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July 2011

  1. Kerina Kwamboka Hellen

    This paper examines the remitting behaviour among domestic servants, also referred to as house-helps, working in Nairobi. It is based on a study whose broad objective was to assess the remitting behaviour among house-helps in Lavington, Mathare North and Buruburu residential estates in Nairobi. The paper focuses on the proportion of income remitted among house-helps and the factors that influence remittances. Remittances among female domestic workers have led to triple disempowerment, in that, firstly, these women are denied access to education and those who proceed to high school may not advance to higher education. Secondly, because of limited access to education, they end up with no jobs or with poorly paid jobs. Lastly, the little they earn has to be divided between their needs and those of their families. It was recommended that there is a need for house-helps to be empowered on their rights as workers. This will ensure that they are in a position to demand for their rights as far as their salaries are concerned. They will also learn the benefits of working together under the workers’ unions. This will in turn ensure that the flow of remittances is enhanced between the house-helps and their families.

  2. Govinda Rao Duddukuri, Y. Nagendra Sastry, D.S.V.G.K. Kaladhar, P. Ajay Babu, K. Kamalakara Rao and K. Krishna Chaitanya

    The study was aimed to evaluate the anticancer activity of the seed coat of Borassus flabellifer on the HeLa cell line. The seed coat of Borassus flabellifer PBS extracts were tested for inhibitory effect on HeLa Cell Line. The cytotoxicity of Borassus flabellifer on HeLa cell was evaluated by the MTT assay. The PBS extract of Borassus flabellifer has shown significant cytotoxicity on HeLa Cell Line in concentration range between 32 μg/ml to 750 μg/ml by MTT assay. Our preliminary studies on HeLa cell line indicated that even the lower concentrations of plant extract tested showed significant antiproliferative activity.

  3. Govinda Rao Duddukuri, Y. Nagendra Sastry, D.S.V.G.K. Kaladhar, P. Ajay Babu, K. Kamalakara Rao and K. Krishna Chaitanya

    The study was aimed to evaluate the anticancer activity of the seed coat of Borassus flabellifer on the HeLa cell line. The seed coat of Borassus flabellifer PBS extracts were tested for inhibitory effect on HeLa Cell Line. The cytotoxicity of Borassus flabellifer on HeLa cell was evaluated by the MTT assay. The PBS extract of Borassus flabellifer has shown significant cytotoxicity on HeLa Cell Line in concentration range between 32 μg/ml to 750 μg/ml by MTT assay. Our preliminary studies on HeLa cell line indicated that even the lower concentrations of plant extract tested showed significant antiproliferative activity.

  4. Hemangi D . Mehta and Dr. Daxaben N. Mehta

    This paper focus on the role of education on women empowerment. Here the data sheet of 585 girls students of various college is taken as a sample From those There is 200 girls students of home science, 200 girls students of arts & 185 girls students of commerce. The information collected by questionnaire method. Statistical analysis was done using mean, standard deviation, standard error, significant test; calculation was done using both level of F-test. Result for Home science respondents higher than the arts & commerce respondents. Arts & commerce respondents were almost same.

  5. Lakhi Ram Dangwal, Amandeep Singh, Antima Sharma & Tajinder Singh

    The present communication pertains to the effect of weeds on the yield of maize crop in tehsil Nowshera, district Rajouri (J&K).The study was conducted during June to November, 2010. During this course the authors have selected two plots of 01 hectare each (P1 and P2) in village Jaba (irrigated area) of tehsil Nowhera. The plot P1 was marked as Weed Free plot (WF) and P2 as Weedy Plot (WP). Both the plots were ploughed and the seed beds were prepared by adding equal amount of NPK fertilizer (Urea150 kg, DAP 100 kg and Potash 40 kg/hec.). Same variety of maize seeds was sown in both the plots during second week of June, 2010. Nitrogen fertilizer urea was given in split doses (50kg before sowing, 50 kg, 40 DAS and 50 kg at tassel stage). In plot P1 (WF) 2 days after sowing the herbicide Atrazine was sprayed @ 1.2 kg/ hq.,hoeing and earthingup was done twice (first 20 DAS and second 40DAS) deweeding (hand pulling and eradicating weeds with the help of digger and sickle) was done during the month of Aug.-Sept., 2010. In plot P2 (WP) no herbicide was sprayed, only one hoeing was done (20 DAS) and no deweeding operation was carried, as a result 38 weeds were reported from this plot. After ripening the crop was harvested (during first week of Nov., 2010) from both the plots and threshed separately. The grains collected in different bags were weighed. The weeds compete with maize crop in plot P2 (WP) and reduced the yield by 30.61%.

  6. T. Nedumaran and S. Manokaran

    The spatial and seasonal patterns of distribution of Cyanobacterial species and their abundance in relation to physicochemical parameters were studied from April, 2002 to March, 2003 in two stations of Uppanar estuary in the south-east coast of India (Lat. 11°42’N: Long. 79°49’E). As many as 15 Cyanobacteria species were recorded from different family viz. Chroococcaceae (4), Oscillatoriaceae (7) and Nostocaceae (4). The concentration of nutrients was low during summer season and more number of Cyanobacteria was recorded in monsoon season

  7. Kavitha Gandhi, Ramani Gurusamy, Priya Kalidhas and Rita Mary Aruna

    Diabetic nephropathy is one of the commonest causes for End stage renal disease. The aim of the present clinical study was to establish whether oxidative stress and TGF-β1 may be significant in evaluating its role in variable stages of nephropathy and to determine its association with other renal parameters in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients among the south Indian population. This study was conducted on sixty patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and compared with age matched control subjects. The patients were grouped as Group I: healthy controls and Group II: Diabetic patients without nephropathy and Group III: Diabetic patients with nephropathy. Plasma TGF-β1, MDA and TAC, were measured and correlated with different biochemical parameters. Our results showed significant statistical increase in TGF-β1, MDA and MDA/TAC ratio in all diabetic patients when compared to controls (p<0.05). In addition significant difference was observed in HbA1c, TGF- β 1 and MDA among the diabetic patients with nephropathy as compared to diabetic patients’ without nephropathy. MDA showed positive correlation with TGF-β1, HbA1c and significant negative correlation with TAC among the diabetic patients. Our results suggest that diabetic patients with nephropathy and having poor glycemic control have increased level of TGF-β1 and oxidative stress. Hyperglycemia may trigger the oxidative stress in turn causes the depletion of antioxidants which up regulates the level of TGF-β1. The supplementation of antioxidants and having strict glycemic control may delay the development of renal disease in type 2 diabetes.

  8. Jolly Garg and Ashwani Kumar

    Systematic search for plants with hydrocarbon contents was carried out during present investigations. A large number of plants were surveyed for their hydrocarbon contents and suitable species were determined for mass production. Agro technology has been developed

  9. Tarakeshwar Senapati, Subhabrata Ghosh and Tirthankar Mandal

    Our present study include the species diversity of phytoplankton of a semi-lentic water body within the khari of Golapbag campus, the university of Burdwan and its relation with physico-chemical parameters of the water body to establish the occurrence of the various phytoplankton throughout the year. Species diversity index value 3.824, 3.701 and 3.354 in pre-monsoon, monsoon and post-monsoon respectively indicates the quality of the water body. Chlorophycean representatives are dominant mostly and Cyanophycean members are least in representation. Plankton density reaches its maximum level in monsoon time. This work demonstrates changes in phytoplankton diversity and expresses the possibilities of using these minute organisms as an indicator in biomonitoring system to determine the quality of water body.

