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February 2011

  1. Anjan Ray Chaudhury

    Inequality measures can be classified into two broad categories, such as leftist inequality measures and rightist inequality measures. The rightist view states that equal proportional changes in all incomes leave inequality unchanged, and the leftist view of inequality states that equal absolute changes in all incomes leave inequality unchanged. These are two extreme value judgments. An intermediate position can also be taken into account which would yield an ‘intermediate’ inequality measure. In this study we develop two multidimensional between-group intermediate inequality measures based on the centrist approach to inequality which is just the middle of two extremes. We apply these measures on Indian data to assess the inequality among the social groups in the distributions of household monthly per capita consumer expenditure and educational achievement across rural and urban areas in fourteen major states.

  2. Hamid, A.A., Aiyelaagbe, O.O. and Usman, L.A.

    Essential oils have been important substances since early times. The review of its extraction methods and applications were treated in this study. These include hydrodistillation, hydrodiffusion, effleurage, steam distillation, cold pressing, solvent extraction, microwave assisted process and carbondioxide extraction. Its applications both the medicinal and therapeutics, such as aromatherapy, phytotherapy, antibacterial and antifungal uses, hypolipidemic, antitumor etc. were also reviewed.

  3. Sekar, S. and Kumar, R.

    Recently, Single-term Haar wavelet series (STHW) is introduced to overcome the difficulties in solving some singular system problems. Preliminary experiments have shown that this method is usually more efficient than the other methods. In this article, STHW is developed to approximate the solution of nonlinear Volterra-Hammerstein integral equations. The obtained discrete solutions using the STHW are found to be very accurate and are compared with the exact solutions of the nonlinear Volterra-Hammerstein integral equations. The results obtained show that STHW is more useful for solving nonlinear Volterra-Hammerstein integral equations and the solution can be obtained for any length of time.

  4. Rajendran, A. and Mansiya, C.

    During the past several decades, ground water quality has emerged as one of the most important and confronting environmental issues. In this present investigation, ground water quality of water samples collected from the wells of 10 selected places in and around pulivalam, an area located about 35km away from the Rockford city; Tiruchirappalli has been assessed using the Heber Water Quality Index-1(HWOI-I), a novel and indigenous statistical analysis. The parameters analyzed were Temperature, pH, Total Solids, Turbidity, Dissolved Oxygen, Biochemical Oxygen Demand, Fecal Coliform, and Fluoride. The total HWQI –I values, for all the samples are in the range of 40.5-53.5. These values suggest that almost all the water samples are bad in quality and not recommended for drinking and domestic uses. In addition to the total HWQI-1 values, proper attention has been paid to each individual parameter.

  5. Rajendran, A., Ramu, S. and Karthikeyan, C.

    The present research article describes the synthesis of N-Mannich bases of 3, 4-dihydropyrimidin-2 (1H)-ones (DHPMs) using Ethylene di ammonium diacetate (EDDA) as catalyst. The heterocyclic precursor DHPMs were synthesized by Bignelli reaction of aromatic aldehyde, ethyl acetoacetate and urea using ionic liquid. Three series of N-Mannich bases have been synthesized by Mannich reaction of 3, 4-dihydropyrimidin-2(1H)-one with different heterocyclic secondary amines namely morpholine, piperazine tetrahydrocarbazole, diethanolamine, imidazole and formaldehyde. The products of Mannich reactions have been characterized by elemental and spectral studies. The results indicated that the catalyst EDDA exhibited excellent catalytic activity for the Mannich condensation and better yield (with high degree of purity) under mild reaction conditions than those reactions with conventional catalyst. In conclusion the present method is a very efficient and selective protocol for Mannich condensation reactions of DHPMs (Bignelli compounds) in the presence of reversible and environmentally benign catalyst. Simple work-up procedure, solvent less condition is another advantage of this method.

