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May 2011

  1. Ramadurai, M. and Ponnuraja, C.

    In survival analysis, the Cox PH model is a breakthrough in that the effects of the covariates on survival times have been studied, by fitting models using the sample data. Once a model has been fitted, there are a number of aspects of the fit of the model that need to be studied. One of the model checking procedures is based on quantities known as residuals, such as Cox-Snell residuals, Schoenfeld residuals etc. TB Meningitis is one of the diseases which mainly affect children. In this paper, the Cox PH model is fitted for TB Meningitis data collected from the Tuberculosis Research Centre, ICMR, Chennai, which consist of survival times of children along with other covariates. The fitted model is assessed for its proportionality assumption through Schoenfeld residuals.

  2. Tajul Ariffin Masron, Afizar Amir and Haslindar Ibrahim

    This paper discusses the extent of underground economy in Malaysia, with a special reference to smuggling activities in Penang. Although the impact of underground economy on developed countries could be minor but it has a serious implication on developing countries. Nonetheless, the study about underground economy is relative scarce. By focusing on the smuggling activities, this study attempts to measure the extent of underground economy in Malaysia. The data are from the confiscated and contrabands smuggled to Malaysia, but limited to cases observed in Penang. All the illegal smuggling activities are recorded from year 2004 to 2008. The results explained the trend of this version of underground economy in Malaysia from the smuggling perspective.

  3. Radha Priyadharsini, G. and Mahesh, K.

    We propose a solution to determine the optimal elastic matching of a deformable template to an image. The central idea is to cast the optimal matching of each template point to a corresponding image pixel as a problem of finding a minimum cost cyclic path in the three-dimensional product space as well as in four-dimensional product space spanned by the template and the input image. We introduce a cost functional associated with each cycle, which consists of three terms: a data fidelity term favoring strong intensity gradients, a shape consistency term favoring similarity of tangent angles of corresponding points, and an elastic penalty for stretching or shrinking. The functional is normalized with respect to the total length to avoid a bias toward shorter curves. Optimization is performed by Lawler’s Minimum Ratio Cycle algorithm parallelized on state-of-the-art graphics cards. The algorithm provides the optimal segmentation and point correspondence between template and segmented curve in computation times that are essentially linear in the number of pixels. A new approach to 4-D shape-based segmentation and tracking of multiple, deformable anatomical structures used in cardiac MR images can be implemented here. We propose to use an energy-minimizing geometrically deformable template (GDT) which can deform into similar shapes under the influence of image forces. The degree of deformation of the template from its equilibrium shape is measured by a penalty function associated with mapping between the two shapes. By minimizing this term along with the image energy terms of the classic deformable model, the deformable template is attracted towards objects in the image whose shape is similar to its equilibrium shape. This allows the simultaneous segmentation of multiple deformable objects using intra-as well as inter-shape information. Simulated Annealing (SA),a stochastic relaxation technique is used for segmentation while Iterated Conditional Modes (ICM),a deterministic relaxation technique is used for tracking.

  4. Ouma Caren

    Over the time, the profitability of the course programs should be monitored and the corresponding Organization Development Intervention (ODI) on the marketing strategies should be assessed. This study involved marketing strategy interventions on the course programs offered.The results of the study showed significant improvements in the obtained t-values. Marketing strategies on Course program operation improved with an average obtained t-value of 5.81. Marketing strategies on Leadership improved with an average obtained t-value of 5.91. Marketing strategies on Work Environment had an average t-value of 5.56. Marketing strategies on Team Work obtained an average of a t-value of 5.68. Marketing strategies on Management obtained an average of a t-value of 5.12. Marketing strategies on staff motivation obtained an average of a t-value of 6.10. The ODI helped the College to improve on its marketing strategies which assisted in the improvement of the profitability levels of the course programs.

  5. Umaru M. Zubairu, Olalekan B. Sakariyau and Chetubo K. Dauda

    Islamic banks are said to possess ethical identity because their social goals are just as important if not more important than financial goals because of the fact that they are based on religious foundations, i.e. the Islamic Shari’ah which has as its ultimate goal, the betterment of society. Islamic banks are thus expected to portray a high level of corporate social responsibility which would be evident in their social reporting practices as evidenced in their annual reports. This study replicated the Haniffa and Hudaib study by examining the social reporting practices of the Islamic Bank of Britain made through its annual reports against an ideal level of social disclosures that an Islamic bank ought to make, over the years 2005-2009. The findings revealed that at present, the Islamic Bank of Britain has much more in common with its conventional counterparts than it does with banks that are supposedly based on Shari’ah. Indeed, the core dichotomy expected between an Islamic bank and a conventional bank in relation to Islamic ethics was not clearly shown.