  10. Manorma Sharma, Archana Sharma and Ashwani Kumar

    Tuberous plants are the vital source of medicinal drugs. Among these Asparagus racemosus is an important herb which is well known for its pharmacological applications. A lot of medicinally importance attributes have been assigned to this herb. It has been used by tribes located in distinct area of India from primeval time. Key component of this herb is saponins. Recent developments in transgenic research have opened up the possibility of the metabolic engineering of biosynthetic pathways to produce these high-value secondary metabolites. The present review is a pragmatic approach to accrue the findings on this very important herb.

  11. Soumyajit Maiti, Kausik Chatterjee, Kazi Monjur Ali, Tushar Kanti Bera, Debidas Ghosh and Shyamapada Paul

    Objective An attempt has been made in this study to evaluate the growth and nutritional status among early adolescent school girls (age group of 10 to 14 years) of Dantan-II Block, Paschim Medinipur district, West Bengal. Methods A cross sectional study was carried out in rural adolescent school girls of 18 government-approved upper primary schools of Dantan-II Block, Paschim Medinipur district, West Bengal. Anthropometric and socio-demographic information from 3693 adolescent girls were collected during 2009-2010 academic session. Height and weight were measured using standard procedure and the body mass index (BMI) was calculated. BMI was compared to 2007 WHO growth reference. Height- for-age (HAZ), weight-for-age (WAZ) and BMI-for-age (BMIZ) were used to evaluate stunting, underweight and thinness respectively, based on the National Centre of Heath Statistics (NCHS) < - 2 Z score values. Classification of severity of malnutrition was done based on WHO recommendation. Results Mean BMI-for-age were less than those of 2007 WHO growth reference for girls at all ages. The overall rate of stunting, underweight and thinness was 33.13%, 28.06% and 17.92% respectively. Based on WHO classification of severity of malnutrition, the overall prevalence of stunting was high (30-39%), whereas those of underweight (≥ 30) and thinness (≥ 15) were very high. Conclusion The study shows that poor health and nutritional status among the adolescents indicating a major public health problem. An intensive and comprehensive approach is required to improve the nutritional status of rural adolescent girls.

  12. N. Arun, Dr. P. Subramanian and S. Boobathy

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of methanolic extract of Diacure a polyherbal formulation for oxidative stress in Streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Its effect was compared with that of glibenclamide, a reference antidiabetic drug. White albino male rats (Streptozotocin induced) were administered with methanolic extract of Diacure (100mg /kg body wt) orally for 30 days. At the end of 30 days, serum insulin and level, SGOT, SGPT level in serum and liver, catalase, SOD, GPx, GSH and LPO level in serum, liver and kidney were estimated in control, alloxan induced, extract treated and glibenclamide treated rats. Oral administration of methanolic extract of Diacure for 30 days made significant changes in serum, liver and kidney of plant treated rats where compared with untreated diabetic rats. The effects produced by the extract were comparable to that of glibenclamide. In conclusion the methanolic extract of Diacure showed significant antioxidant effect in Streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.

  13. Saranya, K and Kumutha, K

    The exploitation of AM fungi is highly significant to massive crop improvement programmes. It is important to withstand drought in the nursery and in the field. Improved growth of many crops, resistance of plants to drought stress and root pathogens due to application of AM fungi was emphasized by many workers. Considerable research efforts have been made to demonstrate that Mycorrhizal and N2 fixing symbionts benefit the plant growth and these two symbionts can be used in agriculture to improve nursery quality and subsequent growth in the field. Rhizosphere microorganisms influence many chemical reactions by way of their metabolites and AM fungi play a crucial role in affiliating both microbial and plant functions as mediators of exchange between them. Because of the added advantage by the interaction between AM and different groups of microbes, Mycorrhizal technology has assumed greater relevance in crop production. The practical application can lead to potential increase in survival and growth rates of crops. This paper traces synergistic interactions of AM with other microbes that promote plant growth.

  14. R. Nobel Surya Pandidurai, P.T. Kalaichelvan, D.J. Mukesh Kumar and M. Gnanaraj

    A bacterial strain that produces glucose isomerase was isolated from garden soil and identified as Enterobacter agglomerans. Enzyme activity was screened by the formation of cherry red colour and the chemical assay was determined by glucose oxidase enzyme using fructose as substrate followed by the measurement of the amount of glucose. The highest level of extracellular glucose isomerase obtain (41U/ml), temperature around 37ºC, pH.6, xylose as a carbon source, peptone as a nitrogen source and incubation time for 36 hours for its higher enzyme productivity. The SDS-PAGE analyses of crude enzyme shows multiple bands, more over along with glucose isomerase some other protein can be produced by the organism.

  15. J.O. Agumba, P.M. Karimi, J. Okumu and W.K. Njoroge

    The electrical characteristics of semiconductor thin films are of great practical interest in microelectronics industry hence the need to measure these parameters in a cheaper and faster manner possible. In this study, we report on design and fabrication of a cheap, simple and portable computer-aided four point probe system for thin film sheet resistivity measurement. The designed system has been used to measure sheet resistivity of Cu2O semiconductor thin films prepared at different sputter conditions by DC reactive magnetron sputtering technique. With the Van der Pauw set-up and a square symmetry adopted, sheet resistivity of Cu2O thin films at room temperature of 23oC was found to be 55.65 Ω cm when measured using the system. However, as the samples were exposed to temperature rise, the sheet resistivity was found to decrease and was at its minimum value of 29.67 Ω cm at 170oC. The sheet resistivity of Cu2O thin films were further found to increase with increase in sputter pressure during film preparation. Films deposited at sputtering pressure of 1.8x10-2 mbar had sheet resistivity of 33.64 Ω cm and this increased to 62.23 Ω cm for films deposited at higher sputtering pressure of 2.4x10-2 mbar.

  16. Eluozo, S. N., Ademiluyi, J. O. and Nwaoburu A .O

    The paper considered the transport of E.coli in stationary phase condition. A mathematical model approach were develop to predict the behaviour of E.coli transport at Khana deltaic environment the model were compared with column experimental result, the model fit in with experimental result displaying the same form of concentration, this explain the behaviour of E.coli on stationary phase condition, both result explain the behaviour of the microbes showing the level of concentration in some distance and time, the result also explain the variation in concentration influenced by the lithology deposition and other environmental factors, finally the model from the result will be applied as a design criteria for the solution of ground water pollution in Khana.

  17. R. Samuel Selvaraj, P.R. Umarani, S.P. Vimal Priya and N. Mahalakshmi

    Climate change is the most studied concept in the world of research. Various new techniques like Neural Networks, learning Non- linear dynamics and others are used to predict climate change. Solar activity may be a major forcing of climate change. In this paper we use aa index as an indicator of solar variability and study its trend using Hurst’s exponent method. The Fractal dimensional value of aa index was calculated to be 1.1 for a period of 1900 -2010. This value of aa index shows a “persistence” that is the future trend is more and more likely to follow an established trend.

