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Plagiarism Detection

IJCR is following an instant policy on rejection those received papers with plagiarism rate of more than 20%. So, All of authors and contributors must check their papers before submission to making assurance of following our anti-plagiarism policies.





June 2013

  1. Arokia Vijayaanand, M. and Suresh, K.

    The present study designed to investigate the anti-genotoxic and detoxifying effects of [6]-paradol on 7, 12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) induced genotoxicity in male golden Syrian hamsters. DMBA, a well known site specific carcinogen was given by intra peritoneal (i.p.) injection at the dose of 30 mg/kg b.wt. to induce acute toxicity in hamsters. A significant induction of chromosomal aberration, high frequency of micronucleus and altered levels of detoxifying agents status were recorded in DMBA treated hamsters. Oral administration of [6]-paradol at a dose of 30 mg/kg b.wt, through the gastric intubations for 5 days prior to DMBA treatment. However, the oral pre-treatment of [6]-paradol significantly improved chromosomal abberation, micronucleus frequency as well as improved the statuse of detoxification enzyme were recorded. Anti-genotoxic capacity of [6]-paradol probably due to presence of antioxidant principle and enhance the detoxifying enzyme activities.

  2. Lakshmi Prasanna, P., Samba Murthy, J. S. V., Rama Kumar, P.V. and Srinivasa Rao, V.

    The present investigation was carried out with the objective to find out the extent of gene frequency Diversity differences among 18 Indian genotypes for all the 13 characters studied during kharif 2008 and rabi 2009. It showed substantial variability in the material studied during both the seasons. High PCV coupled with high GCV was observed for grain yield per plant, ear weight, straw weight, number of productive tillers per plant, carotene and calcium content during both seasons whereas for 1000 grain weight during kharif only. It indicated presence of wider variability for these traits in the genotypes studied. High heritability coupled with high genetic advance as per cent of mean recorded for all characters except days to 50% flowering and days to maturity.

  3. Abdelhalem A. Hamza, Hiba A. Ali, Benjamin R. Clark, Cormac D. Murphy and Elsheik A. Elobied

    A new actinomycete sp. designated as AH 47 was isolated from the soil sample, collected from different geographical area in the Sudan and selected for its antimicrobial activities against bacteria and fungi. These isolate was taxonomically characterized on the basis of morphological, physiological and cultural characteristic studies and strongly suggested that this strain is a member of the genus Streptomyces. Nucleotide sequence of the 16S rRNA gene (1277 pb) of the AH 47 strain exhibited high similarity to the Streptomyces 16S rRNA genes. 16S rRNA sequence of strain has been submitted in the NCBI Gen Bank database (accession number GU013556). The active antibiotics were isolated from 1 L culture supernatant and from the biomass using reverse phase HPLC-DAD, various separation and purification steps, led to the isolation of three pure bioactive molecules. The chemical structure of these compounds was established on the basis on their ESI-MS and EI-MS, 1H and13C NMR data and by comparison with reference data from literature. These compounds were chemically characterized as actinomycin-D (m/z 1255), actinomycin X2 (m/z 1269) and actinomycin XαB (m/z 1271). This new Streptomyces species was able to produce a mixture of actinomycins and serves as a promising source of these antibiotics.

  4. Sourav Das

    Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act enshrines the legal right of one hundred days of paid employment to any household, on demand. Though its scope is national, there have been wide interstate as well as inter district variation in the achievement of the objectives of the act. National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (NREGA) enacted by legislation on August 25, 2005 and it was renamed as the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA) on 2nd October 2009. The act aims eradication of extreme poverty and at making villages self sustaining through productive assets creation. In this paper an attempt has been made to focus some lights on the measures of performance of MGNREGS In Hugli and Haora district of West Bengal. This paper investigates the status of MGNREGS in both of the districts after the implementation of the programme. However the paper finds inter block variation in some important indicators like average person days generated per household, the proportion of works completed to works taken up and the proportion of local fund spent.

  5. Hajir Sir Elkhatim Hamid Mukhtar, Walid Ahmed Hamid Eldaif, Mohamed S. Mohamed Sawsan A. Eldeaf, and Imad M. FadlElmula

    Background: Tuberculosis prevalence and mortality rates are increasing specially for the CNS infection which is life threatening and when it involves the spine it has the potential to cause serious morbidity, including permanent neurologic deficits and severe deformities and brain tuberculoma usually lead to death. Extra-pulmonary TB accounts for approximately 10% of tuberculous infections Methods: This quantitative descriptive case study hospital based conducted at Elshaab Teaching Hospital National Center for Neurological sciences (NCNS) between August 2009 and November 2010. PCR technique was used to diagnose 121patients suspected to have Pott's disease or brain tuberculomata. A group of healthy people who received BCG vaccine were included in this study as control group. The results: Patients suspected to have brain tuberculoma were sixty three (52.1%), Pott's disease were forty nine (40.5%) and other extrapulmonary tuberculosis were only nine (7.4%).The results of the PCR for M. tuberculosis from blood sample of the121 patients were positive in 60(49.6%) patients. The frequency of positive result found among Pott’s disease was 23.9% (n 29) followed by tuberculoma 21.4% (n 26) & other extra-pulmonary tuberculosis 4.1% (n 5) Recommendations: PCR for M. tuberculosis from blood specimen is recommended for diagnosis of patients suspected to have brain tuberculoma or Pott's disease according to their symptoms and their MRI findings.

  6. Manish Kumar Singh, Md. Shahid Eqbal and Raj Kumar Patel

    Femmefolk play a consequential role in Agriculture, which has been universally admitted since time immemorial. In India, 60 per cent femmes are engaged in rusticarum pursuits in rusticus circumferences and they are performing domestic chores as well as farming pursuits with hommes as equal partners. The study was sketched to distinguish rusticus femmes’ hurdles in decision composing regarding rusticarum pursuits and mainly how the rusticus femmes can be fortified for sustainable rusticarum progressionem in the district headquarter Rudrapur. A multistage sampling technique was used to collect the data from 450 respondents from three Blocks of the district. The results unearthed that a lion’s share of femmes were illiterate, having monthly family income less than Rupees One lac and having small land farms. The giant ratio of the respondents reported that they had to face hurdles in accessing rusticarum extension muneris in the context of social, economic, cultural, and political issues. Howbeit, by addressing these hurdles effectively the situation of femmefolk fortification can be improved in rusticus circumference.

  7. Rejoice, P. R.

    Every minute, five people under 25 are infected with HIV. One in three persons living with HIV/AIDS is age 15-24 and most of them are unaware that they carry the virus. Millions more have little or no knowledge of the disease and do not know how to protect themselves or take measures to prevent the spread of the disease. The aim of this paper was to assess the comprehensive knowledge of HIV/AIDS among young married Scheduled Castes women in Thiruvarur district, Tamil Nadu. Multistage stratified random sampling technique was applied to select 605 women in the age group of 15-24 years in all the five blocks in the period of ten months from July 2010 to April 2011. Result reveals that 91% of women had knowledge about the HIV/AIDS. Around 61.5% had high comprehensive knowledge of HIV/AIDS prevention and transmission among the respondents. The age of women, education of women, standard of living index and exposure to mass media had statistically significant association with comprehensive knowledge of HIV/AIDS. The women who were more exposed to mass media were more likely to get knowledge of HIV/AIDS than the less exposed women (OR= 1.977). It concludes that health awareness program should be launched to enhance their knowledge of sexual health problems in the study area.

