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IJCR is following an instant policy on rejection those received papers with plagiarism rate of more than 20%. So, All of authors and contributors must check their papers before submission to making assurance of following our anti-plagiarism policies.

 

 

 

 

March 2011

  1. Kavita, G.U., Shashikala, P., Gurubasavaraj, H and Vijayanath, V

    Colorectal cancer is the most common gastrointestinal malignancy in the developed world. India is a vast country consisting of people of different customs and traditions. Hence pattern of large intestinal malignancy varies in different parts of the country. The present study of two years was undertaken to know the spectrum of tumors and tumor like lesions of the large intestine, in and around Davangere district, which is situated in the central part of Karnataka. Relevant data regarding the cases were obtained from the request forms. Large intestinal tumors constituted 0.44% of the total specimens received for histopathology. Females were more frequently affected than males and commonest location was rectum (57.78%). Majority of them showed exophytic (53.13%) growth and adenocarcinoma was the commonest malignancy (93.34%) encountered. Tumors constituted 76.27% and tumor like lesions constituted 23.72% of the total (59) specimens studied. The role of pathologist remains important in evaluation, diagnosis, grading and staging so as to help the clinician in proper management of the disease.

  2. El-Shamy, O. A. A. and Shalaby, M. N.

    The effect of three selected concentrations of the nonionic surfactant, polyoxyethylenated (23) monolaurate (I) and polyoxyethylenated (23) monostearate (II) on an artificial oil spill was studied. Surface tension measurements were used to detect the critical micelle concentration (CMC). The hydrophobic-Lypophilic balance, HLB, was calculated and the wetting Power was determined for the prepared surfactants. Gas Chromatography (GC) was used to detect the most effective surfactant as a dispersing agent; also, the pristine/phytane ratio was determined before and after treatment. The di- and poly-aromatic compounds were detected at 228 nm and 256 nm, respectively using the Ultra Violet technique (UV). The obtained results pointed out that the nonionic surfactant, II, can successfully be used as a dispersing agent especially at and above its critical micelle concentrations (CMC) with efficiency more than surfactant I, which is less effective at these concentrations but it shows a good result at low concentration range (i.e. below the CMC).

  3. Akinmutimi, A. H., Eburuaja, A. S. and Assam, E. M

    The performance of broiler chickens fed variously processed African yam bean was investigated using 150 broiler chickens. They were allotted into five dietary treatments having 3 replicates and 10 birds per replicate in a completely randomized design experiment. Five iso-caloric and iso-nitrogenous diets were formulated. Diet one was soy bean based (control) while diets 2, 3, 4 and 5 contained variously processed AYB (boiled, Toasted, Dehulled after toasted and Cracked and boiled) AYB meal at 5%. At the end of experiment, 2 birds per replicate were used for carcass characteristics and organ weights (expressed as percentage dressed weight).The growth performance showed no significant (P>0.05) difference among treatment means except for mean total and daily feed intake and mortality. The dressing percentage values fall within the normal range for all treatments except diet 4. Cut parts (PDW) favoured diet 4. The feed cost analysis favoured diet 2 with N224.48 cost/kg gain as opposed to others (T1 N 227.42, T3 N 233.59, T4 N 226.50 and T5 N 246.25). Considering the growth performance, mortality, carcass characteristics, and cost per kilogram weight gain of meat, diet 2 (5% boiled AYB) performed better than the other test diets and compared favourably with the control diet. Boiled AYB is therefore recommended.

  4. Akinmutimi, A. H., Ihekoronye, C. C. and Ewa, E. U.

    The nutritive value of Taro (Colocasia esculenta) as a substitute for maize in weaner pig diets was evaluated using (1) chemical analysis (proximate, gross energy, and anti-nutritional factors). (2) Animal trial (growth performance, carcass characteristics and organ weight expressed as percentage dressed weights and feed cost estimate of the diets). Diet 1 was maize based while diets 2, 3, and 4 had maize being replaced at 13.7% (5%), 27.24% (10%), and 41.13% (15%) by taro respectively. A total of 24 weaner pigs were used and randomly allotted to four dietary treatments having three replicates and two weaner pigs per replicate in a completely randomized design. The experiment lasted for 56 days, feed and water were given ad libitum. The proximate and gross energy showed CP (5.342%), GE (3.851kcal/kg). Phytate (0.29%), Oxalate (0.54%), HCN (4.45%) and Tannin (0.063%). The growth performance favoured diet 4, followed by 3, 2 and 1 with feed conversion ratio of 0.1826, 0.1953, 0.1951 and 0.2057 respectively. The carcass characteristics and organ weight favoured T3. The feed cost estimate of diets also favoured T3 (with cost/kg weight gain of N277.43 as opposed to others in T1 (N290.40), T2 (N292.01) and T4 (N281.99). Judging from the growth performance especially feed conversion ratio (0.1953), carcass characteristics ( % dressed weight, ham %, shoulder % and belly %), comparable organ weight and highest value of economic viability especially for cost/kg weight gain N277.43 as opposed to others, T1 = N290.40, T2 = N292.07 and T4 = N287.99. T3 is therefore recommended.