  6. John M. Kobia and Kaberia A. Kanini

    Children are victims of disenfranchised grief because of their age factor and the circumstances of some deaths (e.g. AIDS related deaths, suicide, criminal offences). The school is the child’s second home and thus an important grieving ground for the bereaved child. The school community interacts with the bereaved child, hence it has a role to play in the child’s grief process. At the same time, mourning process is necessary for one to cope with bereavement. During the mourning process children have grieving needs. Literature review indicates that children have a special attachment to their parents who are their main attachment figures. In Kenya, the Guidance and Counselling unit in schools is expected to take care of children’s grieving needs. Disenfranchised grief is a counselling issue children deal with. This study sought information from the bereaved children in order to establish the nature of disenfranchised grief in Kenya and how orphaned primary school pupils experience it. The study was carried out in Akithi Division, Tigania District, Kenya. Ex-post facto design was used. The study population was primary school children who had lost one or both parents as well as the Teacher Counsellors. Data was collected through questionnaires which included sentence completion and an interview schedule. The data was analysed qualitatively and quantitatively mainly through themes, categories and patterns derived through available theories and other sources. The study found out that there was minimal grief counselling that was going on in schools. The study recommended the introduction of grief education to all stakeholders. This would help maximize the sources of support for the bereaved children while enfranchising the grief already experienced by the orphaned pupils.

  7. Ogutu, JP Joel., Odera Peter and Matemba Collins

    For many years, academic performance among learners in primary schools has been inclined towards gender orientation. Boys have performed impressively in mathematics and sciences while their female counterparts have done quite well in languages. This study sought to investigate the effects of gender role stereotyping on academic aspirations of primary school pupils. The study adopted the descriptive survey research design. The study population comprised of the 62 primary schools in Butula district of Western province in Kenya. Purposive sampling was used to select 20 of the 62 primary schools. A sample size of 236 class eight pupils who participated in the study, were selected using simple random sampling technique. In addition, a total of 20 teachers and 1 education officer were selected purposively to give information concerning the effects of gender role stereotyping on academic aspirations of primary school pupils. Data from the teachers and pupils was collected through administering the questionnaire while an interview schedule was used to collect data from the education officer. Both qualitative and quantative methods were used to analyze the data. The findings revealed that male pupils had high aspirations for mathematics and science subjects whereas female pupils had high inclination for languages. The results indicated that gender role stereotyping created masculine and feminine perception among learners towards certain subjects. The study also revealed that teachers did little to guide pupils against aspiration for academic on the basis of gender role stereotyping.

  8. Manonmani, I.K and Tamilenthi, S

    The present study analyzed the agricultural infrastructure and level of modernization among the rural farmers during the 80’s. The Main Sources of data were based on primary and secondary data. Primary data was collected from 100 respondents during the authors’ M.Phil research period (1990-91). The geographical data was collected from the statistical office at Madurai. The questionnaire information was suitably converted into tables. Simple statistical techniques were extremely employed to analyze the data and determination of the findings. Standard coefficient technique is used to measure the level of modernization. The agricultural infrastructure such as land holding, irrigation and source of irrigation were taken for the analysis. The modernization of agriculture among the rural farmers is analyzed based on the primary data collected using pre-tested and pre-coded questionnaire. Four villages selected to represent various socio-economic characteristics. The villages selected were Virahanur, Paniyur, Sholamalai and Valayangulam. In each villages of 25 farmers and the total of 100 respondents were taken. Finally attempted to summarize the facts and findings of the study and present in a framework towards strengthening the agricultural activity.

  9. Tamilenthi, S., Mohanasundaram, K, Padmini, V and Lalhmasai Chuaungo

    This study explores why women in India experiences of impact of partners presence and absence in their professional perception. Two focus groups were conducted in Tamil and English language with working high profile (class-I level) women of Institutions and other organizations. 50 married and 50 single women (widow) participated with a mean age of 42 years (range 29–52years). Normative survey method was adopted in this study. The study was carried out with five dimensions are 1) Professional competency2) Professional qualities 3) Professional attitude. 4) Professional psychology. 5) Concern to the society. The appropriate statistical techniques were applied to draw the results .The findings are interpreted in light of participants' professional perception in the presence of husband and absence made much affect on professional perception. But the study revealed that their partners really helped in improving their skill by the way of suggestion and the ability of partner they reached the present position without much difficulty.

  10. Tamilenthi, S. and Mohanasundaram, K.

    The present investigation is intended to study the profession development of geography teachers high schools from perception of the class room teacher and how far the professional development is enabled to the students for better of their education. The scale of profession commitment and profession perspectives is constructed. Samples from 444 high schools geography teachers with normative survey and purposive sampling method. Statistical techniques were applied to draw the result. The Personal variables were studied with respect to locality of the institution, medium of teaching and type of the management of Geography teacher is compared. The significant difference is found in medium of teaching and type of the management and found no significant in locality of the institution. There is a positive, significant correlation between the profession commitment and profession perspectives of geography teachers.

