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April 2011

  1. Vasumathi, C. and Dr. Dhanapakiam, P.

    The present study was conducted for period of 11 months to investigate the water quality and physico chemical parameters in the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii culture ponds, (Control and Experiment). The prawn groups of (mean length 12.8 ± 1.1 mm and mean weight 1.2 ± 0.2 mg) were fed with two different types of artificially prepared feed Viz, in control pond (Commercial prawn feed) and in experiment pond (Probiotic feed). Water temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, NH3 and H2S were found better in trials with probiotics. Moreover, daily usage of probiotics in experiment pond was the best among trials. The best water quality was recorded in animal group fed with supplementary animal feed.

  2. Arivoli, S. and Samuel Tennyson

    The whole plant crude extracts of Citrullus colocynthis were evaluated for larvicidal, pupal deformities and adult emergence inhibition activity against vector mosquitoes viz., Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus. Dichloromethane extract was found to be effective against Culex quinquefascaitus (LC50 value of 240.36 ppm) larvae. Larval and pupal development was arrested resulting in decreased pupal transformation and adult emergence. Larval and pupal periods were prolonged with appearance of larval–pupal and pupal–adult intermediates, with an overall increase in the developmental period with respect to all three vector mosquito species. Adult emergence inhibition activity was more pronounced in Anopheles stepehensi. Hatching was delayed and its rate was reduced when compared to control and significant ovicidal activity was observed in the eggs of Anopheles stephensi. Disrupted egg shells and dechitinized body walls were observed, indicating the anti-juvenile potential of the plant extract. The growth index was considerably reduced. These results suggest the extracts of Citrullus colocynthis as a promising adult emergence inhibitor against vector mosquitoes and might be used in small volume aquatic habitats or breeding sites of limited size in and around human dwellings.

  3. Sangeetha, R. and Banumathy, V.

    Vegetables play an important role in the development of our country by improving the economic and social status of the people. Vegetables constitute an important component of a balanced diet for human. Many of the vegetables are of the nature of roughage aiding in digestion. Due to unique geographical and climatic conditions, India is endowed with a wide variety of vegetables. Cuddalore District was purposively selected since the vegetable growers are facing the problem of high commission charge and more number of middlemen. Vegetable Marketing is highly risky due to wide yield and price variation and need quick disposal because of the perishable nature of vegetables. For all these reasons, marketing system of vegetables need to be alert and pay personal attention to production and marketing aspects. The first hypothesis of the study was their exits a direct relationship between total marketing cost and the number of middlemen involved in the identified marketing channel. It was clear from the results that the total marketing cost of Tomato and Brinjal was observed as the highest in the marketing channel I .The second hypothesis of the present study was current arrivals of vegetables is an important source of information for determining the current wholesale price .The result of the regression analysis showed that there was a significant and negative relationship between current price and current market arrivals of Tomato and Brinjal. Thus, market arrivals play an important role in fixing current wholesale price rather then lagged price. The vegetable market is an unregulated market and due to the lack of organized marketing, the vegetable grower get low share for their produce. Therefore it is suggested that establishment of cooperatives in the district will go a long way in the eradication of malpractices in the marketing of vegetables.

  4. Dike, I. P and Paliniswamy. S

    Analysis of the effect of vitrification using propylene glycol on the post-thaw survival, fertilizability and chromosomal arrangement was conducted. The survival rate and the fertilization rate were assessed in frozen-thawed sheep oocytes after various storage durations employing propylene glycol as the cryoprotectant. The frequencies of chromosomal aberrations in the fertilized embryos were also assessed at various storage durations. Sheep oocytes collected from the local abattoir were vitrified in propylene glycol (5M PROH+1.5M Sucrose) using the standard technique. The oocytes were frozen for the following storage durations 24 hours, 1week and 2 weeks and were thawed and studied for their viability and fertilizability. After fertilization the intact embryos were transferred to fresh medium containing colcemid and were fixed after 48 hours. The embryos were then studied for chromosome abnormalities using Tarkowsky's drying technique. From the results it was evident that vitrification affects the viability, fertilizability and chromosome structure of the oocytes, when compared with the control group. Furthermore increasing the storage duration reduces the viability and increases the chromosome aberrations in the cells.

  5. Pradeep Kumar Singh, Feroz Ahmed Parry, Kouser Parveen, Sumati Narayan, Asima Amin and Ashis Vaidya

    Precision farming is a farming system concept which involves the development and adoption of knowledge based technical management systems with the main goal of optimizing profit. This management system will enable micro-management concepts, that are the ability to appropriately manage if it is technically and economically advantageous to manage at that level. The system will likely include the ability to vary or tailor the rate of application of all inputs such as tillage, seeds, weed, insect and disease control, cultivation and irrigation.

  6. Godwin Ramous Kwame Egbenya

    It was the intention of the study to find out the intrinsic motivation for the adoption of mobile phone technology by Ghanaian university students. As well the study was aimed at assessing the behavioral characteristics in the use of phones by the Ghanaian students. A total of 103 out of 344 respondents were purposively selected as it involved only those who owned and used phones in 2009. The data collection instrument was the questionnaire, which was self–administered. The description survey design was adopted for the study. The study came out with findings that most respondents used Nokia phones because of its quality. The most widely used service provider was MTN. Most respondents also bought their phones between GH¢40 – GH¢60 and most of the phones were bought by parents for their children (students). The most common billing system used by study participants was the prepaid system with participants recharging weekly and spending less than GH¢10 per month. The most important reason for purchasing a mobile phone was for the students to remain in easy contact with family and friends. Regarding attitudes most students considered information on their phones to be private. Most of the time the respondents put their phones on silent when they were at lectures and most could not do without a mobile phone for a day. It is advisable among other things to cut down on the number of times one recharges units to save money and also cut down on the length of time talking on phone in order to have more time for studies as students.

  7. Mang’ira Roselyne, Kitoi Andrew , MANG’IRA Solomon

    This study sought to determine the key issues that underpin the establishment of Disaster Management (DM) department for Moi university libraries. The findings are based on data collected from Moi University community. Data was collected by use of interviews, observation and document analysis. The study aimed to: find out if there are disaster cases that relate to Moi University libraries; ascertain measures that have been undertaken to curb such disasters and establish the effectiveness of those measures in curbing disaster occurrences in university libraries. This study established that university libraries are faced with several moribund disaster threats such as: fire, water, heavy storms, earthquakes, burst water reservoir and pipes, hardware failure, sabotage, student riots, and terrorist attacks. The study also established that measures that have been taken to curb disaster occurrence in university libraries have not been very effective. It recommends the establishment of disaster management policy with a budget allocation part of which the library management could use to develop a specific policy for the library.

  8. Vipul Kant Singh, Alok Kumar, R.D. Singh and K.N.S. Yadava

    Internal migration is a important element of population redistribution and equilibrium. Human mobility within the national boundary is receiving considerable attention in recent decades. The main objective of the study is to explain the changing pattern of internal migration in India over the period 1971 to 2001. Further, an attempt has been made to find out the various determinants causing the changing pattern of migration. The rate of migration among major states of India in last two decades is also worked out through transition probabilities using a stochastic model. In all the four censuses, rural-rural migration was found the dominant migration stream in India. Employment for male and marriage for female were found to be the main reasons for migration respectively. Maharashtra and Madhya Pradesh lead among all in-migrating states, while the states Utter Pradesh and Bihar occupied top place among out-migrating states.

