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IJCR is following an instant policy on rejection those received papers with plagiarism rate of more than 20%. So, All of authors and contributors must check their papers before submission to making assurance of following our anti-plagiarism policies.

 

 

 

 

September 2011

  1. Fatemeh Dialameh poor., Mohamad reza Dayer and Siamak noorizadeh

    In the enzymology, the palmitoyl – co a hydrolase is said to the enzyme that hydrolase the fatty acid. For this enzyme polmitoyl – coa and water are considered. According to available reports this enzymes are effective in regulating of intracellular concentration of acyl coa, fatty acid and co enzyme. Beside the design and construction of effective inhibitors for disabling of enzyme, the study of interaction of enzyme on the inhibitor by using of computational methods in presenting the acceptance model for performance. In the present study the effectiveness of inhibitors named Ibuprofen, Niacin, FMN. On the palmitoyl – co a hydrolase by codes of 3.1.2.2 and by using of dynamics. Molecular computational were simulated and were studied. Simulation in the condition that was similar to the physiological condition in the aquatic environment the temperature of 37 and the pressure of 1 atmosphere was conducted. Then doing the required parameters molecular dynamic from trajectory and extraction simulation and analyzing of results were done. FMN by reducing of irregular rate of RMSD and increasing of accessible level of solvent, regular structures of alpha and Beta are weakest inhibitor were recognized.

  2. Punithavathi, J and Baskaran, R

    The present study aims to find out the land use and land cover in Thanjavur district. The total extention of the area of 3397 sq.km. The district is located in the Eastern coast of Tamil Nadu. The study has been mainly used of satellite imagery for identifying the land use and land cover of the study area. ERDAS and GIS soft were has been used in the study area. Here the researcher followed to the supervise classification and followed the block wise land use and land cover classification in the Thanjavur district. There are 14 blocks in the district such as Ammapettai, Budalur, Kumbakonam, Thanjavur, Papanasam, Thiruvidaimaruthur, Thiruvonam, Thiruppanandal, Orathanadu, Madukkur, Thiruvaiyaru, Pattukkottai, Peravurani, and Sethubhachatram.. The district has been classified into 11 classes in level I to level II. In Thanjavur district total major land use and land cover categories of agriculture land was 1775.4 sq.km, built-up land was 545.12 sq.km, water bodies were 68.29 sq.km, mixed plantation was 424.49 sq.km, scrub land was 131.25 sq.km, without scrub land was 150.99 sq.km, river sand was 45.58 sq.km, mangroves 19.55 sq.km, aquaculture and salt pan 26.9sq.km and marshy land 7.68sq.km. Finally the Rank correlation methods were followed in the district.

  3. Dr. Henry N. Wanjala

    This paper is a follow up of an earlier study carried out on the relationship between attitude towards Music education and achievement among pupils in Kenya (Wanjala, 2011) which established that there is a positive correlation between pupil’s attitude towards music education and their achievement. In the major findings of the study, it was observed that attitudes were fundamental to the dynamics of behaviour and they greatly determine how learning took place in situations of music instruction. It was further pointed that in the process of learning, certain experiences may create a favourable or unfavourable atmosphere which in turn makes students either to dislike or appreciate music. On the basis of these findings the author of this paper articulates the impact of attitude formation in the learning environment.

  4. Allan Simiyu Kundu, Dr. Michael Korir and Mr. Patrick Kerre

    This paper is based on a study to establish the effect of competitive strategies on shareholder value among listed companies on the Nairobi Stock Exchange. The specific objectives were: to establish the effects of cost leadership strategy; differentiation strategy and focus strategy on shareholder value. The study depicted each of the three competitive strategies as independent variables and shareholder value as the dependent variable. The study utilized explanatory research and multiphase sampling designs targeting companies and employees. Questionnaires were used to collect data on competitive strategies while document analysis guide was used to gather secondary data on shareholder value. The results revealed that cost leadership and differentiation and focus strategies have a weak positive association with shareholder value. Furthermore, the regression model revealed that competitive strategies accounted for 12% of variations in shareholder value hence able to create value. It was concluded that all competitive strategies have a significant positive effect on shareholder value. The study recommended that firms implement competitive strategies, and scholars pursue studies towards how differentiation and cost leadership strategies can be utilised together.

  5. Chen-Ying Li, Liwei Hsu and Yi Hsu

    This study attempted to investigate the possible factors that would affect parent’s decision on choosing the school for their children. Two hundred and two (N=202) parents from central Taiwan were selected and invited to participate in this study. Factor Analysis and the Response Surface Model (RSM) were utilized to examine the seven propose research hypotheses on the basis of a self-developed questionnaire. Cronbach αand Exploratory Factor Analysis was used to examine the reliability and validity of the questionnaire and it was proved to be a reliable and valid instrument. The results showed that the research hypotheses on the influence factors of “the image of a school,” “campus security,” “location of the school” and “parents’ satisfaction toward the quality of education children receive at the school” caused to parents; decision making were partially sustained. Hypotheses on the effect of parents’ SES and students’ academic achievement toward their choosing schools for their children were sustained while “the atmosphere of a school” did not be discovered as a significant factor in decision-making process.

