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April 2012

  1. Ali, H.R., Nyakairu, G.W. and Vuai, S.A.,

    This study was carried out to determine the influence of tides to the quality of cave water in Zanzibar Island, part of Tanzania. It was to establish the effect of tidal change on the cave water quality using pH, temperature, EC, TDS, and nutrients (NO3-N, NH3-N, PO43-) in the water as indicators. Overall results indicated that, the cave water quality changes with tides regardless of the fluctuation of the investigated parameters. Moreover, most of the tested parameters were not in range compared to those proposed by World Health Organization (WHO). This confirms that the quality of the cave water has been influenced by low and high tides due to high intrusion of the sea water entered in the caves.

  2. Ogunrotifa Ayodeji Bayo

    Contemporary discourse in terrorism studies have been polarised into two dominant schools of thought—Orthodox tradition and Critical terrorism studies (CTS). Orthodox approach argued that state has a monopoly on the legitimate use of force and that terrorism is carried out by non-state actors only. While critical theorists critique orthodox approach for ignoring terrorism used by the state against its own citizens, and argued that terrorism and its nature is not limited to violent acts itself but depends on the context, circumstance and intention. In this paper, the author offered the critique of both theoretical schools for failing to provide a class analysis of terrorism, and then introduce Historical Materialism (HM) as theoretical perspective to fill this knowledge gap. HM approach to terrorism uses Karl Marx’s materialist conception of history and argued that there are two form of terrorism—Individual terrorism and State terrorism, and these forms of terrorism are used by all classes in the society or state (the ruling class, working class and the lumpen class) whenever their interests is undermined or likely to be undermined. With HM approach to terrorism, the paper concluded that terrorism is an inevitable feature of the contemporary global capitalist of mode of production such that the use of terror is the tactics of all classes in the society or state rather than that of the lumpen (suppressed) class.

  3. Suman Paul

    Urban growth is a worldwide phenomenon. It is not only a haphazard physical explosion of urban population but also manifests a disorderly and discontinuous development of urban place. Urban growth is such a process which takes place slowly or rapidly to occupy the adjacent land of a city or a town and brings about socio-cultural changes in the land use pattern, demographic features (population growth, literacy rate, occupational structure etc.) and transforms the economic livelihood of the people of the concerned area. It is very much interesting to note that the adjacent villages of an urban place are influenced by a number of factors associated with urban growth and these factors make considerable impact on the village life. The present study focuses on the nature of urban expansion in Rajarhat region during the time period from 1981-2001. Based on the proximity of the Urban Municipality (i.e. Rajarhat-Gopalpur Municipality) three villages were selected to study the pattern of urban expansion and there from identify the factor responsible urban expansion. This area is under Kolkata Metropolitan Development Authority (KMDA) and Sector-V (IT Hub) area developed very rapidly. The study has indicated that the development of road transport in the ‘Rajarhat-Gopalpur Municipality’ and ‘Rajarhat-New Town’ area make an impetus for the rapid urban expansion during 1981-2001 though the region first experience urban growth in 1971. In addition, RS and GIS based analysis of the pattern of urban expansion over the demographic change and land use modifications has also indicated that urban growth mainly takes place linearly along the major roads in the study area.

  4. Njogo, Bibiana Oluchukwu and Afaha, John Sylvester

    The aim of this study is to explore empirically the relationship between foreign direct investment and gross domestic product growth in Nigeria. Using co-integration, Error correction mechanism, Unit roots techniques for this study analysis, the findings of the study are: First, the main determinants of FDI in Nigeria are market size (proxied by GDP), stable macroeconomic policies and a level of human capital that is tolerable by investors. Secondly, FDI contributes positively to Nigeria’s economic growth. It had a positive and significant relationship with the growth of the whole economy. In other words, trade is very important to growth of the Nigerian economy, and most importantly to the oil sector since the oil industry is producing mainly for export at the moment. From these findings we can assert that: FDI in Nigeria induces the nation’s economic growth. Although the overall effect of FDI on the whole economy may not be significant, the components of FDI positively affect economic growth.

  5. Njogo, Bibiana Oluchukwu and Afaha, John Sylvester

    This study indentifies various categories of variables that help to increase agricultural growth in Nigeria. The variables includes, an increase in agricultural farm inputs through Government Capital Expenditure (GOVTEXP) on agriculture, Agricultural Credit Guarantee Scheme Fund (ACGSF), Fertilizer input (FERCONSUM), Rainfall and Foreign Direct Investment (FDI).All these contribute to increase in the growth of agricultural commodities to Nigerian GDP. This study employs a unit root test, co integration, Error correction models and found out that the variables in the equation are co integrated which implies that there is a long run equilibrium relationship existing between the variables in the equation. This long run relationship is the basis for the short run disequilibrium adjustment in the model by the use of ECM which shows that the independent variables in the model significantly explain changes in economic growth in Nigeria.

  6. Tamilenthi, S, K. Mohanasundaram and V. Padmini

    The development of early civilization to modern society of the present is developed based on communication development. The communication plays important role in day today life in all levels including the researchers too. In the modern society negative impacts like cyber bulling, sexting and unwanted texting also finds from certain peoples through social networking sites. This article finds the dominating variables from the study variables such as mobile phone, internet and face book. The study is carried out with reference to research scholars from the selected universities of Tamilnadu. The samples of 200 research scholars were taken from different universities located within Tamilnadu. The questionnaire is consisting of 30 questions from 3 sections. The collected information is converted to table form in order to analyze the perception. The software SPSS used for the analysis and to draw the results. The suitable recommendations are given according to the results were drawn from the study. The recommendations will help the research scholars to enhance the quality of research communications and to create better research environment.

  7. Devendra Tayal, Charu, and Suyash Gupta Gupta

    It is an era where there are constant advancements in the area of Information Technology. Technologies such as, internet, database management system, bar code readers or information systems in general have created countless databases of scientific, administrative and commercial nature. Information retrieval is not enough for decision making. Thus, it becomes important for us to develop automatic and intelligent tools for analyzing, interpreting and co-relating data in order to develop and select strategies in the context of the application. In this paper, we provide an insight to fuzzy learning, the rules governing fuzzy logic and study the application of fuzzy forecasting. We also discuss the fuzzy logical relationships and propose an improvement in the fuzzy relationships.

  8. John M. Kobia and Miricho E. Mutahi

    The purpose of this paper was to investigate the influence of quality of Kiswahili instructional materials on the performance of Bachelor of Education (Arts) University of Nairobi distance education students. The paper sought to determine the quality of the instructional materials, also called modules, by looking at the content, the assessment procedures in the materials and the presentation style. The study used survey research design. A sample of 60 Kiswahili distance students and 6 Kiswahili lecturers from University of Nairobi participated in this study. Data was collected from the respondents using questionnaire for the students and interview schedules for the lecturers. A document analysis schedule for the instructional materials was also used to analyze the materials. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the quantitative data. Qualitative data was analyzed in themes based on the objectives of the study. The study revealed that the quality of Kiswahili instructional materials issued to the Bachelor of Education (Arts) distance education students was impaired by the inappropriateness of the content as there was a lot of content that was either irrelevant or partially relevant as compared to the course outlines the lecturers were using. Since the materials were developed in 1988, there is content that had been overtaken by time and was therefore outdated. This meant that such materials were not of value to students as they prepared for their examinations and therefore they had little influence on the performance of students. The study findings indicated that most of the lecturers used their own modified notes to teach the students and they set the examinations from the content in the notes hence majority of the students relied on the lecture notes and not the modules provided. This further indicated that there was little significance in the influence of modules on the performance of students. This paper recommends that Kiswahili instructional materials content should be reviewed and written in line with the current updated course outlines that most lecturers were using to teach and examine the students.