  9. Mang’ira Roselyne, Kitoi Andrew, Barnabas Kipkorir Bett

    This paper reviews relevant literature on quality management concepts, its brief history, its applicability by profit-making institutions and how it is now finding its way into non-profit making institutions (e.g. libraries) due to current developments. Researches done have shown that incorporating quality management in today’s organisations cannot be avoided. The paper identifies common practices in libraries which are no longer relevant in today’s environment and proposes the need for re-evaluation to allow for the adaption of quality management method. This paper also explains why there is a need for a paradigm shift in today’s libraries or information units and suggests what could be done by the librarians to bring quality to information service unit. In addition, the paper highlights barriers encountered while attempting to apply quality management in information services in libraries/information units in today’s libraries.

  10. Madhusudan, JV

    The states in the north-eastern region of India show low progress in education sector compared to other states in the country. The study of scenario of education of children using the data from household survey will be instructive in highlighting the challenges in achieving the set targets of universalisation of primary education under SSA. Keeping this in mind, the paper aims to estimate the trends and study the inter-state differences in primary school attendance, enrollment and drop-out rates and to study important ‘determents of school attendance’ for the states in the North-East India. Paper uses the data from three rounds of NFHS. Background factors considered for analysis are sex of the household head, sex of the child religion, caste, type of house, availability of electricity and SLI. The children included for analyses were aged 6-10 years at the time of the interview. The analysis uses the cross tabulation and logistic regression to estimate the effect of predictor variables on educational attainment. Fluctuating trends and interstate variations have been observed in respect of GER, NER, and drop-out rates for children. Sex of the household head, sex of the child, religion, caste, type of household, availability of electricity at household and SLI remain as important determinants of schooling.

  11. Sakthivel, S and Akilandeswari, S

    The main purpose of this study is to measure and suggest remedial action to curtail the level of absenteeism and enhance performance by nurturing and cultivating good attitude and value addition among students in the College . This study conducted in a college having six semester diploma level pattern. The importance of attendance is reorganised as a prime factor in enhancing the final academic results of any institutions. Also the absenteeism is one of the major dragging factor in academic performance , but also it affects the harmony with in the institutions. This study aimed at addressing these issues through an advisory system model and effective counselling mechanism by the trained counsellors and suggest remedial measures to overcome such issues.

  12. Liwei Hsu

    This study is designed to establish an indicator of English communicative competence for high school students whose L1 is Chinese. Fuzzy Delphi Method is the primary methodology employed by this research. Twenty experts were invited as the participants. Delphi Method has been considered a powerful approach to apprehend experts’ collective opinions on the targeted issues. In this study, the Fuzzy Linguistic Scale replaced the traditional Likert scale for its subjectivity related to human beings’ decision-making. In terms of the instrumentation, indicators were constructed utilizing Bachman’s Model of Communicative Language Ability (CLA). In this study, two rounds of Delphi were administered and experts’ opinions were converged with some questions being deleted from the model. Results of this study indicate that vocabulary is considered as the most important part for EFL learners of Chinese to improve their communicative competence in English followed by the ability to interpret the contents and context of conversation.

  13. Petwal, K. C. and Jagdish Rawat

    Anti-invariant (or totally real) submanifolds of Kaehlerian manifold have been studied by Blaer, Chen, Houh, Kon, Ludden Ogiue, Okumura, Yano and others. The purpose of this paper is to study a compact n-dimensional anti-invariant submanifold immersed in n-dimensional complex projective space ( ). First section contains some preliminaries and in section two we have pursued Kaehlerian manifold of dimension 2n and constant Holomorphic sectional curvature ( , ). Also some important theorems have been investigated. In third section we have discussed the compact oriented anti-invariant submanifold and its geodesic properties and obtained some results

  14. Godwin Ramous Kwame Egbenya

    The study sought to find out what motivates people already working to still pursue academic studies such as sandwich programmes despite their high socio-economic status. In the study, the simple random sampling technique was used to select the sample of eighty-one (81) students from MEd (Management) 2002 and 2003-year groups. The data collection instrument was the questionnaire, which was self–administered. The description survey design was adopted for the study. The study found that despite socioeconomic background, respondents agreed that it was necessary to pursue further academic studies to not only benefit their knowledge, but their institutions and the country at large would also benefit as a result. Another finding of the study was that most of the respondents did not feel reduced in status considering their various positions vis–a–vis the strict adherence to university rules and regulations. The study further revealed that the respondents, irrespective of their desire to still pursue further studies, faced physical, economic and social problems. Based on these findings, stakeholders or employers are advised to encourage and educate their employees on the need to seek further academic qualification considering the numerous benefits the employees stand to gain.

  15. Aneez Mohamed, M., Sekar, P and George John

    The present research work has been carried out to analyze the physico-chemical characteristics of tannery effluent and to reduce the load of BOD and COD by the process of bioremediation using microorganisms. Among the physical chemical parameters analyzed TDS, TSS, BOD and COD were found to be very high. One bacterium, Bacillus cereus and one fungal species, Aspergillus niger were identified and isolated and used in the reduction of BOD and COD in the tannery effluent. Four different concentrations of untreated tannery effluents (control, 25, 50, 75 and 100%) were prepared. The experiment was carried out for 72 hrs (3 days). It is inferred from the results that Aspergillus niger found to be more effective in reducing BOD and COD than the bacterium, Bacillus sp. in the untreated tannery effluents.

  16. Aneez Mohamed, M., Sekar, P and George John

    The present research work has been carried out to analyze the physico-chemical characteristics of tannery effluent and to reduce the load of BOD and COD by the process of bioremediation using microorganisms. Among the physical chemical parameters analyzed TDS, TSS, BOD and COD were found to be very high. One bacterium, Bacillus cereus and one fungal species, Aspergillus niger were identified and isolated and used in the reduction of BOD and COD in the tannery effluent. Four different concentrations of untreated tannery effluents (control, 25, 50, 75 and 100%) were prepared. The experiment was carried out for 72 hrs (3 days). It is inferred from the results that Aspergillus niger found to be more effective in reducing BOD and COD than the bacterium, Bacillus sp. in the untreated tannery effluents.

  17. Savanam Chandra Sekhar and Bhaskara Rao, V.K.

    Cottonseed is considered as ‘Golden Goose’. Besides yielding wholesome oil, branded as ‘Heart Oil’, it yields other valuable by-products like linters, hulls and cottonseed extraction. However, a fairly large portion of oil and almost the entire quantity of by-products like linters, hulls are lost due to processing of cottonseed through the traditional method. It is palpable that India loses average worth about Rs. 30000 million every year due to the traditional processing of cottonseed. It is therefore, considered essential to shift from traditional to scientific processing of cottonseed in the larger interest of the Nation. This article elevates the amount of losses of valuable cottonseed by-products due to traditional processing and progress of scientific processing and provides possible remedies to curb glitches therein. Purpose: This part of research work highlights the facts about the estimated losses due to traditional processing of cottonseed and progress of scientific processing in the light of valuable cottonseed by-products. Design/methodology/approach: To make this paper more precise, the authors have adopted cottonseed processing data from different sources specifically AICOSCA Annual Reports and AICOSCA News Letters for the period 2000-01 to 2009-10 and precisely analyzed with necessary tables and charts. Findings: This article finds that 96% of the cottonseed in India is being processed simply by traditional crude method which causes huge loss average worth about Rs. 30000 million every year. Scientific processing facilitates controlling of these huge losses and make use at the larger interest of the Nation. Originality/value: This article provides useful information to the people who involved in the cottonseed processing industry with a concise analysis of progress of scientific processing of cottonseed and estimated losses due to traditional processing of cottonseed.