  6. Moses Wesang’ula Poipoi

    Bullying in schools is one of the features of crisis in the contemporary school system. It threatens pupil’s security and quality of learning. Bullying as a disruptive behaviour has been described as a subset of aggressive behavior that involves an intention to hurt another person by a variety of means. It includes physical and verbal assault and social exclusion. The purpose of the study was to establish teachers’ and students perceptions of psycho-physiological causes of bullying among public Secondary school students in Western Province, Kenya. The study was based on Albert Bandura’s social learning theory and Kurt Lewin’s field theory of perception. A descriptive survey research design was adopted. The study population was composed of 6,354 teachers and 65,969 form two students. Stratified random sampling technique was used to select students from 213 secondary schools. Purposive sampling technique was used to select teachers. Questionnaires and in-depth interview guide was used to collect data from the respondents. A pilot study was carried out to establish the reliability and validity of the data collection instruments. Qualitative data was transcribed and reported according to emerging themes while quantitative data was analyzed using descriptive statistics such as the frequency counts, means and percentages. Inferential statistics such as the Kruskal- Wallis one- Way analysis of variance was applied. The perceived psycho-physiological causes of violent behavior were; being physically strong, having mental disturbances, and being older than the victims as third. The study recommends that: school induction programmes for newcomers be established; consistent disciplinary measures be enforced; and establishment and monitoring of anti-bullying policy in all schools be enhanced.

  7. Seetha, K.P and Vinod Kumar, S.

    The paper explores the influence of fathering and mothering dimensions of parenting on self esteem of adolescents. The study also attempted to find out the differences among parenting variables with self esteem. Variables included in the study were rejection-acceptance, carelessness-protection, neglect-indulgence, utopian expectations-realism, lenient standard-moralism, freedom-discipline, faulty role expectations-realistic role expectations and marital conflict-marital adjustment in parenting models and fathering and mothering were studied separately as psychological variables and self esteem as independent variable. A sample of 115 adolescents within the age group of 15-18 years was selected using stratified random sampling technique. One way ANOVA and post hoc tests were used for analyzing the data. Results revealed that adolescents develop their self esteem more fast in acceptance mode of mothering and rejection of fathers will adversely affect adolescent's self esteem.

  8. Yusliza Mohd.Yusoff., Ramayah, T. and Haslindar Ibrahim

    Electronic Human Resource Management (E-HRM) provides the Human Resource (HR) functions with the opportunity to create new avenues for contributing to organizational success. This study is a preliminary investigation on perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and attitude towards using E-HRM among 51 HR professionals in Malaysia. This paper also highlights areas for future research on this unique topic among the HR professionals as a whole.

  9. Soumyendra Kishore Datta and Krishna Singh

    Now- a- days the rural economy is not based solely on agriculture but relies on a diverse array of activities and enterprises. This aspect is taken account of by recent evolution of the concept of livelihood diversification as a survival strategy of rural households in developing countries and stabilize their incomes. It is now well recognised that peoples’ ability to engage in supplementary (and often better rewarding) non-agricultural activities is often governed by their relative access to a diversity of asset base. Access to this diverse form of assets is influenced by a complex web of socio- economic as well as geographical environment in the concerned region. It is notable that access to different types of assets and socio-economic factors, gives rise to differences in skill formation and income generation opportunities. In this backdrop, an analysis has been made pertaining to the issues of livelihood and diversification strategy followed by people in two very backward regions in W.B in India with different geographic and socio -economic features. Greater divergences/uniformities in socio-economic status, outlook, opportunities and push and pull factors explain significant/insignificant difference in various parameters of diversification across the study areas.

  10. Binesh, F. and Mohd A'rifin, F. A. B.

    The electric vehicle is not a recent development. In fact, the electric vehicle has been around for over 100 years, and it has an interesting history of development that continues to the present; however the widespread adoption of electric vehicles (EVs) in place of internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles in specific countries as a result of oil shock and recessions will have a significant impact on the global economy. The aim of this paper is estimating the possible effects of such shift in different aspects of economics as a whole.