  9. Kalai Selvi, R. And Ramachandraiah, A.

    This paper describes a traffic noise prediction methodology for heterogeneous traffic conditions. Traffic noise characteristics in cities of developing country like India are slightly varied by virtue of the fact that the composition of the traffic is heterogeneous associated with variance of road geometry and varying density of the buildings on the either side of the road. Traffic noise prediction models developed on the basis of homogeneous traffic are not apt to predict the actual noise levels for Indian countries. A new model has been developed in this study considering different parameters such as traffic volume, composition of traffic, speed, horn using effect, number of lanes, road width, road gradient and local metrological conditions.

  10. Tuwei A.K., Karimi P.M. and Wamwang D.M.

    This paper described a simple automated instrumentation and measurement system that was designed to offer a more reliable and fast method of measuring process parameters: temperature and pressure, in thin film deposition systems. The designed computer based measuring system was based on thermocouple type K temperature sensor, MP20C-01-F2 pressure sensor, parallel port for interfacing and LabVIEW driver for accessing temperature and pressure data. The system was able to measure process parameter: temperature and pressure simultaneously when implemented in Edward auto 306 magnetron sputtering system and stored their values in a computer memory and retrieved at operator’s will. It had a temperature and a pressure range of 0 to 3000 oC and 0 to 1.01 x103 mbar, respectively and temperature error of ± 1 oC. However, the designed system recorded varied pressure errors. In higher vacuum, pressure range of 1 to 1x10-2 mbar, the error was ± 1x10-2 mbar and in the lower range of 1x10-4 to 1x10-5 mbar, the error of 1x10-5 mbar was observed. These errors were within acceptable range and therefore, the system is viable to be used in thin film deposition systems to automate the measurement of process parameters: temperature and pressure to achieve high quality thin films.

  11. Vijay S. Yeul and Sadhana S. Rayalu

    Authors synthesized the Oligomeric Chitosan material for the use of CO2 capture and storage from industrial point sources. Oligomeric Chitosan tested for CO2 absorption efficiency in industrial flue gas at temperature 1320C. The results showed the absorption of 10.65 gms of CO2 in 100 ml of 1 % solution of Oligomeric Chitosan and is higher by a factor of 21.5 at breakthrough point compared to conventional scrubbing agent Monoethanolamine(1% solution).

  12. Sridhar, K. and Sukandi, A.

    The inherent limitations of embedded systems make them particularly vulnerable to attacks. In order to develop a hardware monitor that operates in parallel to an embedded processor and detects any attack that causes the embedded processor to deviate from its originally programmed behavior. To explore several different characteristics that can be used for monitoring and quantify trade-offs between these approaches. This embedded system uses two processor. The failure of one processor activates the other which leads to the continuous function of the system. This project is designed to cater the need of thermal and voltage abnormalities. The abnormalities mentioned above will have lucid way of communication with each other. Both processors are involved in adaptive sharing, the purpose of the proposed method is used in times of only failure of the processor that is processing when the processor fails the particular purpose for only clock cycle that is generated and this flaw is corrected by the second processor. Our results show that our proposed hash-based monitoring pattern can detect attacks within one instruction cycle at lower memory requirements than traditional approaches that use control flow information.

  13. Jennifer Christy, J., Manikandababu, C.S. and Rathish, C.R

    The phenomenal growth of the Internet in the last decade and society's increasing dependence on it has brought along, a flood of security attacks on the networking and computing infrastructure. Intrusion Detection Systems (IDSs) have become widely recognized as powerful tools for identifying, deterring and deflecting malicious attacks over the network. Essential to almost every intrusion detection system is the ability to search through packets and identify content that matches known attacks. Network Intrusion Detection and Prevention Systems have emerged as one of the most effective ways of providing security to those connected to the network, and at the heart of almost every modern intrusion detection system is a pattern matching algorithm. Pattern matching relies on deterministic finite automata (DFA) to search for predefined patterns. Here modifications to the Aho-Corasick pattern-matching algorithm are proposed that drastically reduce the amount of memory required and improve its performance. For Snort rule sets, the new algorithm achieves 30% of memory reduction compared with the traditional Aho–Corasick algorithm. In addition, we can gain further reduction in memory by integrating our approach to the bit-split algorithm which is the state-of-the-art memory-based approach.

  14. Srimani, P. K. and Annapurna S Kamath

    This paper deals with the performance analysis of the learning model used to optimize the Mathematical Pathway – ‘Ganitha Vithika’. Using the Mathematical Pathway Database generated by the Learning model that contains information of all the mathematical concept competencies a child has to achieve from class 1 to class 7 for a large population of children, the performance of an individual child is evaluated which indicates whether the child’s progress is normal or exceptionally good or there is a need for guidance. The results obtained by the application of Neural Network approach for data mining and performance analysis shows that the Learning model used to generate the data set is highly accurate and this generic novel approach can be extended to other disciplines.

  15. Godfrey Kipkorir Ngeno and Jonathan Kiprotich Chebogut

    Life is full of losses from the time of birth to the day of death. Most of the other losses could be recovered except the loss arising from death. No one is immune to the loss from death. Death is therefore a fact that each family member should understand and accept that at one time or another the pain of death will be experienced. Family members respond to news of death differently depending on their relationship to the deceased as well as personality. After death grieving and mourning sets in which require technical knowledge on the part of the counselor to help the bereaved person to regain normalcy through verbalization of what happened. The bereaved person goes through a series of stages which counselor can help through so as not to be fixated in one stage. Various techniques and skills are used to help the grieving person in the journey towards healing. The current paper examines the meaning of death, its place in the family as well as the role of counseling interventions that are specially needful in overcoming the feelings and reactions arising from the death in the family. It is hoped that this paper will significantly contribute new ideas on the relevance of counseling during the circumstances of death hence encourage family members to utilize this great service for their own good.

  16. Elizabeth Wanyanga

    The first EAC was established in 1967 under the Treaty of East African Cooperation. It collapsed in 1977 and was re-established in 1999 under the East African Community Treaty. This article addressed the legal instruments under which the EAC has been re-established. The revival of EAC integration occurred after the establishment of the World Trade Organization (WTO), which is the premier institution for the regulation of international trade. All EAC partner states are members of the WTO. The EAC must therefore be consistent with WTO rules and disciplines on formation of Regional Trade Agreements (RTAs). This article reviewed the revived EAC in the light of WTO rules and disciplines. Previous studies and reviews on the EAC integration generally fail to assess the legal instruments from this perspective.

  17. Ali, H.R., Nyakairu, G.W. and Vuai, S.A.,

    This study was carried out to determine the chemical composition of cave water in Zanzibar Island, part of Tanzania. It was done by studying major cations (Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+), and major anions (HCO3-, SO42-, Cl-), in the water as indicators. Overall results indicated that, the cave water was influenced by marine and weathering contribution. However, weathering was more pronounced at Chomvi ndogo, Chomvi kubwa, and Miza wa Miza caves where it was more than 87% compared to Kilindi, Choweni and Makutani caves where it was less than 77%. Therefore marine contributed more in these last three caves. The trend for concentration contributed from marine water was similar to all sampling sites which was K

  18. Sarkar, S., Mukherjee, S. and Bairagya, R.

    Economy of a State is for all its citizens. When the worst on economy is suffered by all its citizens then why not the goods of economy are shared by all? Inclusive Growth (IG) gives an answer to this question. IG with broad base across the sectors is pro poor and reduces rural-urban and rich-poor divides. IG is incorporating all its members (citizens / beneficiaries) under its web and progressing towards a substantial and sustainable development which will result in economic welfare in the long-run. It simply means an equitable allocation of resources with benefits accruing to every sections of the society. IG is based on its three pillars i.e. environment, society and financial system. Inclusion in any of the above factors will lead to a growth which aims to reduce the disparity basically among haves and have not through reduction of poverty. IG focuses on formal training to develop the skills of the workers to increase the productivity and simultaneously raise their wage rates. The paper aims to analyze the above factors and reasons for IG and tries to establish an IG function. Moreover the paper focuses on the impact of IG on cost, market and economy and tries to establish situations when, where and how the IG is possible.

