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Plagiarism Detection

IJCR is following an instant policy on rejection those received papers with plagiarism rate of more than 20%. So, All of authors and contributors must check their papers before submission to making assurance of following our anti-plagiarism policies.

March 2015

The objective of this study was to identify and rank constraints in contract and non-contract broiler poultry farming in India’s Karnataka state. The data was collected from 90 contract and 90 non-contract broiler poultry farmers from Shivamogga, Davanagere and Chitradurga Districts. The data was analysed by using Garrett’s ranking technique.

Armoured tubes are used to facilitate kink free access to airway. We report a case of airway obstruction and difficult ventilation soon after intubation due to retained mucus/material in a reused armoured tube. Several cases of intraoperative obstruction and high airway pressures have been reported with armoured tubes. This article highlights the propensity of armoured tube inner wall for dissection and intraoperative obstruction with its reuse and suggests clinical and manufacturing measures to reduce the chances of obstruction.

Background: Surgical site infection is one of the most common post operative complications and causes significant post operative morbidity and mortality. SSI rates are reported to range from 2.5% to 41.9% globally resulting in high morbidity and mortality. Aim: This study was aimed to determine the prevalence of SSI and some determinants that can affect surgical site infection rate. Methods: This is a 2 year prospective study carried on 350 patients operated in surgery department.

Inguinal hernias are very common in surgical practice. They are broadly subdivided into indirect and direct hernias on the basis of their entry into the inguinal canal. While indirect hernia have narrow neck, direct hernia are broad necked, therefore incidence of obstruction and strangulation is rare in direct hernia. A rare complication of hernia is “Reduction en masse” which is reduction or migration of a hernial sac into the preperitoneal space. It presents as persistent pain, obstruction or perforation even after disappearance of hernia.

Program effectiveness of School Based Weekly Iron and Folic acid Supplementation (WIFS) in Urban setting – Mumbai Introduction: Various studies have shown efficacy of WIFS in school children which involves the evaluation of an intervention under ideal, controlled conditions. However effectiveness trials help determine if interventions can reliably be used under real-world conditions.

Primary malignant neoplasms of trachea and tracheal invasion by thyroid malignancies although rare are serious causes of morbidity and mortality. Management of tracheal tumours in general includes interventional endoscopy, surgery and radiotherapy. This paper describes the surgical and functional results of tracheal resections done in the surgical oncology department of a tertiary care cancer centre. Methods: This is a retrospective analysis of all patients with malignant tracheal tumours who underwent resection and anastomosis in the period 2005-2009.

Background: Health aspects of the tribes in general and Irular tribe in particular were less studied. AIM: To study the health aspects of the Irular tribes. METHODS: 44 households were selected through census method from Devathanam pet and Poondhamalli village, Senji taluk, Villupuram dist, Tamilnadu. Results: Few (15%) felt anxious often, 18% had sleep related problems often and 66% were currently using alcohol and tobacco. Conclusion: Substance abuse is major public health concern among irulars.

Web Purpose: To report the clinical profile and histopathology of orbital tumors in patients presenting at a tertiary care centre. Methods: This is a retrospective case series of patients with orbital tumors who presented to the hospital from May 2010 to May 2014.Details on patient’s history, clinical examination, radiological investigations, histopathological profiles were retrieved from medical records. Results: 48 patients were studied (22 males & 26 females). Mean age of presentation was 38.5 (range 2 – 75 yrs).

Background: Global decline in ante partum fetal deaths has been cited in many countries, but the count still remains high in low income and developing countries. In this scenario, precise knowledge of the cause of death is needed as the basis for counseling, prevention and treatment of the problem. A cross sectional observational prospective study was conducted from April2013- April 14 in the Department of Community medicine in collaboration with Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Govt Medical College and Hospital Sec 32,Chandigarh.

Objective: Soil is a significant reservoir for enteric bacteria and other pathogenic bacteria, as it is a frequent recipient of waste materials. The study was aimed at determining the prevalence of enteric bacteria from various soil samples collected in Nairobi and environs and to compare their drug susceptibility profile with those from clinical samples. Methods: Soil samples were collected from randomly selected GPS coordinates in Nairobi within a radius of 30km from Nairobi city center.

Context: The prevalence of cryptogenic cirrhosis ranges from 5% to30% of cirrhotic patients in past series. Several explanations may be offered as possible underlying etiologies include occult alcohol abuse, occult viral (non-B, non-C hepatitis, silent autoimmune hepatitis, or progression of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Aims: To compare the clinical, biochemical and histologic features between the advanced cryptogenic chronic liver disease and decompensated chronic liver disease with known etiology.

Microbial contamination of air/surfaces/articles in operation theatre (OT) is a major cause of surgical site and nosocomial infections. Approximately 10% of nosocomial infections have serious outcomes leading to longer duration of hospital stay and cost burden. Currently there is no uniform consensus on either the standards for surveillance, methodology for monitoring or the levels of acceptable contamination and the risk of nosocomial infections borne by OT.

The case study has been done to evaluate volkmann’s ischaemic contracture (vic) which is one of the common complications caused as a result of bone setting. This paper presents a report of a young male who developed this complication as sequelae of bone setting which led to a permanent disability besides fasciotomy. Such sorts of cases have affectively occurred in nations where medical care services have not been provided to the mark especially in rural area.

Infection with Hymenolepis diminuta is rarely reported in humans(Tena 1998). In Eastern India only one case had been reported till now from Odisha (Tadepalli Karuna, 2014). So we are reporting this case of isolation of Hymenolepis diminuta from a 3 year old child who was referred to our laboratory for examination of stool sample. To the best of our knowledge this is the first case of human infection reported from West Bengal (Tadepalli Karuna, 2014).

Introduction: Osteoporosis and periodontal diseases are silent diseases which are caused due to loss of bone minerals triggered by local and systemic factors. The present study designed to establish the relationship between osteoporosis and periodontal diseases. Methods: This is a descriptive observational study done on 100 patients from June’2013 to November’2013in department of medicine, Comilla medical college hospital, Comilla. All patients had age 40 years or more having symptoms suggestive of osteoporosis were selected.

Cellulitis is a potentially serious life threatening bacterial infection of skin and soft tissue is a common emergency in our area. Several other conditions have similar presentations. In order to arrive at correct diagnosis it is vital that clinicians are able to distinguish cellulitis from other conditions. In order to begin appropriate pathway. In present series we are presenting our experiences regarding associated conditions, precipitating causes/risk factors, site wise distributions, clinical presentation, etiological agents, treatment and outcome of cellulitis.

Nicotine replacement therapy replaces temporarily the nicotine from cigarettes which reduces motivation to smoke and nicotine withdrawal symptoms, thus easing the transition from cigarette smoking to complete abstinence. Nicotine replacement therapy replaces nicotine in blood, thus reduces urge to smoke. NRT is available as chewing gum, patches for the skin, nose spray, inhalers, and tablets. It is better to wait until the smokers feel ready to stop, and then make a quit attempt.

Leukemias represent a varied group of malignancies of hematopoietic stem cell origin. A subgroup of thesemalignancies is represented by the myeloid leukemias which generally affect adults.Chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) is a myeloproliferative disorder of pluripotent haemopoietic stem cells, affecting mature myeloid white blood cells. More than 90% of cases of CML result from a cytogenetic aberration known as the Philadelphia chromosome. CML accounts for 15% of all leukemias and males are more commonly affected than females. Most patients with CML are older than 60 years of age.

Comparative interventional study to assess the effectiveness of alternative hot & cold compresses vs. Cold cabbage leaves on breast engorgement and pain among postnatal mothers. This study was carried out to assess the effectiveness of “alternative hot and cold compresses and cold cabbage leaves” application on breast engorgement and pain as despite of numerous strategies, there is lack of knowledge regarding the most effective method in treating breast engorgement among postnatal mothers.

Thisqualitative study explores the role of surrender through self-compassion among young adults in long-term relationships and is primarily based on the premise that attempting to meticulously control certain aspects of life such as romantic relationships may hinder rather than help relationships to flourish. Semi-structured interviews were conducted on the samplefound to possess high levels of self-compassion, and thematic content analysis was employed.

Background: The anti-mitochondrial antibody (AMA) is frequently tested in cryptogenic cirrhosis (CC) with elevated alkaline phophatase (ALP) levels. Like other group of chronic liver disease of known etiology may , on the course of time, lead to decompantion , liver failure and Hepatocellular carcinoma, Cryptogenic liver disease has similar course which need to be evaluated early. Aims: To determine how frequently AMA test is positive in the above mentioned clinical situation and to identify the discriminating value of clinical features in patient who tested positive in both study groups.

The aim of this study is to compare ertapenem and piperacillin/tazobactum for the treatment of diabetic foot infection (DFI), in terms of measurable end points as efficacy, safety, compliance of treatment and decreased microbial resistance. We are also looking for cost effectiveness while choosing these two antibiotics. Methods: This is a retrospective study involving patients who were admitted under General surgery through A and E of Rashid hospital with diabetic foot infection. Patient selection was done by reviewing the history, complete physical examination, limb and ulcer examination.

The mandibular angle is a frequent site of fracture and has a high rate of complication. In order to minimise complications a functionally stable fixation is required. Different methods of internal fixation have been advocated with varying degrees of success. The use of mini bone plate helps in immobilising the fractured bony fragments and thereby maintaining quality of life.

Intensive and critical care nurses are contributing to care for critically ill patients in the intensive care units through their participation on the multidisciplinary team and in collaborative with physician during practice roles. Objective: This study was conducted to assess perceptions of the physicians and nurses about the role of the intensive and critical care nurses in the intensive care units. Setting: The study was carried out in the three intensive care units (neurology, cardiology and medical) at Tanta University Hospital in Gharbia Governate.

Aim: The purpose of this study is to investigate the practices of parents of children (ages 2 to 5 years) at one of the government owned Pre-Schools in Antigua as it relates to the nutritional needs and appropriate level of activity. Methods: The design is an exploratory descriptive study of the practices of parents of children in Antigua regarding their children’s nutritional needs as well as their children’s levels of activity.

