Parikh, Dr. Amit Dhond and Dr. Sunirmal Mukherjee

    Background: Intracapsular fracture of the neck of femur is one of the commonest fracture an Orthopaedic Surgeon encounters in the emergency room. Patients from all age groups can present with this fracture.Osteosynthesis is the preferred and considered a reliable method of treatment for an intracapsular fracture in young patients. A Hemiarthroplasty is preferred for elderly (>60 yrs) patients with these fractures, especially with those who have low functional demands. A Total Hip Arthroplasty is performed for those with associated with acetabular degenerative changes. However, there exists a controversy between Hemi or Total Hip Replacement as the choice of surgery in patients with displaced intracapsular neck of femur fractures in relatively young and active adults as well as elders without significant acetabular degenerative changes Materials and Methods: 30 patients with displaced intracapsular femur neck fractures were treated with a Bipolar hemiarthroplasty (n=16) and a Total hip arthroplasty (n=14) from June 2011 to January 2014. They were followed up weekly for 4 weeks, monthly for 3 months and then 3 monthly till the end of the study. The functional outcome was assessed with the use of the Harris Hip Score. Results: The mean age of the patients was 57.65 years. The mean follow-up in Group 1 was 10.17 months while that in Group 2 was 9.7 months. The mean blood loss was higher in Group 2 [543.75ml] as against Group 1[445.24ml] (p= 0.004). The Harris Hip Score at the end of 6 months was Excellent for 2 patients, Good for 9 patients, Fair for 3 patients and Poor for 2 patients in Group 1 and was Excellent for 4 patients, Good for 8 patients, Fair for 2 patients and Poor for 0 patients in Group 2. 27 patients were able to do all their daily activities and 3 were unable to do so owing to their general medical condition. Conclusion: Total Hip Arthroplasty offers better functional outcome in early follow-up and can be used for treating for these fractures in this age group.

  121. Dr. Sanjay Kumar Sinha Bds, Dr. Shailesh Chandra Gupta Bds and Dr. Brajesh Kumar Bds

    Infantile hemangiomas are the most common benign tumors in infancy affecting 5-10% of the population and are largely composed of densely packed over proliferating capillaries with high cellular density and the absence of open lumen. These lesions are 3 times more prevalent in females than males. During first year of life these tumors are strongly proliferative in nature. These lesions subsequently stabilize and further undergo spontaneous slow involution and fully regressed by 5-10 years. We are, here now presenting a case of 7 years old female child with vascular swelling on left side of upper lip. There was no birth mark at the time of her birth but later on swelling in upper lip appeared which progressively increased in size, with a tendency to easy bleed, followed by regression, suggesting a case of infantile hemangioma.

  122. Dr Pradeep Sharma and Dr Sumeet David

    Lupus vulgaris (also known as Tuberculosis luposa) are painful cutaneous tuberculosis skin lesions with nodular appearance, most often on the face around the nose, eyelids, lips, cheeks, ears] and neck. Eighty percent of the lesions are on the head and neck. It is the most common M. tuberculosis skin infection. It is chronic, post primary, pauci bacillary cutaneous tuberculosis found in individuals with moderate immunity and high degree of tuberculin sensitivity. We present a case of 45yr old diabetic and hypertensive female who presented with thickening of skin of feet with hyper pigmentation (since4-5 yrs ),small hyper pigmented painful itchy areas on both breasts (since 1 yr) .Chest radiography showed honeycomb like cystic lesions in lower zone but no evidence of active tuberculosis . Skin biopsy revealed granulomas suggestive of tuberculosis. This case highlights the importance of cutaneous manifestations of systemic disease and is an example of the unusual presentation of lupus vulgaris in a patient.

  123. Dr. Krishna Sen, Dr. Madhab Kumar Mondal, Dr. Hamid Ali and Dr. Joydip Ganguly

    Hydatid cysts are due to parasitic infection caused by cestode tape worm Echinococcus. Hydatid cyst most commonly involves the liver and lung. Involvement of kidney and retroperitoneum without involvement of other major organ are much less common. We reported a recent case of hydatid cyst involving both kidney and retroperitoneum. This case was diagnosed by radiological study followed by serology and lastly by laparotomy. The case was treated by surgical removal of the cysts combined with chemotherapy before and after surgery.

  124. Sneha B Shetty, Balachandra A Shetty, Nayanatara, A. K., Sheila R Pai, Rekha D Kini, Bhagyalakshmi, K., Anupama, N., Vinodini, N. A. and SahitiKolluru

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the common learning pattern among the different styles namely visual, auditory, reading and kinesthetic in students of first year MBBS students. A cross sectional study of first year medical students (n= 100) was performed. The validated VARK questionnaire was used to categorize the learning styles of students. The questionnaire consists of 16 items which identify four different learning styles: visual, aural, reading/writing and kinesthetic. Descriptive statistics were used to identify the learning styles of students. The response rate was 100%. The results showed that the vast majority of students (95%) preferred to learn by multiple sensory modalities. Among the multimodal learning styles the most preferred was trimodal (5%) and quad modal (95%)respectively. The results of this study can provide useful information for improving the quality of the teaching and learning experiences of students. However, more research on this topic needs to be undertaken before the association between learning style preferences and teaching and learning strategies is more clearly understood.

  125. Dr. Habab Abd Alhaiy Osman

    This study aims to identify the differences between degrees of emotional intelligence, and area variable which the student resides, and the study was carried out on the students of primary school Mjmaah governorate (Saudi Arabia) and covered (cities, villages and emigration) and sample reached (477 students from male at fifth and sixth class) and measure use (EQT) prepared by the researcher, and the results found out the existence of differences in the total degree of emotional intelligence ascribes to area variable, and that there are differences between the students of city, village and emigration in total degree of emotional intelligence and its components(Facilitate the emotions of thinking (FET), empathy , motivation emotional awareness, organizing and managing emotions, and temperamental case) and has varied in favor of city, village and emigration.

  126. Dr. Mrs. Vasudha R Nikam, Dr. Niranjan B Patil and Dr. Balkrishna S Kitture

    A 24 years old primigravida underwent a routine ultrasound scan at 26 weeks of gestation; which showed a single normal growing foetus with intrathoracic mass on the left side of thoracic cage along with left displacement of cardiac apex. The mass was closely associated with lower portion of left lung. The extralobar sequestration was diagnosed which was further confirmed by colour Doppler during foetal period and by computed tomography and x-ray chest postnatally. Surgical excision was done.

  127. Giram, P. S., Khan Md Imran and More, S. R.

    The present work involves the study of effect of different additives on spherical crystalisation of celecoxib, to optimise the experimental conditions for obtaining spherical agglomerates, and to study the various properties of prepared agglomerates. The crystalline lattice of the celecoxib is of long needle shape, which is responsible for its cohesive property. This abundance of cohesive nature results in poor flow property of celecoxib. It is vital to get the directly compressible form of celecoxib so that it can be directly compressed in high doses. This drug is mentioned under BCS class II category with a pka of 11.1. Several studies have been done on preparation of directly compressible form of celecoxib by spherical crystallisation method, the agglomerates were prepared alongwith incorporation of different excipients during crystallisation procedure, to study their effects on prepared agglomerates. In the investigation, studies have been done to check the effect of surfactant and various methacrylate polymers on spherical agglomeration behaviour and compaction-consolidation properties of celecoxib.

  128. Onochie, A. U., Ekwunoh, P. O., Ozuah, A. C., Nwabufoh, O. F., Mbadugha, N. N., Mamah, V. O., Ebugosi, R. S., Ibegbu, V. O. and Nwobodo, E. I.

    The aim of the study was to ascertain the incidence of rabies viral infection vis-a-viz stem the rate of the spread in our vicinity. Study on the incidence on rabies virus among the vaccinated and non vaccinated dogs in South Eastern, Nigeria was carried out. A total number of 193 dogs were investigated using the Sellers stain technique by examining the brain smears made from hippocampus and cerebellum parts of their brains especially those that died from rabies using a light microscope. Result showed that the vaccinated dogs did not stand the chance of transmitting rabies virus to other dogs, animals and humans from our findings. The disease should be of much concern to the people as it was widespread among animals reservoirs especially dogs being mans close pet, so it was imperative to vaccinate dogs especially by the owners, hence, the low rate of rabies viral infection recorded in our vicinity was as a result of awareness created by health agency and our ancient belief of regarding rearing of dogs as a taboo.

  129. Philip Onuoha and Josann Mazelie, MSCN

    Aim: To describe the lived experiences of Registered Nurses at the Sangre Grande hospital, Trinidad and Tobago, who have only basic Nursing training but are required to clinically manage oncology patients with Brain Tumours. Background: Seventy-five (75%) of admissions to the Sangre Grande Hospital, on a daily basis, are Oncology long stay patients, who are admitted onto the medical ward. Lack of training in this specific area of expertise created feelings of inadequacy and work dissatisfaction among those Nurses. Method: Qualitative phenomenological design was employed to garner information from six (6) Registered Nurses from the Sangre Grande hospital, who have the basic Nursing Training and are directly responsible for the clinical management of patients with Brain Tumours were interviewed. The interviews were coded and analysed using Teschs’ method of open coding. Results: The RNs responses were grouped into five (5) major themes: The need for Oncology training for RNs; the need for Oncology facilities and support for RNs, patients, and relatives; the Physical impact/toll on RNs; the Psychological impact/toll on RNs; and RNs’ challenges interacting with patients. Conclusion: The results mainly revealed that it was psychologically and physically demanding and frustrating for RNs to function in this specific areas of expertise with only basic Nursing training. These results were congruent with the results received in similar studies by Poggenpoel, Myburgh, and Morare (2011) in Johannesburg, South Africa, and Johansson and Lindhal (2012) in Sweden.

  130. Dr. K. V. V. Satyanarayana and Dr. K. Vijayasekhar

    A prospective study of Central Retinal vein Occlusion conducted at Govt. Regional Eye Hospital Visakhapatnam. Materials and Methods: 26 cases documented with in a period of one year, all the cases are examined, investigated, treated and followed up for a period of one and half years. Results: Incidence of ischemic CRVO is more as the age advances. Visual prognosis is good in non ischemic CRVO. Ischemic variant of CRVO not only ended with bad visual prognosis, but also serious complications. Conclusions: The incidence of ischemic and nonischemic CRVO is almost same. Proper follow up is mandatory to diagnose conversion of non ischemic to ischemic verity and to identify the impending compilations.

