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July 2015

  1. Santhosh Kumar, N.

    Primary hyrperparathyroidism is an uncommon condition with an incidence of 25 per 100,000 in general population. We report a case of 67 year old male with giant parathyroid adenoma, and presented with proximal myopathy. The adenoma was weighing about 40 gms. The histopathology report was atypical adenoma of parathyroid gland. The proximal muscle weakness subsided gradually and the power regained after one year.

  2. Elham Molaei Birgani, Dr. Zahra Yousefi and Dr. Fatemeh Zargar

    This study investigated the relationships between Meyer-Briggs type indicators and career anchors with career adaptability among personnel of Masjid Suleiman hospitals. We surveyed 260 employees who were selected through Stratified proportional sampling method using career adaptability, Meyers-Briggs personality and career anchor questionnaires. The data was analyzed by statistical methods including Pearson correlation, and multiple regression. The results showed that technical/functional competence and service/dedication have a positive and meaningful relation with career adaptability. Introversion and thinking have a negative and meaningful relation with career adaptability.

  3. Pranali Pramod Sonawane, Savita Madhukar Vaidya and Swati Himanshu Shah

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the most common chronic diseases globally. Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is the troublesome complication. But exact pathogenesis is not yet known. Studies showing association between duration of DM with severity of neuropathy are less in number. Hence, present study was aimed to compare conduction velocities and amplitudes of sensory-motor nerves of upper limbs in healthy controls and patients with type 2 DM of varying duration and to correlate these parameters with duration of disease. 60 type 2 DM male patients having controlled glycated hemoglobin (Hb A1c), were selected. 30 were having diabetes for 0-5 years (group B) and 30 were having diabetes for 5-10 years (group C). They were compared with 30 healthy controls (group A). Conduction velocity and amplitudes of ulnar motor and ulnar sensory nerves were recorded bilaterally. On analysis, amplitudes and conduction velocities of ulnar sensory nerves were significantly lower in diabetic patients with longer duration of DM. To conclude, DPN worsens with increasing duration of disease. Stringent action has to be taken at an early stage of disease to prevent nerve damage. Early diagnosis of DPN remains the cornerstone of patient follow up.

  4. Yakubu Gorah Kajang, Andrew Audu Jatau and Dr. Kolawole, A. A.

    The study investigated knowledge and attitude associated with teaching sex education amongst secondary school teachers in Mangu LGA. Survey research design was employed for the study. The population for the study consisted all the secondary school teachers that teach subjects related to sex education. A total of 367 male and female secondary school teachers constituted the sample of the study. Simple random sampling technique wit replacement was employed to compose the sample of the study. The instrument used for data collection was questionnaire. Face validation of the instrument was obtained through the judgement of five experts from Federal College of Education, Pankshin. A reliability index of .73 was obtained. The findings of the study revealed that secondary school teachers possessed high level of knowledge of sex education. Secondary school teachers had positive attitude towards the teaching of sex education. Age had statistical significant influence on knowledge of sex education among secondary school teachers in Mangu LGA. Gender had statistical significant influence on teachers attitude towards the teaching of sex education in Mangu LGA. Based on the findings of the study, the paper therefore recommended among others that secondary school teachers who play pivotal role in the teaching of sex education should be exposed to special trainings such as workshops, seminars and conferences so as to enhance their skills and competence of teaching sex education, and secondary school teachers who teach sex education should be paid special allowances so they can develop and maintain positive attitude towards the teaching of sex education.

  5. Abdur Rehman, Sara Mukhtar, Hina Mahmood, Maimoona Nasreen, Qurat-ul-ain Leghari, Muhammad Shoaib and Ayesha Siddique

    Background: Although the etiologies of periodontitis and rheumatoid arthritis are different, the similar underlying pathological processes are sufficient to permit consideration of hypothesis that individuals at risk of developing rheumatoid arthritis can also be at risk of developing periodontitis and vice versa. TNF-a and RA factor are amongst the important biomarkers that could be measured to launch a link between periodontitis and rheumatoid arthritis. Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the periodontal condition of the patients with rheumatoid arthritis and to correlate the status of periodontitis to clinical laboratory parameters like TNF-a and RA factor. Methods: A total of 120 individuals was recruited for this study according to inclusion and exclusion criteria and were divided into four groups. Patients having rheumatoid arthritis “RA” (30), patients having periodontitis “P” (30), patients having rheumatoid arthritis with periodontitis “RAP” (30) and healthy controls “C” (30). Written informed consent was taken from each individual participating in this study prior to performing any examination or sample collection. Oral examination was done for all patients prior to the sampling. Patient’s serum sample was collected, labeled, stored and analyzed for the selected biomarkers (serum TNF-a and RA factor) by using Human Bone Magnetic Bead Panel (Millipore) and ELISA. Results: Multiple comparisons were made to know the possible variation in concentrations of TNF-a and RAF between all four groups (RA, P, RAP and C). Serum levels of TNF-a and RA factor in all four groups were also assessed and intergroup analysis was done. The levels of TNF-a and RA factor has not shown significant variation among all groups. Conclusion: A better understanding of the intracellular proteins and signaling pathways that regulate TNF-a biosynthesis is crucial for the development of novel anti-TNF-based therapies for rheumatoid arthritis patients.

  6. Seta A. Sarkis and Sami Kh. Jabbar

    Background: Fibrous Dysplasia (FD) & Ossifying Fibroma (OF) of the jaw are maxillofacial fibro-osseous lesions sharing an overlapping clinicopathological characteristics. This can be diagnostically challenging for pathologists. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 retrospective formalin- fixed, paraffine - embedded tissue blocks were included in this study, 15 were diagnosed as FD and the other 15 were OF of the jaw bones. An IHC staining was performed using OC, TGF-β1 and BMP-7 monoclonal antibodies was performed. Results: OC positive IHC expression was found in fibroblast-like cells in 4 cases(26.66%) of FD and in- 7 cases (46.67%) of OF, TGF-β1 was positively expressed in 8cases (53.3%) of FD and 10 cases (66.67%) of OF. BMP-7 showed positive expression in 2 cases (13.3%) of FD and 4 cases (26.7%) of OF. Conclusion: TGF-β1expression in most of FD & OF cases suggests its role in the process of osteogenesis. OC may be a helpful marker to differentiate between these two entities. However, further studies are required to verify this fact.

  7. Suleiman, N., Bilbis, L. S., Saidu, Y., Nasiru, J. I., Dallatu, M. K., Sahabi, S. M., Ngaski A. A., Garba, B., Yakubu, A. S. and Bulama, I.

    Excessive generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and impairment of endogenous antioxidant defense mechanism begins immediately after traumatic brain injury (TBI), resulting in secondary events leading to neuronal dysfunction and death. This study reports the role of some low molecular mass antioxidantsin the management of TBI. Winstar rats subjected to closed head injury using an accelerated impact device were administered 22.5mg/kg and 45mg/kg body weight of some of the low molecular mass antioxidants (LMMA) for two weeks. Modified Glasgow coma scale (MGCS) was performed to ascertain the level of consciousness. Blood and brain tissues were collected and analyzed for oxidative stress biomarkers and histological appearances respectively. The results indicated that TBI caused significant decrease (P<0.05) superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities, and significantly increase (P<0.05) malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration. Supplementation with some LMMA however reverted the trend and decreased the healing time and mortality. Histology also showed interparanchymal hemorrhage in traumatized-non-treated rats group, and healing/normal brain sections in the TBI antioxidants supplemented groups. Supplementation of antioxidants to TBI induced rats reduced the impact of oxidative stress and may be responsible for the observed reduction in mortality rate and healing time in the traumatised rats.

  8. Shakir Rashid, Omar Khursheed, Qazi Manaan, Ansarulhaq lone, Imran khan and Mohammad Yahya

    Introduction: Spontaneous subcapital femoral neck fracture is one of the rare complications arising after metallic fixation of peritrochanteric fractures. Its association with osteoporosis, old age, female sex and alcohol induced osteoporosis has been described in literature but to the best of our knowledge its association with diabetes has not been described. Case Presentation: A 60 year old male, Diabetic, Asian Indian in origin presented to us as trauma right hip with intertrochanteric fracture. The patient developed spontaneous subcapital femoral neck fracture after 24 months of Dynamic hip screw fixation. The patient was reoperated, after removal of hardware appropriate size bipolar prosthesis was placed. Conclusion: Spontaneous subcapital femoral neck fracture even though being an uncommon complication, one should still be very vigilant about this sort of a complication after any metallic trochanteric fracture fixation or after removal of the implant, especially in patients who are elderly osteoporotic or have added risk factors like being alcoholic or being diabetic as was our patient.

  9. V. Selvanayaki

    A study was conducted to assess the knowledge of primi mothers on child birth process. Fifty primigravida mothers who attended antenatal OPD during III trimester for checkup in Salem Polyclinic, Salem, were selected by purposive sampling technique. Data were collected from 16.08.14 to 18.08.14 by using structured interview schedule for knowledge on childbirth process after the establishment of reliability (r=0.9). Highest percentage of the mothers were in the age group o0f 21-25 years (50%), housewives (60%), belonged to nuclear family (54%) and income group of Rs 2999 (66%). Majority of them were Hindus (88%) and had information through family members (70%). Highest and similar percentage (38% each) of the mothers had higher secondary education and diploma. Overall mean knowledge scores on childbirth process (15.76 ± 4.17) revealed that the primi mothers had poor knowledge. Area wise mean knowledge scores revealed that mothers had poor knowledge on “first stage of labour”(5.88 ± 2), “second stage of labour” (2.06 ± 1.2) and “third stage of labour” (0.94 ± 0.71), whereas average knowledge on “signs and symptoms of onset of true labour” (2.94±1.37) (Table 1). These findings were higher than the studies of various researchers who revealed that majority of primi mothers had average knowledge on childbirth process. It can be concluded that the primi mothers had poor knowledge on childbirth process.

  10. OJO, Funmilayo Yemi

    Communication is the key to understanding the dynamics in family relations. Positive statements elicit positive responses and negative statements elicit negative responses. Out of this framework evolved the notion of training people to learn constructive relationship skills. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of Relationship Enhancement Training on Communication Pattern of families with adolescents in Ibadan. Multistage random sampling method was used to select eighty (80) parents (40 males and 40 females) who met the diagnostic criteria for inclusion in the training programme. Participants responded to questionnaires on adolescence characteristics and parental behaviour handling styles. The t-test statistic and ANCOVA at 0.05 alpha levels were used. The findings revealed significant treatment effect (F(1,76) =172.02; p<0.05) for participants exposed to relationship enhancement training compared to those in the control group. Furthermore, results also showed that fathers (x=91.67) who participated in the programme improved better than mothers (x=90.61) in their communication pattern with adolescents. The results implicate the need for inclusion of both parents in intervention programmes to improve parenting practices of families of adolescents.

  11. Drapkina Oxana Mikhaylovna, Shepel Ruslan Nikolayevich and Ivashkin Vladimir Trofimovich

    The efficacy of Omega-3 PUFA in cardiology is so high that Omega-3 PUFA drugs are added to treatment protocols for patients with cardiovascular diseases in many countries. This group of drugs slows down the processes of oxidative stress and chronic inflammation, thereby making a sizable contribution to the complex treatment of cardiovascular diseases. In addition, Omega-3 PUFA slow down the process of aging and prevent the development of age-related diseases, affecting the rate of telomere shortening.

  12. Mohammed A. Abd Allah, Mohammed Abu Shama, Mohammed Ibrahim, Mohammed H. Ali, Dr Isamil.O.Khalid, Awad Elkarim Hassan and Abuobieda Bala Abusharib

    Primary hydatid disease of spleen is rare. We report here is a case of 40 year old male presenting with pain in the left hypochondrium at JARASH Hospital on 4/9/2014. The patient gave history of long standing splenic cyst. Then CT Scan was done & revealed cystic swelling within the spleen suggestive of hydatid Cyst. So splenectomy was done and spleen was sent for histopathological examination which confirmed the diagnosis.

  13. Deepika, G. Aruna Sree, S. and Anjani Devi. Nelavala

    Introduction: Menstruation is the first step of a girl to start her reproductive life. Menstruation is a unique phenomenon to the female. The onset of menstruation is one of the important changes occurring among the girls during the adolescent years. Objectives: Assess the knowledge of adolescent girls regarding menstruation. Assess the practices of adolescent girls during Menstruation Associate the level of knowledge of adolescent girls with their selected socio demographic variables Material and methods: The present community based cross- sectional study was conducted in government girls high school, Kadapa, Andhra Pradesh state (India). The study sample included 60 adolescent girls selected by using simple random sampling technique Results:- It reveals that 5% of adolescent girls had below average knowledge , 42.5% of adolescent girls had average knowledge and 52.5% had average knowledge and practices regarding menstruation among 60 adolescent girls 67.5% are celebrated the attainment of menarche as a function,87.5% practices stoppage of religious activities during periods,77.5% were taking additional foods during periods,57.5% were followed dietary restrictions during periods, 82.5% expressed that they need extra hours of rest during periods. Conclusion: The findings of study revealed that 5 % of adolescent girls had poor knowledge regarding knowledge of adolescent girls regarding menstruation. Educational programme needs to be organized to improve the knowledge of adolescent girls.

  14. Bhawana Pant, Sartaj Ahmad, Arvind Kumar Shukla, Neha Shukla and Saurabh Sharma

    Background: In recent years obesity has become very common health concern worldwide. Much debate has been generated regarding the increasing incidence of obesity among children and adolescents with respect to their long term health benefits. The life of professional students is stressful throughout the whole course of training. Types of food intake, lack of exercise, psychological depression due to study burden, pressure of examination, discrepancies between expectation and reality all can be anticipated in bring psychological stress. The purpose of the study was to assess life style related risk factors for obesity and hypertension among medical students. Methods: Current study was a cross-sectional study, conducted among 200 randomly selected medical students of 3rd and 4th year out of 300 students. The Study Period was from Jan 2014 to March 2014. A Pre-designed and Pre-tested questionnaire related to life style factors was introduced among the medical students. The Data thus collected was entered in Microsoft Excel and analyzed further using SPSS-version 21. Results: In this study, consumption of non-vegetarian diet , fast food , smoking & tobacco chewing and consumption of alcohol were seen and these risk factors are significantly associated with overweight/ obese and hypertension among students. Conclusion: Medical students were not much conscious to make extra efforts to choose a healthier lifestyle. Healthy lifestyles among medical students are even more important as they are future doctors and the students who personally ignore healthy lifestyle are more likely to fail to establish health promotion opportunities for their patients.

  15. Dr. Lohit kumar Kalita, Dr. Pabitra Kamar Gogoi and Dr. Umesh Ch. Sarma

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is a clonal plasma cell malignancy, characterized by the proliferation of neoplastic plasma cells. Delineation of the mechanisms mediating plasma cell proliferation, survival and migration in the bone marrow microenvironment may enhance the understanding of pathogenesis, and a better understanding of the molecular pathogenesis is fundamental to developing more effective prognostic, therapeutic and preventive approaches. It is still an incurable disease but the introduction of novel therapies and stem cell transplantation have altered the natural course of the disease, transforming it into a chronic disease from a terminal illness.

  16. El Kettani, A., Arihi, M., Bjitro, C., Aboumaarouf, M., Yousri, B. and El Andaloussi, M.

    Introduction: The treatment of children fractures of the forearm two bones aims to restore pronation-suppination. It is orthopedic in most cases but surgery has some indications. The aim of the study was to describe the surgical treatment modalities and to evaluate their effectiveness. Methods: A retrospective longitudinal study was carried out between January 1995 and July 2011 on 78 hospitalized patients in the Pediatric Orthopedic surgery department of Ibn Rochd university hospital. Results: The average age of patients was 9.2 years (SD = 3.1) with a male predominance. The left side was the most affected. Surgical treatment was decided after failure of conservative treatment, constituting 40.6% of the therapeutic processes. Sixty-eight children (87.2%) had a FIN (Flexible intramedullary nailing), one child was treated with a bone plate. The hospital stay averaged 3.5 days (SD = 2). The consolidation period was 11.5 weeks (SD = 2.1) and 57.1% of patients underwent a removal under general anesthesia after 12 months (SD = 6). The result was excellent or good in 47 cases (92.1%) and poor in 4 cases handled by FIN, otherwise excellent in the case of the bone plate. Discussion and Conclusion: Surgery allows the fixation of fractures that are inaccessible to orthopedic treatment especially in older children. The FIN is a simple technique with satisfactory postoperative course and good functional results.

  17. Sadbhawna Dadia, Shefali Gambhir, Jeyanthi S., and Narkeesh Arumugam

    Background: Learning style preference explains how learners most efficiently and most effectively perceive process, store, and recall what they are attempting to learn. Understanding learning style preference encourages both students and teachers to continuously update themselves, resulting in greater educational satisfaction. Objective- The aim of the present study is to find out the frequency of different learning style in students of Bachelor of Physiotherapy in Punjabi university, Patiala. Methodology: A survey was conducted in department of Physiotherapy, Punjabi University, Patiala, to identify the types of learning styles used by undergraduate students and VARK questionnaire was used for collection of data. Result: Total 61 subjects (undergraduate students) with mean age of 19.04918 ± SD 1.17 were participated in the study. The percentage of visual, auditory, reading and kinesthetic type of learning style among undergraduate students was 19.99, 27.99, 19.19 and 33.36 respectively. Conclusion: A majority of students in the present study preferred unimodal inputs in their learning process while no statistical differences were found in preferring learning styles by the students. It is concluded that the medical students adopt different types of learning style to improve their academic performance and develop ways to master the lifelong professional skills.

  18. Dr. Amit H. Agravat, Dr. Mahesh R. Kakadiya, Dr. Gauravi A. Dhruva, Dr. Kaushal R. Bhojani and Dr. Krupal M. Pujara

    Background: The percentage of HIV cases due to blood transfusion has decreased significantly in the last 2 decade. The newer 4th generation enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) has been shown to have increased detection rate compared to 3rd generation ELISA. Objectives: To estimate the seroprevalence of HIV among blood donors using 4th generation ELISA assay and to compare it with the 3rd generation ELISA. Materials and Methods: This retrospective and prospective study involved 32,360 blood donors- 25,420 were voluntary donors and 6,940 were replacement donors. All blood units were tested with 3rd as well as 4th generation ELISA. All samples found reactive or in grey zone with either 3rd or 4th generation ELISA were retested by re-ELISA & Rapid HIV Card Test. Results: The seroprevalence of HIV was estimated to be 0.55/1000 donations (0.05%) with 3rd generation ELISA compared to 0.89/1000 donations (0.09%) with 4th generation ELISA. The seroprevalence of HIV among voluntary donors was estimated to be 0.47/1000 donations (0.04%) with 3rd generation ELISA and 0.74/1000 donations (0.07%) with 4th generation ELISA. The prevalence of HIV among replacement donors was 0.86/1000 donations (0.08%) with 3rd generation ELISA and 1.44/1000 donations (0.14%) with 4th generation ELISA. Conclusion: 4th generation HIV ELISA detects a higher number of seroreactive donors compared to 3rd generation ELISA. However, larger studies are required with confirmatory tests for both 3rd and 4th generation ELISA for making any policy changes.

  19. Sinai W. Mohammed, Khalid A. Habib and Salim R. Al-Obaidy

    Eighty eight Maize grains samples were collected between November 2013 and May 2014 from local markets and silo of Baghdad city. The aim of study was to identification of Fusarium species which associated with maize kernels and their ability to produce FB1 by using traditional and molecular methods. The results revealed that eight fungal genera found in maize samples as follow: Aspergillus (58.6 %) was predominant fungus followed by Fusarium (17.5%) and then Rhizopus (6.8 %), Alternaria (6.1 %), Mucor and Penicillium (3.9 %), Bipolaris (1.9 %), and Trichothecium (1.2%). The predominant species among Fusarium genera was F. verticillioides (70.64%) followed by F. proliferatum (8.26%). Specie specific PCR reactions revealed that out of seventy seven isolates only thirteen isolates belong to F. verticillioides and out of nine isolates only one isolate belong to F. proliferatum. All the thirteen F. verticillioides isolates possess fum1 gene, while absent in F. proliferatum.

  20. Santosh Kumar Shah, Ashwini B. Narasannavar, Mubashir Angolkar and Mallpur, M. D.

    Background: Cardiovascular diseases are a group of disorders of the heart and blood vessels. A Cardio vascular disease is second largest group after mental illnesses. Cardiovascular diseases are leading cause of death in developing countries, having contributed 63% to the global mortality. Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of different risk factors of cardio vascular disease among bank workers of Belagavi city. Materials and Methods: This is a Cross sectional study among the bank employees of selected nationalized banks of Belagavi city. A total of 180 subjects aged 20 years and above were included in the study. A structured W.H.O questionnaire was used to collect data. Body mass index (BMI), Blood pressure (B.P) and Random blood sugar (RBS) was recorded. The data was statistically analyzed using SPSS. Results: The prevalence of risk factor of cardiovascular disease was as follows smoking 11.7%, alcohol 37.8%, BMI (obese 13.4% and pre-obese 38.3%), Hypertension 20%, Diabetes were 9.4% and pre-diabetes 18.9% . in this study there was statistically significant association between age with BMI, HTN and Diabetes. Conclusion: This study shows the burden of cardiovascular disease risk factor in the bank employees of Belagavi city. Exercise and education to the masses to bank employees should be an important component of preventive program.

  21. Dr. K. Veerabhadraiah and Dr. K. Mohan Rao

    HIV infection is a global disease that disproportionately burdens populations with nutritional vulnerabilities. Selenium plays a key role in the maintenance of normal health in human population. It has been demonstrated that when taken as supplement selenium modulates the cellular response to oxidative stress, inducing a faster restoration of the endogenous anti oxidative defense system against the production of reactive oxygen species. Selenium that the body needs in order to maintain a responsive immune system, while selenium may also play a part in presenting HIV replication. An observational study was conducted on 150 HIV patients to observe the CD4 count among the patients at Government general hospital, Anantapuramu in which out of 150 HIV clients 100 (66.6%) were having high CD4 count with proportionate to their Selenium levels, remaining 50 (33.4%) clients were having low CD4 count as well as selenium levels.

  22. Rudratej Patil, Dr. Sneha. K. Chunchanur and Dr. Nagarathnamma, T.

    Context (Background): Surgical site infections (SSIs) are the most common healthcare-associated infections. The high rate of SSIs is associated with higher morbidity and mortality among the patients undergoing surgery. SSIs are a major cause of concern among health care practitioners, as advances in infection control practices have not completely eradicated the problem of SSI due to development of drug resistance. An infected wound complicates the postoperative course, results in prolonged stay in the hospital, causes delayed recovery and adds to burden on financial resources. Aims: The present study was undertaken to isolate and characterize the bacterial pathogens causing superficial insicional SSI and to know their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern. Methods and Material: This prospective study was carried out between March and September 2013 at tertiary care hospital attached to our Medical College. Patients who underwent surgery during the above mentioned study period were followed up for thirty days to look for development of SSI as per CDC guidelines. Results and Conclusions: A total of 65 samples from patients with SSIs were included for the present study. Out of 65 samples, 15 showed no growth, whereas 50 samples yielded growth on culture. From 50 samples, total of 56 isolates were obtained. Among 56 isolates 40 (71.4%) were Gram negative bacilli and 16 (28.6%) were Gram positive cocci. Commonest pathogen was Escherichia coli 15 (26.8%), followed by Staphylococcus aureus 13 (23.2 %). Multidrug resistance including ESBL (22.5%) and Amp C (22.5%) production was found among Gram negative pathogens. MRSA prevalence was found to be high (53.9 %). Inducible clindamycin resistance was noted in 01/13 (7.7 %) isolates of Staphylococcus aureus.

  23. Sanaye, M. M. and Joglekar, C. S.

    A detection technique was developed for the analysis of p-coumaric acid which is found to be in ester-linked form in Mimosa pudica (MP). Aqueous extract of MP was prepared by using Soxhlet apparatus and thereafter quantification was performed by HPLC with a UV-VIS detector. A reversed-phase C18 column was used as stationary phase and the optimal condition was established with (Water (50µl of formic acid pH adjusted to 3): acetonitrile (90:10)). To reduce the time of sample processing during quantification the extraction of ester-linked phenolic acid was performed using Soxhlet extraction technique our technique lead to rapid detection of p-coumaric acid using HPLC-UV. On quantification leaves of Mimosa pudica were found to contain 3.35% w/w of p-coumaric acid.

  24. Dr. Shruti Bhandary, Dr. Swathi shetty, Dr. Aditya Shetty and Dr. Mithra N Hegde

    Saliva is the first line of defence against caries. Hence it is very important to understand the physiochemical nature of saliva so as to use its beneficial effect to combat dental caries. The saliva contains a lot of organic and inorganic substances, but in addition to this there are trace elements. The present study is concentrated on the trace elements zinc and copper present in saliva and the correlation of these elements with dental caries activity. The study included 30 individuals; 15 with low caries activity and 15 with high caries activity. Every patient was screened and unstimulated saliva was collected. The samples were centrifuged and the supernatant fluid was subjected to atomic absorption spectrometry. The results from the experiment revealed that the amount of copper and zinc in saliva of low caries individuals was higher than the high carious individuals. When the data was subjected to statistical analysis it was evident that zinc had a high significant value whereas copper was not so significant. Hence it is concluded that copper and zinc has negative correlation on dental caries, but only zinc has a significant effect.

  25. Dr. Bhusari, B. M., Dr. Mahajan Ridhima Vijay, Dr. Suthar Namrata Jayesh and Dr. Rajbhoj Shubhangi Raosaheb

    Periodontal dressings were first introduced by Dr. A.W Ward in 1923, who suggested the use of periodontal dressing following periodontal surgery. Periodontal dressings are now widely used for various purposes by periodontists, although some controversy exists regarding the necessity of their application following periodontal surgery. They can broadly be categorized as eugenol-based dressings and noneugenol dressings. Over the years, many modifications have been made to the composition of such dressings to improve their physical and therapeutic properties. Controversies surrounding the rationale for their use, advantages and disadvantages of the most commonly employed periodontal dressings and their current status in clinical practice are described in this comprehensive review.

  26. Amal Mohamed Gamal and Marwa Ahmed Shahin

    Background: Folic acid deficiency has been implicated in a wide variety of fetal congenital anomalies. The study aimed: To investigate the effect of nursing intervention on knowledge about folic acid intake among women at reproductive age through designing, implementing and evaluating educational program about folic acid. Subjects and methods: A quasi-experimental design was used. The study was conducted at 8MCHcenters at Menoufia governorate- Egypt. Multi stage random sample of 400 women was included. A Structured interview questionnaire was used to collect data. Results: 42.5% of women had age ranged from 25 – 34 years old, 40.5% of them had secondary level of education where as 28 % of them had university educational level. A statistically significant difference was found in the level of women knowledge about folic acid before and after implementation of nursing intervention. Conclusion: Increase level of women knowledge about folic acid after nursing intervention which accomplished through designing, implementing and evaluating educational program about folic acid than before nursing intervention. Recommendation: Effective intervention programs to improve periconceptional intake of folic acid among women at reproductive age are needed in maternal and child health centers.

  27. Dr. Rohini Koya, Dr. Ajay Raj Mallela, Dr. Aswini Dutt, T. and Dr. Hariprasad Shetty

    Congenital heart disease (CHD) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality in pregnancy (Whittemore et al., 1982 and Shime et al., 1987). Congenital heart disease in pregnancy is associated with reduced cardiac reserve. A 24 year pregnant female 21 weeks of gestation not diagnosed to have heart disease in the past came with chief complaints of class 3 dyspnoea on exertion. On examination patient had differential cyanosis in the lower limbs, loud pulmonary component of second heart sound and parasternal heave, diagnosed to have Patent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA) with eisenmenger syndrome on Echocardiography. Laboratory investigation including complete blood picture, renal function and liver function tests were within normal limits. As mortality risk of eisenmenger syndrome is significantly high in pregnancy, termination of pregnancy was done.

