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IJCR is following an instant policy on rejection those received papers with plagiarism rate of more than 20%. So, All of authors and contributors must check their papers before submission to making assurance of following our anti-plagiarism policies.





June 2012

  1. Fatima A. Hassan, Yu Liu, M. Chandrasekar and Sherafin Jancy Vincy

    Hypophosphatasia is a rare inborn error of metabolism characterized by defective bone and tooth mineralization with a deficiency of serum and tissue liver/bone/kidney tissue alkaline phosphatase (L/B/K ALP) activity. This study involves the identification and confirmation of this disorder in a new born infant subject by detecting the missing allele and is thought to be a X-linked disorder as the same allele is mutated in the mother’s gene.

  2. Susanta Kumar Swain and Sudipta Sen

    Austempering variables such as time and temperature have been taken in to consideration for the present investigation with respect to tensile properties and characterization of graphite morphology. Two types of spheroidal graphite (SG) cast iron samples with different weight percentage of copper were austempered at four different temperatures. The austempering temperatures were 250˚C, 300˚C, 350˚C and 400˚C.The influence of austempering process on the mechanical properties of spheroidal graphite iron was investigated as a function of austempering time and temperature. The cooling rate and the quenching technique adopted play an important role for the property development of spheroidal graphite iron. The tensile properties have been correlated with the graphite morphology for both the grades of ADI. SEM micrographs have been taken from the fractured surface of the tensile specimens under different austempering conditions. It has been found from the result that ADI having the alloying element (Cu), achieved significant mechanical properties as compared to other grade (M1) throughout the different austempering process adopted in this study.

  3. Mr. D. Palanikkumar Durai and Thirunavukkarasu M.E (Phd), M. Lakshmi and G. Nathiya

    A customized service to citizens can be provided using service-oriented architecture. Web Service Management System (WSMS) is a comprehensive framework that provides an integrated view on the management of web service. It helps in providing a service-centric framework to deliver services to citizens. The proposed WSMS enable citizens to select their needed services. It focuses on the following key components: service composition, service optimization and service privacy preservation. The service composition provides support for combining various services. It also enables the customized delivery of services. The service optimization selects the best needed service to fulfill citizens’ service requirements. The privacy preservation provides security support.

  4. Maragatham, S

    Mulch is a product used to suppress weeds; raises soil temperature and conserve water in crop production and landscaping. Plastic mulch is often used in conjunction with drip irrigation. By using plastics film and sheet in agriculture, water can be conserved and production increased. One issue for the industry is recovery of plastic film from mulch applications when the material is often torn and dirty. Sustainability is a big issue and efforts are being made to improve recovery and recycling rates. The environmental impact of persistent plastic wastes is evoking more global concern as alternative disposal methods are limited. Incineration may generate toxic air pollution, and satisfactory landfill sites are limited. Recently, the continuously growing concern of the public for the problem has stimulated research interests in biodegradable polymers. In this study, the different biodegradable films that are exclusively used for mulching were discussed in detail.

  5. Vijay Kumar, A. Sharma, Mustaq Ahmad and G. K. Gupta

    Now a days mobile phones form an integral part of our daily life. We have billions of users worldwide and this number is ever increasing. Many researchers have proved that radiation of mobile phone is harmful for the health of human beings, animal and plants. Effect of the radiation of mobile phone depends upon the user time. The ongoing use of mobile phones has raised the health effects. This study is done for the people who are not aware about these radiations. After this study, it is found that the radiations of mobile phones are harmful for the people who are living nearby the transmission towers, so people should keep away from the transmission towers and people should use the mobile phone as soon as low timing.