  131. Udoye Ezenwa Patrick, Ijomone Eseroghene Arthur and Nwosu Simeon Onyechere

    Introduction: Ovarian cancer has one of the highest mortality rates among the cancers of the female genital tract. Aim: To ascertain the relative frequency, histological types, age distribution of ovarian cancer seen in University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital between January 1998 and December 2007 and to compare the results with local and international studies. Methodology: A retrospective study based on surgical biopsies from histopathologically proven cases of ovarian neoplasms seen at the hospital. Clinical information and bio-data were obtained from request forms. All the slides of ovarian tumours were reviewed. Results were analyzed using simple descriptive statistical methods. Results: A total of 166 ovarian neoplasms were seen over the 10 year period, out of which 38 (22.9%) were malignant. Ovarian cancer was highest between 51- 60 years. The mean age at diagnosis was 45.8 years. Surface epithelial ovarian cancers were the most common group (71.1%), followed by germ cell and sex cord-stromal tumours, 13.2% each. Overall, Serous cystadenocarcinoma was the most common subtype (36.8%) followed by mucinous cystadenocarcinoma (31.6%). Conclusion: Malignant ovarian tumours are far less common than their benign counterparts with surface epithelial malignancies being more common than germ cell cancers of the ovary in our locale.

  132. RadhaVerma, Prashin Unadakat, Chirag Vaja, Kiran Gaikwad and Tauseefahmed mamdapur

    Tuberculosis typically in majority of cases affects the lungs. Extrapulmonary tuberculosis affecting the bone is usually limited to the long bones and vertebral bodies. Rarely, does a case of tuberculosis affect the oro-fascial structures. We present a case of a 14 year old male child who presented with progressive swelling of the right maxilla with constitutional symptoms of evening rise of temperature and weight loss. On imaging it appeared to be more suggestive of malignant involvement but was confirmed to be tuberculous osteomyelitis of the maxilla after excision biopsy. Multiple foci in the brain, abdomen and various groups of lymph nodes were also found. The patient was started on treatment and followed up.

  133. Muneera Naz Baloch, Roquya Siddiqi, Humera Erum and Marium Zia

    Aims: To screen for the new effective antibacterial and probiotic strain of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from indigenous sources such as milk, yogurt, tomato and infant feces. Methods and Results: On the basis of morphology, cultural characteristics and catalase test isolates were identified up to genus level. Stab and agar well assay was performed to investigate the antagonistic potential of isolates. In order to rule out the effect of acid neutralized cell free culture supernatants (NCFCS) were used. Of all the isolates screened for antagonistic activity a milk isolate designated as LBM-86 appeared as strong bacteriocin producer, hence it was selected for further studies to determine its acid and bile tolerance which is generally considered important property for survival of probiotic strain in small intestine. When LBM-86 was grown in different concentrations of bile, decrease in absorbance and CFUml-1 was observed at high concentrations of bile, but bacteriocin activity was enhanced at these concentrations. Conclusions: Our isolate LBM-86 displayed antibacterial activity and bile tolerance, this could emphasize its candidature as probiotic. Significance and impact of the study: LBM-86 exhibited promising results and possess potentials for further research to explore its role as probiotic strain for nutritional and beneficial aspects.

  134. Sachin Kumar, R.V. Suresh and M. Ranjithkumar

    The study was conducted to evaluate the comparative efficacy of ceftriaxone, enrofloxacin and amoxycillin - cloxacillin for therapeutic management of subclinical mastitis affected cows. Ten apparently healthy Jersey crossbreed cows were taken as healthy control group. A total of 30 Jersey crossbred cows with history of reduction in milk yield were subjected to clinical examination, haematology and special examination of milk including bacterial culture and antibiotic sensitivity test. Based on antibiotic sensitivity test subclinical mastitis affected cows were divided into three treatment groups, each comprises 10 cows. The first group was treated with ceftriaxone, while the second and third groups were treated with enrofloxacin and amoxicillin - cloxacillin respectively. Whereas the healthy control group no treatment was advocated. Clinical examination of udder revealed no significant changes following therapy in all the three treatment groups. Haematological study of subclinical mastitis affected cows reveled leukocytosis with neutrophillia and eosinophillia before treatment and after treatment the haematological values reached the normal level. The physical examination of subclinical mastitic milk reveled no changes in colour, consistency and odour. The chemical examination reveled increased pH, electrical conductivity, somatic cell count, chloride content and positive scores of modified whiteside test and modified california mastitis test in subclinical mastitis affected cows before treatment and the values reached normal levels after treatment. The present study has shown better therapeutic efficacy of ceftriaxone compared to enrofloxacin and amoxycillin - cloxacillin in treatment of subclinical mastitis affected cows.

  135. MoawiaGameraddin, Suzan Abdelmaboud, 1SulimanSalih and Abdalrahim Alsayed

    Objective: To assess the association between aspects of maternal health (blood pressure and diabetic status) and fetal heart rate (FHR) during the third trimester, and compare FHR in male and female fetuses" or similar. Methods: This is a descriptive cross-sectional study. The study population comprised 100 pregnant women in the third trimester. The study was conducted in Khartoum state between January and May 2012. Subjects were categorized according to blood pressure (hypertensive, hypotensive, prehypertensive and normotensive) and gestational diabetes status (diabetic vs. non-diabetic). All subjects underwent ultrasound imaging using a 3.5 MHz probe, according to the obstetric scanning protocol. Fetal heart activity was observed using the 4-chamber view and M mode was applied to measure the FHR. Data were collected on a clinical data sheet, designed to record relevant maternal clinical history (hypertension and diabetes mellitus). Results: Fetal heart rate was weakly correlated with gestational age in the final weeks of pregnancy (r = 0.35). Fetal heart rate was higher in subjects with hypertension than in normotensive subjects (p= 0.000). Maternal hypotension had no influence on FHR (p= 0.166). The FHR of male and female fetuses showed no significant difference (p= 0.456). Maternal diabetes did not appear to influence FHR (p= 0.166). Conclusion: FHRis strongly influenced by maternal hypertension. The FHR did not significantly differ between fetuses of diabetic women and non-diabetic women. There was no significant difference in the FHR between male and female Fetuses

  136. Dr. Mohan Lal

    Unclean or soiled hands transmit infections in a community as well as in the hospital settings. Children are more prone to infection/infestation as they play and then often put their dirty hands, fingers in their mouth. Similarly when the adults have not properly washed their hands after defecation and before meal then they are liable to get infection/ infestation. Our hands are mostly infected when we touch the soiled items, after using the washroom, blowing nose or sneezing. In a hospital setting, simple tasks can contaminate hands, while taking patients vital signs, touching the patient's clothing or linens and touching equipment and furniture nearby. Hand washing for hand hygiene is the act of cleaning one's hands with or without the use of water or another liquid, or the use of soap. Hand washing leads to significant reduction in the number of potential infections causing organism. Practice of washing hands with soap and water or alcohol based hand sensitizer should be generally accepted. Alcohol gel should be used on visibly clean hands where hand washing facilities are not there in the patient's room. The gel contains hand moisturizes to keep your hands in good condition-therefore using alcohol gel is much kinder on the hands than soap and water. Alcohol based hand rub will work very quickly and effectively, especially when health professional entering or leaving a ward, also use after removing gloves. Alcohol based hand rub doesn't work against Clostridium difficile or any of the diarrheas, causing virus. Health personnel hand washing procedure compliance rate is approximately 40%. Every year on 15th of October, Global Hand Washing Day (GHD) is celebrated to motivate & mobilize peoples around the world to wash their hands with water and soap.

  137. Muneera Naz Baloch, Roquya Siddiqi, Wajeeha Asad, and Abdul Wahab

    Hundred and eighteen Lactic acid bacteria were isolated from indigenous sources including milk, yogurt, vegetables, meat, fermented dough and infant feces. On screening these isolates by stab and agar well method, were found them to produce antimicrobial substances inhibitory against other LAB strains. They also exhibited a broad spectrum of antagonistic activity against gram negative i.e E. coli, S. typhi, S. dysenterae, K. pneumonia and P. vulgaris and gram positive pathogens i.e S. pyogenes, S. fecalis, S. pneumonae, S. aureus, B. subtilis, B. cereus and C. diphtherae. Only 23 amongst these elaborated bacteriocin like inhibitory substance (BLIS) while the rest showed antagonism mainly due to organic acids. One of the strongest BLIS producing strain of lactobacillus LBT-36 isolated from fermented tomatoes was partially purified by ammonium sulphate precipitation and the purified protein was subjected to SDS-PAGE which gave a single band. Therefore, these strains after further essential investigations could be selected as good candidates for commercial use as bio-presevatives and can also contribute in improving human health by using them as Probiotics in different foods.

  138. Parvinder Kaur, Vipan Kumar, Heigo Pal, Hanish Sharma and Wadhawan, V. M.

    Seasonal incidence of haemoprotozoal diseases in cattle and buffalo was studied by examining 697 and 197 blood smears respectively, received from field to Regional Disease Diagnostic Centre during April 2013 to March 2014. The present study has recorded higher incidence of haemoprotozoal diseases in cattle and buffalo from May to October and April to October, respectively. In cattle, 302 (43.33%) out of 697 blood smears were positive for haemoprotozoal infection while in buffalo, 73 (37.05%) out of 197 blood smears were positive for haemoprotozoal infection. In both the species, higher incidence of Anaplasmosis was recorded as compared to other protozoan diseases.

  139. Dr. Anisha, Dr. S. Nagaraja and Dr. Suresh Y Bondade

    Background: Heart rate variability (HRV) is an objective and sensitive measure of integrated physiological functioning reflective of heart rhythm responsivity to internal and external demands. Reduced HRV is associated with vulnerability to stress, while increased HRV is associated with a favorable treatment response and recovery from various medical and/or psychiatric conditions. Cigarette smoking has been shown to adversely affect heart rate variability (HRV), suggesting dysregulation of cardiac autonomic function. Objectives: To determine the frequency and time domain measures of heart rate variability in smokers and thereby assessing the cardio vascular status. Materials and methods: 50 smokers and 50 normal male subjects between the age group of 20-50 years were selected. Computerized ECG system with Niviqure Software was used for the study. Frequency domain measures such as very low frequency, high frequency and LF/HF ratio and time domain measures such as mean RR intervals, mean HR, SDNN, RMSSD, were assessed to observe both sympathetic and parasympathetic nerve function status. Statistical analysis was done by Student’s unpaired t-test will be used to compare different parameters between study and control groups. Results: Frequency domain parameters like low frequency and LF/HF ratio were significantly (< 0.001) higher and HF was reduced, Time domain parameters like SDNN, RMSSD, PNN 50% and mean RR were reduced significantly in smokers compared to normal. Conclusion: Impaired cardiac autonomic nerve function characterized by sympathetic over activity and reduced vagal activity were found in the absence of any cardiac disease in smokers.