  18. Dr. S. Ramalinga Choodambigai

    Dairy farming occupies a notable place in the agricultural economy of India and milk and milk products are the second largest contributor to Gross National Product (GNP) and income from dairy farming contributes nearly a third of the rural household’s gross income. Tamil Nadu is one of the leading milk producing state in the country, the other states being Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Punjab, Rajasthan, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh and Hariyana. Paradoxically, however, the milk production in Tamil Nadu is witnessing a declining trend in recent years due to low productivity of the milch animals, which have been attributed to poor genetic status, non-availability of proper nutrition, poor quality of management and so forth. The rural producers are not only ignorant of the qualitative aspects of the enterprises but even unmindful of the production capabilities of their animals. The knowledge of the economics of milk production in the rural areas would be of immense help for planning for improving of dairy animals and in formulating policies for improving the profitability of the enterprise. The present study is, an attempt to compare the cost and returns of milk production across different farm groups and to analyse the resource – use efficiency of dairy enterprises in Coimbatore. The study was based on primary data which was compiled by administering a pretested interview schedule to 150 randomly selected dairy owners residing in Mayilampatty village in Coimbatore District. The data collected relate to the period January to December 2009. The respondents were classified into 3 groups (small farmer, medium farmer and large farmers) based on the size of the farms owned by them. The study would highlight the cost and returns of milk production. Cost function and the production function will be analysed. Added to this resource productivity and resource use efficiency will be handled.

  19. K. Malar Mathi, Ebenezer Paul Rajan, T.Y and Amul Raj

    Conventionally, anthropologists considered the people, as tribes who were backward in some sense or other, inhabited in remote, inaccessible areas and were not familiar with the art of modern living. They live in isolation. Such concept, however does not quite describe the tribes of India. These groups always had links with other people and shared with them a largely common cultural heritage. The term scheduled tribe in India is generally defined by the political and administration consideration for uplifting a section of the Indian people which have been relatively remotely situated in the hills and forests and which is backward in terms of the statistics of the development. In this paper an attempt has been made to assess the decision making skills of five tribes who live in the Nilgiris district of Tamil Nadu. They are Todas, Kotas, Paniyas, Irulas and Kurumbas. 1000 respondents were chosen and were tested to identify five skills namely inquiry, insight, drive, diagnosis and planning.

  20. Mahesh Kumar, Pankaj Khatak, Rakesh Kumar and Om Prakash

    In this research work, the convective heat transfer coefficients for sensible heating of sugarcane juice in stainless steel and aluminum pots during jaggery making are evaluated. Various indoor experiments were performed by varying heat inputs from 200 to 360 watts. The effects of heat inputs on the convective heat transfer coefficients were determined by applying the Nusselt number expression with the constants obtained from the experiments by simple linear regression method. The convective heat transfer coefficients were found to increase with an increase in rate of heat input and the operating temperature. The convective heat transfer coefficients were observed higher for heating the sugarcane juice in an aluminum pot. The experimental errors in terms of percent uncertainty were also determined.

  21. Bola Adekola

    If low job satisfaction or dissatisfaction exists amongst Academics then the goals of higher education cannot be accomplished. The purpose of this study was to provide empirical evidence as to the job satisfaction levels of Academics in Southwest-Nigeria and to ascertain as to whether academic status is a reliable predictor of their job satisfaction. The study instrument used was the short-form Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ) which measures job satisfaction using 20 facets of the job. The population for this study consisted of Academics in Southwest-Nigeria. A total of 412 Academics (69% response rate) agreed to take part in the study. Data analysis consisted of the computation of descriptive statistics and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). The findings showed that Academics indicate only a moderate level of overall job satisfaction. The job facets advancement, compensation, co-workers and variety were found to be statistically significant with academic status indicating that academic status affects the satisfaction associated with 4 out of the 20 facets of the Academics’ job examined. In general, it can be said that the results of this study indicate the extent of the low to moderate satisfaction levels that exists among Academics in Universities of the Southwest-Nigeria.

  22. Joseph Achieng Rabari, Francis Chisikwa Indoshi and Tony Okwach Omusonga

    One of the concerns in education today is low creativity among children, with wrong perception identified as an important militating factor. The purpose of this study was to establish the perceptions of students and teachers towards creativity. Its objectives were to (a) identify factors perceived as critical in enhancing creativity and (b) examine students’ belief in own creative abilities. The study population consisted of 2,236 Form 4 physics students in Nairobi Province; while the sample comprised 763 students (386 girls and 377 boys) selected by simple random sampling technique. Data were collected using Creativity Perception Questionnaire for physics students, and teachers respectively. Both instruments were constructed by the researcher and validated by three experts in research methods from Maseno University. Students expressed confidence in own creative abilities and cited availability of materials, and encouragement by parents as the most important factors for creativity, while teachers perceived project work, science debate, and opportunity for creative work as the most important factors. The study recommends that (1) opportunity be created to engage students in creative work (2) necessary materials for creative work be provided and (3) design be encouraged as a major step in the creative process.

  23. Ponnudurai, R and Priya, N

    The present paper deals with the analysis of Relative Growth Rate and Doubling Time of Neural network research output at international level using time series data from 1969 to 2007. The research output at the international level in 1969 is 2 and it is reached to 123552 in 2007 and the increasing trend is observed year by year. The relative growth rate registers a declining trend at international level. The study period, 1969-2007 records the mean relative growth rate of 0.29 at the world level. The doubling time of neural network research output at the world level starts with 0.63 year in 1971 and it is 6.93 years in 2007.

  24. Limo K, Samson and Moses Popoi

    The study sought to establish the effects of liberalization on performance of the dairy cooperatives in Western Province of Kenya. It sought to find out if there were any dairy cooperatives that collapsed due to liberalization, registered drop in its membership, or reduced milk volumes handled. Primary data was obtained from dairy cooperative officials, KDB and MOCDM officers. All the 27 dairy cooperatives in Western province, Kenya formed the population to provide data for this research. To collect data, questionnaires were administered at the sampled dairy cooperative societies’ officials and an interview schedule for the KDB and MOCDM officers. The instruments were administered face to face. The study was limited to dairy cooperative societies in Western Province of Kenya for the period between 1992 and 2008. The instruments were given to three experts from University of Nairobi for validation. A pilot study was also carried out in Moi’s Bridge dairy cooperative in Rift Valley province. The researcher employed statistical methods such as percentages, measures of central tendency, measures of dispersion or variability – variance, standards deviation and split-half technique were used to determine reliability of the instruments. All dairy cooperatives operating in Western Province were selected to ensure high degree of representation of population characteristics. Non- probability sampling was used to select the three officials of the cooperatives (chairperson, manager, secretary), the KDB official and District Cooperative officers in the area where the dairy cooperatives fall. The relevant statistical methods such as percentages, measures of central tendency- mean, median and measures of dispersion or variability – variance, standards deviation were used to analyze data. The data was presented in both descriptive and quantitative forms using percentages, frequency distribution tables and graphs. The research findings indicated that liberalization had adverse effects on dairy cooperatives in Western Province, Kenya and have not been able to recover to the levels reached before onset of liberalization. Between the years 1992 and 2008, all the sampled cooperatives indicated that at one time the cooperative had ceased operating, registered drop in milk volumes, membership and turnover. There was also gender imbalance in the managements of cooperatives with dominance of male above the age of 56 years. Based on the findings of the study it was recommended that the government departments and relevant stakeholders play a more active role in capacity building of dairy cooperatives and enforcement of regulations. The cooperatives also required financial assistance to acquire means for transporting milk from farms and also to the market and further assistance to revive the stalled coolers and purchase equipment. The research also identified areas that still required further research, these included studies to examine other factors that could have led to decline of dairy cooperatives after 1992, role of stakeholders in the dairy cooperatives and the rate of adoption of various technologies by the cooperatives.