  6. Onyeanu E. Ogoegbunam, J.U.J Onwumere, and Imo G. Ibe

    Nigeria’s economic dynamics has been very challenging especially for some sectors. The manufacturing sector of the economy has been very hard hit, hence most firms in Nigeria experience low capacity utilization, high cost of inputs, rising prices of component parts and raw materials, inadequate public power supply which many of them use for their power generating sets, hike in price of diesel and transportation cost lack of capital etc. In a bid to survive, most manufacturing firms in Nigeria have adopted varying corporate strategies hinging on dispersion of production of component parts of material unlike the traditionally concentrated manufacturing system and even outsourcing of their activities. It is against this background that this paper seeks to empirically examine the impact of cost of production on sustainability and growth for dispersed and concentrated manufacturing firms in Nigeria from 1998 to 2007 adopting the two-variable linear regression model. We found that whether the firm is dispersed or concentrated, the cost reduction effect of having to either source raw material in separate places or concentrated places does not matter as with respect to the sustainability and growth of firms. The study accordingly recommends that for improved productivity in the manufacturing sector, government has a major role to play. Government must ensure that there is regular supply of power while providing some form of incentives such as tax holidays, moratorium periods for loan and advances, provision of subsidy to firms in the manufacturing sector of the Nigerian economy, etc. These will reduce the cost of production and increase real capital available to firms for productive purposes.

  7. Dr. N. Pasupathi

    The Indian Oil Industry occupies an important place in the economy of the country because of its contribution to the industrial output, employment generation and foreign exchange earnings. The Oil that is produced by the Oil Industry in India provides more than thirty five percent of the energy that is primarily consumed by the people of India. This amount is expected to grow further with both economic and overall growth in terms of production as well as percentage. The demand for oil is predicted to go higher and higher with every passing decade and is expected to reach an amount of nearly 250 million metric ton by the year 2024. Profit earning is the aim of business. In the course of analysis of this study various statistical techniques have been made. The statistical techniques used are correlation, t-test and multiple regression analysis to find out the relationship between the variable and to identify the factor influencing the profitability. Based on the analysis net sales and net profit have some relationship and working capital management was highly influencing factor to find out profitability of selected oil companies in India. Companies must concentrate with other influencing factor for better more of the company.

  8. Sarkar Shubha Brata and Bairagya Ramsundar

    The consumer behaviour theory is not a new one. There are so many theories such as Marshallian, Hicks-Allen Indifference Curve and Samuelson’s Revealed Preference theory and so on. But all these theories are based upon certain assumptions. The validity of these theories depends upon the rationality of these assumptions. The assumption of utility measurement i.e. whether utility is ordinal or cardinal is a debatable one. The Constant Elasticity of Substitution (CES) function is also not a new one. Recent theories developed Duality in Consumption, Linear Expenditure Function, application of Roy’s identity, Shepherd’s Lemma, Euler’s theorem etc. Our paper concentrates much on these areas in the light of CES utility function to reach the consumer in an equilibrium position and tries to find out a relation between consumer theory and production theory. We tried to establish a single theory to analyse the consumer behaviour and the behaviour of the firm such that one is the dual of the other. Lastly, in this paper we tried to establish a valid relation between Marginal Utility of Money Income of a Consumer and Marginal Cost of a Firm.

  9. Ankita Shukla and S. K. Dwivedi

    Wilt disease affects the pulse crops at greater extent mainly due to fusarium species. Fusarium species releases pectolytic and cellulolytic enzymes responsible for disintegration of middle lamella and matrix of cell wall of particular host crop and infect them. Present study mainly use to calculate the role of cellulase(Cx) ,polygalactouronase (PG) and pectin methyl galacturonase(PMG) in fusarium for causing wilt disease. Result shows that with increasing incubation time, the activity of all three enzymes have been enhanced. Polygalacturonase shows highest activity i.e. 24.1 in case of fusarium oxysporum f.sp.ciceri and 38.7 in case of fusarium udum at 90 minutes time interval. While cellulase shows lowest activity 4.8 in case of fusarium oxysporum f.sp.ciceri and 7.1 in case of fusarium udum at 30 minutes interval. In case of fusarium oxysporum f.sp.ciceri r2 value is 0.985, 0.984, 0.980 for PG, PMG and Cx. While fusarium udum shows r2 value 0.993 for PG, 0.988 for PMG and 0.966 for Cx. All three enzymes activity increases with increasing time of experiment. Activity of three enzymes are higher in fusarium udum in comparison to fusarium oxysporum f.sp.ciceri. This shows that fusarium udum have higher pathogenic effect.