  140. Dr. Radha Verma, Dr. Mugdha Kowli, Dr. Kiran Gaikwad, Dr. Zaffar Sayed, Dr. Chirag Vaja

    Familial multiple lipomatosis (FML) is a rare hereditary syndrome of multiple encapsulated lipomas which are seen over trunk and extremities. We report a case of a gentleman who presented for evaluation of multiple swellings over body that caused cosmetic impairment. Such larger lesions were excised. Diagnosis of familial multiple lipomatosis (FML) was made based on characteristic clinical and family history.

  141. Dr. Pradeep, R., Dr. Harsha, S., Dr. Keshava, B. S., Dr. Vivek Karan and Dr. Praveen Kulkarni

    Migraine is a common type of primary headache. Anxiety is seen more commonly in migraineur's than general population. Presence of Anxiety inmigraineur's also significantly effect the quality of life. The present study was done to look for the presence of anxiety among migraine patients and normal individuals and also to compare quality of life in migraineur’s with and without anxiety. Materials and Methods: In this case control study 127 individuals with migraine and 30 age and sex matched healthy individuals were studied. The International Headache Society's International Classification of Headache Disorders, 3rd Edition, (ICHD-III) was followed to diagnose Migraine with or without aura. Head ache impact test was used to assess severity of headache. Migraine disability assessment scale (MIDAS) was used to assess migraine related disability. Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I.) PLUS questionnaire was used to screen for the presence of anxiety. Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale was used for assessing severity of anxiety. WHO Quality of Life -BREF questionnaire was used to assess quality of life. Results: Anxiety was present in 36(28.34%) with migraine while 3(5%) in control group had anxiety. In females anxiety was found in 33.7% while in males anxiety was found in 15.78%. Quality of life was significantly affected in those with anxiety. Conclusion: The occurrence of anxiety as comorbid condition with migraine is common. Anxiety is more common in females. The quality of life is negatively impacted in those with comorbid anxiety.

  142. Muneera Naz Baloch, Roquya Siddiqi, Sadaf Zehra and Marium Zia

    The kinetics of lactocin LC-09 synthesis and the effect on the growth of LC -09 was determined at different temperatures i.e. 37 ˚C, 40 ˚C, 45 ˚C and 50 ˚C. Of all the temperatures tested, 37 ˚C, 40 ˚C and 45 ˚C displayed bacteriocin production in the early exponential phase. However, no lactocin production was observed at 50 ˚C. Cell dry mass and µ max was also determined at such temperatures. Maximum cell dry mass obtained at 37˚C and 45 ˚C and µ max increased as the dry cell mass increased. Heat stability of lactocin LC-09 indicates that lactocin LC- 09 is heat stable up to 100 ˚C even heating for 50 minutes but high temperature has marked effect on lactocin production during growth. Effect of pH on lactocin LC-09 indicates that the lactocin is active at acidic pH.

  143. Rajendran, P., Sureka, I. and Dhanasekaran, D.

    Totally ten bacterial isolates were obtained and screened for biofouling activity. Two isolates DPR1 and DPB1 showed significant biofouling activity in the tube method and microtitre plate assay. These two isolates showed similarity with Vibrio sp. on morphological, biochemical and molecular characteristics. The 16S rDNA sequence of the one bacterial isolate was performed and identified as Vibrio sp. DPR1 using Phylogenetic analysis. The 16S rDNA secondary structure and restriction sites of Vibrio sp. DPR1 were also studied. This investigation clearly revealed the presence of biofouling bacteria anchored in the thermal power plant pipe. In vitro biofouling activity was evaluated in different substrate such as stone, glass, metal sheet and pipe. Among substrate the maximum biofouling was in stone followed by glass, metal sheet and pipe. Bacterial EPS production was evaluated using different carbon, nitrogen and phosphate source. Among the various nutrition, sucrose, ammonium sulphate and K2HPO4 specifically the maximum EPS production under in vitro condition.

  144. Dr. Ramanuj Patel

    The screening for evaluating herbicidal potential of CFCF (Cell Free Culture Filtrate) of some isolated fungal strains against some problematic weeds of Madhya Pradesh viz. Parthenium hysterophorus, Lantana camara, Xanthium strumarum, Cassia tora, Hyptis suveolens, and Sida actua was done by employing shoot cut bioassay and seedling bioassay. CFCF obtained from 21 days old fermented broth was used. Results indicated that CFCF (Cell Free Culture Filtrate) from Fusarium oxysporum FGCCW#43, Fusarium moniliforme FGCCW#16 and Fusarium roseum #55 showed excellent results against these weeds, whereas CFCF from Phoma herbarum FGCCW#54 showed strong mortality against Parthenium hysterophorus. The results from this study revealed potential fungal species that could be used as a novel, lucrative source of natural herbicides in the future.

  145. Bibhas Deb, Susanti, NG., Soumitra Nath, Kaberi Deb and Biswajit Deb Roy

    Infectious diseases are one of the major problems in developing as well as developed countries. Plants produce a diverse range of natural products that have long been providing important drug leads for infectious diseases. Azadirachta indica Linn. (Neem) is a tree which has been found to possess antibacterial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, anti-tumour properties and is also used as a pesticide. Leucas aspera Link (Donokolosh) has also been found to have antioxidant, antibacterial and cytotoxic effect. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of Azadirachta indica and Leucas aspera by using disc diffusion method. Clinical bacterial isolates such as Escherichia coli, Klebsiella sp. and Staphylococcus aureus were used as test organisms. Acetone extract of Azadirachta indica and methanolic extract of Leucas aspera were used.

  146. Mankilik, M., Mhya, D., Mikailu, A. S., Ringim, S.I., Mohammed, S .Y.

    Qualitative phytochemical analysis of Trochomeria dalzielii seed oil was carried out with the aim to provide analytical data of the seed oil for its medicinal and/or nutritional importance. The T. dalzielii seed oil was extracted using Soxhlet extractor. Fatty acids composition of T. dalzielii seed oil was determined by GC–MS technique while the phytochemical analysis was done by standard methods. The fatty acids compositions revealed six bioactive components including; Oleic, Linoleic, Palmitic, Stearic, Eicosanoic, and Behemic acids. Oleic acid (57.95%) is the most abundant and Behemic acid (0.47%) is the less. The result of the phytochemical analysis of T. dalzielii seed oil revealed the presence of flavonoids, saponins, tannins, alkaloids, steroids, resins and glycosides. Several studies have reported the importance of these phytochemicals, and based on these findings, it could be suggested that T. dalzielii seed oil might serve as potential nutraceuticals.

  147. Pushpa Dahiya and Savita Jakhar

    Parthenium hysterophorus (Asteraceae family) is regarded as one of the worst weeds because of its invasiveness, fast growing habit and economic and environmental impacts. The vigorous mode of reproduction and the ability to possess of an arsenal of secondary metabolites has given it the status of invasive alien species. This noxious weed possesses large and persistent soil seed bank, high seed germination rate and ability to undergo dormancy under unfavorable periods. It is able to invade all disturbed land including farms, pastures and vacant lots and grows profusely along roadsides and railway tracks. This weed thus colonizes a range of vegetation and soil types and spread easily by water, farm and industrial machinery, animals, vehicles, stock fodder, movement of stock, grains and seeds. It affects each and every part of the ecosystem. It is considered to be a cause of a spectrum of clinical patterns: allergic respiratory problems, contact dermatitis, mutagenicity in human and livestock. During dry season, the mature plant crumble to a fine dust, that is scattered by the wind and becomes the source of "airborne contact dermatitis". Pollen grain of this weed produces hypersensitive disorders in susceptible individuals; the symptoms being watery eyes, swelling and itching of mouth and nose, constant coughing especially at night, continually running nose and sneezing. The plant produces toxic allelochemicals that affects the seed germination and the growth of the plants in its surroundings. Moreover, these substances are potent mitodepressive agents leading to several types of chromosomal abnormalities in dividing cells of plants growing in vicinity of this weed. Hence, it is also a threat to biodiversity of an area. The wide adaptability of the plant, its photo- and thermo-insensitivity and drought tolerance capacity in addition to allelopathic potential makes it a strong competitor in all habitats. There is also a growing concern that this weed will become more competitive and aggressive as concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere increases i.e. due to green house effect. Looking at the harmful effect of the weed, there is an urgent need to control the population of this weed. However, it is a big challenge because of its high regeneration capacity, production of huge amount of seeds, high seed germinability and extreme adaptability to a wide range of ecosystems.

  148. Padmapriya, T. and Dr. Lakshmi, U. K.

    Woman is the central figure who provides the child care, hygiene, nutrition and even primary health care among families. The health and nutritional status of women are at large very critical and various strategies are being adopted to improve the condition. One of the best agency through which women’s status can be improved is Self Help Groups. Three hundred Self Help Group women aged between 30-40 years were selected randomly from Karamadai Block of Coimbatore District, Tamil Nadu and divided equally into two groups – Experimental and Control group. Socio-economic status, dietary background and nutritional knowledge of all the women were assessed. Anthropometric parameters such as height, weight, BMI and Waist Hip Ratio were measured using standardized procedures. They were clinically examined for signs of various nutritional deficiencies. Haemoglobin levels were also estimated to identify the prevalence of anaemia. Based on the results and the reports from PHC centres a Nutrition and Health Education Programme was planned and imparted to the Experimental group for a period of three months through demonstrations, exhibitions, lectures and leaflets,. The evaluation of nutrition and health education was done through a structured questionnaire administered before and after nutrition education about their knowledge, attitude and practices. The data revealed that majority of the women belonged to lower socioeconomic status and their dietary practices were not satisfactory. Clinical signs and symptoms of nutritional deficiency were also prevalent. Mean haemoglobin levels were below normal (10g/dl) among many women indicating anaemic status. Nutrition education showed a positive effect in the experimental group. It is suggested that there is a great need for proper selection and intake of foods in the daily dietaries which can be achieved by changing their attitudes towards proper consumption through nutrition and health education. Long term intervention strategies are the need of the hour.