  5. Aweda M. A. Edi A. A. and Kehinde M. O.

    Thermography for determination of mean weighted skin temperature and physiological energy exchange processes in sickled erythrocyte patients (SS) were studied in order to determine relevance in the management of the disease. The mean skin temperature for SS patients was 35.45 0.402 oC while for non-sickled erythrocyte subjects (AA), it was 35.06 0.128 oC (101.11 % of AA). The mean oxygen consumption rate (VO2) in SS patients (130.99 21.17 ml.s-1) was much higher than AA subjects (50.88 4.69 ml.s-1), (SS mean value was 257.45 % of AA). The mean metabolic energy exchange rate (M) in SS was 2294.87 330.95 Jh-1 while in AA subjects, it was 916.88 111.31 Jh-1 (ie. 250.29 % of AA). The mean evaporative heat loss (E) was 10414.70 116.105 Jh-1 in SS patients and 10566.90 36.45 Jh-1 for AA (98.56 % of AA). The mean convective rate of heat exchange (C) in SS was 11044.60 425.52 Jh-1 while it was 10646.20 134.92 Jh-1 in AA (103.74 % of AA). The radiative rate of heat exchange (Rr) in SS was 199175 11145.10 Jh-1 while it was 134689 3533.54 Jh-1 for AA (147.88 % of AA). The total energy balance (∆H) in SS was 225491 12729.78 Jh-1 while it was 155003 3638.68 Jh-1 for AA (145.48 % of AA). The results showed that sickled erythrocyte patients consume more oxygen and have much higher metabolic, radiative and total energy change rates than the AA subjects.

  6. Rajkumar, J.S.I, John Milton, M.C and Ambrose, T.

    A study was conducted in Ennore estuary for the assessment of the surface sediments with respect to contamination factor and through geoaccumulation index. The data analysed shows that the cadmium, copper, lead and zinc concentrations were above the low interim sediment quality guidelines of ANZECC and below the high interim sediment quality guidelines of ANZECC during post-monsoon, summer, pre-monsoon and monsoon. The surface sediments of the Ennore estuary was highly contaminated with cadmium, copper, lead and zinc. The geoaccumulation index showed that the surface sediments were moderately to extremely polluted. The concentrations of trace metals were high in station 4 followed by station 3, station 2 and station 1 especially during monsoon. The correlation with the stations was highly significant. Zinc concentrations were high followed by copper, lead and cadmium. The major sources for the contamination of the heavy metals would had controlled by anthropogenic inputs from point and non-point sources.

  7. Mary Josephine Rani A, John Milton MC, Uthiralingam M and Azhaguraj R

    The present study was carried out to determine the effects of sub-lethal concentration (96 h-LC50) of mercury (0.026ppm, 0.040ppm and 0.080ppm) and chromium (3.4ppm, 5.1ppm and 10.2ppm) for 28 days in Clarias batrachus and the protein content in the brain, gills, liver, kidney and muscle were quantified Bradford method. The levels of protein content in the liver, kidney, brain, muscle and gill showed fluctuations of decreasing and increasing trend in fishes exposed to different concentrations of mercury and chromium in a time–dose dependent manner.The protein variation in the tissues of C.batrachus were significant when exposed in mercury and chromium. The variations observed in the total protein quantified in the C.batrachus as a general indicator of pollutant induced stress response is discussed.

  8. Rajkumar, J.S.I, John Milton, M.C and Ambrose, T.

    An investigation was carried out in the Ennore creek for the assessment of heavy metal pollution pertaining to cadmium, copper, lead and zinc during January – December 2008 in all the four stations of post-monsoon, summer, pre-monsoon and monsoon. The data processed revealed that the concentrations of cadmium, copper, lead and zinc were above the permissible limits of coastal standards. The station wise levels of heavy metal concentration were in the order of station 4> station3> station 2> station 1. The seasonal variation of heavy metals observed in the Ennore estuary was maximum during summer and monsoon. Strong correlation (P<0.001, α=0.05) was found among the stations in the Ennore creek during post-monsoon, summer, pre-monsoon and monsoon. Among the stations in the Ennore estuary stations 3 and 4 were highly polluted and stations 1 and 2 was less polluted with cadmium, copper, lead and zinc.