  18. Vibha Verma, Rimsi Saxena, Payal Garg, Swati Sharma, Priyanka Khanna and Meenu Singh

    In the present study we compared the antifungal activity of different concentrations of fenugreek germinated seeds extract to check the right concentration effective against dandruff. Two methods namely Disk diffusion method, Pour Plating and Colony Counting method were used. Our study demonstrated that the extract 0.035g/ml (1ml of extract and 3 ml of water (1:4))was found to be more effective in declining the growth of dandruff causing fungus Malassezia furfur.Concluding that,the use of fenugreek extract was functional in inhibiting the growth of microorganisms.

  19. Saradha Ramadas and Meera Mary Mathew

    Childhood obesity is one among the primary priority programes of World Health Organization and is the most serious public health challenge of the twenty first century. The problem is global and is steadily affecting many low and middle income countries, particularly in the urban settings. The present study was conducted in selected schools of Kottayam district of Kerala to explore the association of childhood obesity with socio economic status, lifestyle pattern and dietary habits. A total of 720 children both male and female were selected for the study. Of these 345 were from government school and 375 were from public schools. A well framed questionnaire was distributed to elicit details on demographic profile, life style and food consumption pattern. Based on Body Mass Index (BMI) childhood obesity was in the order of three percent each in high income and middle income and two percent in low income groups. Most of the subjects had a family history of obesity. Obese population had the habit of consuming junk foods while watching television. So it was concluded that the increasing trend of the modern day epidemic of overweight and obesity in children calls for immediate action to reduce the incidence through appropriate nutrition intervention programmes involving school children, their parents and school authorities. If immediate measures are not taken the condition can lead to serious problems beyond repair.

  20. Prashanth B Goud and M. S. Kachole

    In this report protein content and catalase (CAT) activity were used to study the effect of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) on leaf senescence in detached Pigeon pea leaves. A decrease in protein content measured as an indicator of leaf senescence, and a drop in CAT activity was observed following treatment with H2O2 in Pigeon pea detached leaves compared with control leaves. However after longer incubations CAT activity significantly increased in comparison with day 1 treatment. Protein content and CAT activity were also studied in the leaves treated by 0.025, 0.05, 0.075 and 0.1 mM H2O2. The optimal concentration of H2O2 in reducing protein content seems to be 0.075 mM, whereas concentration of 0.025, 0.05, 0.075 mM increase the CAT activity while lower and higher concentrations shown the opposite effect. The observed changes revealed that H2O2 induces oxidative stress and oxidative damage thereby leaf senescence in the detached leaves of Pigeon pea.

  21. Mary Josephine Rani A, John Milton MC, Uthiralingam M and Azhaguraj R

    The present study was carried out to determine the effects of sub-lethal concentration (96 h-LC50) of mercury (0.026ppm, 0.040ppm and 0.080ppm) and chromium (3.4ppm, 5.1ppm and 10.2ppm) for 28 days in Clarias batrachus and the protein content in the brain, gills, liver, kidney and muscle were quantified Bradford method. The levels of protein content in the liver, kidney, brain, muscle and gill showed fluctuations of decreasing and increasing trend in fishes exposed to different concentrations of mercury and chromium in a time–dose dependent manner. The protein variation in the tissues of C. batrachus were significant when exposed in mercury and chromium. The variations observed in the total protein quantified in the C. batrachus as a general indicator of pollutant induced stress response is discussed.

  22. Rajendran, R., Karthik Sundaram, S., Radhai, R., Rajapriya, P. and Balakumar, C.

    In the current study Fusarium sp., capable of producing novel pectinase was isolated from natural environment. The isolate was subjected to varying parameters of incubation conditions as time, pH, temperature and substrate concentration for optimal enzyme production. An optimal production of pectinase was observed when the culture was maintained at 27°C producing upto 40 U/ml of the enzyme. At pH 6 and at an initial substrate concentration (pectinase) of 0.5% the productivity was about 46 U/ml and 40 U/ml of pectinase enzyme respectively. At optimized conditions mass production of the enzyme was done and purified using acetone precipitation. The activity of the crude enzyme was further characterized by subjecting it to varying pH and temperature ranges. The crude enzyme was able to retain its activity well between the pH 4 and 8 respectively and at a temperature range of 48°C.

  23. Godwin Ramous Kwame Egbenya

    This study looks at the issue of “Gender and the politics of language in Ghana” It examines the extent to which the use of language depicts the “inferiority” of female and the “superiority” of the males in the country. In other words, the study intends finding out whether language is used to promote gender neutrality or encourage gender bias in the Ghanaian society. The study was conducted through a content analysis of some columns in the popular Ghanaian Daily Graphic and Ghanaian Chronicle newspapers over a period of three months. The analysis was specifically based on the issue of how language is used to relegate women to the background in the form of the usage of gender biased generic terms in the Ghanaian print media. It was found out that within the Ghanaian print media, gender neutral or inclusive generic terms were used to a very large extent as compared to the usage of gender bias or exclusive generic terms indicating a lower trend in the use of gender bias language in the country. If the suggested measures by this study such as giving equal chance to both sexes in terms of words, pictures or illustrations in the writing of textbooks or readers are carried out it would go a long way to create more gender neutrality in language usage which will help us develop.

  24. Judith S. K. Achoka, Moses Wesang’ula Poipoi, Lornah C. Nakera Sirima

    High quality teaching staffs are the cornerstone of a successful education system. Many studies have associated motivational factors to enhanced job performance, positive work values, high levels of employee motivation, and lower rates turnover and burnout. The purpose of this study was to identify motivational factors influencing public secondary school teachers’ to join the teaching profession in Busia District, Kenya. A descriptive survey design was adopted. A sample of 125 respondents was selected from a target population of 335 teachers. The study was based on a theoretical framework with key concepts derived from the works of Herzberg (1959) who reached on modification of human behaviour. Stratified random sampling was used to select 15 schools from the three divisions, simple random sampling was used to pick 110 teachers and purposive sampling was used to select 15 Head teachers from the 15 selected schools. A modified Likert Scale type of questionnaire was administered after validation. Data analysis was facilitated by use of Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). The study revealed that teachers were most satisfied with work itself and less satisfied with the interpersonal relationships, time for family, pay and least satisfied with the promotion opportunities. However, head teachers seemed to be more satisfied with taking new challenges, standards of excellence, and achievement while they are least satisfied with work it-self, training and promotion opportunities. On the other hand, teachers were most influenced to join the teaching profession by good salary, Flexible teaching programme and pressure from parents. Main recommendations include allocation of more funds to the Ministry of Education to employ more teachers, improve the methods of promotion in the teaching service so that many teachers can advance, and formulate policies for decreased work load for teachers involved in student discipline and guiding and counselling.