  149. Nihad Abdul-Lateef Ali AL-Nedawi and Haider Mohammed Hassan

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of adding different levels of (Thymus vulgaris) leaves powder to the diet on some egg quality traits. A total of 300ISA Brown hens, 23 weeks old were randomly assigned for 4 treatments of 75 laying hens each. Each treatment constitutes of 3 replicates with 25 laying hens each. (Thymus vulgaris) leaves powder was supplemented to the diet of hens at the levels of 0 (control group; T1), 500 mg/Kg of diet (T2), 750 mg/Kg of diet (T3) and 1000 mg/Kg of diet (T4). Egg quality traits included in this study were: egg weight, yolk diameter, yolk height, yolk weight, shell weight, shell thickness and haugh unit. Results revealed that feeding the birds diet contains different levels of (Thymus vulgaris) leaves powder (T2, T3, T4) resulted in significant improvement as regards egg weight, yolk diameter, yolk height, yolk weight, shell thickness and haugh unit during the periods of this experiment and concerning the (Thymus vulgaris) leaves powder means of these traits. Thus, (Thymus vulgaris) leaves powder can be used as one of the important nutritive additives that added to laying hens for improving some egg quality traits.

  150. Akhilesh Singh, K., Kemparaju, K. B., Virupaxagouda Patil, Rahul Priyadarshi, Pranitha Koradi, Durga Khandekar, Jayaramulu, K., Sheshu Madhav, M., Lalitha Shanti, M., Pawan Khera, Manisha Barthwal, Subba Rao, L. V., Hariprasad, A.S., Ulaganathan, K. a

    A practical option to address food security of South-east Asian countries with rice as staple is to exploit yield heterosis through hybrid rice technology. Several traits contribute to hybrid rice seed production efficiency, and stigma exsertion is a trait increasing the opportunity of pollination and thereby enhancing hybrid seed set. Few rice stigma exsertion types are enumerated but phenotyping methods are not systematic and well compared. This study reports the extent of variability for the trait in parental lines of some popular rice hybrids, identifies the opportunity for enhancing the trait in some of them, and identifies good donors, namely BF16B and BF96B for the trait. During phenotyping, sample processing was improved for non-distortion of spikelet characters and longer storability between sampling and phenotyping. Method comparison analyses between the two modified phenotyping methods for stigma exsertion indicate that the whole panicle and the panicle zone methods are statistically on par in quantitative assessment of stigma exsertion and are interchangeable. However, the latter being less resource demanding, may be the choice for stigma exsertion phenotyping in rice.

  151. Dr. C. Abi and Dr. Viswanathan, S.

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of pre-malignant lesions of the cervix by visual inspection with Acetic acid (VIA) and cervical cytology method (Pap smear) in a rural based hospital Materials and Methods: The study was carried out among 30-65 years old married women in a rural based tertiary health care center. A pre-designed questionnaire wasadministered to collect information on socio-demographic and reproductive characteristic. They were tested for the presence of pre-malignant lesions of the cervix using Pap smear and VIA as screening tools. Results: The VIA test was positive among 8(3.6%) women and PAP smear was abnormal in 9(4.05%) of women. None of the patient who had abnormal PAP smear were VIA positive and vice versa Conclusion: The prevalence of pre-malignant lesions of the cervix by VIA was 3.6 % while 4.05% pre-malignant lesion was detected by Pap smear method.. Lack of education, awareness and poor follow up are the main factors behind failure of screening programs in a rural setting. In low-resource areas, VIA can be better than PAP smears for its ease of use and low cost, eliminating the need for follow-up visits.

  152. Kowser Alam Laskar, S. A., Das, A. K. and Dutta, B. K.

    A survey work was carried out to study the Ethnoveterinary uses of plants by the Halam tribe of Hailakandi district of Southern Assam. Field visits have been conducted from January 2013 to July 2013. Ethnoveterinary information was gathered through individual interviews and observations with the tribe under study. A total of 30 species of Ethnoveterinary importance medicinal plants belongs to 23 families were recorded in the study area with the help of Ethnoveterinary traditional healers. Among the plant parts used by the selected tribe, leaves, flower, fruit, bark, bulb, rhizome, roots are most commonly used for the preparation of medicine for the treatment of domestic animals. The present paper deals with the some of the common plant species with their scientific name, family, local names, parts used, mode of preparation and medicinal use for curing diseases.

  153. Aravind Barad and Vijaykumar B Malashetty

    Early somatic embryogenesis from single cells or a multi cells differentiated into embryos from Enicostemma hyssopifolium (Willd.) Verd. cell suspension culture were obtained by fractionation through sieving, using iron mesh and centrifugation. These cells differentiated to embryos when they were cultured on a Murashige and skoog’s medium containing 0.5 mgl 1 α-Napthaleneacetic acid (NAA) + 1.0 mgl 1 Zeatin (Ze) for 14 days, followed by transfer to a medium containing 1.0 mgl 1 Ze lacking auxin. This indicates that there are at least two phases in the differentiation of embryos. The progression of the first phase required exogenous auxin, whereas that of the second phase was inhibited by the same growth regulator. The embyrogenic cells were richly cytoplasmic, contained numerous starch grains and were about 30 µm. Proembryo like structures with few cells and having mainly transverse or longitudinal division was observed among many elongated and vacuolated non embryogenic single cells (50-200 µm). From serial observations of the pre-embryo like structures after transfer to a micro chamber, it was confirmed that they are developed in to successive stages of somatic embryos. Therefore, a study of the origin and pattern of development will provide a better understanding of the order-generating processes.

  154. Ajit Kumar Das and Reshma Khatoon

    Kom tribe belong to Chin kuki, one of the two major tribes i,e Kuki and Naga tribe of Manipur. The present paper reports 25 plant species traditionally used by Kom tribe of Manipur for the treatment of various diseases and disorder related to gynecological problems. Ethno gynecological is an important field that deals with various diseases related to problem in menstruation, white discharge, abortion sterility, gonorrhea, conception, debility after delivery etc. Their hard life keep them busy all the time that make them difficult to take care of their health. Valuable information about the medicinal uses of certain plant against various diseases of the Kom tribe were obtain through personal interview and collection. The Botanical name, families, local name, parts used and type of disease were mention.

  155. Gupta, M., Acharya, S. K. and Biswas, A.

    Bamboo enterprise plays an important role in the rural economy of Tripura by providing subsistence activities, employment generation and household income. It is the most suitable subsistence resource for about 28,000 families engaged in shifting cultivation each year. Keeping this in view, the present study was carried out with the objective to assess the livelihood and level of income of bamboo plantation by farmers of small holding. In the present study number respondents were 96, who have been selected randomly from the Hezamara block, west district of Tripura and total number of predictor variables were 19 .The data were collected through pilot survey, structured interview, and questionnaire, participatory approaches. The study reveals that the predictor variable viz. family size (X3), land under agricultural crop (X7), land under bamboo (X9),annual income before bamboo (X11), energy consumption(X16), cost incurred in bamboo cultivation (X18) are some of the variable which has recorded significant association with income from bamboo as well mandays and wages generation from bamboo. The following factors have been identified through PCA as to have substantive contributions on the cumulative variance of the livelihood and productivity of bamboo enterprise. These are: Family resource entrepreneurship, input media interaction, home and human resource support and resource status. The variable Age(X1), family size( X3), Land under agricultural crop (X7), Cropping intensity (X8), land under bamboo (X9), Material possessed (X10), energy consumption (X16), cost incurred in bamboo cultivation (X18) have been retained in the step down regression to imply that these variable is extremely important to these causal variable to interpret the reason and spectrum of variance of the consequent variable in its behavior and performance.

  156. Ausama Abed Alkadhum Alajeely , Navodita G. Maurice and Amenah Kadhim Murad Almansoori

    Typhoid fever is one of the major problems in India due to the emergence of MDR strains of Salmonella spp. Blood samples collected from 252 presumptive typhoid fever patients from different localities of Allahabad region were tested by Widal test and then cultured for Salmonella species followed by identification using standard procedures. Susceptibility pattern of the isolates against 16 antibiotics were determined by Kirby Bauer disc diffusion technique. Conjugative experiment was carried out with selected multidrug resistant isolates of Salmonella species.A total of 30.53% samples were positive by culture method in contrast to 66.26% blood samples tested positive by Widal test. The isolates were identified as S. typhi (52.94%), S. paratyphi A (27.45%), S. typhimurium (15.68%) and S. bongori (3.92%). Majority of isolates showed resistance to Tetracycline, Ampicillin, Nitrofurantion, Amoxicillin, Amoxicillin and Clavulanic acid while all the isolates were found resistant to Kanamycin. The isolates showed maximum sensitivity towards Streptomycin, Ciprofloxacin, Gentamicin and Ofloxacin. The multidrug resistant isolates demonstrated various drug resistance patterns. Conjugation studies showed transfer of resistance pattern (ACCoT) for majority of Salmonella isolates tested. Changing drug sensitivity pattern suggests need for continuous evaluation of sensitivity and resistance pattern of Salmonella isolates so as to make rational use of antibiotics in the management of enteric fever cases in future.

  157. Dr. Kumari Sethu Lakshmi Bai, P. K. and Dr. Ramani Bai, M.

    Mulberry leaf is the solo food and source of nutrition for the silkworm, Bombyx mori L. Fortification of mulberry leaves with supplementary compounds was found to increase the larval growth and post cocoon characteristics. Silk production is dependent on the larval nutrition and nutritive value of mulberry leaves. The use of commercial pre and probiotic bacteria in sericulture has tremendous scope. So to explore the effectiveness on nutritional and commercial characteristics of B.mori the study was carried out. Mulberry leaves supplemented with commercial pre and probiotics Flora-SB at the concentration of 1%, 3% and 5% were administered, starting with the first day, first feed of each instar. The research was performed with control and experimental groups of 3 replications of 50 larvae each. In order to have a detailed picture of the energy and economical parameters, daily measurement of dry matter ingested, faeces produced, biomass gained by the larvae, quantitative and qualitative characters of the cocoon were recorded. Pre and probiotics with a concentration of 3% was very effective and recorded maximum food consumption (1.836 ± 0.07g), assimilation (1.544 ± 0.05g), tissue growth (0.118 ± 0.002g), RGR (54.06 ± 1.84 per cent), cocoon weight (1.98 ± 0.09g), shell weight (0.37 ± 0.01g) and filament length (804.26 ± 23.12m). Probiotics are live microbial food supplement that beneficially affect an individual by improving intestinal microbial balance. Prebiotics are non- digestible dietary fiber that exert some biological effect by stimulating growth or bioactivity of beneficial microorganisms. Thus pre and probiotics together enhances nutritional efficacy of B.mori which inturn reflect on the quality improvement of cocoon characteristics.