  9. Rajkumar, J.S.I, John Milton, M.C and Ambrose, T.

    A study has been undertaken to enlighten the influence of industrial and domestic sewage on the water quality parameters during postmonsoon, summer, premonsoon and monsoon in Ennore creek. The concentrations of the water quality parameters especially the nutrients were above the permissible limits of the coastal standards. Total alkalinity, pH and dissolved oxygen were below the coastal standards. The stations 3 and 4 at the Ennore creek had contributed the ubiquitous distribution of nutrients in the creek. The monsoon season experienced chaotic concentrations of nutrients. Along the creek concentrations of nutrients and other water quality parameters could have been controlled by the anthropogenic inputs from point and non-point sources.

  10. Narasimma Pallavan, V. and Raja, M.C

    The goddesses of South India were quite often described as bloodthirsty by early missionaries and are still described as wild by many Brahmans. In this paper we study the way of worship to goddess Nithya Kalyani. The virali turmeric is viewed within the purview of Hindu religion among the women. The three sacred items (turmeric, kunkum and flower) are the women’s main adornment and the most cherished possession rather than other ornaments made of metals. The worship, offering and importance of virali turmeric is been seen.

  11. Aloysius Mom NJONG

    The objective of this paper is to investigate; first, the effects of livestock income on poverty and second, the impact of global warming on livestock farming and the way farmers adapt. Based on a 2004 household farm-climate data set generated by Global Environment Facility, Center for Environmental Economics and Policy in Africa and the World Bank we simulate the impact of livestock income on household poverty in Cameroon. Use is made of the Heckman’s two-step estimation procedure to identify the factors that influence livestock income in Cameroon. We estimate a structural Ricardian model of net livestock income which not only reveals how net income changes with climate, but also reveals how livestock farmers adjust to the changing climatic conditions. Our findings reveal that livestock income is poverty reducing. Also, livestock income is adversely affected by global warming.

  12. Moses Wesang’ula Poipoi

    Violent behaviour has become a contemporary issue in the Kenyan educational system. It is manifested in the form of rioting, sexual violence and bullying. This contributes to physical disability and poor academic performance in schools. In Western Province, cases of student violence in secondary schools have been reported in the recent years. For instance, in 2008, eight cases were reported, whereas in 2009 the number rose to over 30 cases. The purpose of the study was to establish the perceived of forms of violent behavior secondary school students in Western Province. The Objective of the study was to establish forms of violence as perceived by teachers and students. The study was based on the Social learning theory by Albert Bandura. A descriptive survey research design was adopted. The study population was composed of 6,354 teachers and 65,969 form two students. Stratified random sampling technique was used to select 364 teachers and 1,152 form two students from 213 public secondary schools. Qualitative data from interviews was transcribed and reported according to emerging themes, categories and sub-categories while quantitative data was analyzed using descriptive statistics such as the frequency counts, means and percentages. The Mann-Whitney U test was also used in data analysis. Findings of the study revealed that forms of violence were; rioting, bullying, sexual violence and fighting. Recommendations of the study were that: laws related to sexual violence be enforced; ban on caning of students should be encouraged; and an anti-bullying policy be established. It is hoped that the findings of this study may assist policy makers in formulating and implementing policies that address violence in the educational institutions.

  13. BOLA ADEKOLA

    This study tested an extended model of job satisfaction and life satisfaction, based on revised model of Life Satisfaction propounded by Daily and Near (2000). Results of regression analysis and path analysis of 379 full time Nigerian University staff, representing a national probability sample, indicated that relationship stress mediated the relationship between non-work satisfaction and life satisfaction, but that time conflict did not mediate this relationship. Job satisfaction had no direct effect on life satisfaction in this sample, and its indirect effect was mediated by non-work satisfaction.

