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IJCR is following an instant policy on rejection those received papers with plagiarism rate of more than 20%. So, All of authors and contributors must check their papers before submission to making assurance of following our anti-plagiarism policies.

 

 

 

 

February 2014

  1. Raja Muhammad Naveed and Dr. Humaoun Naeem

    From the last few decades, the quality of life and work life has become a major issue of concern for the organizations. Stress has become the key reason for dictating several issues related to the health and welfare of the employees. However, very little is still known about stress management procedures and employee’s emotional welfare in organizations.

  2. Hediat, M. H. Salama, Khedr, F., Schäffer A. and Azab E.

    The human Cytochrome P 450 CYPIA2 gene was introduced into tobacco plants (Nicotina tabacum cv. Virginia tobacco). CYP IA2 plants grown in soil clearly showed a healthy growth and tolerance to simazine, but non transgenic plants were completely damaged by the herbicides. The results proved that simazine was completely metabolized by the CYPIA2 transgenic plants to prevailingly non phytotoxic metabolites, the herbicide was biotransformed to a minor extent in non transgenic plants to metabolites with residual phytotoxicity. Thus, CYPIA2 tobacco plants can remove simazine herbicide from the soil, whereas non transgenic tobacco was damaged. The results revealed that in the NT tobacco plantlets and excised leaves, 32% and 50% respectively of the simazine absorbed by the tissues was metabolized into Des. The T-E plantlets metabolized 83% of the absorbed parent herbicide into different metabolites, while only 8.3% remained non-metabolized in the T-V plantlets. The main metabolite resulting from degradation of simazine by CYP1A2 transgenic plants was DiDes representing 41% (plantlets) and 37.3% (excised leaves) in case of T-E, and 35% (plantlets) and 60% (excised leaves) with T-V. Doses ranging between 4 and 40 mg simazine per plant were enough to inhibit the growth, finally causing the death for tobacco plants. When simazine was applied to the CYP1A2 transgenic tobacco plant (T-E and T-V) under similar conditions, the plants showed considerable resistance with all concentrations used.

  3. Shanthamma, J. and Jadhav, S. K.

    Fungi make up a significant proportion of the tiny particles floating in the air. They play an important role in biodeterioration and degradation, act as an allergy trigger, cause of disease in humans, animals and plants. Knowledge of fungal spores present in the air can be useful in identifying allergens and pathogens, fungi that can cause mycotoxin contamination and spoilage. Aero mycological survey was carried out in the vegetable market of Ambikapur city for a period of two years using gravity Petri plate method. A total of 59 species belonging to 32 genera were identified. The most common fungi identified were species of Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Alternaria, Curvularia , Penicillium and Fusarium. The composition and concentration of fungal spores considerably varied from season to season. Winter season recorded highest number of fungal colonies followed by rainy and summer season. Important mycotoxin producing fungi such as A. Aspergillus flavus, A. ochraceus, Penicillium citrinum, P. expansum, Fusarium, Alternaria were isolated from the vegetable market.

  4. Aslan, Y., Handayani, N., Stavila, E. and Loos, K.

    Immobilization of enzymes is an important field of study as the reusable heterogeneous biocatalysts designed tremendously reduce production costs by efficient recycling and control of the catalytic processes. In the present study, the immobilization of Pseudomonas fluorescens lipase was performed via covalent attachment of lipase onto oxirane activated supports (Eupergit CM). Their wide specificity has rendered lipases into the most commonly-used enzymes in organic chemistry, resulting in an urgent need to effectively immobilize these enzymes. 100,0±0,2% immobilization yield and 170±1,1% activity yield were achieved by optimizing the immobilization conditions (ratio of matrix/enzyme, pH of buffer medium, molarity of buffer medium, duration of immobilization). The best results were achieved when the lipase was immobilized at pH 9 at room temperature (25 oC) for 120 hours. The operational and storage stabilities of the immobilized enzymes were determined as well. No decrease in the activity of immobilized enzyme during 20 consecutive batch reactions was observed. Furthermore, the immobilized enzymes showed high storage stability as they retained their activity for 20 days of usage. The obtained immobilized Pseudomonas fluorescens lipase can be used for the biodiesel production, oil hydrolysis and various important esterification reactions.

  5. Junayed Uddin Ahmed and Tsuneo Kobayshi

    This paper describes the farm structure and strategy of dairy farmers who sell milk and milk products to the consumer directly. Among 86 dairy farms, only 3 farms are involved in direct marketing channel in Saga Prefecture. These 3 farms are selected for this research. Farmers are concerned about income from milk sales which has been decreased since 1990. Most of the dairy farmers are prisoners of market price. They could cut their costs, but stuck with the market price. They have no control over that price. Even though, very efficient farmers watch their potential profits drive off the farm with the milk truck. That’s why, these 3 farmers tried to develop farm structure and strategy to retain in the market.

  6. Gaikwad, D. D., Rathod, B. G. and Gosavi, S. R.

    Fourteen sugarcane genotypes of early maturity group were grown in three different environments such as I plant, II plant and ratoon crops during 2007-08 to 2008-09 consecutive years. Eleven traits viz.-cane yields, CCS yield, CCS %, sucrose %, Brix %, Purity %, Number of milliable cane, Average cane weight, Milliable height, cane diameter, & Extraction%, were studied during present investigation. The variance of genotypes (G) & Environment (E) individually both shows highly significant at 1 % and 5% both at pooled error respectively, except extraction % and Milliable height .Which were found to be significant at 5% at pooled deviation only. The G X E interaction was found highly significant for all the traits except CCS % and Purity %. This had indicated that considerable variability among the genotypes with respect to productive traits in each (three) environment. The variance of environment liner was also found highly significant for all the productive traits at 1 % & 5 % at pooled deviation and pooled error except Milliable height which was found highly significant at only 5 % at pooled deviation.

  7. Ghorpade Prabhakar B. and Bhaskar Sharma

    Understanding protein modeling is key to protein structure analysis. The current research includes crp salmonella typhimurium protein for modeling. The main criteria in model generation is generation of model based on available structures and then knowing model quality generated in process. Swiss prot gives automated model with model quality estimation by Qmean and Anolea. The other dedicated model quality estimation server used is ProSA. The protein model determination is helping in various protein- protein interaction studies, drug-taget interaction. The removing fear of protein model can give better insight into problems based on interaction study. This step by step research would will promote Research into protein study for biologist who are not well aqucuiented with protein modeling.

  8. Ajit Kr. Das and Yaiphabi Tongbram

    Extensive field trips were organized for collecting the plant species during their flowering & fruiting stages from various field trips and interviews of the local medicine men and village elders among the Meitei Community of Bishnupur district of Manipur. Survey conducted revealed the uses of 106 plant species belonging to 55 families and their use in curing different ailments; 21 plant species of monocotyledons and 85 species to that of dicotyledons. The communities still believes in the traditional use of herbal medicine and maintain herbal gardens in their own homestead. With the advent of modernization and lack of interest by the younger generation, the traditional knowledge of this community in on the verge of extinction and will ultimately lead to loss of valuable knowledge. Therefore, the Ethno botanical study taken should help in conserving traditional knowledge and can ultimately lead to base line of the discovery of new drugs for the benefits of human being at large.

  9. Rajeshwar Reddy, T. and Prasad, V. R.

    Bacterial-fungal interaction (BFIs) means how bacteria initiate and maintain relationship with fungi. The BFIs form physically and metabolically interdependent consortia that harbour properties distinct from those of their single components. The BFIs were mainly associated in two ways namely, ectosymbionts and endosymbionts having either positive or negative interactions. The physical associations and molecular communications lead to alteration in the morphology, reproduction, pathogenecity and symbiosis. Molecular communications of BFIs were mainly through antibiosis, modulation of physiochemical environment, chemo taxis, gene transfer and trophic interactions. The BFIs were excellent model systems, which can be effectively used to understand the fundamental bases of host-pathogen interactions and for identifying different mechanisms of interaction among strains of bacteria and fungi, and also to help design suitable management practices with a broader spectrum of microbial weapons.

