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IJCR is following an instant policy on rejection those received papers with plagiarism rate of more than 20%. So, All of authors and contributors must check their papers before submission to making assurance of following our anti-plagiarism policies.

 

 

 

 

December 2010

  1. Udeh, N. E., Nwachukwu, I., Odoemelam, L. and Akinmutimi, A.

    This study was carried out among farmers who raise poultry in Abia State, Nigeria, to determine the socio economic characteristics influencing their awareness of avian influenza. Three hundred and sixty poultry farmers were selected using multi-stage sampling procedure for the study. Data were collected by the use structured questionnaire and analysed using descriptive statistics and regression analysis. Results showed that 73.30% of the poultry farmers in the state were merely aware of the bird flu disease, while 26.7% of the respondents were not aware. A majority (87.5%) of the farmers knew only one to three of the ten symptoms of bird flu. Age, sex, level of education and extension contact were highly significant (P<0.01). The coefficients of household size and membership of cooperative society were also significant (P<0.05) implying that these variables were important determinants of the level of awareness of bird flu disease and its control methods. Thus, development and planning of avian flu awareness strategies should take cognisance of these factors that affect the farmers’ level of awareness to ensure that they receive adequate information on the avian flu scourge.

  2. Magda A. Osman., Awatiff A. Mohamed., Fakhreldin A. Hussein and Ezza I. Abdalla

    The objective of this study was to assess the oil composition of peppermint grown in the National Botanic Garden, Khartoum, Sudan. The essential oil obtained by hydro-distillation (0.4%) of the fresh leaves of Mentha piperita, were analyzed by GC and GC/MS. Eleven compounds representing 89.28% of the oil were identified. Menthone (47.38%), menthofuran (9.79%), menthol (8.58%), pulegone (7.92%), cineol 1.8 (5.29%), isomenthone (4.64%)and limonene (2.73%) were the major components. The study showed that M. piperita could be raised for production of its essential oil under the prevailing environment of central Sudan. To obtain good quality oil attention should be paid to the selection of the growing site and for developmental stage of the harvested leaves.

  3. Uzegbu, Hyginus O., Ndelekwute, Eugenes K., Igwe, Ikechukwu R., Ekedo, Theresa O., Ekwe, Chioma C., Ukin, Comfort I and Ebeniro, Ngozi, C.

    A feeding trial was conducted to test the efficacy of fresh green guinea grass (FGGG) as green food supplement on growth response of grower pigs. A total of 45 young pigs between 18 and 19 kg live body weight on the average, were used in a completely randomized design (CRD) experiment. The pigs were obtained from a landrace x large white crosses. There were five treatments of nine animals each replicated three times with three animals per replicate. Pigs in treatment 1 taken as the control consumed only a formulated basal diet while pigs in treatments 2, 3, 4, and 5 received the basal diet in addition to 5, 10, 15 and 20% of their daily ad libitum feed as FGGG respectively. The whole experiment lasted for 60 days. At the end, pigs that fed 5% FGGG had better final body weight, than the control and other pigs that fed FGGG. Inclusion of FGGG above 5% did not better result in body weight than the control.

  4. Igwe Ikechukwu, Reginald

    A total of one hundred and fifty day old broiler chicks were used to comparably evaluate the performance of birds fed pelletized diet and those fed re-ground pelletized feed. At the end of brooding, the birds were grouped into three of fifty birds each, with each treatment group having five replicates of ten birds per replicate. The first group of birds were fed on 100% whole pelletized feed, the second group were fed on 100% reground pelletized feed, while the third group of birds were fed on 50% whole pelletized feed and 50% reground pelletized feed. The results showed significant (P<0.05) differences in the final weight, initial weight, feed conversion rate, weight gain and daily weight gain. The feed intake showed no significance (P<0.05) difference. Also there were significant (P<0.05) differences in the live weight, defeathered weight, dressed weight, wing weight, thigh weight, drumstick weight, chest cavity weight and backcut weight. There were no significant (P<0.05) differences in the cut parts expressed as percentage of the dressed weight. Furthermore, there were significant (P<0.05) differences in the weight of the liver, heart, gizzard and proventriculus. There were no significant (P<0.05) differences in the weight of the spleen and kidney. For the organs expressed as percentage of the defeathered weight, the heart, spleen and kidney were not significantly (P<0.05) different; while the liver, gizzard and proventriculus were significantly (P<0.05) different.