  14. liwei Hsu

    This study is designed to establish an indicator of English communicative competence for high school students whose L1 is Chinese. Fuzzy Delphi Method is the primary methodology employed by this research. Twenty experts were invited as the participants. Delphi Method has been considered a powerful approach to apprehend experts’ collective opinions on the targeted issues. In this study, the Fuzzy Linguistic Scale replaced the traditional Likert scale for its subjectivity related to human beings’ decision-making. In terms of the instrumentation, indicators were constructed utilizing Bachman’s Model of Communicative Language Ability (CLA). In this study, two rounds of Delphi were administered and experts’ opinions were converged with some questions being deleted from the model. Results of this study indicate that vocabulary is considered as the most important part for EFL learners of Chinese to improve their communicative competence in English followed by the ability to interpret the contents and context of conversation.

  15. Jayakumaran, M. and Manoharan, C.

    After Second World War the United States of America was forced to improve the production of Quality of goods and services. Total Quality Management (TQM) concept was developed by an American W. EDWARDS DEMING. Still 1980s the Japanese only were concentrating in TQM concept where they dominated in world markets. There is a myth the use of TQM which is applicable only in Business and Industry where the production process are being made but the new concept of TQM is also applicable to Academics. Many educators strongly believe that the Deming concept provides guiding principles to make reform in educational system. Also Mr. John Joy Bonstingl, an educationalist out lines the TQM principles. Hence the authors of this paper strongly believe the TQM principles are most relevant to education.

  16. Kimani Chege, G., Mutiso, M. M., Kodero, H. M.N., and Chesire, A. M.

    This paper presents the chronology of ethnic clashes in Kenya including the 2007 post election violence. The clashes have occurred in this country since 1991 and over time both frequency and damage have escalated. The epitome was the 2007 post election violence that led to destruction of property, displacement of people from various regions as well as death. The paper has also delved into the commonly believed etiological factors, some of which include land ownership, inequalities as well as general elections’ results. The bulk of the paper’s concern was a social psychology explanation of the etiological, precipitating and motivational factors in the post election violence of 2007. The conclusion is that since a purely psychological explanation can be given for the post election violence, it is possible to come up with practical social psychology approaches to dealing with the post election violence in Kenya.

  17. Moses .Mutua. Mutiso, Michael Aiyabei Chesire, Lydia Korir Kemboi, Micah Kipchirchir Fredrick Willis Ochieng

    Stress has become an important term in everyday language, meaningful to most individuals found in industrial societies. It not only describes a range of “pains and aches” or as Cartwright and Cooper (1997:1) puts it ‘a vague yet often a sense of disquiet’, but a legitimate concern in our modern way of life. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the factors that contribute to stress among child care givers in Kenya especially in children Homes in Eldoret. A descriptive research design was adopted. Under it, survey method was used to solicit information. Data was collected using questionnaires. The sampling procedure adopted in this study was purposive, proportionate and systematic random sampling. Data collected was analyzed using descriptive statistics. Output was presented in the form of pie charts, graphs and frequency tables. The salient findings were that stress is inevitable at the place of work. Job satisfaction, fatigue, low productivity, headache and tension are the effects of stress experienced by the staff; task demand, organizational structure, organizational leadership and role demand are organizational factors contributing to stress among child care givers; economic problems was an individual factor contributing to stress among child care takers in children’s homes while economic and political uncertainties are environmental factors contributing to stress among staff in children homes. The study recommended that staff be trained on ways of coping with stress, staff to be given payment which is worth work done and that the government to fund the children homes to some extent to ensure its sustenance.

  18. Visalakshi Rajeswari and Sarasvathi, V

    Injuries are a major public health problem in India which also has a definitive causative pattern and mechanism. Every year, injuries contribute to a significant number of deaths, disabilities, amputations, disfigurement, pain, suffering and agony. Identifying issues and problems in the occupational health of women remains a challenge. Any accident/injury to the hand or leg which throws a prospect of decreased efficiency in the present occupation and hinder in other types of work must be considered serious. Injuries due to occupational accidents lead to serious consequences in terms of both clinical courses and economic losses. The causes of injuries can be road traffic injuries, occupational injuries, fire-related injuries, fall, domestic injuries, and violence. The impact of injuries on the general well being is reflected in terms of economic, social, psychological, physiological distresses in the victim .This in turn will reflect as the performance limitation in both the occupational and domestic settings. Absence of emergency and trauma care, inadequate care combined with various dangerous home remedies aggravate injuries and complications, especially in rural areas. Rehabilitation forms an integral part of overall trauma care. Low-cost walking-aid equipment as prosthesis with ergonomic perspective should be readily available for use in community centres. Ergonomic intervention to induce confidence in their life styles should also be attempted. Appropriate use of these techniques along with social support systems for employment, education and home care would be of help to many disabled persons and help to improve their quality of life. This paper presents the findings of a micro level study conducted on a sample of injured women in Coimbatore city.