  8. Mustahson F. Fazili and Raheela Mir

    The study of Nest site selection and breeding parameters of Black - Crowned Night Heron Nycticorax nycticorax was carried out during breeding season of 2012 in Hokersar wetland, North- Kashmir. Nest site characteristics and breeding parameters namely egg laying date, clutch and brood size, egg biometry and breeding success were examined. Breeding was initiated with selection of nesting sites. Nests were bowl shaped of dried willow twigs. Mean egg dimensions were 55.01 ± 0.77 mm × 35.41 ± 0.97 mm. Mean egg weight was 4.45 ± 0.83 g and average clutch size 4.00 ± 0.57. Both sexes incubated the eggs with major role of females and incubation period averaged 24.97± 0.80 days. Hatching was asynchronous and hatchlings were nidifugous. Hatching, fledging and nesting success calculated were 40.7%, 34.6% and 51.1% respectively. Main causes of low nesting success were predation, flooding and faulty incubation

  9. Meenakshi, H. N., Anisha Anand, Shyamala, R. and Mohanapriya, S.

    Biofuel is a renewable and environmentally friendly alternative fuel that can be used in diesel engines with little or no modification. Low cost feed stocks such as waste oils, used cooking oils and animal fats are important sources of biofuel production. Use of waste cooking oil as a biofuel offers the possibility of transforming a pollutant waste into a sustainable and renewable energy source. During production, transportation and usage, biofuels come in contact with materials at various stages. Therefore it is important to understand the influence of biofuels on materials. The corrosive nature of biofuels can be more aggravated if free water and free fatty acid are present in it. Hence the present study aimed to investigate the corrosion behavior of aluminium, mild steel and copper in used palm oil in comparison with that in aqueous medium by various methods. Surface morphology was examined by optical microscope. The negligible corrosion rate in 100% oil for all three metals indicates that the oil may be used as alternate fuel alone or in blends with petrodiesel. The measured contact angle is obtuse for the three metals suggesting that oil preferably wets the metals and thereby preventing corrosion.

  10. HariKrishna, K., Venkateswara Rao, V., Appala Raju, N., Jaisankar, G. and Amminedu, E.

    Various samples of groundwater were collected from different areas in and around Kolleru Lake and analyzed for their physicochemical characteristics. The results of this analysis were compared with the water quality standards of WHO and CPHEEO. In this analysis the various physicochemical parameters such as PH, total dissolved solids, Ca, Mg, Na, No3, K, Cl, So4 and HCo3 etc., determined using standard procedures. The quality of groundwater samples were discussed with respect to these parameters and thus an attempt were made to ascertain the quality of groundwater used for drinking and domestic purposes in the sampling areas.

  11. Mustahson Farooq Fazili, Fayaz Ahmad Ahanger and Mehraj Bashir

    The present study was carried out during two breeding seasons (April to August) of 2010 and 2011 in Kupwara district of Jammu and Kashmir (India). The nests were made in the months April- July with May as the peak nesting month. Most of the nests were made in the bushes but some in low willows, bags and baskets hanging on walls. Both sexes took part in nest making. Nests were cup shaped with mean outer diameter of 15.22±0.82 cm, inner diameter of 7.68±0.82 cm and the depth of nest depression 4.61±0.29 cm. The average clutch size was 3.25±0.43. The eggs are dull white with red spots with average dimensions 22.67 ±0.2 mm X 16.58 ± 0.16 mm. Both sexes took part in incubation. The average incubation period was 12.1±0.76 days. Hatchlings were nidicolous and hatching success was 80.16%. Egg survival during incubation was 0.69. The fledging success was 86.37% and average nestling period was 13.95 ±0.67 days. Nestling survival during nestling period was 0.75 and overall breeding success was 69.23%.

  12. Maumita Ghosh

    Immunization Programmes aim to reduce morbidity and mortality among the children due to vaccine preventable diseases. Vaccination against some of the most fatal diseases is one of the most cost-effective interventions of modern time. Following successful eradication of Smallpox by effective vaccination in 1975, the expanded programme of immunization was launched in India in 1978 to control other vaccine preventable diseases. Initially six diseases were selected for vaccination: Diphtheria, Pertussis, Tetanus, Poliomyelitis, Typhoid and Childhood Tuberculosis. Even after 65 years of independence in India there are a huge number of people in rural areas who live in abject poverty are lacking of health services and their children are also suffering from various vaccine preventable diseases.Considering the extent of inconsistencies and instabilities in immunization coverage, it is very important to know the gaps in coverage. Keeping in mind these evidences, the main objective of this study is to identify the most vulnerable groups for immunization coverage and to identify the gaps in immunization coverage with respect to socio-cultural and socio-economic variables. In this paper we will describe in detail the child immunization status of some selected blocks in Darjeeling district.

  13. Miikue-Yobe, Togenu, F. B., Akaninwor, Joyce, O. and Uwakwe, Austin, A.

    This research was designed to study the effect of aqueous extract of Heinsia crinata commonly called “atama” on blood glucose level in non-diabetic rats. The extract and reference drug (glibenclamide) were administered intraperitoneally in dosage of 120,180,240 and 300mg per kilogramme body weight of rats, which were observed for 24hrs. Glucose estimation using the one touch glucometer at an internal of 2 hours into the eight hour and then at the 24 hour was done. The result showed a decrease in glucose level which was significant statistically at p< 0.05.The greatest reduction in blood glucose levels occurred between the 8th and 24th hours respectively and became noticeable after the 4th hour and more pronounced in the 120mg/Kg body weight which shows a decrease from 2.55±0.20Mmol/L to1.67±0.58 after the 24th hour. It also showed that with increase in dosage, there was a stimulatory effect of the extract which was not significant statistically at the p<0.05 level. This suggests that the hypoglycaemic effect of Heinsia crinata was not concentration but time dependent. The phytochemical analysis of the plant leaf extract both qualitatively and quantitatively revealled the presence of akaloid, saponnis, tannins flavonoid, terpenoids, carotenoids and anthraquinones. The dosage applied in the study did not show any toxic effect on the rats. The result therefore suggests that aqueous leaf extract of Heinsia crinata possess hypoglycaemic activity and so can be useful in the treatment of diabetes even as it is been used as food.

  14. Ravichandran M. and Ramani A. V.

    The goal of software Engineering is to produce high quality software. Software reliability is one of the most important factors in software quality evaluation. Now the applications are developed in web oriented environment. Since these applications are developed in different softwares and in different platforms, software reliability measurement plays an important role in software quality measurement. This paper discusses using evidence theory for evaluation of reliability in web oriented software applications.

  15. Hsiu-chih Su

    This study was intended to describe parent-teacher involvement in elementary schools of foreign-born parents from Southeast Asia and China, and its relations to their children’s academic and social development. Participants included 294 children from families with a Southeast Asian or Chinese spouse, their parents, and their homeroom teachers from 15 elementary schools purposefully chosen in central Taiwan. Results indicated that even though teachers rated that parents from Southeast Asia and China valued children’s education and shared same goals with schools, in reality, parents and teachers rarely had direct contacts with each other face to face. Indirect contacts (such as notes, phones) were more frequent. Mothers from China (including Hong Kong and Macau) were more involved with children’s school than mothers from Southeast Asia. Children whose parents were more involved with school had more popularity votes. School staffs and teachers were advised to take more active roles in engaging foreign-born parents.