  28. PuguhRiyanto, PrasetyowatiSubchan and Rosa Lelyana

    Background: Acne vulgaris (AV) is a skin disorder that is most common, with a multifactorial pathogenesis, but some studies have shown that dihydrotestosterone (DHT) is an androgen that is most instrumental in ductal hyperproliferation pilosebaseus and hypersecretion of the sebaceous glands. Soy milk are phytoestrogens which proved an antiandrogen and anti-inflammatory. The purpose of this study demonstrate the effect of soy milk on AV lesions in female patients. Methods: This study is a clinical study design with randomized pretest-posttest control group design, with 25 samples were randomized into 5 groups: soy milk 200 ml, 400 ml, 600 ml, 800 ml, and placebo, for 4 weeks, conducted a double-blind manner . Results: The study found differences in the mean total AV lesions before treatment among the five groups (p : 0.259) or not significant (p>0.05), whereas after treatment (p : 0.001) or significant (p<0.05). Differences decrease in the mean total AV lesion before and after the inter-group obtained soy milk 800 ml group (p < 0.05), while the placebo, 200 ml, 400 ml, 600 ml not significant (p>0.05), and the difference in total lesion delta AV (p:0.001) or significant (p<0.05). Conclusion: This study of soy milk supplementation 800 ml/day can lower total AV lesion.

  29. Vaishali R. Wabale, Renu S. Bharadwaj, Ameeta A. Joshi and Abhay S. Chowdhary

    Background & Objectives: Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) harbors virulence properties which are usually absent in non-pathogenic E. coli. The study was undertaken to characterize the properties like hemolysin production, serotypes and multi drug resistance (MDR) in routinely administered antimicrobial drugs in the UPEC isolates. Design & Methods: Laboratory confirmed 105UPEC isolates, obtained by semi quantitative culture method from clinically symptomatic cases of urinary tract infections (UTIs) along with fecal isolates of E. coli from 50 healthy individuals were included as controls. All isolates were subjected to serotyping and haemolysin production on sheep blood agar. Antibiorgram was done using modified Kirby-Bauer’s disc diffusion method by the standard Clinical & Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI) guidelines. Results: All 105 serotyped strains showed high prevalence to O25 followed by O120 and others. Total 25 different serotypes were observed. Hemolysin production observed in 14 (13.33%) of uroisolates and 3 (6%) of control strains. MDR was found in 47 (44.76%) isolates with preponderance to 3 classes: Ampicillin, Co-trimoxazole and Gentamycin. No correlation between serotypes, haemolysin production and MDR was found. Interpretation & Conclusion: Antimicrobial susceptibility profiles are necessary to be evaluated in India where a severe misuse of antibiotics at all levels can be seen. Stringent policies of antimicrobial use and infection control in all hospitals is a need of the hour. Detection of hemolysin production, serotyping and MDR in the isolates is reasonably easy and screening them in clinical microbiology laboratory of a tertiary care hospital is a worth consideration.

  30. Nasir A. M. Al Jurayyan, Amer O. Al Ali, Osamah A. Al Ayed, Sharifa D. A. Al Issa and Abdullah N. Al Jurayyan

    We report an eight year-old Saudi girl who was diagnosed to have chronic-mucocutaneous-candidiasis (CMC), and hypoparathyroidism (HP) i.e. autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 1 (APS-1). She was shortly manifested symptoms and signs of autoimmune adrenal insufficiency (AAD). During the course of follow-up, and within a short period of time she developed hypothyroidism with positive anti-thyroid antibodies, type 1 diabetes mellitus with elevated glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 (GAD 65), celiac disease, small bowel biopsy proved, pernicious anemia, kerato-conjunctivitis. She died at the age of 14, with acute hepatic failure, due to an autoimmune hepatitis, and over-wheeling sepsis. The spectrum of APS-1 was highlighted.

  31. Dr. Tiwari Bharti, Dr. Srivastava Alok and Dr. Shukla Durgesh Kumar

    Gridhrasi is one of the Vatavyadhi caused by aggravated Vatadosha. It is characterized by radiating pain, tingling sensation & numbness at posterior aspect of leg, which makes the patient difficult to walk. There is no specific curative remedy in modern medical science except pain killers. Acharya Charaka and Sushruta mentioned Siravedha in management of Gridhrasi and Acharya Sushruta has mentioned Siravedha as superior therapeutic procedure among others as it gives instant relief. Thus the objective of present study was to evaluate the efficacy of Siravedha in the management of Gridhrasi. Study was performed at OPD level in Dept. of Panchkarma Rishikul Govt. Ayurvedic College Haridwar, Uttarakhand. In Ayurved, Acharya Charaka and Sushruta stated Siravedha in management of Gridhrasi. Aims: To evaluate the efficacy of Siravedha in the management of Gridhrasi w.s.r. to sciatica. Materials and Methods: it is an open randamized clinical trial. A total of 20 patients suggesting Gridhrasi on the basis of sign and symptom and clinical examination were selected from O.P.D. and I.P.D. of Dept. of Panchkarma was treated with 3 sitting of Siravedha [place four anguls above and below JanuSandhi (knee joint) and AntarakandaraGulfa (Ankle joint) ] with an interval of 15 days in between. Assessment was done after the completion of therapy on the basis of subjective criteria (pain, stiffness, tingling and pricking sensation, numbness and twitching and objective criteria (SLR, scoliosis, Walking Time). Results: Siravedha was found to be significantly effective in reducing pain and other symptoms. Conclusion: Siravedha gives instant relief in Gridhrasi.

  32. Dr Himanshu Khutan

    Gastric diverticula are rare in routine clinical practice. Diverticula are out-pouching from tubular structures. True diverticula involve all layers of the intestinal wall, whereas false diverticula are caused by herniation of mucosa and submucosa through the muscular wall. Gastric diverticula are mostly asymptomatic. Most commonly the symptoms are upper abdominal pain, nausea and emesis, while dyspepsia and vomiting are less common. Ulceration with hemorrhage or perforation has been reported. Gastric diverticula are usually 1 to 3 cm in diameter. We present the case report of a middle aged man who came with complaint of indigestion, abdominal pain and bloating. On upper GI endoscopy he was diagnosed with gastric fundal diverticula.

  33. Ali Mohamed Elshafie, Fatehea Mohamed ElNemr, Ezzat Helal Mohammed Abd Allah and Nermeen Samir M. B. B. C. H.

    Objective: Review omega 3 and omega 6 in childhood diet. Data Sources: From previous Literatures, reviews and studies as well as medical websites (PubMed, MD consult, Medscape) and Scientific Journals data- bases were searched from the start date of each data- base. Study Selection: Selection was done by supervisors for studying new advancement in omega 3 and omega 6 in childhood dietinpediatric and studies that addressed the important of omega 3 and omega 6 in childhood diet. Data Extraction: Data from published studies were manually extracted and summarized. Study quality assessment included whether ethical approval was gained, prospective design, eligibility criteria specified, appropriate controls used, adequate follow-up achieved and defined outcome measures. Data synthesis: In this review the data found that several studies of omega 3 and omega 6 in childhood diet to know which omega 3 and omega 6 can used in several diseases Findings: A total of 50 studies were included in the review as they were deemed eligible by fulfilling the inclusion criteria. Of these 50 articles, included in this review, 32 were Omega 3 and omega 6 in child diet and 18 were omega and diseases Studies indicate that omega 3 and omega 6can used in the treatment of some diseases. Conclusion: Omega-3 and Omega-6 are essential fatty acids and are important for human health and diet must be balanced in the omega-6 and omega-3fatty acids decreasing omega-6 and increasing omega-3fatty acids.

  34. Dr. Surya Lakshmi, A and Dr. Satyanarayana, V.V.

    In India, Chronic Respiratory diseases like chronic obstructive disease, Bronchial Asthma and pulmonary tuberculosis continue to be one of the common disease groups which are the cause of significant morbidity and mortality. These diseases cause significant physical incapacitation and they also cause psychogenic manifestations which may also affect the primary pulmonary disease and in many cases this may cause dangerous vicious cycle. Requirement of persistent and prolonged treatment and often frequent hospitalization are contributory factors for these psychogenic effects. Anxiety and Depression happen to be the common manifestations. Objective: the aim of this study is to look in to the prevalence of Depression in these respiratory patients in Visakhapatnam district, Andhra Pradesh of India. Methodology: 180 Patients of chronic respiratory illness with COPD, Bronchial Asthma and Pulmonary tuberculosis were selected for the study who attended the King George Hospital and Chest disease hospital connected to Andhra Medical College in Visakhapatnam of AP, India. After detailed work up by chest physician these patients were evaluated by psychiatrist for presence and severity of depression using Beck’s depression inventory. After thorough clinical evaluation of chest disease they were subjected for Psychiatric evaluation for the presence of Depression and if present the severity of Depression among them. Result: The study Sample includes 123 males and 57 female patients with pulmonary tuberculosis, COPD, and bronchial asthma was found in 69, 61 and 50 patients respectively. Depression was observed in 51.02 % of pulmonary tuberculosis, 64.28 % of chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases and 27.27 % of bronchial asthma patients. Seventy percent of female patients had depression in comparison to 45.68% of males. Severe depression was more frequent in COPD (22.22%) in comparison to pulmonary tuberculosis (16.00%) and Bronchial Asthma (0.00%). Conclusion: This study shows that more than half of patients with COPD and pulmonary tuberculosis also suffer from depression. Pulmonary rehabilitation reduces anxiety and depression in patients suffering from chronic respiratory disorders

  35. Sangeetha Balasubramaniam

    Objective: To determine the level of Human rights violation among the Mentally Ill Patients. Subjects and Methods: A descriptive and Exploratory Quantitative study was conducted in a Mental Health Institute. Purposive sampling was adopted to select the respondents. The data was collected through participant observation and In-depth Interviews. Further field notes were used for data analysis. The method of presenting the data was case study and observations.
    Results: The case studies revealed human rights violation of mentally Ill Persons within the family and community and in fact Human rights were taken good care in the Mental Health Institution. As the respondents have expressed human rights violations in the family and expressed good care from the mental health Institution
    Conclusion: The low socio economic status and most living in rural areas with superstitious belief waste time and money violating the mental needs of a person. According to the observation and in-depth interviews it was revealed that there was no human rights violation taking place in the mental health institution. Government should come up with more easily accessible mental health care and all educational institutions must do more research and awareness programs to eradicate the stigma of this issue.

  36. Dr. Kapil Panchbhai, Dr. Divish Saxena, Dr. Prabhat Nichkaode and Dr. Abhay Chowdhary

    Background: Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy being promoted as a Day care surgery now a day, therefore, adequate pain relief in post operative period is a must for patient’s compliance. Incorporation of intraperitoneal installation of Bupivacaine as a part of multimodal analgesic regime provides significant post operative analgesia. This study evaluates the role of intraperitoneal spraying of bupivacine in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy for adequate post operative analgesia. Methods and Materials: Sixty ASA I, II patients with uncomplicated cholelithiasis, undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy were randomly divided in two groups. Group 1 was the study group where 20 ml of 0.5% bupivacaine was instilled and group 2 was the control group where 20 ml of normal saline was instilled into the gall bladder fossa and sub-diaphragmatic space at the end of the surgery. The VAS, total requirement of rescue analgesia and time to the first dose of rescue analgesia was noted at regular intervals over the 24 hour postoperative period. Results: In the study group, 50% (i.e. 15 out of 30) of the patients required only a single dose of rescue analgesia over the 24 hour observation period. Another 40% (i.e. 12 out of30) required two doses and the remaining 10% (i.e. 3 out of 30) required three doses of rescue analgesia. In the control group 56.7 % (i.e. 17 out of 30) of the patients required three doses of rescue analgesia, another 30% (i.e. 9 out of 30) required two doses while the remaining 13.3% (i.e. 4 out of 30) patients required four doses of rescue analgesia over the period of observation. These results are highly significant. Conclusion: Intraperitoneal instillation of bupivacaine in the gall bladder fossa and sub diaphragmatic surface is safe and has an effect in alleviating postoperative pain thereby minimizing the requirements of analgesics and it can be incorporated as a routine practice and as a part of multimodal analgesic regime.

  37. Sarma, D.K., Ahmed, K., Barua, P.M. and Goswami, S.

    Twenty seven endometritic cows were divided into three groups to evaluate the comparative efficacy of intra-uterine Lenovo-AP and systemic antibiotic INTACEF Tazo 3375mg in endometritis of crossbred cows. Significant differences observed between the pre- and post-treatments mean values of TLC, Lymphocyte, Neutrophil, TEC and Hb in the cows of treatment groups. Milk yield was increased significantly in both the treated groups after completion of treatment. The conception rate was 88.90%, 66.70% and 11.10% in Lenovo-AP, INTACEF Tazo treated and control group, respectively. IU Lenovo-AP performed better in resolving endometritis than INTACEF Tazo and increase in milk yield level without any change in nutrition and managemental practices may be considered as an indicator of recovery of treatment.

  38. Adeniyi Michael Adebayo, Kadiri O. Jonathan, David Shalkur and Owoicho Sunday Christopher

    Many studies havedescribed the prevalent use of over-the-counter (OTC) medications, including herbals and vitamins, in pregnancy. The main objective of this study was to assess OTC medication use, perceived safety and decision-making behaviour in pregnant women in Jos, Nigeria. The subjects included 150 pregnant women 18 years and older. Subjects were solicited using a stratified random sample in two tertiary hospitals that provide antenatal care in Jos. A pretested self-completed questionnaire was used to collect data which was coded into Statistical Program for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20 to generate descriptive statistics that satisfied the study objectives. Of the 150 respondents, 98.7% had used an OTC medication, herbal, or vitamin during the pregnancy. The most common products included folic acid, ferrous sulphate, paracetamol, Coflin(R) syrup, Gestid(R) suspension, PregnaCare(R)Capsule and Vitamin D plus Calcium. The majority of respondents regarded OTC medications, vitamins, and herbals as “safe, but would talk to a healthcare professional before using.” The most utilized sources of drug information during pregnancy were physicians (66.7%), nurses (16.0%), and midwives (14.7%). Only a few number of respondents obtained general OTC information from pharmacists (12.7%). Almost all subjects had used an OTC medication during their pregnancy and the majority considered OTCs safe after first consulting a healthcare professional. Although a high percentage of subjects have obtained their information and recommendations from healthcare professionals, a very small proportion of subjects had utilized a pharmacist as a resource. These findings highlight the need for thorough medication history taking and proper medication education by clinicians during antenatal care.

  39. Gunasekaran, S. Kalimuthu, T. Rajalakshmi, S. and Jaikeen Jaipratha, R.

    Mass drug administration (MDA) with annual single dose of diethylcarbamazine (DEC) in combination with albendazole (ALB) for more than 5 years is the principal tool of lymphatic filariasis (LF) elimination strategy. This study examined the potential of seven rounds of MDA of which initial four rounds with DEC alone and concluding three rounds with DEC plus Albendazole to eliminate Lymphatic filariasis transmitted by Wuchereria bancrofti infection in humans in geographically isolated and non contiguous districts in the Union Territory of Puducherry, South India. Which are bordering endemic districts of neibouring states and administratively same implementation unit..Among the eligible population (>2 years), 49.60to 88.60% received treatment in all seven rounds, After seven rounds of treatment, the microfilaria (Mf) prevalence in treated communities dropped by >90% in two of three sentinel sites in the DEC rounds and all three in the DEC&ALB rounds showed zero Mf prevalence, The results also indicate that DEC&ALB is effective, slightly better than DEC against microfilaraemia. Results from this and other recent operational studies proved that single-dose mass drug administration with DEC and ALBENDAZOLE is very effective at community level to interrupt transmission and proceed further towards verification of antigenemia prevalence as per GELF protocol.

  40. Shwetha Hitnal and Shankarling Javali

    Background: There were significantly high food taboos and its misconception all over the world irrespective religion, culture and country. Aims: To evaluate the existing knowledge and attitude of pregnant women regarding food taboos and its misconception during pregnancy and to find effectiveness of planned teaching program in enhancing knowledge and attitude of pregnant mothers regarding food taboos and its misconception. Materials and methods: A pre-experimental study design was used to evaluate the knowledge and attitude of pregnant mothers. The sampling frame comprised individuals aged 18-36 years and simple random sampling was carried out. Respondents were given planned teaching program. Data was analyzed using SPSS 16. The effectiveness of planned teaching program is assessed using t-tests and the association is assessed using chi-square test. Results: Mean pre-test and mean post-test knowledge score was 10.46 and 26.43 respectively and is highly significant. Mean pre-test and mean post-test attitude 83.63 & 115.75 respectively which is highly significant. Conclusions: Study revealed that planned teaching program is effective in enhancing knowledge & improving the attitude pregnant mothers.

  41. Saurabh Laskar, Kumkum Bhattacharyya, Debarpan Banerjee, Nilay Chatterjee, Nandita Sarkar and Dilip Das

    Coagulase Negative Staphylococcus (CoNS) are emerging as a predominant cause of neonatal septicemia in health care facilities. Blood stream infection due to CoNS are often overlooked as central line colonization or contamination. An attempt was made to find out the prevalence of CoNS bacteremia with their antibiogram in neonatal blood culture samples from NICU of a tertiary care hospital. The study includes 1490 blood culture samples taken from sick neonates over a period of 21 months. Automated culture was done using BACT /ALERT and VITEK -2 machines. Results show that a total of 213(14.3%) samples were positive for gram positive cocci and 154 (10.3%) samples were positive for Gram negative bacilli. Among the gram positive cocci 176(11.8%) were CoNS while only 37(2.4%) was S.aureus. Antimicrobial susceptibility revealed that gram positive cocci were highly sensitive to Linezolid, Daptomycin and Vancomycin but were mostly resistant to Benzyl penicillin, Ciprofloxacin, Levofloxacin. Methicillin resistance was seen in 73% Staphylococcus aureus isolates whereas CoNS showed variable resistance. It is imperative to understand the pathogenic potential of CoNS and carry out their antibiogram for proper management of neonatal sepsis rather than mere discarding them as contaminants, otherwise neonatal morbidity will continue to increase.

  42. Anahita Jenab, Rasoul Roghanian and Giti Emtiazi

    Kefir contains lactic acid bacteria and yeasts. These microorganisms are confined in kefiran, a branched glucogalactan with antimicrobial, anti-tumor and anti-fungal properties .The purpose of this study was to analyze the structure of the polysaccharide in raw kefiran. Kefiran was produced from raw milk with. 5.0% fat and 10 grams of kefir grain. The polysaccharides were extracted by ethanol and then protein was separated by ammonium sulfate. Four different bands in the purified protein were revealed by gel electrophoresis. Separated proteins were heat resistant with anti-microbial properties. Structural analysis by means of FTIR, AFM and X-RD showed that by removing the antimicrobial protein, the remained polysaccharide formed zigzag-shaped micro-crystals of horseshoe with antibacterial characteristics. Enhancement of the resistance of bacteria to antibiotics, make this antibacterial polysaccharide useful in the production of polymer and drug delivery. To the best of our knowledge, the horse’s micro-crystal fiber of deproteinized kefiran with antibacterial activities is reported for the first time.

  43. Astuti, M. P.

    The research is aimed at isolating, characterizing, and identifying lactic acid bacteria which have the potential as probiotic agent obtainedfrom the chyme of 34 days-old strain patriot broiler chicken intestine. In order to reach the goal, pour plate and streak plate method on MRS (de Mann Rogosa Sharpe) are used to isolate the bacteria. It is done by adding CaCO3 0.5% as the indicator of the formation of clean zone around the colony. The incubation is conducted at 37ºC for 48 hours. The phenotypic characterization process of the obtained isolates are conducted by gram painting, morphology, catalyst test, temperature influence test, pH and salinity toward the growth, fermentation test, and acid formation test from the carbon source. The identification to find out the possibility of BAL genus and species is conducted through profile matching based on the phenotypic characteristic traced by using Bergey’s Manual of Determinative Bacteriology. Meanwhile, the potential test on its possibility as probiotic agent is conducted by doing the acid resistance test. The production of lactic acid of each isolate of lactic acid bacteria is measured when the bacteria is already 24 hours-old. The result of the research is 15 isolates of lactic acid bacteria. After the confirmation test is conducted, the characteristics show that there are 4 genuses of lactic acid bacteria, i.e. lactobacillus, pediococcus, streptococcus, and enterococcus. The result of the BAL test in producing the lactic acid shows that the AST 04 isolate has the highest amount of lactic acid, 57.69 %, followed by AST 05 which has 9.41 % lactic acid. The BAL isolate of those chicken faces waste still can grow until the concentration of bail salt reaches 0.5 %.

  44. Mdegela, R.H., Mhongole, O.J., Kamundia, P.W., Byarugaba, D. and Mbuthia, P.G.

    A cross sectional study to identify Salmonella and Vibrio species in water and fish in Mwanza Gulf, Lake Victoria was conducted during April to May 2012. A total of 30 water and 82 fish samples were collected and analyzed for Salmonella, Vibrio cholera and Vibrio parahaemolyticus. In water, the overall prevalence of Salmonella spp, Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio parahaemolyticus was 13.3%, 20% and 23.3%, respectively. Out of 15 water samples collected in beaches, contamination by Salmonella spp, V. cholerae and V. paraheamolyticius was 6.7%, 20% and 20%, respectively. In ponds, only V. parahaemolyticus was isolated in two out of three water samples. The prevalence of Salmonella spp and V. cholerae was 25% and 16.7% for V. parahaemolyticus in 12 river water samples. In fish, prevalence of Salmonella spp. on the surface, gills and intestines of fish was 19.5%, 4.9% and 2.2% (n=41); V. cholerae on the surface, gills and intestines of fish was 53.7%, 17.1% and 4.9% (n=41); and for V. parahaemolyticus it was 14.6%, 2.4% and 22% (n=41) respectively. Based on findings from this study, it was evident that there are some enteric pathogens of public health importance in fish and water in Lake Victoria and rivers emptying water into the lake. Detection of Salmonella spp, V. cholerae and V. parahaemolyticus in upstream water samples and fish before processing suggests that fish and water may be unsafe for human consumption. Thus it implies the necessity for application of HACCP system along the fish supply chain from fishing to processing establishments.

  45. Tadele Alemu, Zewdu Ararso and Gemechis Legesse

    The experiment was conducted to assess the performance of honeybee (Apis mellifera bandasii) queens reared through different queen rearing techniques at Holeta Bee Research Center. A total of 20 local honeybee colonies with first super and uniform strength were selected and assigned randomly to splitting, Miller, overcrowding, grafting, and natural cell cup of queen rearing techniques. The success rate of the tested queen rearing techniques showed remarkable variations. But, those colonies assigned to overcrowding method did not totally respond. Brood area, brood solidity, swarming tendency and honey yield for colonies resulting from different queen rearing techniques were also evaluated. The result revealed that the highest hatchability was for the grafting and natural cell cup while the highest proportion reaching nuclei colony formation being for grafting. However, the highest rate of young queens starting egg laying was observed for those which were reared using splitting technique. The result also showed that, there was a significant (p<0.05) difference in the activity of brood rearing among the rearing techniques over the active seasons. Accordingly, Miller technique in the September-November active season exhibited significantly (P<0.05) higher brood rearing compared with the rest techniques except that of splitting. The solidity of brood of honeybee colonies reared by the four queen rearing techniques had no difference in the count of the empty cells in brood nests rather it was affected by the interaction of the rearing techniques and breeding seasons. Similarly, the number of queen cells constructed during brood rearing season showed no variation among colonies reared through different queen rearing techniques as well as between the two breeding season. Moreover, the variation in honey yield was not significant, it was comparatively better for the colonies obtained through splitting technique. Therefore, splitting can still be a useful technique as it doesn’t demand additional equipment and facilities like that of the other queen rearing techniques.

  46. Mariat George, S. John Britto, M. Thamacin Arulappan, R. R. Marandi, Ignace Kindo and Dessy, V. J.

    This study investigates the chemical composition, in vitro antioxidant activity and antibacterial activity of essential oil of Curcuma amada Roxb. The GC- MS analysis of the oil has shown a profile of 17 compounds. β-Myrcene (69.60%) and β-Pinene (15.15%) are the two major components. The antioxidant activity was done by using 2, 2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, total antioxidant assay, Ferric reducing antioxidant power and nitric oxide scavenging assay. This study proves that the essential oil could serve as an important bio-resource of antioxidants for using in food and pharmaceutical industry. Besides, the essential of C.amada remarkably inhibited the growth of 12 bacterial strains. Results indicated that essential oil of C.amada included rather higher proportions of mono-terpenoid compounds with good antioxidant and antibacterial properties.

  47. Rama Prasad, J., Suhas Souri, J., Ashish Kumar Sharma, Cherukuri, V. R., Lemma Fita and Chala Merera Erge

    During the past decade the knowledge of dietary influence on health and wellbeing has been increased and often related to some food components. To ameliorate specific nutritional disorders, designer foods have been ad vented way back in 1980.Designer foods are the processed or fortified foods with potential health promoting food ingredients, which are normal foods consumed daily. The designer food approach is one of the best and low-cost strategies to reduce micronutrient deficiencies among people, because it can deliver recommended allowances of nutrients regularly. These foods are developed by the process of fortification or nutrification or bio-fortification. The demand, regulatory status and the potential health benefits in alleviating life style and chronic disorders with designer livestock - based foods like milk, meat and eggs are reviewed. In developed and developing countries, the designer foods played a major role in improving the diet and eliminating life style and chronic disorders and nutrient deficiencies among people. Several designer milk and milk products were developed by fortifying with macro and micronutrients with health benefits. The conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), omega 3-n fatty acids, vitamin A and D, calcium and probiotic enriched milk and yoghurt have specific health benefits. Designer eggs enriched with CLA and omega3-n fatty acids and antioxidants are not only improve health but also reduce the risk of cardio vascular diseases. Selenium, vitamin A and beta carotene enriched eggs, chicken and beef can bring dramatic changes in health of humans. As of now, designer foods are completely safe but nutrification or fortification or bio-fortification should be done rationally at less than one third of the total recommended daily allowances of nutrients, and they should be strictly regulated with stringent quality control measures to ensure safety and consumer acceptance before releasing into the market. Ultimate success of designer foods depends on creating adequate awareness among people of their health benefits through national and international programs as well.

  48. Yassine EL AMMARI, Hassane EL HADIRI, Naima CHAOUCHE and Abdelaziz CHAOUCH

    To minimize and control hazards, a number of standards setting targets or methods to follow or even both, have emerged. Audit is among one of the most widely used tools to ensure compliance or not of a company with standards requirements. In this study, we analyzed findings from 35 second part audits carried out in 32 companies of Moroccan food industry. The total duration is 49.5 days. These companies are spread over 9 of food chain categories and 8 different cities (59% of them are located in Casablanca city) with a coaching rate is of 9% in average. Findings raised from these audits are of 147 shared between 10 major non conformities, 50 minor non conformities, 78 remarks and 9 strength points. Chapter 7 has registered 60% of all findings followed with Chapter 5 with 18% then Chapter 4 with 13%. We noted that the cumulative findings related to compliance with regulations requirements, product standards and PRP represent 41% of the whole. Many reasons can explain this rates, among which we mention difficulties faced while collecting regulations and product standards, required investments, which are sometimes heavy, necessary to comply with good practice, change resistance, lack of necessary skills, etc.

  49. Soni Priyanka, Parihar, R. S., Khatri, P. K., Soni laxman Kumar, Agarwal Ramesh, Duggal Swati and Verma Shashikala

    Introduction: Respiratory infections in critically ill patients are associated with high morbidity and mortality. Patients who are mechanically ventilated are at high risk of acquiring respiratory infections due to complex interplay between the endotracheal tube, host immunity and virulence of invading bacteria. To initiate empiric antimicrobial therapy knowledge of local antimicrobial resistance patterns are essential. Materials and Methods: This study was based on 245 patients of ICU of M.D.M. hospital, Dr. S.N. Medical College, Jodhpur, Rajasthan, India. Patients with positive endotracheal aspirates were included in this study. Data regarding microbial isolates and their culture and sensitivities were recorded. Results: The organism obtained were Klebsiella sp, Staph. aureus, Pseudomonas sp, Acinetobacter sp, Citrobactor, E.coli, Proteus Whereas Klebsiella sp, were the most frequently isolated bacteria. All the organisms more or less showed both sensitive and resistance pattern but Acinetobacter sp was show resistant to all the antibiotics except imipenam and levofloxacin. Conclusions: Gram negative organisms mostly susceptible to fluoroquinolones&Carbapenem group of antibiotics which were the predominant isolates in our critical care setup. A local antibiogram for each hospital, based on bacteriological patterns and susceptibilities is essential to initiate empiric therapy, to prevent poor outcomes and help in framing the appropriate institutional antibiotic policy.