Meningiomas of the Sphenoidal wing occur most commonly in the 5th decade in males and in the 6th decade in females. The diagnosis is confirmed by neuro-imaging using Computerized Tomography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging with contrast, facilities that are uncommonly found in our hospitals. We herein present a case of Sphenoid Wing Meningioma diagnosed in a 78year old urban dwelling woman 5 years after initial presentation, highlighting the late presentation and the need for availability of adequate diagnostic facilities in our hospitals.

Thanatology deals with death in all aspects. Section 46 IPC death denotes death of a human being unless the contrary appears from the context. The cause of death is the disease or injury responsible for starting the sequence of events, which are brief or prolonged and which produce death. Present study is carried out at forensic medicine department, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi. Relevant information and subjective data like age, sex, marital status and manner of death have been collected from medico legal autopsy register.

Maple Syrup Urine Disease (MSUD) is a rare inherited autosomal recessive disorder caused by a deficiency of the branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase complex (BCKDC), leading to a buildup of the branched-chain amino acids (leucine, isoleucine, and valine) and their toxic by-products (ketoacids) in the blood and urine. It can present with life-threatening cerebral edema and dysmyelination in affected individuals. Imaging is characterestized by MSUD oedema affecting the myelinated white matter.

Background: This study examined the efficacy of Ibuprofen, Diclofenac sodium and Placebo on the intensity of pain relief and on the gingival crevicular fluid levels before and after periodontal surgery. Methods: A double blind study was conducted on 25 male patients. Pain intensity and, GCF levels were assessed by Cooper and Beaver’s criteria and Mann’s method respectively. Statistical analysis was done by Kruskall Wallis and Friedmans test and p values were obtained. Results: Post operative mean pain intensity scores were significant (p value<0.01).

A female adult Labrador dog adequately vaccinated and trained in explosive detection suddenly developed nervine symptoms characterized by foreleg paresis and lateral recumbency in about 20 days of sickness which started with fever, inappetence and depression. Examination of giemsa stained blood smear revealed presence of Babesia gibsoni and PCR analysis showed presence of B. canis in addition to B. gibsoni. Antibabesial treatment first with Clindamycin hydrochloride, Quinine sulphate upon microscopic detection of B.

Introduction: Approximately 80% of maternal and infant death could be averted if pregnant women and newborns had access to basic healthcare services, says UNICEF, State of the World’s Children Report 2009. The place of delivery has an influence on whether the child has been exclusively breastfed or not. Many studies confirm the positive role of institutional deliveries on the Breastfeeding practices. Objective: Natal care services utilization by urban and rural population of Lucknow and it’s association with Breastfeeding practices.

Thyroid tuberculosis is an uncommon clinicopathological condition. The prevalence varies from 0.1% to 0.6% in histologically diagnosed specimens, including areas with endemic TB.1The diagnosis is often difficult as the clinical presentation has no distinct characteristics. The existence of this condition should be recognized when goiters or thyroid nodules are being treated because of more frequent involvement of extra-pulmonary sites of tuberculosis these days. We present a rare case of thyroid tuberculosis in a middle aged female, mimicking as a recurrent multinodulargoiter.

Introduction: Fire was perhaps man’s first double-edged sword, evidenced throughout history; it has served as well as destroyed mankind. Burns are one of the most devastating conditions encountered in medicine. The injury represents an assault on all aspects of the patient, from the physical to the psychological. Aim of the study: To find out how dry thermal burn affect epidemiological factors and to height problem regarding burn deaths. Material and Methods: Present study conducted at forensic medicine department, institute of medical science, Banaras Hindu University.

Aromatherapy is one of the emerging vistas in the science of healing. Recent trends focuses on going back to natural modalities of treatment. Aromatherapy has found to work wonders in different aspects of dentistry. The various applications of aromatherapy in dentistry has been overviewed.

Skeletal muscle metastasis from the squamous cell carcinoma of larynx is very rare. Distant metastasis in squamous cell carcinoma most commonly involve the lungs, liver and bone. We report here on a patient who was diagnosed as carcinoma of larynx with T3N0M0 disease and had been given curative radiotherapy presented with the right lumbar subcutaneous swelling with no evidence of recurrent disease at the primary site. He presented one year after therapy with discrete lump in right lumbar region and diagnosis of metastatic lesion was made by excision and biopsy of the lesion.

Embryogenic callus induction and subsequently plant regeneration using mature embryos as an explant for six Sudanese elite wheat cultivars were investigated in the present study, mature embryos were placed indifferent MS salt strengths supplemented with 2.0 mg/l 2,4-D. Relatively callus induction frequencies were observed over all concentrations and cultivars; however significant differences were detected in callus induction ability, embryogenic callus differentiation and plantlet regeneration among MS salts concentrations and cultivars.

Giardia lamblia is Giardia lamblia is a single-celled flagellated eukaryote microorganism that infects the gastrointestinal tract of human and a variety of other mammalian hosts (Marangi et al., 2010). Many methods was used to diagnose Giardia such as which is still being recommended as the reference standard (Gharavi et al., 2005), immune methods which have been shown to be sensitive and cost-effective compared with microscopic examination (Gharavi et al., 2005) but they still require numerous reagent, washing procedure and incubation steps (Harba et al, 2012).

Heavy metals are metallic elements which have a high atomic weight and a density much greater (at least 5 times) than water. There are more than 20 heavy metals, but four are of particular concern to human health: lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), and inorganic arsenic (As). Phytoremediation, an eco-friendly technology which is both ecologically and economically viable is an attractive alternative to the current clean-up methods that are very expensive. This technology involves efficient use of aquatic plants to remove, detoxify or immobilize heavy metals.

Lac- a natural resin of wide industrial applications, is a secretion of Lac insect Kerria lacca Kerr belonging to the family Tachardiidae (Kerriidae) and order Hemiptera. Lac consists of resin, wax and dye, thus has a wide range of applications in food, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, perfumes, varnishes, paints, polishes, adhesives, jewellery and textile dyes, since ancient times. India is the largest producer of Lac in the world with a production of 20,000 tons and 75 per cent of it is exported.

The utilization of microbes has been suggested as an eco-friendly alternative to traditional chemical deinking in the recycling of used paper. The aim of this study was to decolourize inkjet ink and to achieve deinking of printed paper pulp using Pseudomonas sp. OWS1 isolated from extreme habitat. Initially the bacterial strains screened for inkjet ink decolourizing and deinking of printed paper pulp were isolated from oil-contaminated effluent water sample and were biochemically characterized.

Herbal as health solution has regained its popularity because many studies have substantiated it. A Qualitative analysis was conducted through standardized accepted laboratory technique for screening and study of bioactive compound present in Loranthus parasiticus , a hemiparasitic taxa collected from South west Bengal, India. Qualitative phytochemical analysis of this plant confirmed the presence of phytochemicals such as: alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, terpenoids, reducing sugars, carbohydrates and cardiac glycosides in aqueous extract.

Field trials were conducted to investigate the effects of variety, intra-row spacing and nitrogen fertilizer rates on the performance of pearl millet in a semi-arid agro-ecology in north-eastern Ghana The research was conducted at the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) - Savanna Agricultural Research Institute (SARI), Manga Agricultural Research Station near Bawku in the 2004 and 2005 cropping seasons. The pearl millet varieties evaluated were Bongo Short Head and Tongo Yellow in 2004 and Bongo Short Head, Tongo Yellow and Arrow in 2005.

This article deals with the nematode parasites infecting in some freshwater fishes of Manipur and Assam where the knowledge of fish parasites are less explored. The present study was carried out from 2009-2011. Seven species of nematode parasites were collected during the study period viz., Paraquimperia manipurensis Shomorendra and Jha, 2003; Camallanus anabantis Pearse, 1933; Procamallanus (Procamallanus) saccobranchi Karve, 1952; Goezia sp.; Spinitectus sp.; Philometra sp.; Cosmoxynemoides colisi Gambhir et al., 2006.

Digera muricata (L.) Mart. Leaves were selected to screen pharmacognostic and phytochemical studies. Plant material was collected from farmlands in Coimbatore district, Tamilnadu, India. Digera muricata (L.) Mart. is a well-known leafy vegetable and also a medicinal plant, which has been valued in ancient system of medicine. The leaf extracts of various solvents were subjected to organoleptic, fluorescence analysis, physicochemical analysis and preliminary phytochemical screening.

Steroid genesis is regulated by several enzymes. P450c17 is the single enzyme mediating both 17α-hydroxylase and 17,20lyase activities in the synthesis of steroid hormones. P450c17 is a universal enzyme which converts progesterone and pregnenolone to their 17α-hydroxylated products, and then to Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and androstenedione respectively P450c17 is needed for final maturation of oocytes, which is necessary for fertilization. Present attempt made to find out the expression of Cyp17 mRNA of different region of brain in the Cirrhinus mrigala.

AMF status of two local upland rice varieties, Kba Soh-pieng (KP) and Kba Saw (KS) was investigated from two sites (Site I-KP1 and KS1; Site II- KP2 and KS2)in the year 2012. Site I exhibited higher AMF colonization in comparison to those in Site II. In site I, the colonization ranged from 24.05% to 70.77% in KP1 and 28.00% to 76.01% in KS1 whereas in Site II, the AMF colonization ranged from 21.90% to 70.36% in KP2 and 24.76% to 71.64% in KS2.

The fungal flora of selected quail farms in Jos, Plateau State Nigeria was investigated. Three prominent farms were sampled in Utan, Angwa Rukuba and Kufang areas of the metropolis. The quail droppings and air spora of the farms were sampled using Sabouraud Dextrose Agar medium. 8 genera of fungi including 2 yeasts, Candida species and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were isolated from the poultry droppings. There was no significant difference (P>0.05) in the frequency of occurrence of the fungal isolates. The C. sp was the dominant species (28.7%) in the three farms under investigation.

Field experiment was conducted at College of Agriculture, Vellayani, Kerala ,India for two years to study the effect of organic manure biofertilizer combination in ginger intercropped in coconut garden on nutrient utilization and improvement of soil nutrient status. Different combinations of organic manures like FYM, vermicompost, neem cake and green leaves along with biofertilisers like Trichoderma and AMF were evaluated and compared with Package of Practices Recommendation of Kerala Agricultural University. Nutrient balance sheet for N, P and K was prepared for two consequent years.