  158. Nayla Gumaa, Esam Mohamed Abdulraheem, Abdalhafeez Osman and Abulgasim Abdelhaleem

    Objective: this was a cross sectional study aimed to search for ecto-parasites in mouth of mullet fish obtained from the Sudanese Red Sea Coast. Material and Methods: a number of 1540 mullet fish was included in the study. The body surface and mouth parts of fish were examined for presence of parasites and surrounding tissues were examined for pathological effects. Results: one new species for the region was identified (Cymothoa exigua) and fish hosts were also identified (Valamugil Buchanani, Valamugil Seheli, and Mugil Cephalus). Conclusion: The study is the first to report presence of Cymothoa exigua in the Sudanese Red Sea Coast.

  159. Tiwari, J. K., Tiwari, P., Dinesh Singh Rawat, Radha Ballabha and Rana, C. S.

    Alligator weed (Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart.) Griseb.) has been spread all over the India, especially in tropical and warm temperate regions. Recently, its occurrence was recorded in tropical parts and foot hills of Uttarakhand state. The uphill journey of the alligator weed in the state is a serious matter of concern. The weed may reach to alpine region of Himalaya soon by taking route along water courses, as it can readily survive in cold winter and severe frost.

  160. Gaber Ahmed Saad Ibrahim

    Zooplankton were collected from four marine ecosystems namely the North Sea (Helgoland - Germany), Banyuls-sur-Mer (Mediterranean sea - France), Abu Qir Bay (Mediterranean Sea- Egypt) and the northern estruarine harbour of the Arabian Gulf (Saudi Arabia). Collection tools used involved primarily the filtration of water by net, collecting the water in bottles/ water samplers or by pumps. Artificial heterologous inseminations on ascidians were tried in the laboratory and the larval stages have been described and identified. Collected zooplaktons were prepared for both macroscopic or / and scanning electron microscopy. All zooplankton were stained with Evans stain or Nile blue or Borax carmine to observe their internal structures since they are mostly transparent. Others were dissected with micro-needles and incised to ease their identification. Marine Species Identification Portal has been applied: http://species-identification.org/index.php//.Six species of Bryozoa were identified namely Bugula neritina (Linnaeus, 1758) and itsbarrel shapedlarva, Electra crustulenta (Pallas, 1766),Bowerbankia gracilis (Leidy, 1855) and its coronated larva, Hippaliosina depressa (Busk, 1854), Nolella dilatata (Marcus, 1940)and Reptadeonella violacea (Johnston, 1847). Two hydrozoan cnidarians were identified namely Obelia geniculata (Linnaeus, 1758) and Pennaria disticha (Goldfuss, 1820). Planula larva of Hydrozoa and the anthozoan Actinodendron sp. were collected from the Mediterranean sea. Two rotifers were identified namely Paraseison annulatus (Claus, 1876) and Seison nebaliae (Grube, 1861).The nematode Anisakis simplex and its third stage larva were extracted from the branchial chambers of ascidians whereas free nematode toothless larval stage has been collected from nekton. Four polychaetes were identified namely Harmothoe sp.,(scale worm), Pomatocerous triqueter (Linnaeus, 1758), Nemidia lawrencii (McIntosh, 1874) with synoneme Nemidia torelli and Notomastus latericeus (Sars, 1851). The copepod Megacyclops viridis (Jurine, 1820) and the gammarid Gammaropsis sp. with Naupli, zoaeaand megalopods were found in the nekton. The the isopod Caecocassidias patagonica (Kussakin, 1967) has been collected from the benthos. The scaphopod Dentalium vulgare (da Costa, 1778) and the bivalve Microgloma turnerae (Sanders and Allen,1973) were found in the benthos. Veliger and glochidia larvae were collected from the nekton. Two species of brittle star namely Amphiura sp and Ophiomastix annulosa were collected from the benthos. Echinoplutei with 8 arms were found in the nekton. Nine ascidian larvae were identified namely larvae of Styela plicata (Lesuaer, 1823), Phallusia mammilata (Cüvier 1815), Corella parallelogramma (Müller,1776), Diplosoma migrans (Menker und Ax. 1970), Halocynthia roretzi (Drasche), Microcosmus claudicans (Savigny,1816), Molgula manhattensis (Dekay, 1843), Ascidiella aspersa (Müller, 1776), and Cnemidocarpa mollis (Stimpson,1852). The abundance and distribution of all plankton studied varied considerably according to seasons and habitats. The findings of this work, the density of each genus or / and species in the four study localities and the presence or absence of a certain zooplankton in the different seasons of the year (faunal composition) will be statistically analyzed in another publication.

  161. Sreedevi Padmanabhan

    The onset of DNA replication which is the essential step in the reproduction of any cell requires specific interactions of initiator proteins at defined loci called origins. Although the origin size varies from prokaryotes to eukaryotes, the origin recognition complex which is one of the major players initiating DNA replication across the species is conserved. The orchestrated binding of ORC facilitates DNA melting which in turn is the inception for the duplication of the DNA thus helping to emanate bidirectionally from the origins. The conserved DNA binding domains, ATP regulation and the structural properties of the DNA are the key features of the replication machinery. The ORC proteins exhibit a multifaceted role besides its fundamental role in DNA replication. The ORC mutations leads to various diseases.

  162. Ganesan, J. and R. Karuppasamy

    The effects of sublethal concentration (4.42 mg L-l) of zinc on haematological alterations were investigated in freshwater fish Channapunctatus for 20, 40 and 60 days respectively. Result of the treated groups showed significant decrease in RBC count, Hb content, packed cell volume and mean cell haemoglobin concentration when compared to the control with increase in exposure period. On the contrary, the WBC count, mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration were significantly increased. Both decreasing and increasing haematological characteristics of blood cells of Zn toxicity are mainly with time dependent effects. The alterations of haematological profile in zinc exposed fish might be due to the pathological consequences like haemolysis, anaemia and haemodilution.

  163. Sonila Kane and Pranvera Lazo

    Aiming to assess the water quality and to evaluate the environmental pollution caused by different anthropogenic factors on Vlora Bay, the physical and chemical parameters were determined at 15 sampling sites during the February 2013. The seawater samples were collected at 7 sampling sites among the bay and 8 sampling sites of Narta and Orikumi Lagoons that are positioned in the Bay. The seawater samples were analyzed for 12 physico-chemical parameters such as temperature, pH, total dissolved solids (TDS), total suspended solids (TSS), dissolved oxygen (DO), salinity, red/ox potential, conductivity, and nutrients content (N-NO3-, N-NO2-, N-NH4+ and P-PO43-). The analytical data were entered into a data matrix and were statistically treated with Descriptive Statistics method and multivariate analysis by using MINITAB 15 software package. Based on the similarity regarding the environmental situation, the sampling stations were classified into 3 main clusters by grouping in the same cluster the stations of the same lagoon and the next one belongs to the samples of the Bay. The principal component analysis identified four principal components that distinguish different factors that affect the environmental situation of Vlora Bay coastal area.

  164. Swarna Kumari, T., Ramadevi, Y. and Sangeeta, A.

    Markovian semantic indexingprovide a novel method for a higher precision of image retrieval from image search engines. Here introduce a new topic for automatic annotation, indexing and annotation-based retrieval of images. A new frame work to construct an Aggregate Markov Chain(AMC) through which the relevance between the keywords is defined and the queries are also used to automatically annotate the images. The new method is used to call Markovian Semantic Indexing is presented by context of image retrieval system in online. The properties of Markovian Semantic Indexing make it particularly suitable for Annotation-based Image Retrieval (ABIR) tasks when the per image data is limited. Here introduced a method to find a stochastic distance between images, based on their annotation and the keyword relevance captured in the AMC. Investigate the relation to a clustering in the keyword space and geometric interpretations of the proposed distance. And also prove by means of a new measure of Markovian state similarity, the mean first cross passage time(CPT),optimally properties of the proposed distance. Images are mapped as points in a vector space and their similarity is calculated with a MSI.

  165. Sami Mohamed Mansour

    In the first what is the calculus? Before defining the calculus we can divide it into two categories; the first is differentiation, but the second is the integration. The differentiation: that category relates with the rate of change and the slope of the graphs, whereas we use the limits in finding the derivative of any curve: -The integration: that category relates with the area under and between the graphs, whereas appeared many theorems like Riemann integration, Monte Carlo integration and the fundamental theorem of calculus. -The differentiation is connected with integration by The fundamental theorem of calculus that tells us that: -The differential calculus and integral calculus is well-connected by many thing and from the new things that the derivative of a function can be found by knowing the integral of the inverse function to the derivative function, and that can be understood from the following equation: -The previous equation told us that: 1-we can find the derivative of any curve without taking the limits. 2-That equation is an good evidence for the strong connection between the differentiation and integration.

  166. Ranu Lal Chouhan and Govind Singh Tanwar

    Malware are malicious software, capable of replicating themselves in network. They are designed to disrespect user choice of computing in network system. This paper presents current state of art of malware attacks and defense life cycle. We explored the characteristics of malware. We have presented the malware attack life-cycle. We have discussed different kind of strategies employed for target acquisition, transferring, and activation. Different kinds of malware employ different strategies in their attack life cycle. Therefore researchers have worked in different directions to cover the diversity of malware attacks. We have presented current state of art in malware defense. The purpose of this review is to point out the strength and challenges of contemporary malware defense mechanisms. We believe that this study will help security researchers in choosing appropriate mechanism for malware defense. The pros and cons of defense strategies will also helps in building more robust defense techniques in future.