  19. Dr. Seema Vinayak and Guneet Singh Assi

    This paper attempts to have an insight into the personality attributes of motor stunt-bikers. Motor stunt-biking is an acrobatic maneuvering on motorbikes. Majority of these stunt-bikers enter the arena just after 18 years of age. They generally avoid any public interaction on the issue, primarily, because of the element of illegality associated with stunt-biking. Therefore, eight male stunt-bikers in the age range 18-23 years who gave their consent were administered a semi-structured interview schedule and a personality test. The test was given to them individually at the place of their convenience. Personality profiles of stunt-bikers revealed them to be having lower I.Q., apprehensive, experiment-oriented, venturesome but also tense. They were found to be average on traits of warmth, emotionally stability, conscientiousness, practicality and liveliness. However, the stunt-bikers were also found to be self-opinionated, hard to fool and adventurous in spirit. The demographic and interview schedule revealed their major inspirations and safety concerns.

  20. Seema Vinayak and Nasrin Jaberghaderi

    World Health Organization has identified violence against children as a growing public-health issue with a global magnitude. The aim of this research is to assess domestic violence and its psychological impacts among children in Kermanshah city of Iran. 507 primary and secondary urban students (aged7-15years) from 17 different schools of Kermanshah city of Iran were selected by using cluster random sampling..Children and their parents were interviewed using a Life Incidence Traumatic Events scale(LITEs) , Child Report Of Post traumatic Symptoms(CROPS) and Parents Report Of Post traumatic Symptoms(PROPS).The findings suggest that physical abuse was the most common event. Most of the children were exposed to marital conflict. While the boys significantly more than girls, had reported experiencing hardship yet girls reported family violence twice as boys. Children reported more post traumatic symptoms than their parents. Also, the girls and secondary school children significantly reported more post traumatic symptoms. This study explained violence against children as a challenge in Kermanshah city of Iran.

  21. Kihimbo B. W, Ayako B. A, Omoka, K. W, and Otuya W.L.

    Business finance for Small and Medium Enterprise in Kenya is what determines their mortality rate. The objective of the study was to find out major sources of financing of SMEs in Kenya: the extent to which, formal financing were accessible to the SME. 60 SME Owner/Manager were interviewed in Kakamega Municipality. The study utilised descriptive research design which included surveys and fact- finding enquiries of different kinds and data collection using questionnaire. The sampling frame of 1311 was stratified into 6 criteria and systematic random samplings of 60 samples were selected from all the strata using the same sampling proportion (0.045). The analysis of data was done using both quantitative and qualitative methods to report the findings. Functions used for analysis in this study were frequencies, charts and cross tabulations. Qualitative analysis used a central tendency measure which was able to calculate mean scores on a likert scale. Qualitative phase helped to fill in the gaps and provided additional information on measures to enhance SMEs financing. It was found that less than half of SMEs in Kakamega Municipality consider formal financing as a source of capital for their operations, more than 90 percent of SMEs who sought for formal financing succeeded. These results showed that formal financing were significant to keep the business operational of SMEs in Kakamega Municipality. Overlap between various sources was observed indicating multiple sources of capital are adopted by a variety of the SMEs which includes loan from micro-finance institutions and private sources (personal savings, friends and relatives). Major challenges that faced SMEs in Kakamega Municipality were identified as stiff competition, high running costs, low sales, and low profit margins. The SME Owners/Managers also indicated that cost of financing was high and was the major impediment to them seeking financing of their enterprises.

  22. Florence Kanorio Kisirkoi

    Teacher Advisory Centres (TACs) were established in the 1970s for Kenya primary school teachers’ professional development. However the teachers lack professional development opportunities and there are reports on teacher centred teaching approaches and poor pupil learning outcomes. Research has found that teachers who participate in sustained curriculum based teacher professional development activities reported changes in practice resulting in turn to high student learning achievement. The study interrogated the problem: How effective are TACs in teacher professional development? Schulman theoretical framework guided the study which focuses on content mastery and pedagogical knowledge. The study examined the extent to which TACs conduct teacher professional development activities, the challenges they face and the impact of teacher professional development on classroom practice. Descriptive survey was employed and the study was conducted in Nairobi County. TAC tutors and teachers were the main study subjects. Descriptive statistics was used to analyze data. Findings included that TAC tutors spend only 40% of their time performing teacher professional development duties and 60%, performing administrative duties of Ministry of Education. They lack facilitation. Lecture and question and answer characterized classroom instruction. TACs tend to be ineffective in teacher professional development. Recommendations made were that TAC tutors should be relieved of MOE administrative duties, facilitated, equipped with resources, knowledge and skills; provided clear organizational structure and career path.

  23. Dr. John Mwaruvie

    As scholars get interested in human rights violations during colonial rule in Kenya especially during the Mau Mau struggle for independence, other colonial scandals of lesser magnitude remain unearthed as this article demonstrates. The manner in which the colonial governments constructed the public works and railways in particular has not received adequate scrutiny by historians. The construction of railways required mobilization of tens of thousands of labourers who more often than not worked under appalling conditions. This article examines how labor was procured and treated during the construction of the Uasin Gishu Railway in Kenya where hundreds of workers died due to poor housing, diet and disease. Specifically, the article examines why the Uasin Gishu railway was the only Kenyan project in 1920s to import labor, in this case from Tanganyika Territory and South Africa. Second, labor mismanagement led to a high death rate among the workers, and this necessitated a probe by both Tanganyikan and Kenyan authorities. Incidentally, the colonial Kenyan officials employed various means to cover up the problems experienced by both Tanganyikan and Kenyan laborers during the construction of the railway. Relying heavily on archival sources never used before, this article exposes the weaknesses embodied in trusteeship and mandated territories doctrine. Africans whether from Mandated or a colony were treated the same by British administration.

  24. Godfrey Ejuu

    Recognition and inclusion of cultural parental expectations of their children at different stages of development is critical in formulating comprehensive early learning and development standards. While there has been significant research on ‘best practices’ from the west that are largely school based expectations of children at different stages in Uganda, there is a lack of research into traditional parental expectations of their children at different stages of development. This study explores cultural parental expectations of 160 parents of pre-schoolers that they wish to see inculcated into their children. Structured interview was used to collect data which was later analyzed descriptively. Result from this study may inform the process of developing a comprehensive early learning and development standard that is sensitive to both parental and school based standards so as to cater for a whole child.

  25. Kirtti Ranjan Paltasingh, Phanindra Goyari and R K Mishra

    The weather factors (rainfall, temperature, soil moisture, snowfall and so on) like other inputs such as land, labor HYVs seeds, irrigation, fertilizers, pesticides etc. are also a direct input in crop production. Moreover, in a state of backward agriculture where the technological adoption and diffusion is very slow or near nil, the weather factors count more than other inputs because of their direct and indirect effects. Again understanding the precise link between weather and crop yield could have some implications for the effects of climate change on food supply and crop management policies. So it can facilitate some kind of institutions that can secure the crops from the vagaries of monsoon. Thus, the study of crop-weather relation is of immense help to the policy makers, agricultural scientists, agricultural economists and meteorologists alike. The present study here attempts to review the works done both in India and abroad which brought an evolutionary trend in weather-crop modeling. The objectives of study are: (i) to bring out the evolutionary trend that the weather-crop analysis has gone through in evolving itself into a more fine-tuned and sophisticated area of research which gradually makes it more close to reality and (ii) to point out some loopholes that are still existing in past studies.