  16. Badawi, Mohamed El-Sayed and Hesham H. Mohammed

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of new patent of some commercial feed additives on nutrient digestibility, rumen fermentation parameters and behaviour of male goat. Fifteen healthy uncastrated Baladi bucks were randomly fed one of five experimental ration; control ration without feed additives, and four experimental ration in which basal ration was supplemented with 5g/h/d from prebiotic, probiotic, fordex or their combination for ten weeks. Five digestibility trials were carried out and ruminal samples were taken to measure rumen fermentation parameters. During the experimental period, behavioural measured as duration and frequency of ingestive behaviour (eating, drinking and rumination), furthermore the frequency of eliminative behaviour (urination and defecation) were observed and recorded. Ration supplemented by fordex had significant (P < 0.05) higher digestion coefficients for dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, ether extract, neutral detergent fiber, total digestible nutrients and digestible crude protein as compared to other dietary supplements or the control. Rumen fermentation parameters (pH, total volatile fatty acids and ammonia-nitrogen concentration) at 0, 3 or 6 hours weren't significantly (P > 0.05) different for ration supplemented by all dietary supplements as compared to the control. Significant differences were observed among ration supplemented with different dietary supplement in ingestive and eliminative behaviour.

  17. Mustahson Farooq Fazili and Humera Imtiaz

    Different parameters of nesting biology of common moorhen (Gallinula chloropus) were studied at hokersar wetland Kashmir, during 2012 breeding season. Breeding was initiated by the pair formation. Nesting sites were chosen in thick emergent vegetation, dominated by Typha and Phragmites.Nest were constructed by both sexes on a average in 6 days(range 4-10) but females played the dominant role and dimensions varied in different vegetation. Clutch size varied from 4-12 eggs and mean egg measurement were 41.10±1.94mmX30.08±2.11mm. Incubation was mainly performed by females during an average period of 21 days. Hatchlings were nidifugous and hatching period varied between 15hr to 21hr (average 18±1.58hr).Nesting and hatching success was calculated both by Mayfield (1975) as well as by traditional method. Causes of low success were also reported.

  18. Jyothsna, B. S. and Purushothama, K. B.

    Symbiotic ex-situ germination of terrestrial orchid, Calanthe masuca D.Don Lindl. was investigated using seven isolates recovered from the roots of five terrestrial orchids of Western Ghats, Karnataka, India (C.masuca, Malaxis versicolor, Pecteilis susanne, Satyrium nepalense, Nervilia crociformis). Molecular and phylogenetic analysis of the fungal isolates was done based on the alignment of internal transcribed spacer regions of nuclear ribosomal DNA. Calanthe seeds collected from the natural habitats were used for germination studies along with isolated fungal cultures under laboratory conditions. Seed germination was found with Tulasnella, an isolate from Malaxis rather from Gliocladium, an isolate from Calanthe.

  19. Katana, S. J. S.

    The main objective of the study was to investigate the runoff characteristics of bare micro catchments using the Natural Resources Conservation Service Curve Number (NRCS CN) method. The study was carried out on three rectangular and two triangular bare runoff plots of area 10 m2 constructed on a natural slope of 5% and a typical loamy sand soil. It involved measurement of rainfall and surface run off on storm basis. The curve numbers in the NRCS CN method were first obtained through calibration using observed rainfall and surface runoff data. The calibrated curve numbers were found to be between 97.16 and 99.37 with mean of 98.54. Based on the mean curve number and the soil hydrologic group B, it was found that the bare micro-catchments could be treated as paved surfaces. The treatment of bare runoff plots as paved surfaces was later validated using a different set of rainfall and runoff data. A comparison between computed and observed surface runoff from the runoff plots revealed a close fit (R2 = 0.971). Based on the results, it was concluded that the NRCS CN method could be used to compute surface runoff from bare micro catchments if treated as pave surfaces.

  20. Mohmad Yousuf, Hidayatullah Tak and Nazima Gul

    The present study was conducted from June 2011 to May 2012 to investigate the status of Eimeriosis in domestic/free range chickens of South Kashmir (India) with respect to age and season and to know the intensity of the infection. Out of total 169 representative samples of domestic/free range chickens, 50.89% were found infected. The infection was observed all around the year but the prevalence was highest during the winter season (70.27%), declined in spring (68.75%) and reached its minimum levels in summer season (29.27%) and started to rise in autumn (34.88%). 3-6 week age group of birds was most affected (70.31%) and >6 week age group was less affected (31.67%). 72.09%, 22.09% and 05.81% of the positive samples showed unapparent, low grade and heavy infections respectively with overall mean oocyst count of 834.94±672.01.

  21. Idrisa Hassan

    In the present study an attempt has been made to compare the Personality Characteristics of Commerce and Science graduates, pursuing B.Ed course in Directorate of Distance Education, University Of Kashmir. Cattell’s Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire has been chosen as a tool for comparing personality traits of the subjects with respect to their academic background and gender. The hypothesis examined that Female students were not significantly different from Male students and students with commerce background were not much different from students of science background. Results showed that there were no significant difference among students in personality, on the basis of academic background except for the measures of Sensitivity and Perfectionism. The study findings also resulted in significant Gender based differences in some measures of personality like Warmth, Sensitivity, Vigilance, Abstractness and Openness to change.

  22. Ranjan, R. and Deokule, S. S.

    Bridelia retusa Spreng belong to family Euphorbiaceae and is being used in the indigenous systems of medicine for the treatment of rheumatism and also used as astringent. The drug part used is the grayish brown roots of this plant. The species is also well known in ayurvedic medicine for kidney stone. The present paper reveals the botanical standardization on the root of B.retusa. The Pharmacognostic studies include macroscopic, microscopic characters, histochemistry and phytochemistry. The phytochemical and histochemical test includes starch, protein, saponin, sugar, tannins, glycosides and alkaloids. Percentage extractives, ash and acid insoluble ash, fluorescence analysis and HPTLC.

  23. Suresh B. Sonth, Sathyanarayan, M. S., Anuradha S. Kalabhavi, Surekha, Y.A., Mariraj, J. and Krishna, S.

    Fungal infections are extremely common in the tropical regions. Dermatophytes are one of the commonest causes of skin infections. Although common, the precise size of the problem defies measurement. Aim of this study was to isolate and identify the dermatophytic agents from clinical samples from patients with different clinical types. Clinical samples from 180 patients were subjected to potassium hydroxide (KOH) examination and culture isolation; causative agents were identified macroscopically and microscopically. Out of 180 specimens, 112 (62.2%) were KOH positive and 68 (37.8%) were positive by culture technique. Trichophyton rubrum was the commonest isolate in skin samples among the patients suffering from dermatophytosis, followed by T. mentagrophytes. The study signifies the importance of mycological examination [both KOH & culture] in the diagnosis of dermatophytosis for their effective management.