  167. Sivakumar Venkataraman, Subitha Sivakumar and Cross Combiro

    In tertiary educations, most of the courses are having group projects as one of the part of assessments in their curriculum. In computer science, especially for software engineering students the group projects are providing the necessary skills to gear for project management, have experiences in playing and maintaining different roles and members within the project group. Traditionally, the evaluators awards the marks or grades for the individuals or group members based on the contribution and coordination’s within the group for the project. Sometimes the awarded marks for the students may be unfair to undeserving students or serving students, based on verbalized performance or oral presentation only. This paper is focused on the impact of group projects in course curriculum and the importance of self and peer assessments in accessing student’s grade for the group projects. Surveys, interviews are conducted with the students and staff members to find the impact of the recommended approach in accessing the group project.

  168. Baljeet Singh Patial

    Ultrasonic velocity, viscosity and density studies on solution of tetrabutylammonium iodide (Bu4NI) in Dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO) and Dimethylsulphoxide + Acetone solvent mixtures containing 50,60,70,80,90 and 100 mol % of DMSO at 298 and 308K have been reported. From the velocity, viscosity and density data values, various parameters namely, the adiabatic compressibility (β), apparent molar compressibility (ϕk), apparent molar volume (ϕv), limiting apparent molar compressibility (ϕko), limiting apparent molar volume (ϕvo), free volume (Vf), internal pressure (πi), relaxation time (τ) and viscosity B-coefficient have been calculated. All these parameters have been discussed separately to throw light on the solute-solvent and solvent-solvent interactions.

  169. Abellán, M., Moya, M. and Marí, B.

    A simple and controllable one-step electrode position process is proposed in order to obtain ZnO nanotubes. Zinc oxide thin films were grown on fluorine-doped tin oxide by electrode position from an aqueous electrolyte containing zinc nitrate and potassium nitrate. Generally, in aqueous electrolytes ZnO is electrochemically deposited in the form of hexagonal nanocolumns. These nanocolumns grow perpendicularly to the substrate until reaching amaximum height ofabout 2 µm and then the perpendicular growth vanishes and the solid nanocolumns develop to hexagonal hollow structures. Several characteristics of the electrodeposited films such as thickness, morphology and crystalline structure were obtained as a function of thed eposited charge. The evolution of the morphology of the electrodeposited layers as a function of time was monitored by Scanning Electron Microscopy. X-Ray Diffraction confirms that hexagonal nanotubes are preferentially oriented along the (002) direction.

  170. Dr. Bushra R. Mhdi, Alaa Thaer Lateef and Alapati D. Malleswara Rao

    The fiber optic sensors are small, electrically isolated and immune to electromagnetic field, they are an correct choice to detect the vibration, cracks on building and environment factors Practically, microbend fiber optic pressure force sensors are limited to intensity-modulated and interferometric (or phase-modulated) methodologies. The main purpose of this project we propose an analyzing of the response of a force pressure optical fiber sensor .The relation between the output power and the applied force pressure show that an optical fiber sensor with these design can covenanting allow the measuring the force/stress applied to a mechanical structure or which it is linked, by optimizing the uses of appropriate materials for constituting the sensor support. In this work ,the transmitted beam power through the optical fiber due to force pressure on optical fiber to determine the pressure sensitivity .A multimode optical fiber (50,125) is pressed by using force in the range (5-50) N at (1) m multimode fiber. The fiber is passed through microbend cell made from Al material at dimension (3.2  7.5) cm.

  171. Mr. Chetan S. More, Shraddha S. Kavathekar, Prof. Mrs. S. R. Mahadik and Prof. Mrs. Anita P. Patil

    Image segmentation is the most important part in digital image processing. In image segmentation, digital image is divided into multiple set of pixels. With the growing research on image segmentation, it has become important to categorise the research outcomes and provide readers with an overview of the existing segmentation techniques in each category. Image segmentation is generally required to cut out region of interest (ROI) from an image. Currently there are many different algorithms available for image segmentation The state of art research on each category is provided with emphasis on developed technologies and image properties used by them. In this article, Categories and Methods of Image Segmentation is briefly explain with suitable practical application.

  172. Ahmed Alghamdi and Mohammed Arozullah

    Broadcast authentication is one of the most fundamental services in Wireless Sensor Network (WSNs) that is being used to secure the application from different attacks like passive and active attacks, diverse layer attacks, cryptographic attacks and Denial of service (DoS) attacks. Security has become the most forefronts of network management and implementation. Digital Signature (DS) and Timed Efficient Stream Loss-tolerant Authentication (TESLA) are used in Wireless Sensor Networks to provide broadcast authentication, but still both are vulnerable to DoS attacks, attackers keep on broadcasting forged messages which will cause extra cost on the network due to power consumption. This will drain the nodes' energy, which will eventually reduce the network lifetime.In this paper we present approaches that are trying to defend against or contain such DoS attacks. We propose new scheme in receiver sensor node to recognize the forged message before authenticating the broadcast message to avoid the many unnecessary operations and to conserve the node's energy. The new proposed scheme uses a dynamic window (Wang et al., 2007) on the receiver side and reduces the DoS attacks to affect only a small part of the network. In this way we can reduce the energy consumption in order to increase the network lifetime and minimize the delay of broadcast messages.

  173. Sheela, M. S. and Sugirtha Kumar, P.

    Grain size analysis of Manakudy estuary around mangrove forest, Tamil Nadu, India has been studied and textural parameters namely mean, sorting, skewness and kurtosis. Textural pattern shows complicated profile as a result of the fluctuation in the physicochemical conditions due to the sediments and the marine interactions. Abundance of the medium sand to fine sand shows the prevalence of comparatively moderate- to low-energy condition in the Mankudy mangrove area. In monsoon the abundance of fine sand shows high energy condition. LDF results show the dominance of shallow marine deposits in the Aeolian beach and the influence of turbidity. The granulometric and CM pattern indicates most of the grains from by bottom suspension rolling to graded suspension condition. The comparison with the tractive current diagram, all the season fall in tractive current environment, that is by interaction with wave actions.

  174. Divyanshu D. Patel, Keshav C. Patel and Paresh S. Patel

    Thiazolidinone derivatives have been synthesized by reacting various Schiff base with thioglycolic acid by using catalyst ZnCl2 in 1,4-dioxane at room temperature. The structure of title compounds were established by elemental, IR and 1H NMR spectral data. All the synthesized compounds were screened for in vitro antibacterial and antifungal activities on E. coli, P. aeruginosa, S. aureus, S. pyogenes, C. albicans, S. cervecieaceae and A. clavatus.

  175. Masooda QADRI and Hajra TAHIR

    Effects of variation of different parameters on decolorization of the acidic dye Coomassie Brilliant Blue R-250 has been studied in the range = 530nm by UV-Visible spectrophotometry. Effect of change in concentration of Coomassie Brilliant Blue R-250 with Hydrogen peroxide was studied in basic medium (pH = 11) as the decolorization of the dye was catalysed in the presence of NaOH. Effect of pH was studied, variations were( pH =1-11 ), it was found that high pH had enhanced the % decolorization of the Coomassie Brilliant Blue R-250. Study of Temperature was investigated in the range (313-343K) showed that temperature elevation raised the reaction rate. The activation parameters are Ea 13.33 KJ.mol-1, ∆S ≠- 0.19668KJmol-1, ∆H≠+28.53 KJmol-1 and ∆G≠ + 90.0944 KJmol-1 revealed the reaction was endothermic, nonspontaneous and strong interactions between dye molecule and oxidant take place under the assistance of NaOH as a catalyst, low value of activation energy exhibits that the reaction was fast, whereas negative entropy of activation shows that the mechanism is an associated one. Rate Law was -d[CBB]/ dt=[OH- ] [CBB ]0 [ H2O2] . Order of the reaction with respect to variation of concentration of CBB dye was zero order and with respect to hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl ion is found to be first order. Decolorization rates were well in basic medium and unappreciable in acidic medium.

  176. Ayman Mohamed Zerban

    In today’s changing world and business turmoil, chief financial officers need to understand the financial risks and rewards of new technologies. One of these technologies is cloud computing with its delivery models in which computational resources are offered as a service. It became an opportunity for companies albeit some obstacles. Companies should be prepared for the impact of the change on their accounting and financial systems. The cost structure is going to be reformulated together with pricing policies which will impact profitability. Traditional IT model is different from cloud computing and consequently operating and capital expenditure requirements are different. Accounting as information system with its crucial characteristic of the need to provide information in the right time can find its life jacket in cloud computing. Cloud offerings will provide new ways for consumers and suppliers to purchase and offer IT services. This paper is trying to clarify and analyze the pros and cons of cloud computing on accounting information system with a reference to Saudi Arabia.

  177. Abebe E. Alemu, Seid Mohamedbirhan, Teshome Desta and Adem Mohammed

    MSEs are playing prominent role in the economies of developing countries like Ethiopia. For this reason, the Federal Government of Ethiopia as well as the authorities at different levels of the country have attempted to promote MSEs through offering Business Development Services (BDS). The objective of BDS is to improve MSEs’ performance. To this end, this study aims examining the contribution of BDS provided by various stakeholders in Mekelle City, Tigray, Ethiopia on the expansion and development of MSEs. Both qualitative and quantitative data were used in the study. The effect of BDS (particularly training) on the performance of MSEs were assessed in terms of its contribution to growth (current capital and the number of employees). BDS has brought changes in MSEs in terms of innovation which results in efficiency and profit improvement. The supply driven nature of the training may shade lights on the sustainability of training. The lack of willingness to pay for training implies dependency of the MSE owners which may affect the participation of the private sector in the training that in turn affects the continuity and the sustainability of the BDS services. Making the training demand driven may help fit to the interest of the MSE owner which in turn improves the satisfaction level of the trainees. Attitudinal change in avoiding dependency on government and NGO provision and make MSE owners interested in training and willing to pay for it. This will assure the sustainability and the continuity of the service and its contribution to business development.

  178. Abdul Basit, Naeem Ullah and Shah Hassan

    Purpose: The main purpose of the study is to examine the effects of Islamic financial development and conventional financial development on economic growth, and compare the effects of these two, in six Muslim countries (Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Malaysia, Qatar, Indonesia, and UAE). Methodology: Using panel data regression model, this paper engage different measures of financial development over the period 2001-2010. Findings: We will find that the conventional financial development has significant relationship with growth of economy, whereas Islamic financial development has positive but not significant relationship with economic growth in selected Muslim countries. Practical Implications: The effects with this paper suggest the requirement to increase the swiftness on the personal reforms intended for Islamic which have been introduced inside these kind of countries given that very least a couple 10 years as well as given that very last 10 years to improve your performance of such countries. Islamic financial system is to induce investment as well as, as a result, long-term economic increase. Originality: This specific analyze possesses various efforts to the recent researches. The paper analyze in which examines empirically the effects involving Islamic fund upon fiscal development inside Muslim countries. Likewise, that papers would be the few of them to compare different effects involving Islamic fund as well as typical fund upon fiscal development over a circumstance involving international locations finding the most produced Islamic economic climate on earth functioning side-by-side using a typical economic climate.