  19. Binesh, F. and Mohd A'rifin, F. A. B.

    The electric vehicle is not a recent development. In fact, the electric vehicle has been around for over 100 years, and it has an interesting history of development that continues to the present; however the widespread adoption of electric vehicles (EVs) in place of internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles in specific countries as a result of oil shock and recessions will have a significant impact on the global economy. The aim of this paper is estimating the possible effects of such shift in different aspects of economics as a whole.

  20. Arun Vasantha Geethan, K and Jose, S

    The reliability of electronic assemblies is highly dependent on the quality of solder joints, and the latter’s response to temperature excursions. Finite element modeling (FEM) has been widely used for the estimation of the lifetime of solder joints subjected to temperature cycling. Thanks to the expertise of decades, a significant number of companies, universities and research institutes were able to have a relatively accurate estimation of life time for SnPb solder. For the lead-free solder materials, first attempts for correlation models show up but there are several problems. First of all, there is a wide range of alloys and alloy compositions, which have a different material behavior (E-modulus, CTE) but also a different resistance to thermal fatigue. Second, it is shown in several papers that lead-free solders have different failure modes compared to SnPb. In particular at low temperatures (-20°C, 50°C), some lead-free materials show brittle behavior and this is not covered by the current simulation models based on creep fatigue at high temperature. Experiments show that the trends in lead-free solder joint reliability are cycling-condition and package dependent. In this paper, the simulation results for commonly used solder alloys are presented and the thermal fatigue reliability of lead-free solder joints has been investigated. An isothermal fatigue test method was used in this study to improve the efficiency of fatigue study, and two different lead-free solder alloys, Sn-Ag-Cu, Sn-Ag were investigated. It was found that the lead-free solder alloy was more reliable compared to the lead alloy and this is package dependent.

  21. Loreen Maseno

    This article investigates the options of renewal of faith by women who join New Religious movements and the option of rejection of Christian faith to follow Krishna Consciousness. It considers how women are opting to be part of New Religious movements due to discontents in leadership, decision making and a partial perspective of the human being, all of which are partly addressed in New Religious movements. The choice to join these movements as this article attempts to show is a choice on the part of women to either renew or reject the Christian faith. In so doing, women who join the African indigenous churches and the unification Church are renewing their Christian faith. This paper will also look at those who reject the Christian faith and opt for religious movements that are deeply rooted in Hindu tradition. This paper will not look into total rejection of all faith.

  22. Md. Nure Alam Siddiqi, Md. Nuruzzaman Haque and Dr. Md. Abdul Goni

    Childhood mortality remains one of the main problems in Bangladesh. Although Bangladesh has made remarkable progress in reducing mortality among under-five children over the last few years but it is still remain high. The purpose of this study is to observe the trends, differentials, and also to identify the determinants, of under-five mortality in Bangladesh. Data from Bangladesh Demographic and health Survey (BDHS)-2007 have been used. By using percentage distribution this study ascertained the differentials of under-five mortality. Also, Chi-square test has been used to identify the factors associated with under-five mortality. Cox proportional hazard model has been applied to find out the determinants of under-five mortality. The study results show that the under-five mortality is higher among children born as multiple births; children with first birth order and 7th or 7+th birth order; children with preceding birth interval less than 18 months; mother’s age at birth less than 20 years; mothers and fathers with no education; children from poor household; mother whose age at first marriage was less than 20 years; children from households without access to improved toilet facilities and improved source of drinking water. The findings of this study suggest that female education, mothers’ knowledge and awareness regarding childhood disease, treatment, immunization and access to child healthcare should be enhanced.