  25. Raphel Stalin, Shafeeq, V.A and George Abraham

    The objective of the present study is to determine whether implementation of a team- cohesion intervention programme can enhance the team cohesion and self confidence of athletes and decrease cognitive and somatic anxiety which in turn can be fostered by a three-pronged strategy of goal setting, open communication and leadership. The participants were 28 club football players competing in the Indian Football league. Each participant completed the Group Environment Questionnaire and Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2, which assessed different aspect of cohesion and Cognitive and Somatic anxiety and self confidence at both the beginning and end of the programme. The team cohesion intervention programme was given for twelve weeks. The data was analyzed using t-ratio. After analyzing the data, significant differences were found between the pre-intervention test and post-intervention test. Overall results indicated that the team cohesion intervention programme using team goal setting, open communication and leadership were an effective team cohesion tool for enhancing cohesiveness and self confidence and reducing cognitive and somatic anxiety in football players.

  26. Seyed Mohammad Shahroudi

    Considering the fact that banks are the main economic resource in all countries around the world, one of the most significant objectives of the bank is to provide various, expanded, and perfect services for their clients to satisfy them. So, it seems essential to analyze the relationship between the satisfaction of the clients and the functions of the banks. This case study deals with the study of the branches of Bank Saderat in the province of Qazvin. This study aims to investigate the effective factors in satisfying the clients, and finally the level effectiveness of these factors is determined, and the possible solutions for the increase in the level of satisfaction of the clients are investigated.

  27. Seyed Mohammad Mousavi Shahroudi

    Small-scale industries account for a variable for economic development in a most number of countries in the world, in particular those which are developing and termed as ‘DCS’. Small-scale industries share to play considerable role in the employment of man power and productivity. They also play drastic roles in constituting investment and provoke the investments. As a result they influence the equal or otherwise distribution of incomes across the regions through increased profits. Small-scale industries are necessarily termed as "rural developing motors." Questions: Based on a certain number of surveys accomplished until now, we find that one prime approach to remedy our national rural areas is to develop small scale industries. The present study seeks to demonstrate the fact that what this development of rural regions matter and answer the question what type of industries or handicrafts should be established in villages to enhance the employment there in an attempt to raise the incomes and earnings of country people. In other words, what investment should be made on different types of industry in villages to step up their employment by maximizing the added values.

  28. J. Mary Jenitha and S.S. Dhenakaran

    This paper formulates the watermarking of relational database as a constrained optimization problem and to implement efficient techniques to handle the constraints like watermark synchronization errors and watermark detection. We present two techniques to solve the formulated optimization problem based on genetic algorithms (GAs) and pattern search (PS) techniques,and also a data partitioning technique that does not depend on marker tuples to locate the partitions and, thus, it is resilient to watermark synchronization errors.We develop an efficient technique for watermark detection that is based on an optimal threshold. The optimal threshold is selected by minimizing the probability of decoding error.

  29. Mahendra Pratap, Anup Kumar and R.C.Yadava

    A women’s age at marriage is considered to be one of the most important variables accounting for variation in fertility levels among different societies of the world. The objective of the present paper is to study the fertility behavior of females near the time of marriage using the approach of first birth interval. The study is done in two sections. Section-1 deals with the study of spatial variation in first birth interval across different states of the country (India) for females classified according to age at marriage. It also deals with the investigation of transition of first birth interval from NFHS-2 to NFHS-3. Section-2 is concerned with the application of a simple model to investigate whether the assumption of constant fecundability after marriage till the occurrence of first conception is suitable or not. If so, the estimates of fecundability have also been obtained using simple technique of estimation.

  30. Eluozo, S. N., Ademiluyi, J. O. and Ukpaka, P. C.

    This paper explains the behaviour of E.coli on decay phase condition in Abua-Odua in Niger Delta of Rivers State; the model shows the variation of degradation of E.coli in shallow aquifer. Furthermore, it is confirmed that the decay phase condition of E.coli migration on stratum deposition in groundwater aquifers, does not completely free it from solute, due to other influences that may cause regeneration of the microbes, increasing the level of concentration and degrade the quality of ground water. The study also explains the rate of concentration with respect to distance and duration within hundred days and thirty metres respectively. Finally, the model and the experimental results compared fits to the condition of decay phase; this implies that the model developed will be a benchmark in solving groundwater pollution transport of E.coli in decay phase condition in the study location.

  31. N. Padma Sirisha, M. Ramesh, G. Sudhakar, V. Lakshmi Kalpana and G. Paddaiah

    Objective: Childhood obesity is one of the most serious public health challenges of the 21st century. Since the problem is global, the present study was undertaken to assess the prevalence of overweight and obesity and compared their association with social & economic status among urban school children of Visakhapatnam, North Coastal Andhra Pradesh, South India. Methods: A total of 1000 children from public and private schools in and around Visakhapatnam were included in this study. Data for children aged 10-12 years of both sexes were collected. Body Mass Index (BMI) was computed using the following standard equation: BMI = Weight (kg)/height (m)². Presence of overweight and obesity were evaluated using the age-sex specific growth charts recommended by Centre for Disease Control, USA. Results: The overall prevalence of overweight and obesity were 13.1% (95% CI:11.01-15.19) and 5.1% (95% CI:3.74-6.46) respectively, which together constitute 18.2% (95% CI:15.81-20.59). The prevalence of obesity and overweight were highest among boys (18.4%), at the age of 10 years (23.8%), in private schools (24.5%) and especially in the children with high social status (24.4%) and economic status (28.9%). Thus, the significantly associated categories, according to the weight of the children are age (p=0.002), type of school (p=0.000), social (p=0.000) and economic status (p=0.001). The odds ratio estimates revealed that the children aged 10 years, studying in private school, belongs to high social and economic status were at increased risk to have the overweight and obesity when compared with the other categories within each variable. Conclusion: The study confirmed the findings of earlier studies carried out in India and other countries. It emphasized that the children of high social and economic status were significantly associated with the risk of being overweight and obesity. Thus, similar studies with more number of variables should be undertaken among children, which would help us to have a better and clearer picture on the overweight and obesity situation in India.