  10. Suresh Mande

    The present study categorically aimed at understanding the effects and impact of Hiv/Aids, drugs and substance abuse among the youth who are in aged bracket between 15 and 25 years. As the accurate data on youth involved in substance abuse in the city are not available, it may be difficult to determine the overall comprehensive perspective of the study due to relative responses from the sample respondents among youth in Visakhapatnam, A.P., India. It is worth discussing the magnitude of impact of HIV/AIDS, drugs and substance abuse among the youth in Visakhapatnam. According to the most recent study, it revealed that estimates of approximately 200,000 drug-injecting-related deaths may occur per annum based on the estimated size of the current world population of injecting drug abusers of at least 5.3 million. World Health Organization (WHO) reported that a multi-fold increase in drug-related deaths over the past decade occurred. The yearly mortality rates or "lethal impact" among intravenous drug users or drug addicts on treatment programmes ranged between one and two percent which primarily transpired in the younger generations. In addition to its adverse effects on health, injury and eventual death, drugs is among the most prevalent associated with HIV/AIDS). This social problem requires primary health and structural reforms to enhance the level of treatment, rehabilitation and prevention.

  11. ARSHAD Hussain and QIU Yanjun

    Using Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP) not only economical but also better performance and also conserve the natural resources. To incorporate RAP in asphalt mix design, it is vital to know the amount and quality of the residual binder. The residual binders obtained from two RAP sources using solvent extraction and arson recovery methods were blended with a virgin binder in different proportions. Dynamic shear modulus, stiffness and viscosity of the different blends were compared. Viscosity and PG grading blending charts were developed based on the corresponding test data. It was concluded that the properties of the blends depend on the individual properties of the binders. The stiffness of the binder is increasing with increasing RAP binder. This research only address the binder related study so to quantify RAP in asphalt mix design the other factors like aggregate and volumetric properties need proper considerations.

  12. P. Mary Elizabeth and Dr. Neema Gnanadve

    Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) is the most comprehensive scheme of the Government of India for early childhood care and development. It aims at enhancing survival and development of children from the vulnerable sections of society, ICDS is a unique programme, it encompasses the main components of human resources development namely, health nutrition and education. The programme today covers over 4.8 million expectant and nursing mothers and over 23 million children under the age of six. Of these children, more than half participate in early learning activities. The purpose of ICDS is to improve the health, nutrition and development of children. The programme offers health, nutrition and hygiene education to mothers, non-formal preschool education to children aged three to six, supplementary feeding for all children and pregnant and nursing mothers, growth monitoring and promotion, and links to primary healthcare services such as immunization and vitamin A supplements. These services are delivered in an integrated manner at the anganwadi, or childcare centre. Each centre is run by an anganwadi worker and one helper, who undergo three months of institutional training and four months of community-based training. The cost of the ICDS programme averages $10-$22 per child a year. Thus, the study to analyze the function of AWW intervention by ICDS and improved the outreach of maternal and child health (MCH).

  13. Ligi Achuthan and Samuel Stephen

    The goal is to explore techniques such as image correspondence using interest points, robust matching with improved RANSAC, homography, and background subtraction and blending. The basic idea of stitch several images into a panorama is to map all the images onto a reference plane. In this project, we choose frame as the reference plane and the homography matrices between other frame images and reference frame are computed using SIFT and improved RANSAC algorithms. Identify key points and matches using SIFT. Then the key point correspondences between two frames are filtered out by the default threshold of descriptor matching. First choose correspondences from the matches, and implemented Normalized Direct Linear Transformation (DLT) to estimate the homography matrix. This process is then automated by improved RANSAC that is iterated, randomly choosing 4 correspondences each time. The degree of match is evaluated by calculating the error of other correspondences based on such homography. The best the homography matrix is then found with most inliers. By using improved RANSAC algorithm. Once the projection transform updated in real time, we still need to blend the frames to compensate for exposure differences and other misalignments.