  25. Sylvestre, S and Pandiarajan, K

    2r,6c-Diarylpiperidin-4-one(3I-hydroxy-2I-aphthoyl)hydrazones 1-8 were screened for their in vitro antimicrobial activity against a panel of pathogenic bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Salmonella typhi, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli) and a panel of pathogenic fungai (Candida albicans, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger and Cryptococcus neoformans) by two fold serial dilution method. DMSO was used as control while drugs Cefotaxime and Miconazole were used as standard drugs for antibacterial and antifungal studies, respectively. Compounds 3, 6 and 7 are more active than the standard drug against all the tested bacterials strains. Compounds 2 and 7 are more active than the standard against all the tested fungal stains.

  26. Pandi Selvi, P. and Mahesh, K.

    The survey describes an approach for object –oriented video segmentation based on motion coherence. Using a tracking process ,2-D motion patterns are identified with an ensemble clustering approach. Particles are clustered to obtain a pixel-wise segmentation in space and time domains. The limitation of the segmentation method concerning with complex 3-D spatial motion can be solved by using reality-based 3-D models. The reality-based 3-D models are produced with range-based, image-based or CAD modeling techniques. Each 3-D model can contain different levels of geometry and need therefore to be semantically segmented and organized in different ways. Index Terms-Ensemble clustering, motion segmentation, object-based video segmentation, point tracking, video coding, reality-based 3-D models.

  27. Tholkappiya, PFU. and Padmapriya, A.

    Packet Forwarding Prioritization (PFP) in routers is one of the mechanisms commonly available to network operators. PFP can have a significant impact on the accuracy of network measurements; the performance of applications and the effectiveness of network troubleshooting procedures. we present an end-to-end approach for PFP inference and its associated tool, POPI. This is the attempt to infer router packet forwarding priority through end-to-end measurement. POPI enables users to discover such network policies through measurements of packet losses of different packet types. We evaluated our approach via statistical analysis, simulation and wide-area experimentation in PlanetLab. Besides, we compared POPI with the inference mechanisms through other metrics such as packet reordering [called out-of-order (OOO)]. OOO is unable to find many priority paths such as those implemented via traffic policing.

  28. Ahilandeswari, C. and Palanisamy, V.

    A “botnet” consists of a network of compromised computers controlled by an attacker. Here we present the design of peer-to-peer botnet with honeypot. Compared with current botnets, the proposed botnet is harder to be shut down, monitored, and hijacked. It provides robust connectivity, individualized encryption and control traffic dispersion, limited botnet exposure by each bot, and easy monitoring and recovery by its botmaster. The honeypot used here is designed in such a way that it doesn’t enable the attackers to track the data during the communication process.

  29. Kumaraswamy, Kedarnath N. S., Manu Prasad, S., Jayachandra, M.G., Mashalkar Shailendra and Vijayanath, V.

    Osteochondroma of the mandibular condyle has been found in the oral and maxillofacial region rarely. This paper describes a case of osteochondroma of the mandibular condyle in a 40-year-old man, who was referred to our service with facial asymmetry, prognathic deviation of chin, cross-bite to the contra lateral side, changes in condylar morphology, and malocclusion. Computed tomography (CT) was performed for better evaluation to the pathological conditions on the temporomandibular joint. Based on the clinical examination, patient history, and complementary examinations, the hypothesis of osteochondroma was established. Condylectomy and reconstruction with condylar prosthesis was performed using a preauricular and submandibular approach with total removal of the lesion. Post operatively the patient is symptom-free, and has normal mouth opening with no deviation in the opening pattern.

  30. Naithani, N. P. and Mala Bhatt

    The area of investigation lies in lesser and central Himalaya between Maneri and Gangnani area in the Bhagirathi valley, District Uttarkashi. Geologically the area is divided into two group of rocks viz. Garhwal group and Central crystallines separated by Main Central Thrust which is exposed near Sainj i.e. 20 kms from Uttarkashi along Uttarkashi Gangotri road. The rocks of Garhwal group are represented by quartzites, sericite quartzite’s and talc chlorite schist intruded by metabasics, whereas the Central crystallines are constituted by gneisses, schists, migmatites and amphibolites. Various geomorphological features like ridges, slopes.glacial lakes, hot springs, waterfalls, terraces and landslides were analyzed in the field and then plotted on the base map. These features are result of exogenetic forces formed mainly by fluvial, fluvio-glacial and glacial processes. Studies show that running water is responsible for erosion and denudation in low reaches in the valley side whereas the high land area and upper reaches in the valley side slope have been degraded by glacial or in part by fluvio-glacial. Geo-factor of human activities like construction of roads, tunnels, bridges and buildings and Geo –factors of environment like landslide soil erosion and rock fall are responsible for Geo-environmental hazards in the area. Attempt has been made to study three types of hazards viz. geomorphological, hydrological and anthropogenic hazards.

  31. Tapan Kumar Roy, Brijesh P. Singh and Singh, K.K.

    Contraceptive discontinuation of a couple has become a more progressive important determinant of fertility in Bangladesh. Contraceptive prevalence rate has steadily grown from 8 percent of currently married women in 1975 to 56 percent in 2007 whereas TFR has declined from 6.3 births per woman in 1975 to 2.7 births per woman in 2007. Thus, the study of contraceptive discontinuation of a couple has significant influence on fertility in Bangladesh. This study is based on calendar data extracted from the 2004 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey. Life table techniques have been employed to find out the contraceptive discontinuation rates at different durations of use and median duration of use for different methods. The result exhibits that almost half of women who initiate the use of a method discontinue it within a year and nearly two-thirds discontinue within two years. The IUD has the lowest discontinuation rates, while condom has the highest followed by injections, pills, withdrawal and periodic abstinence. Differentials in discontinuation rates have also been examined for different contraceptive methods. Multiple-decrement life table have been applied to generate net discontinuation rates for each reason in the presence of other competing reasons for discontinuation. This net discontinuation rates for each reason indicates that side effects is the major cause of discontinuation for the pill, IUD and injections among modern methods. The method related reason is the important cause for the discontinuation of traditional methods. Reason specific discontinuation varied according to different socio-demographic covariates. The study will help policy makers to understand the success and quality of the family planning program and services.

  32. Caroline Ayoti and Moses Wesang’ula Poipoi

    The study was carried out to identify the factors contributing to stress in teachers in public secondary schools in Vihiga district. The objectives of the study were: to identify the causes and effects of stress in teachers in public secondary schools in Vihiga District. The theoretical framework used in the study was adopted from the one propounded by Jerrold. The research design for the study was descriptive survey. The sample size for the study was 16 teachers. The researcher used interview schedules and questionnaires as the data collection instruments. The method of sampling that the researcher employed was stratified random sampling in order to give all divisions in Vihiga District an equal chance of selection. Descriptive statistics such as frequency counts and percentages were used. The findings of the study were that stress was caused by; heavy workload, lack of clarity of duties and responsibilities, poor management, substandard equipments and insufficient salaries. The effects of stress were: Poor relations with the students and administration, lack of unity, absenteeism, loss of motivation and teacher transfer. The recommendations of the study were: school administrators should be encouraged to embrace consultative leadership; and there is need to induct school administrators on counselling.