  32. Betty Tikoko, Bomett J. Emily, *Sammy K. Chumba and Joyce Kurgat

    This study examined the impact of Free Primary Education (FPE) on teaching and learning in public primary schools. It adopted a descriptive cross-sectional survey design. Random and purposive sampling was utilized to obtain a sample of 45 language teachers out of a population of 134. The questionnaire was the main data collection instrument. Descriptive statistics was used to analyze the data. The study found out that increase in enrolment occasioned by FPE, has negatively affected determinants of instruction. It was further established that new learners beyond school-going age have complicated discipline in schools thus negatively affecting teaching and learning. Moreover, physical facilities were rated insufficient owing to increased enrolment and lack of a commensurate expansion of the facilities. Despite the negative impact, the study established that the FPE programme provided sufficient teaching and learning resources and increased access to primary schooling in the district. The paper recommends the provision of more teachers to improve the status of instruction and the in- servicing of teachers to enhance their capabilities in handling the new learners. Community involvement in putting up of physical infrastructure is also recommended.

  33. Okutu Aggrey, Chumba Sammy, Saina Shadrack and Kurgat Joyce

    Policy making in education in Kenya is usually the concern of those in authority such as the legislators, Minister of Education, Ministry officials among others. However there are school based policies that are a concern of the Head teacher. This study sought to investigate the role of head teachers in the formulation and implementation of school-based policies in Kenya. The study was conducted in all the ten secondary schools that are found in the study area. It involved all the ten head teachers who were chosen purposively, through simple random sampling fifty teachers and three hundred students were chosen as respondents. The study was guided by collegial theories which assume that organizations determine policies and make decisions through a process of discussion. The study adopted descriptive survey design. The study revealed a significant difference in the perceptions of the respondents regarding the head teachers’ involvement of students, teachers and parents in school- based policy making and schools’ effectiveness in terms of improved academic performance. The study further found out that the head teachers do not involve other stakeholders (teachers, students and parents) in school-based policy making which negatively impacts on schools’ academic achievement.

  34. S. Sridhar and R. Rengasamy

    The present study an attempt has been made to investigate the effect of Seaweed Liquid Fertilizer (SLF) of Ulva lactuca without chemical fertilizer on growth, pigment content and yield of Amaranthus roxburghinus and Amaranthus tricolor (greens) was analyzed. Among the different concentrations of SLF(s) investigated, the A. roxburghinus that received with 1.5 % SLF showed maximum fresh weight, dry weight, root and shoot length, leaf area and content of total chlorophyll, chlorophyll a and b, protein, carbohydrate, lipid and yield whereas, in A. tricolor maximum at 1.0% level. The SLF was also analyzed for micro and macro elements and the plant growth regulators like Auxin and Cytokinin.

  35. V. Rajathi and Selvi Sabhanayagam

    In the present study, an attempt has been made to analyze the changes in the acetylcholinesterase activity in the brain and testis of Sphaerodema rusticum. The sublethal concentration of mercury decreased the acetylcholinesterase activity in the brain and testis of Sphaerodema rusticum.

  36. Rajarajan P, Arvind prasanth D, Dhandapani R, Sangeetha J, Devanandhan P

    Aim: To isolate and identify the bacterial isolates from preoperative cases presenting at an eye care hospital in Salem and determine its antibiogram pattern. Method: Conjunctival swabs were obtained from 84 preoperative cases undergoing cataract surgery at Dr.Agarwal’s Eye Hospital, Salem. The swabs were processed by standard methods. The bacterial isolates deemed significant by growth in culture media and positive for direct microscopic findings were taken for the study. The antibiotic sensitivity pattern was determined by Kirby-Bauer method. Result: In this study the culture positivity accounted for 71(85%) cases and 13(15%) cases showed no growth. The predominant isolate was Staph epidermidis in 23(32.3%) cases followed by Staph aureus in 12(16.9%) cases. Non hemolytic streptococci accounted for 10(14%) cases followed by Streptococcus pneumoniae in 7(10%) cases . The gram negative isolates included Acinetobacter spp in 3(4.2%) cases, Aeromonas spp in 3(4.2%) cases and Serratia spp in2(3%) cases. In susceptibility testing, ciprofloxcin showed a wide coverage against 54(86%) of the 63 gram positive cocci and 5(63%) of the total 8 gram negative isolates. The coverage of sisomycin, tobramycin and ofloxcin against gram positive cocci tested were 73.01%, 65.07% and 60.01% respectively. All the isolates of gram negative bacilli showed resistance to ofloxcin. Ciprofloxacin, sisomycin and amikacin was the most effective antibiotics against Aeromonas spp in this study. Conclusion: ciprofloxacin, sisomycin and tobramycin having a wide range of activity against both gram positive and gram negative organism indicating it as a potent antibiotic for preoperative cases.

  37. Aditi Kundu and Rina Rani Ray

    For cost effective production of endo xylanase, an enzyme of immense industrial importance, a fungal strain was isolated and identified as Penicillium janthinellum. The strain was found to ferment a number of agricultural residues in the solid state fermentation media, of which dried grass and rice straw showed promising results. The best concentration of these substrates was found to be 0.5% (w/v) and 1% (w/v) respectively at a moisture content of only 5-6%. The kinetics of endoxylanase production showed that highest enzyme production could be achieved within 72nd hours of cultivation at pH 6.0 and at 27°C. Amongst the nitrogen sources, peptone was found to be the best organic source for boosting up of the endo xylanase production. Among the metal ions tested, Mn2+ brought about a 1.15 fold increase in enzyme production in both dried grass and rice straw supplemented culture medium probably acting as a cofactor of the enzyme

  38. K. Moorthikumar and M. Muthulingam

    Succinate dehydrogenase is the oxidative enzyme which was drastically affected by the action of heavy metals. Succinate dehydrogenase is chosen as a representative of metabolic enzyme. It is a marker enzyme for detecting the presence of TCA cycle in tissues. The aim of the present study is to assess the enzyme succinate dehydrogenase activities in gill, liver, kidney, brain and muscle of the fish Labeo rohita exposed to sublethal concentration of nickel chloride 1/5th (high), 1/10th (medium) and 1/15th (low) of the 96 hour LC50 values for the period of 10, 20 and 30 days. The fish exposed to nickel chloride showed a decrease the enzyme succinate dehydrogenase activities for 10, 20 and 30 days in gill, liver, kidney, brain and muscle. However, no information is on record concerning the three different sublethal concentration of heavy metal, nickel chloride on the enzyme succinate dehydrogenase of freshwater fish Labeo rohita. The objective of the present work was to observe the effect of nickel on succinate dehydrogenase activities in gill, liver and kidney of Indian major carp, Labeo rohita.

  39. Leena Leon and Nikita P.V.

    Sedentary life has become a prominent feature of the IT professionals. The nutritional adequacy is one of the key determinants of the quality of human resources. No data is available on the nutritional status and stress among people working in IT sectors. The main objectives of the present study were to assess the lifestyle and activity pattern, nutritional profile and stress among IT professionals. Purposive sampling was used to identify the participants—100 IT professionals from Ernakulam and Calicut districts of Kerala state. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect all the necessary information for the present study. Anthropometric measurements, bio-chemical estimations, and stress assessment were also done. The study showed that diet consumed by IT professionals was nutritionally inadequate to meet the RDA. Meal skipping and snacking were prevalent among IT professionals. BMI categorization of the subjects showed a significant increase in overweight (24%) and obesity (10%) among IT professionals. Blood pressure status of the professionals studied revealed that 40 percent of the subjects had different levels of hypertension. Stress assessment indicated the existence of moderate to very high levels of stress among IT professionals. It is evident that new strategies need to be implemented to improve overall wellbeing of the IT professionals.