  50. Huma Vaseem and Banerjee, T. K.

    Efforts have been made to analyse the efficacy of decontamination by phytoremediation technology using fish bioassay method. For this purpose Fish (L. rohita) were exposed to raw effluent, Lemna minor phytoremediated & Azolla pinnata phytoremediated effluent separately for a period of 20 days. Heavy metal analysis, different haematological and biochemical parametres were studied in the blood of raw effluent exposed and phytoremediated effluent exposed fish. Concentration of metals in the blood of the fish exposed to phytoremediated effluents was found to be less than those exposed to raw PMN effluent, perhaps due to decreased concentration of the metals in both the phytoremediated effluents. Different blood profiles like TEC, TLC, Hb, Ht, MCV, MCH, MCHC and differential leukocyte count also improved in phytoremediated effluent exposed fish when compared to raw effluent exposed ones. Concentration of proteins, lipids, glucose, cholesterol & activities of certain enzymes like AST, ALT, ALP, SOD, catalase, lipid peroxidase and lactate dehydrogenase of the blood also showed significant improvement due to phytoremediation of the effluent. Hence exposure to the phytoremediated effluents caused less damage in the fish in comparison to those exposed to raw effluent. However improvement in the health of phytoremediated effluent exposed fish did not reach to the levels of control wild fish.

  51. Dr. Rasheed Rahim H. Alatwani, Dr. Redha Alwan H. Alhashimi Dr. Haider Saadoon Q. Alhelfi and Dr. Rasha Khalil A. Alsaad

    Background: A fungus isolated from soil displayed considerable antibacterial activity. The fungus was identified as Stemphylium radicinum (Meier, Drechsler and Eddy, 1922) based on morphological characterization. Methods: Fungal extraction was carried out by ethyl acetate solvent. The metabolite showed Bioactivity against five bacterial strains. Esherichia coli from urine, Staphylococcus aureus from otitis media, Streptococcus pyogenes from Throat, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae from burns by using a disc diffusion technique was examined. Results: The inhibition zones exhibited by fungal extract were 14.0 - 26.0 mm MIC test revealed that the extract of S. radicinum exhibited a minimal inhibition values ranging between (3.12 - 12.5 ug/ml) and MBC ranging between (6.25 - 50.0 ug/ml) against bacterial strains. A verification of non- toxicity of the fungal extract against human blood revealed a negative test. The chemical analysis of the fungal crude extract showed that extract S. radicinum contains Tannins group, phenol compounds and amino acid, absent flavenoide. Conclusion: The metabolite produced by the fungi could be an alternative source of antimicrobial agents against clinical pathogens.

  52. Murugu Bharathi, G., Suresh, S. and Jeyabalan, D.

    Mosquitoes are vectors of many human diseases and cause environmental nuisances. Due to their large geographical distribution and abundance, Anopheles stephensi represent the most important mosquito species in India. The management of these disease vectors using conventional pesticides has failed because of the high reproductive ability, development of insecticide resistance of mosquito species and environmental pollution. These reasons are leading to a search for novel molecules. As so the Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bti) provide effective alternatives to broad spectrum larvicides in many situations with little or no environmental impact. Taking into account environmental benefits including safety for humans and other non-target organisms, reduction of pesticide residues in the aquatic environment, increased activity of most other natural enemies and increased biodiversity in aquatic ecosystems, their advantages are numerous. Bioassay was conducted to test the larval, pupal, and adult toxicity, longevity and mosquito fecundity. The mosquitocidal activity of Bti was tested at different concentrations, ranging between 10 to 40 ppm, against the different larval stages (1st instar to 4th instar) of Anopheles stephensi. Bioassays were done on newly moulted larvae under laboratory conditions. The technical material showed a high level of activity with mortality recorded for treated and following stages and happened after incomplete development. For the same treated series a significant decrease was also recorded in the longevity of the adult. In other experiments the compound was applied against the fourth instars larvae and its effects was investigated on fecundity of female emerged from larval treated series. The results showed that Bti reduced significantly the laying egg number, egg hatchability and the percentage of fecundity.

  53. Asha Gururaj and B. Manoj Kumar

    The present study is the application of Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR) and Sequencing Batch Biofilm Reactor (SBBR) for treating the domestic wastewater. The SBBR used in this study contained biomass immobilized in inert support material (polyurethane foam cubes) as well as suspended biomass while in SBR only suspended biomass was used. The SBR was operated for long duration and from day 125 onwards the effluent phosphorus concentration reduced to less than 4 mg/l (80% P uptake). Denitrification was observed from day 120 onwards in the anaerobic phase while nearly complete nitrification was observed in subsequent aerobic phase with effluent ammonia nitrogen concentration less than 2 mg/l. The SBBR took 26 days to reach the steady state condition with treated wastewater Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), phosphorus, ammonia-nitrogen and nitrate-nitrogen concentrations of 14 mg/l, 3.6 mg/l, 4.5 mg/l and 6.1 mg/l respectively. The SBBR was operated for 106 days and during the study nearly complete COD removal was observed and the effluent phosphorus concentration was in the range of 2.7 to 3.6 mg/l, ammonia-nitrogen concentration was less than 1 mg/l and denitrification was nearly 100% at the end of anaerobic phase. From this study it was found that SBBR was more effective in removing nitrate-nitrogen when compared to SBR.

  54. Adesh Kumar and Amita Kanaujia

    Wetland drainage and conversion is the major threat for Asian waterbirds, including the infilling of wetlands, principally for agriculture and aquaculture. Conservation action for wetland diversity and wetland habitats has been investigated and promoted at global level through Ramsar Convention on wetlands; Convention on Wetlands, Convention on Migratory Species (CMS) and Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD). Aquatic ecosystems have significant impact on migratory bird species. Wetland birds have a significant cultural and social role in local communities as well as being an important component of wetland ecosystem. The study was performed in Lakh-Bahosi Bird Sanctuary (LBS) during January 2014 to February 2015. LBS cover the 80 square kilometr area and provide excellent abode to waterbirds. Surveys were carried out seasonally and observations were made along line transects with the aid of 10x50 binoculars and Canon 70 D SLR camera. As the Lakh-Bahosi Bird Sanctuary (LBS) are a well-known bird-heaven and its abode high bird diversity and abundance, especially in winter season, in the present study we have documented the waterbirds diversity of Lakh-Bahoshi Bird Sanctuary, Kannauj District of Uttar Pradesh for better management and conservation. A total of 118 species of waterbirds have been reported including Grebes (2), Pelican (1), Ducks & Geese (21), Rails, Crakes, Gallinules & Coots (9), Jacanas (2), Cormorants & Darters (4), Herons, Egrets & Bitterns (12), Storks (6), Ibis and Spoonbills (4), Cranes (2), Waders & Shorebirds (31), Gulls (4), Terns (5), Kingfishers (3), Raptors (7) and Wagtails (5). This is a preliminary and basic effort to bring out the incredible waterbird fauna being maintained in the Lakh-Bahosi Bird Sanctuary. It is an excellent example of sustainable development and biodiversity conservation of wetland.

  55. Sreejaya, P., Nirmala, P., Abdulla, M. A., Barakat, A. and Ahmed, M. M.

    This study was aimed to compare two sperm preparation techniques zeta potential vs. HA based PICSI in terms of motility, morphology and DNA fragmentation. Study was performed in 42 semen samples from men with suspected infertility. Both techniques were used in each sample and evaluated % of motility, % of morphology and % of DNA fragmentation. Mean % of motility, morphology and DNA fragmentation were 73.31, 78.44, and 75.91 with standard deviation of 6.35, 7.31, and 9.21 respectively with Zeta potential. The PICSI yielded the values of 78.88, 78.77 and 80.2 with standard deviation of 5.19, 6.74, and 8.42 respectively. Wilcoxon signed ranked test showed significant difference in the results of motility, morphology and DNA fragmentation with p-values less than 0.05. The Zeta potential was found to be better in terms of DNA fragmentation but PICSI yielded better results in motility and morphology. This study results showed that Zeta potential is an effective method to select mature sperms with acceptable motility, morphology and less DNA fragmentation. So Zeta potential is comparable to PICSI and it is less time consuming, economic and can be used for all normal semen samples especially with suspected high oxidative stress.

  56. Flores-Encarnación, M., Aguilar-Gutiérrez, G. R. and Bravo- Juárez, L. A.

    H. pylori is a microaerophilic bacterium that causes chronic gastritis in half the world's population. H. pylori is the etiological agent of 95% of duodenal ulcers and 70-80% of gastric ulcers and 60-70% of cases of gastric cancer. Routes have been proposed for the transmission of H. pylori infection are: fecal-oral, oral-oral, gastro-oral routes. Also it has been proposed water as a means for the transmission of H. pylori. There are few reports about whether H. pylori can be transmitted from animal reservoirs. Present study aimed to seek evidence the occurrence of H. pylori through detection of 16S rRNA gene of this bacterium in water where domestical turtles are kept.

  57. Samah M. Abd Alrahman and Alsadig Gassoum

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major public health problem, with an estimated global prevalence of 3% occurring in about 170 million infected persons worldwide. An estimated prevalence of 5-20% of HCV infected patients have or will develop cirrhosis, 1-4% of whom will annually develop hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In Sudan, the incidence for HCC is high and increasing. In one study conducting among 150 HCC patients indicating that both Hepatitis B and C viruses were important risk factors of HCC in Sudan. The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence, and possible risk factors associated with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection among hemodialysis patients in Khartoum State. Three hundred and night (n=308) subjects were enrolled in a cross-sectional study and investigated during the period from January to April 2010. Results: The majority of the subjects examined were male (65.3%). Most of the patients tested were within age group 50-59 years. The specific anti-HCV antibodies were detected among 14.3% using the fourth generation enzyme linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA). Duration of dialysis and previous jaundice were significantly associated with HCV seropositivity (p<0.05). Patients who had a longer duration (5 years or more) were at higher risk to get infection with HCV than those who had shorter duration. Patients who had previous jaundice were suspected to get infection with HCV infection than those who had no previous jaundice. There was no significant difference (P>0.05) between the prevalence of HCV among married hemodialysis patients compared to single one. In conclusion, this fairly high prevalence of HCV among hemodialysis patients (14.3 %) should draw the attention of healthcare authorities to implementation new methodologies and improve the infrastructure of the dialysis centers, which could help improve quality of live of dialysis patients in Sudan.

  58. Narendhran, S. and Rajeshwari Sivaraj

    The present study is aimed to analyze the antibacterial activity and phytochemical profile of methanol, chloroform, ethanol and aqueous leaves extracts of lantana aculeata L. through FT-IR spectroscopy method. The antibacterial activity was evaluated according to the well diffusion method by using bacterial pathogens (Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus saprophiticus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa). This study shows that methanolic leaf extract of lantana aculeata L. inhibit maximum growth of Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas auroginosa, Minimum zone of inhibition was exhibited for S. saprophiticus. Phytochemical analysis shows the presence of carbohydrate, glycoside, flavonoids, saponin and phenolic compound is present in most of the solvent extracts and aqueous, which possesses antibacterial activity. The FT-IR analyses revealed different characterization absorption peak values with various functional groups in the extracts. The IR results indicate the presence of phenols, carboxylic acids, alkanes, ketones, alkyl halides and primary amine compounds in all the extracts of solvent.

  59. Azizur Rahman and Mohammad Aslam, M. D

    Unani system of medicine is one of the ancient systems of medicine which is providing wellness to the mankind. The concepts of this system are very rational and logical. The concept of Tabiyat which is related to the body is providing the legend knowledge as pioneer to understand the human physiology. Tabiyat (nature) of the body is known as supreme planner which takes part in every physiological function. Its importance in the human has been corroborated by Unani philosophers in very explanatory and comprehensive way. There are seven factors which considered under the Tabiyat are Arkan (four basic constituents), Mizaj (temperament), Akhlat (humors), Aza (organs), Arwah (pneuma), Quwa (energy) and Afal (functions).

  60. Navin Satyanarayan, Asha P Dass, Sirisha S, Usha D and Doaddamani G.B.

    Objective: This study was designed to compare between POCT glucometer and Laboratory reference method for glucose measurement in neonates especially in hypoglycemic conditions. It also evaluated the acceptability of POCT glucometer to measure blood glucose concentration in neonatal hypoglycemia. Material and Methods: 163 samples were collected, only 70 samples were included in this study. The cut off for glucose concentration <40mg/dL was taken for neonatal hypoglycemia since there is no specific demarcation exists in hypoglycemia of neonates., Glucose dehydrogenase (Accu-Chek Aviva) and Hexokinase method (Reference Laboratory method) was used to measure glucose measurement in samples that were obtained. Results: Glucometer accuracy was evaluated using linear regression, Passing-Bablock regression, Bland-Altman analysis. There was no significant difference. Clarke Error Grid analysis, >98% results were in zone A. The Mean bias of Accu Chek Aviva was 2.3%; with P <0.003 Conclusion: POCT Accu-chek Aviva glucose measurement performance was acceptable in hypoglycemic range.

  61. Warrier, K. C. S. and Suganthi, A.

    Though Casuarina equisetifolia is amenable for vegetative propagation, large scale operational clonal forestry programmes of this species are in its early stages of development in India. Since C. equisetifolia is a poor coppicer, getting juvenile materials for vegetative propagation or maintenance of juvenility is a serious problem. Development of a suitable cloning technique and induction of juvenility in this species will go a long way in establishing large scale plantations of end use specific clonal materials. A cost effective water culture technique of rooting could be developed for C. equisetifolia during the current study. Both phylloclad cuttings and individual ‘needles’ treated with 100 mgl-1 of IBA for 12 hours could be rooted in ordinary drinking water using this method. The success of rooting was up to 100 per cent for ‘needles’ and 80 per cent for sprigs. Plantlet development from rooted sprigs and individual ‘needles’ was 95 and 65 per cent respectively.

  62. Etiban Lapasam and Tiwari, B. K.

    Thysanolaena maxima is a wild grass cultivated by the farmers of Meghalaya. When the demand for broom increased, many erstwhile shifting cultivators got motivated to take up cultivation of this plant. In this paper, we report the findings of field experiments conducted to investigate the effect of plant density on growth and yield of T. maxima. The experiments were laid in Mynska village of Meghalaya and the study was conducted between July 2012 and February 2014 using Randomized Complete Block Design with four replicates and five spacing treatments. The study revealed that the growth and yield parameters are not impacted by plant density during the first year of its growth. During the second year, the effect of density on growth and yield became pronounced and 1.5x2.0 m spacing gave optimum number of tiller, tiller diameter, internodal length, leaf number, panicles number, harvest index and height and diameter of tussock. The yield of panicles was however maximum in the treatment 1.0x1.0 m spacing. The study concludes that up to two time harvests 1.5x2.0 m spacing may be adopted if farmers are interested for green biomass (fodder). However, for optimum production of broom grass panicles (broom), 1.0x1.0 m spacing is most appropriate.

  63. Ravikumar, P.

    The Noble prize awarded PCR, an indispensable technique used in biological research for DNA sequencing, DNA-based phylogeny, and functional analysis of genes coupled with ribosomal deoxyribonucleic acid sequencing, polymerase chain reaction and deoxyribonucleic acid sequencing has played a pivotal role in the accurate identification of bacterial/fungal isolates and the discovery of novel bacteria with their 16S rDNA and fungi with their 18S rDNA sequencing in explosive laden soil. Ten different Bacterial isolates and three different Actinomycetes belongs to the genera Acinetobacter, Bacillus, Enterobacter, Enterococcus, Staphylococcus, klebsiella, Aspergillus, Coriolopsis were isolated and identified with their 16S and 18S rDNA sequences and deposited in the The GenBank Maryland USA and MycoBank Utrecht Netherlands (Specimen record 37316). All the isolates were named after the discoverer P Ravikumar, will be preserved in MTCC, India. Sanger dideoxy sequencing technology was employed and the number of base pairs, the base count of A, T, G and C was also studied. To fully utilise 16S/18S rDNA sequencing of bacteria and fungi in explosive laden soils and their bioremediation, the presence of xplA and xplB and other biodegrading gene/s were to be investigated. Coriolopsis byrsina PRK-1 18S ribosomal RNA gene, with the base count 222 a 169 c 246 g 244 t partial sequence with Accession KJ938683, Version KJ938683.1 (GI:675621792 bases 1-881) a novel strain present in the explosive laden soil of cracker industry is discussed here.

  64. Anusiyadevi, K., Lekeshmanaswamy, M. and Ramesh, J.

    In the present study an attempt has been made on physico - chemical characteristics of Kurichi pond, located in Coimbatore of Tamilnadu. The study was carried out for a period of 10 months (Jun 2014-Mar 2015). Monthly details have been collected and were represented. Different parameters were taken in the study were Physical parameters - Temperature, suspended solids, dissolved solids, total solids, electrical conductivity, light penetration and colour. Chemical parameters - pH, carbonates, bicarbonates, dissolved oxygen, dissolved carbon dioxide, Organic carbon, biological oxygen demand and total hardness. Dissolved Nutrients - Calcium, magnesium, nitrates, Iron, sulphates, sodium, lithium, potassium, phosphates and silicates. Heavy metals - Copper, Chromium, Nickel, Lead, Manganese and Zinc.

  65. Sheeja, B. D., Nishanthini, L. and Natarajan, B. N.

    A survey was conducted to collect information regarding medicinal and traditional uses of the plant resources from the study areas Upper Guernsey and Lower Guernsey Regions in Coonoor, Nilgiri District, and Tamil Nadu. 154 plant species belonging to 118 genera and 63 families. Among them 134 Dicotyledons (87%) and 20 Monocotyledons (13%) comprising 63 families. In dicotyledons Polypetalae, Gamopetalae and Monochlamydeae are represented by (59, 46&29) species. A fairly good number of 98 species about 64 % in this floristic list are recognized as ethno-medicinally valued. The dominant families in the study area which are used by Kurumba herbal healers are Asteraceae represented by 16 species, Geraniaceae represented by 6 species, Liliaceae represented by 5 species, Solanaceae, Polygonaceae and Lamiaceae each are represented by 4 species respectively. Majority of the medicines prepared by the medicinal plants were taken in raw, paste, powdered, decoction and infusion. In some cases, either fruit, leaves, stem or flowers are used as medicine

  66. Sudhikumar, A. V.

    Spiders are obligate carnivores and hold the unique position of being the only large class of arthropods which are entirely predatory in nature. To form a basis for research into the role of spiders to determine the economic importance of them in the rice agro ecosystem of Kuttanad region of Kerala, a toxicity study of 3 commonly used insecticides on dominant spiders were conducted in the laboratory. Topical application (spraying) and dipping method were used for study. Of the three insecticides tested, Methyl parathion recorded the lowest lethal concentration values indicating its comparatively high toxicity in both methods. This is followed by Quinalphos and Monocrotophos. The exposure to Methyl parathion resulted in 80% mortality of experimental spiders compared to 65% and 40% of mortality with Quinalphos and Monocrotophos respectively. This is suggestive of the usefulness of Monocrotophos as a component of integrated pest management strategy for sustainable paddy cultivation. Of the three dominant species tested, Pardosa pseudoannulata was the least susceptible to application of insecticides both by topical application method and the dipping method under laboratory conditions. Tetragnatha mandibulata was the most susceptible to the insecticides tested under laboratory conditions. Among the two methods used, dipping method was found to be more fatal compared to topical application. Spiders are very important biological control agents in agroecosystems and play a major role as potential defenders by suppressing the pest population to a safe level which emphasizes the concept of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) in modern agriculture. Faced with the need to reduce pesticide usage on crops and optimize natural biological control, full investigation on the means by which spiders influence pest abundance and effect of insecticides on spiders is long overdue.

  67. Dr. Dhokikar Gajanan Digambarrao, Dr. Ingale Pramod W and Dr. Birla Varsha H

    Background: Preeclampsia is one of the common complications in pregnancy and contributes significantly to maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. It is a multisystem disorder with renal failure as one of its major complication. Assessment of renal function is important in the evaluation of these patients. Cystatin C, a chain of 120 amino acids is a new marker of renal function. Present study conducted to evaluate diagnostic value of Cystatin C serum levels as alternative marker of renal function in Pre-eclamsia (PE) and compare it with the traditional markers of renal function, Creatinine and BUN. Present study might give us an early marker of renal dysfunction in preeclampsia. Material and Methods: In this case-control study markers of kidney function were investigated in two groups: one with newly diagnosed cases of preeclampsia PE (n = 50) and the other of healthy primigravida as controls (n = 50) of same gestational age. Serum Cystatin C levels were measured as well as levels of traditional renal markers like Creatinine and BUN. Data analyzed by Students Unpaired t test. Results demonstrated that difference for BUN & Creatinine between cases (mean BUN=12.46 mg/dl, mean Creatinine=0.7 mg/dl) & controls (mean BUN=8.62 mg/dl, mean Creatinine=0.62 mg/dl) were not statistically significant. But the results showed that difference for Cystatin C (mean for cases 1.86 mg/L and for controls 0.73) was highly significant (P=0.0001). Conclusion- we found that Serum Cystatin C is early and superior marker of renal function in Preeclampsia.

  68. Abbas M. Al-Ammari, Saife D. Al-Ahmer, Azhar A.F. Al-Attraqhchi and Noor I. Al-Baiyati

    Background: Psoriasis is a common, chronic, relapsing/remitting, immune-mediated skin disease characterized by red, scaly patches, papules and plaques which usually itch. Malassezia furfur is a fungus, specifically yeast that is approximately 1.5-4.5 μm wide and 2-6 μm long. Malassezia fufur is a coccal and their cells contain a plasma membrane, a thick and multilaminar cell wall composed of chitin with an invagination characteristic of Malassezia, mitochondria, a nucleus, and all of the other vital organelles. The role of Malassezia yeasts in psoriasis is still undetermined, but there are several reports indicating that these microorganisms are able to elicit psoriasis form lesions in both human and animals. Aims and objectives: The aims of the present study were to find out the prevalence of psoriasis disease, along with Malasseiz furfur and evaluation of the ITS PCR method sensitivity comparison with conventional methods. Materials and Methods: In this study vaginal swabs from 180 individuals (60 psoriatic patients and 120 Healthy volunteers) were used for lacto phenol cotton blue stain, culture, PCR and RFLP methods. PCR was performed with primer pair targeted the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of Malasseiz furfur. The result of the PCR was compared with conventional methods. The PCR positive samples were identified by presence of ~509 bp amplicon of the ITS region. Results: Conventional methods of lacto phenol cotton blue stain and culture methods showed a positive results in 16 (26.7%) out of 60 psoriasis patients and 26 (21.7%) out of 120 healthy control whereas PCR and RFLP methods showed 20 (33.3%) out of 60 psoriasis patients and 29 (24.2%) out of 120 healthy control. Conclusion: PCR method is sensitive, specific and useful technique to detect Malassezia furfur in both of psoriatic patients and healthy control.

  69. Pazhanisamy

    Impact of pesticides is common pollutants of freshwater ecosystems where they induce adverse effects on the aquatic biota. Freshwater carp fish, Labeo rohita is an important carp species in Tamil Nadu region having good nutritional values. Fishes living in close association with may accumulate pesticides. In the present study, the toxic effects of the dimethoate LC50 1.5 mg/L on some biochemical characteristics (total protein in gill, kidney, liver and muscle) of the freshwater carp fish, Labeo rohita were estimated. There is decreased in all tissues on comparison with control. The results indicated the toxic nature of the pesticide dimethoate.

  70. Priyanka Shivaprakash, Kyathegowdanadoddi Srinivasa Balaji, Saligrama Devegowda Preethi, Sangeetha Ramesh, Lokesh, S. and Shankar Jayarama

    Angiogenesis plays an important role in tumor formation and proliferation. The development of anti-angiogenic agents to block new blood vessel growth will inhibit metastasis and induce apoptosis of the cancer cells. Many natural health products that inhibit angiogenesis also manifest other anticancer activities. The present article focuses on phyto constituents bark extract of H. intergefolia have a high degree of anti-angiogenic activity. The aqueous leaf extract inhibits the Ehrlich ascites tumor cell proliferation by in-vivo. The antiangionenic activity of H. intergefolia was confirmed by its inhibition of angiogenesis in in-vivo assays, peritoneal and chorioallantoic membrane assay. Reduction in the levels of the cytokine VEGF and microvessel density count in the peritoneum of mice treated with H. intergefolia indicated that the plant extract decreased VEGF production and the cytokine induced neovascularization. Our preliminary results suggest anti-angiogenic activity of H. intergefolia. Further evidence-based research and chemical optimization of these compounds could further enhance the effectiveness of these plant-based medicines in angiotherapy.

  71. Dr. K. V. Leela, Dr. M. L. Rajeswari and Dr. V. Lakshmi

    Background: The role of Hyperhomocysteinemia (HHomocysteine) as a risk factor for atherosclerosis in Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has gained much interest worldwide. The primary objective of the study was to ascertain the association between serum homocysteine levels and GFR. Method: This case control study was done in stage 3,4 and 5 of CKD (cases= 63, controls =21) to assess the association between Serum homocysteine (S.Homocysteine), Serum creatinine (S.Cr), Glomerular Filtration Rate(GFR) and Carotid intima media thickness (CIMT). Result: Statistical analysis using ANOVA and pearsons correlation revealed a significant association between S.Homo-cysteine and stages of CKD (p=0.00), S.Homocysteine and GFR (p=0.00, rsq=0.3686) S.Homocysteine and CIMT (p=0.002, rsq=0.1429) and CIMT and CKD (p=0.00). Conclusion:On the basis of these observations, it was concluded that HHomocysteine exists in CKD and that it produces atherosclerosis. Hence early screening and treatment for HHomocysteine and atherosclerosis should be done in CKD to prevent cardiovascular diseases.

  72. Ranendu Malakar and Acharya, S. K.

    Agriculture in India presents the world’s largest private sector investments for 125 million farm families, and most of which are being organized in a natural set of with both bliss and risk offered by climate, market and technology itself. The agriculture of west Bengal is enormously dominated by small, marginal and fragmented holding as well. To generate marketable surplus especially from small and fragmented holding is really a difficult proposition. The task has gone further complicated with the rise of input prices and risk in accessing uncertain market prices of the market produces. For the mere survival of the rural mass, 90 per cent of the rural mass ,does not have any fixed income; the small farmers have to have generate some marketable surplus after meeting their subsistent requirement. The present study “The Marketable surplus in Small Farm Ecology: An Estimation from Agro-ecological and Socio-economic Factors” is envisaging an objective estimation of the level of marketable surplus as the dependent variable in respect of an 18 number of socio-economic and techno-managerial factors. The study reveals that, the variables Education (x2), Family Size(x3), Income(x4), Size of Holding(x5), Economic land(x6), Irrigation Index(x7), Electricity Consumption(x8), Market interaction(x10), Group Interaction(x11) and Risk orientation(x18) have significant bearing on generating marketable surplus by the farm entrepreneurs of the research locale, village Bhanderkola of Bongaon block in the district North 24 Parganas, West Bengal. All the independent variables have undergone step-down regression analysis to isolate the factors having critical contribution for generating ,marketable surplus and these are Education (x2), Family Size(x3), Income(x4), Size of Holding(x5), Irrigation Index(x7), Orientation towards Competition(x14), Marketing Orientation(x15), Decision Matrix(x16), Idea Exchange Index(x17) and Risk orientation(x18). Entrepreneurship analysis in small holding can also be replicated to conclude whether agriculture or fishery or cattle enterprises can be comparable with each other or can these enterprises be complemented to develop a complex model for agri-preneurship, so as to attain a profitable venture for farmers which could be socially as well as ecological resilient.

  73. Das Rama, Acharya, S. K. and PLama

    Women’s typical role within a livestock production system is different from region to region, and the distribution of ownership of livestock between men and women is strongly related to social, cultural and economic factors. Generally, it depends on the type of animals they raise. Based on the study it was seen that Farmwomen’s participation was seen highest in sowing, weeding and nipping/ picking and threshing. Farmwomen took a self-decision for decoration of house and selection and preparation of food in case of home management. Farm management was dominated by husband decision and majority of the farm management decision was taken by their husbands, animal husbandry management was completely dominated by women’s self decision. The relationship between independent variables like caste, land holding, family education status, economic status, house type, material possession, utilization pattern of communication channel, animal population, constraint based enterprise performance, performance in livelihood activity based on perceived problem, scientific orientation and farm implement in crop husbandry was observed positively significant. The paper emphasizes the importance of exploring alternate employment and income generating activities such as animal husbandry in order to improve the socio economic conditions of these women since the family background variables have a vital role in the development of personality traits in children which could affect quality of human capital in the future generation of the district.