  6. Simon G. Omare and Martin K. Tanui

    When the NCCK Secretary General described the President as being ‘moribund’ and the Prime Minister ‘ineffective’ in the Kenyan coalition government, it meant that in the eyes of the NCCK there is something wrong in the Kenyan politics. Indeed, a political setup that is ‘moribund and ineffective’ cannot deliver services to the ‘polis’ as it ought to. The bane of the Kenyan politics can be viewed from many perspectives. One such perspective is from a religio-ethical point of view. Specifically, Kenyan politics is imbued with Machiavellism. This is a political system where the survival of the political elite surpasses anything else. There is no morality or ethics in politics other than an ethic of perpetuating the interests of the ruler resulting to wanting political leadership. This is at the expense of the ruled, who continues to suffer injustice manifested in such social ills as lack of basic needs. In such a scenario, it seems that the saviour of the populace should come from outside the political class. These writers analyze the problem in Kenyan politics from a religio-ethical perspective with the contention that politics in Kenya is bedevilled with machiavellistic ills. The basic argument presented towards addressing the situation is that the Church in Kenya has a major role to play at least checking the excesses of Machiavellism.

  7. Andrew Rori, James Bunei and Ezekiel Mwenzwa

    The youth in Kenya (15-35) are the cornerstone of society and must be nurtured to take up active leadership roles in the country. However, since independence, their role has been largely peripheral leading to their current marginalization manifested in form of unemployment, crime, drug abuse and passive involvement in constructive nation building. Part of the problem has been poverty which has denied them access to appropriate training and productive resources. As such, they only undergo rigid exam-based training with minimal practical application in the job market. The Government of Kenya has already recognized the long-term impact of the youth marginalization and initiated programmes to ensure they become active rather than passive partners in nation building such Youth Enterprise Development Fund (YEDF). This fund has the potential to transform the largely unproductive youth into endearing citizens. However, YEDF is bedevilled with challenges including the curriculum used to induct the youth into the world of work in general and entrepreneurship in particular. The result has been massive loan default, with many youth enterprises becoming shadows of their true potential. In addressing the foregoing, this paper reviews the current curricula on youth entrepreneurship development training and proposes its essential revision as the way forward.

  8. Janet Bochaberi Komenda, John M. Momanyi and Richard B. O. Okero

    This paper is derived from a study conducted at the University of East Africa, Baraton (UEAB). The study sought to: identify the counselling services that were being offered; establish the counselling services that students needed and determine whether students utilised the services that were being offered. The study involved 627 students and 10 administrators. Data from students and administrators were obtained using questionnaires and interview schedules respectively and analysed using the SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences) computer package. Tyler’s evaluation model was used to define the parameters of evaluation, the concepts to study and the process and methods needed to extract data. The results revealed that the counselling services were not adequately offered and hence not effective. This implied the university had not recognized the counselling services as an important aspect in the students’ lives. The concern of the counselling services should be a responsibility of all involved. It was thus recommended that counselling services be made available, expanded, made accessible and helpful to the students. In addition, a programme of sensitization on the importance of the counselling services should be initiated.

  9. Abdul Hamid Abdullah and Ilham Sentosa

    The study of Human resource (HR) competency models/frameworks has gained a great deal of interest over the years. Most of the notable HR competency frameworks/models are developed in the USA and Europe. The aim of the study was to develop a statistically validated Human resource (HR) practitioner competency model. The competency domains in the generic/behavioural competency category, business competency category and the technical HR competency category were analysed using exploratory factor analysis (EFA), confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and structural equation modeling (SEM). The competency categories significant in the study were the generic/behavioural competency category and the technical HR competency category. The business competency category was not significant in the study. The statistically validated HR practitioner competency model was derived in a local Malaysian cultural setting and it will benefit the HR practitioners, HR consultants, HR communities of practice, the academia, organisations and other related individuals.

  10. Ukpaka, P. C., Eluozo, S. N. and Orji, C.U.

    In this study the impact of road construction dust were tested on some of the physicochemical parameters of plantain fluid. Samples of plantain fluid (juice) were taken to examine the characteristics of fluid content upon the influence of road construction dust on the plantain vegetation. These samples were collected on monthly basis over a 12-month period. Sampling of the data was conducted using the acceptable standard. The effect of road construction dust on pH, ion content (Fe2+), total hardness, chloride, sulphate, acidity, alkalinity and total suspended solute was examined under two scenarios: dry and wet seasons.

  11. Dr. K. Jothy and Mr. T. Pugalenthi

    There is a wide gap in the utilization of reproductive health services among the states in India. Certain states like Kerela, Tamilnadu and Maharashtra are well performing states in the utilization of reproductive health care services. But the so called BIMARU states (Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Rajastan and Utter Pradesh) are poor in the utilization of reproductive health care services. In view of the above, this paper analyses the utilization pattern of the above states. The data for this analysis were obtained from the District Level Household and Facility Survey (DLHS-3) conducted by Reproductive Child Health Project. The utilization of Ante-natal care services, Delivery care, Initiation of Breast feeding, Children received immunization, Use of Family planning, Knowledge of HIV/AIDS, were used as the indicators of reproductive health care utilization.

  12. JadhavB.A., Satwadhar P.N., Deshpande H.W. and Salve R.V.

    Noni fruits are edible but they don’t have nice taste and flavor. In order to enhance its organoleptic properties, in the present investigation attempts have been made to prepare and standardize Noni-RTS beverages. The Noni RTS were prepared by using Orange juice at the rate of 3, 4 and 5 per cent concentration, with keeping Noni juice concentration to 10%. The sensory evaluation of the sample was carried out and the Noni RTS prepared using 5% orange juice with Noni juice rated significantly. This blended sample has been found organoleptically superior than the other sample. Hence this product could be recommended for commercial exploitation.

