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September 2010

  1. Vasumathi, C. and Dr. Dhanapakiam, P.

    The present study was carried out on the seasonal abundance and diversity of zooplankton in two culture ponds, control and probiotic experiment pond of freshwater prawn M. rosenbergii. Plankton samples were collected by plankton net and were narcotised with 20% ethyl alcohol and were preserved in 5% neutral formalin. The zooplankton abundance was influenced by physico-chemical factors. During the study period the occurrence of 30 and 32 species in control and experiment pond respectively were recorded with 4 orders namely Copepoda, Rotifera, Cladocera, Ostracoda. Among al groups copepod was the dominant order. Monthwise total zooplankton population in the probiotic experiment culture pond is 2065 in the momth of may whereas it is 1758 in July month in control pond. In the present experiments, cladocerans were observed maximum numbers in experiment pond than in control pond. The findings of the present study will help to improve the management strategies and roles of probiotics in improving and maintaining water quality in larval rearing water of giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii..

  2. Taware, S.D., Thengane, R. J., Harke, S.N and Taware, A S

    Entire DNA-A of four okra yellow vein mosaic virus (OYVMV) Indian biotypes were isolated from virus infected leaf tissue of okra using PCR amplification. Isolated complete DNA-A from experimental biotypes were cloned and sequenced. DNA-A sequences from all these biotypes were compared and further analyzed using the bioinformatics tools. ClustalW analysis of these sequences confirmed variation into the DNA-A amongst OYVMV isolates. It is observed that out of the AV1 gene which encodes coat protein (CP) is the most conserved region, and AC4 protein the most variable. Results also concluded that there is variability in DNA-A of all four experimental biotypes. There are recombinational host spots within DNA-A of these four biotypes. Among all four experimental biotypes of OYVMV, Madurai biotype was found to be more recombinant and formed by major genetic changes into its DNA-A.

  3. Eze, V.C.and Eze, B.N.

    The isolation and characterization of microorganisms involved in the degradation of refined petroleum products polluted sites in Elele was carried out. The total aerobic mean plate count for petrol, diesel and kerosene ranged from 6.16 + 0.10 to 0.50 +0.7Log10cfu/g, 5.03 + 0.17-8.01 + 0.18 Log10cfu/g, 4.11 + 0.17 to 5.65 +0.33Log10cfu/g respectively. The fungal mean count for petrol, diesel, and kerosene ranged from 5.89 + 0.28 - 6.40 + 0.23Log10cfu/g, 5.29 + 0.07-6.59 + 0.06Log10cfu/g, 4.01 + 0.10 -5.78 + 0.19Log10cfu/g respectively. The hydrocarbon-utilizing bacterial mean count for the petrol, diesel and kerosene ranged from 5.03 + 0.03 - 6.25 +0.02Log10cfu/g, 4.01 + 0.11 – 5.33 + 0.01Log10cfu/g and 4.01 + 0.44 – 5.05 +0.02Log10cfu/g respectively. The hydrocarbon-utilizing fungal mean count for the petrol, diesel and kerosene ranged from 3.97 + 0.06 – 5.77 + 0.33Log10cfu/g, 5.01 +0.09 – 6.01 + 0.11Log10cfu/g and 4.95 + 0.01 – 5.25 + 0.03Log10cfu/g respectively. The bacteria isolated from the petrol polluted suites their percentage occurrence were Bacillus (34.2%), Pseudomonas species (28.9%) Klebsiela species (21.1%) and Acinetobactero (15.8%) while the fungi were Aspergillus species (33.3%), Penicillin species (44.4%) and Saccharomyces soeciesn(22.2%). Diesel polluted site were Bacillus (38.5%), Citrobacter species (34.6%), Acinetobacter species (26.9%), Candida species (37.8%),Aspergilllus species (31.1%) and Penicillin (31.1%). Kerosene polluted sites were Pseudomonas species (36.8%); Klebsiella species (34.2%), Citrobacter species (28.9%), Candida albicans (48.1%) and Saccharomyces species (51.9%). The work showed that these microorganisms can be used in the degradation of these petroleum products if they contaminate the environment.