  10. Amita Bhati, Sanjay Agarwal, Ashok Kumar and Alka Singh

    This paper aimed to document the diversity of medicinal flora of Moradabad district along with their vernacular name, local name, habit and status. In the present study, a total of 153 plant species belonging to 60 families have been recorded from this area. These plant species include 88 herbs, 37 trees, 18 shrubs and 9 twiners. The most widely distributed plants were found in the family Fabaceae (14 plants) followed by Amaranthaceae (10 plants), Asteraceae (9 plants), Malvaceae (7 plants), Apocynaceae, Convolvulaceae & Euphorbiaceae (6 plants), Acanthaceae, Lamiaceae, Polygonaceae & Solanaceae (5 plants).The present information is important as it allows us to prevent or avoid the potential chance of biodiversity loss and to plan future policy for the protection of our environment.

  11. Rathore, M., Siddiqui A.U., Sinha M.B. and Trivedi, S.

    The fracture of distal third of arm is common in the surgical procedure. The Musculocutaneous (MCN) nerve which supply the arm is very important for various surgical procedures,and which shows the frequent variation.But variation in the origin,course, and connection of MCN are not uncommon, and such variations have their own surgical importance. So that the purpose of present case report is identify the variation of MCN. The Routine cadaveric dissection method has been used for present case report. And during the routine dissection we have been observed unilateral variation of MCN on the right side, which pierces the corachobrachialis muscle and after shorts course MCN fibre communicate with median nerve. The structure of left limb was found to be normal in our case report. So the knowledge of thevariations of MCN in the distal third of the arm with median nerve is important in the anterior approach for the fracture of the humerus in various Limb surgeries.

  12. Akintola A. I., Bankole, S. I. and Mosebolatan, O. A.

    Mining and related activities are sources of heavy metal contamination in streams, such as copper, zinc, cadmium, arsenic and lead . The study is focused on Ibodi, southwestern Nigeria which is located in the basement complex of Nigeria and it is to assess the stream sediments of Ibodi in order to decipher the environmental impact assessment of mining activities on the environment. A total of ten stream sediment were collected from the study area and its environs along major tributaries, air dried at room temperature, sieved with 75 micron sized sieve and analyzed in the laboratory using ICP-MS (inductively couple plasma mass spectrometry technique). The analytical results of the major elements analyses show that Iron oxide [Fe2O3] has the highest major element composition, value ranging from 2.36% - 10.61% with an average value of 5.262%. This highest concentration of Iron oxide was found in location 1, with a value of 10.61% and this can be attributed to the underlying geology of amphibolites' in the Ibodi study area, which are known to be rich in Iron as well as magnesium i.e ferromagnesian minerals. Magnesium oxide [MgO] range in composition from 0.11% - 0.92% with an average value of 0.349%, the highest concentration was found in location 3. [Al2O3] ranges in composition from 0.83% - 4.158% with an average value of 2.109% the highest value was also found at location 3, it is the next in abundance to Iron oxide in the Ibodi study area. Potassium oxide [K2O] range in composition from 0.04% - 0.65% with an average value of 0.183%, other major oxides such as [P2O5], [TiO2], [Na2O] and [CaO] have average values of 0.109%, 0.096%,0.008% and 0.162% respectively; These values are generally low within the Ibodi study area, The analytical results for trace element geochemistry of Ibodi study area show that Vanadium [V] has a high concentrations and it range from 35.00ppm - 202.00ppm with an average mean value of 92.50ppm, the highest concentration of this element was found in location 1 of the Ibodi study area. Arsenic [As] range from 0.10ppm - 1.6ppm with an average value of 0.644ppm, there is a significant enrichment of Cobalt [Co] and Chromium [Cr] with concentrations ranging from 4.0ppm - 53.50ppm and 35.20ppm -150.70ppm respectively, with average mean values of 17.73ppm and 88.78ppm respectively; Manganese [Mn] has the highest concentration in the study area, with concentration value ranging from 86.00ppm - 2165.00ppm having an average value of 768.20ppm; the highest concentration of this element was found in location 1 of the study area. [Ga], [Ni] and [Pb] show considerable enrichments within the study area with concentration values ranging from 3.10ppm - 9.50ppm, 5.30ppm - 37.70ppm and 6.75ppm - 18.44ppm, with average values of 6.08ppm,19.80ppm, 12.209ppm respectively, Rubidium [Rb] range in concentration from 6.50ppm - 30.90ppm with an average value of 13.41ppm, Strontium [Sr] has concentration values that range from 4.70ppm - 37.20ppm with an average value of 15.06ppm. [Y], [Zr] and [Zn] has concentration values that range from 7.99ppm - 21.10ppm, 1.20ppm - 4.00ppm and 26.20ppm-83.60ppm respectively with average mean values of 15.065ppm, 2.21ppm and 46.58ppm, the value of zinc [Zn] is considerably high in the study area with the highest value found at location 4 of the study area indicating some level of enrichment of this metals within the study area, also [Rb], [Y] and [Sr] show some considerable enrichments within the study area. from the study of the environmental parameter such as box plot and Geo-accumulation indexes the values of the selected trace elements are all less than 1, meaning that all the selected trace metals in Ibodi study area have values less than zero and are in the negative zone. In order to determine the pollution status of the study area, the values of the elements when compared to the Muller classes of geo-accumulation suggests that the study area is practically uncontaminated with the selected trace metals, the elements fall into the class 0 i.e. Practically unpolluted.

  13. Pratyush Bhaskar, Saroj Kumar Pyne and Arun Kumar Ray

    A study was conducted to observe the nutritive value of commonly used fish feed ingredients. High nutrient contents, easy availability and low cost were the major considerations in selecting the fish feed ingredients. During the present study the crude protein percentage of the poultry viscera, fishmeal, mustard oil cake, wheat bran, wheat flour and rice bran was estimated 60.67 %; 55.19 %; 34.86 %; 15.29 %; 15.19 %; 11.37 % respectively. The crude lipid percentage was recorded as 12.05 % in poultry viscera, 7.77 % in fishmeal, 11.77 % in mustard oil cake, 6.85 % in wheat bran, 3.35 % in wheat flour and 10.05 % in rice bran. The proximate composition of the experimented ingredients signified crude protein as the main factor, as the feed cost confirmed restrictions against the superior improvement of fish farming. Fishmeal is traditionally the major animal protein supplement in fish diets, but it is inadequate and expensive. Therefore different types of poultry wastes have been tested, and poultry viscera appeared as an alternate potential protein source, stimulating the poultry waste recycling.

  14. Aleš Rubina, Zdeněk Havlíček and Jiří Hirš

    The text is closely connected to another called, Airflow delineation modelling in a standard operating theatre“. Negative effects on reverse flow in surgeries on the basis of applied measurement in practice using a mathemathical model of airflow delineation analysis. These airflows cause contamination of the operating area by particles coming from its surroundings, known as the self-contamination effect. Except for hygiene level 4 evaluation there is no operating standard for the theatre and its microclimating, let alone mandatory Czech legislation. In view of hygiene level evaluation in surgeries it is possible to use some of the methods set up for its design and operation. It is considered in the above-mentioned text among various standards at the section 54 as well for airflow profiles that shall not cause contamination of the protected room.

  15. Nitin Arunrao Aswar

    Azoles are five-membered cyclic compounds containing one or more heteroatoms in the ring, at least one of which must be nitrogen. The rings contain the maximum number of non-cumulative double bonds consistent with the normal valencies of the ring atoms. The diversity of chemical structures of the Triazoles family and their useful biological activities made these compounds attractive targets in synthetic organic chemistry. This review explores the modern pathways of the organic synthesis of Triazoles.