  11. Ramesh, S.

    Field experiments were conducted for evaluating different organic manures on post harvest soil biology in rice during 2007 and 2008. Both the years rice was cultivated during samba season (August to January). The soil of the experimental farm is deep clay, low in available N (198 kg ha-1), medium in available P (20.9 kg ha-1) and high in available K (271.0 kg ha-1). The experiment was conducted in randomized block design and replicated thrice. It comprised of eight treatments which includes absolute control, recommend dose of nitrogen alone and in combination with different organic manures namely green manure pressmud and vermicompost. Rice cultivar CO 43 was used as test cultivar. Significant increase in microbial population of fungai, bacteria and actinomycetes were recorded in 100% RDN along with vermicompost @ 5t ha-1 over other treatments and control. Also the same treatment recorded significantly higher soil available N and K and higher organic carbon after the harvest of the crop. But higher soil available P was registered under 100% RDN along with pressmud compost @ 10 t ha-1. The least values were recorded in absolute control (no organic and chemical fertilizers).

  12. John Christy, R.

    In India, about 80 per cent of the female population live in rural areas and 86 per cent of the rural women works in agriculture and allied activities. Women provide much of the unpaid family labour to agriculture including animal husbandry. Caring animals is considered as an extension of domestic activities in Indian social system, and most of the animal husbandry activities like bringing fodder from field, chaffing the fodder, preparing feed for animals, offering water to animals, protection of animals from ticks and lice, cleaning of animals and sheds, preparation of dung cakes, milking, ghee-making and marketing of produce are performed by farmwomen. On an average, females spent about 294.41 minutes and 87.20 minutes daily for large and small ruminants keeping respectively. Imputed economic value of the time spent on animal based tasks by farm women was calculated to be Rs.70.60 and Rs.21.60 per day per household in large and small ruminants keeping respectively. Landholding did not influence the time spent by farm women for large ruminant’s care in the study area but had a positive influence on the time spent by farm women on small ruminant’s care. This measure underlines the economic importance of the functions carried out by farm women in the rural economy and in livestock farming.

  13. John Christy, R.

    Backyard poultry production is an integral component of rural economy of India. About 70% of the population living in the rural areas face the problems of unemployment/ disguised employment poverty and malnutrition. Hence this survey is planned to study constraints faced by the farmers in the desi fowl marketing. Cuddalore District of Tamil Nadu was randomly selected for the present study. Multistage random sampling technique was used to select the respondents. Relevant data were collected from the chosen respondents through personal interview using a pre-tested interview schedule. Garett's ranking technique was used to analyse the importance of the constraints in desi fowl marketing. that presence of middleman, lack of price and Lack of organized marketing facility are three most important key constraints of desi fowl marketing. Taking steps to remove these constraints would encourage more farmers to take up desi fowl production to get additional income.

  14. Vishal D. Pajankar., Sharma, S. K. and Khot, P.G.

    The probability theory of reliability has grown out of the demand of modern technology which says the probability of a system or unit giving satisfactory performance for a specific period unit specified operating condition when a system or unit does not perform satisfactorily, it said to have failed. In the study, the standby unit can work for a certain time period and come to downstate even without failure. It’s working due to some failure. This failure of the units causes the failure of the complete systems due to some unknown reasons. They studied the system and designed a model for its reliability. In this present study, we considered a system with two non-similar and non-identical units causes sudden failure due to unknown reason. This sudden failure can occur in the system, causes the total system failure. The model is analyzed various measures reliability of the system.