  24. Nazima Gul, Hidayatullah Tak, Younis Hazari and Mohmad Yousuf

    Fascioliasis is one of the most prevalent helminth infections of ruminants in different parts of the world. The current study highlights the phenotypic differences of aetiological agents of Fascioliasis in bovines i.e., Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica. The phenotypic parameters taken into consideration were BL, BW, OL, OW and BL/BW ratios. The data was subjected to one way ANOVA followed by Tuky test by using PRIMER version 4. Morphometrical values of Fasciola spp. revealed longer F. gigantica (33.66 4.42) as compared to Fasciola hepatica (25.194.22). Moreover, F. gigantica had narrower bodies (5.48 ) compared to F. hepatica (5.70 ). The differences in the mean body length; mean body width; and mean of BL/BW ratios of body were significant (p<0.05). The current abattoir study also revealed the predominance of F. gigantica (78.16%) to F. hepatica (21.39%) in cattle. The electrophoretic pattern under reducing conditions of 12% SDS-PAGE showed some similarities and differences between crude somatic protein extraxt of Fasciola gigantica which revealed presence of 11 bands and 14 bands in case of Fasciola hepatica coexisting in bovines.

  25. Sumeet Kaur, Ramandeep Kaur, Balbir Kaur, and Mohamad Yusuf

    The microwave-assisted synthesis of thiazolo-pyrazoline derivatives was carried out, using silica gel as solid support i.e. through an eco-friendly technique. Keeping in view of the wider therapeutic applications of these derivatives, they are screened for antibacterial activities against E.coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, S.aureus and B.subtilis strains and for antifungal activities against Aspergillus janus and Pencilliun glabrum strains using amoxicillin and fluconazole as standard drugs respectively.

  26. Nayanatara, A. K., Tripathi, Y., Nagaraja, H.S., Jeganathan, P.S., Ramaswamy, C., Ganaraja, B. and Sheila R. Pai

    Stressful stimuli can disrupt the physiological homeostasis. Acute and chronic stressors influence brain function and it is known to be the key factor for the genesis of various psychological disorders. The present study was designed to elucidate the influence of acute and chronic stress on different brain tissues of wistar albino rats. The animals were divided into two major groups as non stressed group (n =10) and stressed group (n =10). The stressed groups were divided into acute (one day) stress groups and chronic (30 days) groups. The animals of the stressed groups were subjected to acute and chronic types of swimming stress and immobilization stress. Lipid peroxidation was estimated in cerebral cortex, hypothalamus and cerebellum. Acute swimming stress and chronic immobilization stress significantly (P<0.001) increased the lipid peroxidation level in the cerebral cortex and hypothalamus. Whereas, acute immobilization stress and chronic swimming stress increased (P<0.001) the cerebellar lipid peroxidation. The observed regional specific alterations in lipid peroxidation levels show that the nature of the stressors are probably capable of generating a different degree of cellular imbalance in between pro-oxidants and antioxidants which may provide some approach on variety of neurological and psychological processes as well as their treatment.

  27. Rushadije Ramani

    In The paper [1] represents the construction of free medial semi group through commutative semi group. In this project the structure of distributive semi group [2], [3], [4] and the commutative semi group are been used for constructing one distributive semi group through commutative semi group. The first part explains the distributive semi groups and commutative semi groups, represents the conditions that the commutative semi group should complete whereof to construct distributive semi group. The second part contains the contruction of the free distributive semi group using indications of the first part. Pointing that in this project I will try the same technique to accompany the different semi groups.

  28. Belete, Mulugeta Azeze, Yilma Seleshi and Hartmut Eckstädt

    Lake Tana is the biggest fresh water body in Ethiopia. Recently the Lake and its catchment water resources have been identified as one of the most important sources for hydropower, irrigation, and fishery development. However, there are huge uncertainties in estimating the water balance terms of both the Lake and its catchment. These will have an effect in developing the resources in a sustainable manner. The purpose of this article is to model and simulate the outflow series from the catchment measured at the Outlet of the Lake. This will give an opportunity to look the development impacts and their sustainability from the net supply perspective. A first order autoregressive model with model parameters Ø1 = 0.7845 and σa = 0.612 is identified as an adequate model to represent the deseasonalized series of the net supply of the catchment.

  29. Abagale, F. K., Sarpong, D. A., Ojediran, J. O., Osei-Agyemang, R., Shaibu, A. G. and Birteeb, P. T.

    Car washing generates a lot of wastewater into our environment which flows into our water bodies or drains into soils. Water from these water bodies or drains is mostly used for vegetable crop irrigation purposes in urban areas. The study assessed heavy metal concentration in wastewater from car washing bays in the Tamale Metropolis of Ghana. Wastewater samples from three (3) different washing bays were analyzed for presence and concentration of Zinc (Zn), Copper (Cu), Cadmium (Cd), Chromium (Cr), Lead (Pb), Iron (Fe) and Manganese (Mn). Results indicate that concentration levels of Cr (0.42 mg/l), Fe (4.97 mg/l), Pb (0.28 mg/l) and Mn (2.36 mg/l) in the samples were in high levels. Zn (0.18 mg/l), Cd (< 0.002 mg/l) and Cu (0.06 mg/l) however recorded lower limits of concentration. ANOVA of the heavy metals indicates a significant difference with F-probability value of 0.027. It was also observed that the concentration and occurrence of Fe and Mn are inter- related whilst Mn was also inter-related with Zn, Cu, Cd, Cr and Pb. The bio-accumulation of these heavy metals in the soil and also downstream effect of them need to be checked. The use of wastewater from car washing bays for crop irrigation should therefore be with extreme caution as a result of contamination.

  30. Hemalatha, M., Suryanarayanan, N. and Prabahar, S.

    Face centered cubic nickel has been synthesized through reduction of nickel chloride by hydrazine at 900C.X-ray powder diffraction showed that as-prepared samples were nickel with FCC structure. Scanning electron microscopy indicated that the particles were spherical and EDAX study confirmed the presence of high purity of nickel. Magnetic measurements showed that samples were ferromagnetic. The value of remanent magnetization and coercivity was enhanced while the value of saturation magnetization was decreased when compared to bulk nickel at room temperature.

  31. Prasad A. Deshpande and Katti Pancharatna

    Histological and histo chemical analysis of zebrafish ovary with reference to oogonial proliferation, oogenesis, folliculogenesis and vitellogenesis were studied. Ovaries from adult females were processed for paraffin embedding and sections (3µm) thick were cut and stained with hematoxylin-eosin and for histochemical detection of proteins, carbohydrates, mucopolysaccharides, lipids, neutral lipids and acidic lipids. Sections of ovaries exhibited oogonia and oocytes (previtellogenic and vitellogenic). Oogonia were spherical cells found in nests on the ovarian epithelium and occasionally dividing; they ranged from 9-11 µm in size. Newly transformed oocytes ranged from 20-40 µm and primary oocytes measured 40-140 µm in their size. In larger primary oocytes (>170 μm) yolk vesicles appeared beneath plasma membrane marking beginning of the vitellogenesis. Ooplasm of previtellogenic oocytes stained to mercuric bromophenol blue and alcian blue. Nuclear extrusions (nuage) stained positive to Sudan black B and Oil Red O. Extraneous yolk granules stained positive to nile blue, alcian blue, bromophenol blue and PAS. The findings reveal that oogonial proliferation and their differentiation into oocytes (oogenesis) are prevalent in adult ovary; yolk contains nuclear extrusions (RNA?) and yolk granules deposited from the periphery of the oocyte.

  32. Marimuthu, T., Rajendran, S. and Manivannan, M.

    In this study, inlet and outlet of two effluent water samples were taken from effluent treatment plant in Balammalpuram, Karur, Tamilnadu, India. The water parameters were analysed under standard methods and compared with WHO and BIS standards. The remedial measures were suggested.