A total of 51 gram negative bacterial cultures including E.coli, Pseudomonas, Salmonella, Enterobacter and Klebsiella species were obtained from different labs and hospitals. The bacterial isolates were screened for their antibiotic resistance against six commonly used antibiotics i.e. Streptomycin, Sulzone, Cefotaxime, Fosfomycin, Amikacin, Tazocin at six different concentrations (3µg, 5µg, 10µg, 30µg, 50µg and 100µg/ml).The clinical isolates showed significant resistance to commonly used antibiotics and some of them were found to be multidrug resistant.

16S/18S ribosomal deoxyribonucleic acid sequencing, polymerase chain reaction and deoxyribonucleic acid sequencing has played a pivotal role in the accurate identification of bacterial isolates and the discovery of novel bacteria and fungi in explosive laden soil. Ten different Bacterial isolates and three different Actinomycetes belongs to the genera Acinetobacter, Bacillus, Enterobacter, Enterococcus, Staphylococcus, klebsiella, Aspergillus, Coriolopsis were isolated and identified with their 16S and 18S rDNA sequences and deposited in the The GenBank Maryland USA.

The Pongamia tree was evaluated as a phytotool of heavy metals such as Lead (Pb), Copper (Cu), Cadmium (Cd), Manganese (Mn), Zinc (Zn), Chromium (Cr) and Nickel (Ni) around Bagalkot. The soil samples at a depth (0-20cm) and Pongamia glabra leaves were taken from different sampling sites viz, S1, S2, S3, S4, S5 on state high-way with high traffic roads passing through the Bagalkot (Karnataka) were determined by AAS. Results showed that both soil and Pongamia contained elevated levels of the metals.

Fixtures are essential elements of production processes as they are required in most of the automated manufacturing, inspection, and assembly operations. For supporting and clamping the work piece, device is provided. Frequent checking, positioning, individual marking and non-uniform quality in manufacturing process are eliminated by fixture. This increase productivity and reduce operation time. Fixture is widely used in the industry practical production because of feature and advantages.

Medicinal herbs are the source of bioactive compounds beneficialboth for human and animal health. Owing to that, an experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of the medicinal herb (Emblica Officinalis)on growth performance, fecal microbiota and diarrhea prevalencein sheep. A total of 48 growing sheep were randomly allocated to 4 treatments with 3 replications having 4 sheep in each replication in a completely randomized design.

This study was conducted at the tissue culture laboratory of Sudan University of Science and Technology during the period from April to July 2010 to investigate the effect of different concentrations of naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) with 5mg/l 6-benzyl amino purine (BAP) on multiplication of banana (Musa sp.) cv. Grand Naine using meristematic stem cuttings ex-plant. MS medium .The highest significant number of shoots was recorded by 0.05 mg/l NAA with 5mg/l BAP this concentration induced also highest length of shoots and maximum number of roots and highest length of roots .

The distribution and diversity of phytoplankton in relation with the water quality of Alappuzha – Changanasserry canal in the Kuttanad wetland ecosystem, part of Vembanad Kol Ramsar site in Kerala was assessed in the present study. The results showed that in total, 78 species were recorded from the whole stretch of the canal. Out of these, 39 species belonged to Chlorophyceae, 1 species of Chrysophyceae, 15 species of Bacillariophyceae, 10 species of Eugleninae and 15 species of Myxophyceae were recorded. Anabaena utermohli (47992/l organisms) Anabaenopsis arnoldii var.

The management of health care waste is a subject of considerable concern to public health and infections-control specialists, as well as the general public. Careless disposal of wastes may lead to transmission of communicable disease spreading through air, water and direct human contact with blood and infections of body fluids. Diseases are spread by improper treatment and disposal of wastes while handling items like needles, surgical gloves, blood bags. This paper is about segregation of medical waste automatically instead of the conventional colour coding method.

The world is facing energy crisis problem today. Reliable energy sources are thus necessary to meet the present energy needs. Most of the nations are dependent on non-renewable energy sources as fossil fuels and nuclear energy. These non-renewable energy sources have several limitations and disadvantages. The sustainable development of renewable energy alternatives offer many benefits both in socioeconomic and ecological principles. Biomass comprises any organic matter of either plant or animal origin.

Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder which results due to chronic hyperglycemia associated with the imbalance in carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism. Presently available several drugs reduce the hyperglycemia in diabetes mellitus; unfortunately these drugs have side effects. While, herbal drugs are mostly out of toxic or side effect than the chemical drug. Hence, the aim of the present study was designed to compare the possible therapeutic effects of Channa punctatus bile content against Alloxan induced diabetic rats.

A study was conducted to determine the gonadosomatic index (GSI) and fecundity of Labeo rohita during the period of March 2013 to February 2014. From this study it has been shown that fecundity of fish increases with increase in size, weight of fish and gonad weight. The fecundity of Labeo rohita varied from 19,950 eggs in fish of 155mm length (TL) to 2,01,150 in fish of 300 mm length (TL).The gonads attain the maximum weight 5.75± 0.78 and 11.5±1.45 for males and females respectively in July and minimum (0.55± 0.25 male and 1.05 ±0.18 female) in November.

To solve global solid waste crisis keeping in mind the rapid urbanization, increasing industrialization, increase in population, change in life-style and social development, alternative steps have been suggested. Various types of data have been used as per the requirement of the objectives of the study. The primary data sources comprise the frequent travels through the study area. The primary data includes collection accomplished including the field observation, data collected on various types of bins and the field verification of garbage disposal sites.

Viscosities for different concentrations of crude oil solutions from 10 to 50 %(v/v) have been studied using benzene as a solvent at temperature ranging from 303 to 318 K. Four different relations: Huggins, Kraemer, Martin and Schulz-Blaschke were used to study the oil solution interaction in benzene by viscosity measurement. Viscometric constant values in terms of solute-solvent interaction. These relations were successfully applied for the study of macromolecular interaction. The validity of these relations concerning the interaction of crude oils with benzene was studied.

The study was conducted to determine the phenolic contents, in-vitro antioxidant activity and in-vivo anti-plasmodial activity of methanolic leaf extract of Azadirachta indica (Dongoyaro) and its effect on some biochemical parameters in Swiss albino mice infected with Plasmodium berghei NK 65. Swiss albino mice were inoculated intraperitoneally with Plasmodium berghei NK65. The mice were grouped into six groups, five per group.

One of important and priority directions providing economic development of Azerbaijan is automation of manufacture enterprises and their passing to intellectualization of control system. In this connection, creation of algorithm for option of elements of the sensor system of automated control of the flexible manufacture systems (FMS) is considered. On the basis of the generalized parameters of the automated functions of control system of FMS the block-scheme of stage-by-stage option of control computers and providing of efficiency of their work is proffered.

Knowledge of thermo physical parameters of local materials of construction has been essential when one considered the fast development of the market of building and especially the need for saving energy while ensuring the thermal comfort in housing. This work aimed to measure one of these parameters, the diffusivity, with an instrumentation based on “Flash Method”. It presented the results of measurement of the thermal diffusivity of dry clay and saturated clay, at different rates of cement, the clay has been taken in South of Benin.

To propose an additive perturbation based PPDM to address the problem of developing accurate models about all data without knowing exact information of individual values. To preserve privacy, the approach introduces random perturbation to individual values, before the data are published to third parties for mining purposes. In Existing System, the PPDM approach assumes single level trust on data miners. Under the single level trust, a data owner generates only one perturbed copy of its data with affixed amount of uncertainty.

The system proposed in this paper aims at monitoring the torque and efficiency in induction motors in real time by employing wireless sensor networks (WSNs). An embedded system is employed for acquiring electrical signals from the motor in a noninvasive manner, and then performing local processing for torque and efficiency estimation. The values calculated by the embedded system are transmitted to a monitoring unit through a Zigbee module. At the base unit, various motors can be monitored in real time.

The property of traditional Ziegler–Nichols tuned PI controllers (ZNPIs) are simple tuning rules with excessive oscillation and large overshoot. However, both the fixed set point weighted PI ( FSWPI) and ZNPI exhibit equally poor load regulation. Dynamic set point weighted PI controller (DSPWPI) shows better response than FSPWPI and ZNPI but only for very low sampling period. Here, an online modified dynamic set-point weighting technique (MDSPWPI) is proposed.

Undoped and 20at. % Al doped ZnO nanocrystals were successfully prepared by Sol-gel auto combusion route. Structural properties were studied from XRD pattern. The hexagonal wurtzite structure was detected. The crystallite size was calculated using Sherrer’s formula. Crystallite size determined 5.68nm and 4.05nm for undoped and 20at.% Al concentration. Optical study was completed by UV-Visible spectroscopy. Absorption peaks estimated at 352 nm and 366 nm. Energy band gap were calculated from Tauc’s plots. 3 eV and 3.05 eV are the values of Eg for ZnO and 20 at.% Al doped ZnO nanocrystals.

α-Cyanoacrylates were synthesized employing Knoevenagel condensation under solvent free conditions. The reactions with aromatic aldehydes were accomplished in exceptionally reduced time when instead of stirring, grinding of reaction mixture in a pestle and mortar was applied. To investigate the potential of these α-cyanoacrylates as antimicrobial agents these compounds have been tested against four bacterial strains S. aureus, P. aeroginosa, S. typhi and M. luteus. These compounds showed activity against S. aureus, P. aeruginosa and S.

Millions of people around the globe suffer from various infectious diseases per annum. Extensive part of these infections is hand acquired infections. World health organization suggests hand hygiene as a primitive precaution focus to decrease the infection rates. We evaluated various aspects related to the occupational behavior and prioritization regarding hand hygiene measures among the university students, teachers, laboratory staff and canteen workers. Gram positive cocci were found in abundance followed by Gram positive rods.

Grain size analysis of Manakudy estuary around mangrove forest , Tamil Nadu, India has been studied and textural parameters namely mean, sorting, skewness and kurtosis. Textural pattern shows complicated profile as a result of the fluctuation in the physicochemical conditions due to the sediments and the marine interactions. Abundance of the medium sand to fine sand shows the prevalence of comparatively moderate- to low-energy condition in the Mankudy mangrove area. In monsoon the abundance of fine sand shows high energy condition.