  16. Dibyayan Datta and Jyotikona Chetia

    Education is necessary for each and every society. Education brings into focus the social aspect of human beings. Education signifies human's supreme position in society. By considering the importance of education, the government of India has implemented the Right to Education Act in the year 2009. The main motive behind this implementation was to provide free and compulsory education to each and every children residing in the country. After the implementation of this Act also, the tribal children in the country are not able to get access to education. The main objective of this paper is to explore the factors due to which the tribal children are lagging behind in terms of education. The tribal communities in India have been historically exploited and deprived of their basic rights which include the right to education as well. Literatures show that the tribal children are often discriminated and have been subjected to overt discrimination by the non-tribal upper caste/upper class groups. This paper mainly focuses on educational neglect of a tribal child in a rural village named Aghai in the Thane district of Maharashtra which is about 100kms away from the city of Mumbai. Aghai village is located in Shahpur Tehsil which consists of 36 tribal hamlets. The inhabitants of these hamlets belong to Konkani, Varli and Katkari tribes. These hamlets are mainly situated within the Tansa Wildlife Sanctuary. The remote geographical location, lack of water, limited road connectivity, inadequate electric supply, and unavailability of transport facilities from the nearest railway station to Aghai posses various challenges in the process of development of these tribal hamlets where people live in rampant poverty. This paper explores the situation of educational opportunities available to children in Aghai village. It further discusses the role of the state, educational policy and its implementation, linkages among educational, economic and social policies, cultural belief systems that are relevant to education, teacher’s characteristics and physical conditions of schools. It goes on to examine how superficial lines are drawn between the child and his/her family or community, thereby alienating them from their families and at the same time pushing them towards a mainstream which does not recognize their specificities of socio-cultural location.

  17. Dipak Bisai, Soumendu Chatterjee, Ansar Khan and Nilay Kanti Barman

    Large potential and scientific studies have been carried out up to date to detect and locate climate changes and trends in different parts of the world by examine and analyze various climate key factors such as; air temperature, rainfall records humidity concentration etc. Some of these studies deal with measurements of temperature time series for specific meteorological stations due to the importance of its long records of fluctuating temperature data, location and reliability. Pursuance on the recent studies, that have shown that the Earth’s surface air temperature has increased by 0.6˚C to 0.8˚C during the 20th century, along with the regional abrupt changes of lower atmospheric temperature. This environmental situation has drawn great interest to climate researchers leading to several studies on climate trend detection at various scales. This paper examines the long term modification of lower atmospheric temperature time series in Kolkata observatory. Time series of lower atmospheric temperature data for the period considering from 1941-2010 for Kolkata weather observation station was collected from the Indian Meteorological Department (IMD, Alipur). Fluctuations of trend and detection of abrupt change point of mean monthly temperature time series were examined. The nonparametric Mann-Kendall test was employed to detect trends and change points of the mean monthly temperature. Statistically approximate significant (p≤0.05) abrupt changes and trends have been detected. The plots of forward sequential values and backward sequential values intersect each others, than it has indicated change points in considered data set. According to this statistical test for Kolkata observatory, in 1986, 1973 and 1999, 1970, 1975, 1993, 1999, and 1958 are showing the significant potential change point in the temperature time series for March, April, May, June, July, November, December respectively.

  18. Mirza Muhammad Sohaib Bashir

    The study focuses on the corporate cash holdings and its determinants using panel data analysis study on non financial firms selected form Karachi Stock Exchange. The sample of 50 non-financial firms were examines for the duration of ten years from 2003-13. Generalized Method of Moments (GMM) was applied on data; which was collected from annual reports of the firms. The results of the study show that firms; due to having high adjustment cost are unable to adjust the targeted cash level; so the results show a negative ROA and positive relationship was found with firms growth opportunities, receivables accounts, financial distress and inventories. Similarly the results of the study show no significant relationship of cash holdings with cash flows. This study has filled the study gaps and will be beneficial for financial analysts.

  19. Bilal Bangash, M. and Hummayoun Naeem

    Entrepreneurship is the Creativity of business idea which than materializes into big ventures and then those ventures helps in supporting the nation. For this Entrepreneurial intent is the force which makes entrepreneurs Motivated practically. Entrepreneurs use to lead themselves through Big time lapses and troubles, only one thing keeps them going and fighting to all odds and that is how well they are trained. In this research the researcher has focused on the factors which affect the entrepreneurial intent of students. Business students are the key in entrepreneurial field and if they are trained well on the grounds from their university level so they are much mature to hold market after few years. Affectingfactors are extracted as Perceived structural support (PSS), Perceived Relational support (PRS), Perceived Educational support (PES), Attitude towards Entrepreneurship (AE) and Self Confidence (SC) as mediator variable affecting over the Entrepreneurial intent (EI) of students. These factors were one by one measured and proved by getting the results analyzed through Likert scale by tool of 400 samples of questionnaires distributed 100 each in 4 different universities.2 Private universities and 2 public universities. And then results were compared together to see where Private and Public institutes stand in terms of entrepreneurship. It is to be noted that this research is not stick to within Pakistan universities but in fact the reference are taken in a way in which Pakistan is compared to international standards and countries who have taken measures in terms of enhancing Educational support , Structural support, Relational support to make young students more motivated in specific field. More importantly countries like Turkey, China, Malaysia, USA, Europe, Peru and India in precisely. This research finds problem, give comparative analysis and gives out solution of how to deal it and what measures should be taken in Pakistan. The best solution recommended by researcher in this paper is that the Business students should be trained and motivated with attitude of being Entrepreneurs rather than to do a job, and the solution suggested was that all Education policy makers and universities should sit together and make a ruling of not allotting degrees to business students unless they don’t show up establishing small or big but their own venture or business.

  20. John Oluoch, Carolyne Adhiambo Kokeyo and Teresa Akinyi Okoth

    Information and Communication Technology for urban development is based on the premise that technologies have the potential to fulfil human desire for progress thus, improved livelihoods. The implication is that people appropriate technology for self fulfilment. The exploit of technology is certainly transforming the world. However, there is a problem in understanding ICT for development within the confines of technology alone without assessing how it impacts on different gender. It is easy to lose sight when we merely change the world without really understanding it. This is because technology is embedded in a social context. Hence, the concern that, in making use of factors of production such as technology, the digital divide between technology poor and technology rich is proliferating. This probably explains the current digital divide debate and its profusion in communication studies. However, little is known about digital gender inequalities that are perpetuated by ICTD in developing countries. Hence, this paper hopes to fill this gap by highlighting the benefits accrued to accessing and using ICT by the urban populace in Migori town while addressing the impact it may have on different gender. Additionally, it is the argument in this paper that gender responsive ICT can be a panacea for narrowing the digital divide between the technology haves and have not by addressing concerns of different gender with regard to access and use of ICT.

  21. Muhammad Usman Javed and Naeem Ullah

    The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between price volatility and the dividend policy of manufacturing firms listed in Karachi Stock Exchange (KSE). For this reason are sample of 53 manufacturing firms are taken in our sample data. Data is obtained for 6 years from 2006-2011. Data cross sectional in nature. The regression model are used to see the relationship between the dependent variable is price volatility and its relates with independent variables such as dividend yield, net income, dividend payout ratio, Tobin’s Q, return on equity, size and debit equity. The result shows that dividend yield (Dy), size shown a considerably positive impact on price volt (P.volt). However dividend payout ratio (dpr), Tobin’s Q (tq) and net income (Ni) have a significantly negative impact on price volatility (P.volt) shows in our study.

  22. Dr. Uma Maheswara Rao D. and Dr. Sridhar, G.

    It is evident that through Apparel making & Embroidery training program there is about 142.5% gain in knowledge among the Trainees. It is evident that from the study on Apparel making and Embroidery Training given by BCT-KVK every trainee has become an earner of supplementary income. The beneficiaries got hands on experience during the training program and started Individual units in their respective villages and also got employment in the nearby apparel companies. The KVK is offering necessary technical support during the follow up visits. There is good demand for Apparels. The Apparel making & Embroidery has given a boost to livelihoods of rural women and giving supplementary income and additional employment especially to house wives.