  179. Nouman Shafiq, Habib Ahmad and Shah Hassan

    The primary function of that study is to analyze the result of money supply and GDP on FDI in case of Pakistan. Funds offer should be to extra amount of cash within economy to own land of which requires large charge regarding inflation. When CPI, Rate of interest are not manipulated using within recommend boundaries then additional money improve additional inflation in a economy. In case most of us improve marketplace, agriculture, education and learning, health insurance and essential infrastructures then your funds offer could well be smaller as well as inflation reduces as well as Gross Domestic Product raise keeping that in mind. We have to take this in consideration and runs Base-line regression model to see how these variables effective in Pakistan for the period 1970-2013. We use Generalized Method of Moments (GMM) and we found that co-efficient of Money Supply (M1) and Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is positively significant on foreign direct investment (FDI). Nevertheless, unavailability of facts for the different critical determinants like corporations, labor prices along with actual physical facilities can be deemed as limitation your examine. For the future study, locating information in politics stability may also be another enhancement.

  180. Umer Farooq, Habib Ahmad and Shah Hassan

    This study examines the impact of real exchange rate on trade balance between Pakistan and its major trading partners. Earlier empirical data offered mixed benefits from the impression regarding genuine swap prices in business account balances. In this study, we considered the data related to the variables for the period 2003-2013 and use Panel Data Regression Model for investigating the relationship between real exchange rate and trade balance. The results show that coefficient of real exchange rate is insignificant on the trade balance in case of Pakistan. Pakistan’s trade deficits are the deficits incurred with its major trading partners. We can say the imports are more than from export of Pakistan with its major trading partners that way the trade deficit incurred with its major trading partners. There in need to make strong trade policy this eliminates trade deficit from Pakistan. Furthermore, the facts from this study indicate that foreign real income is significant determinant of Pakistan’s trade balance.

  181. Rohan Yousaff

    This paper is about finding out the trend of relationship of investment-profitability and investment tangibility in market of Pakistan. Purpose of this study is to determine the three variables of companies which are listed in Karachi stock exchange that variables are investment, profitability, and tangibility and most importantly finding the relationship plus dependability among these three variables. The hypothesis of research is that there is a positive significant relationship between investment and profitability or in other words investment is associated positively with profitability. Second hypothesis is investment is positively correlated with tangibility; there is direct positive connection between these two variables. In Pakistan not any research been published considering these two hypothesis so far. This research will provide the investors and managers an analytical view of investments which will eventually guide their decisions. For evaluating these variables and their relation data is collected from BSA (balance sheet analysis) then relevant proxies are applied. The data is representing the companies from every industry of Pakistan and is for three years. In this research panel data set testing is used. Investment is independent variable; profitability and tangibility are depending upon it. For deep analysis in this paper random and fixed effect is incorporated. The results suggested that there is a significant positive relation between investment and profitability so that we can infer that as investment increases profitability also increases. As far as second hypothesis is concerned results of tests concluded that it is also accepted. Thus we can say that as investment increases as a result tangibility also increases because whenever a company is investing a major portion of its fixed assets is also increased.

  182. Kebede Abrha Mengstu, Hassen Mehammedbrehan Kahsay, Gebrekiros Hagos Belay and Abebe Tilahun Kassaye

    The study was undertaken with the objective of assessing determinants of dairy market participation and level of participation in terms of litres of milk in Tigray, Ethiopia.240 households were selected using simple random sampling method. Data were collected using formal survey. The data collected were analysed using both descriptive and Heckman two-step selection econometric models. The binary probit model results revealed that Age of the Household head, child age under six years old, family size, distance to the nearest market centre, transportation access and total litres produced per-day played a significant role in dairy market participation. Heckman second-step selection estimation indicated that level of education of the household head, access to extension services, Total litres produced per day, land ownership and non dairy participation significantly affected level of dairy market participation in litre of milk sales. The researchers recommend that government with its extension workers and other development institutions and partners should give due emphasis on capacity building, which increases dairy households bargaining power by getting information related price, demand and supply, through practical based training. Besides, facilitate the opening of dairy market outlets near to them, which minimise transaction costs and spoilage of milk, and insist them to integrate modern cross breed cows.

  183. Clara, Mitei and Kaptingei Solomon Too

    Life Skills Education is a curriculum innovation that was introduced into the school curriculum by the Kenya Institute of Education in 2009. The study sought to determine teachers’ Professional Development Opportunities that affect the implementation of Life Skills Education curriculum in their schools. The study employed descriptive survey design. The research sample consisted of 5 Quality Assurance and Standards Officers, 27 head teachers and 54 teachers teaching Life Skills Education. The total sample size therefore consisted of 86 respondents. The study employed stratified and simple random sampling techniques to obtain the sample size. Questionnaires were used to collect data relevant for the study. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the data. The study findings showed that majority (74.1%) of the teachers in primary schools had never attended any seminars on Life Skills Education and therefore could be lacking adequate professional development skills to enhance effective implementation of Life Skills Education curriculum. The findings of this study will aid educationists and curriculum developers to establish barriers and develop possible measures to be undertaken during formative stages of curriculum implementation of Life Skills Education.

  184. Nzilo Kithan, Sandhya Goswami and Sas Biswas

    Northeastern region is endowed with rich diversity of edible bamboos. Preparation of food from bamboo shoots is traditional knowledge confined to the tribal communities of the region. Bamboo as food provides ethnic delicacy to the communities thus it is very popular there. Edible fresh bamboo shoot is available only during June to October. Therefore, the processing of bamboo shoots for preservation becomes important to make product available for whole year. Popular traditional products of Nagaland are Rhuchak, Voyen, Chutney, shoots with King Chili, Rhuchu, Ruchan and Rhuyen. There is need to sustainably manage the bamboo resource of Nagaland as per the requirement of communities for value addition of edible species of bamboo.

  185. Workneh Amanuel Mekonnen

    A Capital structure decisions are among the most important and crucial decisions for any business because of their effect on the value and cost of the company. In this paper, anattempt has been made to examine the relevance of theoretical internal (firm level) factors determine capital structure of manufacturing share companies in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Toseek answers to these questions, seven explanatory variables; tangibility, non-tax shields, growth, earning volatility, profitability, age and size of the firm were regressed against the dependent variables of total debt ratio, short term ratio and long term debt ratio. In connection of this, a sample of 12 companies were take and secondary data was collected from audited financial statements of selected companies for the period of five years (2007-2011). Stratified sampling design was employed and companies were selected based on simple random to represent different industry sectors (strata) within manufacturing share companies. Data was then analyzed on quantitative basis using multivariate OLS regression. The results show that tangibility, non debt tax shields, earning volatility, profitability, and size of the firm variables are the significant determinants of capital structure of Addis Ababa manufacturing share companies at least one out of the three models for capital structure employed in the study. While no clear and statistical proved relation are obtained for the variables growth of the firm and age of the firm in any of the capital structure models.

  186. Prof. Gayathri Ranjit

    Cloud computing offers an innovative business model for organizations to adopt IT services without upfront investment. Three criteria are assessed in characterizing cloud computing as a disruptive technology (Christensen, 2002). First, cloud computing as an innovation, must enable less-skilled and/or less-wealthy individuals to receive the same utility as only the more-skilled and/or more-wealthy intermediaries could formerly attain. Second, cloud computing must target customers at the low end of a market with modest demands on performance, but with a performance trajectory capable of exceeding those demands and thus taking over markets, tier by tier. Third, an ecosystem in the form of a fully integrated single entity or a set of modular entities is required to successfully support the disruptive innovation. However, current cloud computing solutions lack sufficient security and customer control. The idea of handing over important data to another company is worrisome; such that the consumers need to be vigilant in understanding the risks of data breaches in this new environment. This paper analyses cloud computing as a disruptive and chaotic technology and also analyses the various deployment and service delivery models.

  187. Ndudzo D. and Mupa Paul

    The study was prompted by the quest to assess the quality of procurement in Open and Distance Learning. This research used a case study method in which documentary analysis was the main technique used to evaluate the procurement regime at the Zimbabwe Open University which is the only open and distance learning university in Zimbabwe. The Zimbabwe Open University’s procurement model was found to be significantly meeting international best practice hence the need for it to be shared with other Open and Distance Learning Universities the world over. Continuous improvement in procurement management was identified as one of the main areas the University should invest in as it is imperative especially in this volatile business era.

  188. Aida Hoteit

    Since the dawn of history, mosque architecture has witnessed changes and developments to meet the cultures and civilizations passing through; accordingly, modern contemporary architectural trends have presented bold innovative solutions that affect the stereotypes that have been attributed to mosques over time. At this point, a discussion was initiated on the feasibility of maintaining certain mosque elements that are considered to be essential for some in the process of going to the mosque, such as the minaret and the dome. However, some trends posed ideas that exceeded the spiritual function of a mosque, as well as the cause and essence of its existence; accordingly, the present research study was conducted to elucidate those various trends and to discuss and evaluate their conformity with the standards and principles in mosque architecture. The study begins with the definition of a mosque and its fundamental elements, determines the most significant mosque styles in the world while highlighting the relationship each has with the culture or civilization it produced, and subsequently addresses the function of the mosque and the requirements to be considered in compliance with the provisions of Sharia. Throughout this study, variations in the symbolism of a mosque between function and form are addressed, and then some of the recent trends that have caused considerable controversies are discussed. To conclude, there is no legitimate objection that mosque architecture should keep pace with modern developments in the field of architecture and technology, provided that this does not affect its spiritual function. Therefore, a mosque is not required to remain confined to a certain feature or restricted to elements that did not exist before in the mosques of the First Islamic Empire. However, it is required, rather than preferred, that a mosque belongs to and integrates with its surrounding. In a different sense, the mosque’s architecture is to be inspired or mimic the architecture of its surroundings or the country in which it is built while remaining in conformity with the spirit of Islamic art and culture.