  14. Ramesh, S., Sudhakar, P. and Elankavi, S.

    Field experiment was conducted at the experimental farm, Department of Agronomy, Annamalai University, during February – May (2012) to study the effect of different vermicompost from various organic sources on productivity and economics of sunflower variety CO 4. The experiment with ten treatment combinations were laid out in randomized block design and replicated thrice. The ten treatment includes absolute control, recommended dose of fertilizer alone and graded dose of fertilizer nitrogen along with different organic composts and vermicompost. All the treatments exerted significant influence on growth and yield attributes and oil content of sunflower over the control. Application of 75% recommended dose nitrogen (RDN) + pressmud vermicompost @ 2.5 t ha-1 significantly recorded the higher plant height (169.80 cm), leaf area index (4.80) seed yield (1825.77 kg ha-1) oil content (40.47%) and oil yield (738.89 kg ha-1). Recommended dose Nitrogen (50 kg N) alone recorded lower seed yield, oil content and oil yield among the treatment combinations. However, it was significantly higher than control (no fertilizer and no organic manure). The next in order of ranking was 75% RDN + sewage sludge vermicompost @ 2.5 t ha-1. The benefit cost ratio (2.99) was also found to be higher with 75% RDN + pressmud vermicompost @ 2.5 t ha-1. Based on the above, it could be concluded that, 75% recommended dose nitrogen (RDN) + pressmud vermicompost @ 2.5 t ha-1 would help to increase productivity and profitability of sunflower under Cauvery delta region of Tamil Nadu.

  15. Ananta Prasad Chakraverty, Upendra Kumar Mohanty and Bibhuti Bhusan Biswal

    E-Glass reinforced epoxy composites are first exposed to an environment laden with moisture (hygrothermal; 600C, 95% humidity) and then to up and down-thermal shocks for different lengths of time. A 3-point bend test using INSTRON-1195 is carried out to estimate inter laminar shear strength (ILSS) values of the shock treated and untreated samples (after hygrothermal exposure) separately. Low temperature DSC is carried out to record the deviation in Tg, the glass transition temperature. Hygrothermal conditioning without thermal shock reveals a general trend of lowering of ILSS values with varied exposure times. Up and down-thermal shocks are seen to affect the ILSS values differently, the lowest Tg being recorded for samples exposed to up-thermal shock after hygrothermal conditioning. Scanning electron micrographs reveal the mode of failure which includes fiber fragmentation, fiber pull-out and fiber matrix debonding.

  16. Ajit Behera, Susanta Kumar Swain, Subash Chandra Mishra and Sudipta Sen

    The Martensitic Transformation in Ferromagnetic shape memory alloys (FSMAs) can be triggered not only by changes in temperature and stress as that of paramagnetic conventional shape memory alloys, but also by changes in the applied magnetic field. It is well known that ferromagnetic shape memory alloy has diversified utilization, but not satisfactorily use, mainly because of high cost of processing and high cost of alloying elements. Among all Heusler alloy, Ni-Mn-Sn alloy have potential properties and exhibits lower cost. In this experiment Ni50Mn45Sn5 alloys characterize by using differential scanning calorimetric (DSC), optical microscope and X-Ray diffraction technique. The alloy undergoes the martensitic transformation from L21-type cubic structure into an orthorhombic structure.

  17. Dr Deepti Pruthvi, Samhita Shankar and Dr Shashikala P

    Blood donor suitability criteria are based on science, informed medical opinion, and regulatory rules3. Blood donors are deferred for various reasons. Individuals disqualified from donating blood are known as “deferred” donors. To make blood transfusion safe for the patients many safety measures are undertaken by the blood transfusion community. Of the many safety measures, the most important is selection of blood donors. The rate and reasons of deferral differs from region to region and one center to the other 9.

  18. Dr. Samiran Bisai

    To determine the relationship between maternal nutritional status and infant growth pattern, a cross sectional study was conducted in a postnatal clinic of government general hospital of south Kolkata, West Bengal, India. A total of 97 mother and their children were measured following standard techniques. Nutritional status of mothers and children’s were assessed based on WHO recommended body mass index (BMI) guidelines, mid upper arm circumference (MUAC) and z-score methods, respectively. The result shows that BMI is the most important predictive variable of WAZ, LAZ and WLZ. Maternal BMI explained for 34.9%, 10.2% and 15.6% variation of WAZ, LAZ, and WLZ. When maternal MUAC enter into the model, further MUAC explained by 4.5% and 5.3% of variation for WAZ and WLZ score. In conclusion, interventions by improving maternal nutritional status could have a significant role in the prevention of childhood malnutrition.

  19. S. Selvi , J. Dhanalakshmi, P. Umadevi and D. Devipriya

    The ethanolic extract of Calocybe indica was studied for its free radical scavenging property on different in vitro models like 1,1 –diphenyl-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH)Assay, Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power(FRAP)assay and in vitro antilipidperoxidative assay using goat liver homogenate and RBC Ghost model .The in vitro Lipid peroxidation (LPO) was inhibited to a good extent by the Calocybe indica ethanolic extract and the extent of inhibition being higher in the RBC membrane model than the liver homogenate model. The mushroom extract showed good dose-dependent free radical scavenging property in both the models.