  4. Omeh Yusuf S

    Oil from Irvingia wombulu was extracted, purified and characterized by Soxhlet Extractor. Standard methods were used for the determination of the physiological indices, while the Fatty acid components were determined using the Gas chromatographic technique. The percentage of pure fat after extraction was 60%. The physiochemical analysis revealed the following: Relative density (0.82), PH (6.22), Saponification value (178.39mgKOH-1), unsaponifiable matters (0.85%), Iodine value (2.54/100g Fat), Peroxide value (0.96mgEqKg-1). Gas-Liquid Chromatography revealed that the major Fatty acids were: C14:O (48.93%), C12:O(32.37%), C16:0 (7.95%), C10:O (0.93%), C18:0 (0.75%) and C18:1(4.58%). The result of this study is indicative that the Irvingia wombulu oil contains high concentration of unsaturated fatty acids and thus may not be heart friendly.

  5. Eze, V.C. and Ogbaran, I.O.

    Microbiological and physicochemical characteristics of fish pond water obtained from various locations in Ughelli-South Local Government Area of Delta State were carried out. The mean total aerobic plate count ranged from 5.09 + 0.03 to 5.16 +0.01Log10cfu/ml. The mean fungal ranged from 4.65 ± 0.02 to 4.72 ± 0.02 Log10cfu/mL. The mean coliform count ranged from 3.63 + 0.01 to 3.71 +0.01Log10cfu/mL. There was no count for Escherichia coli, Salmonella-Shigella and Vibrio cholera. Bacteria genera isolated included Micrococcus species (29.8%); Bacillus species (20.8%); Proteus species (16.4%); Pseudomonas species (17.1%) and Klebsiella species (15.6%). Fungal genera were Penicillum species (55.8%) and Aspergillus species (44.1%). The mean values ranges of the physicochemical parameters were pH, 5.85 to 6.26; temperature, 30.02 to 30.100C; conductivity, 30.35 to 51.70µS/cm; total dissolved solid, 16.08.to 27.41mg/L; turbidity, 6.80 to 5.71mg/L; biological oxygen demand, 4.85 to 5.30mg/L; chemical oxygen demand, 7.04 to 7.63mgL; salinity, 4.99 to 7.80ppt; alkalinity, 2.22 to 3.78mg/L; phosphate, 1.88 to 1.02mg/L; sulphate, 1.50 to 3.02mg/L; nitrite, <0.01 mg/L; nitrate, 0.17 to 0.55mg/L and ammonia, 0.54 to 1.00mg/L. This shows that the ponds contain microorganisms and chemicals that can cause disease to the fish and eventually to man when consumed.

  6. Senthil, R. and Arulkanna, P

    The interaction of the gastrointestinal microflora with the human host has been the subject of considerable debate in the last decade. Manipulation of the enteric microflora with probiotic organisms has been attempted in a wide range of clinical settings, in the hope of achieving health benefits in the host. Probiotics are the health enhancing the functional food ingredients used therapeutically to prevent diarrhea and enhances immune system. They may also have potential to prevent allergy, indigestion, lower serum cholesterol. This review focuses information regarding the probiotics and their proposed uses.

  7. Jayappriyan, K.R., Rajkumar, R., Sheeja, L., Nagaraj, S., Divya, S. and Rengasamy, R.

    Six different isolates of Dunaliella were isolated along the salt pans of Andhra Pradesh coast, India were focused by classical and molecular taxonomy which effectively reported the significance of molecular tools and identified the strange green forms of Dunaliella bardawil and Dunaliella parva. Among the six isolates five were identified with present genus and species specific primers used in the study where as the remaining one isolate was partially sequenced and submitted in the Gen bank.