  23. Arun Vasantha Geethan, K and Jose, S

    The reliability of electronic assemblies is highly dependent on the quality of solder joints, and the latter’s response to temperature excursions. Finite element modeling (FEM) has been widely used for the estimation of the lifetime of solder joints subjected to temperature cycling. Thanks to the expertise of decades, a significant number of companies, universities and research institutes were able to have a relatively accurate estimation of life time for SnPb solder. For the lead-free solder materials, first attempts for correlation models show up but there are several problems. First of all, there is a wide range of alloys and alloy compositions, which have a different material behavior (E-modulus, CTE) but also a different resistance to thermal fatigue. Second, it is shown in several papers that lead-free solders have different failure modes compared to SnPb. In particular at low temperatures (-20°C, 50°C), some lead-free materials show brittle behavior and this is not covered by the current simulation models based on creep fatigue at high temperature. Experiments show that the trends in lead-free solder joint reliability are cycling-condition and package dependent. In this paper, the simulation results for commonly used solder alloys are presented and the thermal fatigue reliability of lead-free solder joints has been investigated. An isothermal fatigue test method was used in this study to improve the efficiency of fatigue study, and two different lead-free solder alloys, Sn-Ag-Cu, Sn-Ag were investigated. It was found that the lead-free solder alloy was more reliable compared to the lead alloy and this is package dependent.

  24. Brijesh P. Singh and Dhananjay Sahu

    The unpredictability of return experienced by any stock market is a pivotal factor to open out the issue which is extremely sensitive on the part of investors, regulators and policy makers in parlance. The effect of different day implies that the return is not independent. Investment opportunities can therefore turn out to be very complicated due to this abnormal behavior. The present study focuses on this type of opportunity, specifically on the analysis of the effect of different day on the return of Indian Stock Market under the influence of futures contract. In order to capture the exclusive effect of futures contracts introduction, the data on daily price of CNX-Nifty Index has been taken from June 1999 to June 2001.The findings indicate that abnormal behavior is present in the returns of the Indian Stock Market. Mean return is found maximum on Wednesday in comparison to other trading days. The difference in mean return within the trading days is statistically significant and the introduction of index futures trading does not influence the behavior of day specific positive return. The finding is fruitful particularly to small investors in relation to their decision regarding the timing of entry and exit from the financial market.

  25. Nima Sanadgol, Leyla Vafadar Ghasemi, Gholamreza Motalleb, Ehsan Sanadgol, Ali AfsharimoghadamNima Sanadgol, Leyla Vafadar Ghasemi, Gholamreza Motalleb, Ehsan Sanadgol, Ali Afsharimoghadam

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) that has been shown in recent years to have numerous potential benefits for human health. The vascular cell adhesion molecules play principal role in inflammatory diseases. Blocking the expression of these molecules or preventing their interaction with the receptors has been shown to be important in controlling various inflammatory diseases. However, the effect of CLA on endothelial cell adhesion molecules is unknown. We investigated the effects of cis-9, trans-11 Isomer of CLA on expression of intracellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), and endothelial selectin (E-selectin) in HUVECs and comparison with, linoleic acid (LA). Endothelial cells co-incubated with or without TNF-α (0.001µg/ml) in the presence of LA or CLA (100µM/L) for 16-h before assessing the expression of adhesion molecules. The expression of adhesion molecules in HUVEC was assayed by ELISA and RT-PCR technique. CLA but not LA, decreased VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 expression in both mRNA and soluble levels in TNF-α activated cells (P<0.001). Furthermore, CLA modulated mRNA concentration of E-selectin, without any effect in soluble level of this molecule (P> 0.05). While LA didn’t show significant effect on TNF-α induced expression of adhesion molecules, a progressively increasing inhibitory activity was observed, for CLA. Therefore, CLA could be used as a novel agent for controlling various pathological conditions associated with up-regulation of inflammatory adhesion molecules at least in HUVECs. The role of CLA in the modulation of inflammation in vivo requires further study.

  26. Santhi, M and Swaminathan, C

    Withania somnifera (L) Dunal popularly known as ‘Aswagandha’ has been an important herb in the Ayruvedic and indigenous medical systems for centuries in India. To validate this use, leaves of the plant was subjected to preliminary phytochemical analysis and in vitro antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis and Salmonella paratyphi B. Acetone extract demonstrated highest antibacterial activity followed by ethanol extract. Aqueous extract showed minimal antibacterial activity against most of the test bacterial pathogens. Preliminary phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of carbohydrates, glycosides, alkaloids, phytosterols, fixed oils, phenolic compounds and flavonoids in extracts. Our findings suggest that an appropriate bioactive compound may be developed from leaves of Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal as an alternate to antibiotics.

  27. Krishnamoorthi, A., Senthil Elango, P. and Selvakumar, S

    Water quality plays an important role in the survival and distribution of aquatic organisms. It is dependent on physico-chemical and nutrient parameters. The present investigation deals with the analysis of water quality of Veeranam Lake water samples were collected monthly for a period of one year from June 2009 to May 2010 at 5 sites of the lake. The physico-chemical parameters such as temperature, pH, total dissolved solids (TDS), total hardness (TH), electrical conductivity (EC), biological oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), chloride (Cl), sulphate (SO4), phosphate (PO4), gross primary productivity (GPP) and net primary productivity (NPP) were analysed. The water quality of the Veeranam lake water was within the safe limits throughout the study period which shows that this water is fit for aquaculture.