Kinetics of phase transfer catalyst (PTC) assisted polymerization of Methyl acrylate (MA) initiated by potassium Peroxydisulfate (K2S208) – cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) system was investigated in ethyl acetate/water system at 60ºC under N2 atmosphere and unstirred condition. The effect of varying the concentrations of MA, K2S208, CPC, H+, and ionic strength on Rp were studied. From the study, reaction orders with respect to MA, K2S208 and CPC were found to be 1.5, 0.5 and 1.

By comparing observed and model characteristics of atmosphere, we determined fundamental and evolutionary parameters and chemical composition of giant HD 206731. Spectral class of stars G8 and luminosity class II. Spectral materials are obtained by CCD camera mounted on Cassegrain focus at Shamakha Astrophysical Observatory of NAS of Azerbaijan. It is found that Teff=5000±200 K, logg = 2.1±0.2, , , .By selected non-blended lines of Fe I, we determined the microturbulence velocity in stellar atmosphere which was found to be ξt=4km/h.

Many relations have been obtained among several divergences by using several information inequalities. In this work, we also relate the Relative Jensen- Shannon divergence, Triangular discrimination, Relative Arithmetic- Geometric divergence, Relative J- divergence, and Hellinger discrimination to the Chi- square divergence and Varitional distance independently in a specific interval by using two different new information inequalities on new generalized f- divergence, together with numerical verification by taking two discrete probability distributions: Binomial and Poisson.

License plate images usually suffers from low illumination and poor contrast due to motion of vehicles and large depth of fields. Therefore, license plate image segmentation and number extraction is a challenging task. This paper proposed an fast and efficient license plate character segmentation method using CLAHE pre-enhancement and by finding the morphologically connected region. CLAHE method is used as pre-enhancement stage to improve the contrast and illumination of number plate images. This helps to improve the performance of character segmentation.

Ultrasonic velocity, viscosity and density studies on solution of tetrabutylammonium bromide (Bu4NBr) have been carried outin N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF), ethylmethylketone (EMK) and DMF-EMK solvent mixtures containing 0, 20, 40,60, 80 and 100 mol % of DMF at 298, 308 and 318K. From the velocity, viscosity and density data values, various parameters namely, the adiabatic compressibility (β), Intermolecular free length (Lf), specific acoustic impedance (Z), free volume (Vf), internal pressure (πi)and relaxation time (τ) have been calculated.

Nowadays, overseas commerce has increased drastically in many countries. Plenty fruits are imported from the other nations. Manual identification of defected fruit is very time consuming. The proposed paper presents defect segmentation of fruits based on surface color features with unsupervised K-Means clustering and Fuzzy C-Means algorithms. As the first step, the digital color images of defective fruits are pre-processed using Gaussian low-pass filter (GLPF) smoothing operator to remove noise.

PAKO is German machinery on which we pair nozzle body with required needle class, so that we can adjust the required clearance. Our project on PAKO is related to the improvement in clearance to increase the Matching rate. It is found that, in today’s condition Matching rate is about 60-65% and our aim is to improve it. We have to find out factors affecting matching rate as per their priority of impact and find out ways of improvement of Matching rate. So by taking no. of readings on different benches /machines with one as group of sample parts.

Pure and 2 mol% Amaranth dye doped L-Alanine Thiourea (LATU) crystals were grown by slow evaporation technique. The cell parameters and crystallinity of pure and dye admixtured LATU crystals were confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction, powder crystal X-ray diffraction and high resolution X-ray diffraction analyses. The doping of the Amaranth dye in the grown crystal has been confirmed qualitatively by the FTIR spectroscopy. The optical transparency of the crystals was identified from the UV-vis-NIR transmission spectrum.

Water contamination is increasing day by day that not only alarming to human beings, but it is also alarming for animals, plants and aquatic life. The discharge of Industrial wastes in the main water channels which contain large amount of chemicals, pesticides and metal pollutants. The present study emphasizes towards the water pollution and composite present in waste water like dyes, which are the major constituents of industrial effluent. The removal of contents was carried out by using a low cost adsorbent. The carbonized coir pith (CCP) was used for removal of Reactive Red 223 dye.

Polypyrrole (PPy) thin film has been used to investigated the sensor response properties against humidity (HO2), carbon Dioxide (CO2) and Oxygen (O2) in the atmospheric environment. TEM and AFM micrographs of thin films show PPY structures of big grain sizes which ranging from 200 nm- 500nm. The adsorption-desorption kinetics of the PPy data of the materials have been obtained by using Quartz Crystal Microbalance technique (QCM).

Universe started neither with quasars nor ended with black holes (As said by Prof .S.W Hawking) rather it started with cold reaction with formation of sphere of cold dark matter layer with few empty canals in it all around (non expanding phase of universe). Later by virtue of unconditioned working it started expanding with velocity of light and hot reaction triggered with formation of H2 clouds and lot of radiations making empty canals Quasars. With the contraction phase, This Hot reaction would stop and once again canals would be empty.

Zinc doped Cerium Oxide thin films were prepared by spray pyrolysis technique. The CeO2 and Zn doped CeO2 thin films were deposited on the glass substrates (350°C) with two different Zn concentrations (4 and 8%). The prepared film has been characterized by X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Ultraviolet-Visible Spectroscopy (UV-Vis), and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). XRD analysis revealed that the films are well crystallized in nature having cubic fluorite structure with a grain orientation along (111) plane.

This is a discussing about cultural change and about migration from rural to urban and about military coup and impacts of television in Turkey on cultural axes. Almost all people live in popular culture and most of people live in urban areas in modern conditions and left their traditional culture in rural areas in Turkey because of television. People lived in traditional culture in rural areas during hundreds years and spent time in traditions.

Background: To evaluate the risk of transmission of vector-borne diseases transmitted by mosquitoes, regular updates of the geographic distribution of theses vectors are required. Therefore, a study base on the abundance, richness and diversity of mosquitoes was conducted between December, 2013 and November 2014 at Cotonou, the economic capital of Benin republic. Method: A cross seasonal entomological study on larvae and adults of mosquitoes was carried in fourteen (14) locations randomly at Cotonouin Peri-Urban (PU) and urban areas (UA).

In most African societies, land provides one with identity, a sense of belonging and is a pillar for human development. Gender is an essential factor in determining the social and relational aspects of individuals in any society. This is particular true when it comes to the question of land inheritance. In most African communities the inheritance of land is governed by the community’s social structure and culture. The general objective of the study was to examine the influence of gender in land ownership among the Samor community of Baringo County.

The buy -back of shares is reverse of issue of shares by the company to the public. It is a repurchase of outstanding shares by a firm in the market to defend from the unfriendly takeover. This paper made to an attempt to the critical comparative analysis between to the pre-buy-back of shares to the post-buy-back of shares. The paired sample test, e factor analysis applied to analyze the data.

The basic research question of this survey was the assessment whether of the used methodology in the students Environmental Programs of Greek Secondary Education if meets the methodology of Adult Education Programs, so these programs could function as in-school teachers’ training programs.

The first chapter is mainly deals with the Introduction, about the study, about the industry and company profile. The objectives are to find out the performance of opening week and closing week of the select securities; to compare the price behavior of the gainers and losers of the selected securities. The research methodology, data sources, limitation, data collection methods & sampling design and review of literature are discussed in the second chapter. The third chapter says about the analysis of data and interpretation. Analysis consist of top 5 and bottom 5 bank returns.

The study was aimed at investigating the major challenges confronting the manufacturing sector, in particular master craftsmen. The study was carried out in the Tamale Metropolis. The target population was stratified into their trade areas such as mechanics, welders, electricians, blacksmiths, etc, and a total of 200 artisans were sampled using the simple random method. The results revealed that majority (97%) of the master craftsmen lack the requisite financial support to boost their firms irrespective of level of education and age in business.

Parliamentary form of government has become the most desirable mode of governance throughout the world. But the efficacy of parliaments in providing effective governance is not up to satisfaction in many democracies. India is the only country in the developing world were parliamentary democracy has survived. Therefore it is interesting to know how parliament works and tries to carry out its duties so that it can be an effective instrument of democracy. The present research study was proposed to study the attitude of intellectuals of J&K towards parliamentary practices in India.

The Global Assessment Report on Disaster Risk Reduction for 2009 acknowledged the importance of good governance for sustained efforts in disaster risk reduction. Natural and manmade disasters put development gains at risk, but development choices in turn can increase disaster risks. Despite these escalating losses, more than 95% of humanitarian finance is still spent on respond¬ing to disasters and their aftermath, with less than 5% spent on reducing the risk of disasters.

The study is focused to point out the factors affecting academic performance of female university students taking the case of Akusm University. For this purpose, the study utilized the econometric and descriptive tools to obtain the reliable estimates of the contribution of school, student and family attributes to academic success. The empirical evidence indicates that tension, distance travelled to attend college and harassment have statistically significant adverse impacts on student performance.

This paper examines the determination of the role TFPG to aggregate output growth in Ethiopia for the post 1991 period and checks if growth can be sustained with enhanced factor efficiency or not . It used the regression based growth accounting technique to decompose output growth. The research finding shows that the post-1991 notable growth in Ethiopia has been a result of factor accumulation. Physical capital explained more than half of the growth in output. However, the role TFPG has been significant that it accounted for above 34 percent of the GDP growth.

Purpose: The study aims to determine and analyze if the prices of stock are related with exchange rates for the SAARC countries. Methodology: GMM model is used by the researcher to seek if exchange rates and stock prices are related to each other for SAARC. This GMM methodology is adopted because our independent variable of exchange rate has the problem of endogamy. The data for different variables used in the study will be obtained from yahoo finance and oando.com. Findings: The findings reveal a significant negative relationship between the two factors in case of Sri Lanka and India.

This study is focused on the post disaster damages and recent trend of bank erosion in part of Bhagirthi River koil Bhatwari village. The changes in the river channel for the years 2004, 2011 and 2014 were analyzed using geoinformatics techniques The area of the river of the particular area is extended laterally from 141916.38 sq.m in 2004 to 51642.41 sq.m in 2011 and 226055.70 sq.m in 2014. As a result of it 90592.13 sq.m road, 10895.26 sq.m settlement, 1605141.05 sq.m grass land, 17123.59 sq.m and the agriculture land has been eroded away.