  74. Lawrence Monah Ndam, Afui Mathias Mih, Aaron Suh Tening, Ausgustina Genla Nwana Fongod, Nkegua Anna Temenu and Yoshiharu Fujii

    Euphorbia golondrina L.C. Wheeler (Euphorbiaceae) is an important plant used in traditional medicine in Cameroon. There exists a dearth of scientific literature on the anatomical and morphological attributes of this plant. Hence, the ultrastructure and crystal deposits of Euphorbia golondrina L.C. Wheeler (Euphorbiaceae) were assessed and illustrated for the first time using light microscopy (LM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDXS) with a view to explore the taxonomic significance of foliar epidermal features and their role in biosynthesis of plant secondary metabolites. Fresh leaves of E. golondrina were prepared for analysis using standard methods. The leaves are amphistomatic and characterized by paracytic stomata which were more on the abaxial surface than the adaxial surface. Anticlinal walls were undulate in pattern while the epidermal cell shape was irregular. Stomata indices range from 30.20 % to 60.20 % in the abaxial and adaxial surfaces respectively. The leaves have eglandular trichomes which were sparsely distributed over the entire surface. The EDXS analysis revealed Mg, Al, Si, Fe, S and Ca ions as predominant mineral components. The absence of glandular trichomes on the leaf of this plant suggests that some other tissues on the leaf are responsible for the secretion of secondary metabolites.

  75. Rajeswari, S., Tasneem Banu and Swaminathan, S.

    Adenosine Deaminase (ADA) is an enzyme which is mainly involved in purine metabolism and is very much needed to breakdown Adenosine from food and maintain turnover of nucleic acid in tissues. Studies carried out in the past on the clinical usefulness of ADA has predicted its application in the diagnosis of variety of infectious diseases such as tuberculosis, typhoid, Infectious mononucleosis and certain malignancies especially those of haematopoietic origin. ADA levels in patients with pneumonia caused by M.Pneumoniae and Chlamydia Spp were found to be sensitive in diagnosing a particular type of infection. This review article summarises some important clinical usefulness of ADA measurement in body fluids.

  76. Dr. Angsuman Chanda

    The genus Miyadiella was described by Kubo (1949) represents two species namely Miyadiella podophthalmus (Stimpson, 1860) and Miyadiella ornate Holthuis, 1955b. The validity of the genus was questioned by Starobogatov (1972), Holthuis (1980) and Burkenroad (1983). Type species of the genus Miyadiella pedunculata Kubo, 1949 was synonymiesed under Penaeus podopthalmus Stimpson, 1860 by Starobogatov (1972) and the genus was synonymised under Atypopenaeus created by Alcock,1905. But Hayashi (1992) strongly stated that long eyestalk is the typical character for the genus Miyadiella. Pérez-Farfante and Kensley (1997) also supports Hayashi’s view and tentatively keeps separate Miyadiella from Atypopenaeus by adding two additional typical characters for the genus i.e., presence of spinules on first rostral teeth as well as along the postrostral carina and relatively short fifth periopod. During the present study author got the opportunity to study the materials preserved in Central Marine Fishery Research Institute (CMFRI), Cochin, Tamilnadu, India [Reg. No. AR. 267, from Bombay, collected by Kunju and labeled as Atypopenaeus stenodactylus (Stimpson, 1860)] and arrived into conclusion that the specimen will be Miyadiella podopthalmus (Stimpson, 1860).

  77. Sahaya Mary and M.K. Mahesh

    Cyathea nilgirensis Holttum, a rare, southern Indian endemic tree fern is found in Kathalekan forest of Central Western Ghats. The preliminary phytochemical studies revealed the presence of carbohydrates, alkaloids, flavonoids. Secondary metabolites identified in the plant material have been reported to have an inhibitory action against pathogenic microorganisms. An experiment was conducted to determine the antibacterial and antifungal activities of Cyathea nilgirensis. The antibacterial activity of plant extracts against the test organisms with varying zones of inhibition ranging from 7.00±1.00 to 10.00 ± 1.00 has revealed the antibacterial potency of the plant. The zone of inhibition of fungi ranging from 7.00 ± 0.50 to 12.50± 0.50, indicates that the plant exhibit antifungal potency.

  78. Manisha Yadav, Dr. Rosy Lekharu and Dr. Sachin Darji

    Sepsis is a major problem in neonates. Clinical criteria alone could not establish the diagnosis of neonatal sepsis. C-reactive protein, an acute phase protein increases in inflammatory disorder and tissue injury. The present study was conducted to evaluate C- reactive protein (CRP) as a screening tool for neonatal sepsis. A prospective study included newborn infants, aged <90 days and diagnosed with sepsis, who were admitted in neonatal intensive care unit at GCS Medical College Hospital and Research Center, Ahmedabad from 1stJanuary 2015 to 15th April 2015. This study included 100 cases in which 50 were culture proven sepsis and 50 normal newborn. Investigation for infection included CBC, Blood culture, and urine culture. As per the present study, sensitivity of serum CRP was found to be 88% and specificity 84% with NPV of 87.5 suggesting its beneficial role in diagnosing sepsis. Serum CRP was positive in 88% of culture proven sepsis and negative in 12% of cases. P-value of the test applied for the statistical significance is <0.0001 which implies that the result is statistically significant for CRP. Results of the current study indicates that despite the continuing emergence of newer markers of sepsis, CRP still plays a central role in the diagnosis of early onset neonatal sepsis.

  79. Ghosh, K. and Indra, N.

    The present study was designed to examine the protective effect of Centella asiatica ethanolic leaves extract on the haematological, hepatic and nephritic function marker changes induced in the blood of cadmium chloride treated albino rats. Administration of cadmium chloride (5 mg/kg body weight) caused a considerable increase in the count of WBC, AST, ALT, ALP, LDH, total bilirubin, urea, creatinine, globulin and decrease in the levels of total haemoglobin, RBC, hematocrit, mean cell haemoglobin, mean cell haemoglobin concentrations, total serum protein and albumin. Various concentrations of Centella asiatica ethanolic extract (20, 40, 60, 80, 100 mg/kg body weight) or silymarin (50 mg/kg body weight) as a pre-treatment were administered for 30 days to rats treated with cadmium chloride (5 mg/kg body weight). The levels of haematological, hepatic and nephritic function markers were found to be restored to near normal levels and the effectiveness of the treatment was found to be concentration dependent. The effective concentration of Centella asiatica ethanolic extract was found to be 80 mg/kg body weight. At this concentration, the extract’s protective effect was comparative to silymarin (50 mg/kg body weight). Altogether the results suggest that, Centella asiatica ethanolic extract (80 mg/kg body weight) can substantially reduce the toxic effects of cadmium and can help restore the imbalance caused in cadmium treated albino rats to near normal.

  80. Purnima Dey and Imana Pal

    Baccaurea ramiflora Lour. syn. Baccaurea sapida (Roxb.) Muell. Arg locally known as Latkan or Anshfol is a versatile though underexploited plant with number of health benefits. In West Bengal the fruit plant is grown mainly in homestead condition. It is a mild acidic fruit and mainly consumed fresh. This extensive review encompasses all the available literature with respect to habitat, physical characteristics, ethenomedicinal and traditional uses, physiochemical and nutritional composition, active constituents ,therapeutic role which helps to put a glimpse on this underutilized less appealing medicinal plant of West-Bengal.

  81. Ramesh Chandra and Subhash Kumar Mishra

    India is the world's second largest producer of ethanol next to China and has the potential of being the biggest, backed by its beverage and agricultural sector. Batch fermentation of cereals waste using yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae converts carbohydrates into carbon dioxide and alcohols. The enzymes of the malts break down starch in to sugar, which is ultimately converted into alcohol by yeast, the hybrid yeast improved ethanol tolerance, its glucose fermentation rate and yield more ethanol than those of its parent strain. The increased pH 5.0 to 6.5 & temperature 50 to 72 0C break down β-glucanase, α-amylase and natural protease in to malt sugar, and ultimately these enzymes convert malt sugar into glucose.

  82. Parthiban, P. and Mahesh, V.

    Totally six strains of Agrobacterium species was isolated from the soil samples of six different leguminous crop areas namely Kudikkadu, Thandangorai, Nadium, Athirampattinum, Buthalur, and Kattuthottam in Thanjavur Dist by using yeast extract mannitol agar (YEMA) medium. The isolated bacteria were characterized and identified as Agrobacterium rhizogenes based on the morphological, biochemical, cultural and pathogenicity tests. Biochemical characteristics such as total carbohydrate, protein, free amino acids, chlorophyll content and cholesterol were estimated from the agrobacterial isolates.

  83. Madhu, P., Vinodh, R., Rakesh Kumar, K., Venkatesh Bhat, B.

    Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench.) is considered as one of the crop species highly recalcitrant to tissue culture and genetic manipulation studies. During the last two decades several studies were done on sorghum somatic embryogenesis (SE) and plant regeneration, but the rate of plant regeneration was not sufficiently high and practical difficulties still exist in establishing and regenerating plants in a relatively shorter time period. The approach to regenerate the plantlets from somatic cells via intervening callus phase is time consuming and laborious which takes about 15-20 weeks. Hence an improved protocol using direct somatic embryogenic route of regeneration from shoot apices explants was developed. The shoot tips were cultured in the presence of Benzylaminopurine (BAP) and 1-Napthaleneacetic acid (NAA) at varying concentrations in Murashigeand Skoog (MS) media to determine the optimal media for SE as indicated by bulging of explants in the meristematic nodal region. The highest frequency of bulging (80%) due to SE was obtained on MS medium supplemented with 5.0 mgl-1 of BAP and 1mgl-1NAA.Further,plant regeneration could be directly induced from the bulged regions when supplemented half-strength MS media with Indole Butyric acid (IBA) and Indole acetic acid (IAA). Nearly 90% plant regeneration was achieved by using 2mgl-1of IBA and 0.5 mgl-1 of IAA. The well rooted plants are subjected to hardening and acclimatization in the glasshouse for 4 weeks. This rapid and efficient sorghum plant regenerative protocol described in this study is more useful for various genetic transformation studies.

  84. Adiveppa Bheemappa Vantamuri and Basappa Basawanneppa Kaliwal

    The laccase producing novel fungi, Marasmius sp. BBKAV79 (Gen Bank accession number KP455496, KP455497) was isolated and subjected to production and optimization of laccase by Submerged Fermentation (SmF). Submerged fermentation involves the nurturing of microorganisms in high oxygen concentrated liquid nutrient medium. The physical parameters namely pH, temperature, inoculum size, incubation time and the nutritional parameters like suitable carbon, nitrogen sources and solvents were studied for the higher laccase production. Yeast extract peptone dextrose-Copper sulphate (YPD-Cu) medium enhanced laccase production. The optimum pH and temperature for laccase was found to be 5.5 and 40o C respectively. The highest production of laccase at pH 6 and the temperature for production was recorded at 40°C. Optimum inoculum size and incubation time for laccase production at 14 mm 0f 6 fungal discs and 9th day respectively. Glucose and peptone were the most suitable carbon and nitrogen sources for laccase production. Ethanol was the most suitable solvent for laccase production. Novel sources of this laccase would be desirable to improve activity yields and substrate specificities.

  85. Shobhna Yadav and Prachi

    In this paper, we depict a framework that comprises a set of attributes agents to control and monitor a building infrastructure for its energy utilization. It utilizes the energy power lines for communication between the agents and the electrical devices of the building infrastructure, i.e., ventilation, sensors and actuators for lights, heating etc. The paper proposed a multi-agents methodology that is embedded through the development and usage of the product. The agents are defined to present the attributes of building like heating agent will present the Heating attributes such as solar panel and boiler. These agents are given various standards which prompt the required control strategies of the building conditions. All the Simulations are done in Matlab tool. The results of proposed work are showing improved energy efficiency in terms of energy consumption and comfort level of users.

  86. Kyazymzade A. G., Karabulur M., Dincher A., Salmanov V. M., Dzhafarov M. A., Guseynov A. H., Mamedov R. M.

    Experimental resultson preparation of nanoparticles on the basis of GaSe crystals, analysis of structure and investigation of their electric, optical and photoluminescent characteristics are presented. Nanoparticles and thin GaSeand InSe films on a glass substrate were grown by hydro-chemical sedimentation method from a solution, containing sodium selenosulphide, gallium chloride and indium chloride. As substrates we choose a glass and GaSe crystals grown by a Bridgman method. By means of X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), atomic force microscope (AFM), energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (EDAX), and a scanning electronic microscope (SEM) researches of the internal constitution and structure of the received samples have been conducted. Absorption spectra have been measured using JOBIN-YVON monochromator with diffraction lattice with subsequent detecting by FEU-100. Photoluminescence spectra were investigated by means of Cary Eclipse spectrophotometer. Using X-ray analysis it is established that nanoparticles belong to -modification of GaSe (а=3,75Å, с=15,94 Å) with hexagonal structure. Dependence of electrical conductivity on temperature for GaSe and InSe on GaSe substrate and current-voltage characteristics for GaSe and InSe on a glass substrate and GaSe substrate have been investigated. On the basis of spectral dependence the band-gap energy for nano-particles and activation energy for impurity the levels located in the band-gap have been defined.

  87. Amos, E. and Israel-Cookey, C.

    This study investigates the effect of electromagnetic field and radiation absorption on natural convection in a horizontal shallow porous cavity filled with an electrically conducting binary fluid. The vertical and horizontal walls of the cavity are subjected to cross fluxes of heat and mass. The Darcy model, Rosseland approximation for the radiative flux and the Boussinesq approximation for density variations are used in the formulation of the problem. In the limit of shallow cavity, parallel flow approximation is adopted and the result established that the flow intensity, heat and mass transfer are considerably affected by radiation absorption and magnetic field depending on whether the vertical solutal gradient is stabilizing or destabilizing. A critical radiation value, depending on the thermal Rayleigh number, for the onset of unstable convection is also established in this study. The effect of Soret is also mentioned.

  88. Bitew Kassaw Dessie

    2-(2-(1H-1, 2, 4-triazol-3-yl) diazenyl)-4-(4, 5-dihydrooxazol-2-yl) phenol (L) is a ligand synthesized by the azo coupling reaction of 1, 2, 4-triazole-3-diazonium chloride with 2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-oxazoline. The synthesis and characterization of di-nuclear Cu(II) complex derived from ‘L’ has been described. The complex was prepared in good yield by the reactions of ‘L’ with hydrated copper (II) chloride. IR, NMR and UV-Vis spectroscopy techniques were used to characterize the precursors: Methyl-4-hydroxybenzoate, N-2-hydroxyethyl-4-hydroxybenzamide, 2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-oxazoline and the ligand, ‘L’. The complex was characterized by magnetic susceptibility, UV-Vis spectroscopy, IR, conductance measurement and chloride estimation method. Distorted octahedral geometry was proposed for this bi-nuclear complex.

  89. Fernando del Ama Gonzalo and Juan Antonio Hernández

    Energy consumption in buildings represents 40% of the European Union’s whole energy consumption. In the US, 30% of all energy consumed by commercial buildings is related to inefficient operation of building equipment. Horizon 2020 Program encourages the design and construction of buildings that do not consume energy. US Department of Energy has been developing for many years the Energy Plus: a simulation code that allows energy consumption simulations of very complex climate control systems. However, this program does not address elements such as water-flow windows. In other occasions, the mathematical models do not correspond to reality. For all these reasons, it is necessary to develop parallel software for the evaluation by means of energy system simulations. Much effort is involved in codifying all of these configurations, even in the case of Energy Plus. The present work consists of the development of a simulation code based on abstractions, defined as components linked among each other by graphs. Once modeling each of the system’s components is done, the energy simulation of a specific installation scheme requires a minimum effort. A list of components or nodes define a list of arcs that link the different components in an automatic way.

  90. Kurbanov, N. T. and Nasibzada, V. N.

    The paper proposes a new method for solving integral-differential equation of forced oscillations of linear viscoelastic shells built on the basis of the operational calculus for arbitrary hereditary functions at a low viscosity. The solution is built as a series, the first member of which is the solution of this problem, obtained by averaging method and it is shown that at low impacts of amplitude true fluctuations remain finite. Fundamental results that at low frequencies the effect of subsequent terms slightly and they increase with increasing frequency. It is shown that in the particular case of certain values influence the amplitude of the oscillation frequency of the second term is 20-25% of the amplitude of the first term and the amplitude of all the members of the series over time fit exponentially, and the phases are shifted.

  91. Dileep Kumar Yadav

    Data mining is emerging research field in agricultural data analysis. There are various data mining techniques such as classification, clustering, prediction, and outlier analysis can be used for the purpose. Clustering is a data mining technique used for discovering groups and identifying interesting distribution in the underlying data. Clustering algorithm used in data mining such as k-means algorithm, density based, k-medoids, hierarchical based and model based latent class analysis. Several optimization methods are proposed in the literature in order to solve clustering limitations, but Swarm Intelligence (SI) has achieved its remarkable position in the concerned area. Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) is the most popular SI technique which is used in this researcher. In this research a comparisons will be show among k-means algorithm, Hierarchical clustering with centroid Linking and Corelation based feature selection with particle swarm optimization using WEKA data set, UCI data set and agricultural data in order to find out the best clustering algorithm among them in terms of accuracy rate in clustering the data.

  92. Papiya Debnath and Sanjay Sen

    Stress accumulation during the aseismic period in a seismically active regions becomes a subject of research during the last few decades. Mathematical modelling has been formulated to study the nature of stress accumulation during this quasi static aseismic period. In the present case a rectangular strike slip fault of finite length has been taken to be situated in a linearly viscoelastic half space representing the Lithosphere-Asthenosphere system. The model consist of the properties of both the Maxwell and the Kelvin (Voigt) type material. Analytical expressions for displacement, stresses and strain have been formulated and computational work with suitable model parameters have been carried out. A details study of these expressions may be useful in formulating an effective earthquake prediction programme.

  93. Hamed Hasani, Alireza Sadremomtaz, Peyvand Taherparvar and Mohaddeseh Saber Zidehsaraiee

    Radiation dose reduction and improved image quality in nuclear medicine scan is most important factor in nuclear medicine imaging. In this paper, we simulated kidney scintigraphy to examine the effect of the amount of the injected radiopharmaceutical, energy window, and type of collimator on the image quality of renal SPECT. We used SIMIND software to simulate SPECT system equipped with LEHR and LEGP collimators. The images of kidneys were obtained by use of the NCAT phantom with activities of 2mCi(75 MBq), 5mCi (185MBq) and 10mCi (370MBq) by use of the energy windows of 10 and 20%. Then, the images were compared with the reference image by MATLAB software. Assessment of comparison between results show that the best result could be obtained by use of the narrow window width energy and injection of the high activity. By use of the LEHR collimator, energy window of 20% could be produced images with higher quality in lower administered activity, while in high activity, the best result could be obtained by use of the window width of 10%. The window width of 10% responds better in LEGP collimator and this collimator works well in higher activities with lower window width energy.

  94. Thanikal, J. V., Hatem Yazidi, Michel Torrijos and Rizwan, S. M.

    Vegetable and fruit wastes are generated in large quantities at central vegetable market. Redirection of this waste from landfills to biological treatment can reduce environmental issues. Cooked oil from restaurants discharged to common sewer interferes with common effluent treatment plants that treat municipal wastewater. The current study focused on co-digestion of vegetable and fruit waste along with oil residue. Experiments carried out in a laboratory scale anaerobic batch reactors showed that addition oil residue to vegetable and fruit waste has shown an increase in methane yield of 30%. Oil as mono substrates in anaerobic digestion shown a delayed degradation at start up and could not reach a stable state.

  95. Srinivasaraghavan, R., Seshadri, S., Gnanasambandan, T. and Srinivasan, G.

    The complete vibration analysis of the fundamental modes of N-((3-Bromo-1-(phenylsulfonyl) -1H-indol-2-yl) methyl) acetamide (N3BP2MA) was carried out using the experimental FTIR and FT-Raman data and quantum chemical studies. The observed vibrational data were compared with the wavenumbers derived theoretically from the optimized geometry of the compound from the DFT–B3LYP gradient calculations employing 6-31G (2d, 3p) and 6-311++G (2d, 3p) basis sets. Thermodynamic properties like entropy, heat capacity and enthalpy were calculated for the molecule and the HOMO–LUMO energy gap was calculated. The intramolecular contacts had been interpreted using natural bond orbital (NBO) and natural localized molecular orbital (NLMO) analysis. Important non-linear properties such as electric dipole moment and first hyperpolarizability of N3BP2MA were computed using B3LYP quantum chemical calculations. Finally, the Mulliken population analysis on atomic charges of the title compound were calculated.

  96. Shanmugam, P., Pari, S., Kathiravan, V., Madhavan, J. and Selvarajan, P.

    Salts of magnesium chloride and rhodamine-B doped L-histidine acetate (LHA) were synthesized and single bulk crystals were grown at room temperature (30 °C) by solution method. The grown crystals are observed to be stable, non-hygroscopic, transparent and all the crystals are colourless except rhodamine-B doped L-histidine acetate. Rhodamine-B doped LHA crystals are slightly pink in colour and it reveal the incorporation of Rhodamine-B into the host LHA crystal. By XRD method, it is found that the crystal structure of the doped LHA crystals has not been altered. The relative second harmonic generation (SHG) efficiency was estimated by powder Kurtz-Perry technique. The grown crystals were excited with UV light to get the photoluminescence light output at different wavelengths. Microhardness values have been evaluated by Vickers hardness test. Dielectric parameters such as dielectric constant and dielectric loss of the samples were measured at different frequencies at room temperature. The optical band gap and the transparency of the samples have been determined by UV-visible transmittance studies.

  97. Misvar Ali, K., MityThambi, Tom Cherian, Sunaina Jamal, K. and Anju Therese Jose,

    Synthetic insecticides used to control mosquito vectors have led to the development of mosquito resistance, environmental pollution and undesirable adverse effects on non-target organisms. Thus use of herbal insecticides as a means of vector control is getting wide acceptance. The present study was conducted to determine the effectiveness of leaf extracts of Glyricidia maculate, Manihot esculanta and Glycosmis pentaphylla against dengue and chikunguniya vector Aedes aegypti. The larvicidal efficacy was tested against the early 4th instar larvae of Aedes aegypti at concentrations of 500 and1000 ppm. Larval mortality was observed against petroleum ether, methanol and ethyl acetate extracts after 24h and 48 h. Manihot esculanta extract in ethyl acetate and Glycosmis pentaphylla extract in petroleum ether provided highest mortality rates of 69.9% and 69.6% respectively with 500ppm in 24 hrs against Aedes aegypti. Further investigation is needed to explore the bioactive principles involved in action.

  98. Yafa Zargouni, Wafa Sassi and Khaled Alouani

    The corrosion inhibition properties of Tris-dimethyl-amino-seleno-phosphoramide (SeAP) for copper corrosion in NaCl solution were analyzed by electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (EQCM) and potentiodynamic polarization. The morphological changes of copper were followed before and after adding SeAP, at different concentrations., by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy (GDOES). The results show that SeAP acts by adsorption on copper via active sites and a protective layer formed on surface remains persistent over time in NaCl solution. The efficiency of SeAP increases with increase in immersion time into the chloride media.

  99. Ajit Vijaykumar Mendgule and Sukhdeve, A. A.

    Progressive collapse in a structure occurs when structure demise the load carrying capacity to resist the specific demand of earthquake and major structural load carrying members get failed due to sudden change in configuration of structure. Progressive collapse can be triggered by manmade, natural, intentional, or unintentional causes. Fires, explosions, earthquakes, or anything else causing large amounts of stresses and the failure of a structure’s support elements can lead to a progressive collapse failure. Progressive collapse is a complicated dynamic process where the collapsing system redistributes the loads in order to prevent the loss of critical structural members. For this reason beams, columns, and frame connections must be designed in a way to handle the potential redistribution of large loads. Progressive collapse assessment helps to improve the design of structure based on concerned response steel structure under dynamic loading. This research should be provide insight into the structural configuration to achieve a demand to capacity ratio of appropriate quantity and prevent collapse in the event of a single column loss. Several relationships shall be developing between bending moments, shear forces, column loading etc. Ultimately, all this information can be use in design codes where there are currently very limited or no specific rules or guidelines directed towards prevention of progressive collapse.

  100. Paritosh Singh, Kamal Kumar Pradhan and Kalpit P. Kaurase

    Performance of a Journal bearing depends on two aspects. First one is the improvement of inherent properties of lubricant by rigorous research. Second one is the improvement of bearing performance by doing some research on the design aspects of bearing surface. Improvement of bearing performance does mean that its load carrying capacity will be increased and at the same time the frictional loss due to the shearing phenomenon between bearing surface and the lubricant layer should be decreased. It has been proved that if artificial roughness can be created on the bearing surface perfectly it can increase the performance of a journal bearing. Now it is the matter of research that which shape, dimensions, position and orientation will increase the performance of a given journal bearing most. In the present work an attempt has been made to study the influence of a specific type of artificial roughness on the performance of a journal bearing.

  101. Gopalan, M. A., Thiruniraiselvi, N. and Menaka, P.

    The bi-quadratic equation with 5 unknowns given by is analysed for its patterns of non-zero distinct integral solutions. Four different patterens of integer solutions to the above bi-quadratic equation are presented. A few interesting relations between the solutions and special numbers, namely, polygonal number and pyramidal number are exhibited.

  102. Govindaiah, T. N. and Sreepad, H. R.

    In the present work, our investigation is to study the optical, electrical and dielectric properties of the binary mixture of cholesteryl nonanoate (CN), butoxy-benzylidene-p-n-anilino-acetophenone (BBAA), which exhibits very interesting liquid crystalline cholesteric, TGB SmA, SmC, SmB and ReSmA phases sequentially when the specimen is cooled from isotropic phase. These phases have been characterized by using microscopic and optical anisotropic techniques. The temperature variations of dielectrics and electro-optical effects have also been discussed. X-ray studies have been used to calculate the nano-aggregated grain size of the molecules.

  103. Mujawar, T. H., Bachuwar, V. D., Kasbe, M. S., Shaligram, A. D. and Deshmukh, L. P.

    Wireless sensing networks (WSN) are the effective means of process monitoring for many environmental phenomena such as pollution monitoring, traffic control, water irrigation, etc. A typical WSN system designed and developed can be made to function effectively to detect and monitor the gas leakages in the industrial sectors. Through this short communication, we report our laboratory efforts taken to design, fabricate, and develop a WSN system that describes the deployment of sensor nodes and successively calibration of the sensor output as a function of the system input (supply voltage). The sensor node attains early gas detection using a semiconductor gas sensor (usually an oxide), an arduino nano microcontroller, an arduino UNO microcontroller, X Bee and an arduino GSM shield. The node receives leaked gas signal from the leakage area and communicate it to the network coordinator wirelessly through the X Bee. When such an emergency is detected, the network coordinator alerts the user by sending SMS through the GSM shield and may autonomously control the source of gas emission through the exhaust fan. The system is further interfaced with an internet server using a Virtual Instrument Software Architecture (VISA) of Lab VIEW software tool. The reliability and productivity of the system are the key concerns and influence the design and development choices for the system in terms of the hardware and software design tools.

  104. Mohan, S.

    In this paper, we propose a new method for solving a Fuzzy Linear Fractional Programming Problem (FLFPP) when some of its constraints are fuzzy homogeneous in trapezoidal fuzzy numbers. Using these fuzzy homogeneous constraints a fuzzy transformation matrix T ̃ is constructed. This T ̃ transforms the given problem in to another FLFPP with fewer fuzzy constraints. A relationship between these two problems, which ensure that the solution of the original problem can be recovered from the solution of the transformed problem. A simple numerical example explains the procedure of the proposed method.

  105. Harish Nagar and Alka Tank

    This article presents a systematic investigation of various integral and computational representations for family of General Hurwitz – Lerch Zeta function . In this paper new results for Generalized Hurwitz – Lerch Zeta function are established.Certain known integral representation for generalized Riemann Zeta function is obtained as special cases of main results. In this paper we established five results, these results presents the different forms of integral representations of generalized Hurwitz-Lerch Zeta function.