  20. Leena John and M. E. Kuriakose

    Lecythidaceae comprises members which are either trees or shrubs. In South India the family is represented by five species coming in three genera. The pollen morphology of all the five species was examined using LM and SEM observations. The pollen grains are basically 3-zonoaperturate and the aperture structure varies from syncolpate, to syncolporate and colporate. The shape of the pollen grains and the exine surface ornamentation also differ in different genara and species. Even though the pollen grains in some members are syncolporate the pollen has unique morphological features that are quite different from that of other Myrtallean members in many aspects which justifies their separation from this order.

  21. Shemi George and Nazni, P

    Bread is considered to be one of the oldest ‘processed’ foods by the humanity. It is one of the major products of baked foods and is consumed worldwide. Sprouting of pumpkin seed help to increase the nutrient content of the seed. Sprouted grains are seen in a number of baked goods at natural health food stores. The objective of this study was to optimize the refined wheat flour, germinated pumpkin seed flour and butter with respect to bread-making quality. The optimal Design was employed with the following variables of protein, weight loss, porosity and specific volume of the bread. Models developed adequately described the relationships and were confirmed by validation studies. Refined wheat flour showed the greatest effect on models, which effect impaired weight loss and specific volume of germinated pumpkin seed bread. The optimum set of the independent variables was obtained graphically in order to obtain the desired levels of 90g for refined wheat flour, 10g for germinated pumpkin seed flour and 8g for butter. Organoleptic evaluation showed that variation7 with 90g of refined wheat flour; 10g germinated pumpkin seed and 8 g of butter had scored high score for overall acceptability among the variations in the germinated pumpkin seed bread.

  22. Dr. Manisha Goel

    For a long time, Indian economy has proven to be resilient to substantial exchange rate fluctuations. Arguably, this resilience has strengthened over time, as firms have learned to adapt to exchange rate variability, including through the development of the hedging practices of financial institutions and non-financial firms. Changes in information technologies have also increased the speed and the accuracy of information while the surge of financial innovations is providing the decision makers with new hedging techniques to deal with the uncertainty regarding financial flows. The present study examines the available evidence on the nature and extent of hedging behavior of companies in India. Using a field study and proprietary data, it unfolds the complex process of the foreign exchange exposure management followed by the selected corporate sector units engaged in international trade in India. It encompasses exporters, importers and business planners.

  23. Kihimbo B. W, Ayako B.A and Omoka, K. W

    Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) have played a significant role world over in the economic development of various countries. In many emerging markets, the Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) sector is one of the principal driving forces for economic and job creation. As a continuation of study of financing of SMEs in Kakamega Municipalilty, we report on the type of collateral requirements for accessing financing by SMEs from financial Institutions (which include business assets/documents, personal assets/documents requested for collateral). 60 SME Owner/Manager were interviewed in Kakamega Municipality. The study utilised descriptive research design which included surveys and fact- finding enquiries of different kinds and data collection using questionnaires. The sampling frame of 1311 was stratified into 6 criteria and systematic random sampling of 60 samples were selected from all the strata using the same sampling proportion (0.045). The analysis of data was done using both quantitative and qualitative methods to report the findings. Functions used for analysis in this study were frequencies, charts and cross tabulations. Qualitative analysis used a central tendency measure which was able to calculate mean scores on a likert scale. Qualitative phase helped to fill in the gaps and provided additional information on measures to enhance SMEs financing. In the study of collateral requirements, it was found that both business and personal assets/documents were the requirement in order to obtain loan from commercial banks. The results revealed that 91.7 percent of the sampled population cited personal assets/documents and business assets/documents each were requested. A total of 71.7 percent cited that both personal and private assets/documents were necessary collateral for one to access formal financing. Other requirements identified were land title deed, two guarantors with an account with the financial institution and pay slip for salaried employment. A total of 91.3 percent indicated that business registration certificate and business bank accounts details were required of them and 65.2 percent cited that pin certificate of business was requested for by the financing institutions. Personal assets/documents requirements as security exhibited 52.2 percent who were asked for title deed documents and personal bank account. The type of documents requested as part of loan application process by commercial banks or micro-finance institutions (MFIs) in Kakamega Municipality revealed that 65.2 percent requested for business financial statements details reports and 56.5 percent requested for formal application to be filled. These findings indicate that keeping of financial statements in Kakamega Municipality highly determines their eligibility for formal financing. Business challenges that faced SMEs in Kakamega Municipality were identified as insecurity, high taxes, unstable and unpredictable economic trends, weekly repayment for group loan, low purchasing power due to economic status of surrounding community, migration of clients, political uncertainty, flow of funds in schools affected (for bookshops), requests for goodwill, monitoring of workers difficult (for furniture shops) and lack of enough capital.