The main objective of this study was to explore the effects of working conditions on performance of employees of Kenya Commercial Bank. Specifically the study sought to; assess the effect of physical conditions, explore the effect of occupational health and safety and analyse the effect of internal organisational communication on performance of employees of Kenya Commercial Bank. A sample of 172 employees was subjected to stratified random sampling. Primary data was collected by use of questionnaires.

Urbanization affects the heterogeneity of the landscape and consequently the distribution, abundance and resources upon which birds depend. Birds are sensitive indicators of the cumulative effects of urbanization and provide a powerful signal of changes in landscape configuration, composition and function. The study was done through point count method around the study area (Jaipur city).

Main direction in the process of reforms in the public administration is creation of professional, depoliticized, effective and efficient and citizen oriented public administration in accordance with parliamentary democracy and responsibility. The purpose of this paper is to perceive the organizational structure and legal and sub legal act which are concerning to the responsible working of public administration. The ascent of these analyses refers to the responsibility of the administration from all aspects: prevention, confirmation and the proof of the responsibility.

The merits of Cooperative classroom strategy and competitive classroom strategy are often debated by educators. These two teaching strategies can be quite different and opposite to each other nevertheless have their strengths and weaknesses. It is reasonable to assume that any given classroom should emphasize or combine different structures at different times. This paper discusses the difference between a cooperative classroom and a competitive one and which is one of these teaching strategies is better than the other and characteristics of an effective classroom.

Work study programme has been put in place by many institutions of higher learning to help needy students cope with daily financial needs. However, very little information exists about its effectiveness as an intervention programme. This study sought to determine its efficacy at Masinde Muliro University of Science and Technology. Descriptive research design was used. Purposive and Simple random sampling was employed to select a sample of 70 students on the programme, and 8 departmental heads. Data was collected using questionnaires and analyzed descriptively.

Purpose: The study is undertaken to look into the particular under-researched relationship between ‘possession structure’ and ‘money structure’ in an emerging industry. It falls in the list of first research, to help apply both equally one and reduced-form formula procedures using a screen data strategy. Methodology: The study applies econometrics modeling, using both single equation and reduced equation models, for panel data. Findings: Credit card has been an enough experience for the credit card users.

Web Based Training (WBT) is an electronic learning technique in which the material is made accessible on the Internet by applying Web technologies. Typically, it has text and graphics, animation, audio and video. WBT is also referred to as "online courses" and "Web-based instruction"(http://www.commlabindia.com/elearning-articles/cbt-wbt.php). WBT offers a stimulating environment where the learner can learn at his own pace and can take the course at his convenience without any expense of time or travel.

The improvements in technology and procedures of data acquirement have been responsible for more faith in remote sensing and GIS application by researchers for site suitability studies. Study was conducted in Western part of Kolhapur District, Maharashtra to identify suitable sites for wildlife habitat. Habitats were evaluated using analytic hierarchy process (AHP) integrated with remote sensing and geographic information system. The evaluation process for wildlife habitat site was conducted based on 7 important factors viz. NDVI, River, Slope, Aspect, Elevation, Roads and Settlement.

I hereby introduce a few key aspects of the Cosmology of Vacuum. Despite the fact that they have not been proven, nor recognized, by the scientific community, I hope that they will be someday. In a Science like the Cosmology of Vacuum, where empirical proof is so complicated, I believe that intelligence, intuition and imagination should take precedence.

Introduction: Work ability is "the ability of the workers to do work which can fit the demands of mental and physical health, and how good the worker can present currently and in the future". It can also help in understanding the balance between demands and resources of the workers'. This study aimed at assessing work ability index (WAI) as among expatriate in Sharjah and Ajman. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 397 workers from different work sites in Sharjah and Ajman, United Arab Emirates (UAE).

Solitary lymphatic cysts in neck of adults is a very rare clinical entity, as 90% cases of cystic hygromas are present in children below 2 years. Most of the solitary cystic hygromas in adults are benign and complete surgical excision is the preferred treatment. However, in all patients above 40 years of age, a solitary cystic lesion in neck must be thoroughly investigated to rule out presence of malignancy such as occult metastasis from papillary carcinoma of thyroid or squamous cell carcinoma arising from Waldeyer’s ring.

Oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) is a potentially malignant disorder of oral mucosa associated with multifactorial etiology such as areca nut chewing, nutritional deficiencies, ingestion of chillies, genetic suspectibility and immunologic predisposition. This condition is well recognised for its malignant potential and is particularly associated with areca nut and tobacco chewing, which is a habit practiced predominately in Southeast Asia and India with the overall revalence rate of about 0.2% to 0.5 %.

Deficiencies in collaboration between healthcare professionals have a negative relation to the provision of healthcare and on patient outcomes. Collaborative practice has been shown to benefit civilian health care facilities by decreasing costs and increased patient, family, nurse, and physician satisfaction. This study aimed to investigate the levels of the collaboration between physicians and nurses and determine its relation to patient's satisfaction. Design: This study demonstrated a descriptive cross-sectional design.

The occipital emissary foramen or vena obelionica is occasionally present as a solitary foramen in the squamous part of occipital bone at external occipital protuberance. It transmits occipital emissary vein which connects occipital sinus with the sub occipital venous plexus. Variations occur with regard to number and location. The aim of the present study was to ascertain the aforesaid parameters in North Indian population and compare it with the data available in the literature.

It is well known that cross-sectional anatomical imaging techniques such as ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) etc. have important roles in non-invasive diagnosis and in tumour treatment strategies. Likewise, nuclear medicine procedures such as positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) are unparalleled in their ability to assess information about metabolic function. Despite their advantages over conventional imaging, they have their own limitations in oncologic imaging.

Bisoprolol is a cardio selective -blocker. It is given as the fumarate in the management of hypertension and angina pectoris. On oral administration, the drug undergoes extensive first pass metabolism. The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate Bisoprolol extended release tablets by the wet granulation method using different proportions of polymers and binder. Pre-formulation studies were done initially and the results were found to be within the limits.

Ethical research demands that, among other things, the researcher obtains informed consent from the research participants before engaging them in research. This requirement is enforced by the Institutional Review Board (IRB) on behalf of the Government of Kenya through the National Council for Science and Technology (NCST). To enforce this, the IRB demands that consent form be attached to the proposal for it to be approved. The presence of a consent form is a reassurance that the researcher will provide adequate information to the participant.

Epidemiologic studies suggest that tea-polyphenols consumption may be beneficial in the prevention and control of type-2 diabetes. The objective of this work was to examine the effect of the absorbed polyphenols, assessed through their plasma and urinary concentrations, on the total antioxidant status, lipids peroxidation and other metabolic parameters in type -2 Tunisian diabetics. A sample of 244 type-2 diabetic patients was enrolled in this study. Green tea consumption, assessed as tea cups/ day was recorded.

Menstruation is a physiological phenomenon unique to females that begins in adolescence. It is an important part of the female reproductive cycle. Although menstruation is a natural process, it is linked with several misconceptions and ignorance practices among young girls, which sometimes results into adverse reproductive health outcomes and may adversely affect their daily routine and quality of life.

The present study is aimed at investigating the anti-ulcer activity of ficus racemosa leaves methanol extract against ethanol induced ulcer in albino rats. Anti ulcer activity was evaluated by measuring the ulcer index and percentage of ulcer incidence. The standard drug and the extract at 500mg/kg has shown almost similar action as that of Omeprazole should be replaced with the standard drug and the extract at 1000 mg/kg has shown almost similar action as that of Omeprazole

Total hip arthroplasty always implies short or long term complications. It is compulsory further to a first initial arthroplasty. In Senegal, after a rather shy beginning in 1970 and1974, the total hip prostheses are regularly made in many hospitals of the country; particularly in Dakar. This review, 40 years later combined with the occurrence of complications are the main reasons why we conduct this retrospective study to highlight the medico-legal implications of the revisions of total hip arthroplasty.

A cross sectional study was conducted to directly observe and supervise Routine Immunization (RI) Sessions in Dutsin-Ma Local Government Area of Katsina State, to also assess the level of awareness about RI in caregivers through exit interviews. The study shows that caregivers in Dutsinma LGA are aware of RI (P<0.05). Traditional leaders, volunteer community Mobilizers and health workers have been identified to be the most effective social Mobilizers for Routine Immunization in the LGA.

The main goal of care services is provide and promote mankind’s health. Patient satisfaction is recognized as an important parameter for assessing the quality of patient care services. Spatially mothers’ satisfaction from delivery is very important because it influence on family and society psychological health. So, keeping in view a descriptive study was carried out to assess the level of satisfaction regarding intrapartum and postpartum nursing care among 100 women admitted at selected hospital of Ludhiana, Punjab.

Background: Intracapsular fracture of the neck of femur is one of the commonest fracture an Orthopaedic Surgeon encounters in the emergency room. Patients from all age groups can present with this fracture.Osteosynthesis is the preferred and considered a reliable method of treatment for an intracapsular fracture in young patients. A Hemiarthroplasty is preferred for elderly (>60 yrs) patients with these fractures, especially with those who have low functional demands. A Total Hip Arthroplasty is performed for those with associated with acetabular degenerative changes.

Infantile hemangiomas are the most common benign tumors in infancy affecting 5-10% of the population and are largely composed of densely packed over proliferating capillaries with high cellular density and the absence of open lumen. These lesions are 3 times more prevalent in females than males. During first year of life these tumors are strongly proliferative in nature. These lesions subsequently stabilize and further undergo spontaneous slow involution and fully regressed by 5-10 years.

Lupus vulgaris (also known as Tuberculosis luposa) are painful cutaneous tuberculosis skin lesions with nodular appearance, most often on the face around the nose, eyelids, lips, cheeks, ears] and neck. Eighty percent of the lesions are on the head and neck. It is the most common M. tuberculosis skin infection. It is chronic, post primary, pauci bacillary cutaneous tuberculosis found in individuals with moderate immunity and high degree of tuberculin sensitivity.