  15. Sameh M. Metwalley and Shawki A. Abouel-Seoud

    Continued electrification of traditionally mechanical loads, such as, power assist steering, etc. As well as the introduction of new loads, like seat heating, electric air conditions and AC power points will overburden the traditional 14 Volt power generation and distribution system. With this growing of electrical power demand in modern vehicles, a higher voltage electrical system becomes mandatory. The vehicle industry is currently pursuing a 42 volt system that selected by industry-wide research consortiums as a new standard. Although the switching to the 42 volt system will revolutionize the automotive industry but this switching can not be easily achieved in a short period due to the huge industrial infrastructure of the traditional 14 volt system. It became mandatory to study the power semiconductor switching devices that constitute the heart of modern vehicle electronics systems. However, In this paper, theoretical and practical comparative study of three semiconductor switching devices are demonstrated. The performance of these devices have been analyzed and compared from the view point of power electronics. Moreover, for completeness, a brief review of other power devices have been incorporated.

  16. Nahida Tabassum and Saima Rasool

    Adrenomedullin (AM), discovered in 1993, is a 52-amino acid vasoactive peptide with multi-functions associated with pheochromocytoma (a tumour arising from adrenal medulla). It is widely distributed in human tissues, especially in cardiovascular and endocrine tissues and is metabolized via aminopeptidase action. It has two specific receptors formed by the calcitonin-receptor-like receptor (CALCRL) and receptor activity-modifying protein (RAMP) 2 or 3 known as AM1 and AM2 receptors, respectively. In addition, it has appreciable affinity for the calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP1) receptor. At present adrenomedullin is believed to function through combinations of the CALCRL and RAMP2 complexes, as well as CGRP receptors. It is the most potent endogenous vasodilatory peptide found in the body. Its effects include increasing the tolerance of cells to oxidative stress and hypoxic injury and angiogenesis. It shows a positive influence in disorders such as hypertension, myocardial infarction, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and other cardiovascular diseases. It acts as a local regulator of bone growth and has marked beneficial effects in the host defense mechanism. It increases blood flow in the adrenal gland, causing a gradual release of catecholamines. It is expressed and accumulated in epithelial surfaces (skin, lung, genitourinary tract, digestive system and others) and body fluids (plasma, sweat, milk, saliva, amniotic fluid and others) thereby illustrating its role as an antimicrobial agent. It has a protective role during sepsis and is rendered as an attractive molecule for the treatment of septic shock.

  17. Amit R. Rupani, Biplab Bhattacharjee, Priyanka Priyadarshini

    In the field of cancer biology, the drug and their targets holds a role of paramount importance. Biological network helps in the evaluation and validation of cancer drugs and their targets. It is usually created to simplify the studies. In the present study we have created a protein-ligand interaction network where ligands and proteins are anti-inflammatory phytochemicals and cancer inducing drug targets respectively. The objective of the study was to identify the highest interacting cancer druggable target protein in the protein-ligand network and an appropriate anti-inflammatory phytochemicals against it. In order to procure the cancer inducing drug targets, we found anti-inflammatory drugs using literature survey. In total, 49 anti-inflammatory drugs were identified as the most critical. Drugbank was used to obtain the targets of all the anti inflammatory drugs collected. 35 protein targets were identified. Cancer inducing property of these targets was evaluated using Human Cancer Protein Interaction Network (HCPIN) database. 16 proteins were found to be cancer inducing proteins. We obtained structures of 11 proteins from Protein Data Bank (PDB) in the form that can be easily docked using ligands in Quantum3.3.0. These 11 proteins served as cancer inducing target proteins for our study. The anti-inflammatory phytochemicals were collected from a wide range of publishers and databases. The survey resulted in 157 anti-inflammatory phytochemicals. All these phytochemicals were subjected to multi receptor docking using Quantum3.3.0 docking software where cancer inducing drug targets served as receptors. The most suitable drug-like compounds were mapped along with the drug targets using VisANT. The protein found to take part in most inter-network interactions was Beta- Catennin 1. The phytochemicals that had the best interactions with Beta- Catennnin 1 were Chicoric acid and Digoxin. Still further investigation with respect to pharmacological and phytochemical profile of these plant derived compounds needs to be carried out to concrete evidence of their drug like behavior against Beta- Catennnin 1 induced cancer.