  24. Ezhilarasu A and Prabakaran G

    The present study was aimed to identify the antibacterial activities of Mirabilis jalapa chloroform extract against bacterial and fungal pathogens viz., Escherichia coli, S. epidermidis¬, K. pneumonia, C. freunndii, S. marcescens, Proteus vulgaris, Bacillus subtilis, S. aureus, Candida albicans and Cryptococcus sp. In this study, the maximum zone of inhibition was identified with Escherichia coli; this was followed by S. marcescens, Bacillus subtilis and K. pneumonia. The preliminary phytochemical analysis showed the presence of flavanoids, saponins, terpenoids, tannin & phenols, carbohydrate and amino acid compounds with chloroform extract. It is concluded from the present findings that, the chloroform extract of M. jalapa can be used as potential antibacterial agents after completion of clinical trials.

  25. Lisina K.V, Gopalakrishnan V.K, Muthusankar Aathi, Murugesh Easwaran and Shanmughavel Piramanayagam

    “Hepatotoxicity is the capacity of a drug or chemical to produce injury to the liver diseases. The liver plays a central role in transforming and clearing chemicals which is susceptible to the toxicity from agents. Agents with recognized hepatotoxicity include carbon tetrachloride, alcohol”. In the present study the functional properties of target proteins which are responsible for liver cancer were studied and comparative modeling of target proteins was done for high percent sequence identity for structural homology. The protein structure was modeled using Swiss-PDB as its corresponding structure not available in Protein Data Bank. Docking study of the modeled protein was done with natural compounds Beta sitosterol (Justicia adhatoda), Mimosine (Mimosa pudica), Berberine (Vitex negundo) and synthetic compounds Tiagabine, Vigabatrin, Zolpidem, Chloramphenicol, Gentamicin, Linezolid to treat Liver disease to find the preferred orientation and binding affinity of drug with target protein using scoring functions. Berberine was found to be effective drug selected on the basis of its binding affinity with the target protein and that can be potential target for Liver cancer.

  26. Richa Dhir and G.S. Shekhawat

    From time immemorial, man has remained dependant on plants and if we consider the historic perspective it is evident that the fascination for plants is as old as mankind itself. Tecomella undulata is a deciduous shrub or small tree, found in northwestern India and southern Pakistan. The plant is under threatened category due to its imprudent harvesting from wild. The plant is used to cure leucorrhoea, leucoderma, enlargement of spleen, traumatic wounds, hepatitis, piles, anorexia, flatulence, tumors, worm infestations and syphilis. Leaves of the plant contain certain compounds which are effective against HIV infection. Various compounds have been isolated from the plant parts mainly bark and leaves, viz Radermachol, lapachol, tecomaquinone-I, α-lapachone, β-lapachone, stigmasterol, β-sitosterol, oleanolic acid, ursolic acid and betulinic acid. In the present review, we have summarized the information concerning the occurrence, botanical description, applications, medicinal uses, biological activities and hepatoprotective studies on this plant.

  27. Gupta, S.P., K. Sharma, B.S. Chhabra, D.N. Sharma and G.K. Chandrol

    Stone cultural heritage materials are at risk of bio-deterioration caused by diverse populations of microorganisms living in biofilms. The microbial metabolites of these biofilms are responsible for the deterioration of the underlying substratum and may lead to physical weakening and discoloration of stone. Fungal ability in production of pigments and organic acids have crucial role in discoloration and degradation of different types of stone in cultural heritage objects. Additionally, stone objects may support novel communities of microorganism that are active in biodeterioration process this investigation focused on mycological analyses of microbial biofilm from Bhimkichak temple, Malhar of Bilaspur District of Chhattisgarh state which is made of sand stone and which were heavily colonized by fungi. The eight fungal species on sand stone were isolated. Aspergillus sp. was common in stone structure. The identified micro fungi cause discoloration as well as mechanical exfoliation of building stone material that was analyzed through mechanical hyphae penetration and production of dark pigments and organic acid.