  13. Musa, Haruna D. and Musa Dalil

    The 21st century is often heralded as the ‘urban century’. For the first time in history the majority of the world’s population now live in cities, a figure forecast to rise to over 60% by 2030. Increasing urbanization raises crucial questions for security. At one end of the spectrum, it has been claimed that ‘the scale of armed violence in large urban areas frequently exceeds that of all but the most devastating of current wars’, while at the other, questions of poverty, health, and human insecurity are presented as finding their starkest manifestations in urban settings, particularly in the developing world. Urban people repeatedly stress the anxiety and fear they experience because they feel insecure and vulnerable. Most say they feel less secure and more vulnerable today than in previous times. They describe security as stability and continuity of livelihood, predictability of relationships, feeling safe and belonging to a social group. Forms and degrees of security and insecurity vary by region and differ by gender. Women are vulnerable to abuse and violence in the home. Men, particularly young men, are more likely to be picked up by the police. The origins and nature of insecurities are related to types of threat, shock and stress. People most frequently mention the following: Insecurities of work and livelihood, Crime and violence, Persecution by the police and lack of justice, Civil conflict and war, Macro policy shocks and stresses, Social vulnerability, Natural and human-made disasters, Health, illness and death. Insecurities and mishaps are an integral and pervasive part of the ill-being of the urban dwellers, threatening them and making them anxious, fearful and miserable. As a result of the unprecedented level of insecurity in Nigeria due to gang-related violence, this study examined violence-related crimes (armed robbery, the ‘area boys' phenomenon and communal/street clashes) and security situation and coping measures in Suleja urban town.Field survey was carried out with 2000 structured questionnaires as the sample size. A national average household size of 6 people was used based on the number of household in Suleja is 41,258. 5% sample size of the total number of households was taken to produce 2000 questionnaires. This questionnaire was administered systematic random sampling techniques. Also, records of crime data were obtain from Suleja divisional police station from 2001 – 2008 for analysis. The surveyed result shows that (14%) of the respondents in Suleja have been victim of crime and violence while 86%of respondents claimed that they have never been victim of any crime and violence.However,44% of the crime cases are armed robbery and burglary while 11% are other cases. Research findings also shown that 65% of victim of crime had no rescue, 19% were rescue by the vigilante groups, 15% of the victim were rescued by Neighbours while 1% of the respondents rescued by police intervention. In view of the above, it is recommended that job should be created and infrastructural provision strengthen. Government should also put crime prevention on its top priority list and allocate sufficient funds to cover increased welfare packages and acquisition of highly sophisticated modern security gadgets to aid surveillance and monitoring of criminals.

  14. Mousa Mojtabaei and Mojdeh Bagheri

    This research considers educating and researching without books and for an example, it is the result is demonstrated at Islamic Azad University of Shushtar city in Iran. The role of this type of knowledge finding (without books) will be studied with a typical example using questions, interview and scientific observations. The main result of this research expresses that not used resource, limitations in space and less equipment influence on study, education and research processes negatively.

  15. Mousa Mojtabaei and Mojdeh Bagheri

    There are some educational methods to use for changing educational trend better. These ways include book and without book. Libraries are centers containing many books in various subjects and fields. In fact they involve books for different needs for students, scientists, teachers and even ordinary people to obtain knowledge. The most important purpose to covering finding needs of people is information; of course we are living in information and connections ages. But we should use information and data resources in correct form. In this paper, we analyze using information resources.

  16. Isaac Waswa Shitubi

    This paper analyzes the suitability of using the Western Fugal Techniques in arranging traditional Luhya folk songs. The study, which forms the basis of this paper, involved carrying out interviews with composers to establish their background in music and their approach to arrangement of Luhya tunes. The findings indicated that the use of Western techniques, in the case of this study, a figure, on arrangement of African tunes distorted them. This called for the need to use original African Contrapuntal Techniques to arrange the Luhya traditional folk tunes and to help avert the misconstructions brought about by entirely using the Western Fugal Techniques.

  17. Khairul Anuar Mohammad Shah and Hasliza Abdul Halim

    This paper examines whether, in the context of a fast emerging economy like Malaysia, demographic variables namely age, gender, education, income and region influence the consumer animosity, consumer ethnocentrism and patriotism among Malaysian Muslim consumers. The data was collected by using survey questionnaire and the analyses were conducted on 663 respondents in Malaysia. The findings suggest that gender, age and region have an influence on consumer animosity. All the five demographic variables show a significant relationship with consumer ethnocentrism, whereas only age has an effect on the patriotism among Malaysian Muslim consumers.

  18. Dr. Seema Vinayak , Guneet Singh Assi

    Do men and women drivers differ in their behaviour on road? This study was undertaken to understand and analyse the driving anger of male and female drivers. The study was undertaken on young male and female drivers in the age group of 18 to 25 years, holding valid driving license and living primarily in the tricity area of Chandigarh, Mohali and Panchkula (India). For the purpose of this study the respondents were selected randomly who were administered the structured questionnaire to obtain their demographic data as well as measure their driving anger using Deffenbacher’s scale. The results were tabulated and studied using Mean, SD, and t-ratio, which revealed no significant difference between male and female drivers in their driving anger.

  19. Tikoko Jeruto Betty, Dr Catherine Kiprop and Emily Bomett

    This study investigated the nature of student participation in secondary schools in Kenya. The study was prompted by the recurrent student unrest in Kenya; often blamed in media and research to unequal decision making opportunities in schools. The traditional hierarchical authoritarian culture prevailing in the Kenyan society often influences decision making processes in schools hence the locking out of students in decision making. Data was collected by means of a survey questionnaire distributed among 150 secondary school learners and sixty teachers. The findings revealed that though there attempts to include views of students in school policy, such attempts were mainly tokenistic and did not include core management issues. It was also found that students were excluded from key decision making bodies such as the Board of Governors, Parent Teacher Associations and special management committees. In addition, preferred channels of harnessing students’ views included notice boards, prefect body, assemblies, and class meetings. Though popular, these means of communication were found to be disproportional and unfair as communication was one way- a form of telling and instructing students - rather than encouraging dialogue and open discussion between student and school administrators. Further, it was found that communication channels that fostered dialogue and open discussion were unpopular and little used. These included the baraza system, student council, open forums and student parliaments. It was thus concluded that student participation in secondary schools was still wanting and needed to be expanded to include issues beyond student welfare issues.