  26. Dr JosephO. Fayeye and Obasanjo S. Balogun

    The current terrorist insurgency by the Northern Nigeria-based Islamic fundamentalist-‘Boko Haram’ has continued to pose serious threats to Nigeria’s corporate political entity. This is evidenced in the sect’s undeterred spate of terrorist’s attacks on citizens,the nation’s security personnel,wanton destruction of lives and property. This study focused on the assessment of ‘Boko Haram’ terrorist activities in Nigeria, and the obvious implications on national security. The study used secondary data source to analyze Boko Haram insurgency in Nigeria. It concluded with policies options that could enhance effective anti-terrorist strategies in strengthening the security of lives and property in Nigeria political state.

  27. Jegan, A. and Dr. S. Sudalaiyandi

    In fewer than twenty years, mobile phones have gone from being rare and expensive pieces of equipment used by businesses to a pervasive low-cost personal item. In the era of information explosion, people are to be provided with quick and timely access to information. Indian Telecom industry is one of the fastest growing telecom markets in the world. In earlier day the mobile phone being viewed as an expensive luxury only affordable to the power and rich .Today, not only in all urban areas, also in smaller towns and remote rural farms, the mobile phone has become a common, affordable, and convenient communication device. Reduction in the tariff has made affordable to all and increased its uses significantly. In telecom industry, service providers are the main drivers; whereas equipment manufacturers are witnessing growth. In this light, the present study deals with consumer preferences and their satisfaction level towards the mobile phone service providers available in Kovilpatti, Thoothukudi District, India. The present study conducted on 100 mobile phone users of various mobile phone service providers such as Vodafone, Airtel, BSNL, Reliance, Aircel, Tata Indicom and few other players. The results derived from the study indicate that the factor that induces the consumers to buy a particular mobile phone operator is call tariffs followed by network coverage and brand image.

  28. Cláudio Garcia Capitão, Melissa de Fátima Bueno and Ítor Finotelli Jr.

    Studies indicate that hypertension has no single cause but is the result of the interaction of biological, psychological and social factors. The family support may be a social aspect in the process of health disease. This study aimed to correlate indicators for anxiety and family support perception in hypertensive persons, and to seek evidences of converging validity between the variables of the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) and Trace-State Anxiety Inventory (STAI) instruments. Seventy hypertensive persons, 52 women (74%), aged 27 to 65 years (M=52.3, SD=8.9), participated in the study. The tests employed were an Identification Questionnaire, BAI, STAI, and the Inventory of Perception of Family Support (IPSF). Results indicated high levels of anxiety and low levels of family support perception. The correlations between the anxiety indicators (BAI and STAI) and PFSI were found to be negative and significant.

  29. Dr. Manas Kumar Mukherjee

    An empirical model between Peak Discharge (QP) and corresponding Return Period (T), obtained from Plotting position formulae, has been developed at Kharkai Barrage Site, India. Mathematical model has been developed by using Least Square Principle, Computer Programing and Software Packages. The model thus developed has been found to be highly satisfactory as the values of percentage deviation and standard deviation of percentage deviation are too low i.e. 0.94 and 0.57 respectively. High positive correlation has been identified between parameters involved in the study with value of Correlation Co-efficient lying always above 0.74. For any desired Return Period (T), the corresponding Peak Discharge (QP) can be computed readily from the developed model. The corresponding Stage (G) can also be ascertained from the rating curve (Mukherjee, M,K., Sarkar, S., 2007). The Stage (G) values will be extremely helpful to the exsisting flood warning system and for the construction of different hydraulic structures.

  30. Rajasekaran. R and Dr. K. Ramar

    The need to process documents on paper by computer has led to an area of research that may be referred to as Document Image Understanding (DIU).The goal of DIU system is to convert a raster image representation of a document. For Example, A hand written Gregg shorthand character or word is converted into an appropriate Symbolic Character in a computer (It may be a scanned character or online written character).Thus it involves many disciplines of computer science including image processing, pattern recognition, natural language processing, artificial intelligence, neural networks and database system. The ultimate goal of this paper is to recognize hand written Gregg shorthand character and Gregg shorthand word.

  31. Merkuz, A. and A. Getachew

    Field survey for sorghum covered kernel smut incidence and severity were done in two districts of North Gondar Administrative zone, Amhara National Regional State in North western Ethiopia, during the main crop season. In each district eleven representative Peasant Administrations (PAs) were selected randomly based mainly on sorghum area coverage. In each PA disease was assessed in ten randomly selected farmer fields. In Gondar Zuria district, the disease was highly distributed through out the surveyed areas and disease incidence ranged from 10.5 to 29.2%. The highest (29.2%) and the lowest disease incidence (10.5%) were recorded at Tach Teda and Sarwuha PAs respectively. The severity was the highest (54.66%) at Bahiriginb and the lowest (26.57%) at Sarwuha PAs. In Alefa Takussa district, the disease was found to be distributed with mean disease incidence of 12.25%. The higher disease incidence (17.43%) was at Goy while it was the lowest (5.5%) at Chima Lembez PAs. The Highest disease severity (48.35%) was encountered at Ayibiga and it was the lowest (31.05%) at Chima Lembez.

  32. Dibyendu Talukdar and Tulika Talukdar

    Alien legumes exert major influence in modulation of sustainable agriculture and crop productivity in diverse ways. An investigation was carried out in inventorizing alien legume plants and their invasive nature in districts of Nadia, Hooghly, Howrah, 24 pgs (N) and Kolkata in Gangetic West Bengal during 2005-2011. As many as 40 alien species were documented, of which 14 species are highly invasive in nature and the tree Leucaena leucocephala was the worst invasive in nature. About 40% of plants have been used by local people as food and fodder, 20% in medicinal, and rest 40% as biomass fuel, manuring and in other diverse economic and commercial purposes. Allelopathic effect of an invasive legume on crop legume was ascertained by studying germination, growth traits and root-tip mitotic activity of Lathyrus sativus L., treated with leaf aqueous extracts of Leucaena leucocephala in different concentrations (0, 10, 20, 30 and 40%). A dose-dependent reduction in germination and plant dry weight was accompanied with significant (P<0.05) decrease in mitotic index and enhancement of mitotic abnormalities in Lathyrus plants. While 10% extract dose had no significant effect, concentrations of 20% onwards were found highly inhibitory to growth, and induced chromotoxicity in Lathyrus genomes.

  33. Kaveri, B, Palanichamy Bhaskar Mitra, Aranganathan, N.N Reddy and D. Vishnudas

    The present study was aimed to understand the better stability effects and higher tolerance range of cellulose encapsulated Lactobacillus in certain pH conditions over non-encapsulated Lactobacillus. The recommended dose of 106 to 109 cells/day was given by bioencapsulating 108 cells of Lactobacillus and CFU were assayed after 15 days and 30 days.The cellulose encapsulated Lactobacillus was found to be 80% and 90% viable after 15 and 30 days of storage respectively when compared to the nonencapsulated lactobacillus. From the stability test, the encapsulated capsule was found to be stable at low 2.5 pH and nonstable at 6.5 pH. The reason behind such stability is that the huge concentration of H+ ions does not affect the surface permeability and also the surface gets no threat from the OH- ions because the excess H+ ions shields the effect of the OH- ions from attacking the microcapsule. In higher pH conditions the concentration of OH- ions increase relatively and since the H+ ions cannot shield upto that effect as mentioned in the previous one, the capsular surface poses a threat and is bound to degrade and consequentially it fails to pass through the Gastrointestinal Tract of mammals. Bioencapsulation of lactobacillus with cellulose was also found to be antibiotic resistant and had a high tolerance range to phenol. From this study, it can be said that cellulose can be used to encapsulate Lactobacillus in place of alginate and cellulose encapsulated lactobacillus can pass through the GI tract of mammals and be released in the small intestine at much lower pH conditions.