  5. Adeniyi, O.R., Alabi, O.M. and Ademosun, A.A.

    The proximate composition, market prices and production cost per unit kilogram of four common meat types were investigated in the south-western area of Nigeria. The meat types were beef, broiler, Claria lazera and Tilapia macrocephala and the parameters were crude protein (%),ether extract (%),ash(%),crude fibre (%) and nitrogen-free extract (%) and average market prices of the meat types. One hundred grammes of each of the meat sample were obtained from freshly slaughtered cow, broiler chicken and fishes. Each sample was subdivided into four replicates which were later subjected proximate analyses in a completely randomized design (CRD) while current market prices of each of the meat samples were investigated. Beef had the highest crude protein and fat content, while broiler meat and Clarias lazera had higher mineral content than others. However, none of the samples had crude fibre. Meanwhile, Tilapia macrocephala (N42.00 per 100g fresh weight) was the cheapest while broiler meat was the most expensive (N57.00 per 100g fresh weight). Beef had the highest level of crude protein than other meat types while Tilapia macrocephala was the cheapest meat type in south-western Nigeria as at the time of this study.

  6. Kevin Z. Mganga, Nashon K.R. Musimba, Dickson M. Nyariki, Moses M. Nyangito, Agnes, W. Mwang’ombe, Wellington N. Ekaya and William M. Muiru

    Rehabilitation of denuded patches using perennial grasses has been used extensively in semi-arid environments of Kenya. However, weeds continue to pose an enormous challenge to the success of many rehabilitation programmes. The aim of this study was to identify the common weeds that pose a challenge to rehabilitation success and establish the grass-weed interactions in rehabilitated areas of a semi-arid environment in Kenya. A survey questionnaire was administered to capture the farmers’ perception on the most problematic weeds and the challenge they pose to rehabilitation programmes. Experimental plots were laid out under simulated rainfall (sprinkler system). Three perennial grasses; Cenchrus ciliaris, Eragrostis superba, and Enteropogon macrostachyus, were used. These grasses were sown along ox-ploughed micro-catchments as pure stands and two grass mixtures and monitored at three phenological stages; early vegetative (15cm), elongation (30cm) and reproduction (60cm) representing high, medium and low grazing intensities respectively. Results from this survey showed Ipomoea kituensis posed the greatest challenge to rehabilitation programmes. Results also showed an inverse relationship in biomass yields between the weeds and established grasses across the three phenological stages. These results strongly suggest that selective weeding of rehabilitated semi-arid environments is critical for the success of rehabilitation programmes in semi-arid Kenya.

  7. Baby, P.K.

    Environmental amenities and other site specific characteristics can affect the price and productivity of residential property in a variety of ways. An analysis of the demand for air quality in Cochin industrial agglomeration in India is presented using the survey data from 600 households. Hedonic property value model is used to identify and monetarize the benefits in the value of residential property due to an improvement in air quality. Incorporating a number of structural, neighborhood, environmental and socio economic variables as the determinants of the consumer's willingness to pay for reduced air quality, it is hypothesized that the major environmental variable SO2 was inversely related to the residential property values. Estimated implicit prices for different sites in different locations correspond to the individual willingness to pay (WTP) for a marginal unit of environmental good purchased. Adopting a two-stage estimation procedure to estimate these relationships, it is found that, on an average, an increase in the level of SO2 reduced property prices in the study area by 0.45 percent. Estimates further revealed that the households are willing to pay an additional amount of 1.48 percent for a reduction in SO2.

  8. Rugmini Radhakrishnan, S, Ayisha Begum, A and Sharmila Sri, S

    Chitosan a biopolymer membrane prepared by solution casting method was cross-linked with 0.1, 0.5, and 0.7 M H2SO4.The structural properties were characterized by FTIR and XRD and the results showed protonation of the NH2 groups by H2SO4 and the cross-linking decreased the crystallinity of the chitosan membrane.