  20. Dr. N. S. Mugadur

    The learning and teaching study outlines the general principles under planning the approach to teaching and learning within the college. The precise methods of learning and teaching will vary from academic school to school, in keeping with specific traditions and appropriateness to the subject in addition to the learning and teaching involve a variety of methods and approaches. Learning and teaching approaches meet the aim of producing motivated, critically reflective and independent graduates through a graduated approach. In levels 1 and 2 the delivery of programmes is attained by means of structured units of study involving project-based learning, taught through workshop instruction, group and individual tutorials. At these levels learning is primarily tutor-driven. A number of facilities are regarded as key to the support of student learning. A recent development has been the installation of networked computer and audio-visual facilities in all lecture, theatres, enabling substantial use of IT-based learning. This is part of an ongoing programme designed to draw on the possibilities of C&IT for learning and teaching. The library service recognises the importance of library use and information finding as transferable skills, and aims to offer library use seminars and presentations in support of all taught courses. Learning Support is also central to supporting student learning. As the College meets its strategic goal of internationalising the student body, so specific issues are raised, including language support. In this paper highlight the quality of learning and teaching suggests that various components of process towards understanding. So that learning can be achieved in the classroom interaction, there by facilitating the creative involvement of students in the learning process.

  21. Lydia Cheruto Kipkoech

    In January 2003 the Kenyan government declared Free Primary Education (FPE) in all public schools in the country as a fulfillment of the Education for All (EFA) global commitment and strategy to give children universal primary education. The study established that FPE was hastily implemented hence there was no time to prepare the school management as well as sensitize stakeholders on the requirements and expectations of FPE. Most of the head teachers have difficulties in planning and managing the schools funds among other managerial challenges. This study examined implications of the implementation of free primary education policy on the management of primary schools in Keiyo District, Kenya. This was a descriptive survey study where questionnaires, interview schedule and an observation were used to collect data from the head teachers, teachers and Education Officers. Purposive sampling technique was used to select the education officers and the head teachers while random sampling technique was used to select the zones, teachers and the primary schools that participated in the study. A total of 260 respondents participated in the study. Data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics; percentages and frequencies. The findings showed that the school management is not effective as change agents; they have difficulty in planning; and are plagued with inadequacy in financial management as well as in other administrative skills. It is imperative that training of head teachers and teachers be a continuous process; and the public should be sensitized further to support the government efforts in the provision of FPE if this noble initiative is to succeed.

  22. Jeno Beke

    This study investigates the effects of the transition from national accounting rules to globalized international standards on the financial results of Hungarian listed firms on the Budapest Stock Exchange. The goal of this paper is to describe and summarize how the accounting standards can promote business decisions and influence economic environment.. The author analyzed and valued the effects of international standards on the business economic environments. The study showed that both businesses earnings and stock returns effect on the management turnover. The businesses with lower labour productivity compared to their industry peers have greater incentives to adopt international accounting system. However, the results on turnover are sensitive to this change in variable specification. So the increase in the sensitivity of turnover to accounting performance post-adoption is primarily driven by heightened turnover sensitivity to accounting losses. The results of applied regression model support that the greater demand for more informative and conservative accounting earnings due to performance evaluations at more widely held by businesses stimulating to adopt international accounting standards. The author hopes that his article provides evidence to sign of IFRS adoption more value relevant accounting measures.

  23. S.B. Akpila and Ejezie, S.U

    Horizontal displacement, uh1 of foundation on clay in the offshore Niger Delta has been attempted based on wave load simulation. Horizontal forces were evaluated from the impact of varying wave heights on circular piles of 1.0 to 2.0m diameter using available wave height records. Predictive lateral displacement under induced horizontal forces were analysed for varying Poisson ratio,µ foundation breadth, B and the ratio of horizontal force to breadth ratio(F/B). The results revealed that uh1 reduces with foundation breadth, Poisson ratio, and F/B ratio, while dimensionless plot of ratio of horizontal force to undrained shear strength, foundation breadth and lateral displacement versus Poisson ratio showed that at µ=0.5, both methods of modified Bell and modified Gerrard and Harrison converge. Generally, higher lateral displacement occur using modified Gerrard and Harrison method at lower values of µ.

  24. C.P. Ukpaka, C. U. Orji and T. C. Nwofor

    Model based on Bernoullis equation and coefficient of discharge as a function of the Reynolds number was applied at different levels in different fluid system in Industrial operation of orifice plate. The model was based on the principle of constant area, variable pressure drop. The experimental results obtained from the research work were used in monitoring and predicting the usefulness of pneumatic proportional integral (reset) control on flow characteristics of different fluid flowing through an orifice plate. Mathematical models were developed for both compressible and non compressible fluid in terms of flow rate as well related to the pneumatic proportional integral (Reset) control. The proportional and integral gain is one of the functional parameters that control and determine the effectiveness of the industrial operation of the system by reducing the error value for laminar and turbulent flow experienced by the orifice plate.

  25. Atul Garg, Jaya Garg, Anand swaroop, Sanjay Kala, Yashwant K Rao, Anand Kumar, RK Singh, and Piyush Tripathi

    Carbapenemases are β- lactamases that confer resistance to the carbapenems (e.g., imipenem, meropenem, ertapenem, and doripenem). Most often these enzymes confer resistance to the other b-lactam agents as well, including extended-spectrum cephalosporins. The enzymes are usually found in bacterial isolates that are already resistant to nearly all other antimicrobial agents, and treatment options for infections caused by them are significantly limited. This important mechanism of resistance is emerging in the USA include Klebsiella pneumonia carbapenemases (KPC), while in India it is New Delhi metalo betalactamase (NDM) and in spain it is Verona imipenem hydrolyzing enzyme (VIM). Prevention and control of this emerging resistance is complicated by the occurrence of low-level carbapenem resistance isolates that are hard to detect in the clinical microbiology laboratory. This article will review the epidemiology, diagnostic methods and therapeutic options of emerging carbapenemases.