  33. Delecta, P.

    Work life balance has recently taken the attention of both researchers and executives. This subject interests almost everyone with a professional career. This widespread interest is partly due to its reflection on all aspects of life. For those who think that the main objective in life is to work, their career becomes the core of life. However, people have limited time and therefore have to perform many other activities other than their jobs. Without a balance between the two, many mishaps can be experienced in both. In this study work –life balance is analyzed from organizational context. This study has the potential to enable the working people to consider their stand point in terms of work –life balance and the executives to gain new perspective in order to cope with such a problem.

  34. Lakshmi, S. and Krishnamurthy, S

    The present investigation has been undertaken in order to study the Emotional Maturity of Higher Secondary Students in Coimbatore District. By using the purposive random sampling technique 220 Higher Secondary Students were selected from various schools in Coimbatore District and utilized as subjects of this study. Normative survey method was used. This study is intended to find out the levels of Emotional Maturity of Higher Secondary Students and if there is any significant difference between the selected pairs of sub-samples. Emotional Maturity scale was used to collect the data. This study reveals that the majority of Higher Secondary Students in Coimbatore District are in Emotionally Unstable condition. There exists significant difference between all the sub-samples except the age group of Higher Secondary Students. The findings of this study will be an eye opening to the researchers, curriculum practitioners and parents.

  35. Julius M. Huho

    Frequent and severe droughts are evidences of climate change in Kenya. The severe effects of droughts on rural livelihoods have prompted many studies on climate change and its effects on human activities such as farming. However, farmers practicing rain-fed agriculture in the semi arid areas of Kenya still suffer from the wrath of droughts despite the well documented research findings and recommendations. Such studies have been conducted in Central Division of the semi arid areas of Laikipia District but farmers still face faced food insecurity caused by droughts. In attempt to analyze analyze the cause of continued food insecurity in Central Division the study evaluated the planting dates for rain-fed crop farmers between 1975 and 2005 and suggested the most appropriate planting dates for the farmers in order to minimise the risk of crop failure. Using Instate Plus v 3.36 statistical software the study established that the median planting dates from the bold and cautious farmers were 6th and 16th of April respectively farmers (early planters) were 16th of March to 10th of April for the cautious farmers (late planters). The risks from replanting were higher for the cautious farmers at 26.6% than for the bold farmers at 19.4%. The most appropriate time for planting in Central Division was from mid March to 10th of April. The results of the study gave an insight to crop farmers in the study area on the risks of early or late season planting under the changing climate and thus make informed decisions on when to plant.

  36. Rekha, M. and Meyyappan, T.

    In this paper, the authors propose a framework for building semantic web support for intelligent search using RDF, ontology and SPARQL queries. Existing Key Word Searching yields 60% accurate results remaining 40% are unwanted results. On the other hand, getting results using RDBMS query processing is very slow. Current keyword-based search engines can’t fully capture the intrinsic richness of natural language; synonymy and polysemy. We propose a Semantic Web search technique which yields 90% accurate results. Semantic web Search employs Annotation Engine and RDF. In the proposed technique, Flat files and Sparql queries are used, which is very fast. Results produced by the proposed technique are provided.

  37. Meyyappan, T. and Srimathi, B.

    The mainstay of this paper is to avoid tremendous attack from malicious computer programs using 3-D static CAPTCHA (Completely Automated Public Turing test to tell Computers and Human Apart) mechanism has been introduced to distinguish humans and computers. Though there are many different kinds of specific implementations for CAPTCHA. It requires users to identify images. Up to now, except some research sites, commercial sites rarely use it. Specific implementation algorithms are: CAPTCHA algorithm based on real object image identification and CAPTCHA algorithm based on image similarity judgment. Draw backs of 2D:Due to the fast development of pattern recognition and artificial intelligence technology, there are increasing safety loopholes concerning traditional 2D static CAPTCHAs, resulting in that certain malicious computer programs could launch serious program attack through breaking such CAPTCHAs. The authors, in this paper propose 3-D Dynamic CAPTCHA algorithm which is not only extremely hard to crack for computer programs using multiple frames, but also easy for humans to identify.

  38. Wilson Jerine Shyni and Ganesan Kanchana

    The aim of the study was to evaluate membrane bound enzymes and lipid lowering effects of sinapic acid in normal and streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced in female wistar rats by a single intraperitoneal administration of streptozotocin (45 mg/ kg BW). Rats were divided into six groups: normal (untreated), normal + sinapic acid (15 mg/kg), normal + sinapic acid (30 mg/kg), diabetic control, diabetic + sinapic acid (15 mg/kg) and diabetic + sinapic acid (30 mg/kg). Diabetic rats exhibited increased level of plasma glucose and decreased levels of liver and muscle glycogen and membrane bound enzymes such as Na+/K+-ATPase, Ca2+-ATPase and Mg2+-ATPase. STZ also caused significant elevation in total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein cholesterol and very low density lipoprotein cholesterol with consequent reduction in high density lipoprotein cholesterol in serum. Treatment with sinapic acid for a period of 35 days restored all these parameters to near normal. The results of the present study revealed that sinapic acid possesses a potential lipid lowering effect in streptozotocin -induced diabetic rats.

  39. Ravinder Singh

    Fly ash, cow-dung ash, acacia bark ash, red soil powder and turpentine oil as post harvest grain protectants were tested for their insecticidal potency against pulse beetle (PB), attacking stored chickpea. The results revealed that fly ash at its application rate of 1.0 g per 50 g of grains showed the minimum days (5.06) to 100% mortality of released adults, minimum fecundity (0.86 eggs per grain), minimum holes (0.41 per grain), lowest number (3.14) of F1 adults emerged, maximum inhibition (78.62%) of F1 adults, minimum weight loss (9.63%) and the minimum of 2.86 days to 100% mortality of F1 adults. Fly ash and turpentine oil were the most effective at all application rates compared to other materials and the control. However, fly ash proved to be the best in managing PB infestation to lower levels followed by turpentine oil and cow-dung ash while red soil powder and Kikar (Acacia nilotica) ash were less effective and were similar to the control at their lower application rates.

  40. Hindustan Abdul Ahad., Yesupadam, P., Ramyasree, P., Suma Padmaja, B., Sravanthi, M and Guru Prakash, P.

    Hibiscus rosa-sinensis leaves are rich in mucilage. But there are no reports on isolation and characterization of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis leaves mucilage. Hence, the present study was designed to isolate, purify and characterization of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis leaves mucilage. Hibiscus rosa-sinensis leaves mucilage was extracted, purified and identified by official methods. The isolated mucilage was characterized for physical, chemical and flow properties. The mucilage was further characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. Hibiscus rosa-sinensis leaves gave sufficient quantity of mucilage and it has good physical, chemical and flow properties. The Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopic study revealed that the mucilage has characteristic peaks. It was concluded that the Hibiscus rosa-sinensis leaves mucilage can be used as matrix forming material in pharmaceutical dosage forms.