  40. Prasad, P., Bedi, S. and Tanuja

    This investigation intended to comparatively study and evaluate independent capacities of cellulose degrading native strains of Streptomyces albospinus (MTCC 8768) and Streptomyces somaliensis (MTCC 8769) isolated from municipal wastes of Patna for growth adaptability and endoglucanase yield, divulging a new insight for a strong suitability of these isolates for large scale production. Both the isolates were able to grow well in all the media tested. However, S. albospinus (MTCC 8768) showed luxuriant growth as compared to S. somaliensis (MTCC 8769) indicating its wider substrate utilization capacity. The isolates were also able to utilize different carbon sources with exception of lactose. Maximum cellulolytic activity was observed at 37 °C using Congo red test that exhibited a clear zone of 4 mm by S. albospinus (MTCC 8768) and 3 mm by S. somaliensis (MTCC 8769) around the colonies. Optimum pH was 6.8 at which the amount of reducing sugar released was 9.2 mg/ml by S. albospinus (MTCC 8768) and 8.3 mg/ml by S. somaliensis (MTCC 8769). S. albospinus (MTCC 8768) showed a better adaptability for different media and carbon sources that makes it more suitable to be used for commercial production of the enzyme.

  41. S. Ravikumar, R. Gokulakrishnan and P.S. Parimala

    The present study was made an attempt to degrade the phenolic compounds along with co-toxicants by halobacteria isolated from the coconut retting water. Thirty two morphologically different bacterial strains were isolated, of which 3 strains Pseudomonas putida, Bacillus sp. and Pyrococcus horikoshii showed better degradation. However, Pseudomonas putida showed maximum degradation of phenol up to 2000 mg.l-1 without any supplement, but the maximum phenol removal efficiency was observed with the addition of 60 mg.l-1 of cyanide at 96 hrs by Pseudomonas putida and 600 mg.l-1 of thiocyanate at 144 hrs by Bacillus sp. It is concluded from the present study that, the isolated bacterial strains viz., Pseudomonas putida, Bacillus sp. and Pyrococcus horikoshii could be effectively used to degrade the phenolic compounds along with cyanide and thiocyanate under saline environment.

  42. Sapna Vijayvargiya and Ashwani Kumar

    During the present investigation, soil from different villages of Jaipur district in Rajasthan was tested. Soils of two depths viz 0-15 cm and 15-30 cm were tested. Surface soil samples (0-15 cm) showed the pH ranging from 8.2 to 10.2 and sub-surface soil samples (15-30cm) showed pH ranging from 8.0 to 10.0 showing characteristic of alkali soils. The EC of 9 soil samples was less than 1 mmhos/cm. One soil sample showed EC more than 1 mmhos/cm. Organic carbon percentage was low in all the 10 soil samples. Available Phosphorus and potash ranged from medium to high in these soil samples.

  43. Mohammed I. Gumel, Nasir Faruk and A.A. Ayeni

    Wireless mesh networks technology has drawn considerable attention as a promising broadband access technology despite the increase in the number of internet access technologies. It has been found that increasing the number of the gateways ordinarily, does not results in network throughputs as it is intended unless load balancing scheme is also employed in the network. A load balancing scheme is required to balance the traffic in the network across the various gateways nodes and avoids overloading any gateway node. In this paper, AODV routing protocol is modified to combine the route discovery process with a load balancing technique. The modified AODV selects a route to the destination based on the current load of the intermediate nodes and selects a gateway from the available mesh network gateways based on its current load, the simulations show that this load balancing technique will improve the performance of the wireless mesh networks.

  44. John Nyangena and Joseph Misati

    The overall objective of this paper is to determine the role played by forestry in alleviating poverty in Kenya. It also seeks to examine and analyse the extent of poverty among people living in Cherangani Hills, West Pokot; assess the benefits of forestry to rural communities; investigate the relationship between forest dependence and poverty and to make policy recommendations on ways of enhancing the contribution of forests in alleviating poverty. Two methods were used to derive data for the study. Secondary data was obtained by review of existing literature related to the subject while primary data was obtained through a survey among 200 households. The survey was based on Multistage sampling procedure. Data was collected through a structured questionnaire, an interview schedule and discussions with key informants and analyzed using descriptive statistics and regression analysis techniques. The findings revealed that 69.5% of the population had incomes falling below the official poverty line. Two categories of forest products had a net effect on rural poverty; timber products were mainly commercialized and traded by people with sufficient capital, while the poor mainly utilized non-timber forest products. The findings further revealed a significant positive relationship between poverty level and household size. There was a significant difference in poverty level among households having forestry as a source of income compared with those without it. On the basis of these findings, it was concluded that forests act to ameliorate the incidence of poverty in the study area. It was recommended that to further enhance this contribution, it was imperative to undertake conservation programmes that were sensitive and responsive to community needs and that aimed to strike a balance between utilization level of forest resources and their renewable rate.

  45. Mokuolu OA and Olawumi HO

    Needlestick and other injuries from sharp objects place healthcare workers at risk of infection such as hepatitis B and C and the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections. The objective of the study was to determine the burden of needle stick injury in a Nigerian Tertiary Hospital as part of the baseline data against which subsequent impact of current interventions in the hospital will be measured. A voluntary, self administered questionnaire was circulated to 150 Nurses across the various departments in the hospital. Information sought included their experience of needle stick injuries, circumstances, and reoccurrences. Of the 150 questionnaires administered, 129 (86%) nurses responded to the questionnaire. Of these, 80 (62.0%) respondents reported at least one needlestick injury, 48 (37.2%) reported no needles tick injury. Reasons given for needlestick injuries were: Recap of needles 40 (58.8%); non cooperative patients 8 (11.8%); accidental while withdrawing medications 12 (17.6%); improper management of used needle and improper injection techniques 8 (11.8%). A number of preventive measures such as the use of auto destruct (AD) syringes or safety engineered sharp devices, coupled with necessary education and training is discussed. The role of other preventive measures such as proper management of hospital waste, use of sharp boxes to segregate sharps is also highlighted.

  46. Prof.Dr. P.K. Srimani and Smt. Parvati N Angadi

    The study pertaining to the available medical databases which are of huge size involve the consideration of all the attributes related to the problem. This resulted in large amount of computational time and accordingly there was a drastic reduction in the computational speed also. In order to minimize these factors, the present study was undertaken which enabled to get optimal results by using neural classifier techniques. In this paper, the effectiveness of various attributes and classifiers in the cytological diagnosis of WBCD breast cancer dataset were compared. Here, the most effective attributes were identified and it was found that these attributes describe at least one of the important nuclei characteristics of the morphological and textual features namely size, shape and texture of a cancerous cell. Further, applying all these attributes together to the classifiers, it was found that there was a significant increase in their performance which resulted in optimal computational speed and time. Overall, it was found that support vector machines could give accuracy as high as 97.37%.