  18. Gayatri, R. and Ravichandran, K.

    In today’s changing and competitive work environment, stress level is increasing both in the I.T professional as well as the managers. As a result of this , more and more I.T Professional staffs are showing signs of chronic fatigue and burn out. In most cases, stress leads to reduced efficiency in even the best individuals, which in turn leads to reduced working ability. Stress is a problem in almost all the countries of the world, irrespective of whether the economy is strong or week. The stress is called the Disease of civilization stress has been called the Invisible disease. The Study revealed that Most of the Employees in a I.T organization get stress due to work performance, dictatorial management polices, irrational promotional polices and work load disproportionate to salary and favoritism. The Organizational climate influencing stress in the I.T companies are predominant.

  19. Sekar, P., Balasundaram, A, and George John

    A study was carried out to assess the health enhancement and immunomodulation in silkworm Bombyx mori reared on probiotic consortium, added as a supplement to mulberry leaves. The consortium was coated on mulberry leaves and fed to experimental animals. Third instar larvae of Bombyx mori were segregated into three sets: first set was maintained on normal mulberry leaves, second set of diseased animals also maintained with normal mulberry leaves and the third set on mulberry leaves coated with the probiotic consortium. Morphometric characters like body weight, body length and cocoon weight of the three groups were assessed. Among the three sets of Bombyx mori, probiotic supplemented animals showed maximum body weight (2.93g in IV instar, 4.5g in V instar), body length (5.8 cm in IV instar, 7.6cm in V instar) and cocoon weight (2.93g). Total blood count and differential blood count was carried out in all the three groups. Among the three sets of animals there were statistically significant variations in each type of haemocytes. Normally the major haemocyte type was granulocytes (64.8%) followed by semigranulocyte (15.4%), large granulocyte (11.5%) and hyaline cells. Under diseased condition, there was an overall increase in haemocyte-types. Prophenol oxidase activity, an index of immunity enhancement in arthropods was maximum in the probiotic supplemented silkworms. The study showed that feed supplementation with probiotic consortium had a definite role in the growth and immune enhancement of silkworm.

  20. Valarmathy, K., Gokulakrishnan, M., Amritha Bhat. K., Salma Kausar, M. and Kusumpaul

    Adsorption of a basic dye, Bismarck brown, from aqueous solutions onto acid activated corncobs was investigated. Various experiments were undertaken in a batch adsorption technique to study the effect of the process variables, which include initial pH, adsorbent dosage, initial dye concentration, particle size, temperature and agitation speed. The adsorption of Bismarck brown on to the adsorbent was found to improve with the increase in adsorbent dosage, finer the mesh size and at a neutral pH (value ranging from 6-8). It was observed that the adsorption was better with increasing temperatures and the process was endothermic with a H value of 35.698KJ/mole and the kinetics followed was first order in nature. The results showed that both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms fit the equilibrium data. Also, the results revealed that activated carbon from corncob, a waste material, proved to be an excellent low-cost sorbent.

  21. Julius M. Huho., Josephine, K.W. Ngaira and Harun O. Ogindo

    Pastoralism, which is the main source of livelihood to about 120 million pastoralists worldwide, is practiced in the drylands that are characterized by low rainfall and frequent droughts. In the semi arid and arid lands of Kenya (88% of the Kenya landmass), pastoralism accounts for 90% of the employment and 95% of the family incomes and livelihood security. It contributes to about 10% of the country’s gross domestic product (GDP) and 50% of the agricultural GDP. However, frequent droughts have threatened this important sector which offers a viable production system in the vast drylands of the country. This paper highlights on the effects of droughts on pastoralism and the coping and adaptive strategies employed by the Maasai pastoralists of northern Kenya with special reference to Mukogodo Division of the semi arid Laikipia District.