  34. S. Rajesh, Jamila Patterson and Vinoth S. Ravindran

    Tuticorin is an industrial city located in the south east coast of India and it receives untreated sewage and industrial effluents. The present investigation was carried out to find out the changes in physico-chemical and biological parameters including fecal coliforms of Thirespuram coastal waters, Roach Park and Punnakayal estuary of Tuticorin coast to assess its impact on the benthic communities of these areas. Among the various parameters, salinity was low during monsoon at certain stations due to the river run off. Turbidity, TSS and fecal coliforms were high in water and sediment samples, dissolved oxygen and benthic population were lower, at certain stations where the discharge of untreated sewage and domestic waste disposal were found to be abundant. Untreated sewage and domestic waste have been observed to increase the turbidity, TSS, nutrients and induce fecal coliform growth and reduced dissolved oxygen. These factors are found to affect benthic population of the study sites in the Tuticorin coastal region.

  35. O.O. Olatunji, G.O. Oyediran, G.O. Kolawole, J. C. Obi, D.V. Ige and O.O. Akinremi

    Phosphate sorption isotherm is a valuable tool for the management of P fertility in soils. This study was conducted to examine how P sorption characteristics were influenced and could be predicted from selected properties of tropical soils. Langmuir and Freundlich equation were adopted in the evaluation and estimation of P sorption parameters in nine soils types of South Western Nigeria developed on basement complex. Two profile pits were dug per soil type where they were dominant (predetermined by Smyth and Montgomery, 1962). The morphological attributes of the soil profile were described and soil samples were taken from pedological horizons for laboratory analysis. Same soil types were bulked and P sorption were determined using 11 concentrations of P and three replicates.. The P sorption data for these soils were slightly better fitted to Freundlich equation than the Langmuir equation. Oxalate extractable Al (Alox) and Clay particles were the properties that were best correlated with sorbed P. This suggest that oxalate Al oxide with silicate clay play a significant role in P sorption.

  36. O.O. Olatunji, O. A. Aderinola, P.A. Babajide, E.A. Ewetola, B.A. Lawal, F.M. Owoade, Y.B. Oyeyiola and A.O. Olayiwola

    Fertilizer use is a key factor for increasing agricultural production in sub Sahara Africa and its utilization has increased rapidly in the last two decades. Adoption of chemical fertilizers has largely replaced traditional practices, such as recycling of crop residues and application of organic manures. Poultry manure was used as a soil conditioner to increase the biomass yield of Panicum maximum and to maintain soil fertility. The treatments were 0kg, 50kg, 100kg and 200kg per plot. Each plot has a dimension of 4m by 4m. The experiment lasted for 12 weeks. The results showed that poultry manure applied at the rates of 50kg/plot had the highest biomass yield amongst others. Based on the weekly plant height measurement, biomass yield was significantly higher at 12th week, available phosphorus, potassium, organic matter and stable aggregate improved with increasing rate of application of poultry manure. This study shows that poultry manure applied to the Panicum maximum improves the growth and biomass yield of the crop and also helps in sustaining aggregate stability with improved soil fertility.

  37. M. Geetha, M. Saravanakumar and P. Suganyadevi

    Anthocyanins and flavonoids are polyphenolic compounds and capable of inhibiting the growth of human cancer cells. It is mainly responsible for cyanic colors ranging from salmon pink through red and violet to dark blue of most flowers, fruits, leaves and stems. Quercetin, a novel flavonoid, was present in the onion peel (Allium cepa). In the present study, we explored the cytotoxic effects of anthocyanin on human epithelial cells and the Breast cancer cells by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The HEp-2 and MCF-7 cells were seeded in 96-well culture plates in different concentrations of red onion and big onion peel extracts of Allium cepa to determine their anticancer effects using the MTT assay. Anthocyanin extracted from big onion peel showed approximately 92% inhibition on HEp-2cells at 1000 µg/ml (table 1). When compared with anthocyanin extracted from red onion peel, big onion peel showed a highest inhibition. The anthocyanin extracted from red onion peel and big onion peel was tested against MCF-7 cell lines. Red onion peel showed higher activity around 78% inhibitions than big onion peel. So we can assume that, the anthocyanin compounds present in red onion peel are inhibiting the proliferation of cells. So the anthocyanins extracted from easily available onion peel would be a valuable source for antiproliferative activity in food industry.

  38. Stanley Kavale

    This paper explores the role of data on the strategic decision making process. This is a desk top research study which looked at different studies done by researchers on the role of data and its role in strategic decision making. The main objective of this study is to establish the roles data play in strategic decision making. The strategic decision making process has also been identified and the theories underlying strategic decision making process have been explored. First it looked at the definition of data in relation to information and knowledge. Sources of data, both internal and external have been identified and theories of decision making; rational, incremental, political, constructive and factual approach illustrated. From the study, it is quite clear that data has very important roles in strategic decision making. This paper concludes that data plays the roles of; gaining competitive advantage, optimization of resources, cost reduction, value creation, accuracy and accountability and hedging uncertainty. Thus data brings efficiency and effectiveness in the strategic decision making process. This paper recommends that management in organizations should attach a lot of importance to data sourcing, analysis, interpretation and use to create competitive advantage. Further, data security should be enhanced because data is a key resource.

  39. S. Rajini N. Ethirajan, S. Senthil, V. Swarnapriya and A.J. Felix

    Aims and Objective: To compare the efficacy of different dosage regimens of iron prophylaxis among the subgroups of boys and girls. A quasi experimental study was conducted in rural health centre area of Department of community medicine, RMMC&H. Hundred and one anemic adolescents were identified, out of which only 93 participated till the end of the study. 93 The Individuals were graded mild (10-11.9gms/dl), moderate (8-9.99%) and severely anemic (8gms/dl) as per WHO [5] and they were divided into two groups. 43 indivduals in category A (15 boys & 28 girls) were given once weekly supplementation by the health worker under supervision. Category B consisting of 50 subjects (15 boys & 35 girls) were given twice weekly supplementation. Supplementation was given for a period of 6 months under supervision. Hemoglobin estimation was done at the end of 6 months to find out the efficacy of 2 different regimens. Results: There was a significant increase in the mean hemoglobin level in both the category A [mean hemoglobin level 10.42 & 10.66 in boys and girls have increased to 14.06 & 13.10 respectively] & category B [mean hemoglobin level 11.02 & 10.26 in boys and girls have increased to 13.50 & 12.38 respectively] and there was marginal increase in category A when compared to category B, among both boys and girls. It was observed that, with once weekly regimen as compared to twice weekly schedule, the increase in mean hemoglobin was better in boys as compared to girls.

  40. Dr Ballah Denue Akawu, Dr WadzaniGashau, Dr Mohammed Bashir Alkali David Bukbuk, Cecilia Akawu and JamesYelima

    Objective: To describe the socio-Demographic and clinical pattern of presentation of HIV-1 infected adult patients in North-Eastern Nigeria. Methodology: Patients diagnosed to be HIV-1 positive that presented or referred for care to Infectious diseases clinic, University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital (UMTH) from March to December 2008 were included in this descriptive case study. Detailed history and clinical examination was performed and risk factors for HIV infection were evaluated. Result: A total of 315 patients were consecutively recruited into the study which included 130(41.3%) males and 180(58.7%) females with male to female ratio of 1:1.4.The mean age(±SD) of both sexes was 34.03± 11.21(14-81) years. Male patients were older than females, 36.58 ¥had no formal education and were unemployed. Heterosexual contact appeared to be the single most predominant mode of exposure to HIV infection in this study. Weight loss (32%) was the most common presenting feature, followed by unexplained chronic diarrhoea (23.5%), persistent generalized lymphoadenopathy (22.9%), and orophrangeal candidiasis (20.3%).A total of 67 (21.3%) patients had AIDS-indicator conditions on presentation; significantly more males presented with AIDS-indicator condition than females (27.7% vs 16.8%) (p<0.05) Conclusion: The finding of higher prevalence of HIV among unemployed youth suggests that productive and economically viable segment of the society is worst hit.The heterosexual nature of the transmission supports interventions aimed at risky sexual behaviours. Weight loss being the mostcommonest presenting feature suggests late presentation.