  106. Piason Viriri, Dr. Maxwell Phiri and BillyMorset

    The main thrust of the study was to scrutinize impact of social media on brand positioning in the Zimbabwean beverage sector. Other subsequent objectives were to explore how social media influence managerial decision making especially on promotion, to establish the impact of social media on information sharing by consumers, to determine the challenges of social media use by consumers, to explore the factors that promote social media usage as well as to suggest strategic recommendations regarding social media use in order to enhance brand positioning. The target population comprised three major firms in Zimbabwe’s beverage industry namely, Dairy board Zimbabwe Limited, Delta Beverages and Schweppes Zimbabwe Limited. A cross sectional survey design was used to collect data using questionnaires and interviews. Data was presented in the form of bar graphs, pie charts and analyzed using SPSS tables. The findings of the study indicated that technology breakthroughs and handset culture are the major driving factors for social media use. Utilisation of social media as a marketing strategy is still limited. Conversely, sporadic and unreliable internet connectivity especially in Zimbabwean rural areas and is the major hindrance to the use of social media this has an adverse effect on brand positioning .The major recommendation of the study is to challenge Zimbabwean firms in general and those in beverages sector in particular to exploit social media as a newly emerging marketing tool since it is less costly, effective, efficient, ubiquitous, offers real time response and above all enjoys global reach.

  107. Kiran Bibi

    Purpose: Microfinance Institutions (MFIs) play vital role in developing countries. This study is dedicated to inspect the productivity change in microfinance Institutions (MFIs) in the SAARC region. Design/methodology/Approach: A panel of 85 MFIs with five diamond information status from 2003 to 2011 with annual frequency is investigated in the analysis. The methodology which we adopt is Malmquist index through DEA software. Findings: On average a positive TFP growth of MFIs in the SAARC region is documented except from 2005 to 2006 and 2007 to 2009. The efficiency of these MFIs will be helpful for completion of the financial sector and will improve the overall competence and growth. Originality/Value: We found many article related to measure the productivity change in different region but there is limited articles and research work related on SARRC region. This study has been carried out to find either Micro finance institutions are working efficiently or not.

  108. Mohammad Ali Nasrollahi

    Action research is a systematic approach to investigation that enables people to find effective solutions to problems they confront in their everyday lives. A significant feature is that action research lays claim to the professional development in education. Action research as any systematic inquiry conducted by teachers, administrators, and counselors with a vested interest in the teaching and learning process, for the purpose of gathering data about how their particular schools operate, how they teach, and how their students learn. Education is perhaps the most prolific source of action research resources. Action research can be done by teachers in their own classrooms with the goal of improving pedagogy and student learning. This research aims to conduct a review on Springer’s action research approach for teachers and others involved in schools to engage in systematic inquiry with the intent of improving their educational practices or solving significant problems they experience in their professional life. This review article shows action research provides a fruitful avenue of investigation for teachers, administrators, and others involved in education. This study describes the process of Springer’s action research that enables teachers to keep track and take account of the many aspects of their work with students through a systematic routine.

  109. Patel, D. K.

    Herbal Gardens are the center of ex-situ conservation of the Medicinal and Aromatic plants from varied sources. The development of Herbal Garden aimed for not only propagation/multiplications of the Medicinal and Aromatic plants but also for their ex-situ conservation to protect and maintain their existence in nature for future generation. Medicinal plants are integral components of the global biodiversity. Medicinal and Aromatic plants participating significant role in traditional health care among the rural peoples. Size, shape may be variable of the Herbal Gardens based on the availability of area as well as requirements. Development and proper care need for successful conservation of the important Medicinal and Aromatic plant species. These are developed following similar concepts marked for site of ex-situ conservation.

  110. Peninah Jepkogei Tanui, Sarah Chumba and Jared Bogonko Bitange

    Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) constitute the engine of economic growth in developing countries. They are the source of employment to millions of people, technological innovations and also help in reducing poverty in developing countries. In Kenya, SMEs created 440,400 jobs in the year 2010 and also accounted for 18.4% of the gross domestic product (GDP) in 2011. The Kenya government has offered great support (both direct and indirect) to SMEs in line with the nation’s goal to become a middle level income economy by the year 2030. Despite their immense contribution to economic growth, SMEs in Kenya continually face challenges, including mainly lack of planning, improper financing and poor management. This has been the main cause of over 60% of the small enterprises failing each year in Kenya. Finance is the backbone for any businesses, whether small or large. As such, systems need be put in place to ensure that they are effectively managed. Guided by Systems and Competitive Advantage Theories, the study sought to establish the internal control systems (ICS) in place, how they are being evaluated, challenges faced by SMEs while implementing these systems and if they are effective tools in their financial management. The study targeted 21,320 SMEs in Eldoret Municipality but sampled 100 using the Taro Yamane’s 1967 table. Questionnaires were used to collect data which was then analyzed using descriptive statistics. From the findings, the ICS were being implemented by SMEs in Eldoret Municipality although no evaluation was being done. Furthermore, the ICS was found to be an effective tool in financial management, although many of the respondents said they lacked the knowledge about ICS while developing and implementing it. The study recommends that further research should be conducted on ways to evaluate the ICS and address the challenges related to ICS faced by SMEs.

  111. Dr. A. Selvaraj

    Crop Insurance makes up the loss or damage to growing crops result in from a variety of causes such as hail or droughts, frost, flood and disease. The cultivators pay a premium and Protection is given to them on the same basis as in other insurance. Crop Insurance can play extremely important and supporting role in increasing the flow of institutional credit to the agriculture sector. Agricultural Insurance will largely solve the problem of collateral security requirement by banks while extending the loans. In case of Crop failure banks will receive the payment directly from the insurance companies. Crop insurance, thus, promotes flow of institutional credit to the agriculture sector which in turn induces farmers to adopt new technology. The agricultural sector is still untapped and is also growing significantly owing to promotional policies initiated by the government in these countries. The rural sector will offer wide scope for insurance companies particularly, to local companies which have better knowledge of realties in rural marketing. In this context, this study is an attempt to find out the answers to the following questions: 1. What is the awareness level of the farmers about crop insurance schemes? 2. What is the satisfaction level of the farmers about crop insurance schemes?

  112. Sri Sukanta Saha

    The present study attempts to focus on: why several informal localized industries are concentrated in specific geographical clusters and why not in others. In this sense, the study objects to detect the factors that determine location of informal industries in specific spaces, influences of these determinants to localized industry formation, and cost-effectiveness of setting up of production in such spatial clusters. To reveal these, the study is confined to two specific sites of West Bengal Gems and Jewellery industry, namely Bowbazar and Sinthi. The sites have been selected on the basis of their importance to the map of the industry by following a ‘core-ancillary’ formal-informal pattern of linkage. The logical argumentation of the study is based on literature support specifically of the classical and new economic geography school, case studies conducted, and the primary survey results. The micro-level field surveys, sampling design and data analysis are based on the standard model approach to avoid spatial homogeneity.

  113. Masoumeh Sang Sefidi

    The present study aims at investigating the effect of Faradarmani (ultra therapy) on sleep quality in students of Azad University, Islamshahr Branch. In so doing, 30 students voluntarily participated in the study and they were randomly divided into experimental and cintrol groups – 15 people in each group. First of all, the two groups were asked to fill out the personal information questionnaire and Petersburg sleep quality questionnaire which encorporates 18 questions about sleep quality, sleep latency, sleep duration, habitual sleep efficiency, sleep disturbances, use of sleep medication. Then, ultra therapy method was applied to the experimental group for 6 months –15 to 30 min per night –whereas the control group received no treatment. Afterward, the two groups filled out the same questionnaires. As the last phase of the study, descriptive statistics was used to determine central tendency, and the validity of the questionnaires was tested through Cronbach's alpha test. As for normal distribution of data and comparison of sleep quality of the two groups Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and dependent T-test (SPSS 21) were used, respectively. The study yielded the result that 2-month ultra therapy program impacts on participants’ subjective sleep quality (P=0/000), sleep latency (P=0/001), sleep duration (P=0/005), habitual sleep efficiency (P=0/003), sleep disturbances (P=0/000), use of sleep medication (P=0/001), and daytime dysfunction (P=0/000).

  114. Jana

    In an agro-based country like India, land is by far the most valuable asset. The continuous erosion/degradation of such valuable resource is a major environmental concern. According to a report of the NCEPC, India was losing more than 6,000 million tones of topsoil per year in 1972 in terms of major nutrients-N, P, K, which alone represented an annual loss of Rs. 700 crores. Today the loss is many times more. So, the first and foremost task must be to identify the areas of major concern as well as required measures to check the damages. Soil conservation is especially critical in India because of its spatial and temporal nature of rainfall. Spatially, annual rainfall varies from 10 to 1,000 centimeters. Temporally, 70% of the annual rainfall occurs during a four-month period i.e. between June and September. Under these handicaps, India produces crops on more than half of its total land area. The problems of soil erosion in India are varied and complex, which needs urgent and increased attention.

  115. Thakur, Jaya, Sivaramakrishnan and Dr. Lakshmi

    The Baidyabati Khal (mentioned as River Kunti in Survey of India topographical sheet no.- 76 B/5) is an important irrigation channel for not only Baidyabati but also for the whole district. It is connected to DVC canals through aquaducts and other canals. This canal, along with Dankuni Drainage Canal creates a unique living space in the northern part of Baidyabati municipality. The Drainage channels, like most of the waterways of deltaic Bengal, is suffering from the problem of heavy siltation and frequent inundation of the surrounding areas. The study area, part of ward no. 17 and 18 of Baidyabati municipality, situated in the northern and north eastern part of the Baidyabati municipality, represents a marginal social niche where people have learnt to live with seasonal inundation and without many urban civic facilities that their fellow civilians who live in the core and more developed part of the same municipality enjoy. The present study tries to assess the social environment of the area and analyses how land use changes have affected the direction of development and socio cultural dynamics of this area. The study is based on data collected by primary survey and analysis of those data by quantitative and qualitative methods. The study shows how land development is changing the life of this urban marginal society and tries to understand if this change is a part of balanced urban development.

  116. Dr. Chandan Kumar Sinha, Jaita Das, Sarit Pritam Dwibedy and Sushmita Chaudhury

    The dermatoglyphics is an important tool in the diagnosis of several genetic diseases. The present study is related to establish a correlation between dermatoglyphics and asthma. Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the small airways of the lung. Asthma is a complex and heterogenous disease which involves different genetic and environmental factors. The fingerprints of thirty one asthma patients were compared with thirty one control cases. The prints of both hands were taken by rolling finger method with the application of kajal as it is a high source of carbon. In Asthma patients, the percentage of loops was high in all digits except IVth digit with 46.77%. The whorl of only IVth digit (Ring finger) asthma patients was significantly high with 53.22% with respect to control. The arches of I, II, III and Vth digit of patients was high where as the IVth digit shows no significant change. Thus the various dermatoglyphics parameters represent a non-invasive genetic marker help in the early diagnosis of asthma.

  117. Salvador Bautista-Maldonado, Marla Pérez-Barriga and Santa del Carmen Herrera-Sánchez

    The purpose of the present paper is to identify the differences of the spoken language and written language and based on these to try to see which of those features are applied to email messages. By means of a detailed analysis of the proper characteristics of spoken language and written language, and also analysis of some emails as samples, it is concluded that the emerging language of emails do resemble more the features of the spoken language than those of written language. Evidence do show that those new features represented in emails, as a new type of language, require a deep analysis.

  118. Joyce Chigome

    Debates have spanned over whether Zimbabwe faces disinflation or deflation. Amid global concerns on the risk of deflation in the Eurozone, this paper hypothesizes that Zimbabwe faces aggravated risk. This is due to the country’s experiences with deflation for five consecutive months since February 2014 and subsequent contractions in demand for commodities and money supply. This paper’s assertion ceases to be hypothetical in the midst of literature on deflation risk in the experiences of Japan, German, US, Greece, China and Hong Kong. Nonetheless, there is lack of appreciation of potential challenges in some circles of Zimbabwe and as such the paper provided insight into the causes and costs of deflation. The methodology entails the use of an Index of Deflation Vulnerability which has eleven measures compiled for the period 2006-2015. Each measure is a binary (1/0) indicator showing possible deflationary pressure from that source. The findings indicate that Zimbabwe is under high risk of deflation and aggressive action is required to avoid straying further away from price stability. It is therefore recommended that there is need to develop a macroeconomic framework which embraces the challenges of dollarization and enabling coordination of fiscal and structural policies with monetary policy

  119. Dr. Nimmi Maria Oommen

    Learning takes place through the interaction of learner with his environment. Only in a favorable environment, the learner gets maximum concentration in his learning. Learning of a child starts from home itself. Home environment has great impact in the learning process of the child. Only a favorable environment can produce better learning in students. Academic achievement is the end product of all educational endeavors. The main concern of all educational efforts is to see that the learner achieves after exploring the concept of achievement in the cognitive, affective and psychomotor aspect of human behaviour. This study focuses on the important psychological variables like home environment and academic achievement. Normative survey method was used for the research. Sample includes higher secondary students. Stratified sampling technique was used. The statistical technique used was correlation and t test. The hypotheses states that. 1) There will be significant correlation between home environment and academic achievement of higher secondary students. 2) There will be significant difference between male and female students in their home environment. 3) There will be significant difference between male and female students in their academic achievement.

  120. Fujimori Hiromi

    Consumer behavior studies that solve consumer problems are sophisticated and complex and require a thorough understanding of the market. In this study, we aim to explore new possibilities in consumer behavior based on the findings of behavioral economics. First, we recruited subjects and used the technique of experimental economics to confirm the consumer surplus mechanism based on the conventional theory of economics. Then, we introduced Thaler’s (1999) concept of mental accounting, to observe changes in consumer behavior and consumer surplus. Finally, from the experimental results, we suggest new possibilities from a behavioral economics perspective. We hope that this study will contribute to future consumer behavior research.

  121. Abebe Uma, Dr. J. Paul Mansingh, Fikadu Abdise Erena and Mulu Debela Ofolsha

    Enset is a traditional staple food crop in many parts of the densely populated south and south-western highlands of Ethiopia. Enset has multipurpose uses and nothing will be left from the plant and can be dependable source of income. Market performance can be evaluated by analysing costs and margins of marketing agents in different channels. Therefore, an attempt was made to study the marketing cost and market margin of enset in the selected study area, Dire Enchini District, West Shoa Zone, Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia which was selected purposively because of the potential for enset production. In the second stage, out of 18 kebeles and 1town kebele in the district, two of them namely HomiHane and Waldo Hine were purposively selected based on the area under enset cultivation. Then the sample respondents were stratified into male and female headed households. A total of 144 respondents were selected randomly using simple random sampling technique in which Proportional Population Sampling system was employed. For the purpose of this study, key informants such as 6 input suppliers, 6 collectors, 6 wholesalers, 12 retailers, 30 consumers and 14 persons from support services like; cooperatives and extension were randomly selected at various levels using simple random sampling from selected kebeles. The data required for the study were collected from both primary and secondary data sources. For primary data collection, semi-structured interview schedule was used after pretesting. Marketing margin was calculated by taking the difference between producers and retail prices. Traders (collectors, wholesalers, and retailers) operating expense was small in amount but the profit margin they got was more than the producer farmers. The traders simply bought from the farmer and sold to consumers. But they took high amount of share profit than the farmers who did all the works from producing enset to processing of enset. This implied that unequal share of benefit was the reflection of power relationship between actors. Based on findings of the study, the following recommendation was made to improve enset value chain in the study area. Encouraging cooperative organizations to collect the enset products from the producers since cooperatives are not involved at present. This will help the farmers to get better price for their products.

  122. Janhavi M. Zanje

    This paper examines the honorable status of the elderly in various religions in India. With changes in the traditional practices of supporting the elderly and their rapidly growing numbers, this could become a serious social problem in coming days, particularly so far the families in urban areas. India like many other developing countries in the world is witnessing the rapid aging of its population. Urbanization, modernization and globalization have led to change in the economic structure, the erosion of societal values, weakening of social values, and social institution such as the joint family. In this changing economic and social milieu, the younger generation is searching for new identities encompassing economic independence and redefined social roles within, as well as outside, the families. The changing economic structure has reduced the dependence of rural families on land which has provided strength to bonds between generations. The traditional sense of duty and obligation of the younger generation towards their older generation is being eroded. The older generation it’s caught between the decline in traditional values on one hand and the absence of adequate social security system on the other.

  123. Mulu Debela Ofolsha, Fikadu Abdise Erena and Dr. J. Paul Mansingh

    Risks are events, trends and structural factors that threaten food supplies, access or utilization. Risks have effects at different levels from individual to global or regional level. Although risks affect everyone, it is not gender neutral. African smallholders show wide diversity in perception, adaptations and responses to internal and external challenges. A more comprehensive understanding of the rural women perception of risk along with reasons why female-headed households develop and use certain risk management strategies need to be studied. The study area Ambo district is located in West Shewa Zone, Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia. The study area was stratified into relatively higher-potential and relatively low-potential using agro-ecology and nearness to market as criteria to capture the different farming systems and its exposure to risk. Then three kebeles from relatively high potential and two kebeles from relatively low potential were selected using simple random sampling technique. Further stratified into male- and female-headed households and finally all the 104 Female-Headed Households in the five kebeles were selected for the study. Standard tools of structured household survey interview schedule and checklist were designed and used. Descriptive statistics such as mean, percentage, frequency were used and results were transcribed, interpreted and analysed accordingly. The study indicated that majority of the respondents perceived social-cultural problem, health problem, lack of labour & oxen, share/rent cropping, and lack of access to potential non-farm and off-farm along with startup capital as major sources of risk. The livelihood diversification strategies adopted were: income diversification, crop diversification and livestock diversification. Income diversification strategies followed were: diversification of resources and enterprises like depending on non-farm activity, share cropping, engage in prostitution, send household members for work; whereas crop diversification was reliance on some ecologically well adapted crops like Enset production. Livestock diversification included small ruminant husbandry and adjustments within cropping and livestock systems. It was found that female-headed households lack productive resources such as farm land, cattle, male labour, social capital, non-agricultural income. Severity of risk and perception of risk were among the major factors affecting behavior of risk management. Thus, given, their vulnerable positions, female-headed householdss in their locality adapt and engaged in various coping mechanism to overcome food deficient.

  124. Dr. Mridula Das

    The river has been polluted by dumping of raw sewage, industrial waste and municipal waste into the river. Besides this, illegal activities like washing vessels, animals and oily drums, discharge of unauthorized hazardous waste are also carried out along the course of this river. Cattle sheds in some areas contribute animal waste. Barrel cleaners, scrap dealers and others dump sludge oil, effluent and garbage in the river. The organic waste, sludge and garbage dumping has reduced the carrying capacity of the river. The water with mixture of sewage and industrial waste is a threat to marine life. The river bed is full of sludge, garbage and vegetation growth like water hyacinth in many parts. The present study was designed to investigate the environmental awareness in river pollution of secondary school student in Tribeni, Hooghly District. Sample of the study considered of 800 secondary school students from different secondary schools of Hooghly District. Then their respective awareness was measured. The data are treated with the help of statistics. Validity and reliability are also calculated before data treatment. The result of Analysis shows that, there exists difference in river pollution awareness among secondary students coming from urban, rural, semi-urban and semi-rural students. Male students have greater awareness in river pollution than female students.

  125. Parthajoy Bhattacharya and Dr. Mahua Bhattacharya

    Global warming is giving rise to accelerated sea-level rise. Sundarban being a subsiding delta such rate of sea-level rise shows compounded effect which is much more than the eustatic average rate. Sundarban delta is facing gradual inundation of islands on one hand and a gradual increase of surface water salinity on the other. Effect of rising salinity has of late became apparent even at the upstream of river Hoogly within the stretch of Kolkata where during last seven years true mangrove species like Sonneratia caseolaris has started appearing along with other back mangals. IPCC findings indicates a higher rate of rise of global average temperature since the year 2000 resulting in greater acceleration of rate of sea level rise. The nature’s signature of such rise in salinity in the tidal Hoogly river is the appearance of mangroves within its Kolkata stretch on both the banks. Further, it is apprehended to jeopardise the ground water of the thickly populated Kolkata city, which calls for immediate massive rainwater harvesting to delay such saline incursion.

  126. S

    The present study is an effort to make a comparative analysis of the response of the people of Darjeeling and Burdwan in the area of health insurance. As firstly, in both the districts, this study examines the respondents who are aware or not aware about health insurance as well as various sources of awareness; secondly, those who are aware have subscribed for it or not; thirdly, those who have not subscribed what are the reasons behind the same; and lastly are they willing to join and pay for it? If yes then what would be the possible amount? The study was conducted in some selected villages in Burdwan and Darjeeling districts and 200 questionnaires were got filled using bidding game amongst the people in each district. So the total household surveyed is 400. The analyses have been done using multiple regression analysis

  127. Rubavel, M. and Dr. Henry Rosario, J.

    The study is mainly to understand the gaps and impacts of the skill training in the lives of the rural poor youth provided by the various government Departments. How these skill training helped to get employment and Livelihood activities. A sample study presents live examples in the skill development programmes and the positive and Negative aspects highlighted for revisit the skill development programmes. The study also highlights that the youth before the skill training and after the skill training processes. This study is focusing on the skill training and it effectiveness towards employment in the industries and Self Employment as their livelihoods. The huge funds spend for the skill training by Central and State Governments. This is very important to study the skill training given by the State Governments. The study has conducted in entire Thanthonimalai Block from 534 Youth Respondents of Karur District, Tamilnadu.

  128. LaliseBultuma and BekeleTassew

    Although Ethiopia has the largest livestock population, productivity and production have remained low. The dairy technologies encompass the use of crossbred animals, artificial insemination, improved feed technology and improved management. Regardless of the potential to meet the growing demand for milk, there is an immediate need to adopt and follow better technologies of dairy farming. For that, it needs to know the base-line information of current features of technology adoption by the small households and the related constraints to adopt these technologies. This study was carried out in Ambo town in West Shoa zone, Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia. It was selected purposively because of the reason that there was gap between supply and demand of the product in the town. Three kebeles of Ambo town were selected purposively. Among the selected kebeles, household dairy producers were stratified into adopters and non-adopters of dairy technologies. The total sample size for the study was 152 households. Based on their probability proportional to size principle, 74 adopters and 78non-adopters were taken for the study through simple random sampling method. The primary data were collected from sample respondents through a structured questionnaire. In addition, key informant interviews and focus group discussion were used. Binary logit model was used to analyze the factors influencing dairy technology among sample farmers. Results of the Binary logit model indicated education level, farming experience of the households, dairy farm income, and frequency of contact with extension workers and knowledge were found to have positive and significant influence and market distance found to have negative and significant influence on adoption of dairy technology in agreement to the initial hypothesis. Clear messages on dairy farming technology and training of both woreda extension workers and households should be emphasized so as to improve their understanding and skills.

  129. Kalosona Paul and Dr. Das, K.C.

    Flow of internal mobility behavior occurs to different scale, types of stream and also through distance migration in West Bengal. Provincial and flow of intra-inter district and interstate migration and huge influx of migration streaming (rural-rural, rural-urban, urban-rural and urban-urban). Data is taken from census of India (2001) D-13: Migrants by place of last residence by duration of residence (duration of 0- 9 years) has been used to study the flow of in-migration and out-migration in West Bengal and methodology has been used estimation of total migrant population in each district is calculated through the matrix formation. Intra-district migrant sex ratio is favorable to females in all the district of West Bengal. Inter district in and out migrant sex ratio skewed in favour of female in districts like Hugly and Inter district out migration lowest from Kolkata district and Interstate in migration sex ratio is very low in all the district of West Bengal. Huge numbers of males are coming from the Eastern region of bordering states (like Jharkhand, Bihar, Orissa and Assam) to different districts of West Bengal.

  130. Aliudin, Setiawan Sariyoga and Aris Supriyo Wibowo

    This study aims to determine the level of food security that occurred in the district Curug of Serang City. Food security at the site of the study were divided into three categories, one category is food security, two categoriy is food insecurity and category 3 is food insecurity. This study used survey method. Survey techniques used were interviews and observation. Interviews guided by questionnaires (list of questions) that had been prepared in advance based on Household Survey and Data Basic Household. The sampling method used was non-probability (convenient sampling technique sampling). Data collected included primary data and secondary data. Secondary data were obtained from the relevant agencies that are relevant to the study, while the primary data obtained from respondents by questionnaire. Analysis of data using CSPRO VERSION 3.3 modified by using Data Entry System installation Basic Household. The tools used for data entry: (1) Software Program CSPRO 3.3, (2) Basic Data Entry Program Household (DDRT.exe), (3) Household Survey Entry Program (SRT.exe), (4) Book 1 DDRT 2005.doc, and (5) Book 2 SRT.doc. CSPRO program stored in the folder C: \ DRT2005 with the file name as follows: Directory of C: \ DRT2005 \ setup.exe. To obtain a clear picture of the level of food security using the program SPSS 12.0 statistical processing application to obtain a picture processing results. The results show there is Curug of district 3 cluster regions, namely the category of food secure region, the region with food insecurity alert category and region with the category of food insecurity. Categories of food insecurity covers an area of Cluster 1 with an index of 119.33, with an index of 120.53 clusters, cluster 6 with an index of 120.20, cluster 7 with an index of 120.60, Cluster 9 with an index of 119.33, cluster 10 with an index of 108, 27. Category wary of food insecurity covers an area of 122.22 clusters 3 index, and cluster 8 with the index 123.67. Categories include food security cluster 4 with an index 134.60 and cluter 5 with index 129.00. The index is based on the District Curug included in the category of food insecurity with and index 121.77.

  131. Chauniyal, D. D. and Surajit Dutta

    Landslide is the nature of a complex process that has been modifying the mountain landscape in the Himalaya. Generally it serves negative effects on local environment. Present study pertains to hazardous zone of the Pinder valley between Narayan Baggad to Tharali in Garhwal Himalaya. The temporal investigation of Bhyari landslide covers the period 1958 to 2014. It is estimated that the Bhyari land slide is accelerating at the rate of 0.25% per year. About 2.03% area of the landslide has increased in between 2012 and 2014. The cultivated land is submerging in the landslide zone at the rate of 0.25% per year. If this trend continues, then entire Bhyari village will be engulfed into landslide zone with in 86 years at the rate of 0.25% (0.1 hac) per year. It is a very serious threat to the inhabitants of Bhyari village and their properties and demands some urgent slide stabilization measures.

  132. Suman Patra, Subhash Chandra Mahapatra, Pulak Mishra and Satiprasad Sahoo

    The present study entails groundwater level variability analysis and its relationship with groundwaterstorage change for the river-deposited plain land in Hooghly district of the Indian state of West Bengal. Various groundwaterbased maps, statistical techniques like standard deviation, groundwater storage change, etc. were adopted to analyse the status of groundwater of the district. The analysis revealed that various blocks of the Hooghly district like, Pandua, Balagrah, Singur, Chanditala II, Haripal,Chanditala I, and Tarakeswar have a sharp declined trend of average static groundwater level (mbgl) in pre-monsoon and post-monsoon conditiones. The declining trend of static groundwater level (SGWL) is more conspicuous since the district falls under the intensive agricultural practice zone. An estimation of groundwater storage change indicates that fall of SGWL in both pre-monsoon and post-monsoon condition in three blocks namely Pandua, Balagrah and Singur amounting to 15126, 12455 and 7170 Hectare-meter (ham) and 18028, 84053 and 1755 ham volume of water respectively had been actually lost from the system in 6 years of time from 2007 to 2013. A similar trend could be observed in other three nearby blocks namely, Chanditala I, Chanditala II and Tarakeswar in the same district. According to GroundwaterBlock Categorization Status, during 1994-2004 only 2 blocks, Goghat I and Pandua of Hooghly district appeared in the ‘semi-critical’ category. But surprisingly within a period of 6-7 years four more blocks of this district namely, Polba-Dadpur, Singur, Arambag and Chinsurah-Mogra have freshly entered in the same category by 2011.