  11. Charles Nyakiti Orawo

    Thum is amorphous because it has broadened its corpus to include not only the Luo lyre, but also the fiddle, accordion and guitar musics unlike what was before the coming of Europeans. The introduction of the acquired instruments became a threat to the well-being of thum. To counteract the threat, thum players adopted the trappings of the acquired instruments, reduced the size, painted the resonator, and tuned it to an octave higher than before. Further changes included the introduction of the toe-ring, ankle-bells, transfer of the sound hole from the membrane to the back of the resonator, change of costumes and the increased size of dance teams. The European way of life offered a challenge to those members of society who refused to identify themselves with their traditional cultures. The Catholics were moderate than the Protestants and most of the young people attending Protestant schools had no respect for their traditional cultures. In areas where European influence was minimal, young people played and attended parties of thum performance. The structure and meanings of the genres in the context of Luo society and culture reveal the great influence of the Luo lyre on modern genres. However, the lyre has changed because of the innovation of individuals. Although the similarities of styles may be due to the influence of a common cultural tradition and music conventions, the peculiarities are partly determined by different instruments, the decisive factor in the distinctive style of the genres being the composers’ own personality and individual creativity.

  12. Charles Nyakiti Orawo

    Tero Buru was one of the Luo rites of passage performed at the funerals of adult members of the community. As a funeral rite, it was performed as the last rite before the body of the deceased is washed and taken to the grave for burial. It was similar to the requiem, the contemporary Church Service performed by Priests at funerals of the deceased Christian believers in the Luo territory. In Tero Buru the eldest son of the deceased played a leading role. As earlier observed, there were two types of Tero Buru; the first type being performed on the burial day and the second type performed later, after the burial. Irrespective of the type preferred, there had to be a mini Tero Buru to enable the buried to take place. Tero Buru was a rite in a rite. The main rite, the funeral ceremonies itself could not take place unless there was death in the community. If the dead was an adult member of the community, then, Tero Buru rite had also to be performed as per the custom. Since death begot funeral ceremonies, death of adult members of the Luo community also begot Tero Buru. In short, Tero Buru was a rite in a rite. Tero Buru was a rite in which music played a very significant role. It was nothing but song and dance. The participants of Tero Buru literally sang, recited, played sound producing resources and danced. The sounds produced to which they pegged their movements were as varied as the groups involved in the Tero Buru activities. Because of the diversity experienced, performances at Tero Buru qualified not to be considered as a music performance but rather, an extravaganza, a musical extravaganza. This was because no one group could claim the monopoly or a leading role. All the participants claimed to play equal roles. They were all equal partners in the extravaganza. All were joined in the quest of fighting death; an enemy that had caused havoc in the community.

  13. Liwei Hsu

    This study aims to investigate EFL learners’ viewpoints toward English test delivered in different modes; namely, computer-adaptive test (CAT), computer-based test (CBT) and conventional paper-pencil test (PPT). The participants were forty-nine (N=49) students from two colleges in Taiwan who had experience of taking all these three types of English tests. Additionally, five graduate students were invited to validate the contents of AHP questionnaire. Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) was the major research method employed by the present study to construct the framework of research. After a series of pair-wise comparisons processed with Expert Choice 2000 software package, weights of three objectives (convenience, fairness and computer experience) and six sub-objectives (physical limitation, immediate feedback, anxiety, accessibility, text presentation and response requirements respectively) were calculated to deduce the alternative. Among the three objectives, convenience ranked the highest followed by fairness and then familiarity. Subsequently, conclusion was drawn that CAT is the mode that best fitted EFL learners’ expectation on English tests.

  14. Sakariyau, O.B., Umar Zubairu, Dauda, C. K., Paiko, I.I. and Olalere Maruf

    This paper titled “Partnering of Entrepreneurship and Information Technology (IT) for a better world” , considers the possible inherent entrepreneurial nature of IT; how to foster IT innovation; and examination of the inherent difficulties currently found within the IT of Nigerian Universities in regards to supporting the development of innovative and creative ideas. Case study and survey were used as methodology for the research. Close to 200 students participated in the survey with each student answering ten multiple choice questions. Statistical analysis was performed on the results to discover any potential trends emerging relating to the impact of entrepreneurship on the IT industry and the current IT tertiary curriculum. The purpose of the student survey was to determine the current perspectives of students studying at tertiary institutions regarding the role and impact entrepreneurship, creativity and innovation has on IT. The results of the research, included herein, have provided a number of unique contributions to the field in addition to a set of successful industry perspectives on IT Entrepreneurship. In particular how to manage and increase the opportunities for an entrepreneur to continue economic growth in the IT sector in Nigeria.