  9. Asheesh Shanker, Ruchi Jain, Amit. R. Rupani, Anushree Mukerji and Tanushree Tiwari

    The recent proliferation and the availability of the complete sequence information of the pathogenic fungi has made it possible to carry out the in silico subtractive genome analysis for identification of novel putative drug targets. In this present study subtractive genomic approach is employed to identify novel targets in Ascomycete (Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus nidulans, Gibberella zeae, Ashbya gossypii) and Basidiomycete species (Cryptococcus neoformans). These fungal species act as plant and animal pathogens. Our study reveals that 52 common core proteins are found in the 5 fungal pathogens of our interest from whole proteome comparisons. Further homolog identification was performed against plants and animals using BLASTp and tBLASTn. 17 out of 52 proteins gave considerable results. Unlike all the proteins, C6 transcription factor (XP_753029.1) was found to have no homolog (hits) in plants and animals. In the later step cellular localization of those 17 proteins was found using CELLO v.2.5. The results show that among those 17 proteins, 3 were nuclear proteins, 7 were cytoplasmic proteins, 5 were mitochondrial proteins & 2 were membrane proteins. Membrane proteins were considered for further analysis as they represent the largest group (70%) of effective drug targets. It was found that C6 transcription factor (XP_753029.1) was identified as a membrane protein. Homolog identification and cellular localization prediction results render C6 transcription factor (XP_753029.1) as promising putative drug target as it was involved in unique biochemical pathways in all the 5 fungal pathogens considered for the study and not present in animal or plant host. Molecular Modeling & further screening of the functional inhibitors against these novel targets may result in discovery of novel broad spectrum anti fungal therapy.

  10. Binesh, A, Mohammadi, S., Mowlavi, A and Parvaresh, P

    In this study, we have measured the radon and radium concentration in the more than 200 drinkable water sample collected around of Mashhad, specially the religion tourist sites like Khajeh Rabie, Khajeh Abasalt, Khajeh Morad Temples, Ferdowsi tomb, Torghabe, Trogh and Shandiz tourist tawns. The result shows that there is a significant correlation between radon and radium of water samples. The Radon is a liner function of the radium with a good liner correlation coefficient of 0.907.

  11. Alireza Binesh, S. Mohammadi, A. Mowlavi and P. Parvaresh

    Radon and its radioactive progenies in indoor places are recognized as the main sources of public exposure from the natural radioactive sources. The tap water used for drinking and other household uses can increase the indoor radon level. In the present research data on radon concentrations in the water samples of Mashhad city has provided. Water samples were collected from various places and supplies of public water used in Mashhad. Then radon concentration has been measured by PRASSI system tree times for each sample in this research. Result shows about 75% of water samples have radon concentration gather than 10Bq/L which advised EPA as a normal level. According to measurements data, the mean radon concentration of all samples was 16.238 ± 9.322 Bq/L. The annual mean effective dose in stomach and long are 42.674 ± 24.525 and 45.305 ± 26.037 μSv/y, respectively, per person of Mashhad population which is more then 4 millions people. Results show about 75% of water samples have radon concentration gather than 10Bq/L as advised of EPA normal level. The radon and radium concentrations in drinking water samples actually used by people in Mashhad in some regions are not low enough and below the EPA proposed limits. Since a main section of radon come in body is due to drinking and household water, and for improvement of the social health level, we suggest using the low radon level water source, or public water supplies authority reducing the radon in the drinkable water before using by people.

  12. Jothi, K., Suresh Kumar, K.F and Kamalakkannan, K

    There is a specific response to the specific nature of a training load. This specific response will tend to emphasize one or more of the abilities that make up fitness. These abilities are basic and respond well to training. Each exercise in training tends to develop a particular biomotor ability. The game, tennis, requires high level of speed, agility, coordination and endurance. Different training methods are being adopted by tennis players to improve their biomotor abilities. The researcher is interested to find out the effect of core board and slide board training on performance of selected biomotor abilities of tennis players. The subjects, male tennis players (N=45), from the different colleges of Chennai were randomly selected as subjects and their age ranged between 19-23 years. They were divided into three groups namely core training group, slide board training group, and control group on random basis. Pre test was conducted for all the 45 subjects on selected biomotor abilities. The experimental groups participated in respective training for a period of six weeks. The control group did not participate in any of the training programme. The post test was conducted on the above said dependent variables after a period of six weeks for all the three groups. The obtained data were subjected statistical analysis using ANOVA. The results proved the experimental groups proved that core board and slide board exercises were significantly better than control group in improving speed, coordination and endurance comparing control group. It was concluded that core board training and slide board training can be used for improving of specific biomotor abilities of tennis players.