Hydatid cysts are due to parasitic infection caused by cestode tape worm Echinococcus. Hydatid cyst most commonly involves the liver and lung. Involvement of kidney and retroperitoneum without involvement of other major organ are much less common. We reported a recent case of hydatid cyst involving both kidney and retroperitoneum. This case was diagnosed by radiological study followed by serology and lastly by laparotomy. The case was treated by surgical removal of the cysts combined with chemotherapy before and after surgery.

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the common learning pattern among the different styles namely visual, auditory, reading and kinesthetic in students of first year MBBS students. A cross sectional study of first year medical students (n= 100) was performed. The validated VARK questionnaire was used to categorize the learning styles of students. The questionnaire consists of 16 items which identify four different learning styles: visual, aural, reading/writing and kinesthetic. Descriptive statistics were used to identify the learning styles of students.

This study aims to identify the differences between degrees of emotional intelligence, and area variable which the student resides, and the study was carried out on the students of primary school Mjmaah governorate (Saudi Arabia) and covered (cities, villages and emigration) and sample reached (477 students from male at fifth and sixth class) and measure use (EQT) prepared by the researcher, and the results found out the existence of differences in the total degree of emotional intelligence ascribes to area variable, and that there are differences between the students of city, village and e

A 24 years old primigravida underwent a routine ultrasound scan at 26 weeks of gestation; which showed a single normal growing foetus with intrathoracic mass on the left side of thoracic cage along with left displacement of cardiac apex. The mass was closely associated with lower portion of left lung. The extralobar sequestration was diagnosed which was further confirmed by colour Doppler during foetal period and by computed tomography and x-ray chest postnatally. Surgical excision was done.

The present work involves the study of effect of different additives on spherical crystalisation of celecoxib, to optimise the experimental conditions for obtaining spherical agglomerates, and to study the various properties of prepared agglomerates. The crystalline lattice of the celecoxib is of long needle shape, which is responsible for its cohesive property. This abundance of cohesive nature results in poor flow property of celecoxib. It is vital to get the directly compressible form of celecoxib so that it can be directly compressed in high doses.

The aim of the study was to ascertain the incidence of rabies viral infection vis-a-viz stem the rate of the spread in our vicinity. Study on the incidence on rabies virus among the vaccinated and non vaccinated dogs in South Eastern, Nigeria was carried out. A total number of 193 dogs were investigated using the Sellers stain technique by examining the brain smears made from hippocampus and cerebellum parts of their brains especially those that died from rabies using a light microscope.

Aim: To describe the lived experiences of Registered Nurses at the Sangre Grande hospital, Trinidad and Tobago, who have only basic Nursing training but are required to clinically manage oncology patients with Brain Tumours. Background: Seventy-five (75%) of admissions to the Sangre Grande Hospital, on a daily basis, are Oncology long stay patients, who are admitted onto the medical ward. Lack of training in this specific area of expertise created feelings of inadequacy and work dissatisfaction among those Nurses.

A prospective study of Central Retinal vein Occlusion conducted at Govt. Regional Eye Hospital Visakhapatnam. Materials and Methods: 26 cases documented with in a period of one year, all the cases are examined, investigated, treated and followed up for a period of one and half years. Results: Incidence of ischemic CRVO is more as the age advances. Visual prognosis is good in non ischemic CRVO. Ischemic variant of CRVO not only ended with bad visual prognosis, but also serious complications. Conclusions: The incidence of ischemic and nonischemic CRVO is almost same.

Introduction: Ovarian cancer has one of the highest mortality rates among the cancers of the female genital tract. Aim: To ascertain the relative frequency, histological types, age distribution of ovarian cancer seen in University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital between January 1998 and December 2007 and to compare the results with local and international studies. Methodology: A retrospective study based on surgical biopsies from histopathologically proven cases of ovarian neoplasms seen at the hospital. Clinical information and bio-data were obtained from request forms.

Tuberculosis typically in majority of cases affects the lungs. Extrapulmonary tuberculosis affecting the bone is usually limited to the long bones and vertebral bodies. Rarely, does a case of tuberculosis affect the oro-fascial structures. We present a case of a 14 year old male child who presented with progressive swelling of the right maxilla with constitutional symptoms of evening rise of temperature and weight loss. On imaging it appeared to be more suggestive of malignant involvement but was confirmed to be tuberculous osteomyelitis of the maxilla after excision biopsy.

Aims: To screen for the new effective antibacterial and probiotic strain of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from indigenous sources such as milk, yogurt, tomato and infant feces. Methods and Results: On the basis of morphology, cultural characteristics and catalase test isolates were identified up to genus level. Stab and agar well assay was performed to investigate the antagonistic potential of isolates. In order to rule out the effect of acid neutralized cell free culture supernatants (NCFCS) were used.

The study was conducted to evaluate the comparative efficacy of ceftriaxone, enrofloxacin and amoxycillin - cloxacillin for therapeutic management of subclinical mastitis affected cows. Ten apparently healthy Jersey crossbreed cows were taken as healthy control group. A total of 30 Jersey crossbred cows with history of reduction in milk yield were subjected to clinical examination, haematology and special examination of milk including bacterial culture and antibiotic sensitivity test.

Objective: To assess the association between aspects of maternal health (blood pressure and diabetic status) and fetal heart rate (FHR) during the third trimester, and compare FHR in male and female fetuses" or similar. Methods: This is a descriptive cross-sectional study. The study population comprised 100 pregnant women in the third trimester. The study was conducted in Khartoum state between January and May 2012. Subjects were categorized according to blood pressure (hypertensive, hypotensive, prehypertensive and normotensive) and gestational diabetes status (diabetic vs. non-diabetic).

Unclean or soiled hands transmit infections in a community as well as in the hospital settings. Children are more prone to infection/infestation as they play and then often put their dirty hands, fingers in their mouth. Similarly when the adults have not properly washed their hands after defecation and before meal then they are liable to get infection/ infestation. Our hands are mostly infected when we touch the soiled items, after using the washroom, blowing nose or sneezing.

Hundred and eighteen Lactic acid bacteria were isolated from indigenous sources including milk, yogurt, vegetables, meat, fermented dough and infant feces. On screening these isolates by stab and agar well method, were found them to produce antimicrobial substances inhibitory against other LAB strains. They also exhibited a broad spectrum of antagonistic activity against gram negative i.e E. coli, S. typhi, S. dysenterae, K. pneumonia and P. vulgaris and gram positive pathogens i.e S. pyogenes, S. fecalis, S. pneumonae, S. aureus, B. subtilis, B. cereus and C. diphtherae.

Seasonal incidence of haemoprotozoal diseases in cattle and buffalo was studied by examining 697 and 197 blood smears respectively, received from field to Regional Disease Diagnostic Centre during April 2013 to March 2014. The present study has recorded higher incidence of haemoprotozoal diseases in cattle and buffalo from May to October and April to October, respectively. In cattle, 302 (43.33%) out of 697 blood smears were positive for haemoprotozoal infection while in buffalo, 73 (37.05%) out of 197 blood smears were positive for haemoprotozoal infection.

Background: Heart rate variability (HRV) is an objective and sensitive measure of integrated physiological functioning reflective of heart rhythm responsivity to internal and external demands. Reduced HRV is associated with vulnerability to stress, while increased HRV is associated with a favorable treatment response and recovery from various medical and/or psychiatric conditions. Cigarette smoking has been shown to adversely affect heart rate variability (HRV), suggesting dysregulation of cardiac autonomic function.

Familial multiple lipomatosis (FML) is a rare hereditary syndrome of multiple encapsulated lipomas which are seen over trunk and extremities. We report a case of a gentleman who presented for evaluation of multiple swellings over body that caused cosmetic impairment. Such larger lesions were excised. Diagnosis of familial multiple lipomatosis (FML) was made based on characteristic clinical and family history.

Migraine is a common type of primary headache. Anxiety is seen more commonly in migraineur's than general population. Presence of Anxiety inmigraineur's also significantly effect the quality of life. The present study was done to look for the presence of anxiety among migraine patients and normal individuals and also to compare quality of life in migraineur’s with and without anxiety. Materials and Methods: In this case control study 127 individuals with migraine and 30 age and sex matched healthy individuals were studied.

The kinetics of lactocin LC-09 synthesis and the effect on the growth of LC -09 was determined at different temperatures i.e. 37 ˚C, 40 ˚C, 45 ˚C and 50 ˚C. Of all the temperatures tested, 37 ˚C, 40 ˚C and 45 ˚C displayed bacteriocin production in the early exponential phase. However, no lactocin production was observed at 50 ˚C. Cell dry mass and µ max was also determined at such temperatures. Maximum cell dry mass obtained at 37˚C and 45 ˚C and µ max increased as the dry cell mass increased.

Totally ten bacterial isolates were obtained and screened for biofouling activity. Two isolates DPR1 and DPB1 showed significant biofouling activity in the tube method and microtitre plate assay. These two isolates showed similarity with Vibrio sp. on morphological, biochemical and molecular characteristics. The 16S rDNA sequence of the one bacterial isolate was performed and identified as Vibrio sp. DPR1 using Phylogenetic analysis. The 16S rDNA secondary structure and restriction sites of Vibrio sp. DPR1 were also studied.

The screening for evaluating herbicidal potential of CFCF (Cell Free Culture Filtrate) of some isolated fungal strains against some problematic weeds of Madhya Pradesh viz. Parthenium hysterophorus, Lantana camara, Xanthium strumarum, Cassia tora, Hyptis suveolens, and Sida actua was done by employing shoot cut bioassay and seedling bioassay. CFCF obtained from 21 days old fermented broth was used.

Infectious diseases are one of the major problems in developing as well as developed countries. Plants produce a diverse range of natural products that have long been providing important drug leads for infectious diseases. Azadirachta indica Linn. (Neem) is a tree which has been found to possess antibacterial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, anti-tumour properties and is also used as a pesticide. Leucas aspera Link (Donokolosh) has also been found to have antioxidant, antibacterial and cytotoxic effect.

Qualitative phytochemical analysis of Trochomeria dalzielii seed oil was carried out with the aim to provide analytical data of the seed oil for its medicinal and/or nutritional importance. The T. dalzielii seed oil was extracted using Soxhlet extractor. Fatty acids composition of T. dalzielii seed oil was determined by GC–MS technique while the phytochemical analysis was done by standard methods. The fatty acids compositions revealed six bioactive components including; Oleic, Linoleic, Palmitic, Stearic, Eicosanoic, and Behemic acids.