  26. Kiprono, P.K., Sudoi, V.K., M’ribu Kaburu and Mwaura, F.K.

    Tea continues to be one of the main foreign exchange earners in the Kenyan economy and the industry employ 75% of the rural population. It is composed of the large scale sub sector owned by the multinationals and the smallholder sub sector mainly owned by the local farmers. Tea production in the smallholder sub sector is still very low compared to the large scale/estate subsector. The low production in the sub sector has been attributed to several socio-economic and technological factors which include, poor labour utilization, low fertilizer application, low adoption of improved technologies, and low plant population among others. A study was carried out to identify the socio-economic factors which influence tea productivity in the smallholder sub sector of Nandi district. 126 farmers from Chebut tea factory were identified and interviewed along key informants who were also identified. Data from the survey and secondary sources was analyzed, and the following were identified as the main socio-economic factors that influence tea productivity, low labour allocated to tea production, low number of tea bushes owned and low proportion of land under tea. It was concluded that the factors that influence yield significantly include number of bushes owned by the farmer, amount of labour utilized and its efficiency. Other factors such as off-farm income, number of clones, proportion of land under tea and tea as a main income were not significant in explaining tea productivity in the catchment. It was recommended that proper system of remuneration should be developed to motivate and employ a higher percentage of the available family labour in tea production. The extension service department should sensitize farmers on the importance of employing the available family labour in tea production.

  27. Emmanuel O. Ekwulo and Enwuso A. Igwe

    One of the key material properties in Mechanistic design of flexible pavement design is the dynamic modulus of asphalt concrete. In order to improve the performance of asphalt pavement, various techniques of modifications of the physical properties of bitumen have evolved over the years using different materials like natural rubber (rubber latex). Research has also proved that dynamic modulus of asphalt concrete is influenced by loading frequency. It is on this basis that the present study was indented to investigate the effect of loading frequency on the dynamic modulus of rubber latex-modified asphalt concrete. The result of the study showed that the dynamic modulus of the modified asphalt concrete at 0.5%, 1%, 1.5%, 2%, 2.5% and 3% rubber latex increased from 73,188.27 to 198,703.64 PSI, 70,879.34 to 192,442.87 PSI, 69,197.70 to 187,877.09 PSI, 65953.17 to 179,067.94 PSI, 64,388.41 to 174,819.48 PSI and 64,388.41 to 160,086.18 PSI at loading frequencies of 0.1HZ, 1HZ, 5Hz, 10Hz and 25Hz respectively. This behaviour is comparable with that of unmodified asphalt concrete indicating that rubber latex-modified asphalt concrete is adequate for design and construction of asphalt pavement. The result however, showed an optimum dynamic modulus at 0.5% rubber latex at all loading frequencies investigated.

  28. Hassan Taghavi Jelodar, A. Hosseinzadeh Colagar

    A total of 217 fish samples (83 male, 124 female) from Gambusia affinis, a common fish of the ponds, were analyzed for the concentrations of heavy metals. Fork length, weight, and sex were recorded for each fish. Weight from male and fame fish was found in the range of 68–6625mg and 73-6634mg respectively. Further, fork length from male and fame fish was found in the range of 15-92mm and 16-78 mm. Average concentration of chromium (Cr), nickel(Ni), cadmium(Cd) and lead(Pb) were found 0.885, 0.846, 0.1.301 and 0.1.671 μg per weight in case of male fish and in females it were 0.865, 0.859, 1.347 and 1.690 μg per weight, respectively. As resulted in the percent work concentrations of all the analyzed elements were found higher in female fish samples.

  29. Mahalakshmi, M., Angayarkanni, J., Rajendran, R. and Rajesh, R.

    Biomass burning has a significant impact on global atmospheric chemistry since it provides large sources of carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, and hydrocarbons, primarily in the tropics. Rural areas of developing countries depend primarily on biomass for fuel. Biofuels include the wood fuels, and agricultural waste, such as crop residues and dung. The recent thrust in bioconversion of agricultural and industrial wastes to chemical feedstock has led to extensive studies on the pretreatment methods. The main aim of this study was to determine the effective pretreatment method, therefore, to alter or remove structural and compositional impediments to hydrolysis and subsequent degradation processes. The agrowastes collected were subjected to acid and alkali hydrolysis and thereby the release of sugar was studied both before and after pretreatment. The results showed that compared to the acid pretreated samples, more release of sugar was achieved from the alkali-pretreated samples. Also, it was found that as the concentration of alkali increases, the release of glucose also increased. Of the different agrowastes used in the study, groundnut shell (387 mg glucose / g of agrowaste) was found to be the best in releasing the sugars. The released sugar could help in the bioethanol production.

  30. Pandey, F. K. Kumar, S. and Bhatnagar, T.

    The physiological effect of a widely used herbicide Paraquat (N,N′-dimethyl-4,4′-bipyridinium dichloride) was studied at different concentrations on two filamentous N2-fixing Cyanobacteria Anabaena oryzae and Nostoc ellipsosporum in laboratory conditions for 10 days. The results demonstrated that the increasing concentration of the applied pesticide proved to be toxic for the organism in terms of growth kinetics and heterocyst formation.