  13. Subramani, J

    In this paper, determinant sampling scheme for estimation of a finite population mean is extended for the ratio and regression methods of estimation. The relative performance of determinant sampling along with those of the simple random and systematic sampling are assessed for certain natural populations for estimation of the finite population means through the methods of ratio and regression estimation.

  14. Yegnanarayanan, V and Thamarai Selvi, V

    Interference due to transmissions by adjacent nodes in a multi-hop wireless network can be modeled using a Unit Disc Graph (UDG). We investigate the reliability associated with using the clique number instead of the chromatic number of the UDG while computing the interference. In our extensive simulations with UDGs of random networks, we observed that the clique number and the chromatic number values were typically very close to one another and the maximum deviation was much less than the theoretical bounds. This implies very high reliability in the proposed approximation.

  15. Maruthanayagam, D. and Uma Rani, R.

    Thanks to advances in wide-area network technologies and the low cost of computing resources, Grid computing came into being and is currently an active research area. One motivation of Grid computing is to aggregate the power of widely distributed resources, and provide non-trivial services to users. To achieve this goal, an efficient Grid scheduling system is an essential part of the Grid. Rather than covering the whole Grid scheduling area, this survey provides a review of the subject mainly from the perspective of scheduling algorithms. In this review, the challenges for Grid scheduling are identified. The various Grid scheduling algorithms such as Static, Dynamic, Ant Colony, Multi objective Evolutionary algorithms, Simulated Annealing, Taboo search and Genetic algorithms are discussed from different points of view. Their merits and demerits are pointed out and some general issues worthy of further exploration are proposed Algorithms, Simulated Annealing, Taboo search and Genetic algorithms are discussed from different points of view.

  16. Nirmala, J.R. and Sugantha Ezhil Mary, E

    Communication is the basic attribute of human life and language is the main tool of human communication. English became the language of international communication or international language. English is playing a vital role in political, social, educational, and economic concerns of the nations. Teachers in communicative classrooms will find themselves talking less and listening more--becoming active facilitators of their students. At present, in some places it has evolved into CALI or Computer Assisted Language Learning. Both CALI and CALL have not been adopted widely due to the obvious constraints of finance and the typically Indian mindset that learning cannot take place without the presence of a human teacher.

  17. Saravanan, M.S and Rama Sree, R.J.

    The main operations in hospitals are trying to maintain their process in the progressive manner that is healthcare sectors are try to streamline their processes. In order to do so, it is essential to have an accurate view of the care flows under consideration. In this paper, we apply process mining techniques to obtain meaningful knowledge about these flows, e.g., to discover typical paths followed by particular groups of symptoms that create a disease of a patient. This is a non-trivial task given the dynamic nature of healthcare processes. The paper demonstrates the applicability of process mining using a real case of a patient affected by a disease in a hospital. Using a variety of process mining techniques, we analyzed the healthcare process using three different algorithms (1) α-algorithm (2) Heuristics Miner algorithm and (3) Damped Working Set (DWS) algorithm. In order to do so we extracted relevant event logs from the hospital information system and analyzed these logs using the ProM framework. This paper only deals about control flow perspective of the healthcare processes. Therefore the results show that process mining can be used to provide new insights that facilitate the improvement of existing treatment system.