  33. Sekhar, D., Kaviraj, A. and Das, B. K.

    Ichthyofaunal diversity of the River Dauk at Uttar Dinajpur District of West Bengal in India was investigated during the year 2009 and 2010. Three different stations of the river namely Bholagachh (Station I, S1), Chopra (Station II, S2) and Dalua (Station III, S3) were selected for sampling of the fishes. Overall eighteen species belonging to three orders and seven families were recorded in the sampling stations of the river. Cyprinidae was the most dominating family (80.10%) with ten species. Cobitidae was the next dominant family having three species (11.33%). Balitoridae (1.45%), Nandidae (2.31%), Ambassidae (1.95%), Gobiidae (0.43%) and Sisoridae (2.43%) families represented only single species of each. Barilius bendelisis (26.37%), Aspidoparia morar (26.29%) and Puntius chola (15.11%) of the family Cyprinidae were the most abundant among the available species during the study period at all the three stations. Distribution of the fish among the different stations was not uniform during the study period. It was concluded that fish assemblage in the river Dauk was poor as compared to previous records. Habitat degradation, over exploitation and effluents discharge from Teesta Hydro-electric Power Project could influence the distribution of fish in this river.

  34. Dr. Ashok Kumar Panigrahi

    Cash conversion cycle (CCC) has been considered a useful measure of firm’s effective working capital management and especially the cash management. This study was conducted with the aim to look into the association of the cash conversion cycle with the size and profitability of the firm. The present study is concerned about evaluating how cash conversion cycle affects the profitability of cement manufacturing companies in India. The specific research objective of the study is to investigate the existing literature on the role of cash conversion cycle in enhancing return on assets and equity of the companies and to measure the impact of cash conversion cycle on profitability of the manufacturing companies. The results of the study will be helpful for academics and industry experts for policy making and control purposes. The study takes return on equity and return on assets as measures of profitability to represent dependent variables. Firm size and debt ratio are taken as control variables. Cash conversion cycle is considered as independent or explanatory variable. Study takes into consideration top five Indian cement companies for a period of 10 years starting from 2001 to 2010. Results showed that the selected companies are having low average return on asset and return on equity with significantly negative cash conversion cycle. Regression results after adjusting for heteroskedasticity of data to minimize the effects of outliers showed that cash conversion cycle is having significantly positive association with both return on assets and equity indicating that it is not necessary that always there must be lesser the cash conversion cycle greater would be the profitability measured through return on assets and equity. If the firm is able to sell the inventory and collect the receivables before it pays to the payables, then the situation would be little bit different. As happened in our case, firms are not under pressure to reduce the receivable collection period and inventory selling period along with the extension of payment period to increase the profitability.

  35. Subrata K.R. Debnath

    A rectangular buried vertical fault of finite length of strike-slip nature in an elastic layer over a viscoelastic half space representing the lithosphere-asthenosphere system has been considered here. Stresses and strain accumulate in the region due to various tectonic processes, such as mantle convection and plate movements etc, which ultimately leads to movements across the fault. In the present paper, a three-dimensional model of the system is considered and analytic expressions for displacements, stresses and strains in the model have been obtained using suitable mathematical techniques developed for this purpose. A suitable numerical technique is adapted for computer simulation. A detailed study of these expressions may give some ideas about the nature of stress-strain accumulation in the system, which in turn will be helpful in formulating an effective earthquake prediction programme.

  36. Anyanwu Joy, I., Onuoha, J. C. and Etonyeaku, E. A. C.

    The study set out to investigate the influence of work in childhood on the self concept, vocational aspiration and choice of children who work and go to school in Abia State. The study adopted a descriptive survey method using questionnaire and structured interview to illicit information from respondents on children who combine child labour and schooling. The sample is made up of 300 children from three Local Government Areas that make up Aba metropolis. Two research questions and three hypotheses were used. The analysis was done using percentages for the research questions and t-test statistic for the hypotheses. The findings are that majority of the children engaged in childhood work are from 12 years of age and above, in the junior secondary school level and from intact but poor families. They have good self concept but low vocational aspirations and choice. This implies that if this trend of child labour is allowed to continue, the country will lose potential graduates and trained contributors to the economy thereby, negating the compulsory free primary to junior secondary education move of the Government. Recommendations were also made.

  37. Dalie Dominic, A. and Inasu, N. D.

    The Indian rivers are proven to be significant sites of cyprinid diversity. Kerala is a state with 44 rivers flowing through the land, forty one west flowing and three east flowing. The streams of Kerala included in the Southern and central division of Western Ghats are considered unique for their exceptional biodiversity with respect to freshwater fishes. Puzhakkal is one of the 41 west flowing rivers of Kerala originating in the Machad hill range and flowing terminally into the Kol fields. It flows along northern part of Thrissur and drains into the Enamakal lake and then to Arabian Sea. The present work investigates the icthyofaunal diversity of Puzhakkal river. collections of live fishes were made during January 2009 to December 2012. 71 species belonging to 48 genus and 26 family and eleven orderswere collected from the present survey. The river exhibited rich endemism with respect to icthyofaunal diversity and is also subjected to severe stress.

  38. Nasiru Musa Yauri, Kwairanga Muhammad and Nasiru Abdulsalam Kaoje

    This paper investigates the relationship between corporate governance and three indicators of firm performance: return on assets, market capitalisation and risk management. The investigation was done mainly to discover whether one of the principal objectives of the 2005 bank consolidation in Nigeria (i.e. strengthening corporate governance) has been achieved. The study collects secondary data from the Nigeria Stock Exchange (NSE) factbook and financial reports of the deposit money banks (DMBs). A multiple regression model was employed to test the hypotheses of the study. Results of the regression analysis shows that, on the whole, corporate governance has a positive impact on the financial performance of DMBs in Nigeria and the paper suggests that regulatory agencies should pursue policies that strengthen the corporate governance mechanism of DMBs in Nigeria with a view not only to improving their financial performance but also to minimise the recurrent phenomenon of distress amongst DMBs in Nigeria.

  39. Inchulkar Shilpa and Venugopal Reeta

    Introduction: Significant limitations in intellectual functioning and in adaptive behavior are been observed in people with Mental retardation, which are expressed in their conceptual, social, and practical adaptive skills. This disability originates before the age of 18. The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of 10-weeks exercise program on Psychomotor ability (reaction ability and speed of movement time) of mentally challenged (MC) children. Method: Total 30 trainable mentally challenged children (15) experimental group and (15) control group without multiple disabilities were selected for the present study. The mean age of the groups was 12.33±0.84 years. Experimental and control groups were tested for reaction time and speed of movement time and back word target throw before and after physical education training program for 10 weeks. All the participants selected were the children without previous physical activity experience. Results: comparative statistics showed significant difference in pre and post test measurements in all studied variables in the experimental group under study (p<0.05). It is concluded that participation in Physical Education training program improved psychomotor ability in MR children.

  40. Shiv Kumar and Gireesh Babu, K.

    This study attempted to monitored the effect of various parameters which effect the bioelectricity generation by the nano-wire forming electrogen Proteus sp. BVB09 isolated from the cow dung in two chambers MFC having cellophane membrane as PEM. Experimental results concluded that mineral media M6 produced highest bioelectricity of 988.32mW/m2 (397.8mV, 0.004mA, and 2.48mA/m2) on the 6th day of the MFC operation at highest external resistance of 100KΩ whilst on the optimization of the necessary factors, a significant bioelectricity generation of 244363.97mW/m2 (198.70mV, 1.98mA and 1229.81mA/m2) on the 26th day of the MFC operation at 100Ω was recorded. These results obtained were also directly proportional to the bio film and biomass accumulated at the anode and anolyte of the MFCs.