Parthenium hysterophorus (Asteraceae family) is regarded as one of the worst weeds because of its invasiveness, fast growing habit and economic and environmental impacts. The vigorous mode of reproduction and the ability to possess of an arsenal of secondary metabolites has given it the status of invasive alien species. This noxious weed possesses large and persistent soil seed bank, high seed germination rate and ability to undergo dormancy under unfavorable periods.

Woman is the central figure who provides the child care, hygiene, nutrition and even primary health care among families. The health and nutritional status of women are at large very critical and various strategies are being adopted to improve the condition. One of the best agency through which women’s status can be improved is Self Help Groups. Three hundred Self Help Group women aged between 30-40 years were selected randomly from Karamadai Block of Coimbatore District, Tamil Nadu and divided equally into two groups – Experimental and Control group.

This study was conducted to investigate the effect of adding different levels of (Thymus vulgaris) leaves powder to the diet on some egg quality traits. A total of 300ISA Brown hens, 23 weeks old were randomly assigned for 4 treatments of 75 laying hens each. Each treatment constitutes of 3 replicates with 25 laying hens each. (Thymus vulgaris) leaves powder was supplemented to the diet of hens at the levels of 0 (control group; T1), 500 mg/Kg of diet (T2), 750 mg/Kg of diet (T3) and 1000 mg/Kg of diet (T4).

A practical option to address food security of South-east Asian countries with rice as staple is to exploit yield heterosis through hybrid rice technology. Several traits contribute to hybrid rice seed production efficiency, and stigma exsertion is a trait increasing the opportunity of pollination and thereby enhancing hybrid seed set. Few rice stigma exsertion types are enumerated but phenotyping methods are not systematic and well compared.

Objective: To determine the prevalence of pre-malignant lesions of the cervix by visual inspection with Acetic acid (VIA) and cervical cytology method (Pap smear) in a rural based hospital Materials and Methods: The study was carried out among 30-65 years old married women in a rural based tertiary health care center. A pre-designed questionnaire wasadministered to collect information on socio-demographic and reproductive characteristic. They were tested for the presence of pre-malignant lesions of the cervix using Pap smear and VIA as screening tools.

A survey work was carried out to study the Ethnoveterinary uses of plants by the Halam tribe of Hailakandi district of Southern Assam. Field visits have been conducted from January 2013 to July 2013. Ethnoveterinary information was gathered through individual interviews and observations with the tribe under study. A total of 30 species of Ethnoveterinary importance medicinal plants belongs to 23 families were recorded in the study area with the help of Ethnoveterinary traditional healers.

Early somatic embryogenesis from single cells or a multi cells differentiated into embryos from Enicostemma hyssopifolium (Willd.) Verd. cell suspension culture were obtained by fractionation through sieving, using iron mesh and centrifugation. These cells differentiated to embryos when they were cultured on a Murashige and skoog’s medium containing 0.5 mgl 1 α-Napthaleneacetic acid (NAA) + 1.0 mgl 1 Zeatin (Ze) for 14 days, followed by transfer to a medium containing 1.0 mgl 1 Ze lacking auxin. This indicates that there are at least two phases in the differentiation of embryos.

Kom tribe belong to Chin kuki, one of the two major tribes i,e Kuki and Naga tribe of Manipur. The present paper reports 25 plant species traditionally used by Kom tribe of Manipur for the treatment of various diseases and disorder related to gynecological problems. Ethno gynecological is an important field that deals with various diseases related to problem in menstruation, white discharge, abortion sterility, gonorrhea, conception, debility after delivery etc. Their hard life keep them busy all the time that make them difficult to take care of their health.

Bamboo enterprise plays an important role in the rural economy of Tripura by providing subsistence activities, employment generation and household income. It is the most suitable subsistence resource for about 28,000 families engaged in shifting cultivation each year. Keeping this in view, the present study was carried out with the objective to assess the livelihood and level of income of bamboo plantation by farmers of small holding.

Typhoid fever is one of the major problems in India due to the emergence of MDR strains of Salmonella spp. Blood samples collected from 252 presumptive typhoid fever patients from different localities of Allahabad region were tested by Widal test and then cultured for Salmonella species followed by identification using standard procedures. Susceptibility pattern of the isolates against 16 antibiotics were determined by Kirby Bauer disc diffusion technique.

Mulberry leaf is the solo food and source of nutrition for the silkworm, Bombyx mori L. Fortification of mulberry leaves with supplementary compounds was found to increase the larval growth and post cocoon characteristics. Silk production is dependent on the larval nutrition and nutritive value of mulberry leaves. The use of commercial pre and probiotic bacteria in sericulture has tremendous scope. So to explore the effectiveness on nutritional and commercial characteristics of B.mori the study was carried out.

Objective: this was a cross sectional study aimed to search for ecto-parasites in mouth of mullet fish obtained from the Sudanese Red Sea Coast. Material and Methods: a number of 1540 mullet fish was included in the study. The body surface and mouth parts of fish were examined for presence of parasites and surrounding tissues were examined for pathological effects. Results: one new species for the region was identified (Cymothoa exigua) and fish hosts were also identified (Valamugil Buchanani, Valamugil Seheli, and Mugil Cephalus).

Alligator weed (Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart.) Griseb.) has been spread all over the India, especially in tropical and warm temperate regions. Recently, its occurrence was recorded in tropical parts and foot hills of Uttarakhand state. The uphill journey of the alligator weed in the state is a serious matter of concern. The weed may reach to alpine region of Himalaya soon by taking route along water courses, as it can readily survive in cold winter and severe frost.

Zooplankton were collected from four marine ecosystems namely the North Sea (Helgoland - Germany), Banyuls-sur-Mer (Mediterranean sea - France), Abu Qir Bay (Mediterranean Sea- Egypt) and the northern estruarine harbour of the Arabian Gulf (Saudi Arabia). Collection tools used involved primarily the filtration of water by net, collecting the water in bottles/ water samplers or by pumps. Artificial heterologous inseminations on ascidians were tried in the laboratory and the larval stages have been described and identified.

The onset of DNA replication which is the essential step in the reproduction of any cell requires specific interactions of initiator proteins at defined loci called origins. Although the origin size varies from prokaryotes to eukaryotes, the origin recognition complex which is one of the major players initiating DNA replication across the species is conserved. The orchestrated binding of ORC facilitates DNA melting which in turn is the inception for the duplication of the DNA thus helping to emanate bidirectionally from the origins.

The effects of sublethal concentration (4.42 mg L-l) of zinc on haematological alterations were investigated in freshwater fish Channapunctatus for 20, 40 and 60 days respectively. Result of the treated groups showed significant decrease in RBC count, Hb content, packed cell volume and mean cell haemoglobin concentration when compared to the control with increase in exposure period. On the contrary, the WBC count, mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration were significantly increased.

Aiming to assess the water quality and to evaluate the environmental pollution caused by different anthropogenic factors on Vlora Bay, the physical and chemical parameters were determined at 15 sampling sites during the February 2013. The seawater samples were collected at 7 sampling sites among the bay and 8 sampling sites of Narta and Orikumi Lagoons that are positioned in the Bay.

Markovian semantic indexingprovide a novel method for a higher precision of image retrieval from image search engines. Here introduce a new topic for automatic annotation, indexing and annotation-based retrieval of images. A new frame work to construct an Aggregate Markov Chain(AMC) through which the relevance between the keywords is defined and the queries are also used to automatically annotate the images. The new method is used to call Markovian Semantic Indexing is presented by context of image retrieval system in online.

In the first what is the calculus? Before defining the calculus we can divide it into two categories; the first is differentiation, but the second is the integration. The differentiation: that category relates with the rate of change and the slope of the graphs, whereas we use the limits in finding the derivative of any curve: -The integration: that category relates with the area under and between the graphs, whereas appeared many theorems like Riemann integration, Monte Carlo integration and the fundamental theorem of calculus.

Malware are malicious software, capable of replicating themselves in network. They are designed to disrespect user choice of computing in network system. This paper presents current state of art of malware attacks and defense life cycle. We explored the characteristics of malware. We have presented the malware attack life-cycle. We have discussed different kind of strategies employed for target acquisition, transferring, and activation. Different kinds of malware employ different strategies in their attack life cycle.

In tertiary educations, most of the courses are having group projects as one of the part of assessments in their curriculum. In computer science, especially for software engineering students the group projects are providing the necessary skills to gear for project management, have experiences in playing and maintaining different roles and members within the project group. Traditionally, the evaluators awards the marks or grades for the individuals or group members based on the contribution and coordination’s within the group for the project.

Ultrasonic velocity, viscosity and density studies on solution of tetrabutylammonium iodide (Bu4NI) in Dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO) and Dimethylsulphoxide + Acetone solvent mixtures containing 50,60,70,80,90 and 100 mol % of DMSO at 298 and 308K have been reported.

A simple and controllable one-step electrode position process is proposed in order to obtain ZnO nanotubes. Zinc oxide thin films were grown on fluorine-doped tin oxide by electrode position from an aqueous electrolyte containing zinc nitrate and potassium nitrate. Generally, in aqueous electrolytes ZnO is electrochemically deposited in the form of hexagonal nanocolumns. These nanocolumns grow perpendicularly to the substrate until reaching amaximum height ofabout 2 µm and then the perpendicular growth vanishes and the solid nanocolumns develop to hexagonal hollow structures.

The fiber optic sensors are small, electrically isolated and immune to electromagnetic field, they are an correct choice to detect the vibration, cracks on building and environment factors Practically, microbend fiber optic pressure force sensors are limited to intensity-modulated and interferometric (or phase-modulated) methodologies.

Image segmentation is the most important part in digital image processing. In image segmentation, digital image is divided into multiple set of pixels. With the growing research on image segmentation, it has become important to categorise the research outcomes and provide readers with an overview of the existing segmentation techniques in each category. Image segmentation is generally required to cut out region of interest (ROI) from an image.

Broadcast authentication is one of the most fundamental services in Wireless Sensor Network (WSNs) that is being used to secure the application from different attacks like passive and active attacks, diverse layer attacks, cryptographic attacks and Denial of service (DoS) attacks. Security has become the most forefronts of network management and implementation.