  18. Md. Kamal Hossain, Dhiman Halder, Md Nazrul Islam Mondal and Md. Nuruzzaman Haque

    Objectives: The aim of this study is to investigate the direct and indirect effects of socioeconomic and demographic factors on age at death of infant and child in the slum area. Methods: Data have been collected from one hundred and twenty five ever married women from slum dwellers in Rajshahi City through a structured questionnaire. A statistical tool, path analysis has been used to find out the direct and indirect effects on age at death of infant and child. Results: The study results reveal that respondent’s age, order of birth, income, education and immunization practice for their new born babies are directly and indirectly significantly associated with age at death of infant and child. The indirect effects of family income (36.05%) has the highest impact among other characteristics (education, length of breast feeding, and immunization practice) on age at death and also these have similar results in case of birth interval (45.66%) and immunization practice (39.08%) through age. The percentage of other variables (implied effect) is higher for the immunization (50.35%). The direct effects of birth interval, age and order of birth on age at death of infant and child are 0.035, 0.879 and 0.709 respectively which implies order of birth and age of mothers’ have much impact on age at death. Conclusion: Traditional maternal education and immunization practice system are not well recommended in Bangladesh. Slum dwellers of this country are always deprived from their fundamental needs such as treatment, housing, fooding, clothing and education. Thus, the study suggests that mother’s education and awareness about infant and child death should improve in slum areas as well.

  19. Neelanjan Sen., Utpal Kumar De and Bhola Nath Ghosh

    The development in economic and social front across the states in India has not been inclusive of all categories of population and that has been highlighted in several earlier studies. The experience of the newly formed state Jharkhand is not different where women is excluded from the access to those required for the human development as well as empowering them. The primary objective of this paper is thus to understand the level of Gender Deprivation in Jharkhand. For understanding it, various socio-economic variables such as health, education etc and the extent of poverty and inequality will be considered. This paper also tries to estimate the level of poverty and inequality in this area and its relationship with an index of non-income women empowerment that may be constructed on the basis of the primary data collected on the level of education, political and social participation and participation in various other socio-economic activities. The thrust would be to see whether the level of education or the incidence of poverty has any connection with the level of women empowerment in rural Jharkhand.

  20. Akomolafe Adebayo Clement

    In this paper, inspired by a postmodern reconceptualization of truth and the deconstruction of objectivity, I critique the notion of western-inspired psychotherapy as neutral, universal, apolitical, and normative for all cultures and groups. This value-free idea of clinical praxis, I argue, would advantageously give way to understandings that re-vision the therapeutic encounter as a deeply political context – subject to the vulnerabilities of normal social interactions. Consequently, in view of increasingly credible ideas about the embeddedness of human experience, the subjectivity that must attend ‘scientific’ work, and the deconstruction of hegemonies as givens, I frame the crises currently facing orthodox psychotherapeutic praxis, and challenge its assumed superiority over local espousals of mental distress. This is done in the hope that a new space for more pluralistic forms of therapy might evolve unconstrained.

  21. Asiegbu, A.D.

    In this work a 3kVA Photovoltaic system capable of sustaining 5 campus offices has been designed, with an array of 14 panels each of 150W rating and a battery bank of 10, 200AH/12V batteries, the design is capable of sustaining power from storage to a maximum of 2 days without sunlight.

  22. Asiegbu, A.D and Menkiti, A.I

    Based on Erlang’s traffic formula, a package has been developed in C++ to simulate the size or number of circuits required in a trunk for selected and better quality grade of service(GoS). Package is useful for designing medium scale trunk networks.

  23. Okereke, V.C, Godwin-Egein, M.I. and Arinze, A.E.

    A survey was conducted from February – May 2009, to assess the level of loss due to storage rot diseases in mango at the farm and the different stages of marketing via wholesale and retail. The degree of losses due to storage rot diseases varied at the different stages of marketing. The rots were highest at the retail stage (25.9 to 57.8% at Fruit Garden market and 24.5 to 48.5% at Loco market). At the wholesale stage, the severity of the rot disease ranged from 2.0 to 3.9% at Loco market to 3.7 to 8.4% at Fruit Garden market. The rot severity at the farm stage was 1.43%. The fungi species that infected the mangoes were Aspergillus niger, Alternaria sp, Botryodiplodia theobromae and Collectrotrichum gloeosporioides. Fusarium sp, Aspergillus flavus and phoma sp were also isolated but were not associated with the mango rots. Anthrancnose caused by C. gloeosporioides and stem end rot caused by B. theobromae were the most severe at both markets.