  8. Biplab Bhattacharjee, Jayadeepa.R.M, Sanghita Banerjee, Vijay Mathen George, Ajoe.P.Chako and Sushil Kumar Middha

    Identification of protein-ligand interaction networks on a proteome scale is crucial to address a wide range of biological problems such as correlating molecular functions to physiological processes and designing safe and efficient therapeutics. In this study we have developed a novel computational strategy to identify ligand binding profiles of proteins across gene families and applied it to predicting protein functions, elucidating molecular mechanisms of drug adverse effects, and repositioning safe pharmaceuticals to treat different diseases The resultant network is then extrapolated to proteomics level to sort out the genes only expressed in the specific cancer types. The network is statistically analyzed and represented by the graphical interpretation to encounter the hub nodes. The objective of developing a biological networking is for the evaluation and validation of cancer drugs and their targets. In the field of cancer biology, the drug and their targets holds a role of paramount importance. With the work conducted here it shows the study of relation between drug target networks. Lung cancer is one of the main types of cancer in which the lung tissues are affected Genes belonging to the group of proto-oncogenes and tumor suppressors are best targeted for cancer studies. Biological networks like gene regulatory networks, protein interaction network is usually created to simplify the studies. The genes were collected from OMIM database for the lung cancer, respective targets were found using PDB and Gene Cards using the VisANT the biological networks has been drawn. From the literature study about 40 metalloproteinase inhibitors were collected and out of those 12 molecules show anticancer activity against lung cancer. The flexible docking has been performed for Target Protein Vs 12 compounds, Using the best docking score, the graphs obtained from the docking analysis is statistically validated with the help of VisANT. The compound with best docking score were subjected to ADMETOX through which it drawn out the potential candidate using ADME/TOX WEB. Thus out of 12 natural molecules one molecule was selected namely Eicosapentaenoic Acid where it showed the best docking score as well as average ADME property.

  9. Sivanarayan, V and Suriyavathana, M

    Delonix elata and Prospis cineraria are used in the treatment of various diseases by local folks. Since, these plants possess many medicinal properties; the present study was designed to evaluate the phytochemicals and the antimicrobial activity of leaf extracts from of Delonix elata and Prospis cineraria. The invitro antimicrobial activity was performed by agar disc diffusion method against bacterial viz. Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtillus, Klebsiella, E.coli, Proteus sp. and Pseudomonas sp. and fungi viz. Aspergillus Niger, Pencillium sp., Candida albicans. The organic extracts especially alcoholic extract, showed maximum against the micro organism. This shows that these plants can be used for medicinal purposes. Both Delonix elata and Prospis cineraria were deserved to have antimicrobial activity and can be used for medicinal purposes.

  10. Jaisankar, R.

    Antigenic diversity is an important determinant of outcome of infection with HIV. Successive invasion through various modes of HIV transmission may contribute to the increase in the antigenic diversity of HIV. There it is assumed that there exists antigenic diversity threshold level, beyond which the immune system cannot sustain against the HIV which leads to almost complete breakdown of the immune system. At this point, the onset of AIDS symptoms starts with a HIV infected person. This paper narrates a stochastic model used for estimating the expected time to get AIDS through various modes of transmission of HIV. Numerical illustrations are provided using simulation technique to substantiate the results.

  11. Kachare, S.V and Suryawanshi, S.R

    Plant taxonomy, the science of classifying and naming the plants antedate recorded history. Even in the early civilization of India, China and Egypt practiced a sort of plant taxonomy as a new a few good number of plants particularly those of food and medicinal value. We find that this branch is originated only since 200-250 b.c. and and always credit is given to Theopastrus and Aristotle as the beginner in this branch. one of the earliest Indian works dealing with plants in a scientific manner is ‘Vrikshyurveda’. It was compiled by Parashar. This was based on study of comparativemorphology of plants. With this origin we find that the taxonomy was changing its concepts and the basis and hence classification was also changing its concepts. It traveled from herbs, shrubs, and trees to oil yielding fiber. Then it came on artificial system from that the natural system and today its base is phylogenetic, which is only imaginary, unpractical and no utility Much more voluminous works are being done to the westerns and modern science and the use of it to the Mankind is very less. But for each subject. We must also refer to the eastern and Ancient Indian Science. In the ancient India much more literature was available on various Sciences. But because of the colonization of the western people much more is destroyed very few are available and in that we can get knowledge more advance and useful than today.