  31. H. Bchini, R. Chaabane, M. Mosbahi, M. Ben Naceur and R. Sayar

    Salinity is a wide-spread problem seriously influencing barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) production, but development of tolerant cultivars is hampered by the lack of effective selection criteria. The objective of this study was to produce screening techniques for selecting salt-tolerant progeny in barley breeding program. Fourteen barley cultivars differing in yield performance were grown in separate experiments under salt stress and non-salt stress conditions in 2008–2009. Eight selection indices including salt susceptibility index (SSI), salt tolerance index (STI), tolerance (TOL), regression coefficient of cultivar yield on environmental index (b), yield index (YI), yield stability index (YSI), mean productivity (MP), and geometric mean productivity (GMP) were calculated based on grain yield under salt and non-salt stress conditions. Results showed that the effectiveness of selection indices in differentiating tolerant cultivars varies with the salt stress intensity. Thus, under moderate salt stress, MP, GMP and STI were more effective in identifying high yielding cultivars in both salt and non-salt stress conditions. Under severe stress, regression coefficient (b) and SSI were found to be more useful in discriminating tolerant cultivars. Breeders should, therefore, take the stress intensity of the environment into account in choosing an index.

  32. Oloyede, A.M and Aduramigba-Modupe, A.O

    Crude ethanolic extract of Xylopia aethiopica traditionally used as condiment in food and against bacterial infections, cough and inflammations was evaluated invitro for its antimicrobial activities against Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Bacillus aurum, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and a fungus pathogen Candida albicans, so as to justify its medicinal activities and validate its traditional use scientifically. The agar diffusion technique was used to determine the zone of inhibition and the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) respectively. The extract was active against E. coli, S. typhi, Candida albicans, B. aurium with 15mg/ml MIC, though was most active against S .typhi and B. aurum and compared favourably and significantly with ampicillin. X. aethiopica did not show any activity against S. aureus and B. subtilis. This study has provided relevant scientific information for the potential use of X. aethiopica for antimicrobial activities. It therefore suggests that X. aethiopica contain a broad spectrum antibiotic compound, which if properly harnessed can be used in managing an array of pathogens.

  33. Akinyemi, A. F. and Kayode, I. B.

    This study is aimed at investigating the effects of the agricultural practices of the rural people bordering the Old Oyo National Park on the distribution of Western Hartebeest (Alcelaphus buselaphus) within the park. The study area was carried out in Marguba, Sepeteri and Yemoso ranges out of the five ranges of the park. Rapid Rural Appraisal (RRA), Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) methods and structured questionnaires were used to collect information on the issues about their agricultural activities within and around the park. Animal census was carried out using line transect method to determine the distribution pattern of Western Hartebeest in Sites ‘A’ and ‘B’ within the park. Site ‘A’ represents the core zones of the park without human activities, while site ‘B’ represent areas of the park with human and agricultural activities. Chi-square tests, T distribution paired test, ANOVA and percentages were used as statistical tools to analyse the data collected. Thirty five percent of the farmers have their farms around the park boundary, 30% close to the park boundary, 20% were located inside the park while only 15% were far from the park. The systems of land preparation for planting employed are fire (32.5%), human labour (40%) and tractor (27.5%). Fire is used by the respondents for hunting (25%), clearing farmland (40%), gathering honey (20%) and regeneration of fresh grasses (15%). Therefore, there is no significant difference (P >0.05) in the purposes of using fire by the respondents. The mean population relative density of Western Hartebeest is 0.07group per kilometer. Site ‘A’ and ‘B’ have population density of 0.08 and 0.06 respectively. The mean solitary individuals at both sites are the same, which is 0.05. The T distribution paired test showed significant difference (P<0.025) in the distribution of Western Hartebeest in both sites. It is recommended that since majority of the rural dwellers are illiterates, conservation education in term of extension service should be carried to them and modern techniques of agriculture such as planting of hybrids with high yield quality, pest and disease resistance should be introduced to the farmers in the support zone of the park to prevent farmers from encroaching into the park in search of fertile land.

  34. Deepak Sharma , Anuj jain , Saatvik Atri , Meetu Mathur

    To determine the effect of ‘flare’ spreader size on the fracture resistance of mandibular premolar roots prepared using variable taper rotary files. Crowns of 50 mandibular first premolars having no carious lesions, devoid of any aberrant anatomy were resected 2mm coronal to the cemento-enamel junction. Root canals were prepared in different groups: 1. No canal preparation. 2. Preparation using crown down technique to a size F2 MAF with no obturation performed. 3. Preparation using crown down technique to a size F2 MAF and obturated using lateral condensation; first spreader used being a size 25 flare spreader. 4. Same as 3 except first spreader used being a size 20 flare spreader. 5. Same as 3 except first spreader used being a size 15 flare spreader. All specimens were mounted in addition silicone putty and fractured vertically on a universal testing machine. Fracture load was recorded in kilogram force. Values obtained were analyzed using the ANOVA test. The mean force at fracture for roots obturated using size 15.05 spreaders approached similar values required to fracture uninstrumented samples. But was significantly higher than what was required to fracture samples filled using size 20.05 and size 25.05 spreaders. Spreader size used during lateral condensation of gutta percha may affect the fracture resistance of roots in extracted teeth. Larger size spreaders do decrease the fracture resistance and jeopardize the strength of obturated roots.

  35. Gopinathan, P., Kumar, S., Pandey, F. K., Bhatnagar, T. and Bhatnagar, A.K.

    Sugarcane bagasses are rich in cellulose and lignin content whose degradation is the main problem for industries utilizing them for various purposes. The present investigation is based on application of fungi in degradation of lignin and cellulose from sugarcane bagasse. Degradation was estimated after 3 weeks of solid state fermentation of sugarcane bagasse by Aspergillus niger. Fermentation process was divided into two parts i.e., culture media fortified with different concentrations of nutrient supplements and not fortified with any kind of supplements. The result reveals that maximum loss of cellulose was 14.2% (without fortification) and of lignin was 26.2% (with 5% glucose fortification). The initial cellulose and lignin content was reported to be 58.5 and 18.4 respectively.