  41. Pandi Suba, K., Arul, D., Smiline Girija, AS., Hairul Islam, V., Saravanan, S., Valli, G. and Raghuraman, R.

    The present study aims to investigate the anti-proliferative, apoptotic properties of prodigiosin, using a human oral squamous cell carcinoma HSC-2 cell line as a model system. HSC- 2 cells were cultured in the presence of prodigiosin at various concentrations (1–30µg/ml) for 48 h and the percentage of cell viability was evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The results showed that prodigiosin inhibited the cells viability in time and concentration dependent characteristics at different concentrations. We found that anti-proliferative effect of prodigiosin was associated with apoptosis on HSC-2 cells by determinations of DNA fragmentation, Hoechst 33258 staining, caspases activity, and TNF-α was significantly changed when compare DMSO control group. In addition, activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release increased when the cells incubated with prodigiosin at various concentrations and times. These results suggested that prodigiosin treatment inhibited proliferation and induction of apoptosis in human oral squamous cell carcinoma HSC-2.

  42. Aweda M. A., 1Meindinyo R. O. K. Gbenebitse S. O. and Ibitoye A. Z.

    Purpose: The immediate effects of whole body exposure to 2.450 GHz microwave (MW) radiation on hematological parameters. Materials and Methods: 140 adult Wistar rats were grouped into 7 of 20 rats each for the 7 hematological parameters studied. 5 from each group served as control, irradiated with vitamins C and E and without administration of vitamin. After exposures to 2.45 GHz MW, Hb, RBC, WBC, PCV, Platelet, Neutrophill and Lymphocyte counts were determined. Results: Hb reduced from 16.5 to 10.0 g/dl immediately after exposure, and the normal valued was recovered 8 weeks after. Vitamins C and E cushioned the effect and recovery of normal values attained within 2 weeks. RBC reduced from 50.0 to 41.0 x 104 cells/mm3 immediately after exposure, and the normal valued was recovered 2 weeks after. Vitamins C and E cushioned the effect and recovery of normal values within 24 hours. WBC reduced from 6880.0 to 4000.0 x 106 cells/mm3 immediately after exposure, and the normal valued was recovered a week after. Vitamins C and E cushioned the effect and there was no reduction at all in the values, rather there was an increase in each case. PCV reduced from 49.0% to 30.0% immediately after exposure, and the normal valued was recovered 8 weeks after. Vitamins C and E cushioned the effect and recovery of normal values within 2 weeks. Platelet counts reduced from 300.0 x 109/l to 210.0 x 109/l immediately after exposure, and did not recover the normal value within the study period. Vitamins C and E cushioned the effect and recovery of normal values within a week. Neutrophill and Lymphocyte counts were not significantly affected. Conclusion: Exposures to MW radiation affect the peripheral blood parameters that may have negative health impacts. Administration of vitamins C and E may cushion the potential deleterious heath impacts.

  43. Akinmutimi, A. H., Njaka, G. O., Archibong, I. M. and Ewa, E. U.

    The effect of different duration of boiling on nutrients composition and anti – nutrient content of African nutmeg (Monodora myristica) was investigated using proximate, Amino acid, minerals, Gross energy and anti nutritional factors. The samples were subjected to 30 minutes, 60 minutes and 90 minutes boiling. Both the raw and processed forms were later dried, milled and chemically analyzed for nutrients and anti-nutrients. There were significant (p < 0.05) differences among the treatment means. The raw seeds (T1) had the highest value of crude protein 16.88%; followed by treatment 2, 14.53%; T3, 11.74% and T4, 10.57% making treatment 2 a choice treatment among the processed forms. For micro minerals in mg/kg, T1 (Fe, 91.36; Zn, 84.36; Cu, 21.70; Mn, 306.3), T2 (Fe, 88.50; Zn, 81.70; Cu, 19.60; Mn, 296.2), T3 (Fe, 74.46; Zn, 69.72; Cu, 16.70; Mn, 279.4), T4 (Fe, 65.56; Zn, 51.36; Cu, 14.56; Mn, 263.6) and macro minerals in %, T1 (Na, 0.08; P, 0.94; Ca, 0.34; Mg, 0.34; K, 0.54;), T2 (Na, 0.07; P, 0.81; Ca, 0.30; Mg, 0.27; K, 0.48), T3 (Na, 0.06; P, 0.62; Ca, 0.22; Mg, 0.21; K, 0.40), T4 (Na, 0.03; P, 0.48, Ca, 0.17; Mg, 0.14; K, 0.28), it followed similar pattern like that of proximate and gross energy with treatment 2 having the highest value among the processed forms. Also the essential amino acid in g/100g, T1 (Isoleucine, 1.78; Leucine, 1.67; Methionine, 1.49; Valine, 1.61; Threonine, 0.69; Lysine, 0.10), T2 (Isoleucine, 1.60; leucine, 1.51, Methionine, 1.34; Valine, 1.45; Threonine, 1.15; lysine, 0.09), T3 (Isoleusine, 1.42; leucine, 1.51; Methionine, 1.19; Valine, 1.29; Threonine, 1.02; Lysine, 0.08), T4 (Isolusine, 1.24; leucine, 0.76; Methionine, 1.04; Valine, 1.13; Threonine, 0.97; Lysine, 0.71),and non essential in g/100g, T1 (Aspatate, 0.00; Phenylalanine, 1.95; Glutamate, 1.11), (Aspatate, 0.00; Phenylalanine, 1.75; Glutamate, 1.00), T3 (Aspatate, 0.00; Phenylalanine, 1.56; Glutamate, 0.89), T4 (Aspatate, 0.00; Phenylalanine, 1.36; Glutamate, 0.78), favored treatment 2, followed by 3 and 4. There were general reduction in the values of anti nutritional factors in %, T1 (Trypsin inhibitor, 31.59; Tannin, 0.30; HCN, 26.36), T2 (Trypsin inhibitor, 0.76; Tannin, 0.23; HCN, 11.65), T3 (Trypsin inhibitor, 0.00; Tannin, 0.17; HCN, 0.00), T4 ((Trypsin inhibitor, 0.00; Tannin, 0.12; HCN, 0.00), with highest reduction in treatment 4, 3, 2 and 1. Considering the highest value of crude protein, gross energy, mineral composition and highest value of both essential and non-essential amino acid and the reduction in the anti nutritional factors, Treatment 2 is recommended among others.

  44. Akinmutimi, A. H. and Essien, U. N.

    The use of dehulled velvet bean (Mucuna sloanei) in place of soy bean meal in the diets of broiler chickens was investigated. The proximate, gross energy and the anti - nutritional factors in dehulled Mucuna sloanei were chemically analyzed. Also the dietary level of inclusion of dehulled Mucuna sloanei that will give good performance was investigated using 120 one Week old broiler birds. They were randomly allotted into 4 dietary treatments having 3 replicates and 10 birds per replicate in a completely randomized design experiment. The diets were iso-caloric and iso –nitrogenous. Diet 1 was soybean based while diets 2, 3 and 4 contained 5, 7.5 and 10% dehulled Mucuna sloanei respectively. The experiment lasted for 49 days. The proximate composition particularly the crude protein (27.42%) and gross energy value (3.189Kcal/g) respectively showed that dehulled Mucuna sloanei is a potential feed ingredient .The presence of anti -nutritional factors such as L- Dopa, tannin, hydro- cyanide (HCN) and trypsin inhibitors were also confirmed. There were significant differences ((P<0.05)) for all the parameters measured except % mortality. It favoured the control diet in all parameters considered (final live weight, daily weight gain, % mortality, feed conversion ratio, % dressed weight, organ weight, and feed cost of the diets) as opposed to diets containing the test feed stuff. (Dehulled Mucuna sloanei) From the above results, soybean could not be replaced by dehulled Mucuna sloanei even at 5 %dietary level of inclusion.