  28. Mohammed Zuhair Amr and Ahmed Mohajja Al-Shammari

    Several studies mentioned the genus Bulinus in Saudi Arabia and the Arabian Peninsula such as (Brown & Wright, 1980; Brown, & Gallagher, 1985; Neubert, 1998; Bin Dajem 2009). Most of these studies where in the western and the south regions of the Arabian Peninsula. The genus is medically important because several species of Bulinus function as intermediate hosts for the schistosomiasis blood fluke. Recently a study made by Jamjoom &, Banaja 2007 mentioned that intestinal schistosomiasis is prevalent in Ha’il, without recording any of the genus Bulinus in Ha’il. Bulinus beccari is a freshwater snail and serves as an intermediate host for Schistosoma haematobium, this species is distributed throughout the south-western region of the Arabian Peninsula (Brown & Wright 1980). The present study records B. beccari in the dams of Ha’il province for the first time, and adds additional record to the localities of B. beccari in Saudi Arabia.

  29. Kumar Rajesh and Kumar Sanjay

    Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) is a vector borne anthrozoonotic disease caused by a protozoan, Leishmania donovani, of Trypanosomatidae family. The most precise methods used for its diagnosis includes the analysis of spleen & liver smears (90%), Bone Marrow smear (80%), sternal or iliac crest puncture but these all are not reliable and cumbersome/painful also. Various serological tests like indirect haemagglutination assay (IHA), countercurrent immuno-electrophoresis (CCIEP), Immunodiffusion (ID), Direct agglutination test (DAT), Indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT), ELISA etc. are also used to diagnose VL. In the case of immunocomprised patient, diagnosis of VL is difficult due to low titer of antibody. Recently PCR based diagnosis and a latex agglutination test (KATEX) has been developed for the detection. The current article is devoted to the detection of specific antigen whish are useful in diagnosis of VL in VL patients as well as in immunocomprised patients.

  30. Shanmugaraja, P.

    The study on Indigenous Knowledge of Tribals of Pachaimalai hills, was conducted to study the constraints experienced by the tribal farmers in adopting the indigenous agricultural practices. The study was conducted in Pachaimalai hills of Trichy district.  A sample of one hundred tribal farmers (respondents) was selected from the tribal hamelets using proportionate random sampling technique. Nearly twenty-one indigenous agricultural practices were identified in the crops like paddy, tapioca and sorghum.   In addition, ten common indigenous agricultural practices were also identified. The data were collected with the help of well structured and pretested interview schedule and suitable statistical tools were used to analyse the data.  The important constraints reported were ‘no reward for indigenous agricultural practices by Government Officials’, ‘youth’s preference for urban life,’‘Lack of documentation’, and ‘poor income from agriculture’.





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Luai Farhan Zghair
Hasan Ali Abed Al-Zu’bi
Fredrick OJIJA
Firuza M. Tursunkhodjaeva
Faraz Ahmed Farooqi
Saudi Arabia
Eric Randy Reyes Politud
Elsadig Gasoom FadelAlla Elbashir
Eapen, Asha Sarah
United State
Dr.Arun Kumar A
Dr. Zafar Iqbal
Dr. Ruchika Khanna
Dr. Recep TAS
Dr. Rasha Ali Eldeeb
Dr. Pralhad Kanhaiyalal Rahangdale
Dr. Nicolas Padilla- Raygoza
Dr. Mustafa Y. G. Younis
Dr. Muhammad shoaib Ahmedani
Saudi Arabia
United State
Dr. Lim Gee Nee
Dr. Jatinder Pal Singh Chawla
Dr. Devendra kumar Gupta
Dr. Ali Seidi
Dr. Achmad Choerudin
Dr Ashok Kumar Verma
Thi Mong Diep NGUYEN
Dr. Muhammad Akram
Dr. Imran Azad
Dr. Meenakshi Malik
Aseel Hadi Hamzah
Anam Bhatti
Md. Amir Hossain
Mirzadi Gohari