  15. Aloysius Mom Njong and Tchakounté Raymond

    The theoretical relationship between FDI and export growth can be explained by using the flying geese model, Vernon’s product life cycle theory and the new growth model. These three theories have different explanations of FDI flows; however, they all agree that FDI has an influence on the recipient economy. First, MNE subsidiaries exploit the host country’s factor endowments for lowering production costs to increase their export competitiveness. Therefore, the host country’s export expansion by MNE subsidiaries is to be expected (capacity-increasing effect). Secondly, the host country’s export can be increased by domestic firms through the spillover effects of FDI such as competition and transfer of knowledge (spillover effect). This study attempts to estimate the potential effects of FDI inflows on export growth in Cameroon over the 1980-2003 period. We separate the effects of FDI into supply capacity-increasing effects and spillover effects. The major hypothesis of the study is that FDI has had a positive impact on Cameroon export performance. Using the Engle-Granger two-step co-integration procedure we find evidence that FDI inflows contributed to higher supply capacity and spillover effects in Cameroon, leading to higher export growth during the period of study.

  16. Were Dinah Shisia and Moses Wesang’ula Poipoi

    Qualitative approach and case study design was used to get rich and in depth information from respondents on how counseling helps them make decisions as they prepare to go back to their communities after school. The study was conducted in the current Butula District which was previously known as Busia District in Western province. 5 teachers and 50 young adults and their parents were selected for the study. Interview guides were used to collect data. The study revealed that low intelligence affects their emotional maturity and hence their adaptive behaviour, independent living, social life and making decisions on all relationships. In addition they experience low understanding of concepts, difficulties in following instructions, short memory, poor concentration and lack of intellectual competencies. Recommendations were made with respect to making counseling more effective by training teachers and parents in counseling skills in order to help young adults better. Counseling services should be provided adequately in all schools for children with mental retardation by providing facilities and necessary resources. In addition young adults should be guided on career development and coping skills to live independently.

  17. Murey Elizabeth and Jahonga Wilberforce Manoah

    Over the past two decades, there has been an explosion in the number of civil society organizations in Kenya. The rapid increase has been as result of development gaps left by the government, which needs to be filled; significantly as well there has been increased competition for the scarce donor funds among Civil Society Organizations (CSOs) which donors prefers currently to be utilized on intangible projects like capacity building, while on the other hand the community prefer physical projects like construction of school which answers their needs directly. The study sought to establish the effect of organizational capacity building on community development. The study was based on systems theory by Miller and Rice (1967). The study adopted the Ex Post facto research design and incorporated research instruments such as questionnaires, interviews, observations and focus group discussions in data collection among the samples of 198 respondents selected through simple random and stratified sampling. The study established that; firstly, there are two forms of organisational capacity building secondly, training has a positive impact on community development and thirdly, community engages in monitoring and evaluation fourthly, CSO’s have attained their objectives to some extent. The study concluded that, CSOs offer Civic education, training, and engages in advocacy and that CSOs are dependent on donors and that is why they to have a weak financial base and are not self sustaining. The study recommended that CSOs should diversify on their sources of funds and review their systems and structures.

  18. Dr. Manimaran, S.

    ‘Field experiment was conducted during 2008 to 2009 to evolve the suitable planting techniques for yield maximization of sugarcane. The field experiment was laid in a randomized block design with three replications viz.,T1 - 120 cm row spacing (Wide row) with end to end method of planting, T2 - 120 cm row spacing (Wide row) with cross planting method (setts placed across the furrow), T3 - T1 + intercropping (black gram), T4 - T2 + intercropping (black gram), T5 - 80 cm row spacing (normal row) with end to end method of planting (conventional planting method), T6 - 80 cm row spacing (normal row) with cross planting method (setts placed across the furrow), T7 - T5 + intercropping (black gram), T8 - T6 + intercropping (black gram). The treated setts were planted in the furrows at the rate of 60,000 setts ha-1 in 120 cm row spaced (wide row) and 75,000 setts ha-1 in 80 cm row spaced (normal rows). The black gram (Vigna mungo) were selected and dibbled in levelled ridges at the rate of 2 to 3 seeds hill-1. In 80 cm row spacing (normal row) of sugarcane, the black gram was sown in single row. While in 120 cm row spacing (wide row), the black gram was sown in 3 rows. The growth and yield parameters of sugarcane were favourably influenced by planting technique. T7 - T5 + intercropping recorded higher no. of germinant (1,09,090 ha-1), Tiller production (2,68,460 ha-1), Plant height at 270 DAP ( 260.99 cm), LAI at 270 DAP(5.25) and NMC (1,14,950). T4 - T2 + intercropping recorded higher individual cane weight of 1.50 kg, Cane yield of 151.93 t ha-1 and Sugar yield of 17.78 t ha-1.