  45. Akinmutimi, A. H., Edet, J. D., Okocha, C.N. and Odoemelam, V.U.

    The evaluation of toasted Mucuna sloanei meal as feed ingredient in broiler diets was carried out using growth performance, carcass quality, organ weights, anti-nutritional factors and cost implication of the diets as parameters. A total of 120 day-old Marshal broilers were used for this trial. They were allocated into four treatments having three replicates with 10 birds per replicate in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD) experiment. Four iso-caloric (2800Kcal/Kg M.E) and iso-nitrogenous (22.5% CP) diet were formulated. Diet 1 was purely soybean based diet (control diet) while the toasted Mucuna sloanei replaced soybean at varying levels of 5%, 10%, and 15% in diets 2, 3, and 4 respectively. The experiment lasted for 56 days. Proximate and gross energy composition of the toasted Mucuna sloanei crude protein of 28.96%, crude fat (5.61%), crude fibre (8.11%), Ash (4.55%), Dry matter (90.50%), NFE (28.85%) and Gross energy (3.94Kcal/g). presence of anti-nutritional factors such as L-Dopa (3.61%), Tannin (0.17%), HCN(8.27%) were confirmed. For the growth performance, control diet was superior to others with the final weight gain/bird of 1.75Kg, T2 (1.34Kg) that were significantly higher than others. Also T1 had 0% mortality and the least feed conversion ratio value (0.05). For cut-parts T2 had higher values for the prime parts such as the thigh, drumstick, back-cut and wing. While T1 had the highest value for gross margin (416.25a) as opposed to others, T2 (209.79b), T3 (14.73c), T4 (- 143.22d) making it a superior diet in terms of economics of diet. The overall results showed that the toasted Mucuena sloanei even at 5% dietary level of inclusion could not produce good performance, the need then to try other processing methods.

  46. Dechamma, H.J., Sowmya Kumar, Sathish Gaikwad, Reddy, G.R., a Banumathi and Suryanaryana, V.V.S.

    Intramuscular injection of genetic vaccines elicits high cellular immune response and comparatively less humoral response. To understand the factors contributing for immune response in vivo FMDV antigens presented through calcium phosphate nanoparticle as well as naked DNA was injected in guinea pigs and bioavailability was studied. Analysis of mRNA expression in different tissues at various points of time by RT-PCR for a period of 300 days showed that the DNA vaccine presented through calcium phosphate nanoparticle produced transcripts up to 240 days whereas, naked DNA injected animals showed mRNA transcripts up to 120 days. FMDV specific antibodies sustained longer duration in nanoparticle delivered animals than naked DNA injected animals. Also the histopathology analysis of the injected muscle showed no major pathological lesions in both nanoparticle as well as naked DNA injected muscle tissue.

  47. Murali, R. and Sindhu, K

    A protocol for in vitro multiplication of red rose (Rosa bourboniania) was developed. Multiple shoots were induced from nodal segments and shoot tips. MS (Murashige and Skoog) medium supplemented with various combinations of BAP (6-Benzyl Amino Purine), NAA (1-Naphthylene Acetic Acid), IAA ( Indole Acetic Acid) were used to study the in vitro growth response. Culture initiation media were used for further multiplication. MS medium incorporated with 2.0 mgl-1 BAP, 30 mgl-1, Ad.SO4 (Adenine sulphate) and 3% sucrose was found to be the most suitable medium for culture initiation and multiplication. Growth regulator combinations did not seem to influence multiple shooting and further growth in this species.

  48. Dibyendu Talukdar

    Three different types of mutations affecting seed size and seed coat colour were detected in gamma ray induced M2 progeny of two grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.) cultivars, ‘Nirmal’ and ‘BioR-231’. Seed size was larger in bold-seeded mutant (BSM) line than cultivars, while normal grey-brown colour of seed coat was modified to black in black seed coat mutant (BSCM) and whitish-yellow in whitish-yellow seed coat mutant (WYSCM). The BSM and BSCM exhibited high grain yield and low seed neurotoxin (ODAP) content, whereas WYSCM showed exuberance in vegetative growth and marginal reduction in seed ODAP content. Among other agronomic desirable traits, BSM manifested erect growth habit and tolerance to seed shattering at maturity. The three mutants were true breeding for their respective traits in M3 generation. Inheritance and linkage analysis revealed digenic non-allelic control of bold seed size, while seed coat colour was governed by monogenic recessive gene with involvement of multiple alleles. Both bold-seeded and seed coat colour muations were linked with each other and also with a flower colour locus, controlling blue colouration in petals of grass pea flower.

  49. Dhenakaran, S.S. and Mathi, R

    Inspired by the great success of information retrieval (IR) style keyword search on the web, keyword search on XML has emerged recently. The difference between text database and XML database results in three new challenges: 1) Identify the user search intention, i.e., identify the XML node types that user wants to search for and search via. 2) Resolve keyword ambiguity problems: a keyword can appear as both a tag name and a text value of some node; a keyword can appear as the text values of different XML node types and carry different meanings; a keyword can appear as the tag name of different XML node types with different meanings. 3) As the search results are subtrees of the XML document, new scoring function is needed to estimate its relevance to a given query. However, existing methods cannot resolve these challenges, thus return low result quality in term of query relevance. In this paper, we propose an IR-style approach which basically utilizes the statistics of underlying XML data to address these challenges. We first propose specific guidelines that a search engine should meet in both search intention identification and relevance oriented ranking for search results. Then, based on these guidelines, we design novel formulae to identify the search for nodes and search via nodes of a query, and present a novel XML TF*IDF ranking strategy to rank the individual matches of all possible search intentions. To complement our result ranking framework, we also take the popularity into consideration for the results that have comparable relevance scores. Lastly, extensive experiments have been conducted to show the effectiveness of our approach.

  50. Meyyappan, T. and Sangeetha, A.

    Efficiency and privacy are two fundamental issues in moving object monitoring. This paper proposes a privacy-aware monitoring (PAM) framework that addresses both issues. The framework distinguishes itself from the existing work by being the first to holistically address the issues of location updating in terms of monitoring accuracy, efficiency and privacy, in particular when and how mobile clients should send location updates to the server. Based on the notions of safe region and most probable result, PAM performs location updates only when they would likely alter the query results. Furthermore, by designing various client update strategies, the framework is flexible and able to optimize accuracy, privacy or efficiency. We develop efficient query evaluation/reevaluation and safe region computation algorithms in the framework. The experimental results show that PAM substantially outperforms traditional schemes in terms of monitoring accuracy, CPU cost and scalability while achieving close-to-optimal communication cost.