  12. Eze-Steven Peter, E. and Njoku Obi, U.

    This study evaluated the anti-lipidaemic effects of mistletoe (Loranthus micranthus) leaves using methanol and aqueous extracts on lipid profiles (triacylglycerols, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein, and low density lipoprotein) of white albino Wistar rats in the laboratory. Male Wistar rats were used for this study and they were housed to acclimatize in five different cages according to their groups. Each group contained four animals. Diabetes was induced in rats in all but groups 4 and 5 by the intravenous injection of alloxan monohydrate (90mg/kg) dissolved in normal saline through rat tail vein. Group 1 diabetic rats were treated with 600mg/kg body weight concentration of crude methanol extract of L. micranthus leaves orally. Group 2 diabetic rats were treated with 600mg/kg body weight concentration of crude water extract of L. micranthus leaves orally. Group 3 diabetic rats were treated with 250mg/kg body weight concentration of glibenclamide orally. Group 4 diabetic rats were not treated and served as positive control. Rats in Group 5, which were non-diabetic, received normal saline and served as negative control. The experiments were repeated using different Wistar rats for groups 1, 2, and 4 for the second, third, and fourth weeks. The results of this study showed that both extracts of L. micranthus leaves caused a significant (P<0.05) reduction in fasting lipid levels in diabetic and non-diabetic Wistar rats with the effect of the methanol extract being significantly (P<0.05) higher than that of the aqueous extract.

  13. Udaya Chandrika, K., Ebenesar Anna Bagyam, J. and Muthulakshmi, S.

    Finite capacity queueing system with correlated arrival and service processes is considered with provision for additional server along with controllable arrival rate. The additional service channel is introduced according to (r1, R1) control policy. In this policy if the system size reaches R1 additional server is introduced and the introduced server is withdrawn if the system size becomes less than r1 (< R1). In a similar manner the arrival rate is controlled according to (r2, R2) policy, where r1 < R1 < r2 < R2. The steady state probabilities and the performance measures are derived. Numerical results are presented.

  14. Mohamed EL-Murtada Hassan Amin

    A field experiment was conducted for two consecutive seasons in 2004/2005 and 2005/2006 at the demonstration farm of the faculty of agriculture – Omdurman Islamic University – Sudan, to investigate the effect of organic manure and urea applied alone and in combination on growth, yield and quality of fodder maize (Zea Mays L.).The organic fertilizer was cattle and chicken manure. The design used was spilt – plot with four replicates. The growth parameters measured were plant height, stem diameter, number of leaves, leaf area index. Reproduction attributes investigated were days to 50% tasseling – silking and fresh/dry matter yield. The crude protein and crude fibre were also investigated. The results revealed that organic manure and urea significantly affected growth parameters at all sampling occasions during the two seasons. Remarkable results noticed at combination of organic fertilizer with urea followed by single addition of manure and urea. The results showed that the number of the days to 50% tasseling, fresh and dry matter yield were significantly affected by organic manure and urea during two seasons. Moreover, fresh and dry matter yield increased progressively by the combination of chicken manure and urea compared to the others treatments. The present data revealed that the crude protein and crude fibre were non significantly by organic manure and urea in both seasons. Generally crude protein and crude fibre were higher in the second seasons compared to first season.