  189. Dash, A., Das, H. K., Mishra B. and Bhuyan N. K.

    Levels of various physico-chemical parameters along with coliform cell units were determined for thirteen water samples in pre-monsoon, monsoon and post- monsoon periods between March-2011 to Feb-2012 to assess the water quality of three local streams and Baitarani river in Joda area of Keonjhar district. Most of the parameters were of maximum value in post-monsoon period. The samples were acidic in post-monsoon period where as slightly acidic to alkaline in other periods. The pH, EC, TDS, TH, the major cations and anions in all samples and DO values in most of the samples were well within the BIS and WHO limits. But turbidity, TSS, total and faecal coliform units and in some cases BOD values were beyond the limits indicating contaminated water bodies. Fe and Cr contributed a lot for high value of WQI. WQI value ranged from 96 to 359 infers poor to very poor quality of water and the sample from Dalko Nala(S8) was found to be unsuitable for drinking and bathing purpose. The overall water quality assessment indicates proper treatment of river/stream water for public consumption. The possible sources of contamination are weathering of rocks, soil erosion, extensive mining operations and anthropogenic activities. TDS, SAR, Na%, RSC values indicated good quality of water samples for irrigation.

  190. Harvey Hyman

    This paper reports on a small study designed to inform about how we might classify technological innovations by categorical groupings. We begin with a foundational discussion of the constructs of interest: technology, innovation, invention and entrepreneurship. We then theorize about how innovative efforts might be classified in terms of their impact on the technological user. A pilot study is conducted using 50 self-identified entrepreneurial technologists. The results of the study produced four emergent categories for classifying innovations: substitute, alternative, replacement and extension. We present the descriptions of the categories based on the responses from the study and close with a discussion on proof of concept and feasibility in the solution as described by the participants in their interviews.

  191. Adnan Khasawneh and Abdulrahman Alhazemi

    Motivation is the force that transforms and boost up people productivity and performance in their jobs. Maximize an employee's motivation is essential and critical for human resources in health care sector to effectively achieve the organization's objectives and goal. However, this is a significant challenge to human resources in public and private sectors in Saudi Arabia's HR managers, due to the complexity of what motivates people to work well in Saudis. The objective of this research was to identify and discuss some factors that influence Saudis employees’ motivation on both public and private sector health Industry. A survey method was designed to collect data from 150 employees of public and private hospitals in Jeddah Saudi Arabia. Results indicated that a number of work related factors affected employees’ motivation. Public hospital employees were more motivated by work contents and experience more balance between work and family life, whereas, private hospital employees were more motivated by financial rewards, career development opportunities, and supportive environment, as shown in the literature cited and proved by our results. Consequently to these outcomes, some recommendations were offer to enhance employee work motivation in Saudis.

  192. Debabrata Mistry

    The formulation of proper Population Policies are indeed important for any Government since unrestrained population growth can be a hindrance for the socio-economic development of a nation. In India the Family Welfare Programmes were undertaken since the First Five Year Plan initiated way back in 1951-56. Since then various measures ranging from permanent and temporary methods of birth control, sterilization, sex-education, counseling, regulation of age at marriage etc has been initiated by Government under different plan periods. The paper is an attempt to trace the achievements and failure of these programmes in South 24 Parganas District of West Bengal considered as one of the fastest developing districts within the State. The study has been carried out through analysis of secondary data collected from various Government departments and through extensive field investigation, personal interview and focused group discussion to bring out the real scenario of implementation of these programmes in the district under study.

  193. Ndudzo, D.

    The study sought to explore how students studying through Open and Distance Learning rank the various service quality dimensions. The study focused on the information gap on the ranking of students’ expectations of service quality dimensions in Open and Distance Learning (ODL) in Zimbabwe. The accurate understanding of how students rank service quality dimensions is important in the crafting of service strategies by ODL administrators. The servqual model of calculating service quality was used as the main theoretical concept. The study employed a qualitative research methodology. Data were gathered through a questionnaire survey and focus group discussions. The study concluded that ODL learners have a unique ranking of service quality dimensions where Assurance is the most important dimension, followed by Reliability, Empathy, Responsiveness, and Tangibility respectively. The study recommends that ODL universities should aim to maximize students’ satisfaction through prioritizing the most important dimensions.

  194. Arun, M. and Dr Johnson Premkumar, S.

    The purpose of the study is to assess the varied intensities of games specific circuit training on endurance of male handball players. thirty (30) male Inter Collegiate Handball players were selected from Alpha College of Engineering, Thirumazhisai, Chennai, Tamilnadu, India. These subjects were randomly distributed into three groups namely moderate intensity game specific circuit training group (MIGSCTG: n = 10), high intensity game specific circuit training group (HIGSCTG: n = 10) and control group (CG: n = 10). Endurance was selected as criterion variable and tested through Cooper twelve minutes run and walk test. The moderate and high intensity game specific circuit training was administered 3 days per week for eight week. The collected data was evaluated using two way repeated measures ANOVA on last factor. Interaction effect is significant for endurance, since the obtained F ratio of 61.29 is greater than the required table value of 3.3541 at  = 0.05 for the df of 2 and 27. It is concluded that after eight weeks of training in MIGSCTG elicited 7.01% of improvement but HIGSCTG displayed 17.91% of improvement in endurance. This clearly shows that high intensity training effective in improving endurance greater than moderate intensity training.

  195. Aklilu Weldegebriel Redda

    This study tries to determine the potential challenges and prospects of retailing Ethiopian branded apparel through examining consumer attitudes toward some twelve attributes. A total of 134 college students from a variety of majors have taken part in this study. After determining the importance of each of the apparel attributes, a cross tabulation is used to assess how Ethiopian apparel is perceived against those deemed to be most important. This study found that comfort; quality; good fit; attractiveness; choice of style; and good price successively are the most important attributes consumers consider during an apparel purchase. Moreover, it is revealed that Ethiopian made apparel is perceived to be inferior to a foreign counter part in attributes like comfort, quality, attractiveness and choice of style.

  196. Susan Jelimo Too

    This paper is a report of a study carried out among the Nandi of Kilibwoni Division in Nandi District. The paper sought to establish the importance of children among the Nandi. It has been found out that the Nandi community value and desire children for reasons, which range from socio-cultural, political and economic reasons. From the value placed on children, it was found out that every aspect of a Nandi life dwells in, and centred on children. Purposive sampling was used to come up with the old men and women, those with children, the childless, and the clergy who were interviewed. Use of interview schedules and observation methods were applied to get Primary data. Secondary data collected from libraries supported primary data. Parson's functionalism theory was adopted. Society is seen as a complex system of inter-related parts, each of which has consequences for the operation of the system, children included. This study adopted deterministic design to determine why the traditional Nandi hold high value for children. Purposive sampling enabled the researcher to arrive at the respondents desired for the study. Interview schedules were used where oral interviews were done on all correspondents. This allowed probing and discussion. Pilot testing of research instrument was done on a small sample of respondents. This was aimed at testing the reliability and validity of the research instruments. Descriptive method was applied to analyse data that had been collected.

  197. Jonas Koala, Louis Sawadogo, Patrice Savadogo, Didier Zida, Ermias Aynekulu, Saïd Mohammed and Hassan Bismarck Nacro

    Belowground biomass is important components of terrestrial ecosystem carbon. Understanding its size and influence of disturbance on its level is essential for carbon evaluation in savanna ecosystems. We studied root biomass after twenty years (1992-2012) of application of early fire, grazing and selective tree cutting on two factorial experimental sites characterized by deep and shallow soils in Sudanian savanna-woodland ecosystems of Burkina Faso. Coring methods was used and at each sampling point, a block of soil 25×25×50 was taken and the roots (fine and coarse) were quantified used to measure root biomass. at two depths (0-20 and 20-50 cm). We found that grazing, selective tree cutting and early fire applied alone did not affect (p > 0.05) total root biomass. Nevertheless, signifcant cumulative effect was significant (P=0.001). Total dry weight of roots biomass ranged from 8.7 t.ha-1 on plots treated simultaneously with grazing, fire and wood cutting to 18.3 t.ha-1 on plots protected from grazing but subject to fire and wood cutting. Therefore, projects which aim to mitigate climate change by increasing carbon stocks in dry savanna ecosystems should pay more intention to roots biomass, taking care to avoid the co-occurence of the three disturbances factors in the same landscape.

  198. Nandini Francis

    Rural Development is a process of changes carried out deliberately for the uplift of the Rural People. It is generally refers to the process of improving the quality of life and economic well-being of people living in relatively isolated and sparsely populated areas. Changes in global production networks and increased urbanization have changed the character of rural areas. Increasingly tourism, niche manufacturers, and recreation have replaced resource extraction and agriculture as dominant economic drivers. Agriculture, with its allied sectors, is unquestionably the largest livelihood provider in India, more so in the vast rural areas. Indian agriculture and allied activities have witnessed a green revolution, a white revolution, a yellow revolution and a blue revolution. The sector accounts for 18 per cent of India's gross domestic product (GDP) and employs just a little less than 50 per cent of the country's workforce. This sector has made considerable progress in the last few decades with its large resources of land, water and sunshine. Sustainable agriculture, in terms of food security, rural employment, and environmentally sustainable technologies such as soil conservation, sustainable natural resource management and biodiversity protection, are essential for holistic rural development. This paper mainly focuses on the need for rural communities to approach development from a wider perspective which has created more focus on a broad range of agricultural developmental goals. Education, entrepreneurship, physical infrastructure, and social infrastructure all play an important role in developing agricultural regions. Rural development is also characterized by its emphasis on locally produced economic development strategies. What is needed in this hour is not to go on introducing new and ongoing schemas for rural agricultural development and creating awareness among the people about the related problems. For this it is essential that the public, private and civil sectors must work together coherently and efficiently for sustainable rural development by improving Agricultural sector of the county.

     

  199. Rehana Ambreen

    Micro finance institutions are the financial institutions. their main aim is to provide the financial services to poor. their cost is divided into two variables 1. fixed cost 2. variable cost. their revenue is generated from interest on investments and comes from non lending activities and financial assets gain.they charged high interest rates and their cost is also high. they provided the small scale financial services to poor on sustainability basis. The sustainability is the primary issue for the success. I used the penal data in my research and used the data of different MFI's from different countries of South Asia. I take the data from MFI's website. the results show that the more number of female borrowers and small scale loans are not effective. Their profitability decrease if they increased in percentage.i used the fixed effect model and random effect model and my results are in significance relation.

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