  23. Akpan, P. U., Yeung, H., Jones, S., Njoku, H. and 1Mgbemene, C. A.

    Air vessels are used to mitigate both up and down surge events in pipeline systems. When the air vessel swings into action in the event of a pressure surge, the compressed air pressure changes accordingly to suppress the adverse pressure. The rate at which the pressure changes in the air cushion occur is very important in determining the effectiveness of air vessels as surge control devices. This rate is dependent partly on the initial air volume contained in the vessel (hence its size) and the thermodynamic process that the air undergoes. Consequently, the dynamic behavior of the entrapped air in these vessels forms an integral part of the overall scheme and needs to be well understood for a proper transient analysis and sizing of air vessels. The Polytrophic model and the Rational Heat Transfer (RHT) model which happen to be the only two existing models for describing the dynamic behavior of entrapped air in air vessels, have been covered in this review. The limitations of these models have been mentioned and the need for an improved model has been highlighted.

  24. Amit Jadhav, Dnyanesh Gaikwad and Gayatri Bhosure

    Today technology has very much grown in last few years it has been in every aspect of medicine there is a huge development in medical imaging equipment as there are many equipment manufacturers, so a standard for storage and exchange of medical images needed to developed DICOM (Digital Imaging And Communication In Medicine) was created making it more easy and flexible in storage and exchange. DICOM image consist of two parts one is DICOM data and another is Image file we are implementing a security DICOM toolkit which will be able to handle, encrypt and Steganograph the purpose of this tool kit will be providing security for DICOM images and also reducing its size. The main benefit of this DICOM toolkit for avoiding false insurance claim avoid hackers to get the important information and secure exchange over a network. The idea of this paper is to separate the patient information from DICOM file and applying already existing encryption algorithm the encoded data is Steganograph to JPEG file format for secure transfer of image and data over network again the encoded data can be decoded performing reverse for it.

  25. Krishnamoorthy, S. and Bhuvaneswari, G.

    Concept of secondary k-unitary(s-k unitary) equivalent matrices is introduced. Some equivalent conditions on secondary k-normal matrices(s-k normal) are given.

  26. Chettibi, M., Boutrid, A. and Abramov, A. A.

    As a result of theoretical and experimental investigations it has been shown, that for preventing sphalerite activation by copper and lead ions, it is required to create practically the same concentration value of sulphur ions, which abruptly increases by raising the pH value of pulp liquid phase. Physico-chemical model derived can be used as the criteria for functional units of automation systems to control and regulate sulphuric sodium expenses. The depression selectivity action of zinc sulphate on sphalerite depends on the solubility and the maximal stability of hydroxide zinc dregs in pulp and on sphalerite surface. According to those conditions, consequently, a hydrophobic interaction is carried out between dregs and mineral oxidation product where the potential value of both products is near zero, and the crystalline corresponding characteristics of zinc salts and minerals.

  27. Susithra, N., Selvisabhanayakam, Valantinasangamithirai, A., Ganeshprabhu, P., Mathivanan, V. and Shoba, V.

    The silkworm, Bombyxmori being a monophagous insect, derives all the nutrients required for its growth from the mulberry leaves. The quality of silk produced by the silkworm depends on the quality and yield of mulberry leaf as well as environmental conditions. The larval and pupal parameters of silkworm Bombyxmori fed with vegetable dyes treated MR2 mulberry leaves, the following works have been considered. The vegetable dye was treated on fresh mulberry leaves (Morus alba L.) were sprayed by each concentration and were fed to silkworm from 3rd , 4th and ,5th instar for four feeding were recommended. Then, group T2,T3,T4,T5and control T1 sprayed mulberry leaves with vegetable dye and distilled water, respectively. Silkworm larvae fed on Morusalba (L.) (MR2) leaves sprayed with 1 gram indigo was significantly increased the larvae and cocoon length, width and weight, cocoon shell weight, pupal weight, shell ratio and silk filament length as compared to those fed on control (group T1) MR2 mulberry leaves and other groups (T3,T4 and T5). It has been observed from the present study that 1 gram indigo treated (group T2) leaves fed by silkworms have enhanced the larval and pupal growth and quantity of silk production than control.

  28. Sakthi, K. and Muthuchelian, K.

    Energy is essential for every aspect of our daily life in the Universe and its consumption pattern mostly depends upon population and economy of a nation. The current world energy consumption primarily depends on the fossil fuel resources. The utilization of these conventional fuels is rapid and therefore it is necessary to investigate the existing energy usage, consumption pattern and demand, especially in urban areas of developing countries for efficient utilization of energy. Hence, the present study has focused on the above said aspect in Madurai and Salem, the second and fifth largest and most densely populated cities, respectively in Tamil Nadu, India. We have concentrated mainly on energy consumers of social sectors in these two cities. We have evaluated the energy consumption in the social sector through questioner survey and the energy demand is calculated. The variations in energy utilization are assessed by using cluster sampling method and the results are discussed. Since the energy demand and environmental deterioration are in rising trend, it is necessary to execute the energy conservation measures and utilize the renewable energy sources to overcome the energy demand in the Madurai and Salem cities.

  29. Cletus Chike Agu, Anthony Orji and God’stime Eigbiremolen

    A critical review of literature reveals that the debate on financial liberalization thesis still remains largely unresolved. Thus, using a quarterly time series data, this study examines the nature of causality among financial liberalization, real interest rate and savings mobilization as well as how they interact with one another in Nigeria. Granger causality test was employed in determining the nature of causality between financial liberalization and real interest rate on one hand and real interest rate and savings mobilization on the other hand. Impulse response function of the VAR system was used to ascertain how financial liberalization, real interest rate and savings mobilization interact with one another. The granger causality test shows an absence of causality between financial liberalization and real interest rate, a scenario that was replicated between real interest rate and savings mobilization. The results of the impulse response function reveal a positive interaction between financial liberalization and real interest rate as well as a positive or direct interaction between financial liberalization and savings mobilization. We therefore recommend that the monetary authorities in Nigeria should be consistent in evolving and maintaining policies that will enhance the full maximization of the benefits of liberalization.

  30. Dr. Atul Bansal

    The Indian economy looked to be relatively insulated from the global financial crisis that started in August 2007 when the sub-prime mortgage crisis first surfaced in the United States (US). In fact, the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) was raising interest rates until August 2008 with the explicit objective of cooling the economy and bringing down the gross domestic product (GDP) growth rate, which visibly had moved above the rate of potential output growth and was contributing to the buildup of inflationary pressures in the economy. This paper attempts an analysis of the origin and causes of global financial crisis and the impact of the crisis on the Indian economy.

  31. Dr. Atul Bansal

    The Indian economy looked to be relatively insulated from the global financial crisis that started in August 2007 when the sub-prime mortgage crisis first surfaced in the United States (US). In fact, the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) was raising interest rates until August 2008 with the explicit objective of cooling the economy and bringing down the gross domestic product (GDP) growth rate, which visibly had moved above the rate of potential output growth and was contributing to the buildup of inflationary pressures in the economy. This paper attempts an analysis of the origin and causes of global financial crisis and the impact of the crisis on the Indian economy.

  32. Rashmi Ranjan Panigrahi and Debabrata Hira

    The Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs) constitute an important segment of the Indian economy in terms of their contribution to country’s industrial production, exports, employment and creation of entrepreneurship base. The primary responsibility for promotion and development of MSMEs lies with State Government. However, the Government of India has always taken active interest in supplementing the efforts of the State Governments. The future of MSMEs is of major policy concern given their strategic importance in any discussion of reshaping the industrial sector. This is more so in case of India, which has one of the longest histories of government support to the sector since independence compared to most developing countries. The small-scale industries sector plays a vital role in the growth of the country. It contributes almost 40% of the gross industrial value added in the Indian economy.