  41. Khitam Jassim Sali and Majeed Hussein Majeed

    The water buffalo is vital to the lives of small farmers and to the economy of many countries worldwide. Not only are they draught animals, but they are also a source of meat, horns, skin and particularly the rich and precious milk that may be converted to creams, butter, yogurt and many cheeses. A total of thirty buffalo (fifteen were river buffalo and fifteen swamp buffalo) from south Iraq (Basrah city) were used in this study. Depending on the feature , morphology and location the animals were classified to do the genetic study. The karyotype of river buffalo 2n = 48 represented by 2 pairs of metacentric chromosomes,4 pairs submetacentric, 17 pairs acrocentric and 1 pair telocentric chromosomes (Figures.3 & 4). While the karyotype of swamp buffalo 2n=50 represented by 1 pair of metacentric chromosomes, 4 pairs submetacentric, 19 pairs acrocentric and 1 pair telocentric chromosomes. These subspecies differ by one chromosome; a fusion between river buffalo (BBU) chromosome 4 and 9 is comparable to swamp buffalo chromosome 1, and all chromosomes and chromosome arms are preserved between these two subspecies.

  42. Dr.Kian Ghanati , Fatemeh. Fallah Ph.D, Mohammad.Hosseini moghaddam M.D, Latif.Gachkar M.D, Abdollah.Karimi M.D, Saadat. Adabian Ph.D, Raheleh Sadat.Sajadinia M.D

    Background: Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) is one of the most important infections among renal transplant recipients; however, the threat caused by the acquisition of antibiotic resistance by pathogenic bacteria has been growing. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the antibiotic sensitivity of 25 strains isolated from urine samples of renal transplant recipients and evaluate the presence and prevalence of resistance determinants such as Integron in them. Methods: The patients enrolled into the study had undergone renal transplantation in the Department of General and Transplantation Surgery of Labafinejad hospital, 70 to 90 days before urine samples were collected. Susceptibility of 25 bacterial strains [ 10 Enterococcus faecalis, 4 Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus 2 Streptococcus sp., 2 Klebsiella pneumoniae, 2 E.coli, 2 Acinetobacter baumannii, 1 Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, 1 Proteus mirabilis and 1 Citrobacter freundii ] to 13 antibiotics: Gentamycin, Tetracycline, Ceftazidime, Co-trimoxazole, Imipenem, Ciprofloxacin, Norfloxacin, Cefalotin, Amikacin, Chloramphenicol, Nalidixic Acid, Amoxicillin and Nitrofurantoin were determined by the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. In addition, the existance of Integrons in resistant isolates was assessed by PCR. Results: It was demonstrated that TEM gene in gram-negative bacterial strains (100%) and Entrococcus (55.6%) and ctx gene in other gram-positive bacterial strains (72.3%) are responsible for antimicrobial resistance more than any other gene. Furthermore, it was revealed that class 1 and 2 Integrons exist in all resistant isolates while class 3 Integrons only exist in Entrococcus. Conclusion: The results indicate that Integrons may contribute significantly to the spread of antibiotic resistant bacteria among renal transplantation patients.

  43. Merkuz, A. and A. Getachew

    Field experiment was carried out for two years at artificially Fusarium pathogen infested field at Adet research center in North Western Ethiopia, to determine the effect of chickpea fusarium wilt on desi and kabuli-type of chickpea using integrated disease management option that is varieties, planting dates and seed bed preparation methods. Four varieties, i.e., Kabuli type (Shasho) and three desi type Marye , JG-62 and Adet local were used as, JG-62 (susceptible check), Adet local (control), Marye and Shasho (both improved); three planting dates at 15-day intervals, i.e., early, farmers and late; and three seed bed preparation methods including flat bed, raised bed and ridge and furrow were used as treatments. Treatments were arranged in a factorial combination in a Randomized Complete Block Design in three replications. The number of seedlings emerged; dead plants due to wilt, and grain yield per plot were recorded for each desi and kabuli type of chickpea. Data was analyzed using the SAS system for windows V8. The results indicated that compared with the control. The kabuli type Shasho was the most resistant variety to wilt, followed by desi-type Marye. Mortality of the susceptible check, JG-62, due to wilting was 100%. The 2nd planting date and the raised bed exhibited relatively lower rate of mortality. Interactions of desi and kabuli type of chickpea variety, planting date and seed bed preparation were significant. Desi and kabuli type varieties varied in grain yield significantly. The kabuli type Shasho and desi type Marye gave better yield than the Adet local (desi type). The farmer planting date gave better yield than early and late plantings. Seed bed preparation methods did not significantly vary in grain yield. Although not statistically significant, raised beds and ridge and furrow plots gave better yield than flat beds. Raised beds gave 31% more yield than the flat bed and close to 27.8% more yield than the ridge and furrow. The results indicate that kabuli type Shasho was the most resistant variety to wilt compare with desi types and advantage of using cultural management as a sustainable and environmentally friendly option to control chickpea fusarium wilt disease. It is concluded that the kabuli type Shasho better than desi type varieties, planting dates and to some extent seed bed preparation methods contribute to the management of wilt disease and so enhance productivity of chickpeas in northwestern Ethiopia.

  44. H.V. Anil Kumar, T. S. Muralidhar and Munirajappa

    EMS is a monofunctional-ethylating potent chemical mutagen, found to be mutagenic in wide variety of genetic test systems from viruses to mammals.EMS causes base-pair insertion or deletions and more extensive intragenic deletions in higher organisms. The alkyl group of an alkylating agent reacts with DNA that leads to change in the nucleotide sequence, thus resulting in point mutation. EMS is found to be more effective and safe for use in mulberry. In present investigation, the active bud sprouts of the mulberry genotype RFS135 was treated with EMS (0.1% and 0.3%) intermittently for the duration of twelve hours. The biological effects of EMS on the total genomic DNA of the treated plants were studied through RAPD technique. The M1V2 variant clones obtained from the plants treated with 0.1% and 0.3% concentrations of EMS revealed polymorphs of significantly variable size of different base pairs for two random primers used (OPW-04/05), thus indicating probable changes in the molecular characters of the total genomic DNA. Analysis of RAPD revealed genetic variation between control and EMS induced clones. Mutants screened at 0.1% and 0.3% showed higher levels of genetic variation and more unique alleles compared to the control due to EMS induced mutation.

  45. M.O. Ijoyah, E.O. Adagba and T. Iorlamen

    Field experiments were conducted from June to October during the 2010 and 2011 cropping seasons, at the Research Farm, University of Agriculture, Makurdi, Nigeria, to evaluate the productivity of okra-maize intercropping system as influenced by varying maize plant densities and to assess the advantages of the intercropping system. The treatments consisted of three maize plant densities (33,000, 40,000 and 50,000 plants ha-1) into okra plots, while the sole crops of okra and maize at their recommended plant densities of 33,000 and 40,000 plants ha-1 respectively, constituted the fourth and fifth treatments, which also served as controls. The five treatments were replicated four times in a randomized complete block design. The results obtained showed that in okra-maize intercropping system, increasing maize plant density up to 50,000 plants ha-1 reduced intercropped okra yield, while the increase in maize plant density significantly (P≤0.05) increased intercropped maize yield. Maize sown at 50,000 plants ha-1 into okra plots, not only recorded the lowest competitive pressure but gave the highest land equivalent ratio (LER) values of 1.83 and 1.86 respectively, in years 2010 and 2011, indicating that greater productivity per unit area was achieved by growing the two crops together than by growing them separately. With these LER values, 45.4 % and 46.2 % of land were respectively saved in 2010 and 2011, which could be used for other agricultural purposes. This study showed that in an okra-maize intercropping system, the optimal maize plant density would be 50,000 plants ha-1. This should therefore be recommended for Makurdi location, Nigeria.