  51. Bernard Shibwabo Kasamani and Ismail Ateya Lukandu

    This paper proposes a presentation-oriented virtualized approach that supports a modern process to merge existing data islands in organizations around the world that results to a merged virtual data repository. The authors explore a variety of data sources and finally present a uniform solution for the common cases. The solution consists of a transparent virtual repository that supports informational intelligence components. By using this approach we not only mask the differences in divergent data repositories but also provide a standard way to access enterprise-wide data. Security is provided through a two-tier mechanism. The result is a single database that percolates and draws data residing in incoherent repositories alongside an intelligence layer. In real-time, there is a determination of the available data repositories. In conclusion, we expect users to exploit this platform and be free to filter information based on their requirements so as to come up with an informed judgment.

  52. İbrahim ÇANKAYA, Cemal AKÜZÜM, Çetin TAN and İzzet DÖŞ

    The aim of this study is to determine the effect of cyber bullying on the distrust levels among the final year university students by considering the intermediary effect of Internet addiction. The study group comprises preservice teachers who were senior year students at the Firat University Education Faculty in Elaziğ city, Turkey during the spring term of the 20092010 academic year. Cyber bullying of preservice teachers directly impacts their distrust levels at the (.24) level. However, when Internet addiction was included in the model as a mediating variable, the direct impact of cyber bullying on distrust decreased to (.14). Therefore, it is evident that when cyber bullying is mediated by Internet addiction, its impact on the distrust levels of pre-service teachers is more significant.

  53. Seyed Mohammad Mousavi Shahroudi

    The main purpose of this study is to determine whether, with regard to the specific situation of Iran concerning the technical, financial, regulatory, cultural condition and alike, the electronic sales is possible or not; and whether it is practical to design and implement this system, considering all conditions in the country. The purpose of this study is to estimate the success or failure of the implementation of this system; hence the basic indices of such estimation include: a) Its reception from the part of people; b) Technical issues; c) Costs; d) Executive package; e) The preference of this system over the presently applied systems. The main assumption of this study is that the establishment of such systems would be needed sooner or later, and since these modern types of purchase of goods and services would be developed, the feasibility of this system has to be studied.

  54. Ladipo, M.K., Doherty, V.F. and Kanife, U.C.

    The plant species (Rhizome of Zingiber officinale and leaves of Centrosema pubescens) were tested for antimicrobial activity on four bacterial, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli and one fungi (Candida albican) of clinical importance. Paper disc assay was employed in the test. Results showed that the ethanolic extracts of both plants were active against the bacteria and the ethanolic extract of Centrosema pubescens exhibited a significant activity on Candida albicans. The phytochemical analysis carried out on Zingiber officinale and Centrosema pubescens revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, steroids, flavonoids, terponoid and cardial glycoside. The presence of these phytochemical supports the use of this plants as antimicrobial agent. The heavy metal analysis carried out revealed the presence of Manganese, Lead, Cadmium, Zinc and Chromium which are all within the maximum recommended level by WHO.

  55. Gayathri, G., Neena Ramesh and Sharmeela, C

    The increasing load growth, decreasing investments and increasing penetration of dyanamic sources and loads have severely increased the stress on the electric grid. This growing stress has forced operators and regulators to think of delivering energy in a smart, controllable and reliable way to the customers. Tie-lines connecting two systems are one of the traditional methods used by utilities to improve the system reliability. However, often specially during contingencies, tie-lines get overloaded due to the lack of power flow controllability through them. Controllable Network Transformers (CNTs) are smart assets which can be realized by augmenting existing Load Tap Changing (LTC) transformers in order to achieve power flow control. This paper proposes the design of CNT, their implementation and analysis of their performance in tie-lines to make them smart and controllable, without compromising the system reliability.

  56. Palanisamy, V. and Jeneba Mary, A.

    The Rijndael algorithm mainly consists of a symmetric block cipher that can process data blocks of 128, 192 or 256 bits by using key lengths of 128, 196 and 256 bits. This work using Rijndael cryptography symmetric algorithm for data encryption/decryption and RSA cryptography asymmetric algorithm for Rijndael key's encryption/decryption. The encryption and decryption of any data has a secure key, which is used for data encryption. For this purpose asymmetric key is used. This work securing the data key using RSA algorithm. Here RSA key size is 128-bytes. This work also generating two pairs of keys; public and private key. Using Public key it encrypts the data key and other one is public and private key pair ,which will send to other person, so that opposite person can decrypt the encrypted key using his public and private key.

  57. Shankar Lal

    The purpose of the present paper, we have studied GF-structure motivate the mathematical space of circle in one dimensional manifolds. A manifold is a mathematical space in which every point has a neighborhood which resembles Euclidean space, but in which the global structure may be more complicated. In the present paper, we have discussed the manifolds, the idea of dimension is important. For example lines are one dimensional, and planes two dimensional. In a one dimensional manifold, every point has a neighborhood that looks like a segment of a line. Examples of one manifold include a line, a circle and two separate circles. In a two manifold, every point has neighborhood that looks like a disk. Examples include a plane, the surface of a sphere, and the surface of tours. The trivial example of an n- dimensional manifold is . It is assumed that, in section one contains a brief introduction to GF-Structure of mathematical manifold and modeling of GF-structure manifold, while in section two, defines the special quadratic F-structure and proves some theorems. In section three, we have defined the mathematical modeling in one or more dimensional manifold. In section four, we discussed the motivational examples of manifold and construct the figures. In section five, we obtains the geometrical projection and define the slope of the geometrical equations with point (1, 0) and (-1, 0). In section six, we calculated the Nijenhuis tensor with GF-structure and proved some theorems .In the end; we are discussion the important role of mathematical space.

  58. Anitha, P., Jalaludeen, A., Peethambaran, P.A., Usha, P.T.A. and Leo, J.

    The study was carried out to detect the Organochlorine (pesticide) residue in foraging ducks in Kerala State of India. Thirty foraging ducks were collected from paddy fields in three foraging regions viz., Kuttanad, Palakkad and Thrissur and the organochlorine (OC) residues in their crop content and body fat were estimated using Gas Chromatography. The results shown that the samples from Kuttanad contained ά, β, γ and δ isomers of Hexachloro cyclohexane (HCH), metabolites of Dichloro Diphenyl Trichloroethane (DDT), Dicofol and ά-Endosulphan. The combined residue of these compounds accounted to 0.0018 ppm in crop content and 0.0117 ppm in fat sample. The samples from Palakkad contained ά, β, γ and δ isomers of HCH, isomers of DDT, Dicofol, ά-Endosulphan and Dieldrin. The combined residues were 0.0152 and 0.0419 ppm in the crop content and fat respectively. The samples from Thrissur showed the presence of isomers of HCH, primary derivatives of DDT and ά-Endosulphan. The combined residues in these samples were also negligible (0.0033 and 0.0077 ppm in crop and fat samples respectively). Even though the residues of many compounds present in the samples from all regions, the detected levels were well below the Maximum residue Limits (MRL) of these compounds in poultry.

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Anam Bhatti
Malaysia
Md. Amir Hossain
Bangladesh
Ahmet İPEKÇİ
Turkey
Mirzadi Gohari
Iran