  33. Dr. Sridevi, S., Dr. Sudhakar, G., Dr. Mahankali.T, Ms.Rooth vasantha.M.

    This paper attempts to present the dermatoglyphic traits in Kalinga, an endogamous caste population from the north coastal Andhra Pradesh. So far, several anthropogenetic studies have been carried out on several tribal and non-tribal communities in the state of Andhra Pradesh. However, the present study population ‘Kalinga’ has not been touched so far. Hence, the observations made in this paper will add to the existing information on caste population of Andhra Pradesh. Palmar patterns, palmar main line formula, C-line polymorphism, atd angle are the main traits studied among males and females belonging to kalinga community. The observations (dermatoglyphic traits) were compared with data available on other caste populations of the state.

  34. Khanday, S. A. and Jamsheed Bhat

    The colonial critique of Dogra state’s control over rural landscape of Kashmir and ‘rural deprivation’ executed through a wide variety of modes, prepared the ground for colonial intervention especially in agrarian domain. The colonial intervention in the capacity of Wingate and Lawrence’s agrarian reforms could not save the system from its disease. The reforms didnot altogether purify the evils in the agriculture; only the surface level changes were ensured. The Kashmiri peasant economy during the 2nd half of the 19th century provides us with a classic illustration of the elite in a backward society holding back the society’s progress lest the change undermines its position. The present work is an endeavour to study the peasant economy of Kashmir during the period of high colonial intervention. It is difficult, if not impossible to study the different aspects of peasant economy of Jammu & Kashmir state as a single entity, owing to its physical,geo-climatic, social and economic distinctions, so this study had tried capture the aspect of “Land classification and Agricultural Technology of given period. The study covers time period between 1885-1925 A.D. as this period has been labelled as Dawn of Modernism.

  35. Dr. Zerayehu Sime Eshete

    This study examines the response of monetary authority to macroeconomic shocks by employing a VECM Cointegration VAR model that considers domestic credit as the most appropriate indicator of monetary policy performance. The main findings of the study are as follows: Both net foreign asset and GDP are statistically significant and positively influence domestic credit in the long run dynamics model. It is only consumer price index that has a positive impact in the short run dynamics. All other explanatory variables negatively influence domestic credit in the short-run dynamics model. The effect of monetization of fiscal deficit on monetary policy depends on the endogeneity and exogeneity of fiscal deficits in the long run dynamics model. Moreover, the speed of adjustment or feedback effect towards long run equilibrium takes many years to make a full adjustment when there is a shock to the system. However, the speed of adjustment is inconsistent comparing with the short run dynamic analysis in this regard. The sterilization coefficient reveals incomplete sterilization activities while the offset coefficient tells us a high degree of monetary control with low degree of capital mobility. Therefore, the study recommends that the monetary authority should exercise its full discretionary power and focuses on financial sector development, secondary market and economic monetization in order to timely respond to macroeconomic shocks through market-based policy instruments.

  36. Kaptingei Solomon Too

    In spite of growing linguistic diversity in English language classrooms, many teachers are not adequately prepared to work in such language classrooms. The main challenge is on whether or not the teachers’ maxims actually reflect on English language learners needs and consider the classroom implications and management. The aim of this paper is to discuss the nature of teachers’ maxims in the teaching of learners with diverse linguistic abilities as well as how teachers identify these types of learners. The paper is based on a study conducted in Uasin Gishu County, focusing specifically on schools in Wareng District. The study adopted the qualitative research approach based on interpretivism research paradigm with the ontological belief that the world is dynamic and is constructed by people in their interactions with each other and a wider social system. The author used both simple random sampling and stratified sampling procedures to identify the schools and teachers who would participate in the study. Slovin’s formula was used to determine appropriate samples for the study yielding a sample of 40 schools and 106 teachers. The data was collected using questionnaires, personal interviews in obtaining, reinforcing and cross-checking obtained data. Both qualitative and quantitative methods were employed in analyzing the data obtained. The study findings established that the maxim of involvement, maxim of conformity, maxim of appropriate level, maxim of efficiency and maxim of accuracy were always, if not occasionally, utilised by teachers in Uasin Gishu County while teaching English language. Moreover, majority of the teachers always used oral quizzes and learners’ participation in class in identifying learners’ linguistic needs. In addition to that, teachers in the County occasionally used dictations, debates, listening comprehensions, composition writing and written tests scores to identify the learners with linguistic needs in their classes.

  37. Aditi Acharya and Dr. Gupta, O. P.

    Reference groups play a determinative role in shaping general consumer behaviour. Peers exercise a strong impact on purchase decisions of the youth by providing invaluable information and feedback regarding different products and brands. The study aimed to identify the drivers of and barriers to brand switching among college students in India, and check for the influence of peer pressure on brand switching in the context of four product categories – mobile network, ice cream, deodorant and movie theatre. The authors conducted a survey of 70 college students to find out the prevalence of brand switching and investigate the drivers behind it, especially those related to peer group behaviour. There was a positive relationship between peers using a brand or favouring a brand and the consumer switching to that brand. The survey responses also revealed that sharing of brand opinions was correlated with brand switching, thereby reinforcing the strength of peer pressure.

  38. Gelson Tembo, Priscilla Hamukwala, Bernadette Chimai and Elizabeth Chishimba

    This study uses data from a census of sorghum and/or millet growing households in two agricultural blocks of Luanshya Distict to compare socio-economic characteristics, perceptions and practices among adopters and non-adopters of improved cereal crop varieties. The results suggest that adopters of improved varieties of cereal crops are generally better off, more market oriented, and more likely to purchase their inputs. Therefore, interventions aimed at increasing use of improved technologies need to be cognizant of these inherent variations in farmer characteristics and behaviour as the responsiveness is also likely to vary.

  39. Afsana habibiazar and Mostafa Sheikhzadeh

    Main purpose of this research is Analyzing effectiveness of science curriculum with teaching- based practices and research- based practices in terms of essential knowledge and skills in elementary period. This research is done with semi- experimental method with a sample containing 50 girl students in elementary third grade in Urmia City that are selected randomly and with multilevel- cluster sampling with the hypothesis of science curriculum with teaching- based practices and research- based practices. For data collecting a post- test was used with validity accepted by experts and 68% reliability and an activity observing check list was used with a validity accepted by experts and 98%reliability. In this research according to comparison of two teaching- based and research- based education methods U Mann- Whitney test was used. Research findings indicated that there are significant differences in knowledge and skills level between students who are educated with teaching- based practices and those that are educated with research- based practices and research hypothesis were accepted in 95% confidence level. As a result, science curriculum in elementary stage is more effective with research- based practices than teaching- based practices.

  40. Dr. Dhanashree Deshpande, Dr. Padmanabh Inamdar, Dr. Sujata Baveja, Dr. Shripad Taklikar and Dr. Atul Rukadikar

    Introduction: Nosocomial infections, even in this modern era of antibiotics, continue to remain an important and formidable consequence of hospitalization. Vascular access by use of intravenous (i.v.) catheters is an essential element of modern medical care, particularly in Medical intensive care units (MICU). Vascular catheters interrupt the protective barrier of the skin and enable microorganisms potentially to gain direct access to the bloodstream causing catheter related infections. Material and Methods: 200 consecutive adult patients on central venous catheter admitted in MICU at our institute constituted the study population and among them those who developed systemic signs and symptoms of infections after 48 hours of admission were included in the study. Risk factors of patients and barrier precautions used by healthcare workers were observed during study period. Relevant samples were collected from patients for processing. Results: Among study population ,47(23.5%) patients developed central line related local infection and 7 (3.5%) patients developed central line associated blood stream infection(CLABSI).Incidence of CLABSI was 4.55% per 1000 central line days. Barrier precautions played an important role. Alcoholic hand rub (p=0.049), soap handwash (p=0.021), mask (p=0.001) usage prevented the development of central line related infection. Risk factors observed in local catheter infections due to central line catheter were Diabetes mellitus (p=0.002), Ventilator (p=0.001), Immunocompromised condition (p=0.001) and end stage renal disease (p=0.031). Outcome was not significantly associated with local catheter infections (p >0.05) .Patients who developed systemic infection (n=7), all expired (100%) showing the increased risk of mortality in these patients. Conclusion: Central venous catheterizations have an increased risk of developing local and systemic catheter associated infections particularly with risk factors. Hand hygiene constitutes the mainstay of preventing infection.