  36. Suhaib A. Bandh, Azra N. Kamili, Bashir A. Ganai and Samira Saleem

    Water samples obtained seasonally from April 2010 to March 2011 at eight different sites of Dal Lake, Kashmir were serially diluted five folds followed by spread plate technique for the isolation of Penicillium and Aspergillus species, spreading 0.1ml inoculum from the serial dilution tubes on the Petri dishes containing Rose-Bengal Streptomycin Agar medium. Out of a total 213 fungal colonies isolated six (6) species of Penicillium viz, P. caseicolum, P. commune, P. chrysogenum, P. funiculosum, P. lilacinum, Penicillium spp. and six (6) species of Aspergillus viz, A. flavus, A. fumigatus, A. japonicus, A. terreus, A. niger and Aspergillus spp. were obtained. Out of these species P. chrysogenum was the most abundant (30.99%) followed by P. funiculosum (16.43%), A. fumigatus (14.09%), A. niger (13.15%), A. flavus (9.39%), A. terreus (3.76%), P. lilacinum (3.27%), P. caseicolum (2.82%), P. commune (2.35%), A. japonicus (1.88%), Penicillium spp. and Aspergillus spp. (0.94%) each. Highest number of colonies 60 (28.17%) was obtained from site Pokhribal Nallah (PKB) followed by Tailbal Nallah (TBN) - 45(21.13%), Dal Lock Gate (DLG) and Gagribal (GB) - 28(13.14%) each, Nageen Lake (NL) - 1(8.45%), Boathall Nallah (BHN) - 15 (7.04%), Hazratbal (HB) - 11(5.17%) and Bod Dal (BD) - 8(3.76%).

  37. Rajesh Ghosh, Dr. A Ramakrishna and G. Reena

    The effect of alkaline treatment in combination with air bubbling in banana fiber mat on the water absorption property of the fiber composite has been experimentally studied. Hot water immersion test is done on the samples. Water uptake was quantified for the composite disc under different processing conditions. The studies have revealed that the fibre surface modification rate is enhanced by the combination of air bubbling with the general process of alkaline treatment. This shows the importance of this method of fibre treatment and this shall encourage other researchers to develop an adequate system to expedite fabrication for better quality of woven banana fibre composites for various sectors such as household utility or automobile parts.

  38. Manoharan, V and Karuppasamy, R.

    The present study is aimed to investigate the population and richness of egrets and herons in five areas of Pichavaram mangroves during the study period. Totally 10 species are identified in which 4 species are egrets and 6 species are herons. The diversity, breeding and behavior of egrets and herons are noticed in the present study. The herons species are moiré than the egrets in Pichavaram mangroves.

  39. Joel Gnanadoss, J., Rebecca Robert and Roseline Jebapriya, G

    Fungal strains were isolated from oil cakes and were screened for protease production on casein agar plate. Organisms capable of casein hydrolysis were selected and enzyme assay was carried out. Organisms with maximum enzyme activity were selected for further studies. Aspergillus niger and Mucor mucedo were used for the present investigation. Optimization of parameters such as pH and substrate concentration was carried out for production of protease. A pH of 5 was found optimal for maximal enzyme production. Casein at 10% concentration showed significant increase in protease activity. Effect of UV mutagenesis on protease production was also studied. For experiments on solid state fermentation several agro wastes (cotton seed oil cake, wheat bran and soya bean) were used as substrates. Among the substrates tested, cotton seed oil cake was the best for production of protease in Aspergillus niger. However, in Mucor mucedo more enzymes were produced when soya bean meal was used as substrate.

  40. A. A Haleem Khan and Naseem

    Twelve different essential oils (camphor, chaulmoogra, cinnamon, eucalyptus, juniper, khus, lavender, lemon, motia rosha, orange, peppermint and rosemary) were tested against the growth of Aspergillus parasiticus. This strain produced aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), aflatoxin B2 (AFB2), aflatoxin G1 (AFG1) and aflatoxin G2 (AFG2). After screening the antifungal activity, Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of essential oils were evaluated by food poison technique. An array of intensities of activity against the growth of A. parasiticus was determined in time dependent manner. The toxic strain was sensitive to the majority of the oils tested. Among the essential oils tested motia rosha was excellent antifungal at very low concentration of 0.05%. Eight oils like camphor, cinnamon, eucalyptus, khus, lavender, lemon, peppermint and rosemary were growth inhibitory at various incubation periods but the three oils chaulmoogra, juniper and orange were weak inhibitory after 48 hr incubation. The results suggest the power of volatile aroma compounds to use the preparation of these oils as a disinfectant against fungi.

  41. Sheshagiri, B., Honkan, G. G. and Dr. L. D. Vaikunthe

    Indian is no exception to these general trends, with a few special features. During last two decades India’s agricultural exports as a part of total merchandise exports have continued to decline from the preponderant position they occupied in the pre-independence. But with the achievement of self-sufficiency in food grains and some other major agricultural commodities, which used to account for large portion of import bill, overall imports of agricultural commodities have sharply declined. The outlay on agricultural imports as a proportion of earnings from agricultural exports has progressively declined, and all the balance has become progressively more favorable. Discussion on these issues has, naturally, to take into account the new trade regime as the stated objective of firstly to study the performance of India’s agricultural exports under WTO regime. secondly, to analyze the competitiveness of top agri-exports of India under WTO regime. Finally, to suggest policy measures in the identified India’s agricultural. In the first part of discuss briefly introduce, the developments in agricultural trade specially the agricultural exports at the world level in the recent years and discuss the performance of Indian agriculture in this respect finally shaped the shifts in this policy. Final part, I will try to spell out the ingredients of a strategy to augment agricultural exports in the changing, and more demanding, global economy.