  28. Senthil Elango, P., Uthaman, M. and Muthulingam, M.

    The present study was made to investigate the effect of chromium on the histopathological study in the gill tissue of fresh water fish, Oreochromis mossambicus. The fish exposed to chromium (2 ppm) for 10 days, 20 days and 40 days. The present study shows the breakage of lamellae and separation of lamellae was noted in the gill tissue for 20 days and 40 days respectively. The present study concludes that the increasing concentration chromium damages the gill tissue of Oreochromis mossambicus.

  29. Saliu, B. K., Usman, L. A., Sani, A., Muhammad, N. O., Akolade, J. O.

    Hydrodistilled leaves of Ocimum gratissimum L. yielded 1.25% (v/w) of essential oil. Investigation of the oil by GC and GC/MS revealed that the bulk of the oil was constituted by aromatic compounds (65.17%) with eugenol (61.9%) as the most abundant compound. Other notable constituents were cis-ocimene (8.2%), germacrene D (4.4%), β-pinene (1.6%), α-farnesene (1.6%), and camphor (1.5%). Antibacterial activity of the oil on oral bacterial isolates was investigated using agar diffusion method. The oil inhibited the growth of Streptococcus mutans, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis Lactobacillus casei, Streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus salivarius, and Streptococcus pyogenes while no activity was recorded against Streptococcus viridans and Actinomyces israeli.

  30. Nazni, P. and Bhuvaneswari, J.

    A breakfast cereal is a food made from more or less processed grains often but not always eaten with the first meal of the day. Cereal flakes are cheapest source of energy and protein in human diet. For the present study the mixture of flakes such as (rice flakes, oats flakes, corn flakes and wheat flakes), groundnut and chocolate chips are selected and used to prepare Ready To Eat (RTE) breakfast bar and analyzed the physiochemical properties and nutritive value of the raw flakes and developed breakfast bar and determining the optimal levels of mixture flakes, groundnuts and chocolate chips using Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was applied for optimization, the multiple regression was used to get optimum levels and it was found that desirable values of weight (25.23g), diameter (4.12cm), width (1.15cm), calorie (423.1kcal), protein (8.65g), fat (14.14g), carbohydrate (51.4g) and over all acceptability (8.31) for a 100g was obtained with the corresponding optimum condition of 24g of mixture flakes, 11g of groundnut, 8g of chocolate chips and 48g of the rest of the breakfast bar ingredients. Hence it is concluded that RSM was used successfully to optimize the level of mixture flakes, groundnut and chocolate chips for the development of Ready to Eat (RTE) breakfast bar.

  31. Rajkokila, K.

    The buccal micronucleus cytome assay is a simple non invasive method used to assay DNA damage. It is well recognized that electromagnetic fields can affect the biological functions of living organisms at both cellular and molecular level. The potential damaging effects of electromagnetic fields and very low frequency and extremely low frequency radiation emitted by computer cathode ray tube (CRT) video display monitors (VDMs) has become a concern within the scientific community. We studied the effects of occupational exposure to VDMs in 119 occupationally exposed to VDMs and 101 unexposed control subjects matched for age and sex with no history of dental ailments were recruited. Genetic damage was assessed by examining the frequency of micronuclei in exfoliated buccal cells Buccal smears obtained from the subjects were analyzed for nuclear anomalies using the buccal cytome assay. Higher degree of karyolytic cells was observed in exposed male (KL) (13.02±0.14), and females (9.81±1.04). Smokers possessed higher nuclear anomalies than the non smokers.

  32. Sekar, P., George John., Balasundaram, A., Krishnamoorthy, R., Babunath, R and Aneez Mohamed, M.

    This study aimed to estimate the cations (calcium, potassium & sodium) in the fresh water field crab Paratelphusa hydrodromous. The sodium concentration in hepatopancreas gradually decreased are size of the crab increase and there was an inverse relationship between gonad and hepatopancreas in sodium ion concentration. In muscle and hepatopancreas the calcium ion concentration gradually decreased as size group advanced (increase). However in gonad it varied in different size groups and the variation in the calcium ion concentration is may be correlated with moulting cycle of the crab. The potassium ion concentration of P. hydroromous in selected tissues showed slight variation in different size group. However in gonad, hepatopancreas an inverse relationship was noticed.