  19. Sanjay Kumar Singh , Umesh Singh and Gyan Prakash Singh

    This paper considers various models for first birth interval to a married woman with an aim to pick up a model which is best fit. For fitting the various models, the Bayes estimates of the parameters involved in the models are obtained using WinBUGS based on the Markov Chain Monte Carlo technique. The comparison of the models regarding their fitness is made on the basis of DIC criterion. The data used in the present study is taken from National Family Health Survey III Uttar Pradesh.

  20. Shanmuga Sundar, S. and Sangeetha, D

    The study conducted here was to investigate the gene and protein expression of Toll like receptor 9 when human bronchial epithelial cells were induced by lipopolysaccharide. TLRs are pattern recognition receptor (PRR) which plays a key role in innate immunity. They recognise the molecules that are shared by pathogens but distinguishes from the host which is referred to as pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). The HBECs were first cultured and once it becomes confluent they were induced with 10ng/ml of LPS. In order to find out whether the gene was expressed in the cells, the RNA was isolated and RT-PCR was carried out. Before carrying out the RT-PCR, RNA gel electrophoresis was carried out to show the 28S and 18S bands. Once the gene expression was analysed protein expression was carried out by extracting the protein using RIPA buffer and running the SDS-PAGE followed by staining. Silver staining and western blotting results revealed clear bands at 116kDa illustrating that the TLR9 protein had been expressed. RT-PCR results showed that a smear of bands for TLR9 and the in protein expression bands were seen in TLR9 protein region which indicates that TLR9 was expressed in the HBEC by LPS.

  21. Muthu, S and Prabhakaran, A

    In this work, we report a combined experimental and theoretical study on molecular structure, Vibrational spectra and NBO analysis of tranexamic acid (TA). The FT-Raman and FT-IR spectra of TA wear recorded in the solid phase. The molecular geometry, harmonic vibrational frequencies and bonding features of TA in the ground state have been calculated by using density functional method (B3LYP) with standard 6-31G (d,p) basis set. Stability of the molecule arising from hyper conjugative interactions, charge delocalization has been analyzed using natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis. The calculated HOMO and LUMO energies show that charge transfer occurs within the molecule. The theoretical FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra for the title molecule have been constructed.

  22. Pandi Suba, K., Vijayashree, J. P., Prasanna, C.C., Smiline Girija, AS., Priyanka, M., Nethaji, R. Valli, .G and Raghuraman, R.

    This review article will present the concrete educational, research strategies and a discussion of the genetics into the dental curriculum. Dentists are now entering the era in which genetics and genomics will play a vital role in both oral health research and dental practice. Dental professionals should understand the basic concept of genetics and genetic disorders that contribute to common dental concerns where more than 300 genes have so far been associated with tooth development is under strict genetic control.

  23. Suman Pratihar

    Adenocarcinoma is the most common type of lung cancer, making up 30%-40% of all cases. Recently PET (Positron emission tomography) scan has played remarkable role to identify lung adenocarcinoma as well as the progression of disease in metastatic stage.

  24. Binu Kumari, S

    This investigation examines uptake of heavy metals, Zinc and Nickel in the tissues of the fish, Cyprinus carpio exposed to lethal and sublethal concentrations of Singanallur waste water for 3,10 & 20 days. The concentration of zinc varied from 0.29mg / gm to 0.72mg / gm (Liver), 0.56mg / gm to 0.58mg / gm (Kidney), 0.33mg / gm to 0.52mg / gm (Muscle) and Nickel concentration was varied from 0.54mg / gm to 1.60mg / gm (Liver), 10.81mg / gm to 3.63mg / gm (Kidney) and 0.75mg / gm to 1.31mg / gm (Muscle). Accumulation of Zinc was increased progressively on 3,10 & 20 days in the following order: Muscle> Kidney>Liver. In the case of nickel the order was: Liver>Muscle>Kidney. Zinc and Nickel were found to be toxic to the fish, which will biomagnify up the foodchain and will ultimately be toxic to human beings.

  25. Vishalakshi Devi, D and Asna Urooj

    Medicinal plants have been reported to play an important role in modulating glycemic responses and has preventive and therapeutic implications for certain conditions such as diabetes, hyperlipedemia etc. Costus igneus. Nak known to possess hypoglycemic effect was supplemented to streptozotocin induced diabetic rats and compared with that of conventional hypoglycemic agents (Insulin and Glibenclamide). Costus igneus powder at a level of 500mg/kg body weight, reduced blood glucose in the animals by 37% after 45 days of supplementation. Oral administration of Costus igneus powder significantly reversed the activity of the enzymes glucose - 6- phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-P DH) and aldolase in the liver of experimental groups. The activity of aldolase in the liver of Costus igneus powder and Insulin treated groups was 0.19u/g and in Glibenclamide treated group the activity was 0.18u/g protein. The activities of AsAT and AlAT decreased significantly in animals treated with Costus, Insulin and glibenclimide. It was also observed that total cholesterol and triglyceride levels were significantly low in Costus igneus treated group compared to other groups. The results prove that Costus could effectively reduce the blood glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides and also reverse the activity of elevated enzymes which can prove beneficial in the management of hyperglycemia.