  42. Prashanth B. Goud and Manvendra S. Kachole

    In this report peroxidase (POD) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activities were used to study the effect of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) on leaf senescence in detached pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan [L.] Millsp.) leaves. The activities of POD and PPO were observed to be greater in H2O2-stressed pigeonpea leaves than in water treated control leaves. However, after longer incubations activities of these enzymes were markedly reduced. The observed changes revealed that exogenous H2O2 may induce oxidative stress tolerance by enhancing the activities of POD and PPOs. On the other hand, reduction found in H2O2-induced POD and PPO activities at later stages may be due to destruction of these proteins along with other proteins. This study will help to improve the tolerability of plants to environmental stresses by enhancing the expression of POD and PPOs.

  43. Mehmet Ali SEVİK and Cemile AKCURA

    Rose is an economically important plant for Turkey and the world floral industry. A survey was conducted during 2010-2011 to identify viruses infecting rose plants in the Middle Black Sea Region of Turkey. Samples (210) from seven rose-growing regions (Terme, Çarşamba, Ilkadım, Atakum, Canik, Ondokuz Mayıs and Bafra) were collected. All samples were tested for Apple mosaic virus (ApMV), Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) and Arabis mosaic virus (ArMV) using double-antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA). The incidence of ApMV, ArMV and PNRSV among the samples tested was 13.3, 2.0 and 0.5%, respectively.

  44. Gowhar H. Dar., Suhaib A. Bandh and Azra N. Kamili

    A study of soil bacteria along with some physical parameters like temperature and pH was carried out during the month of November and December 2010, in Yusmarg area of Kashmir valley at four sites differing from each other markedly in terms of biotic and abiotic factors, to assess the density and diversity of bacterial flora. During the study the bacterial flora showed variation in relation to the physical parameters. The highest viable count of bacteria was observed at site III (Deforested area) with a cfu/g of 1.8 x 104 in the month of November and the lowest viable count at site IV (Dense forest) with a cfu/g of 0.4 x 104 in the month of December. Among the isolated strains of bacteria 61% were gram negative (GN) and 39% were gram positive (GP). Most dominant of the isolated strains 58% were Cocci followed by 36% Bacilli, 3% each Diplococci (DC) and Streptococci (SC). It was also observed that 33% of strains were Gram Negative Cocci (GNC), 25% were Gram Positive Cocci (GPC), 11% were Gram Positive Bacilli (GPB), 25% were Gram Negative Bacilli (GNB) and 3% each were Gram Negative Diplococcic (GND) and Gram Positive Streptococci (GPS).

  45. Ch. Ravi Kiran, K.V. Raghava Rao, D. Bhaskar Rao, Y. Madhavi, P. Koteswara Rao, and T. Raghava Rao

    An unconventional Seeds of Ceiba pentandra (Kapok) were analyzed for enzymatic antioxidants, biochemical complexes and protein functionality to assess its potential usage as an alternative source of protein. Buffer extract of seeds had scrutinized for enzymatic antioxidants like Superoxide dismutase, Catalase, peroxidase as well as Glutathione Peroxidase and found to be ample. Total Carbohydrates and Proteins were determined by Phenol Sulphuric acid method and Lowry method, results obtained with the above procedures were 6.5% and 58.5% correspondingly and also the Proteolytic activity was estimated with trypsin as µg of tyrosine liberated in 30 minutes at pH 7.4 and temperature 370 C per ml of enzyme was found to be 275µg/ml. Seed storage protein profiles of Ceiba pentandra seeds studied by Sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE),total soluble proteins were resolved on 10% SDS polyacrylamide gels. A total of 13 major protein bands were noticed in seed sample ranging in molecular weight from 31.40 KD to 15.71 KD.

  46. Evelyne Priya, S and Ravindhran, R

    Lippia nodiflora (L.) (Verbenaceae) is an important medicinal plant with scanty roots. It has a number of medicinal properties used in treatment of diseases such as chronic indolent ulcers, gastrointestinal and respiratory ailments and diabetes, etc. Nodes and shoot tips were used as the explants for the initiation of multiple shoots and cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with cytokinin namely Benzyladenine (BA) and Kinetin (KIN).The maximum number of shoots were produced in BA 3.0 mg/l. An average of 14.66 ±1.30 shoots was produced from each explant. Healthy shoots were transferred to rooting medium with half and full strength MS medium supplemented with IBA and IAA at different concentrations such as 0.1, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 mg/l. Half strength MS medium containing IBA of 1.0 mg/l produced the maximum number of roots (10.3 ± 4.00). Rooted plants were hardened and those grown in sand: cocopith (1:1) showed good response than others.

  47. Muththamizh, M and Dr. R. Muthumanickam

    A study was conducted on 200 parents of which 159 were male parents and 41 were female parents from Chidambaram Taluk to find out the level of the factors responsible for human conflict, the significant difference between the male parents and female parents in respect of the factors responsible for human conflict and the significant relationship between the value pattern and the factors responsible for human conflict among parents. The research study reveals that the level of the factors responsible for human conflict is moderate, there is no significant difference between the male parents and female parents in respect of the factors responsible for human conflict, there is a significant negative relationship between aesthetic, theoretical, religious, social, economic values and economical factors as the factors responsible for human conflict. It also reveals that there is a significant negative relationship between the aesthetic, theoretical, religious, social, economic, hedonistic, political values and government policies as the factors responsible for human conflict among parents.

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