  33. Sekar. P., George John., Balasundaram. A ., Krishnamoorthy, R., Babunath, R., and Aneez Mohamed. M

    Feeding and growth experiments were conducted with reference to three commercial feeds namely, C.P.Scampi feed, Aqua Prime+ feed, and Higashimaru Aqua Feed. The experiments provided evidences to show that C.P.Scampi feed is better than other two commercial feeds under investigation. A body weight of 746 mg/day was gained in those juveniles fed with C.P.Scampi feed, whereas Higashimaru Aqua Feed promoted growth at the rate of 540 mg/day and Aqua Prime + Feed only 296 mg/day. A similar trend was recorded with reference to increase in length (0.0166 mm / day, 0.0141 mm / day, 0.0114 mm / day, and in width 0.13 mm/day, 0.086 mm/day and 0/.064 mm/day).

  34. NIRAIMATHI, S., ANJELINA GLORIDA PARIMALA, S and GOVINDARAJAN, M

    The aim of this study was to apply a molecular protocol to detect Leptospiral canicola DNA in environmental water sam-ples. The study was carried out in a pullulated area in nagapattinam town.. A multiplex PCR method employing the primers LipL32 and 16SrRNA was used. Three out of 100 analysed samples were positive in the multiplex PCR, two were considered to have saprophytic leptospires and one had pathogenic leptospires. The results obtained supported the idea that multiplex PCR can be used to detect Leptospira spp in water samples. This method was also able to differentiate between saprophytic and pathogenic leptospires and was able to do so much more easily than conventional methodologies.

  35. Srilekha, J. and Jawahar Rani, K.

    Sales promotions have become a vital tool for marketers and its importance has been increasing significantly over the years. In India, sales promotions expenditure by various marketing companies is estimated to be Rs 5,000 crores and the emphasis on sales promotion activities by the Indian industry has increased by 500 to 600 percent during the last 3 to 5 years The growing importance of sales promotion, there has been considerable interest in the effect of sales promotion on different dimensions such as consumers’ price perceptions, brand choice, brand switching behaviour, evaluation of brand equity, and effect on brand perception and so on. One of the purposes of a consumer promotion is to elicit a direct impact on the purchase behaviour of the firm’s customers The study is based on primary data derived through sample survey using pre-tested structured instrument (questionnaire). In order to study the perception of customers on sales promotion, the researchers used fast moving consumer durables, CTV, Washing machines, refrigerator etc. customers as respondents. The instrument consisted of questions pertaining to experience in availing schemes, interest in schemes, perception about the scheme etc. The questions were framed such a way that researchers can identify whether they will recommend the scheme or not and any difference between two types of sales promotions (On Season and off season)’

  36. Pandiyan, P., Palanivel, R.M., Kannadasan, K. and Vinoth, R.

    A simple computational method (SCM) to analyze a class of (s, S) type inventory problem is developed. Under this (s, S) policy, (i) the number of units demanded where d = 1, 2… a (£ s) at successive demand epochs form a Markov chain (MC) with one step transition probability matrix (TPM) P and (ii) the replenishments are instantaneous. This method gives the algorithm for computation of stationary probabilities of inventory process, joint probability function of number of transitions and quantities of replenishments per cycle, conditional and unconditional average costs. Illustrative example for a few special cases are provided, which strengthen the applicability of the SCM to practical problems.

  37. Bakkialakshmi, S. and Menaka, T.

    By using the dyes it is now possible to confirm the structure of the complex formed between the -cyclodextrin and Rhodamine B base. The Proton NMR studies were carried out with pure dye, rhodamine B base and with 1: 1 inclusion complex of rhodamine B base and -cyclodextrin. The change in chemical shift values confirm the formation of inclusion complex of Rhodamine B base with -cyclodextrin.

  38. Loreen Maseno

    This article points out that gender violence is prevalent in present day Africa and manifest in various forms. Indeed there is an increasing number of assaults, harassment, domestic violence and sex-related violence. It proceeds to highlight some major forms of gender violence, which are both systemic and structural. Systemic violence in this article points to how various institutions, cultural beliefs and practices create a social climate where violence is not only tolerated but accepted as natural. For this reason we proceed in this paper to describe how forms of physical violence, cultural violence, economic violence, social violence, church institutional violence and psychological violence against women manifest themselves in our African context.

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