  24. Okonkwo, Eucharia Chinyere., Amadi, Ekperechi Sabinus, Idioha, Jude Chinedu, Nworie, Okoro, Nwuzo, Agabus Chidiebube and Onwe, Juliet Chinwe

    The study determined the prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics. A total of 1,025 single and married pregnant women within the age range of 15-40 years who had no known medical risk factors for preterm labor birth were enrolled from three hospitals of tertiary, secondary and primary levels. Vaginal smear samples were collected from the pregnant women with gestational age range of 14-36 weeks. Diagnosis of trichomoniasis was predicted based on the method of cultivation in cystein peptone liver maltose (CPLM) media. The prevalence of 12.3% (126 out of 1,025) was obtained. The results also showed that when age and marital status were compared with infection, no significant difference was observed (P ≥ 0.05), but the infection was found to be dependent on literacy level, trimester and parity. Conclusively, trichomoniasis should be stressed during awareness campaign of other sexually transmitted infections (STIs), during ante-natal sessions as well as at secondary education level to educate the young girls.

  25. Balamurugan, K and Swamidoss Daniel, G.

    In this study, we analyzed the anticancer properties of luteolin in N-nitosodiethylamine induced group of rats. We found that the administration of luteolin (0.2mg) for 16 weeks to N-nitosodiethylamine induced rats provides protection against the oxidative stress caused by the carcinogen and thereby prevents hepatocellular carcinogenesis. On administration of the carcinogen, the level of lipid peroxidation elevated markedly, but it was found to be significantly reduced by luteolin administration. Besides, the antioxidant activities in serum were reduced in carcinogen administered animals, which were enhanced to normal level after luteolin treatment to N-nitrosodiethylamine induced group of rats and also this luteolin prevented the elevation of marker enzymes induced by N-nitrosodiethylamine. The bodyweight of the animals decreased and their relative liver weight increased significantly on N-nitrosodiethylamine administration when compared to control group. However, Treatment with luteolin significantly prevented the decrease of the body weight and increase in relative liver weight caused by DEN. In conclusion, these findings indicate that the compound prevent lipid peroxidation, hepatic cell damage and protect the antioxidant system in N-nitrosodiethylamine-induced hepatocellular carcinogenesis.

  26. Kachare S.V and Suryawanshi S.R

    Based on survey of Maharashtra. The present work deals with Folk medicinal plants and plant parts used on various diseases by local inhabitants in Maharahtra. Visited placed are Nanded, Mahur, Kinwat, Gokunda, Loni, Anandwadi, Parli-Vaijanath, Chakur, Degloor, Latur, Daheli, Nalwand, Bhagwati. Authors collected the traditional knowledge from local inhabitants. The information provided here is based on personal interviews of local inhabitants.

  27. Nguyen Phuoc Minh

    A new sensitive analytical approach for determination of erythromycin A in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) by a fast scanning stripping square wave voltammetry using the dropping mercury electrode (PSA-F) was developed and validated. Optimum parameters for erythromycin A quantification were: Ammonium acetate buffer 0.1 M, pH 8.0 as supporting electrolyte; acetonitrile as the solvents for disolving erythromycin standard; forward scanning; Vstart: -400 mV; Vstop: -1700 mv; Vstep: 6 mV; Vpulse: 40 mV; Tdop: 5000 ms; Velectrolide: -1100 mV; Telectrolide: 5s. Peak of erythromycin A appeared at E1/2 = -1430 mV, separated and distinguished with peaks of other antibiotics. This assay showed high recovery (> 85.07 %), high sensitivity (detection limit 0.52 µg/kg), high precision (RSD, 0.8  2.1 %), high accuracy (relative error - RE, 85.07 88.56 %) as well as excellent linearity (r2adjusted = 1.0). Simpler, reagent-saving and time-saving were other advantages of this assay method. An equivalence of analyzing results between PSA-F and LC-MS/MS could be obviously seen.