  41. Abirami, H. and Rameshwari, R.

    In this study the antimicrobial activity of leaf extracts obtained from genus Sesuvium L. was examined in vitro against eight strains of bacteria and three strains of fungi. Four extracts of S.portulacastrum obtained by extraction in methanol, chloroform, petroleum ether and ethyl acetate solvents respectively, were compared for their antimicrobial and antifungal activity. These activities were assessed by measuring the diameter of inhibition zones, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values.

  42. John M. Kobia and Timothy K. Ndiga

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how teachers influence the implementation of Kiswahili curriculum in Igembe District. The study was guided by two research questions and employed descriptive survey design. The sample population was 24 headteachers and 24 heads of Kiswahili department who are also Kiswahili teachers. The data was collected using questionnaires, document verification guide and interview schedule. Findings have shown that teachers’ characteristics like age and gender do not influence the implementation of Kiswahili curriculum in secondary schools in Kenya. Secondly, it was found out that Kiswahili teachers are given opportunities to attend in-service courses which contributes to effective curriculum implementation. The researchers suggest that further research to be done to investigate on how students’ home characteristics affect Kiswahili curriculum implementation.

  43. Senthilkumar, R., Manimaran, R. and Prabu, M.

    The main objective of this paper is to provide the analysis of the diesel engine such as performance & characteristic curves, fuel economy, power developed and exhaust emission levels; when the four stroke internal combustion compression ignition diesel engine is fueled with soybean biodiesel (B100 with 5% ethanol) and petroleum diesel. The various parameters have been evaluated for each of the fuel used such as brake power developed, specific fuel consumption, indicated thermal efficiency, brake thermal efficiency, mechanical efficiency and exhaust emission gas levels of CO, HC, CO2, O2 and NOx and comparisons of them have been given. In addition to B100 and petroleum diesel, different blends of pure biodiesel such as B25, B50 and B75 have also been analyzed, compared among each other and shown. The aim of this paper is to prove that Soybean Oil: Biodiesel is the most sustainable alternative and renewable fuel, which not only shows similar performance characteristics, fuel consumption & efficiencies with respect to petro-diesel, but also shows reduction in amount of pollution causing gases in exhaust when compared with the same.

  44. Mai Adil, Enan, K. A., Eldaief, W., El-tigani, M. and Elkhidir, I. M.

    Background: This study was carried out to detect human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) in renal transplant patients in Khartoum state, Sudan, to show if urine gives a reliable result in HCMV PCR detection as plasma samples. Randomly, a total of 50 plasma and urine samples were collected from renal transplant patients at hospital of Sudanese renal transplant society during April to May 2012 Results: Urine and plasma together gave positive CMV result in 4 patients, while 2 patients were detected by plasma only, and one patient was detected by urine sample only. Analysis of result give a significant relationship between the two samples (p =0.00). Conclusions: The results of present study indicated that urine can be used for PCR detection of CMV as plasma sample, but further study need to be done for more validation.

  45. Dr. Sanjay Kumar, Dr. Pooja Gulati and Dr. Rajeev Kumar Kapoor

    Solanum xanthocarpum, a medicinal herb is of great economic importance due to its immense therapeutic and pesticidal properties. The present study was carried out to develop guidelines for in vitro multiplication of Solanum xanthocarpum. Explants like stem nodes, leaves and axillary buds were cultured on MS media supplemented with phytoharmones viz. BAP, 2,4 D, Kinetin, NAA, in various combinations and their response towards callus induction and shoot formation was observed. While leaves and axillary bud explants exhibited callus formation only, stem node responded to yield both callus and shoot formation. Nodal explants responded best to cytokinins and can be used for regeneration studies of this plant.

  46. Ibeawuchi C. Nze and Okeudo, G. N.

    This study carried out an assessment of the role of NIMASA in the development of Nigerian Maritime industry and the impact of shipping on the Nigerian economy on the other hand. Major emphasis was laid on the relationship between the number of vessels registered by NIMASA per period and the corresponding revenue generated. With a collection of port vessel registration and the corresponding revenue accrued, a regression model was developed to investigate the relationship between Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of Nigeria and other economic variables such as cargo throughput (from the shipping sub-sector of the maritime industry), the balance of payment and exchange rate to reveal the rate of Naira – Dollar denomination within a 12 year study period. The results of the analysis reveals that even though the maritime sector exhibits great potentials of contributing immensely to the growth of the maritime industry and the Nigeria economy; it is suggested that NIMASA should intensify efforts in capacity building and maritime financing in order to create room for optimal implementation of the cabotage.

  47. Parveen, M., Shafi Bhat, M. and Haq, S.,

    This study was aimed to estimate currentstatus of physico-chemical characteristics of Dal Lake at Srinagar District, Kashmir. Monthly changes in physico-chemical parameters such as water temperature, transparency, pH, conductivity, dissolved oxygen, Free Co2, Alkalinity, chlorides, Ammonical nitrogen, Nitrate nitrogen and Total phosphorus were analyzed for a period of one year from January to December 2011. Among various Physico chemical parameters water temperature varied from 4.8⁰C to 25.6⁰C, transparency from 0.72 m to 1.66 m, pH of water was on alkaline side (7.34 to 8.2)., Conductivity ranged from 292.4 μs/cm to 406.2μS/cm, dissolved oxygen from 4.7 mg/L to 7.9 mg/l, free carbon dioxide from 08.80 mg/L to 20.50mg/L, total alkalinity from 130.70 mg/L to 181.00 mg/L. During the study period, higher values of ammonical nitrogen were recorded during summer and lower during winter season, nitrate nitrogen values recorded were in the range of 365.1 μg/L to 607 μg/L. Lower values of total phosphorous were observed during winter season and higher during Autumn season.

  48. Dr. Manas Kumar Mukherjee

    The Fulbari by-pass road is a service road running parallel with Tista-Mahananda canal of West Bengal, India. The road has been damaged repeatedly for the last few years. There are huge depressions on the road surface and it now look like a sine curve. Field investigation, field tests indicate huge seepage is flowing under the road throughout the year, ultimately leading to piping and consequent soil loss. The adjoining canal lining is severely damaged leading to huge seepage. Field and laboratory tests suggest that the sub-grade soil is poor, un-compacted heterogeneous sub-soil of very loose compactness and thus unfit to act as a sub-grade material under severe traffic load. A combination of these factors is jointly responsible for the damage of the road, even after repairing every year. Two alternative suggestions have been given by the author. Either construct rigid pavement on supporting piers founded on a firm-soil. Also absolute leak proofing of the adjoining canal was suggested to be mandatory. Or search for a new location, where there will be no seepage effect. A new flexible pavement could be constructed, which might be cheaper than the first suggestion and keep the aforesaid road to serve just like a service road.

  49. Shivkumar, M. A. and Inamdar, S. R.

    Fluorescence resonance energy transfer between CdSe (480 nm) quantum dots (donor) and fluorescein 27 (acceptor) is studied using steady state and time-resolved fluorescence measurements at room temperature in toluene based solutions. Decrease in the fluorescence intensity of QD donor and increase in the dye emission intensity with increasing concentration of acceptor dye and a significant reduction of the fluorescence lifetime of the QDs in the presence of acceptor are noted. The results indicate the occurrence of efficient FRET in this system and also a clear dependence of FRET efficiency on the spectral overlap between the QD emission spectrum and the dye absorption spectrum.