  22. John O. Shiundu, Stanley N. Mutsotso, Moses P. Wesang’ula and Matthias C. Khalumi

    There is a general consensus that education acts as a catalyst to reduced poverty, improved health and promotion of individual and community development. Although formal education has had great contribution for promotion of literacy, the shortcomings that go with it have led to the drop out in schools, increased literacy and general poverty in Kakamega, Busia and Siaya Districts respectively. It is in this regard that this study identified the role of adult education and Non Formal Education (NFE) as an alternative to addressing issues of poverty, health, illiteracy and development. Out of this, the research set out to assess and document the status of Government policy on NFE programes, the reasons for the attitudes held by the community and learners, the cultural factors, its status, knowledge, skills and values acquired for utilization in health and economic activities in the Lake Victoria region of Kenya. The study was carried out in the larger Kakamega, Busia and Siaya Districts. A descriptive survey design was used. Data was collected from the Provincial Administration (district officers ,chiefs and sub-chiefs).Others were District Adult Education Officers, Managers of adult and NFE programmes, supervisors of adult and NFE programmes, teachers, adult and NFE learners and graduates. The instruments for data collection included questionnaire, interview schedules, observation schedules, attitudinal scales, focus group discussions and document analysis for secondary data.Secondary data included statistics on enrolment for learners, examination results and teacher dynamic. These statistics were collected from the Department of Adult Education, ACCES, and NFE Centres. Data collected was then analyzed descriptively by use of frequency counts, means and percentage.The following findings were established: that the implementation of Kenya Education Sector Support Programme (KESSP) had not reached NFE centres 5 years after its implementation was commended, there are no clear management structures for NFE, enrolment in adult and NFE programmes is still low, learners with Special needs have been neglected, and cultural inhibitions were viewed as a way of life and clearly evident was the confusion in understanding of concepts in adult and Non Formal Education Programme.On the basis of the findings, it was concluded that: Adult and NFE programmes are useful in creation of awareness and promotion of individual and general community development.Consequently, the following recommendations were made on the basis of the underscored findings; that the recommendations of the Sessional paper No. 1 of 2005 should be thoroughly studied, interpreted and implemented since it provides the policy framework ; and that for the success of adult and NFE programmes, the government should employ qualified personnel with education background at all levels of its hierarchy.

  23. Kachare S.V.

    Ethnobotanical studies were carried out in rural area of Nanded and Mahur. During survey, the tribal and the rural communities were interviewed to record the information regarding their life style, tradition, culture and medicinal uses of plant species as a remote control of various diseases. Out of this number of plants used by the tribal for treatment of various ailments. 22 plants are used to treat, family planning, quick delivery, abortificient. The local names, locality and collection along with parts used and mode of administration for treatment of family planning, quick delivery and abortificient are presented here by referring Ayurvedic literature.

  24. Jagadeesan, G. and Sankar Samipillai, S.

    The aim of the present study is to investigate the effect of taurine and glutathione on mercury intoxicated liver tissue of rats, Rattus norvegicus. The rats were divided into six groups, keeping group I as a healthy control. Rats of groups II received mercuric chloride orally at the rate of 5 mg per kg body weight daily for 30 days. Group III and IV of animals received Taurine and Glutathione followed by mercuric chloride treatments. Group V and VI of animals received Taurine and Glutathione alone treatments. In the present study, cytometric measurement of liver cells and its nucleus size were observed. Due to the mercury intoxication the cell and nucleus size of hepatocytes were increased in the liver tissue. After the scheduled treatment, the mercury intoxicated rats again dosed with taurine and glutathione (5 mg per kg body weight) for 15 days respectively. The result shows that the increased size of the cell and nucleus were decreased to near normal size. Concomitant administration of taurine and glutathione were found to reduce the cell and nucleus size of liver cells is mainly due to their hepatoprotective action.