  46. Sivakumar, P. and Parvathi, R.M.S.

    By the unusual growth of the web, there is an increasing volume of data and information published in numerous web-pages. From this we understood that web is noisy. A web page contains a mixture of many kind of information e.g. mainly contains, advertisements, navigational panels, copy right blocks etc… in a particular application only part of information is useful and the rest are noise. These all mischief web mining. Advertisements and Sponsor images are not much important in surfing. We need a technique that to keep common navigation structure as it is but remove image advertisement and improve surfing efficiency. In this paper a small application HTML Tag Differentiator rule based is created which removes image advertisement.

  47. Jatinderpal Singh

    In Haemonchus contortus, the wall of the oviduct is thick and muscular, acting as a mere passageway for the oocytes. The seminal receptaculum is not a distinct structural entity but a continuity of the distal portion of the uterus. The epithelial lining near the ovo-uterine junction is of oblique columnar type followed by cuboidal type of uterine epithelium which becomes secretory in the mid region and muscular near the vaginal end. The secretory epithelium of middle portion of the uterus secretes materials necessary for the formation of outer uterine layer of the egg shell.

  48. M. Daniel Jebaraj, Manjunath Hubballi, M. Selvaraj, R. Jagannathan and Srinivasan V. M.

    The fungal and bacterial biocontrol agents and organic amendments were tested individually and in combinations for their efficacy against root rot pathogen, Macrophomina phaseolina under invitro, glass house and field conditions. Among the fungal and bacterial (Pseudomonas) antagonists screened, Trichoderma viride, T. harzianum, Pseudomonas fluorescens (Pf7) isolates exhibited maximum inhibition compared to other isolates. Among the organic amendments, tested invitro against the pathogen, neem cake and coir pith compost were most effective in reducing the growth of the pathogen. The compatibility studies revealed the isolate of T. viride, T. harzianum, P. fluorescens (Pf7) were compatible with each other and also with eight organic amendments. Of the various treatments tested, soil application of T. viride and neem cake recorded least incidence of disease when compared to individual treatments both under glass house and field conditions. Furthermore, the same treatment also increased the yield compared to control.

  49. Gustave D. DAGBENONBAKIN, Emile C. AGBANGBA, Valentin KINDOMIHOU, Léonard Elie Akpo, Nestor SOKPON, Brice SINSIN

    The use of critical concentration approach to diagnosis the nutrient status of plants is somewhat erroneous in that ‘critical nutrient concentrations’ are not independent diagnostics, but can vary in magnitude as the background concentrations of other nutrients increase or decrease in crop tissue. The Diagnosis and Recommendation Integrated System (DRIS), an alternative is sometimes less sensitive than the sufficiency range approach to differences caused by leaf position, tissues age, climate, soil conditions, and cultivar effect because it uses nutrient ratios. The DRIS provides a reliable means of linking leaf nutrient concentrations to the yield of groundnut, and may be developed for this crop using existing experimental data. The present study was carried out in the Upper Catchment of Benin in 2001 and 2002, and grain yield and leaf nutrient concentration data from organic and inorganic trials were used to establish DRIS norms for N, P, K, Mg, Ca, S and Zn and statistical parameters for groundnut. The DRIS norms from this study were K/Ca: 1.4, K/S: 15.8, K/N:0.7, Mg/Ca: 0.2, Mg/K: 0.2, Mg/P: 2.1, Mg/Zn: 159.8, N/Ca: 2, N/S: 23.9, Zn/N: 0.0008, P/K: 0.1, P/N: 0.1, P/S: 1.3, P/Ca: 0.1, P/Zn: 76.1, S/Ca: 0.1, and Zn/Ca: 0.002. Although the database was relatively small, the norms derived for nutrient ratios of key biological significance, i.e. N/S and K/N, were within the expected narrow ranges for higher plants, giving credibility to both the database and the DRIS model. Data from future surveys and field experiments may subsequently be used to enlarge the database allowing the refinement of model parameters and hopefully an expansion of the diagnostic scope such as to include other micro-nutrients. The nutrient status assessment using the selected DRIS norms shows a good nutrient level for N, P, K, Ca, S and Zn in the groundnut leaves for high yielding as their value was similar to those presented in the literature. As it stands, this preliminary DRIS model for groundnut offers a good diagnostic tool for evaluating the N, P, K, Ca, S and Zn status of groundnut crops in Benin.

  50. Arong, G. A., Oku, E. E., Okon, O. E. and Ikono, M. C.

    Mosquito is a vector of many human and animal diseases especially in the tropics. A study of the indoor and outdoor distribution and abundance in Calabar was conducted between May and August, 2011. A total of 142 mosquitoes collected showed a composition of Aedes aegypti, Ae vittatus, Ae domesticus, Ae simpsoni, Ae metalicus, Ae leutocephalis, Ae africanus, Ae taylori, Anopheles gambiae, An. maculipenis, An. rupites, An. Coustani, Culex quinquefaciatus, Cx annuloris, Cx tigripes, Cx decens. Abundance from the four study areas sampled were Bateba 23.02%, Goldie 23.31%, Uwanse 23.87% and Unical hostels 29.79%. More mosquitoes were collected outdoor, 71.13% than indoor, 28.87% and a higher number was collected between 5pm–8pm than 5am–8am. Mosquito distribution differed significantly between time of collection, sample location and the environments (P<0.05). It was observed that human induced environmental changes can have impact on the distribution of mosquito species and it was therefore concluded that mosquito is widely distributed in areas of poor sanitation levels and prevalence of standing water bodies for its breeding.

  51. Markson, A. A., Umana, E. J., Udo, S. E., Omosun, G., Madunagu, B. E., Osim, M. O.

    Investigations on the anatomical damage of cassava caused by Botryodiplodia theobromae, Rhizopus stolonifer and Penicilliun expansum was carried out in Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria. Inoculated and uninoculated cassava tissues were treated, sectioned weekly for four weeks and photomicrographs taken. The plates revealed massive cell wall macerations and depletion of starch grains in the samples infected with test pathogens. All the pathogens caused fragmentation of starch grains accompanied by minimal damage to infected cells and slight loss of starch grains in the first one week of incubation. The pattern of starch grain depletion adopted by P. expansum was from the lumen of the cell towards the cell boundaries thereby, creating empty spaces at the central portion of the affected cells. From the 3rd week of infection, massive cell wall degradation and starch grain depletion was evident. B. theobromae and P. expansum, in addition to starch depletion caused massive collapse of cell wall structure. R. stolonifer caused extensive necrosis, starch depletion and minimal collapse of cell wall structure particularly in the 4th week of incubation. Of the three pathogens studied, B. theobromae was the most aggressive in causing tissue damage and starch depletion in cassava tissues.

  52. V. Jayaseelan, K. Kalaichelvan, A. Rajadurai

    The goal of the present paper is to find friction between die and work piece. In this work, aluminum 6061 alloy with 5% volume fraction of Sic particle used. Al/SiC composites were produced by stir casting process. Extrusion die were used in three reduction ratios as (Inlet diameter: Outlet diameter) of 12:2, 8:4 and 4:2. Specimens were extruded at 3000C and constant strain rate of 0.002/Sec. Friction values to be determined in three dies and size effect to be studied. Extruded specimens Hardness, surface roughness and microstructure were compared with as cast specimens.