  50. Dr. Mrs. P. Amarjothi and Mr. C. Azhakarraja, M.Phil

    A new battle is being fought in the war for talent, with analysts, human resources (HR) professionals and executives around the world the main combatants. Likewise, we cannot ignore the other ongoing war for talent that informs organizations talent strategies. Although there is not necessarily a shortage of good people globally, organizations often report that local talent is hard to find and they compete fiercely to fill skilled and professional roles. The aging workforce, together with rapid changes in technology is continuing to force HR professionals to search globally for talent and increase training and development budgets. The simultaneous challenge to traditional HR practices with the rapid rise of mobile technology and social media. These new capabilities are changing the way data is collected on employees and external candidates: from recruiting via social media sites to testing candidates on their smart phones, organizations must consider how to ensure consistency and fairness in their recruiting and hiring processes.

  51. Dr. Meena, K., Gayathri, P. and Dr. Subramanian, K. R.

    The steady flow of through a catheterized tapered artery with a stenosis is analyzed, assuming the blood as a non-Newtonian Herschel-Bulkley fluid. A system of non linear partial differential equations for blood flow of the artery was obtained. The governing equations are solved using calculus method. The width of the plug flow region increases with the increase of the yield stress, and the reverse behavior is noticed when the steady state pressure gradient increases when all the other parameters are kept fixed. It is observed that the velocity and flow rate decrease while the wall shear stress and resistance to flow increase when the yield stress or catheter radius ratio or angle of tapering increases while all the other parameters held fixed.

  52. Anuradha, A. and Dr. Rachel Oommen

    In solar air heater, flat plat collectors are the best heat transfering devices. An experiment was performed with the flat plate solar air collector of area 1.87m2 to describe its transient behavior. The experiment was carried out for different range of inlet temperatures (40 oC, 50 oC, 60 oC, 70 oC, 80 oC and 90 oC) for a period of three months (April, May and June). The efficiency found for different range of input temperatures varies from 20 – 37 %.Efficiency and output temperature values are calculated theoretically and are in close agreement with experimental values. Collector time constant of the collector was also calculated.

  53. Prashanth B. Goud, Sanjay N. Harke and Manvendra S. Kachole

    The present study tries to examine the influence of natural and oxidative stress [hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) treatment]-induced senescence on peroxidase (POD) activity in neem (Azadirachta indica A. juss) leaves. Data indicated that incubation of detached leaves in presence of H2O2 has induced POD(s), that enzyme activity is also enhanced in natural senescing leaves. Changes in POD activity and protein loss during H2O2-promoted senescence has shown similarity with natural senescence suggests that the underlying regulatory mechanisms might be the same in both stresses, at least in neem. Initial induction of POD activity under H2O2 stress suggests that PODs play a very important role during the early phases of leaf senescence. Reduction in POD activity along with the increase in protein loss at latter stages suggests that there was no correlation between PODs and senescence, at least in neem.

  54. Dr. Srimani, P. K. and Kavitha, S.

    Hand gesture recognition system can be used for providing the interface between computer and human using hand gestures. The main objective of the present work is to develop algorithms for the recognition of twenty three samyuktha mudras of the bharatanatyam. By employing a pattern recognition technique in which the orientation histogram and silhouette of the different gestures is used as a feature vector for mudra classification and interpolation accurate results are obtained.

  55. Dr. Padmaja, B., Dr. BhanuKiran, C. and Dr. Rama Prasada Rao, C. H.

    The concept of “Financial Inclusion” is inbuilt in the structure of Urban Co-operative Bank. As Urban Co-operative Banks are mostly working in the rural and semi-urban areas .They are the back bone of banking system and contribute for growth of the nation .The researcher aims to analyze the financial performance of Anantapur Urban Cooperative bank. The study used exploratory research design which relies on secondary data. The analyzed data reveals that there was significant growth in the deposits mobilization, loans and advances, working capital, reserves and owned funds. There is no significant growth in membership but there was significant growth in share capital per member with CGR of 9.43.There was significant increase in the total cash with the bank which is growing at CGR of 12.44.There was no significant growth in CDR .There was significant difference in the growth and composition of income. The total expenses were increasing significantly with CGR of 16.61. Even though there was increasing trend in the Net Profits earned during the study period except in the year 2006-07 but it was statistically in significant .The EPS of AUCB was enhanced which is statistically significant during the study. Therefore the performance of AUCB was satisfactory.

  56. Pabal Ajit, Priyadarshani Yengkokpam, Bhuva Neha, Thangjam Elizabeth Devi and Longjam Usharani

    Trichoderma viridae Pacilomyces liliaceae Verticilium lecani are the three Entamopathogenic fungi which are used to study the molasses as a source of their mass multiplication. Generally there are Fungi to control insects, weeds and to control other fungi. In nature every ecosystem exists in a balance. Growth and multiplication of each organism depends on the food chain, its predators, parasites, etc. In biological control system, these interrelations are exploited. The natural enemy of a pest, disease or weed is selected; its biology is studied for mass multiplication and utilizes the same to check the target pest. They are also specific in their action and perish once their feed (i.e. the pest) is exhausted. The result shows that mass production of fungus can be done widely by using molasses and shows that Trichoderma viridae shows Profused growth on molasses at 17th day. Pacilomyces liliaceae shows Profused growth on 22nd day after inoculation where as Verticilium lecani shows no growth after inoculation on molasses, but it shows Profused growth on PDA. The result indicates that molasses can used to grow fungal pathogens a s in India is a sugarcane belt where lot of sugarcane industries are located hence, molasses can be utilized to grow the same on large scale.

  57. Mohammed Abdul-Daim Saleh

    This study was carried out to evaluate proteins encoded by different fragments of HCV genes for detection hepatitis C infection. Eighty eight Iraqi hepatitis C patients were involved in this study, these patients attended the Gastroenterology Department of Baghdad Teaching Hospital during the period from December 2009 to March 2011. These patients included 58 males and 30 females with ages ranged between (16-64) year. The results of this study showed that 88 specimens were immunoreactive to one or more of the 4 HCV recombinant proteins, besides that 34 serum samples were collected from apparently healthy individuals (included 21 males and 13 females) they served as a control group, all the samples obtained from control group didn't show any reactivity to hepatitis C virus. Additionally, the positive rates of anti-capsid, anti-NS3,anti-NS4 and anti-NS5 were 77.2%,64.7%,55.6% and 46.5% respectively, while 13.6 % reacted to capsid protein, 5.7% reacted to NS3 protein, in addition, 3.4% reacted to NS4 protein, furthermore, 2.3% only reacted to NS5 protein. Finally, all the 88 specimens (100%) were immuno-reactive to the mixed proteins. In conclusion, Our results sustain different immunoreactivity of the HCV recombinant proteins encoded by different fragments of C virus gene, therefore the mixture of all the protein derived from HCV different regions should be applied in further HCV diagnostic test to detect hepatitis C infection.