  26. Saranya, K., SanthanaKrishnan, P., Kumutha, K. and John French

    Carrier based preparations of Azospirillum lipoferum (AZ 204) inoculant, developed using two different sources of biochar (acacia wood and coconut shell) were evaluated in comparison with lignite for their suitability as a best alternate to lignite for biofertilizer production. The survival of the microbial inoculant was estimated over a period of 180 days. Among the different carriers, coconut shell based biochar recorded a maximum population of log 10.79 cfu g-1 of carrier on 180 days after inoculation with a maximum moisture content of 25.22%. It was also found that seedling vigour index of green gram (CO 3) was paramount in response to coconut shell based biochar. In addition, coconut shell based biochar was found to increase the survival of Azospirillum lipoferum upto 180 days (6 months) of storage period at a required population compared to acacia wood based biochar and lignite.

  27. Palanisamy, P., Sasikala, G., Mallikaraj, D., Bhuvaneshwari, N and Natarajan, GM

    Results obtained using multifactorial stress model (air-exposure, submergence, hypoxia) showed that elevation of RBC, HB, Ht and blood glucose was linearly correlated with progressive stress uniformly. Submergence caused rapid stress with blood glucose reaching 50% elevation within 60 min. Hypoxic water with access to air had very little effect on blood glucose. Similarly, lowering the temperature significantly affected the blood parameters. The air-exposure model was also used for testing lysozyme activity and phagocytosis assay during stress. Plasma lysozyme was significantly lower in air stressed fish. Submergence increased the number of granulocyte, lymphocytes and activity of phagocytic cells. Spleen and kidney lysozyme activity increased significantly. The titer of total non-specific immunological increased during submergence. But no such effect was observed in air-exposure. These results suggest that submergence stress in stimulating non-specific defense system in the air-breathing fish, Osphronemus olfax. This is the first report that submergence stress is playing the role of an immunomodulator in an air-breathing fish. .

  28. Ajaz Malik, Vashisht, V.K., Rizwan Rashid, Susheel Sharma and Jaskanwal Singh

    Edible vaccines or Food Vaccine hold great promise as an easy-to-administer, cost-effective, easy-to-store, and socio-culturally willingly acceptable vaccine delivery for the developing countries. Edible vaccines offer exciting opportunities for significantly reducing the burden of diseases like hepatitis, cholera & measles, mainly in the developing world where the administrating & storage of vaccines is at major concern. The search for methods of vaccine delivery not requiring a needle and syringe has been accelerated by recent concerns regarding pandemic disease, bioterrorism, and disease eradication campaigns. Needle‐free vaccine delivery could aid in these mass vaccinations by increasing ease and speed of delivery, and by offering improved safety and compliance, decreasing costs, and reducing pain associated with vaccinations. Edible Vaccines are prepared by molecular farming with the help of genetic engineering. Preparation of Edible Vaccines are involving the introduction of selected desired genes into plants and inducing these genetically modified plants to manufacture the encoded proteins. This process is known as transformation and the altered plants are called transgenic plants. The vaccine is administered through the consumption of the edible plant as food, preferably in the form of a fruit or vegetable juice which can be taken orally.

  29. Jamshed Zaidi, Shree Ganesh and Amit Pal

    Jhansi which is situated in Central part of India of Bundelkhand region of Uttar Pradesh, India having two rivers namely Betwa and Pahuj in East and West part of the city respectively. The present investigation was carried out on both of the river to find out the assessment of water quality. The sampling locations were chosen carefully in order to get maximum representation of the diverse eco-hydrological environments within the river system. Our investigation showed that the water of Betwa and Pahuj River are alkaline in nature with higher concentration of cations. Nitrate was dominant at site III followed by Site II and I and it can be attributed due to high rate of decomposition and anthropogenic pressure. In both the river Dissolved Oxygen was dominant at site I and II compare to site III due to abundance of animated life and the microbial activity, which result in the depletion of the dissolved oxygen.

  30. Saranya, K and Kumutha, K

    Soil properties are governed by biotic and abiotic components including land use management. Hyphae of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are considered to be primary soil nutrient promoters and there is a positive correlation between AMF hyphae and soil fertility in natural systems. Both past and recent evidences prove that, these symbiotic fungi are present in most terrestrial ecosystems especially in tropics and play a major role in both the growth of plants and important ecosystem processes. AM has a cementing capacity to maintain soil health. Acquisition of minerals by AM in the soil ensures increased crop productivity. This paper traces the role of AM on soil physical, chemical, biochemical and biological properties that influence the sustainable agriculture.