  53. Sanjay Kumar, Gopinath R. and V. Suneetha

    Microbes are potent source of different types of enzymes which are economically important in various industrial sectors. Pectinlyase which is enormously produced by many strains of bacteria, actinomycetes, fungi etc. Bacterial species produce this enzyme by using substrate as waste of different fruits such as peels of papaya , orange, sweet lime, guava, apple , etc. Bacterial species produced both types of pectinlyase. Acidic pectinlyase is useful in the fruit and juice processing industries but alkaline pectinlyase is useful in the textile and pulp industry mainly. Alkaline pectinlyase also useful for pretreatment of industrial waste water. Electro spray ionization and mass spectrometry are used to analyze the degradation of polygalacturonic acid.

  54. Preeti Singh Teotia, Nidhi Srivastava, Veena Garg, , G.S. Shekhawat, Nidhi Sharma and Sangeet Mohan Chadha

    Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni) containing stevioside is a natural sweetener, which has antihyperglycemic property. The plant can also be used for treatment of number of ailments like hypertension and obesity. This article serves about structural details, biosynthetic pathway, toxicology and pharmacological action of stevioside in glucose metabolism. The metabolism of stevioside is also discussed in relation to possible formation of steviol. Toxicological studies reveal negligible effect of stevioside on human health. It concludes that stevioside is very much suited as sweetening agent for diabetic patients as it tends to potentiate the insulin secretion as well as for obese persons intending to lose weight. So far no allergic reactions have been documented with the use of stevioside.

  55. Karthik Saravanan, Dr. G. Veeraiyan, Dr.D.Sudarsanam and P. Praveena

    Chromium in the effluent is a major concern for the tanning industry and it is directed in to fresh water bodies which in turn taken part in biological magnification through food chain. The present study is undertaken to gauge the accumulation of chromium in the tissues of Cirrhinus mrigala, when the live fish is subjected to sub lethal dose of chromium for a period of 10, 20 and 30 days in controlled environment. The tissues from gill, liver and kidney where subjected to Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy for assessing the amount of chromium accumulated in various tissues at the end of 10, 20 and 30 days. Maximum accumulation of chromium was found in the liver and kidney while minimum accumulation was seen in gill. Cirrhinus mrigala, is used as bioindicators because it tends to accumulate heavy metals and so their effects. As the fish is extensively used for human consumption, this finding urges greater regulation for industrial effluent discharge.

  56. Esther Wangithi Waiganjo, Jane Muceke Ng’ethe and Duncan Njeru Mugambi

    The push for financial sustainability introduced a degree of uncertainty into the relationship nongovernmental organizations maintain with their members. Kenya is a developing country that has various challenges in terms of social economic development. This has necessitated the work of various nongovernmental organizations across the country. This study investigated the factors that nongovernmental organizations(NGOs) have adopted to increase financial sustainability, as data from the National Council of NGOs show that donor funding declined from Sh87 billion in 2007 to Sh81 billion in 2008 and Sh73 billion in 2009.The objective of the study was to find out how strategic financial management, paradigm shift in programming, internal financial funding, strategic alliances and organization structure contributes towards financial sustainability in NGOs.Data was collected using questionnaires and stratified random sampling design used to select the sample of NGOs in Nyeri County. The study used inferential statistics for analysis since the data was quantitative in nature. From the research, there is need for NGO to critically strategize on their financial sustainability as the environment of their operation is changing very fast and the needs of NGOs are increasing by day due to global climatic changes, natural disasters, diseases and drug abuse.

  57. Dibyendu Talukdar and Tulika Talukdar

    An inventory was carried out in parts of Sikkim Himalayas (500-4200m, amsl) to document traditional wisdom on legumes regarding mode of food preparation and resource utilization. The study revealed rich biodiversity and conservation of traditional knowledge on use of legumes in food, fodder, medicine, organic farming and socio-religious festivals. As many as 42 ethno-taxa have been identified, of which 24 plants had use in different ailments including diabetes, high blood cholesterol, fever, digestive disorder and other general health problems. As edible food, 24 plants had extensive use either as vegetables or pulse-meal and 10 recipes have been identified. Cooking and boiling was the most preferred recipes among the tribes. Phaseolus and Vigna emerged as dominant taxa with maximum number of useful plants (8 each), followed by Cassia and Lathyrus (4 each) and then other taxa. Nepalese was the predominant tribes, utilizing highest number of plants, and it was closely followed by Lepchas and Bhutias and then other tribes. The informant consensus factor, used for the first time in Sikkim Himalayas, for preparation and usage of plant per category was high enough (> 0.90), indicating high degree of consensus in disclosing the traditional knowledge within the community in the study areas.

  58. William Gizava Kitagwa, Bekker, Johan L. and Onyango, Rosebealla, O.

    This paper is based on a study conducted in Eldoret Municipality in Uasin Gishu District, Rift Valley Province, Kenya to assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices of food handlers in food kiosks in relation to food hygiene. The lax monitoring of sanitary standards in food kiosks in Eldoret Municipality had raised questions regarding the personal hygiene practices of food handlers as well as the environmental hygiene of their premises. For data collection, questionnaires for food handlers working in food kiosks and consumers of kiosk food, sanitary evaluation of premises as well as bacteriological tests of water, food contact surfaces, food, food handler’s hands and throat samples were employed. The majority of food handlers had no formal food hygiene training and did not have a high level of general food hygiene knowledge, hence behavioural practices were lagging behind. Moreover, majority of the food did not meet the sanitary standards prescribed by Kenyan legislation. Recommendations were made to improve the knowledge, attitudes and practices of food handlers and consumers, to maintain the sanitary standards in the food kiosks and to provide for the establishment of governmental policies, programmes and strategies and the sensitization of political figures.

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Rosane Cavalcante Fragoso, Brasil
ASSOCIATE CHIEF EDITOR

   

Jean-Marc SABATIER
Chief Scientific Officer and Head of a Research Group
France

Advantages of IJCR

  • Rapid Publishing
  • Professional publishing practices
  • Indexing in leading database
  • High level of citation
  • High Qualitiy reader base
  • High level author suport

EDITORIAL BOARD

Luai Farhan Zghair
Iraq
Hasan Ali Abed Al-Zu’bi
Jordanian
Fredrick OJIJA
Tanzanian
Firuza M. Tursunkhodjaeva
Uzbekistan
Faraz Ahmed Farooqi
Saudi Arabia
Eric Randy Reyes Politud
Philippines
Elsadig Gasoom FadelAlla Elbashir
Sudan
Eapen, Asha Sarah
United State
Dr.Arun Kumar A
India
Dr. Zafar Iqbal
Pakistan
Dr. SHAHERA S.PATEL
India
Dr. Ruchika Khanna
India
Dr. Recep TAS
Turkey
Dr. Rasha Ali Eldeeb
Egypt
Dr. Pralhad Kanhaiyalal Rahangdale
India
DR. PATRICK D. CERNA
Philippines
Dr. Nicolas Padilla- Raygoza
Mexico
Dr. Mustafa Y. G. Younis
Libiya
Dr. Muhammad shoaib Ahmedani
Saudi Arabia
DR. MUHAMMAD ISMAIL MOHMAND
United State
DR. MAHESH SHIVAJI CHAVAN
India
DR. M. ARUNA
India
Dr. Lim Gee Nee
Malaysia
Dr. Jatinder Pal Singh Chawla
India
DR. IRAM BOKHARI
Pakistan
Dr. FARHAT NAZ RAHMAN
Pakistan
Dr. Devendra kumar Gupta
India
Dr. ASHWANI KUMAR DUBEY
India
Dr. Ali Seidi
Iran
Dr. Achmad Choerudin
Indonesia
Dr Ashok Kumar Verma
India
Thi Mong Diep NGUYEN
France
Dr. Muhammad Akram
Pakistan
Dr. Imran Azad
Oman
Dr. Meenakshi Malik
India
Aseel Hadi Hamzah
Iraq
Anam Bhatti
Malaysia
Md. Amir Hossain
Bangladesh
Ahmet İPEKÇİ
Turkey
Mirzadi Gohari
Iran