  25. Jagadeesan, G. and Sankar Samipillai, S.

    The effects of mercury on acetycholinesterase activity, Na+/K+-ATPase activity were studied in different tissues of rats. Experimental groups were control, mercury (5 mg/kg body wt. orally for 30 days). The acetycholinesterase activity, Na+/K+-ATPase activity were significantly decreased in mercury treated brain tissue. Our data indicate that mercury treatment inhibits significantly brain acetycholinesterase activity, Na+/K+-ATPase activity activity, demonstrating the prevalent mercury effect in vivo on central nervous systems. After mercury treatment taurine and glutathione given orally mercury (5.0 mg/kg body wt. orally for 15 days). The present result indicates acetycholinesterase activity, Na+/K+-ATPase activity was decreased in the brain tissue due to antidotal action of taurine and glutathione.

  26. Geethanjali, S., Manikandan, A., Poorni, K.E. and Yavana rani, P.

    Biosensors have been developed to estimate the BOD level of various pollutants. The main objective of this work is to develop a microbial biosensor which can be able to assimilate large number of biological samples and other substrates. The present study reveals that the yeast species Pichia nakasei, Hansenula anomala acted as a new alternate for BOD estimation. To develop microbial biosensor the above pure culture was mixed together in the ratio of 1:1 and immobilized on a special type of matrix and coupled under sandwich model. The constructed biosensor was connected with a BOD meter. The optimum temperature was determined and standardization was carried out using Glucose:Glutamic acid (GGA).Then the assimilation of different substrates (carbohydrate, amino acids, alcohols, organic acids, aldehydes and heavy metal ions) were analyzed. Finally BOD of different types of real samples was determined.

  27. Suresh, M.S and Prakash, V

    A new series of transition metal complexes of Mn (II), Co (II), Ni (II) and Cu (II) are synthesized from a new novel macro cyclic Schiff base ligand with four N donor atoms derived from 4-aminoantipyrine, vanillin and o-phenylenediamine. Several tools like elemental analysis, molar conductance methods, Infrared, electronic (UV-Vis), Electron spin resonance (ESR) and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopic techniques, thermo gravimetric analysis were used to investigate the chemical structure of the prepared ligand (L) and complexes. The elemental analysis data suggest the formation of 1:1 (M: L) anionic complex with formula [ML]Cl2 (M=Co(II) and [ML]SO4 (M= Mn (II), Ni (II) and Cu (II)). The higher molar conductivity values support the electrolytic nature of the complexes. The infrared spectral studies reveal that the involvement of azomethine nitrogen (-C=N) is coordinated to the metal resulted in to MN4 chromospheres. The electronic absorption spectra of the complexes suggest a square planar geometry around the central metal ion. The NMR parameters of the free ligand and its Zinc (II) complexes were also compared. The X-band ESR spectra of Copper (II) complexes were recorded and the molecular orbital coefficients like g||, g┴ ,Exchange interaction term (G), the covalence parameter (α2), K, K┴ and K2 etc., were calculated. The thermal decomposition parameters of these complexes are also studied in static air atmosphere with a heating rate of 20°C per minute which represents a single stage decomposition with metal oxides as stable residue. Antibacterial screening tests were also performed against bacteria. The comparative study of MIC values of the Schiff’s base and its metal complexes indicate that the metal complexes exhibit greater antibacterial activity than the free ligand.

  28. Shadakshari Gadigi, Vijayanath,V., Chetana. S. Gadigi., Venkatesh. M. Patil., Raju, G.M., Rajeshwari. R. Surpur and Anitha, M.R

    Leprosy continues to be a public health problem in India. Cases were selected regardless of their age, sex, religion, occupation and socio economic status. Pathological examination helps in confirming the clinical diagnosis. Clinically exact typing of leprosy is difficult and even slit-skin smear yields poor results. Majority of the cases were seen in second and third decade. Patients of both sexes were affected and it was more in males than in females. Patients from different religions were affected among these most of them belonged to Hindu religion.

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