  28. Deivanayagam, C., Rajasekar, S., Asokan, S and Suganthy, K

    An attempt was made to investigate the effect of Lufenuron in liver tissue of mice, Musculus species. The sublethal dose of Lufenuron (0.1520 mg/kg) administered to mice. In the present study the level of Lipid Peroxidation (LPO), Glutathione (GSH), Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx), Catalase (CAT) and Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) were observed. Also as a liver function marker serum, Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and Alkaline phosphatase was estimated The present study suggests that the level of lipid peroxidation was increased and glutathione, catalase and superoxide dismutase were significantly decreased in the liver tissue of Lufenuron exposed mice. The liver enzymes ALT, AST and ALP were also increased in the treated animals The present study concludes that the Lufenuron damages the liver tissue of mice.

  29. Theriappan, P., Saranya Devi, K. and Dhasarathan, P.

    The development of in vitro propagation of plants holds tremendous potential for the production of high-quality plant-based medicines. Aristalochia indica is used in traditional remedy. In the present study, attempts have been made to develop a simple, reliable and reproducible protocol for micropropagation from different explants of Aristalochia indica. Shoot tip and nodal segments showed elongation without multiplication when either NAA or KIN was used in MS medium. Shoot multiplication was obtained when cytokinins like BAP was used. BAP alone also induced multiple shoots. The regenerated individual shoots were rooted in MS medium containing 1 mg dm-3 indole-3-butyric acid (IBA). Regenerated plants grew well when transferred to soil.

  30. Sekar, P., Balasundaram, A and George John.

    A study was carried out to assess the colonization of bacterial strains adherent to the upper and lower sides of the mulberry leaves, in the intestinal zones of the silkworm Bombyx mori. Upper and lower sides of one week, two week and three week old mulberry leaves were scraped aseptically and cultured in nutrient agar medium. Morphological, physiological and fermentation characteristics of the bacterial isolates were studied to identify the strains. The bacterial strains isolated were: Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis, Lactococcus lactis, Staphylococcus lactis, Enterobacter aerogenes, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Second instar larvae of Bombyx mori were segregated into three sets and each set was maintained on mulberry leaves of selected age( one, two or three week old) for 15 days and the regionwise abundance of gut bacteria was assessed. Among the intestinal zones of Bombyx mori foregut harboured more bacteria ( 5.2 to 6.2 cfu x 108 ). Identity and distribution of intestinal bacteria could establish that gut microbiota of B. mori has its origin from the phyllosphere microbes of mulberry and that the gut microbes may have definite role in the nutrition of silkworm.

  31. Thanga Mariappan, K and Vijayalakshmi, G. S

    Vermicompost appears to be generally superior to conventionally produced compost in a number of important ways; (i) Vermicompost is superior to most composts as an inoculant in the production of compost (ii) Worms have a number of other possible uses on farms, includingvalue as a high-quality animal feed (iii) Vermicomposting and vermiculture offer potential to organic farmers as sources of supplemental income. All of the above will be discussed in detail later in this document. At the same time, the reader should take note at the beginning that working with worms is a more complicated process than traditional composting: (i) It can be quicker, but to make it so generally requires more labour (ii) It requires more space because worms are surface feeders and won’t operate in material more than a meter in depth (iii) It is more vulnerable to environmental pressures, such as freezing conditions and drought (iv) Perhaps most importantly, it requires more start-up resources, either in cash (to buy the worms) or in time and labour (to grow them).

  32. Ibrahim, F.B and Ibrahim, U

    A survey on the knowledge based, location and safety provision of agrochemical dealers in Oyo state was reviewed. Survey research techniques using questionnaires was employed for the collection of data. As many Questionnaires as the numbers of dealers per zone were distributed in each of the 4 zones. Univarite analysis involving the use of simple percentage was used to analyze the data and the results were presented in different types of charts. The results showed that most of the dealers (91) did not go through any formal training, though they are aware of the hazard associated with their business but only few have sales office different from where they display and sell the chemicals, which exposed them to hazard from the smell of the chemical. Technical knowledge was also limited, critical area that required adequate knowledge was also lacking. Most of the dealers need more training on hazard classification and first aid treatment. It is therefore recommended that specialized training should be organized by the association leaderships, Agrochemical companies, Regulating Agencies and other input related agencies to improve the knowledge base of the dealers so that they can prevent hazard and give both advisory and first aid information to the end users.