  133. Mehmet altin and Yusuf Barsbuğa

    This research was done to investigate why the students of Selcuk University did not join in recreational activities in their leisure time and which factors prevented them from participating in these ones. Totally 448 students including 190 females and 258 males who studied in the academic year 2013-2014, participated in this research. In determination of constraints associated with the students’ participation in recreational activities, “The Leisure Constraints Scale” developed by Alexandris and Carroll (1997), adapted into Turkish by Karaküçük and Gürbüz (2007) and newly tested on the factor structure with the confirmatory factor analysis by Gürbüz et al. (2012) was used as a data collection tool. Data were statistically analyzed, any changes in leisure time perceptions were determined in the independent groups with T-test (Independent-Samples T test) and One Way Analysis of Variance (Anova). Tukey test was also used to analyze the differences between the groups. As a result of the study, significant differences were found in the students’ leisure time perceptions, ages, genders, income levels, sportive capabilities and education classes.

  134. Prateek Upreti

    Oncolytic virotherapy is a new strategy to reduce tumor burden through selective virus replication in rapidly proliferating cells. The nature of viral delivery, infection, and replication makes oncolytic virotherapy valuable for treating cancer patients, especially those with inoperable tumors. Oncolytic virotherapy is an emerging technology that uses engineer edviruses to treat malignancies. Viruses can be designed with biological specificity to infect cancerous cells preferentially, and to replicate in these cells exclusively. In this review, we describe the basis of oncolytic virotherapy, it’s history and the mechanisms by which oncolytic viruses destroy malignant cells and their selection. We also summarize various oncolytic virus and their properties along with oncolytic virotherapy clinical trials and their success rate. We conclude with current challenges and future research in oncolytic virotherapy.

  135. Anandita Dawn and Ranjan Basu

    The situation of maternal and child health has been improving in India over time. One of the vital parameters of assessing maternal and child health that have been exhibiting an increasing trend is the institutionalization of child delivery. The overall scenario in carrying out child birth process in healthcare institutions, both public and private, has been improving though inter-state as well as intra-state disparities are conspicuous. This has invariably improved the child survival rate in the country and has effectively reduced the maternal mortality rate as well. The southern States like Kerala, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu and Karnataka have showcased a better progress in this respect while the backward States like Bihar, Jharkhand, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh and Rajasthan are lagging far behind. In fact, the State of West Bengal matches no way with the rapidly progressing States of the south. This paper is an attempt to highlight the condition of child delivery processes in the country with an intra-state as well as inter-state approach.

  136. Amborish Das

    The Land Surface Temperature (LST) is reffered as the radiative skin temperature of ground. It depends on the albedo, soil moisture and vegetation covers. Land Surface Temperature (LST) is one of the key variables in climatological and environmental studies. Many scientists want to measure land's temperature for many important reasons e.g. in places where it is too cold or too hot food crops may die. Temperature also influences weather and climatic characteristics of a region. So, mapping the temperature of Earth's land is helpful for scientists as well as the planers to better understand our world. Due to complexity of landscapes the sampling was difficult to derive LST and environmental response relationships. The temporal data acquired through space borne remote sensors has bridged the gap of temporal data for the entire earth surface. In this study the general trend in the LST of Bankura district is trying to establish since 1991. Besides, the spatial characteristics of LST also denoted.

  137. Manoj Kumar, Dr. Shiv Garg, Ashish Kumar Pareek, Sardar mal yadav and Pradeep Kumar

    Medicated chewing gum has a history for about a century. Now-a-days it is considered to be a potential and conve-nient modified release drug delivery system which can be used in pain relief medication, smoking cessation, travel illness, freshening of breath, prevention of dental caries, alleviation of xerostomia, vitamin or mineral supplementa-tion etc. Medicated chewing gums are prepared by using a water insoluble gum base with water soluble bulk portion. A medicated chewing gum (MCG) is solid, single-dose dosage form. It is prepared such that it can be chewed for a period of time; deliver the drug and which may contain one or more active pharmaceutical ingredients. Medicated chewing gum provides a wide range of advantages that helps to make it an excellent alternative over other chewable dosage forms. Medicated chewing gum (MCG) is a drug delivery system that consists of an active ingredient incorporated into a chewing gum and released by the mechanical action of chewing. A special in-vitro apparatus was designed and constructed for release testing of MCGs which is official in European Pharmacopoeia. It offers a highly convenient, patient-compliant way of dosing medications, particularly for people with swallowing difficulties such as children and the elderly.

  138. Reem Rachel Abraham, Vinod Pallath, Ciraj A. M., Ramnarayan K. and Asha Kamath

    Introduction: Melaka Manipal Medical College (MMMC) Manipal Campus, offers Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery (MBBS) program in a twinning mode under the auspices of Manipal University, India. In the present study, the authors attempted to determine whether faculty members at MMMC perceive adult learning principles as a pathway for professional development. We were also interested in knowing whether any correlation existed between faculty perceptions of adult learning principles and professional development at three levels; individual, interpersonal and organizational levels. Methods: A questionnaire comprising items focusing on five adult learning principles (Active Participation, Relevant Learning, Safe and non-threatening Environment, Constructive Feedback, Previous Experiences) was designed. A second questionnaire focusing on professional development at three levels was also designed. Faculty members (n =42) were asked to reflect on the practices outlined in both these questionnaires on a 5 point LIkert scale. Results: Comparison of mean values of five adult learning principles revealed a high mean value for relevant learning followed by constructive feedback, previous experiences, safe environment and active participation. Correlation analysis revealed a strong correlation between active participation and three levels of professional development and also between constructive feedback and three levels of professional development. Conclusion: The present study intends to provide a framework of professional development which is centered on a few practices based on adult learning principles. This may be helpful for medical schools that lack infrastructure and precise proposals to facilitate faculty development.

  139. Olakulehin O.A., Akanbi O.O., Amuwa C.O.Fh

    The importance of comprehensive operation note for continuous care of the patients in post operative period is indispensable for prompt and quality care of the patients. We audit the orthopaedics operation notes in our teaching hospital against a set standard by royal college of surgeons of England for comprehensiveness and legibility. A total of 98 operation notes were retrospectively reviewed. Though some areas enjoyed good compliance with poor compliance in some area. We therefore suggest the use of a detail operative profoma notes containing the expected sections.

  140. Dr. Dinesh Kumar, Dr. R. J. Yadav and Arvind Pandey

    Context: Adolescents and young youths are prone to suffer from reproductive and sexual health problems. Reproductive and sexual health needs of adolescents have so far been neglected. Objectives: 1) To investigate reproductive and sexual health behavior of adolescent attending schools. 2) To explore perceived reproductive and sexual health needs of Adolescent students. Methods: Cross-sectional survey among 247 adolescent students of four schools: two in Chandigarh and two in Himachal Pradesh selected by stratified multistage random sampling design. Information regarding socio-demographic characteristics and reproductive health issues was collected by interview method. Results: About 51% respondents reported that they were physically attracted to opposite sex and 30.8% were having intimate friends. There were 120 (48.6%) respondents who desired open and frank discussion regarding sex. Discussions regarding sexual issues like sex related, material sexual abuse, teenage pregnancy and contraceptives, pre-marital sex etc. were also found quite prevalent among respondents at all study centers and friends came out to be the main source of information about sex related issues. Overall contraceptive practice was reported to be only 1.6% against 57.5% awareness of contraceptives. Awareness regarding HIV/AIDS was found to be 90.7%. The main source of knowledge regarding STI was teachers followed by friends. There were 130(52.6%) respondents having sex related worries and 120(48.6%) wanted frank discussion on sex related issues. A large proportion of respondents 185(74.9%) felt need of sex education and 149(60.3%) desired sex education to be imparted as school curriculum mainly from doctors. Conclusions: Adolescents were found to be facing several reproductive and sexual health issues. Study concludes that reproductive and sexual health issues of adolescents need to be addressed properly their behavior is hazardous and there is felt need of sex education to be imparted at school levels by health staff. A holistic approach for creating awareness in a scientific manner which can cope with societal contexts should be adopted for improving their sexual and reproductive health.

  141. Dr. Dipankar Paul, Dr. Mandira Chakraborty, Dr. Sangeeta Das Ghosh, Dr. Indrani Bhattacharyya and Pratip Kumar Kundu

    We are reporting a rare case of eumycetoma of a 17 year- old boy from rural India, who presented with history of swellings and multiple discharging sinuses of Right leg and foot for 6 months. The discharge was whitish in colour and contained soft, lobulated grains of diameter 1mm. Culture on Sabouraud dextrose agar showed growth of Scedosporiumapiospermum (asexual form of Pseudallescheriaboydii). Though eumycetoma is endemic in India, mycetoma caused by seudallescheriaboydii is rarely encountered here, but it is the commonest causein Europe and USA.

  142. Vetriselvi, D.

    Introduction: Poor fertility awareness may be a contributing cause of infertility. The present study was conducted to assess knowledge on conception among husband’s of the women with primary idiopathic infertility. Methodology: A cross-sectional survey was conducted. A questionnaire was designed and through interview the data were collected. Results: Majority (94%) of the participants had inadequate knowledge. Four percent had moderately adequate and 2% had adequate knowledge on conception. Conclusion: The above results insisted the health care professionals in the infertility clinic to spare their time in educating the couple in addition to the treatment.

  143. Shikha Chaudhary, Manoj Kumar, Rahul Gupta, Esha Walia

    Growing insensitivity to multiple antibiotic groups particularly beta-lactams has been a concern for past decade. The concerns of antibiotic resistance, lack of new antibiotics and limited therapeutic options led us to compare the susceptibility of a new antibiotic adjuvant entity Elores (Ceftriaxone+sulbactam+ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, EDTA) with meropenem among Gram negative organisms isolated from >1100 clinical samples obtained from various hospitals of India during past six months. Out of total samples analyzed 923 samples showed the presence of infection and 281 samples were sterile. E. coli (44.2%) was found to be the most dominant pathogen followed by P. aeruginosa (18.2%), K. pneumoniae (10.9%), A. baumannii (9.0%), M. morganii (4.9%), P. mirabilis (4.8%), S. marcescens (3.0%), K. oxytoca (3.8%) and E. cloacae (1.2%). Higher success rates have been achieved with Ceftriaxone+sulbactam+EDTA in comparison to meropenem. Use of meropenem in the light of alarmingly rising resistance (9 to 62 %) warrants restricted use and re-evaluation of the therapies where penems are used in high doses and to evaluate ceftriaxone+sulbactam+EDTA as alternative. Results of meropenem was comparable to ceftriaxone+sulbactam+EDTA against M. morgannii, P. aeruginosa, and S. mercescens but in enterobacters ceftriaxone+sulbactam+EDTA exhibited around 3% to 33% higher susceptibility. We conclude that ceftriaxone+sulbactam+EDTA is much more effecive against most of the multidrug resistant (MDR) pathogens and can be of a better option to treat against these pathogens.

  144. Arun S Govind, Suresh Sukumar and Winniecia Dkhar

    Non contrast Computed tomography of brain scanning is the primary line for exigency evaluation of acute stroke due to its common availability, speed, low cost and accuracy in detecting hemorrhage and cerebral infarct. CT has the ability to quantify the beam attenuation, hence the measurements are expressed in Hounsfield units (HU), which indicates the HU values of various stages of infarct pathologies associated with the brain. This study is based on HU in CT Brain images. First, the scan report of the patient is checked for cerebral infarct and affected location is noted along with the type of infarct. Then the CT images are verified by selecting an axial section in which the infarct is properly visualized and 3 region of interest (ROI) is placed within the infarct for a better average value which enables to get a range of HU value for each type of cerebral infarct which will be evaluated and graded according to the variation seen in the readings. According to this study HU value for diverse sorts of infarct varies. Three set of values obtained in the present study. As per this study the HU for acute infarct is >19.13 HU, Sub-acute infarct 9.55 – 19.13 HU and chronic infarct is < 9.55 HU helps to grade the cerebral infarct which make the diagnosis easier & quicker and it’s useful to the patient those who are not co-operated with MRI.

  145. Dr. Mohd. Mobin, M. S., Dr. Pooja Kanodia, M. S., Dr. Rubii Malhotra M.S. and Dr. Sandeep Mithal

    Introduction: CSCR is an idiopathic disorder of the outer blood retinal barrier. Investigations include FFA. It is self resolving in majority. Common treatment modalities include Laser photocoagulation and PDT. Present study conducted to compare medical management with laser management in CSCR. Methods: 34 eyes of 34 patients with chronic CSCR included in the study. 12 patients underwent medical management and 22 patients underwent laser management, followed by visual assesment, macular function test, FFA at 1,3 & 6 month following treatment. Results: 88.2% patients in study were males. 38.2% patients in study had visual acuity 6/9-6/12. Commonest site of leakage was upper nasal quadrant (29.4%). 77.3% undergoing laser phc showed improvement as compared to 25% in the medically trated group. Conclusion: Laser photocoagulation is an effective treatment for persistant CSCR on focal points of leakage.

  146. Dr. Rishi Kumar Sharma, Dr. Gaurav Chhabra, Dr. Atul Luhadia, Dr. Shubhakaran Sharma and Dr. S. K. Luhadia

    Aim: To study the clinico-radio-pathological profile of patients suffering from Bronchogenic Carcinoma Methods: Patients suffering from Bronchogenic Carcinoma, coming to our OPD or referred from other departments, were included in the study. Results: A total of 100 patients of lung cancer presented in the dept. of Respiratory Medicine, Geetanjali Medical College and Hospital were included in the study. Majority of patients were male (86%). History of Smoking and Alcohol was present in 81% and 26% respectively. Majority of patients were between 41-60 yrs age group. Cough was present in 72% cases followed by decreased appetite (53%) and pain chest (52%). Most of the lesions were right sided (53%). The most common radiological finding on chest x ray was mass lesion (93%). The most common histological type was Squamous cell carcinoma (41%). Conclusion: Squamous cell carcinoma is most common type of lung cancer followed by Adenocarcinoma.

  147. Dr. Saranyan. R., Dr. Balaji Babu.G., Dr. Sayee Ganesh. N., Dr. Jayachandran. D., Dr. Rasila Sainu and Dr. Surya Rajan Kurian

    Background Localized aggressive periodontitis (LAP) is a disease of the periodontium that is characterized by rapid loss of bone, absence of gingival inflammation and minimal amount of plaque and calculus. This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of surgical and nonsurgical approach along with systemic tetracycline in the management of LAP.
    Method: A clinical study was done on 24 male and 16 female patients and their probing pocket depth and clinical attachment level were assessed at baseline and after periodontal surgery. RESULT. Pre and post operative mean reduction of pocket depth and gain of attachment level was significant at 1%. Conclusion: A reduction of pocket depth and gain of attachment was observed postoperatively.

  148. Dr. Ananda Rama Rao, B., Dr. Sahan Srinivas, S and Dr. Ramana Reddy, G.V.

    Post operative (PO) ileus is a frustrating problem for patients undergoing laparotomy. Chewing gum was tried in 25 patients undergoing laparotomy for peritonitis due to appendicular perforation/ appendicular abscess. The mean duration from surgery to passing of first flatus and passing of first stools were studied. The chewing gum group showed significant reduction in passing first flatus by 18 hours P<0.002 and 31.12hrs P<0.001 between passing first flatus and stools. Surprisingly duration of surgery showed no effect on duration of PO Ileus. (P<0.051)

  149. Malliga Duraipandian

    The study was aimed to know the pharmacokinetic interactions between moxifloxacin and pyrazinamide and also the pharmokinetic interactions between moxifloxacin and ethambutol and to know about the clinical significance. The study population was 12 healthy male volunteers, the duration of study was 13 days for each healthy volunteer and period of study was one year and it was a randomized open labelled non comparative prospective study. The pharmacokinetic variables were calculated based on plasma concentration of moxifloxacin alone and in combination with pyrazinamide and also in combination with ethambutol at different points from 0 -12 hours. The steady state mean pharmacokinetic variables such as peak concentration (Cmax), time at which Cmax is attained (Tmax), area under curve (AUC), clearance (Cl) and half-life (t1/2) were calculated and statistical analysis was done using student ‘t’ test and considered significant (P = < 0.05). The study concluded that there are no pharmocokinetic interactions between moxifloxacin and pyrazinamide and between moxifloxacin and ethambutol. Hence Moxifloxacin can be administered along with pyrazinamide and ethambutol for better patient compliance, increased cure rates and to reduce the duration of the anti-tuberculosis treatment.

  150. Rama Devi, M., Jaya Bhaskar, C., Sree lalitha, B and Nandini, M.

    Ectrodactyly-Ectodermal dysplasia-Clefting (EEC) Syndrome is inherited as autosomal dominant disorder of ectodermal and/or mesodermal interaction with highly variable expression and reduced penetrance. It is characterized by the triad of ectrodactyly of the hands and/or feet, ectodermal dysplasia of the skin, hair, nails and teeth, with or without clefting anomalies affecting the lips and/or palate (Roelfsema et al., 1996). In patients with the EEC syndrome without cleft lip or palate, a characteristic facial morphology characterized by maxillary hypoplasia, a short philtrum, and a broad nasal tip has been described (Pries et al., 1974). We reported a rare case of 53 year old male patient with EEC syndrome presenting with PDA and heart failure with typical characteristic features of ectrodactyly. He underwent surgical closure for his PDA. Conclusion: The presence of ectrodactyly with other congenital abnormalities is reason to consider the EEC syndrome within the differential diagnosis. While rare in itself, the association of the EEC syndrome with a Patent Ductus Arteriosus is uncommon.

  151. Shashi Kumar, Suresh Sukumar, Winniecia Dkhar and Dr. Satish Babu

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of patient factors on the intravenous contrast kinetics. The data was obtained from department of Radio Diagnosis & Imaging, Kasturba Hospital, Manipal from 64slice Philips Brilliance scanner (MDCT) multiple detector computed tomography Brilliance. The social demographic profile of the patient (n = 124) revealed that 52.4% (mean age 52.92±14.50) of the patient are male subject and 47.3 % (mean age 52.23±14.7) of the patient are female subject. The result shows that there is a no significant differences in aortic enhancement time within in the group and between the group with the p>0.5 (F= 0.41, p=0.84). In order to evaluate the gender related variations in contrast kinetics, Independent t-test was considered. From our study shows that there is signification different between the male and female research population with the P value = 0.006. The Correlation of arterial enhancement time (AET) with pulse rate (r = -0.52, p = 0.00) and Ejection Fraction (r = -0.016, p = 0.93) shows the result of negative correlation. From our study, the correlation of AET with height (r = 0.45, p=0.00) and weight (r = 0.53, p=0.00) showed positive weak correlation result. In conclusion, excellent vascular enhancement can routinely be obtained for CT scan of the abdomen. The relationship between injection duration, injection rate, and optimal vascular enhancement as shown in our study will remain an important consideration as technology improvements in CT scanning continue and new clinical applications emerge.

  152. Dhande Swati, R., Shete Sejal, V. and Kadam Vilasrao, J.

    Phytosterols are the phytoconstituents resembling cholesterol in structure with a slight difference in side chain configuration and function. As human body cannot synthesize phytosterols, they can be obtained from the diet. The most common phytosterols include stigmasterol, Campesterol and β-sitosterol. Phytosterols have many health beneficial effects including hypocholesterolemic effect, protection from cardio vascular disorders, anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, antioxidant activity. The most important and studied effect of phytosterols is its antihyperlipidemic activity. Many preclinical and clinical studies have been performed in order to prove this activity. Now-a-days, many functional foods are being enriched with phytosterols for its cholesterol lowering abilities. Phytosterol supplementation is also combined with the therapy of statins as well as ezetimibe in order to enhance its effectiveness. Also, a self-GRAS (Generally Recognized As Safe) procedure has been followed for them, to which USFDA raised no objections. However, some side effects of phytosterols include decrease in absorption of certain amounts of fat soluble vitamins like tocopherols and carotenoids. But this effect can be minimised by adjusting the levels of these vitamins in diet. Phytosterolemia is a rare, genetic disease due to mutation in genes coding for ABCG5 and ABCG8 which results in excessive absorption and high plasma levels of phytosterols.

  153. Rubina Reichal, C and Gopal Rao, M.

    The core objective of the study was to design and evaluate fast dissolving tablets of Sitagliptin Phosphate Monohydrate. Fast dissolving or disintegrating tablets were prepared by the wet granulation method by using Sodium Starch Glycolate, Microcrystalline Cellulose, Crosscarmellose Sodium as superdisintegrants. The prepared tablets were evaluated for pre-compression and post compression parameters. The in-vitro release studies were carried out by using USP Type-II dissolution apparatus. The selected optimized batches were kept for stability studies at 40° c ±2 °c/75%± 5%RH for a period of three months. All the results obtained were found to be satisfactory and within the limits. The results of in-vitro drug release study showed that formulation F6 exhibited good and fast disintegrating time within 12 seconds.

  154. Dr. Santhakumari, U. Dr. Umayal, C.C. Dr. Gunavathy, G.

    Introduction: Aim of this study is to compare the lung function variables, in different trimesters of pregnancy. Materials and Methods: Pregnant women from the antenatal clinic of Government Hospital, Kilpauk Medical College, Chennai -10, were selected for this study. The study group consists of 107 women, of whom 18 women in the first trimester, 20 women in the second trimester, 45 women in the third trimester, and 24 women were in control group. Result: Results showed FVC in all the three trimesters are less in comparison to controls. The decrease in FVC values is not statistically significant in first and second trimester but highly significant results were observed in third trimester when compared to controls. Conclusion: FEF 25 -75, a small airway function showed a significant increase in first trimester pregnant women when compared to controls.

  155. Jeyakumari, D., Nagajothi, J., Roshni Menon and Tiroumourougane, V.

    Staphylococcus aureus is a common pathogen responsible for community and hospital associated infections. There is increasing evidence that Community acquired methicillin resistant (CA -MRSA) is spreading among healthy individuals especially children. Our present study is done to determine the colonization rates of S.aureus in the nasal cavity of school children. Nasal swab was collected from (n=265) primary school children aged 3- 8 years and transported to the laboratory within 30 minutes. The samples were processed in the microbiology laboratory as per standard protocol. The carrier rate of S.aureus isolated from the nasal cavity was 76/265 (29%). The colonization rates in males were 44 (17%) and females were 32 (12%) which shows colonization rate is higher among males than females. The prevalence of MRSA among them was 7/265 (2.6%) which is of 9.2% (7/76) of S. aureus. The study concluded that the prevalence rate of S.aureus in our study was 29% and MRSA (2.6%) in healthy children without prior health care visit or intake of antibiotics. The observed precipitating factor was poor personal hygiene. By strengthening school health program and imparting health education regarding personal hygiene is the simple but effective way to contain CA -MRSA among school children in India.

  156. Dr. Divish Saxena, Dr. Murtaza Akhtar, Dr. Mrinal Tandon and Dr. Akshay Bangde, R.

    With increasing number of road traffic accidents involving either blunt or penetrating injury to abdomen, a high degree of suspicion for traumatic diaphragmatic tear should always be kept in mind. Patients with acute tear in diaphragm along with herniation of abdominal contents often present with strangulated bowel and respiratory distress thereby increasing both morbidity and mortality. We report such a case of road traffic accident with acute diaphragmatic tear in left hemi diaphragm with herniation and strangulation of transverse colon resulting in gangrene and perforation causing faecothorax, acute respiratory distress and septicemia who was managed surgically with an immediate exploratory laparotomy with closure of diaphragmatic defect and left thoracic drain and resection of gangrenous bowel and colo-colic anastomosis with proximal divergent ileostomy. The patient was discharged satisfactorily after ileostomy closure.

  157. Dr. Vinodha, R. and Dr. Shanmugapriya, C.

    Introduction: BAEP latencies and amplitudes tend to vary with many factors like age, gender, corebody temperature,hormones and headsize. controversy exists regarding the effect of head size on BAEP latencies. It was hypothesized that headsize would indirectly reflects brainsize and hence the length of the auditory pathway. Therefore in this study, BAEP latencies were compared with headsize for males and females to analyze the impact of length of the auditory pathway on BAEP latencies. Methods: 36 subjects, 18 males and 18 females of age group between 17-25 were selected. Head measurements like head circumference (HC), nasion to inion (AP-anteroposterior-measured across the top of the head),and right external auditory meatus to left (RL-also measured across the top of the head), were measured. BAEPs were performed by brief acoustic monaural click stimuli. Results: Statistical analysis showed a significant difference in head size(HC,AP, RL and total head size) between males and females with a significant P value of < 0.001.Wave V absolute latency and I-V inter peak latency were slightly prolonged in males than females but statistically insignificant. However, when wave V latency and IPL I-V were corelated with head measures ;head size has a significant weak positive influence on BAEP latency. Conclusion: Results revealed that males had significantly bigger head size than females. Slight prolongation of wave V and IPL I-V latencies in males could be because of larger head size .Pearson’s correlation study revealed, regardless of subject gender, head size has a weak positive influence on BAEP waveV and IPL I-V latencies. Thus head size should be considered for normal BAEP recording.

  158. Md. Sarim Ashfaque, Saif Omar and Md. Sharique Sayeed

    The shoulder joint or glenohumeral joint is a synovial, multiaxial, spheroidal between the roughly hemispherical head of the humerus and shallow glenoid fossa of the scapula. Synovial membrane lines the fibrous capsule of the joint. This fibrous capsule may become inflamed and later thickened and constricted. This tightening combined with the pain restricts the joint movement. Frozen shoulder is a condition of varying severity characterized by the gradual development of global limitation of active and passive shoulder motion where radiographic findings other than osteopenia are absent. Frozen shoulder is also referred to as adhesive capsulitis, painful stiff shoulder, and periarthritis. This study was performed to compare and evaluate the results following treatment of adhesive capsulitis by manipulation under anaesthesia (MUA) and by periarticular injections. Also the study will show the results of different pharmacological agents used for periarticular injections (i.e. Methyl Prednisolone and Triamcinolone).This study was focused on subjects with complaints of pain and restriction of movement of shoulder joint attending the orthopedic clinic of Katihar Medical College as well as referred cases from district and peripheral hospitals.

  159. Masaaki Minami, Naoki Wakiyama, Minoru Ohashi, Yukio Wakimoto and Michio Ohta

    Proteus species infection is important cause of morbidity and mortality. This study was conducted to find out the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Proteus species isolates at tertiary care university hospital in the central region of Japan from 2008 to 2010. Proteus species was identified by standard laboratory procedure. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by micro dilution assay according to CLSI recommendation. Of one hundred eighty-three Proteus species, one hundred thirty-nine Proteus mirabilis, and twenty-five Proteus vulgalis were isolated. About fifty-five Proteus species isolates were from outpatient. The major source of Proteus isolates were urine, pus, and sputum. Positive samples were received mostly from the urology and lowest from gastroenterology, ophthalmology and pediatrics. The effective antibiotics with over 95% susceptibility rates were amikacin, cefepime, and gentamicin. The numbers of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing isolates were twenty-nine and seven Proteus species isolates had ESBL-associated multidrug resistant ability. Proteus species infection spreads among community easily and inappropriate use of antibiotics contributes to their resistance. Continuous antimicrobial susceptible surveys are need for reducing the emergency of ESBL and multidrug resistance.

  160. Shrirang Rangnath Godbole, Gayatri Godbole, Anita Rao and A. R. Joshi

    Pune City is the rapidly expanding city. Buses are one of the modes public transports. Bus drivers and conductors are constantly exposed to air pollution. Its effect on respiratory system can be assessed by Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PEFR). Material and methods: Study group consisted of 30 bus drivers and conductors working for more than 10 years. Control group consisted 30 age and BMI matched subjects. PEFR was measured using mini Wright’s peak flow meter and compared in both the groups. Results: PEFR values of the bus depot workers were significantly low than that control group. Conclusion: Peak flow rate was found significantly reduced in bus depot workers who were exposed to air pollution daily for many years.

  161. Forouzin, F., Jameyi, R. and Heidari, R.

    The essential oil of four salvia species was studied by means of GC-MS analysis. Total of 25 compounds were identified: 11 compounds were for S. syriaca with total oil of 90.98%; 7 compounds were for S. aristata with total oil of 98.23%; 11 compounds were for S. atropatana with total oil of 72.04%; 3 compounds were for S. nemorosa with total oil of 88.53%. The invitro antioxidant activities of the essential oil of four salvia species were examined. S. atropatana had the most antioxidant activity (42%). It was followed by S. aristata (31%), S.syriaca (24%) and S. nemorosa (21%).