Grain size analysis of Manakudy estuary around mangrove forest, Tamil Nadu, India has been studied and textural parameters namely mean, sorting, skewness and kurtosis. Textural pattern shows complicated profile as a result of the fluctuation in the physicochemical conditions due to the sediments and the marine interactions. Abundance of the medium sand to fine sand shows the prevalence of comparatively moderate- to low-energy condition in the Mankudy mangrove area. In monsoon the abundance of fine sand shows high energy condition.

Thiazolidinone derivatives have been synthesized by reacting various Schiff base with thioglycolic acid by using catalyst ZnCl2 in 1,4-dioxane at room temperature. The structure of title compounds were established by elemental, IR and 1H NMR spectral data. All the synthesized compounds were screened for in vitro antibacterial and antifungal activities on E. coli, P. aeruginosa, S. aureus, S. pyogenes, C. albicans, S. cervecieaceae and A. clavatus.

Effects of variation of different parameters on decolorization of the acidic dye Coomassie Brilliant Blue R-250 has been studied in the range = 530nm by UV-Visible spectrophotometry. Effect of change in concentration of Coomassie Brilliant Blue R-250 with Hydrogen peroxide was studied in basic medium (pH = 11) as the decolorization of the dye was catalysed in the presence of NaOH. Effect of pH was studied, variations were( pH =1-11 ), it was found that high pH had enhanced the % decolorization of the Coomassie Brilliant Blue R-250.

In today’s changing world and business turmoil, chief financial officers need to understand the financial risks and rewards of new technologies. One of these technologies is cloud computing with its delivery models in which computational resources are offered as a service. It became an opportunity for companies albeit some obstacles. Companies should be prepared for the impact of the change on their accounting and financial systems. The cost structure is going to be reformulated together with pricing policies which will impact profitability.

MSEs are playing prominent role in the economies of developing countries like Ethiopia. For this reason, the Federal Government of Ethiopia as well as the authorities at different levels of the country have attempted to promote MSEs through offering Business Development Services (BDS). The objective of BDS is to improve MSEs’ performance. To this end, this study aims examining the contribution of BDS provided by various stakeholders in Mekelle City, Tigray, Ethiopia on the expansion and development of MSEs. Both qualitative and quantitative data were used in the study.

Purpose: The main purpose of the study is to examine the effects of Islamic financial development and conventional financial development on economic growth, and compare the effects of these two, in six Muslim countries (Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Malaysia, Qatar, Indonesia, and UAE). Methodology: Using panel data regression model, this paper engage different measures of financial development over the period 2001-2010.

The primary function of that study is to analyze the result of money supply and GDP on FDI in case of Pakistan. Funds offer should be to extra amount of cash within economy to own land of which requires large charge regarding inflation. When CPI, Rate of interest are not manipulated using within recommend boundaries then additional money improve additional inflation in a economy.

This study examines the impact of real exchange rate on trade balance between Pakistan and its major trading partners. Earlier empirical data offered mixed benefits from the impression regarding genuine swap prices in business account balances. In this study, we considered the data related to the variables for the period 2003-2013 and use Panel Data Regression Model for investigating the relationship between real exchange rate and trade balance. The results show that coefficient of real exchange rate is insignificant on the trade balance in case of Pakistan.

This paper is about finding out the trend of relationship of investment-profitability and investment tangibility in market of Pakistan. Purpose of this study is to determine the three variables of companies which are listed in Karachi stock exchange that variables are investment, profitability, and tangibility and most importantly finding the relationship plus dependability among these three variables. The hypothesis of research is that there is a positive significant relationship between investment and profitability or in other words investment is associated positively with profitability.

The study was undertaken with the objective of assessing determinants of dairy market participation and level of participation in terms of litres of milk in Tigray, Ethiopia.240 households were selected using simple random sampling method. Data were collected using formal survey. The data collected were analysed using both descriptive and Heckman two-step selection econometric models.

Life Skills Education is a curriculum innovation that was introduced into the school curriculum by the Kenya Institute of Education in 2009. The study sought to determine teachers’ Professional Development Opportunities that affect the implementation of Life Skills Education curriculum in their schools. The study employed descriptive survey design. The research sample consisted of 5 Quality Assurance and Standards Officers, 27 head teachers and 54 teachers teaching Life Skills Education. The total sample size therefore consisted of 86 respondents.

Northeastern region is endowed with rich diversity of edible bamboos. Preparation of food from bamboo shoots is traditional knowledge confined to the tribal communities of the region. Bamboo as food provides ethnic delicacy to the communities thus it is very popular there. Edible fresh bamboo shoot is available only during June to October. Therefore, the processing of bamboo shoots for preservation becomes important to make product available for whole year. Popular traditional products of Nagaland are Rhuchak, Voyen, Chutney, shoots with King Chili, Rhuchu, Ruchan and Rhuyen.

A Capital structure decisions are among the most important and crucial decisions for any business because of their effect on the value and cost of the company. In this paper, anattempt has been made to examine the relevance of theoretical internal (firm level) factors determine capital structure of manufacturing share companies in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Cloud computing offers an innovative business model for organizations to adopt IT services without upfront investment. Three criteria are assessed in characterizing cloud computing as a disruptive technology (Christensen, 2002). First, cloud computing as an innovation, must enable less-skilled and/or less-wealthy individuals to receive the same utility as only the more-skilled and/or more-wealthy intermediaries could formerly attain.

The study was prompted by the quest to assess the quality of procurement in Open and Distance Learning. This research used a case study method in which documentary analysis was the main technique used to evaluate the procurement regime at the Zimbabwe Open University which is the only open and distance learning university in Zimbabwe. The Zimbabwe Open University’s procurement model was found to be significantly meeting international best practice hence the need for it to be shared with other Open and Distance Learning Universities the world over.

Since the dawn of history, mosque architecture has witnessed changes and developments to meet the cultures and civilizations passing through; accordingly, modern contemporary architectural trends have presented bold innovative solutions that affect the stereotypes that have been attributed to mosques over time. At this point, a discussion was initiated on the feasibility of maintaining certain mosque elements that are considered to be essential for some in the process of going to the mosque, such as the minaret and the dome.

Levels of various physico-chemical parameters along with coliform cell units were determined for thirteen water samples in pre-monsoon, monsoon and post- monsoon periods between March-2011 to Feb-2012 to assess the water quality of three local streams and Baitarani river in Joda area of Keonjhar district. Most of the parameters were of maximum value in post-monsoon period. The samples were acidic in post-monsoon period where as slightly acidic to alkaline in other periods.

This paper reports on a small study designed to inform about how we might classify technological innovations by categorical groupings. We begin with a foundational discussion of the constructs of interest: technology, innovation, invention and entrepreneurship. We then theorize about how innovative efforts might be classified in terms of their impact on the technological user. A pilot study is conducted using 50 self-identified entrepreneurial technologists.

Motivation is the force that transforms and boost up people productivity and performance in their jobs. Maximize an employee's motivation is essential and critical for human resources in health care sector to effectively achieve the organization's objectives and goal. However, this is a significant challenge to human resources in public and private sectors in Saudi Arabia's HR managers, due to the complexity of what motivates people to work well in Saudis.

The formulation of proper Population Policies are indeed important for any Government since unrestrained population growth can be a hindrance for the socio-economic development of a nation. In India the Family Welfare Programmes were undertaken since the First Five Year Plan initiated way back in 1951-56. Since then various measures ranging from permanent and temporary methods of birth control, sterilization, sex-education, counseling, regulation of age at marriage etc has been initiated by Government under different plan periods.

The study sought to explore how students studying through Open and Distance Learning rank the various service quality dimensions. The study focused on the information gap on the ranking of students’ expectations of service quality dimensions in Open and Distance Learning (ODL) in Zimbabwe. The accurate understanding of how students rank service quality dimensions is important in the crafting of service strategies by ODL administrators. The servqual model of calculating service quality was used as the main theoretical concept. The study employed a qualitative research methodology.

The purpose of the study is to assess the varied intensities of games specific circuit training on endurance of male handball players. thirty (30) male Inter Collegiate Handball players were selected from Alpha College of Engineering, Thirumazhisai, Chennai, Tamilnadu, India. These subjects were randomly distributed into three groups namely moderate intensity game specific circuit training group (MIGSCTG: n = 10), high intensity game specific circuit training group (HIGSCTG: n = 10) and control group (CG: n = 10).

This study tries to determine the potential challenges and prospects of retailing Ethiopian branded apparel through examining consumer attitudes toward some twelve attributes. A total of 134 college students from a variety of majors have taken part in this study. After determining the importance of each of the apparel attributes, a cross tabulation is used to assess how Ethiopian apparel is perceived against those deemed to be most important.

This paper is a report of a study carried out among the Nandi of Kilibwoni Division in Nandi District. The paper sought to establish the importance of children among the Nandi. It has been found out that the Nandi community value and desire children for reasons, which range from socio-cultural, political and economic reasons. From the value placed on children, it was found out that every aspect of a Nandi life dwells in, and centred on children. Purposive sampling was used to come up with the old men and women, those with children, the childless, and the clergy who were interviewed.

Belowground biomass is important components of terrestrial ecosystem carbon. Understanding its size and influence of disturbance on its level is essential for carbon evaluation in savanna ecosystems. We studied root biomass after twenty years (1992-2012) of application of early fire, grazing and selective tree cutting on two factorial experimental sites characterized by deep and shallow soils in Sudanian savanna-woodland ecosystems of Burkina Faso.

Rural Development is a process of changes carried out deliberately for the uplift of the Rural People. It is generally refers to the process of improving the quality of life and economic well-being of people living in relatively isolated and sparsely populated areas. Changes in global production networks and increased urbanization have changed the character of rural areas. Increasingly tourism, niche manufacturers, and recreation have replaced resource extraction and agriculture as dominant economic drivers.

Micro finance institutions are the financial institutions. their main aim is to provide the financial services to poor. their cost is divided into two variables 1. fixed cost 2. variable cost. their revenue is generated from interest on investments and comes from non lending activities and financial assets gain.they charged high interest rates and their cost is also high. they provided the small scale financial services to poor on sustainability basis. The sustainability is the primary issue for the success.

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