  41. Uwalaka Jude, N.

    We are in the age of information explosion in quantity and quality, as communication has been made easier, faster and accessible to almost any place in any part of our planet, which enables cultures, peoples, experts, specialists, ideologies, interact and confront each other. All these are possible thanks to the development in the quality and variety of the modern media and communication technologies. These quick and easier accessibility to information and exchange of ideas through these modern media and communication systems, have proved to be a great source of help to humanity in many dimensions and directions, for example, in the aspect of knowledge generation, transmission, and production, greater interaction and dialogue between peoples and nations and bringing the world and peoples closer to each other. It could also have its negative dimension, for example as a big source of manipulation, exploitation, and misinformation. Hence one of the challenges of our time is to find out how best to use and employ these media technologies for the advantage of man, especially for truth dissemination and to promote harmonious and peaceful mutual co-existence among peoples, nations and cultures. This is the task which this article tries to accomplish.

  42. Asaad A. Kamil

    Nanocrystalline CdS thin films have been prepared on glass substrates by chemical bath deposition (CBD) and Chemical Spray Pyrloysis (CSP) methods. The optical properties of the films were studied by measuring their optical transmittance and reflectance spectra in the wavelength range of 300-900 nm. The optical absorption studies reveal that the electronic transition is direct with band gap value of 2.42 (eV) and 2.55 (eV) for the films deposited by (CBD) and (CSP) respectively. Other important optical constants, such as extinction coefficient and refractive index were calculated and analyzed. The morphology of the prepared films was investigated by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) for different regions of the samples using sampling areas of 5 μm x 5 μm and 10 μm x 10 μm. The AFM analysis showed that the samples present well defined nanosized grains in the range of 100-286 nm. It is found that the thin film deposited by (CBD) method is more homogeneous than the film deposited by (CSP) method.

  43. Saeed Q Y Al-Khalidi and Prakash Kuppuswamy

    Tourism has become the world's largest industry, composing of numerous enterprises such as airlines, hoteliers, car rentals, leisure suppliers, and travel agencies. With increasing complexity of tourism business models and tasks, there is a clear need of the next generation e-Tourism infrastructure to support flexible automation, integration, computation, storage, and collaboration.The impact of ICT on tourism industries has been widely recognized as one ofthe major changes in the last decade: new ways of communicating with prospective tourists and of providing services and products became part of these industries’ key role. Understanding how travellers behave is of critical importance to travel suppliers and tourism authorities for formulating appropriate marketing strategies so as to fully exploit the potential of this channel. Our proposed architecture will increase the accessibility of e-tourism facility by the customer with the help of ICT development structure.

  44. Acharya, S. K., Biswas, A., Gupta, M. and Saha, A.

    Participatory Rural Livelihood Analysis paves a discernible way of socio-economic analysis for development planning. Purulia, by becoming a typical economically backward district and a complex-diverse-risk prone farm economy in India, is reeling under abject poverty and geospatial migration of farm labourers. This sector is now suffering from declining growth, uncertain market, low capital formation, and vagaries of nature. The sustainable livelihood has become the universal goals since millennium declaration by UNO. The present paper examines the achievability of sustainable livelihood in terms of selected variables prevalent in and integral to a farming system. The sustainable livelihood has become a complex disposition of some intrinsic factors viz. wage, calorie intake value, food intake value, level of drudgery, seasonality of wage, gender dimension of wages, security perception of livelihood, and its spatial distribution along the slope of economic affiliation. It has been found that some variables like size of holding, cropping intensity; irrigation status, migration, motivation, and education are being relegated to the issues of livelihood generation. The predominant factors like income, crop yield, technology adoption have some times been subsided by factors like wage pattern, family size, cropping intensity, intercropping space etc to live behind a basket of alternative thinking that only economic interventions or package of practices can’t assure sustainable livelihood. We have to go beyond by refocusing our retention on some set of soft variables that are interactively characterizing the prospect of livelihood generation.

  45. Hema Prabha, P., Arulmozhi, A. and Sree Lakshmi, S.,

    The packaging scenario and requirements for processed foods world over is changing fast. This is not only with regard to materials, forms, systems and machinery, but also legal aspects closely linked with environmental equilibrium and maintenance as well. Among these developments, the “Packaging of Future” is expected to do more than just contain and protect. One of the novel technologies is bio-active packaging where the package itself smartly imparts the functional properties in foods. This literature throws light on some of the basis of bio-active packaging and techniques involved in the manufacturing of packaging films for foods.

  46. Ojimelukwe, P. C., Nwofia, G. E. and Nnadi, O.

    Vegetable cowpeas are integral components of the Nigerian traditional diet. They are relished for their delicious flavor and complement carbohydrate staples, supplying proteins, vitamins and minerals. The aim of this research work was to provide scientific information the nutrient composition (pods containing seeds and seeds alone) and physical characteristics of two local vegetable cowpea varieties Akidi-ani (AKA) and Akidi-enu (AKE) consumed in Nigeria, in comparison with nine exotic varieties. Physical methods were used to measure the pod dimensions. Nutrient composition of whole pods and seeds were determined using standard AOAC methods (AOAC, 1990).The proximate composition, mineral and phytochemical contents were determined. The pod length of AKE ranked 3rd when compared with other vegetable cowpea varieties, while its pod width ranked 2nd. The two local cowpea varieties contained significant amounts of crude protein (28% and 32.5% for AKE and AKA respectively), crude fiber 3.4% and 4.4% for AKA and AKE respectively), and ash. AKA also contained relatively high amounts of iron (1.8mg/g) and phosphorus (1.1mg/g) and was found to be richer in alkaloids (1.6mg/g) and tannins (1.5mg/g) than other vegetable cowpeas. The findings provide scientific data required for genetic modification of local cowpeas. It also highlights the need to diversify their utilization.

  47. Suraj Maharaj and Prabhakaran, J.

    Barnyard grass (Echinochloa crus-galli L.) and Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon L.) are the most prominent weeds in rice field which significantly affected the growth and development of rice from germination stage to yielding stage. The allelopathic effect of dry leaves (mature and senesced) aqueous extracts (5%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 25%) of Calotropis procera Decne., was investigated to evaluate the herbicidal efficacy on the germination and growth of Barnyard grass (Echinochloa crus-galli L.) and Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon L.). The results showed that the germination delayed when concentration increased from lower to the higher concentrations. The most affected seeds of the tested plants were Echinochloa crus-galli, i.e. up to 89%. Generally, the radical length was more sensitive than plumule length against aqueous concentration. C.dactylon showed minimum retardation effect when treated with C. procera aqueous extract. Aqueous mature leaves extract of C. procera showed maximum inhibited (upto 89%) at the higher concentrations (25%). C.dactylon shown stimulatory effect on its all physio-biochemical parameters, when treated with low concentrated (up to 5%) aqueous concentration of C.procera. The phytotoxic effect of matured leaves was more pronounced than senesced leaves.