  162. Anuradha, A., Lakshmi Kalpana, V., Sarat Babu, J. and Peela Jagannadha Rao

    Background: Among all other cancers, Head and Neck cancer (HNC) are more predominant throughout the world and sixth most common malignancy with highest morbidity and mortality. Recent reports says that 57.5% of global head and neck cancers occur in Asia. In India it accounts for 30% of all cancer incidences. Hence our objective is to determine the etiology of head and neck cancer, incidence and factors which contribute to the occurence and distribution of head and neck cancer in North Coastal Andhra Pradesh. Materials and Methods: 123 confirmed diagnosed patients of head and neck cancer from King George Hospital, Visakhapatnam were enrolled in this prospective study. Data collected about demographic factors, area of residency, personal habits like tobacco and alcohol usage with anatomy of disease, stage and grade of the disease. The collected data was analysed by using ANOVA and Medcalc® software. Results: 76 male and 47 female head and neck cancer patients were studied in the present study with mean age of 54.18 years. Higher number of patients were found in 41-70 years of age group with tobacco usage. Any form of tobacco usage with or without alcoholic exposure showed prominent significance in both genders (p=<0.05). Anatomy of the disease, stage and grade of the disease not differentiated by any of the variables like habit, occupation, gender and age. Conclusion: Head and neck cancer with risks increasing in a dose dependent fashion and declining with the duration of smoking cessation proven in this study (p<0.001). Tobacco exposure and alcoholic usage increases the risk of head and neck cancer in both males and females.

  163. Ricardo Silva, Leila Prias, Leonado Vargas, Glenda Sarmiento, Andrea Vargas, Vicente Painii, Ana Zambrano, Oswaldo Pesantes and Rafael Castaño

    Mucunapruriens (MP) has been used in the Indian system of traditional medicine (Ayurveda). MP has been proposed as a cognitive enhancer and nutritional supplement due to the high nutritional value and low cost. The object of this study was to access nutritional supplement (NS) and cognitive enhancement (CE) qualities of MP in a group of school children aged 6-9 years from marginal urban area of the City of Guayaquil, Ecuador. The universe consisted of 51, school children 6-9 years old, out of a total school population of 120 students. A pediatric assessment was performed at the school through medical history, anthropometric measurements, and auscultation of vital organs. Blood count, glucose, total protein physico-chemical urine tests were performed. Nutritional supplement studies were sustained for 6 weeks. After 6 weeks, analyzes were repeated by pediatric MD. The Bender-Koppitz Test was selected to measure the maturity level of visual-motor perception in the students. Prior to intervention, children manifested impulsive aggressive behavior and lacked the capacity to plan. After the intervention both attention and cognitive adjustment tended to improve in the population. MP supplementation proves as a potential candidate for both nutritional and cognitive supplementation.

  164. Ajith Kumar, K.G., Sunil Kesavadeth, G., Pratheepkumar, V., Bindumole, V.R. and Aswathy, P.J.

    Clonal plantations are gaining more attention in recent years as they are more profitable than seed raised plantations. The main objective of industrial forest management is to get optimum return for a given investment and it can be achieved only with clonal forestry programmes. Eucalyptus tereticornis clones are commercially planted as a source of paper pulp and volume tables are available to understand per year growth of clones. However, most of the volume table shows only over-bark wood volume undermining the actual volume of wood available for pulping. The present study was carried out to understand the MAI, CAI, over-bark and under-bark wood volume of thirty clones of Eucalyptus tereticornis raised at Vantimomidi, Secunderabad, Andhra Pradesh for a period of three years. Significant variation has been observed for all the growth traits studied. Bark thickness varied considerably among the clones and it showed insignificant correlation with growth traits. Clones such as Et 03, Et 07, Et 10, Et 71, Et 93, Et 99, Et 105, Et 122 and Et 130 were identified as promising clones in terms of productivity. Twelve clusters could be identified based on D2 analysis and the result will help the farmers to select the best planting stock for optimal productivity.

  165. Lawal, B. A., Ojo, M. A., Jolaoso, M. A., Ilupeju, E. A. O. and Akanbi, W. B.

    Organic pepper production seems to be a solution in most urban and peri-urban areas in Nigeria. Production of health transplant is the major operation in pepper production. However, due to farmers’ shallow knowledge of the preparation and/or the use of organic substrates, this activity is still at low patronage. Three pepper varieties (NHA1 – Sombo, NHB1 - Bawa and Rodo) and five substrates formulation [100% soil; 100% tithonia compost (TC); 75% soil + 25% TC; 50% Soil + 50% TC; 25% Soil + 75% TC by weight] were tested in an experiment laid out in completely randomized design with six replicates. The chemical properties of the substrates, seeding growth parameters and nutrient uptake of the tissue were evaluated during the experiment to identify which among the growth media and pepper varieties is the best. The results showed that, irrespective of the variety, 100% TC substrate produced the best growth, highest dry matter yield and highest nutrient uptake seedling. The results obtained with this growth medium were consistently similar to those observed with the use of 25% Soil + 75% TC growth medium. The economic analysis equally showed that farmers return is higher with the use of 25% Soil + 75% TC. The study concluded that combination of 25% Soil + 75% TC seemed to be optimum for production of health seedlings of pepper and that incorporation of organic fertilizer into sowing media ensured nutrient availability during the growth period.

  166. Gajakosh, A. M. and M. Jayaraj

    Phytochemical and Pharmacognostic Investigation on Oldenlandia corymbosa (L.) Lamk. Of Rubiaceae, has been undertaken. The present investigation involves the macroscopy, microscopy, which showed Prismatic crystals in the transverse section of leaf and stem. Both the surfaces of leaf showed the paracytic type of stomata and the number of stomata were more on the lower surface. Preliminary phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of amino acids, gums, steroids, alkaloids, tannins and phenolic compounds. Microscopic investigations on crude drug powder showed the presence of spiral, pitted, and annular vessels, phloem elements, tannin cells and Prismatic crystals.

  167. Somnath De, Sanjib Rana and Sagarika Banerjee

    Experimental studies have been carried out to develop a low cost system of waste water treatment. The system uses, besides a solar water heater, cheap easily available materials like lime sand, gravels, straw and charcoal. It removes solid materials, color and odors-producing materials, and water borne pathogens from waste water and make it suitable in different purposes. Here, we also isolate a Pseudomonas strain from cow dung and it is also used to treat the different impurities of waste water.

  168. Jadhav, P. B., Mangave, B. D., Alka Singh, Dekhane, S. S. and Patel, D. J.

    Investigations were conducted to study the effect of different chemicals and natural growth substances as a pre harvest foliar spray on Gladiolus cv. American Beauty. The treatments were comprised of plant growth regulators gibberellic acid (GA3, 25 and 50 mg/l) Salicylic acid (SA, 25 and 50 mg/l); and natural growth substances enriched banana pseudostem sap (1 and 2 per cent) and banana pseudostem sap (2 and 4 per cent). All the treatments improved the yield and flowering characters over control. However, among different treatments, foliar spray of GA3 @ 50 mg/l, followed by GA3 @ 25 mg/l were found most significant in influencing all yield parameters like number of spikes per plant and per meter square, no. of sprouts per corm, corm and cormel yield. Further, flowering parameters like spike length and vase life were significantly highest in plants sprayed with GA3 @ 50 mg/l followed by GA3 @ 25 mg/l. Among natural growth substances, enriched banana pseudostem sap @ 2% significantly improved all the parameters as compared to control.

  169. Laxmi Narayana, B., Vasudeva Rao, V. and Pandiyan, J.

    A field survey was conducted during the period December 2010 to March 2011 to obtain the checklist, density, diversity and richness of birds in six different agricultural habitats viz., Paddy, Cotton, Castor, Red gram, Fruit garden and Open grassland. The study was carried out from December 2010 to March 2011. A total of 104 species of birds belonging to 43 families and 16 orders were recorded in the study area, two bird species are Near Threatened in ‘IUCN’ (2010) category, Oriental Darter Anhinga melanogaster and White Ibis or Black-headed Ibis Threskiornis melanocephalus. Of six major foraging categories, insectivorous birds and perching activity accounted for high percentage in all the habitats. ANOVA shows that there were a significant differences between the bird density and among the areas and months (P<0.05). However, among the habitats the bird diversity did not differ significantly but, bird species richness showed significant variations among the areas, habitats and months (P<0.05). Chi-square analysis revealed that there was a significant differences between species richness and among the habitats (2=43.07, df=6, P<0.05).

  170. Dali Kamadadze, Davit Barata Svili, Elza Kamadadze, Aleko Kalandia and Mariam Metreveli

    The variety of Japanese camellia is to perform qualitative and quantitative analyzesof anthocyanins pigments in the flowers of various colors are reviewed. Four variety of Japanese camellias of different colors were taken to analyze from the Batumi Botanic Garden Camellia japonica,, Margaret Walker”; Camellia japonica,, Marchioness of Salisbury”; Camellia japonica,, Anemonaeflora”; and Camellia japonica,, Takayama”. Therefore, based on the research results it could be concluded that anthocyanins composition plays dominant role in flower colorarion of Japanese camellia. The highest amount of them is detected in Camellia variety Takayama (760 mg / kg); The lowest amount is found in variety Margaret Walker - A (30 mg / kg) and Margaret Walker - B (60 mg/kg). The anthocyanins cyanidin-3-diglucosideis dominant one in both variation (A and B) (85 and 75 %, respectively).

  171. Arvind Sharma and Shashi Ranjan

    Methionine is essential for various vital functions in body such as: protein synthesis, regulation of cell division, methyl donor, reduces reactive oxygen species etc. it also helps in enhancing overall growth performance, feed efficiency utilization and livability in broilers. Synthetic methionine is metabolized into highly toxic compounds such as methylpropionate, thereby, adversely altering the performance of poultry birds. Synthetic methionine is listed among the prohibited synthetic substances and its usage has been questioned in organic farming practices. Therefore, there is great renewed interest in developing natural alternative supplements to maintain animal performance and well being. The aim of the present experimental study is to evaluate efficacy of herbal formulation N-Methionine (Natural Herbs & Formulation, India) and synthetic methionine in improving overall growth, productivity and performance in poultry birds. In this study we concluded that supplementation of N- Methionine (herbal methionine manufactured by Natural Herbs and Formulation Pvt. Ltd. India) can replace synthetic DL-Methionine as evident by the comparable bird’s growth, viability, biochemical parameters.

  172. Rupa Dasgupta, Somanka Sanyal and Partha P. Chakravorty

    Effects of sub-lethal doses of cypermethrin on biomass, reproduction and alkaline phosphatase activity of the epigeic earthworm, Eisenia fetida were investigated in natural grassland soil (pH-6.72±0.02, organic carbon-1.28±0.37) under laboratory conditions. E. fetida exposed to 0.006 to 0.025 mg/kg soil of cypermethrin, corresponding to 12.5 (T2) to 50 % (T4) of LC50 values of cypermethrin did not exhibit any significant reduction in biomass from control. Production of cocoons and juveniles remained significantly unaltered at T2 and T3 doses of the insecticide but was inhibited with exposure to the highest dose (T4) of cypermethrin. Alkaline phosphatase activity was found to remain significantly unaltered at T2 but increased both in T3 and T4 in comparison to control. Thus, though the LC50 value of cypermethrin was much higher than it’s recommended agricultural dose indicating it’s less hazardous nature, it can be concluded from the present study that sub-lethal doses of cypermethrin significantly affected reproduction and alkaline phosphatase activity of the test specimen and their widespread application in agro-ecosystems must be carefully monitored. The present study also indicated the potential use of alkaline phosphatase as a biomarker in assessment of insecticide pollution.

  173. Hatil. H. EL-Kamali and Ahmed. A. Elshikh

    This study covered the animal owners communities in Khartoum State, Central Sudan. It was centered in documenting indigenous knowledge about medicinal plants used for treating animal diseases and other health conditions. The present study revealed that 31 plant species belonging to 19 families were recorded as useful in managing various animal disease filaments by the animal owners/ pastoralists in Khartoum State. Three plant species of families Fabaceae, Mimosaceae and Poaceae and two species of Apiaceae, Asclepiadaceae, Malvaceae, Solanaceae and Cucurbitaceae were largely employed for preparation of herbal remedies for curing animal disease. Among the plant parts used seed was the mostly used plant parts (29%) to treat particular (herb) animal disease followed by fruits (23%), leaves (16%) and aerial parts (13%). Oral administration of herbal preparations was found as mostly used to treat the illness (47%), followed by external applications (37%) and raw feeding (16%). The study showed that a good number of medicinally valuable plants were used for the treatment of various veterinary disease. Acacia nilotica ssp. nilotica was used for the treatment of most of the disease followed by Citrullus colocynthis, Trigonella foenum-graecum, Acacia nubica, Camellia sinensis and Solennostemma argel.

  174. Rathy, M.C., Usha K Aravind, Thomas, A.P. and Annie Mathai

    Bioinsecticides have several advantages over chemical insecticides in the control of major vector borne diseases. The secondary metabolites from plants are generally used as bioinsecticides. The aim of the present work is to evolve a biological or ecofriendly control over the mosquitoes using flower extracts from Spilanthes calva by evaluating the effect of phytochemicals in the survival of mosquito larvae. Both aqueous and solvent extracts were tested (LC50) against the mosquito larvae. The concentration of the extract used was in the range of 1-120ppm.Column chromatography was used for the isolation of crude extract. Each fraction was analyzed using TLC. From the results it was seen that petroleum ether fraction is more effective in controlling the mosquito larvae (Culex quinquefasciatus).

  175. Pramila Tripathi and Rinki Singh

    Antifungal activity of Acacia nilotica and a number of other plants extracts was evaluated to control anthracnose disease of mango fruits. During the study leaf extracts of seven plants viz., Acacia nilotica (ethyl alcohol), Citrus aurantifolia (ethyl acetate), Murraya koenigii (ethyl acetate), Nerium indicum (ethyl acetate), Ocimum gratissimum (petroleum ether, benzene, ethyl acetate, ethyl alcohol,), Ocimum sanctum (petroleum ether), Prunus persica (ethyl acetate) and bark extract of Acacia farnesiana (ethyl acetate) and Acacia nilotica (benzene, ethyl acetate, ethyl alcohol, methanol) showed 100 per cent activity against Colletotrichum gleoesporioides. The bark of A. nilotica showed 100 % activity in four organic solvents viz. benzene, ethyl acetate, methanol, ethyl alcohol. Therefore the bark of A. nilotica was selected for further investigations. The maximum inhibitory dilution of ethyl acetate, benzene, methanol and ethyl alcohol extracts of A. nilotica were determined to be 1:10,1:2,1:8,1:9 respectively. All the extracts of A. nilotica showed broad antifungal activity against ten fruit rotting fungi. The extracts showed significant inhibition in conidia germination of C. gloeosporioides. The effect of storage and temperature on fungitoxicity of A. nilotica extracts was also evaluated. Antifungal activity of some of the compounds isolated from the bark of A. nilotica was also tested. Kaempferol and Kaempferol 3-O-rhamnoside were found to be active against the test fungus and the structure activity relationship amongst kaempferol and kaempferol-3O-rhamnoside was also determined. An in vivo trial with the aqueous extract of A. nilotica bark showed enhancement of shelf life of mango fruits by preventing them from fungal rotting.

  176. Diversity of Geofungi from Semmalai hills of Pudukkottai district

    The present work was aimed in the Semmalai hills of Pudukkottai district to assess the density and diversity of fungal flora. To isolate and identify the fungi from the soil along with some physicochemical parameters like pH, electrical conductivity organic carbon and nitrogen etc., the month of January to December 2012. It has been estimated that 1.5 million fungal species are present in natural ecosystem, but only 5-10% have been described formally. During the study, a diversity of fungal strains were isolated and identified from the soil sample. Thus, the study on fungal diversity provides a basis for estimating the important functional role of fungi in soil ecosystem. The most common genera isolated from the soil samples included Aspergillus, Alternaria, Bipolaris and Fusarium.

  177. Rashmi, S. and Rajkumar, H. G.

    Lichens were screened to know their antifungal potentials against phytopathogenic fungi Macrophomina phaseolina. Lichen samples like Heterodermia leucomela, Pseudocyphelaria aurata, Flavoparmelia caperata, Parmotrema tinctorum and Parmotrema austrosinensis were collected from Mysore and Madikeri districts and identified using available standard keys. The extracts of these lichen were obtained with 3 different solvents Methanol, Ethyl acetate and acetone. The antifungal assay was carried out by Agar well diffusion method, Minimum inhibitory concentration and Bioautography technique. The ethyl acetate fraction of all the samples was found to be more effective against the tested fungi. Ethyl acetate extract of Flavoparmelia caperata showed maximum inhibition of 18.6±0.5 mm and the least was 10.3±0.5 mm zone of inhibition. The MIC with the lowest concentration of 0.390 mg/ml was in the ethyl acetate extract of Flavoparmelia caperata. The TLC bioautographic method showed zone of inhibition in 3 sample extracts. The acetone fraction did not show any results. These lichen extracts tested demonstrated antimicrobial effect which suggests a possibility of their use in the treatment of various diseases caused by these and similar microorganisms.

  178. Mousumi Ganguly and Arindam Ganguly

    Baluchari Shari is a type of graceful handloom garment that has a long tradition of excellence and unique craftsmanship. The ethnicity, emblematic design and exceptional colour combination depicting mythological folk-tales, rural life styles bear international repute. Though this handloom product is enjoying a ready market both at home and abroad, there are some grey areas demanding immediate attention to sustain and further improve the weaving industry. An effort has been taken to study the nutritional status, socio-economic background and occupational health problems of the Baluchari Shari weavers of Bishnupur. Handloom weavers numbering 62 in the age group of 17-75 years who were willing to co-operate for the study were selected by convenient sampling method. The assessment of nutritional status revealed high prevalence of malnutrition (53.22 %) among Baluchari Shari weavers. The age-wise distribution of the weavers divulged that majority (56 %) of the males belonged to the age group of 18-35 years while most (33.33 %) of the female were in the middle-age group of 36-45 years. This weaving society was mostly dominated by males (80.65 %). Joint family (77.4 %) type still prevails in the weavers' community in which 67.74 % were medium in size. Expertise workers (40.33 %) who had experience of jacquard weaving for more than 2 decades were predominant in the population. Further, it was observed that majority (77.42 %) of the weavers were engaged in weaving activity for 8 hours a day. The literacy rate among Baluchari workers was 72.58 %. The economic profile disclosed that the average monthly household income (Rs. 3620) and standard of living of the handloom weavers were miserable. The musculoskeletal pain, dimness of vision and abdominal discomfort were reported in 46.88, 21.87 & 25 percent of cases respectively. Another serious complication of the weavers was the prevalence of fungal infection (6.25 %) and resultant intrusive black spot on belly.

  179. Mohammed Hasan Dakheel, Israa Ali Fadhil and Ausama Abed Alkadhum Mahdi

    The investigation was taken up to study Genetic Distance between two breeds of cattle “Holstein and Jersey crossbred” by using Random amplified polymorphic DNA technique. This technique was carried out with 10 random primers. RAPD-PCR pattern revealed the total polymorphism loci of two breeds (67 loci), the total loci amplified in two breeds (118). The estimate of genetic distance was highest (2.21) with the primer (OP13) and the lowest (0.33) with the primer (OP15). The GD pooled over the primers was (1.40 ± 0.17) between these two breeds. The highest average percentage difference estimate (90.69) with the primer (OP15) and the lowest (19.81) with the primer (OP13), and the MAPD between two breeds estimate (54.41 ± 3.82).

  180. Rakesh Singh Chauhan and Dr. A. R. Singh

    Environmental risk assessment is an integral component of biosafety evaluation of GM crops. The purpose of such accessment, is to identify and evaluate the possible adverse effects of GM organisms on the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity. Known risk assessment techniques in different countries and guidelines developed by relevant organizations recognize comparative risk assessment and indicate the risk associated with GMOs or product thereof. Obtained through the use of modern biotechnology, they should be considered in context of risk posed by non modified recepients or parental organisms in the likely receiving environment.

  181. Sugappriya, M and Dr. Sudarsanam, D.

    Two- third of the earth’s surface is covered by water especially marine water which provides rich sources of flora and fauna. The marine environment which contains a vast array of organisms with unique biological properties is one of the most underutilized biological resources. There is an ever increasing demand for new lead compounds in the pharmaceutical industry and this has led scientists to search for natural bioactive products. Among various marine species the Sponges (Porifera) are said to possess higher cytotoxic molecules as the secondary metabolites in them. These metabolites are produced by the Sponges and they create surface around them to defend themselves from predators. There is high number of available drugs for cancer, but still there is a growing need to develop more specific compounds for treatment. This study is focused on Aurora globostellata its collection, taxonomic identification, extraction, phytochemical analysis, and identification of compounds through GC-HRMS and HR-LCMS. The results obtained from analysis were found to contain higher number of anticancerous compounds, which can be used as a lead molecule for various cancer therapies. These drugs from natural sources can overcome the commercial drugs and can be used for the treatment of cancer.

  182. Dr. Shailendra Pradhan

    Medicinal systems in India when traced back to 5000 BC coincide with the emergence of the Indus Valley civilization around 4500 BC, where agriculture was given much importance. As per the ancient traditions, local communities in every ecosystem starting from the Himalayas down to the coastal plains have discovered the medical uses of thousands of plants found locally in their respective ecosystem. India has one of the richest medical plant cultures in the world. It is a culture that is of tremendous contemporary relevance because it can on one hand ensure health security to millions of people and on the other hand it can provide new and safe herbal drugs to the entire world. It is estimated that there are around 25000 effective plant based formulations used in folk (rural) medicine and known to rural communities all over India and around 10000 designed formulations are available in the indigenous medical texts. Ayurved and Siddha System are probably more than 4000 years old. Charak Samhita (500 BC) the classical, ancient Pharmacopeias were complied on the basis of knowledge obtained from Atharveda. It is estimated that as many as 3226 communities out of 4775 communities in India (70%) are dependent on plant based medicines. The main reasons for wide spread use of plant based medicines in AYUSH (Ayurvedic, Yoga, Unani, Siddha and Homeopathy) of ISM include: Efficacy and Safety of the medicine, cultural acceptability, availability, lesser side effects, high sensitivity to disease causing entities (bacteria, fungi, viruses, worms etc.) and above all, the cost effectiveness as compared to allopathic medicines and western system of medicines. In spite of extensive use ofMedicinal and Aromatic Plants(MAPs) in AYUSH and obvious advantages over allopathic medicines, the turnover of Indian herbal medicinal industries is a meagre sum of about Rs. 2300 Crores as against that of allopathic pharmaceutical industry of Rs. 14500 Crores, with a 15% per annum growth rate for ISM.

  183. Dr. Surya Lakshmi, A. and Dr. Satyanarayana, V. V.

    The study is comparitive study of ECG changes with special referance to QTC in smokers and non smokers. The subjects were those who were attending King George Hospital & Andhra Medical college at Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh. Total number of subjects are 193 among which 103 are smokers and 90 are non smokers. Patients who are alchoholics and those with Diabetes, Hyper-tension and Coronary artery disease were excluded. A 12 lead Electrocardiogram was recorded for all the individuals. ECG changes and QTc was compared between smokers and non smokers. There is no statistically significant Change in QTc in smokers when compared to non smokers in the present study.

  184. Golam Ziauddin, Samarendra Behera, Sanjeev Kumar, Rinku Gogoi, Olik Jomang and Snigdha Baksi

    The study was conducted during September to February months in the laboratory to study the external morphological characters for identifying the sex of Anabas testudineus during non-breeding season. Monthly sampling was done from the rearing stock for the study. For the identification of sex two methods were adopted. First one was observation of sex through external morphology and second one was confirmation of gonad through dissection. The seasonal development of the gonads was also studied morphologically. In the present study a trial was done to identify the sex through external observation on the basis the colour of the body, belly structure and vent. During the study it was found that all the above criteria were not sufficient to identify the sex of A. testudineus during non-breeding season, because no remarkable difference in the above morphological characters was noticed in male or female fish. Therefore, it is concluded that during non-breeding season the identification of sex in A. testudineus is quite difficult on the basis of external morphology, which needs further investigation.

  185. Dr. Dharmendra Kumar

    Antioxidative protection offered by three nutrients viz: α-tocopherol (vitamin E), reduced glutathione (GSH) and selenium (Se) against hexavalent chromium {Cr(VI)} toxicity has been studied in laboratory rats. Chromium like other transition metal ions induced oxidative stress in liver and kidney. However, treatments with antioxidants inhibited lipid peroxidation and activated serum transminases and glutathione -S-transferases activity in both the organs. Selective preferences were shown by these antioxidants for these parameters in each organs. Our results confirm that antioxidants offer protection by different mechanisms. Disturbances in cellular equilibrium of anti and pro-oxidants caused by chromium can be overcome by antioxidants with certain preferences.

  186. Rajaram S. Sawant, Shobha D. Jadhav, Ashwin G. Godghate and Rahul Shivaji Patil

    The present investigation describes the hydrochemistry and microbial analysis of water from 27 villages of Gadhinglaj Tahsil. The work is carried out during the year 2013-2014. The variables analyzed such as pH, EC, Total alkalinity, Total hardness, Ca, Mg and Chloride as per standard methods. The microbial analysis was carried out to check its potability. On the basis of hydrochemistry water samples were found within the permissible limit while the significant amount of fecal coliforms occurred in all the samples make it unsafe for drinking so proper treatment and purification techniques should be adopted.

  187. Shrikant B.Bhosale and D. S. Jadhav

    In the Present research work we were collected infected samples from the field and directly brought in the laboratory of Botany, Shikshan Maharshi Dnyandeo Mohekar Collage Kalamb dist. Osmanabad. Near about 10 fungal species were collected in kharip, 2014 from the soybean crop from all over the Marathwada region such as Fusarium, Alternaria, Penicillum, Rhizoctonia, Tricoderma, Verticillum, Aspergillus, Helmenthosporium, Collatotricum etc. Isolation of these fungal species was done by PDA (Potato Dextrose Agar) petridish method under aseptic condition (Laminar Air Flow) and maintains pure culture in incubator which was set at 240C. Soybean plants cultivated in the plastic bags and growing under controlled and disease free condition in the green house. After 40 days, well growing plant was taken for spraying the fungal suspension. Disease free plant was selected and makes wound on the plants part, with the help of needle and blade. Premade suspension of fungus spread on disease free plant and kept for further results with the control sample. Lastly result were noted + 25%, ++ 50%, +++ 75% and ++++ 100% as like in table 1.

  188. Dr. Mohamed A. Saad, Dr. Yehia El Mogahzy and Dr. Hazem Abdelmoneim Yasse

    The Present paper describes the ways to make intelligent fabrics by making them conducive materials, i.e. breaking away from its traditional use as electrically insulating materials. For this purpose synthetic core /cotton sheath friction spun and disk spun yarns were used and incorporated in the fabric. Two models represented structures combining sensory materials others represented structures combining highly conductive materials with traditional fibrous material production trials in producing the electric wire core/cotton – polyester sheath yarns showed more challenges than the case of optical fiber core/cotton –polyester sheath yarn.

  189. Karimat El-Sayed, El-Feky, A. A., Mohamed Bakr Mohamed, Hamdy, A. and Hegazey, R. M.

    Four Egyptian crude oil samples were collected from different oil fields located at Eastern and Western Deserts. Asphaltenes have been extracted and then characterized by X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. Different structural parameters were obtained from X-ray diffraction patterns and were compared with the Raman results. The Comparable results of both techniques indicated that asphaltenes which were extracted from El –Wahat crude oil samples (Western Desert) have the largest crystallite size and the smallest strains in directions perpendicular to (002) and (100) planes. These findings confirmed that El-Wahat crude oil is the youngest one among the other four studied crude oils. The influence of the different precipitating solvents on the asphaltenes has been studied. It was found that precipitating solvent has a great effect on the crystallinity of the studied samples; it was found that asphaltenes extracted by n-heptane is more crystalline than those extracted by n- pentane.

  190. James D. Brownridge and Sol Raboy

    Experimental observations of the change in the polarization charge of pyroelectric crystals of LiNbO3, LiTaO3 and CsNO3, as the temperature of the crystal is changed from about 300K to a lower limit of 4.2K, are described. It was found that the rate of change of the polarization charge slowed down considerably and, perhaps, reached a zero rate of change. The onset of this “saturation” of the polarization charge occurred at low temperatures, above the temperature of liquid helium, which were different for each of the three types of crystal. This paper is in memory of Sol Raboy, Emeritus Professor of Physics, Binghamton University.