  47. Prabudoss, V

    Crossandra plants bearing very attractive and colourful flowers for more than four months in a year by consuming minimum amount of chemical fertilizers. Azospirillum and phosphobacteria are biofertilizers which induces or enhances the growth, development and yield of crop plant through ‘N’ fixation, ‘P’ solubilization and also by synthesizing growth promoting substances like IAA, GA and cytokinines. In the present investigation about six isolates of Azospirillum were isolated from roots of Crossandra from different locations of Cuddalore District, Tamilnadu, India. Among the six isolates one of the best isolate AVCR* was selected and used in the field studies along with phosphobacteria from the Department of Microbiology, Annamalai University. The present results revealed that the Crossandra plants receiving 75 per cent recommended dose of NPK fertilizers along with Azospirillum and phosphobacteria (T10¬) registered maximum growth and yield when compared to other treatments and also the treatments T6 and T14 registered appreciable values in growth and yield of Crossandra, particularly the treatment T6 – 100 per cent NPK + Azospirillum and phosphobacteria registered nearly on par values with T10 in many growth parameters. Hence there are lot of ways to reduce 25 per cent of N and P fertilizers by intending Azospirillum and phophobacteria to the flower crop Crossandra.

  48. P. Suganya and R. Dharshini

    Cashew apple is a fairly large spreading and fast growing tree that is native to Brazil. The tree also produces a two-piece fruit, one part called the Cashew Apple and one being the Cashew Nut. The cashew apple is pear shaped and has nutritional and medicinal effect. It contains more vitamin C than citrus. Various value added products such as juice, fenny, wine, dried cashew apple, syrup and jam can be prepared from cashew apple.

  49. G. Murugesan and Dr. C. Chellappan

    Computational grids are distributed systems composed of heterogeneous computing resources which are distributed geographically and administratively. These highly scalable systems are designed to meet the large computational demands of many users from scientific and business orientations. The allocation of distributed resources to user application is one of the most challenging tasks in Grid Computing paradigm. The problem of allocating resources in scheduling requires the coordinated access to resources managed by autonomous entities. The resource owners of these resources have different usage or access policies and cost models, and varying loads as well as availability of resources. In order to address complex resource management issues, we have proposed a computational economy framework for resource allocation for optimally assigning jobs to resources to achieve a business objective. This framework provides mechanism for optimizing resource provider and consumer objective functions through linear programming principles. In the Grid computing arena, however, such scheduling has mostly been done from the perspective of maximizing the utilization of hardware resources. In this paper, we propose a mathematical approach as an economical model for Grid resource allocation with the objective of minimize the cost of grid resource users’ under the availability of resources and budget as constraints.

  50. Nageshwar Prasad and Rumki Sarkar

    The main objective of this paper is to identify and fill up the voids in terms of concepts and methods of research work on ‘Terrain Evaluation for Agricultural Land use And Planning in the Burdwan Upland, West Bengal’. This work will make suggestion relating to the research work to be conducted by research scholars on almost similar type of problems and methods. For achieving the target, the author has reviewed the literature previously presented. The whole literature survey has been attempted on almost all the main parts of the research topic. The previous works related to terrain evaluation, agricultural land use, land use model, statistical techniques, regional development disparity and Remote Sensing and Geographical Information System (GIS) etc. have enriched the present study.

  51. Nageshwar Prasad and Rumki Sarkar

    The main objective of this paper is to identify and fill up the voids in terms of concepts and methods of research work on ‘Terrain Evaluation for Agricultural Land use And Planning in the Burdwan Upland, West Bengal’. This work will make suggestion relating to the research work to be conducted by research scholars on almost similar type of problems and methods. For achieving the target, the author has reviewed the literature previously presented. The whole literature survey has been attempted on almost all the main parts of the research topic. The previous works related to terrain evaluation, agricultural land use, land use model, statistical techniques, regional development disparity and Remote Sensing and Geographical Information System (GIS) etc. have enriched the present study.

  52. Prakash S. Kattimani

    There is a interlink Between growth rate of population and family planning, the family planning started with slogan of “Two children for each family” but growth rate of population has not been controlled. The growth rate of population has been increasing at rate of 15.67 percent. The family planning programe started in December 1957 and continued vigorously after the formation of Karnataka state. Till 1977 the programe was implemented with full speed and under proper direction. Since there is an increasing pressure of populations growth on land in rural areas to urban areas, by 1991, India had more than 150,000 public health facilities through which family planning programs were offered (see Health Care, this ch). The annual population growth rate in the previous decade (1941 to 1951) had been below 1.3 percent, and government planners optimistically believed that the population would continue to grow at roughly the same rate. The objective of this is to examine the growth rate of population and impact of family planning on control of population. This paper is based on secondary data, secondary data was a collected from published and unpublished sources, census, Report and Journals. According to provisional figures of 2011 census population has been increasing, this is interesting note that family planning programme is not working properly in this concern developed country has taken strong decision but in India it is not taken due to awareness, poverty, population is increasing. Family planning programme implemented successfully in urban areas but not rural areas.

  53. Tikoko Jeruto Betty and Bomett J. Emily

    This paper discusses the disciplinary practices employed by teachers on boys in coeducational secondary schools in Kenya based on a study on the effect of coeducation on the discipline and academic performance of boys. Data was collected through structured face-to-face interviews with six teachers in charge of discipline in six mixed boarding schools in Nakuru District. The findings revealed that the coeducational setting presented unique challenges to boys’ discipline. Moreover, boy-girl affairs, which abounded in such settings, resulted in poor academic performance for the boys. The boys were lacking in academic focus, indulged in petty theft and exam cheating and other related vices in order to win the admiration of girls in school. Further, disciplinary practices adopted by teachers in the schools were unfavourable to the boy child’s general well being and indeed were detrimental to boys’ academic performance. The negative effect of such practices manifested in the form of low self esteem, lack of confidence, embarrassment, humiliation and loss of interest in academic work. It was recommended that school administrators employ stringent measures to discourage unhealthy relationships among students in mixed schools and structured forms of punishment be employed to correct the behaviour of the boy child.

  54. Dr. S. Ramalinga Choodambigai

    The present study on Dimensions of Women Higher Education in Coimbatore would concentrate on estimating the rate of returns of womens higher education in a selected area of Coimbatore city. Standard Mincerian earnings function and extended earnings function were used to investigate the education – earnings relationship among selected women and test the hypothesis of positive returns to education. In addition, the job satisfaction pattern of the individuals was also analyzed. The findings suggested that the private rates of return to education of selected women were positive at virtually all educational levels. The rates of return to education were found to be higher, the higher the educational level, the result inconsistent with the findings of other researchers in this area. The job satisfaction pattern also increased with level of education.

  55. Hezborn M. N. Kodero, Bernard L. Misigo, Elizabeth A. Owino and Wilfridah Mucherah

    This study investigated the knowledge of secondary school students on the meaning of the term homosexuality. It also investigated the students’ perception of homosexual practice in secondary schools, the type of secondary school where homosexuality is most practiced, and the root cause of homosexuality. The sample comprised 258 participants (129 female and 129 male) who were Form 3 students drawn from 10 secondary schools in western Kenya. A biographical form and homosexuality questionnaire were used in data collection. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were used in data analyses with alpha level set at .05. The results showed that majority of the participants (93%) knew the meaning of homosexuality; that homosexuality is practiced in secondary schools in Kenya; that homosexuality is mainly practised in single sex boarding secondary schools; and that sexual starvation is perceived as the main root cause of homosexuality in secondary schools. Stakeholders in the educational sector and policy makers could find these findings useful in addressing legal and moral issues on homosexuality in secondary schools in the country.