  48. Chandra Prakash and Vijay Kumar

    Aluminum (Al) is amongst the most abundant elements of the planet and exposure to this metal can cause oxidative stress and lead to various signs of toxicity in plants resulting in decreased crop productivity. In this experiment we have studied the effect of Al treatment (100 µmol/L and 250 µmol/L) on induction of oxidative stress and changes in antioxidant gene expression in sorghum bicolor (cv AN 2000). Al treatment increased superoxide and H2O2 content and protein oxidation in both roots and leaves of sorghum. The lipid peroxide levels increased only in roots. The catalase (CAT) activity decreased both in roots and leaves while ascorbic peroxidase (APX) activity decreased in roots and increased in leaves. The activities of guaicol peroxidase (GPX) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) increased in dose dependent manner both in roots and leaves. The antioxidant gene expression analysis showed up regulation of SOD and GPX genes in roots and leaves while CAT showed decrease in expression. APX was down regulated in roots and up regulated in leaves. Our results indicate that Al toxicity generated oxidative damage in roots as indicated by increased level of lipid peroxidation but stimulated antioxidant enzymes conferred protection from oxidative damage in leaves.

  49. Laila Amar, Bouchra Karraouan, Hassan Nader, Mustapha Lkhider, Lahcen Wakrim, and Naima Elmdaghri

    Viral and bacterial contamination of recreational coastal water is a rising public health concern. The aim of our study was to conduct a preliminary evaluation of the presence of indicator virus and pathogens in seawater, sand and mussels at recreational marine beaches in Southern Morocco. Forty six samples (mussels, sand and seawater) were collected from Dar Bouazza region and tested for the presence of enteric viruses by (qPCR) and viral viability by integrated cell culture-PCR (ICC-PCR) assay. The samples were collected from three beaches points and seawater was filtered by HA membrane for viruses concentration. Our results showed that 33% of seawater samples, 50% of mussels samples and 18% of sand samples were tested positive for enteroviruses. Human adenovirus was the most prevalent virus detected (33%) in seawater samples, followed by polyomavirus JC (11%). Mussels were positive for norovirus GI, Norovirus GII and rotavirus A in (36%), (11%) and (33%) of samples respectively. HAV was not present in any samples. The fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) levels exceeded regulatory thresholds in 26% of seawater samples for Escherichia coli and Enterococcus and 9% of them showed the presence of viruses. No correlation was demonstrated between bacterial contamination and virus presence. However, a possible correlation was showed between salinity and virus presence. This data reflected the viral contamination of recreational waters and suggested that human adenoviruses should be an index for human fecal pollution in conjunction with FIB. The presence of enteric viruses in marine samples may constitute a potential public health risk for shellfish consumers and swimmers. Therefore viral parameters should be adapted for monitoring the beach water quality and shellfish safety.

  50. Tolga Kurt, Sedat Özcan, Ali Ümit Yener and Turgut Özkan

    Objective: This study aimed to reveal that how often smoker patients with coronary bypass surgery are exposed to cerebrovascular events compared to nonsmokers. Methods: In our clinic between December 2011 and September 2013, 100 patients with coronary artery bypass surgery were included in the study. First, patients were divided into two groups: Group 1 (n = 20) smokers and Group 2 (n = 80) non-smokers. Postoperative CVA risk assessments of these patients were done according to the American Heart Association (ACC / AHA) criteria. Results: The patients evaluated were 73 male and 27 female. In the smokers group 1 person, in the non-smokers group 2 people had CVA. There were no significant differences between the two groups (p> 0.05). There were no significant differences for intraoperative cardiopulmonary bypass and aortic cross-clamp time between the two groups (p> 0.05). Carotid in tima and media thickness (CIMT) in the group of smokers show a significant difference compared to non smokers (p <0.05). Conclusion: When postoperative evaluation between the two groups, in non-smokers group in two patients CVA has been diagnosed (2.5%); in smokers group in one patient CVA has been diagnosed (5%). Although the incidence of CVA was not significantly different, CIMT showed a significant difference in smoking patients compared to non-smokers(p <0.05).

  51. Manal Hamed Mahmoud

    Background: Practical learning is one of the important concerns that helps the awareness of nursing students’ practice in a clinical setting and it is important to link theoretical knowledge to practical skills. Nursing educators and clinical preceptors must display the knowledge and skills required to bridge the theory practice-gap. Aim: This study aimed to explore the perception of nursing students related to their practical learning and theory-practice gap. Methods: Research design: An explorative-descriptive design used in this study to explore and describe the perception of nursing students to their practical learning and theory-practice gap. A convenient sample of 61 nursing students engaged in this study. Study tool: The utilized questionnaire consisted of five sections: included the socio-demographic data; responses on practical learning; responses on learning strategies preferences; responses on assessment and responses on theory-practice gap. Results: Majority of nursing students (88.5%) indicated that they had inadequate supervision from clinical preceptors, insufficiently prepared simulation laboratory (100%) and only 50.8% of them had opportunity to practice skills during simulation sessions. Majority of respondents (67.2%) showed that summative assessment conducted at the end of the course, but they not prepared for examination (57.4%).The gap between the theoretical knowledge and the actual clinical procedures in the wards perceived by respondents (54.1%). Conclusion and Recommendations: Nursing education must reexamine current methods to practical learning and seek methods to better prepare future nurses. Conducting continuing education for the faculty in principles of teaching and learning to enhance their teaching behavior and interpersonal skills.

  52. Supriya, K. and Chaudhary, J.

    Introduction: Macroscopic-morphometrical study of human kidney provides various data like dimensions, length variation on coronal section, number of; pyramid, minor calyx, major calyx and renal sinus with clinical significance. Materials and methods: Total 101 kidneys were dissected and macroscopically studied. Various data like weight, length, breadth, thickness, length of cortex and medulla, number of; pyramid, minor calyx, major calyx and renal sinus were observed and analyzed. Results: In our study, range of weight of right and left kidney was 75-185 gm and 45-165 gm with their average weight 117.6+24.71 gm and 131+27.63 gm respectively. Range of length of right and left kidney was 6.8-12.3 cm and 6.9-11.9 cm with their average length 9.35+1.07 cm and 9.5+0.98 cm respectively. Range of breadth of right and left kidney was 4.4-6.3cm and 4.4-6.5 cm with their average breadth 5.3+0.91 cm and 5.5+0.62 cm respectively. Range of thickness of right and left kidney was 2.9–5.6 cm and 2.5–4.9cm with their average thickness 3.57+0.65 cm and 3.68+0.62 cm respectively. Range of; cortex, medulla of; right and left kidney were 0.4–1.2 cm, 0.9-1.7cm and 0.4-1.2, 1.2 -2.8 cm with their average length of; cortex and medulla 0.77+0.21, cm, 1.82+0.39cm and 0.78+0.25 cm, 1.79+0.38 cm respectively. Range of number of; pyramid, minor calyx, major calyx and renal sinus of right and left kidney were 6-18, 2-10, 1-5, 12-10 and 6-13, 3-9, 1-5, 2-8 with their average number of; pyramid, minor calyx, major calyx, and renal sinus were 10+3,6+2,3+1,6+2 and 9+2,6+2,3+1,5+2 respectively. 6% and 8% in both lobulated kidneys (right and left), 2% in polycystic right kidney, and 92% in both normal kidneys. 66%, 70% and 34%, 30% were found normal and variation in hilar structures in both kidneys (right and left) respectively. Conclusion: This study of kidney plays important role in improving the knowledge for pathologist, surgeons and radiologist.