  58. Nishadh, A., Gokilaveni, C., Selvi, V. and Mahalakshmi, R.

    In this study, the ethanolic extract of Vernonia cinerea plant leaves were investigated for the antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects in male Wistar strain albino rats. The extract at a dose of 100mg/Kg body wt was administered orally to the CCl4 treated rats. The effect of extract on the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and reduced glutathione (GSH) content were estimated in the liver of rats intoxicated with CCl4. When compared to CCl4 treated group of rats, the extract significantly (p<0.05) increased the levels of SOD, CAT, GR, GSH, and GST. The extract also showed antioxidant effects by significantly decreasing (p<0.05) on FeCl2-Ascorbate induced lipid peroxidation in rat liver homogenate. these suggest that extract at a dose could protect the liver cells from CCl4 induced liver damages perhaps, by its antioxidant effect on hepatocytes and hence eliminating the deleterious effects of toxic metabolites from CCl4.the protective effect of extract in respect to biochemical changes were also confirmed by histopathological study in the liver sections.

  59. Vidhyalakshmi, S., Kavitha, A., Premalatha, E. and Gopalan, M. A.

    We obtain infinitely many non-zero integer quintuples satisfying the Quintic Equation with five unknowns. .Various interesting properties between the values of , and special polygonal and pyramidal numbers are presented.

  60. Mathivanan, K. and Pazhanivelu, G.

    The study was intended to find out the higher secondary students’ involvement in environmental movements in Virudhachalam Educational District. Random Sampling Technique was used to compose a sample of 1000 higher secondary students. Mean, Standard Deviation, t- value, F-value, and r- value were calculated for the analysis of data. The result revealed that the location of the school and the type of family had no significant difference but gender, subject group, and type of management exhibited significant difference in respect of higher secondary students’ involvement in environmental movements.

  61. Kakali Biswas, Subrata Mondal and Sudhendu Mandal

    The present paper deals with flower morphology, anthesis, pollen production, pollen ovule ratio, foraging behaviour of flower visitors, pollen germination (in vitro and in vivo) and stigma receptivity of Solanum sisymbrifolium Lamk. belonging to the family Solanaceae, which is an important medicinal plant. The flowers open in between 5.00 to 7.00 hrs. As soon as flowers open, different insects like Thrips, Ceratina viridissima, Apis sp., Amegilla sp., Xylocopa sp. and few members of Lepidoptera, Diptera and Coleoptera visit flowers to collect forage materials and help in pollination. A single flower produces an average of 4,475,266 pollen grains and pollen ovule ratio was obtained 14918:1. The maximum (90%) pollen germination along with 1305m tube development was observed in 20% sucrose solution supplemented with 100ppm boric acid. In vivo pollen germination showed that the stigma receptivity was maximum (70%) at first day after anthesis and showing 90.54% in vivo germinating pollen along with 1406m pollen tube over stigma head.

  62. Suhail Rashid Mir, Syed Tanveer and Shazia Ahad

    An epidemiological analysis has got a significant role in analyzing the emerging population-based health management frameworks. Thus, it is need of hour to include studies on different hosts including the poultry fowls. The aim behind the review is to encourage more young researchers to initiate work on this critical approach. The present work stresses on integrated approach to the control and diagnose of cestodiosis in domestic fowl. Moreover, the histopathological studies will help in estimating damage done to hosts by parasites. The immunological techniques such as (ELISA and Western Blot) will help in quick diagnosis of cestodiasis and prepare the materials to control the disease at early stages without much morbidity.

  63. Snober Shah, Ulfat Jan, G. Mustafa. Shah, and Rehana nabi

    The main aim of the present study was to validate the nutritive value of economically important fish Schizothorax plagiostomus of Kashmir valley. Schizothorax plagiostomus (Khont) Heckel, 1838, locally available teleost of Kashmir valley were sampled form March 2012 to February 2013 to analyze the seasonal and monthly variation in the total protein content of muscle tissue. Results show that the nutritive value of a species of fish varies throughout the year. Marked fluctuations in protein content of the fish have been analyzed during the study period. Highest protein values in muscles of Schizothorax plagiostomus were recorded in July and lowest was observed in the December. In conclusion, it was seen that protein content in the muscle of Schizothorax plagiostomus was significantly influenced by the season, spawning, availability of food etc.

  64. Rehana Nabi, Ulfat Jan, G. Mustafa Shah and Snober Shah

    Fish is one of the main food constituents in our diet as it includes essential fatty acids, amino acids and some of the principal vitamins and minerals in sufficient amounts for healthy living (Borgstrom, 1961). The importance of biochemical composition of fish and their significant role in human nutrition is well recognized. The present study involves the estimation of the total carbohydrate content in the muscle tissues of an endemic fish species of Kashmir valley namely Schizothorax curvifrons during the period of January 2012 to December 2012. Fresh samples of the fishes were collected from local fish markets of Kashmir valley and were immediately taken into the zoology department lab and analyzed. Our results showed that the total carbohydrate content was 0.00126, 0.00087, 0.00116, 0.00099, 0.00081, 0.00142, 0.00134, 0.0006, 0.0003, 0.00092, 0.0008 and 0.0011g/g tissue in Schizothorax curvifrons for the month of January, February, March, April, May, June, July, August, September, October, November and December respectively. The highest carbohydrate content in the muscle tissue was recorded in summer season (0.112%) followed by winter (0.108%) and spring (0.099%) and lowest in autumn season (0.067%). Thus, we conclude that the carbohydrate content of the fish varies seasonally.

  65. Ibraq Khurshid and Fayaz Ahmad

    Helminths are of great interest to the ecologists because of their ordered life cycle. They are also considered as one of the important sensitive parasites to any changes in the water quality. Helminth parasites of exotic and indigenous fish were examined with the aim to evaluate their possible use as biological tags. This study quantified the seasonal prevalence and intensity of the helminth parasites in Shallabugh Wetland. Fish hosts studied includes two native fish of genus - Schizothorax and two exotic fish of genus - Cyprinus. 486 Fish specimens were examined out of which 197 were infected showing the overall prevalence of 40.53%. Our results show highest prevalence of helminth parasites in all the hosts examined viz., S. niger =59.25%, S. labiatus = 55.55%, C. c. communis = 61.11% and C. c. specularis = 55.55%, during summer months than spring and autumn. Positive relation between the infection indicies of Helminth parasites and temperature suggests that helminth parasites can be used as stress indicators. It is further suggested that helminth parasites should be integrated with biomonitoring programmes, as they can provide supplementary information on pollution.





Rosane Cavalcante Fragoso, Brasil


Chief Scientific Officer and Head of a Research Group

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Luai Farhan Zghair
Hasan Ali Abed Al-Zu’bi
Fredrick OJIJA
Firuza M. Tursunkhodjaeva
Faraz Ahmed Farooqi
Saudi Arabia
Eric Randy Reyes Politud
Elsadig Gasoom FadelAlla Elbashir
Eapen, Asha Sarah
United State
Dr.Arun Kumar A
Dr. Zafar Iqbal
Dr. Ruchika Khanna
Dr. Recep TAS
Dr. Rasha Ali Eldeeb
Dr. Pralhad Kanhaiyalal Rahangdale
Dr. Nicolas Padilla- Raygoza
Dr. Mustafa Y. G. Younis
Dr. Muhammad shoaib Ahmedani
Saudi Arabia
United State
Dr. Lim Gee Nee
Dr. Jatinder Pal Singh Chawla
Dr. Devendra kumar Gupta
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Dr. Achmad Choerudin
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Dr. Muhammad Akram
Dr. Imran Azad
Dr. Meenakshi Malik
Aseel Hadi Hamzah
Anam Bhatti
Md. Amir Hossain
Mirzadi Gohari