  33. Neelakandan, T., Usharani, G. and Sekar, C.

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae was the cheapest strain available for the conversion of substrate. In the present study, it is used for bioethanol production from cashew apple juice. The influencing parameters that affect the production of bioethanol from cashew apple juice were optimized. Parameter optimization was done such as temperature, pH, inoculums size were studied, it was found to be pH of 4.5 temperature of 32°C and inoculum level 108 respectively. Under this optimum operating condition the maximum of yield 6.5 % bioethanol was achieved.

  34. Niraimathi Selvam, Balaji Nagarajan, Venkataramanan Nagarajan and Govindarajan Marimuthu

    The larvicidal activity of Sida acuta was evaluated against 3rd instars larvae of Anopheles subpictus and Culex tritaeniorhynchus. The crude leaf extract and active compound cryptolepine showed negligible mortality against early third instar larvae of An. subpictus and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus. The 24 h LC50 value was observed at 38.68, 50.81 mg/l and 9.98, 12.69 mg/l for crude leaf extract and active compound cryptolepine, respectively. The structure was elucidated from infrared, ultraviolet, 1H-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, 13C-NMR, and mass spectral data.

  35. Soundararajan, M and Veeraiyan, G.

    In the present study, the sub-lethal effects of arsenic on various biochemical parameters of Tilapia mossambica were studied. The fish was exposed to sub- lethal concentration of arsenic for 15 days for chronic toxicity studies. In the present study, total protein, amino acid and acetylcholinesterase, glycogen and lactic acid were observed. The present study showed the protein content was decreased and amino acid content was increased significantly and also Acetylcholinesterase was increased in the liver tissue of arsenic treated fish, Tilapia mossambica. The present study shows the level of glycogen decreased and lactic acid increased in the liver tissue of fish exposed to arsenic. These changes were concentration dependent.

  36. Asiegbu, A. D. and Ogunlaja, O. O.

    Health for all is one of the objectives of the millennium development goals. Our effort to secure a more enabling communication environment should not compromise the health of the people. This paper tries to obtain a clue to the health impact of radio frequency exposure to the general public. It therefore reports results of preliminary studies carried on radio frequency exposure level of electromagnetic energy originating from mobile telephone base station antennas in Aba, a city in south east Nigeria. Densitometric measurement of mainly CDMA 800 and GSM900 signals were performed at distances of over 10 to 100m from 8 base stations. The exposure levels obtained from these base stations were found to be well below the general public exposure limits recommended by ICNIRP. The highest recorded level from a single base station was 2.20x10-6/Wm-2 which corresponds to 4.9x10-5 % of the general public exposure limit.

  37. Senthil Kumar, N and Subburethina Bharathi, P

    The beedi industry occupies a prominent place in rural development in terms of its capacity to offer potential employment opportunities to a large number of people. For the beedi industry Tamilnadu is one of the major hub in India. It is estimated that around one million workers mostly woman and children are employed in Beedi making. It is an ardu¬ous, labour intensive task because each beedi is rolled individually. Beedi industry is almost an unorganized sector hence even the government officials finding it difficult to enforce the various legal requirements. Apart from the other legal implications the health hazards which the women employees who are rolling the beedis are enormous. This study aims to explore the level of health hazards experienced by the woman beedi rollers in Tamilnadu. A total of 388 usable responses obtained from women beedi rollers comprising from the beedi rollers concentrated districts i.e., Tirunelveli, Tuticorin, Tiruchirappalli & Vellore are used for this study. The study found that more than 70% of the beedi rollers suffered from eye, gastrointestinal and nervous problems while more than 50% of the respondents suffered from respiratory problems, mostly throat burning and cough. More than 75% of the respon¬dents faced osteological problems. From the study is it understood that the health hazards level is very high. This study proposes a framework to be implemented with the Government agencies, NGOs and Welfare organizations for the welfare of the beedi rollers.

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