  56. Pandhre G.R., Satwase A. N. and Syed Imran Hashmi

    Sprouting and roasting of wheat and finger millets supposed to increase the nutritive value and decrease the antinutritional factors. These roasted and sprouting finger millets and wheat could find application in development of various weaning food preparations. In present investigation, efforts were made to study change in nutritional properties of sprouted wheat and finger millet. Further two different methods of drying viz. solar and Infra red drying, were implied to analyze the effect of drying method on nutritional composition. The results revealed that infra-red drying drastically reduces the time required for drying of sprouted wheat and finger millets. However, nutrient losses in case of infra-red drying observed to be higher compared to that of sun drying.

  57. Rashi Bankar, Ajai Kumar and Sadhna Puri

    The objective of this study was to assess the oil composition of clove bud commercial available from local market of India. The hydro-distilled clove oil obtained from Delhi, Kannauj and Kanpur were analysed by GC and GC-MS, which led to the identification of 11 compounds representing 99.8, 99.7 and 99.7% respectively of the total oil. Eugenol the main constituent was found in the range of 82.3-91.4% followed by trans-β-caryophyllene (6.3-12.7%). The oil yields were 3.8, 4.2 and 4.4 % (v/w) respectively. α-humulene, eugenyl acetate, trans (β)-caryophyllene and chavicol were other constituents. Broadly major component of the oil were qualitatively similar in among collected and comparative samples but variation among other constituents have been noticed.

  58. K. Senthil Manikandan, B. Sivasankar, V. Suresh Kumar, V. Sukumar, G. Kumaresan

    The objective of the present work is to investigate experimentally the thermal behaviour of a Latent Heat Thermal Energy Storage (LHTES) unit. A Thermal Energy Storage (TES) unit is designed, fabricated and integrated with blower to study the performance of the storage unit. The TES unit contains a mixture of paraffin Phase Change Material (PCM) and carbon fiber brushes (CFB). Experimental result shows that the brushes essentially improve the heat exchange rate during the charge and discharge processes even when the mass fraction of CFB is about 1%. It was concluded that the study PCM mixture was the most promising one for latent heat thermal energy storage applications due to its high thermal conductivity and also high charging and discharging rate.

  59. P.K. Srimani and M.C. Roopa

    The present investigation was carried out with the purpose of analyzing the 2D-stability analysis of bio-porous convection (BPC) in a suspension of motile microorganisms in a gravity inclined environment. Due to the extreme complexity of the problem the computational tools like Maple and Mathematica were used to get the analytic expressions. It is a well known fact that permeability of the porous medium is an important factor in the study of bioconvection. In the absence of gravity inclination, the results obtained were quite simple when compared to those of the inclined environment. It was found that the criterion for the existence of critical permeability was dominated by five parameters viz, cell eccentricity, gravity inclination, average swimming velocity, vertical disturbance and fluid velocity. The profiles of critical permeability vs cell eccentricity exhibited amazingly interesting features. The results were found to be in excellent agreement with the available results for the limiting cases.

  60. P.K. Srimani and Srinivas, A

    Finding information on a large web site can be a difficult and time-consuming process. Recommender systems can help users find information by providing them with personalized suggestions. In this paper the creation of recommendation system was emphasized to achieve the personalization on the website. Recommender systems typically use techniques from collaborative filtering, in which proximity measures between users are formulated to generate recommendations, or content-based filtering, in which users are compared directly to items. Our approach used similarity measures between users. User-based collaborative filtering gave personalized recommendations by finding similar users. Item-Based collaborative filtering recommended similar items. Different algorithms were compared. However, the applied testing procedure did not employ equal conditions for both approaches. The aim of this report was to give an evaluation on both the approaches by employing a fair testing procedure on the data gathered. Test results and their dependency to the employed algorithms were interpreted. The experiments are carried out by building the recommendation engine through the Taste library in Java — a fast and flexible engine for collaborative filtering.

  61. Perumal Bhavani and Dharmalingam Sangeetha

    Proton–conducting polymer membranes are used as an electrolyte in the so - called proton exchange membrane fuel cells. Current commercially available membranes are perfluosulfonic acid polymers, a class of high –cost ionomers. This paper examines the potential of polymer blends, namely those of sulfonated poly styrene ethylene butylene poly styrene (SPSEBS) and poly styrene ethylene butylene poly styrene (PSEBS), in the proton exchange membrane application. SPSEBS / PSEBS blends were prepared by solvent evaporation method. SPSEBS membranes exhibited good conductivity, flexibility and chemical stability while they had poor mechanical stability. In an effort to improve the mechanical properties of SPSEBS while maintaining the initial conductivity, it was incorporated with PSEBS. The obtained membranes were characterized in terms of conductivity, ionic exchange capacity and water uptake. Blend membranes were studied by FTIR spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The morphology of the membranes was studied by scanning electron microscope (SEM). Thermal stability of the membranes was studied by TGA and DSC. Fuel cell performance studied by PEMFC and DMFC.

  62. Dr. Srimani P.K. and Smt. Parimala Y.G.

    Fe-doped semi-insulating InP samples doped with S and S+Si dual implants were characterised for their electrical properties, namely, Hall mobility, electrical activation, carrier concentration and sheet resistivity using Hall effect and Vander Pauw techniques. The samples doped for levels ranging from 5 X 1012 to 3 x 1015cm-2 and subjected to Rapid Thermal Annealing for various temperature and time schedules to determine the optimum anneal schedule. Maximum activations of 66% and high electron mobilities of the order of 1100 cm2/Vs were obtained for the best anneal schedule which was found to be 750 °C for 10 s.

  63. Premala Priyadharsini, V and Doreen Soanes

    Incidence of cancer in northeast is the highest in India. Nutrition intervention plays a vital role in the management of postponement of cancer. Objectives to find out the prevalence rate of different types of cancer among the selected tribal population of Shillong and dietary habits of these tribes. Methods: Three hospitals from the city of Shillong was followed up for a period of three months, a total of 200 inpatients and outpatients visiting during the period were interviewed with well-structured interview schedule to collect data on background information, disease history, anthropometric measurement, clinical assessment, biochemical assessment, lifestyle or health hazards, dietary hazards and dietary assessment including weighment survey to assess for the nutrient intake of the cancer patients for three consecutive days. The PGSGA scoring was done to find the suitable level of intervention strategies. Nutrition intervention through Macrobiotic Approach was given to the patients and their family members using pamphlets, booklet and an e-content. Results: It was found out during the study that majority of the cancer patients were malnourished. Most of them were non- vegetarian and the rate of health hazards which was recorded among them was high with regards to intake of tobacco, betel nut and intake of alcohol. Dietary hazards also contributes equally towards the risk where it was found out that majority were consuming smoked products and intake of fruit and vegetables was very low among them. On the whole the nutrient intake of the increased selected 20 subsamples was found to meet the RDA except for β- carotene in both the sexes leading to increase chances of oxidative stress. Conclusion: The study recommends the need of a special nutrition intervention among the selected cancer patients regarding the prevention aspects and motivation of patients to incorporate healthy lifestyle habits into their daily life in which macrobiotic approach was considered a stepping stone to accomplish the objectives.

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