  15. Robin, R.S ., Vishnu Vardhan, K. ., Pradipta R. Muduli, J.S.I. Rajkumar, and Swaminathan Palanisami

    The diversity, abundance, biomass of phytoplankton and primary productivity in the shelf waters of four stations along the southwest coast of India were studied for the first time during May - June 2005. In order to study the vertical distribution, five sampling depths starting from (5 to 35 m) were elected within the euphotic zone. Nutrients (nitrate, nitrite, phosphate and silicate) showed an increasing trend from 5 m to deeper waters with a significant positive relationship with salinity (r > 0.83, p < 0.01). Result indicates that Primary Productivity (PP) and phytoplankton standing crop were direct tune with chlorophyll a and nutrient concentrations. Further, a significant positive correlation was observed between PP and phytoplankton standing crop (r > 0.87, p < 0.01) in most of the stations and also with chlorophyll a and phytoplankton standing crop (p < 0.01, r > 0.96). Among stations, 35 m depth at Kodungallur station recorded the least phytoplankton standing crop (0.87 × 103 cells L–1) and 10 m depth at Mangalore recorded the maximum (31.53 × 103 cells L–1). Phytoplankton community composition revealed 67 species of phytoplankton belonging to different taxonomic groups, in which bacillariophyceae constituted 49, pyrrophyceae 17 and cyanophyceae 1. Chaetoceros lorenzianus invariably constituted maximum abundance throughout the water column in all stations except Mangalore 10 m depth. Depth integrated (5 to 35 m) primary productivity of Mangalore (1284.7 mg C m-2 d-1) was nearly three times as high at Kodungallur (431.8 mg C m-2 d-1). The maximum depth integrated chlorophyll a (49.70 mg m-2) was recorded at Mangalore and minimum of 13.25 mg m-2 were recorded at Kodungallur. Vertical accretion of phytoplankton species was remarkable and the species diversity was predominant at 10 – 15 m water column depth, which is in concord with maximum biomass (chlorophyll a) and pycnocline layer. In general, increased phytoplankton diversity, Margalef richness d’ (5.53 ± 0.23), Shannon-Wiener H’ (2.56 ± 0.37), Pielou’s evenness J’ (0.61 ± 0.44) in the northern shelf waters Karwar and Mangalore (12 - 14oN) relative to southern shelf waters Calicut and Kodungallur (10 - 11oN) with concomitant increase both in abundance and biomass. In this study an attempt was also made to distinguish the phytoplankton community in to its different assemblages according to their locations (e.g., depth and station-ways). Mangalore recorded the maximum species diversity (52) followed by Karwar (49), Calicut (42) and Kodungallur (19). Southwest coast of India, Phytoplankton abundance and biomass could be affected by its spatial variability in community structure with species specific association (e.g., depth ways) and largely with respect to differences in the hydrographical conditions. The study suggests that phytoplankton community structure was varied with depth and plays a crucial role on PP and quantity of phytoplankton biomass available to the marine food web.

  16. Omeh Yusuf S, Ezeja Maxwell I. and Njoku Linda. U

    The toxic effects of Mucuna pruriens var utilis seeds on the kidney was evaluated on white albino Wistar rats in the laboratory using powdered raw and cooked Mucuna seeds incorporated into the feed of the rats at 10, 20 and 50% levels for four weeks, and than evaluating the serum urea and creatinine levels (kidney function tests) of the rats. The serum urea levels of the rats fed with different percentage inclusions of raw Mucuna seeds in the feed were significantly (P<0.001) increased in a dose dependent manner when compared to the negative control group. Also the serum urea and creatinine levels of the rats fed with different percentage inclusions of cooked Mucuna pruriens seed in the feed where significantly (P <0.02) increased when compared to the negative control group of the rats. These increased with the increase in the percentage inclusion in the feed. In conclusion, this study suggests that feeding Mucuna pruriens, var utilis seeds to animals or man may cause some levels of damage to the kidney which may be dependent on the level of inclusion in the feed and the toxic effect may also be drastically reduced by cooking the seeds before using it for feeding.

  17. Nazir A. Bhat, K. A. Bhat, M. Y. Zargar, M. A. Teli, Muslima Nazir and Sajad M. Zargar

    Angular leaf spot (Pseudomonas syringae pv. lachrymans) is more or less prevalent in almost every cucumber growing area of the world causing heavy losses not only to cucumber but to other cucurbits as well. Under natural conditions, the disease initially appears as minute water-soaked spots on leaves, which became and turn light tan in colour. With the passage of time, spots turn necrotic and many of these slough-off giving leaves a tattered appearance. The spots on infected fruits lead to rot or misshapening of fruit in case of severe infection. Both naturally infected as well as the artificially inoculated seed can harbour the pathogen beyond two sowing seasons. Pathogen survives on diseased crop debris buried or kept on soil surface from harvesting to next sowing time. The disease is controlled by hot water treatment, chemical seed treatment, foliar sprays and use of systemic resistance inducers.

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