  31. Dhanya, N., Jaya, S and Megha George

    Ageing is a complex phenomenon accompanied by physiological, psychological and sound changes which often results in a decline in health status (Hemalatha, 1999). Ageing is a continuous process that begins with conception and ends with death. Ageing is not a disease but a biological process (Henry, 2000). Ageing is a gradual developmental process of biological, psychological, sociological and behavioural change that begins at the moment when an individual is born (Chandrasekhar and Bhooma, 1999). Ageing refers to the normal progressive and irreversible biological changes occurring in an individual’s life span (Natarajan, 1998). In spite of all efforts taken by the government and other agencies, the feeling of neglect and the condition of being abandoned are indeed leading to stress in the elderly population. This study was carried out using a sample of 307 elderly from old age homes and free living elderly from selected areas of Ernakulam district of Kerala. The tool used for the study consisted of a questionnaire prepared by the investigator and a standardized stress inventory. The study revealed that institutionalized elderly experienced high levels of stress in total than the free living elderly.

  32. Ogwayo I.O. and Onditi A.O.

    The extent of bioavailability of iron and zinc from meals is of great health concern since these micronutrients play key role in mental performance and immune response in human beings. In this study the bioavailability of iron and zinc from maize and bean composite was investigated and found to at 13% for iron and 27.7% for zinc. The inclusion of cabbage enhanced the bioavailability of both to 98.8% and 83.9% respectively to the extent that the differences in the concentrations of iron and zinc in the non-digested and digested samples were not significant (iron, p=0.12 : Zinc, p=0.263). There was a significant difference between concentration of iron and Zinc in the basic mixture when non-digested and digested were compared with p= 0.004 for iron and 0.012 for zinc respectively. In the samples where cabbage was included, there were no significant differences in the concentrations of iron and zinc between the non-digested and digested (iron, p=0.12, zinc, p=0.263) an indication of high bioavailability. The inclusion of potatoes reduced the bioavailability of iron and zinc to 76.86 % and 38.9% respectively. This is due to matrix effect where the potato introduces stronger physico-chemical interactions. The composite with maize, beans, cabbage and potatoes have a bioavailability of 76.2%, p= 0.249 for iron and 71.76%, p = 0.405 for zinc). This is an indication that cabbage has a higher enhancing effect than the potatoes. The generally high bioavailability of iron and zinc from a composite of beans and maize can be due to the interaction between the metal ions and tridentate amino acids in the beans where the chelate formed enhances their bioavailability. This interaction increases mucosal membrane permeability and lipo-solubility of the metal ions. The recommendation is that dietitians should educate people on best combination of foods that will enhance the bioavailability of not only iron and zinc but all micronutrients since they are of health importance to pregnant and lactating mothers, young children, adolescents and the elderly. Other alternatives include double fortification of salt with iron and zinc and bio-fortification.

  33. Saranya, K and Kumutha, K

    The exploitation of AM fungi is highly significant to massive crop improvement programmes. It is important to withstand drought in the nursery and in the field. Improved growth of many crops, resistance of plants to drought stress and root pathogens due to application of AM fungi was emphasized by many workers. Considerable research efforts have been made to demonstrate that Mycorrhizal and N2 fixing symbionts benefit the plant growth and these two symbionts can be used in agriculture to improve nursery quality and subsequent growth in the field. Rhizosphere microorganisms influence many chemical reactions by way of their metabolites and AM fungi play a crucial role in affiliating both microbial and plant functions as mediators of exchange between them. Because of the added advantage by the interaction between AM and different groups of microbes, Mycorrhizal technology has assumed greater relevance in crop production. The practical application can lead to potential increase in survival and growth rates of crops. This paper traces synergistic interactions of AM with other microbes that promote plant growth.

  34. Kamaraju, S. and Ramasamy, K.

    Heavy metal contamination in the aquatic environment is a potential threat for aquatic organisms, when exposed to significant amounts of metals as consequences of industrial, agricultural and anthropological activities. Heavy metals at high concentrations can cause harmful effects on metabolic, physiological, and biochemical systems of fishes and it causes long-term eco-toxicological effects. The aim of the present study was to assess the glycogen content in gill, liver and kidney of the fish Hypophthalmichthys molitrix exposed to sublethal concentrations of cadmium chloride 1/5th (high), 1/10th (medium) and 1/15th (low) of the 96 hour LC50 values for the period of 7, 14 and 21 days. The exotic fish, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix was exposed to sublethal concentrations of cadmium chloride for various exposure periods (7, 14 and 21days). Glycogen levels were measured both in control and experimental fish. During various exposure periods, the glycogen levels were (P<0.05) significantly decreased in the experimental fish over the control.