  191. Saquib Ahmed and Jagdish Pimple

    Inspired by security issues in electronic healthcare systems which has been a vast success on cloud platforms, we propose to build security in mobile healthcare systems with the help of private cloud. Today, communication and information technology are becoming an integral part in healthcare. The system offers mechanism for privacy-preserving data storage and retrieval. Retrieval is most helpful at the time of emergencies. The system also offers auditability for misusing health data. We have integrated attribute based encryption with threshold signing for providing security and symmetric searchable encryption for providing search over encrypted documents to owner.

  192. Nguyen Huu Hau

    In this paper, we help grade 10th Vietnamese students to construct some new results on triangle. Then we process to assess their mathematics competency.

  193. Yogesh Dumbare and Kahate

    Mobile phone technology, mobile phones are turning into an inescapable part of human lives. To run enormous applications on mobile phones, users cannot utilize the capability of mobile phones in an effective way since mobile phones are compelled by processing power, memory requirements and battery limit. Running complex software on smart mobile phones could bring about poor performance and reduced battery life due to their limited resources. In Future of Internet Services Cloud computing and Mobile Cloud Computing plays an important role and it focuses on maximizing the effectiveness of the shared resources and to process local data globally. This is accomplished by dividing an application into tasks such that the computational intensive tasks are offloaded to cloud and in the wake of executing task on cloud, results are sent once again to mobile phone, alluded to as computation offloading. An advanced a versatile, framework can be implemented for powerfully and ideally divide the application. The main aim of our proposed system is to achieve security, reliability and minimize the computation overhead. In this system we are using the Cryptography algorithms for security and to minimize the computation overhead we are using task distribution scheme which help the cloud to increase security, performance and to minimize the memory and computation overhead.

  194. Souleyman A. Issaka, Abdurahman H. Nour and Rosli Mohd Yunus

    This paper is aimed to investigate the change in the properties of the diesel when emulsified with water and become emulsion (emulsion fuel). The properties of 20-80% W/O emulsion fuel samples were determined based on periodic measurement. The experimentally produced emulsion was put into test for duration of one month. The emulsion was assessed by measuring its viscosity, cetane number and water resolution as function of time. However, results showed that, addition of 20% water in the commercial diesel had increased its viscosity from 5.5 mpa.s in the original commercial diesel to as high as 9 mpa.s in the emulsion fuel, while aging had very minor effect on viscosity. Furthermore, the cetane number also increased from 56.9 in the original commercial diesel to 63.2 in the emulsion fuel. With regard to water resolution, 7% water and 10% oil layers were resolved, but quantitatively, there was a water rich mixture settled at the bottom and an oil rich mixture at the top. This study proved that aging have very marginal effects on the viscosity, cetane number but water separation was ambiguous and not easy to determine since there were no clear boundaries between layers, and the whole sample turns to gray color with time instead of milky white initially.

  195. Dr. Vidyagauri Lele and Kusum Baser

    The grafting of methacrylic acid on to granular potato starch in an aqueous medium initiated by ceric ammonium nitrate (CAN) has been studied. The effect of initiator concentration, monomer concentration, polymerization time and temperature, material to liquor ratio and presence of solvent have been studied in terms of percentage grafting (%PG) and grafting efficiency (%GE). The %GE was found to decrease with increase in monomer concentration, but the reverse trend was obtained on increasing the polymerization time, temperature and concentration of initiator. Acid hydrolysis and infrared (IR) spectroscopy were used for the confirmation of graft copolymer formation.

  196. Reshal Deshmukh

    Biologically active Pyrazoline derivatives were efficiently synthesized in excellent yields and in less reaction time using ethanol via cyclization reaction of chalcones and Substituted hydrazines. These newly synthesized compounds were screened for their antimicrobial potencies which reflects moderate to good activity against different strains of bacteria and fungi employed. All the synthesized compounds were confirmed by IR, 1HNMR and Mass spectral data.

  197. Neelam S. Pokale and Jyoti R. Yemul

    Keyword search pattern to relational data is the most important and highlighted area within search and information retrieval community. For the system evaluations, we can follow many approaches that proposed but there is a lack of standardization. The result of lack of standardization affects performance of the system. The previous system focus is on memory utilization. The number of queries completed successfully in a query workload is performance wise not showing good results for relational keyword search system. The solution to above problem is to develop a technique that will manage utilization of memory, data swapping to and from hard disk with a help of document retrieval using relational keyword search. The new system will reuse datasets and query workloads to provide higher consistency of results depending on usage of dataset. The new system will explore the relationship between execution time and factors varied in previous system. Scalable document retrieval improves search performance in terms of execution time, and cost efficiency. The aim of this project is to improve search effectiveness in terms of total execution time, and cost efficiency in terms of data retrieved size. The average percentage of performance improved by proposed system is 10% - 15% as compared to existing system.

  198. Dewarde, D. H and Kahate, S. A.

    One of the important research area in data mining is high utility pattern mining. Discovering itemsets with high utility like profit from database is known as high utility itemset mining. There are number of existing algorithms have been work on this issue. Some of them incurs problem of generating large number of candidate itemsets. This leads to degrade the performance of mining in case of execution time and space. In this paper we have focus on UP-Growth and UP-Growth+ algorithm which overcomes this limitation. This technique uses tree based data structure, UP-Tree for generating candidate itemsets with two scan of database. In this paper we extend the functionality of these algorithms on transactional database. Discovering itemsets with high utility like profitable items from database is known as high utility itemset mining. There are many number of existing algorithms have been work on this issue. But some of them incurs problem of generating large number of candidate itemsets. This affects to degrade the performance of mining in case of execution time and space. In this paper we have focus on UP-Growth and UP-Growth+ algorithm which will overcome this limitation. This technique uses tree based data structure finding itemsets, UP-Tree for generating candidate itemsets with two scan of database. In this paper we extend the functionality of UP-Growth and UP-Growth+ algorithms on transactional database. In High utility itemsets mining the objective is to identify itemsets that have utility value above a given utility threshold to generate tree.

  199. Divya Maria Jose and Saraswathi, K.

    A catheterization laboratory or Cathlab is an examination room in a hospital that offers a variety of diagnostic and interventional cardiology procedures used in the treatment of coronary artery and peripheral vascular diseases. The diagnostic imaging equipment of the Cathlab is used to visualize the arteries and chambers of the heart and treat any stenosis found. In the Cathlab data is send through optical fiber cable to the acquisition computer. The acquisition computer consists of digital processing board. Optical cable from x-ray detector is connected to the detector interface and processing board (DIPB). This board uses an optical transceiver to convert optical data into digital data. As the transceiver data is serial this is converted into parallel data using SerDes chip. This is fed to FPGA for imaging processing. The SerDes chip VSC7145 used to convert serial data into parallel data is obsolete and no more available for manufacturing. There is no direct replacement of this part. This paper explains an alternate all digital design for SerDes chip that to be used in the cathlab system.

  200. Krishnan, N. P., Ilayaraja, M., Muthukrishnan, P. and Sayee Kannan, R.

    The Phenol-Formaldehyde/β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) resin (PFCR) adsorbent with macro cycle network structure showed superior adsorption properties for Hg (II) and Pb (II) ions. FT-IR spectral analysis before and after Hg(II) and Pb(II) adsorption represented that the functional groups responsible for Hg(II) and Pb(II) adsorption. Thermodynamic studies revealed that Hg (II) and Pb (II) adsorption on the PFCR adsorbent is a favorable, spontaneous, and endothermic chemisorption process. The binding force between Hg (II) and Pb (II) ions and functional groups has been strengthened at high temperatures, which made the adsorption more favorable at high temperatures. The adsorption process fitted well by the Temkin isotherm for Pb(II) ion and both the metal ions fitted well with Jovanoic isotherm models. This study will contribute to an in-depth understanding of adsorption phenomena, and provide a base for the scientific and engineering practical applications of the PFCR adsorbent.

  201. Smita Patil and Shabbir Ahmad

    In the Mobile Computing technology, mobile devices like smart phones and tablets were replaces personal computers by combining network connectivity, mobility, and software functionality. In the future, these devices are expected to switch between different network providers using vertical handover mechanisms to maintain network connectivity at all times. This enables mobile devices to access Cloud Services without interruption as users move around. Using current service delivery models, mobile devices moving from one geographical location to another will keep accessing those services from the local Cloud of their previous network, which leads to move a large volume of data over the Internet backbone over a long distance. So it will result in more congestion on the Internet. This degrades the Quality of Service and, the Quality of Experience offered by the services in the Cloud. So, another approach is required to manage resources more efficiently, while improving the QoS and QoE of mobile media services. This introduces a new concept of Cloud Based Mobile Service Delivery where services run on localized public Clouds and are capable of populating other public Clouds in different geographical locations depending on service demands and network status. This prevents the Internet backbone from experiencing high traffic loads and provides resource allocation and management mechanism to service providers for their services. Due to the explosive growth of the Internet and increasing demand for multimedia information on the web, streaming video over the Internet has received tremendous attention from academia and industry. This system also removes ambiguity which occurs at the time of migrating services and also, prevents migration of recently migrated services to reduce congestion.

  202. Singh, S. and Kanhaiya, S.

    In the present paper an attempt is made to describing the regional topography and drainage of Barakar River Basin. For the above purpose, a detailed morphometric analysis of the river was carried out. Morphometric analysis was done using SRTM data with the help of ArcGIS-10 software. The area of the basin is 3161.18 km2 with two sub-basins which range in area from 1891.46 km2 to 612.47km2. The drainage pattern of the study area is dendritic to sub dendritic with stream orders ranging from IV to V orders. Drainage density ranges from 0.30 to 0.37 per km2, while the bifurcation ratio ranges from 3.63 to 5.32. The nature of the drainage pattern indicates that the river follows the initial slope of the terrain.

  203. Umme-E-Aiman

    Purpose: The basic intention behind this article is to find that how legal bindings and financial sector developments influence the capital structure of micro finance institutions. Design/methodology/approach: Panel data of 87 countries is used in the analysis from 2004 to 2013 with annual frequency. Random effect is used after Hausman specification. Findings: Result shows that good and prudential legal tradition, may pave way for foreign investments by gaining trust and in this way economic development of country move towards progress. But one variable (depth of credit information) shows inverse relationship with leverage. This is because some time when MFIs fully disclose their financial structures and terms and conditions, they fail to get the investors’ confidence because of gap between investors and MFIs interests. Originality/value: We found limited research work which has been carried out to answer the question that how capital structure respond to the legal traditions and geographical bindings of country.

  204. Pelicano, Antonio C.

    The study attempted to determine the management styles, organizational climate of school administrators and professional services of teacher. Two hundred (200) school administrators were chosen randomly by sampling technique from a total population of administrators and teachers in Metro Manila. Data on the profile of the respondents; their management styles, the organizational climates and services rendered by school administrators and the responses of the respondents on the relationship of their management styles and organizational climates in their respective schools was the focus of study. It had been found that to effectively manage the school, administrators will adopt different management styles such as democratic and participative which are considered very effective, consultative and supportive less effective while autocratic, laissez fair are discouraged. Administrators should provide an open and paternalistic climate and avoid or refrain from familiar, controlled and closed climates. School administrators are advised to have an adequate working knowledge of different management styles to create a conducive working environment which will redound to productive educational engagement. The findings of this study is deemed useful for school managers to improve their management roles and provide them with insights into what are considered strength and weakness in supervision of instructions. It is also helpful to policy planners in the basis of selecting topics of emphasis for discussion in managers’ forum, development trainings and other similar concerns.

  205. Sivakami, C. and Dr. Rajkumar, R.

    Soil is the loose (unconsolidated) mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth’s crust that is capable of supporting plant growth. Soil is a major component of land system which provides a medium for plant growth. The present study deals with the “preparation of soil map in Kodaikanal Taluk, Dindigul District, Tamil Nadu”. The soil characterization was carried out for parameters like pH, electrical conductivity, etc. Based on the visual interpretation and contour information from SOI (Survey of India) toposheets, a physiographic map was prepared; broadly three physiographic units were identified. Taxonomically soils were classified under Inceptisols, Alfisols, Vertisols and Entisols. Spatial distribution of soils under varied physiographic settings is mapped. Based on the morphological, physical and chemical properties of soils and related information, the soils have been classified into various soil various irrigation type, this information is very helpful in evaluation of the land and to suggest appropriate alternate land use practices.

  206. Mohammad Muzzafar Lone and Dr. Mahmood Ahmad Khan

    The purpose of present study was to translate Mental Health Battery (MHB-Singh & Sengupta); into Urdu and also to adapt the current scale to the contemporary culture. Each item of six tests of the battery were separately written and submitted to 10 experts in the fields to judge the validity of translated version of MHB. Subsequently, the professional language and field experts from Urdu, English, Psychology and Education made necessary corrections and modifications to the adapted version. It was found that the translated version was significantly and positively correlated with the original English one. The reliability of the MHB (Urdu version) was assessed through test- retest method of reliability. Reliability coefficient of the Urdu version of MHB on test retest reliability is significant at 0.01 level. The Urdu version of MHB (Singh & Sengupta) has been found to be reliable scale to be used for Urdu knowing population.

  207. Ramu Rawat and Tadapatri Masthanaiah

    Objectives: In this study we examine the rape trends and situation In India and its states during last one decade by age and region.
    Methods: Present study used National Crimes Records Bureau (NCRB) India data for the year of 2004-2013. Data on crimes in India are published annually by the NCRB. These are compiled from records of police stations all over the country and refer to reported and registered crimes. The causative factors or reasons of incidents of crimes are not being captured by the Bureau. NCRB, only police recorded crime cases are being captured.
    Result: During study period rape cases significantly increased in all states. Furthermore, rape cases are divided into two parts one is incest rape (rape committed by the blood relative) and other rape (rape committed by other than blood relative). Other rape cases remarkable increased over time period where, Incest rape is slightly increased in India. Age group 18-30 have been found more venerable group as compare to other age group in this study. More than 70 % states have above national average level of rape cases.
    Discussion: Rape is the fastest growing crime in the country today compared to other than crime incidents of women.

  208. Victor E. Dike and Uchenna V. Dike

    This article surveys ‘Leading from the Emerging Future’ and explores its political and economic analysis to determine as to whether or not the political leaders of Nigeria can learn any lesson from it to enable them break the barriers to the nation’s development agenda. This seminal book focuses on practical approach that empowers political leaders to shift their mental models from ego-system awareness to eco-system reality so as to transform the nation’s extractive political and economic institutions that hinder national development. While appraising the activities of the political leaders the article shows that the performance of the economy has been poor with pervasive poverty and endemic corruption. The article argues that the main reason for this is that the structure of the political economy of Nigeria is largely designed to promote and protect the interests of political leaders and their cronies. Unlike previous studies on leadership and change in Nigeria that simply observed that the system has been rendered unproductive by poor leadership, this article posits that the problem with Nigeria is that the political leaders have failed to shift their mental models from ‘ego-system awareness to eco-system’ to build effective political and economic institutions to empower the citizens with the 21st Century knowledge and skills to drive the economy and improve their living conditions. It argues, therefore, that discussion on leadership and change in Nigeria deserves a different approach to transform the ossified institutions into innovative and creative ones. This can inspire the political leaders to shift their mindset and design and implement policies that will fit into the new global economy and help them to lead from the emerging possibilities.

  209. Mobark Mohamed Osman Mohamed and Olugbenga Stephen Fashuyi

    Evaluation of the environmental effects of the construction industry reveals that building contributes to the increasing proportion of carbon dioxide in the environment. With this backdrop, a stark redirection in design and construction approaches to mitigate the adverse effects of existing pro-carbon modern practice is urgent and imperative. This research work is aimed at introducing a new style of building design that integrates both vernacular and modern building materials in order to achieve the low carbon benchmark. The methodology adapted in this research work was based on literature survey. However, this study posits that postmodernism, which had its roots in historicism and straight revivalism, yet sought to humanize modern architecture by relating buildings to their larger physical and social context and re-establishing the use of traditional laterite material is recourse for low carbon building designs. Moreover, the study pointed out that these vernacular materials should be re-interpreted in modern form by integrating the laterite with granulated tires stabilized with cement. Other policy issues are discussed.

  210. Gabriela-Laura Vâlceanu

    In recent years the services sector has experienced an explosive development in all areas, they represented over 50% of the GDP of a country. Researchers studied several branches of services such as tourism, education, culture, online services, sport but some branches of the service have not yet been studied extensively, like the branch of veterinary medical services for pets. This article will analyze the market size of pet veterinary services for a better understanding of this market and to confirm the importance of studying the depth of those services that bring a profit of millions of dollars annually in the US million in Europe in detriment of the economic crisis that hit many sectors of the consumer goods and services industry.

  211. Neeraj Kumar and Dr. Kuldip Kaur

    The aim of the present study is to investigate the change in structure of Indian automobile industry in the context of liberalization and globalization, which caused major changes in this industry. Before 1991, the industry was dominated by a few domestic manufacturers and was hardly known for any innovations, but now it is one of the fastest growing manufacturing industry not just in India but globally as well. The data for the analysis have been extracted from the various secondary sources like Centre for Monitoring Indian Economy (CMIE PROWESS), Society of Indian Automobile Manufacturers (SIAM) reports and Organisation Internationale des’ Constructeurs d’Automobiles (OICA) over the period 1992-93 to 2010-11. The results indicate that the automobile sector of emerging nations like China and India is growing at faster rate than developed one. China’s automobile industry registered 16.92 per cent compound annual growth, followed by India 13.57 per cent. Whereas the developed nations like US and Germany lost their ground during that same period (1997-2013). The study also shows that the vehicle penetration is rising over the years in India. The situation was not good during 1990s but later on the situation started improving and in 2013 there were 31 motor vehicles available for 1000 persons.

  212. Ahmad El Zein and Reem Bou Zienddine

    Tourism is becoming one of the most profitable industries but despite its importance, it is a vulnerable and defenseless industry prone to disaster (Hall, 2003). The ‘‘intangibility’’ and ‘‘inseparability’’ factors in the tourism industry limit the information availability to consumers (Hsu and Lin 2006), which make it impossible to eliminate the risk (Wong and Ye, 2009) of political instability, terrorism, natural disasters and much more. Image is one of the most significant factors of the prosperity of any destination and a key element when choosing a destination (Gartner, 1993). The aim of this paper is to elaborate on the effect of branding to enhance the image of a destination leading to a more willingness of tourists to visit a country that is known to be politically unstable as the case of Lebanon. The Results have shown that the better the branded image of a destination, the better the image perceived

  213. Md. Kamrul Hassan, Samiran Mondal and Aminul Hoque

    Background: Football (Soccer) is a body contact game and head region may be injured due to various causes. There is a dilemma between the researchers whether football impairs brain function or not. Aim: To review literatures related on brain function impairment and football. Method: Researchers searched scientific papers through PubMed/Medline and other data sources, then collected full papers and analyzed all the relevant article according to the nature of this study. Findings: Related literature supporting the controversies prevailing regarding the impairment in brain function due to participation in football. Some studies reported impairment in brain functions after regular soccer playing whereas other groups reported no evidence of brain function impairment after soccer playing. Conclusions: This review study concluded that brain function impairment due to football playing is inconclusive and invite further controlled scientific research.

  214. Elham Rahimzadeh, Parasto Masjedi Khak, Mina Shalchi Moghadam, Abbas Panahi and Sahar Nazar Kardeh

    The stucco art in Iran has a long history and from the Elamite era on this art could be seen in many structures. Like many other arts throughout the history, the use of stucco has had a growing trend and besides using it as mortar, it was used for covering and embellishing the structures. Also, during the Qajar era, this art was highly favored and because of the cultural interactions with Western and European countries, Qajar art and architecture adopted many influences and as a result, an Iranian-Western fusion style in the stucco art appeared. This paper investigates the stuccos of the Silk House in the city of Rasht and the influences that it has received from the European art. The Silk House of Rasht is one of the invaluable remnants from the Qajar era in which many exquisite stucco and mirror works have remained. The study presents designs and motifs that were originated from the European styles like raised stucco, the use of rosette bud motifs, and the use of flower and vase patterns in which the flowers are dangling and spreading out of the vase.

  215. Nilima Gayen, Dr. Asish Paul and Dr. Debasish Ray

    To be a productive people with maximum potentialities it demand the health related physical fitness. The effect of exercise on such health related physical fitness variable has been well established by different scientists in variety of health related field. The present study was intended to find out the effect of regular exercises in the form of low intensity movement oriented programme consisted with general warm up, stretching, long distance run, strength and flexibility exercises on health related physical fitness factors. Some suitable team game, minor game and relaxation exercises were also included. The experimental subjects were of 09 college girls of age ranged between 21-25yrs., height 1.56 ±.06 mtr. and weight 45.50 ± 6.09 kg.and the control group was also of 09 subjects age between 21-25yrs., height 1.50 ± .04mtr. and weight 45.88 ± 7.35kg. The health related physical fitness variables were the cardio respiratory endurance, upper body strength endurance, muscular strength endurance, flexibility and body composition. The results showed the significant positive changes in all the fitness variables except the B.M.I. in case of the experimental group. There were no significant changes occur in case of the control group. It may be concluded that the regular participation in movement oriented programme has some positive benefit towards the better living as a consequence of the development of the health related physical fitness factors.

  216. Dr. Omana George

    The Admiralty Law in India is still governed by the obsolete Admiralty Court Act 1861 applied by (English) Colonial Courts of Admiralty Act 1890 and adopted by Colonial Courts of Admiralty (India) Act 1891. The 1861 Act continued to be in force even after the commencement of the Indian Constitution in 1950 because of Act 372 of the Constitution which provided for continuance of existing laws. The Indian Parliament also failed to enact a domestic law relating to Admiralty law. As per the 1861 Act the High Courts of Bombay, Calcutta and Madras were vested with Admiralty jurisdiction. They were equated with the High Court of England with respect to unlimited jurisdiction. Admiralty jurisdiction had been exercised by the Court in England under the Admiralty Act 1840 through action in rem or in personam. The defendants’ vessel can be arrested by an action in rem in respect of a maritime claim. The action in rem has its foundation in maritime lien under which the claimant though an order of the court arrest the vessel. The purpose of action in rem is to compel the appearance of the ship owner. The three High Courts in India continued this practice. In M.V.Elizabeth V.Harwan Investments Co. Pvt. Ltd (AIR 1993 1014) the Supreme Court declared that the Courts need not be bound by the obsolete 1861 which was in fact repealed in India and all the High Courts in India are vested with admiralty jurisdictions. The Court gave relief to the claimant by applying the provisions of International Convention on Law of the sea, 1982, International convention on arrest of sea going ships 1952, sections 443 & 444 of Merchant shipping Act 1958.

  217. Muhammed, K. V. and Dr. Mohamedunni Alias Musthafa, M. N.

    There is growing concern regarding the relationship between exposure to media and deviant behaviour. The younger generation is too much passionate in imitating heroes of movies and blindly accepting deviant cultural and social interactions in media. Knowingly or unknowingly today’s adolescents are following it without any concern about our attitude, tradition and social interaction. The present study aims to analyse teachers’ perception on media influence on deviant behaviour of adolescents in Kerala. The study was conducted among 30 higher secondary school teachers from five government schools of the five districts of Kerala state through random sampling technique. Two major objectives of the study were to identify recurring deviant thematic content in various types of media in the perception of teachers and to identify additional factors that render adolescents more vulnerable to deviant media. Questionnaires were used to collect data. Result of the study revealed that Violence, Social intolerance, Glamour and power and Glamorizing and disrespect for women were the recurring deviant thematic content and factors like Family environment, Socio-economic environment, Race and gender and Locus of control were vulnerable to deviant behaviour. The study seeks importance in the present realm to give better concern to our adolescents on how to be a better social individual.

  218. Dr. Chandan Kumar Sinha, Jaita Das, Sarit Pritam Dwibedy and Sushmita Chaudhury

    The dermatoglyphics is an important tool in the diagnosis of several genetic diseases. The present study is related to establish a correlation between dermatoglyphics and asthma. Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the small airways of the lung. Asthma is a complex and heterogenous disease which involves different genetic and environmental factors. The fingerprints of thirty one asthma patients were compared with thirty one control cases. The prints of both hands were taken by rolling finger method with the application of kajal as it is a high source of carbon. In Asthma patients, the percentage of loops was high in all digits except IVth digit with 46.77%. The whorl of only IVth digit (Ring finger) asthma patients was significantly high with 53.22% with respect to control. The arches of I, II, III and Vth digit of patients was high where as the IVth digit shows no significant change. Thus the various dermatoglyphics parameters represent a non-invasive genetic marker help in the early diagnosis of asthma.

  219. Misael Jaleta, Dr. Paul Mansingh, J, and Fikadu Abdise Erena

    An entrepreneur is a dynamic agent of change. Women entrepreneurs may be defined as a woman or group of women who initiate, organize and run a business enterprise. Women owned enterprises are steadily growing in Ethiopia, and they are contributing to household incomes and to the growth of national economies. In Ethiopia, support to Micro and Small Enterprises especially women owned enterprises has been considered as a tool to employment creation and foundation to long-term development objectives as well as empowering women. The purpose of this study is to identify the important women entrepreneurial motivation factors. The study was conducted in Ambo town which was purposively selected because the selected area in West Shoa Zone had more women entrepreneurs. A sample of 125 women entrepreneurs engaged in 5 sectors namely Urban Agriculture, Manufacturing, Construction, Service and Retail was taken for the study using stratified and random sampling techniques for taking representative sample from the population. The category of business was classified as micro and small enterprise level. Interview Schedule was used for collecting data from the women entrepreneurs. The scale contain 29 items to find out the factors that motivate women entrepreneurs in micro and small enterprises. Factor analysis was conducted on the above 29 items for data reduction which led to the identification of five factors, accounted for cumulative variance of 50.41per cent. Principal component matrix was used for factor analysis and Varimax rotations with Kaiser Normalization was used for rotation. The five factors that emerged out of the analysis were: Entrepreneurial factor, Individual and Independent factor, Social and Professional factor, Satisfaction factor and the Economic factor.

  220. C. Mahadeva Murthy and Veena, K. P.

    India is the world’s richest sandalwood resources is from one isolated stretch of forests land in south India that in Karnataka. The origin of sandalwood and its oil in Karnataka, which is used in making of Mysore sandal soap, it is well known as Fragrant Ambassador of India and sandalwood oil is in fact known as “liquid gold”. Karnataka Soaps and Detergents Limited (KS&DL) is the only company is having the license to extract sandal oil in India. This is the only company using pure sandal oil for manufacturing toilet soaps and other products. This is the largest Government soap manufacturing company in India. KS&DL collecting raw materials i.e., sandals from south Indian States of Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Kerala and some parts of Pune, Mysore is largest place in India having sandal trees. World production 85% of sandalwood production is from India, 10% is from Srilanka, and 5% from Australia. KS&DL is the true inheritor of golden legacy of India the product produced and marketed are the16 verities of toilet soaps, 04 verities of detergents, 02 verities of talcum powder, 13 verities of agarba this and verities of Mysore herbal care in the brand name of Mysore sandal. The main objectives of this research paper includes theoretical background on current scenario of Mysore Sandal Soaps and detergents and to highlight the demographic profile of the customers of KS&DL situated in Bangalore city through conducting a survey of 180 sample respondents. The paper further analyses the customers’ satisfaction and perception towards soaps and detergents and the extent of influence of the product attributes and brand preferences and brand loyalty in their buying behaviour.

  221. Pavani, S. and Sudhakar, G.

    The burden of Chronic kidney disease (CKD), in terms of human suffering and economic costs, is unravelling its effect as we move through the early years of the 21st century, making it as a major public health issue. The attention paid globally to CKD is attributable to the following factors: the sudden increase in its prevalence, the enormous cost of treatment, recognition of its major role in increasing the risk of cardiovascular disease, and the discovery of effective measures to prevent its progression. The study of molecular markers identification in CKD is challenging because of high degree of cellular heterogeneity of the kidney and the paucity of human tissue availability for molecular studies. This review summarizes on protein markers discussed in context of CKD, the immunological data related to Th1 and Th17 cells that contribute to kidney injury in renal inflammatory diseases like glomerulonephritis, recent studies of oxidative stress, inflammatory markers that identify disease progression in advance CKD cases and the importance of chemokine receptors CCR and CX3CR1.

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