  35. Robinson K. Ngugi and Stephen M. Mureithi and Peter N. Kamande

    The potential use of seasonal climate forecasts in farm and resource management has been studied in a number of cultural contexts around the world. Many of these studies reveal difficulties that smallholders encounter in accessing, interpreting and applying forecasts for their own benefit. This study looked at the awareness of and usage of climate forecast information in central Kenya in the aftermath of the 1997/98 El Niño event. Household surveys were conducted in Machakos District, Kenya, in January 2001. Retrospective and concurrent awareness and application of seasonal forecast information was assessed for 240 households across a range of agro ecological zones. The results reveal an incredibly high degree of awareness and use of forecasts. Farmers discussed both actual and potential application of forecasts for both above-normal and below-normal rainfall. The influence of the El Niño event of 1997/98 was clear in their emphasis on strategies to mitigate the impacts of above-normal rainfall. Applications of information in both crop and livestock management are documented. Constraints still exist, such as interpretation of information, relevance of the variables forecast to the management decisions of concern, confidence in the forecasts, and timely and affordable access to resources such as seeds. We suggest that collaborative efforts between the forecast providers and the users of information may be directed towards addressing these constraints. For instance in case of abnormal phenomenon, forecasts can be closely followed by early warning campaigns with clear guidelines of community preparedness in order to abate human suffering enhance human welfare and generally secure livelihoods and livelihood systems.

  36. Rev. Engr. Friday O. Okafor

    The ever-increasing demand in the use of software in business, industry, administration, games and researches have made software engineering and development more complex. This calls for the need for higher-level abstraction of software systems in order to develop real-world systems that meets the new challenges facing software engineering and development process. This paper presents component-based software engineering (CBSE) as a solution to the complexities facing software usability and applicability. This technology (CBSE) addresses the development of systems as an assembly of components, the development of components as re-usable entities, and the maintenance and upgrading of systems by customizing and replacing such components (parts). The author assesses the challenges of this emerging technology and discusses its solutions, merits (attractions), and implications for the software engineering and development process in a developing country like Nigeria.

  37. Satyapal Reddy Regenti and Rama Sree, R.J.

    The Model Based Testing is one of the modern automated testing methodologies used to generate test suites automatically from the abstract behavioral or environmental models of the System Under Test (SUT). The Model based testing can be applied in different ways and it has several dimensions during implementation that can changes with nature of the SUT. With the automatic generation of test cases, requirements change is very easy to handle with the model based testing as it requires fewer changes in the models and reduces rework. It is also easy to generate a large number of test cases with full coverage criteria. A variety of CASE tools based on models are currently in use in different industries. The Qtronic tool is one generating test cases from abstract model of SUT automatically. In this research paper the detailed evaluation of the Qtronic test case generation technique, generation time, coverage criterion and quality of test cases were analyzed by modeling the Session Initiation Protocol (SIP). Also generation of test cases from models manually and by using the Qtronic Tool. In order to evaluate the Qtronic tool, detailed experiments and comparisons of manually generated test cases and test case generated by the Qtronic were conducted. The results of the case studies show the efficiency of the Qtronic over traditional manual test case generation in many aspects.

  38. Rev. Engr. Dr. Okafor, Friday Onyema

    Software provides a means for productive activities of man and industries. Indeed the strength, intelligence and vastness of the use of computer lie on the software. Sequel to the above, this paper discusses the component- based system development life cycle, reusability and identifies the acquisition and elicitation of requirements in combination with COTS selection as a multi- criteria decisions process which possess great problem. It suggests the use of cyclic life cycle paradigm as a solution to this great problem. The paper compares Component- Based Development cycle with the Cyclic Life Cycle model, and software architecture with component- Based Development and concludes that the component- Based approach and architectural design play vital role in product configuration management. Finally, it compares Unified Modeling Language (UML) and Component- Based systems modeling. The UML can be used for both component and system modeling while the Component- Based design should best concentrate on interface definitions and collaboration between the components through the interfaces. Finally using an appropriate diagram, the paper presents the various aspects of Component- Based Architecture which include conceptual architecture, implementation architecture and deployment architecture.

  39. John Christy, R.

    A study was undertaken to econometrically analyse the association between the socio-economic characteristics of farm women and the extent of their participation in dairy cow keeping. The sample households consisted of 30 women respondents each from the categories of landless, marginal, small and large farmers in the Namakkal district of Tamil Nadu. The coefficient of multiple determination (R2) obtained for the model fitted was 0.949 The independent variables such as age of female head, community, average hired labour hours and number of small ruminants in animal units significantly influenced the average time spent by women on large ruminants keeping. The coefficient for age of women head indicated that every unit rise in this variable above the mean level would result in an increase of average time spent by females by 0.732 minutes per day per household. The coefficient for average hired labour hours utilised for small ruminants keeping indicated that every unit increase in these variable would decrease the time spent by women by 48.73 minutes. Significant and positive coefficient for the variable community indicated that lower caste women spent more time on large ruminants keeping. The significant negative coefficient for total large ruminants in animal units indicated that every unit increase in this variable would decrease the time spent by women by 5.11 minutes.

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