  53. Rahila Iftikhar, and Razaz Tawfiq

    Background Medical and dental interns are at risk of acquiring (or transmitting) vaccine-preventable diseases, such as measles, mumps, rubella, varicella and hepatitis B. We aimed to determine the seroprevalence of mumps, measles, rubella, varicella, and hepatitis B among medical and dental interns. Methods A cross-sectional survey was performed on medical and dental students who applied for internship at King Abdulaziz University in 2013. The 2010 medical records of the students were reviewed and blood samples were collected and analyzed to determine the students’ immune status to measles, mumps, rubella, varicella, and hepatitis B. Students who did not have immunity were vaccinated and tested post-vaccination. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences. Results We included 170 students (131 medical and 39 dental) aged 22-25 years (mean ± SD, 23.9 ± 0.7 years). Most medical and dental interns were measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella seropositive and only a few interns lacked immunity to these infections. A total of 108 students (63.5%) had received all three doses of hepatitis B vaccine when they presented for screening in 2013; thirty-five students (21.6%) had received two doses, while 19 (11.7%) had received only one dose. The hepatitis B vaccination history of eight students was undocumented. Overall, we documented 29 cases (17.1%) of non-response to HBV vaccine. Revaccination with hepatitis B vaccine elicited response in 18 (62.1%) of the non-responders. Conclusions A large proportion of students who are not immune to HBV are allowed to start clinical training. Thus, medical and dental students should be screened for vaccine-preventable diseases as early as in their preclinical years.

  54. Dr. Dhanesh Kumar K. U. and Biju Mattappally

    Background and Introduction: Core muscle strengthening and behavioural therapy are the two main treatment strategies employed in the management of chronic non specific low back pain in nursing population. But there is very little evidence about the effect of a combined treatment protocol of core muscle strengthening and behavioural therapy in the management of chronic non specific low back pain. Objectives : To determine the effect of core muscle strengthening and behavioral therapy separately and in combination on pain, disability and fear avoidance beliefs in nurses with chronic non specific low back pain. Methods: According to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 45 nurses who were evaluated for chronic non specific low back pain were enrolled in the study. 15 nurses each were allocated to core muscle strengthening group, behavioral therapy group and the combined group. Outcome measures used were Visual analogue scale, Rolland Morris Disability Questionnaire and Fear Avoidance and Belief Questionnaire. Base line data was collected initially and then post treatment data was taken after two weeks. Results : Intra group comparison of all the outcome measures using paired sample statistics showed significant difference in the pre and post treatment evaluation (p<0.005). In overall inter group comparison using ANOVA significant differences for all three groups were evident (p<0.005). Multiple Scheffe test showed that the combined treatment group showed larger differences than others in most of the outcome measures. Conclusion : These findings suggests that combined treatment protocol induced greater improvement in pain, disability and fear avoidance beliefs than when core muscle strengthening and behavioral therapy was administered alone.

  55. Dr. Tandra Chadha, Dr. Syeda Nazia Kulsum, Dr. Shashikant Adlekha, and Dr. Prabhakar C. Mailapur

    Background: Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has emerged as an important nosocomial pathogen. Asymptomatic colonization among healthcare workers is the major source of MRSA in hospital environment. There is paucity of information on carriage of MRSA by healthcare workers in developing nations. Aim of this study was to determine nasal carriage rate of MRSA in healthcare workers and the antibiotic sensitivity of the isolates. Methods: 300 nasal swabs were collected from doctors and health care workers. All the isolates were identified by standard methods and antibiotic sensitivity was performed by Kirby Bauer disk diffusion method. Methicillin resistance was identified by combined oxacillin and cefoxitin disk diffusion method. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the isolates was determined by microbroth dilution method. Results were interpreted as per clinical laboratory standard institute (CLSI) guidelines. Results: Out of 300 healthcare workers, 32 (10.7%) turned out to be MRSA carriers. The prevalence in doctors was 5.7% and among paramedical personnel was 15.0%. Out of 32 MRSA, only 2 (6.3%) isolates were resistant to vancomycin. Conclusion: Screening of healthcare workers will better control the incidence of this dangerous pathogen and will provide some measures in control of nosocomial infections. The presence of methicillin resistance may cause problems in hospital infection control programs and may indicate emerging issues. Regular surveillance of hospital acquired infections, monitoring of antimicrobial susceptibility pattern and formulation of a definite antibiotic policy may be helpful.

  56. Dr. Shabir Dangroo, Dr. Sajad Hamid, Dr. Muhammad Salim Khan and Dr. Shahnawaz Hamid

    A community based cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out to assess the prevalence of hypertension with respect to demographic profile of kashmiri population. The study was taken from Oct. 2012 to Sept. 2013 in District Pulwama. The sampling method used was multistage, 10% villages from each block were taken for study using population proportion to size method (PPS). From each selected village 5% households were taken by systemic random method for the study. Minimum sample required was calculated. We have taken a sample size of 2100, out of which 1007 participants were males and 1093 participants were females. In each household, inmates of age 18 years and above were screened for hypertension. Those found fulfilling the inclusion criteria laid down for hypertension (JNC-VII 2003) were subjected to pretested questionnaire and two blood pressure readings were taken. The study population was Screened and two blood pressure readings 10 minutes apart after the subject was resting for at least 5 minutes in a sitting position, by mercury sphygmomanometer which was standardized; The first and the fifth Korotkoffs sounds were taken as indicative of the systolic and diastolic blood pressure respectively. The average of the two readings of systolic and diastolic blood pressure was used as the blood pressure of the participant. In results; The overall prevalence was 14.56%, 13.8% in males and 15.3% in females.4.84%, 8.5% and 6.8% females were in pre-hypertension, stage-I and stage-II hypertension respectively. Among males 4.76% in pre-hypertension, 6.5% in stage-I and 7.3% were with hypertension. The distribution of hypertension, among pre-hypertensives, 52.47% were females and 47.52% were males. Among hypertensive subjects, 54.47% were females and 45.42% were males. Widowed study subjects had higher tendency to have hypertension 32% in males and 30.89% in females. Hypertension was more observed in illiterates than educated population being 15.47% in illiterates and goes on decreasing as educational status increases. Lowest in postgraduates 7.14%.Hypertension was more in housewives 15.6% followed by farmers 14.1% and skilled workers 13%.

  57. Arun Kumar, I. U., Arun Udayaraj, K. and Jeethendra, J. M.

    Introduction: Castleman’s disease is a rare lymphoproliferative disorder of unknown etiology with clinical manifestations ranging from asymptomatic discrete lymphadenopathy to recurrent episodes of diffuse lymphadenopathy with severe systemic symptoms. Case report: We report a case of multicentric Castleman’s disease presenting as anasarca. The patient had predominant systemic involvement during the clinical course. Patient was started on chemotherapy(CHOP regimen). Patient succumbed to sepsis three months after diagnosis. This case has been reported for its rarity. Conclusion: Though Castleman’s disease is a relatively rare entity, its varied clinical manifestations especially multicentric Castleman’s disease may cause diagnostic confusion.

  58. Ghassan H. Jameel

    Ringworm or (dermatophytosis) is a fungal disease caused by Trichophyton verrucosum and T.mentagrophytes. It is transmitted by direct contact with infected animals or by indirect contact through fomites. Three different concentration of Calvatia craniformis mushroom ointment are prepared from mushroom powder were (0.25%,0.50% and 1%), then applied topically to lesion once daily. Sixty infected ewe, lamb in different age and sex were involved in our study and divided into two groups; the first is treatment group and, the second is the control group. The treatment group includes thirty patients which is divided into three subgroups, each subgroup include ten patients they were treated by one of the three concentrations. The control group included thirty patients was treated by 1% iodine ointment. The 1% mushroom ointment significantly reduce clearance time (P<0.05)in comparison with the control group, while other concentration produce non significant changes in clearance time, therefore this substance is effective in the treatment of ringworm with less time.

  59. Mohamed Mansor Manan, Salmiah Mohd Ali and Rose Aniza Rusli

    Studies concerning epilepsy in the context of Pharmaceutical Care in Malaysia are lacking. Thus, this study aims to determine the issues on hospitalised epileptic patients prescribed on anti-epileptic drugs (AED. Factors associated with uncontrolled seizure and hospitalisation and the drug related problems (DRP) encountered were described. Adult epileptic patients were screened and those fulfilling the inclusion criteria were recruited. These patients must be confirmed cases of epilepsy and on AED’s for at least two months. The results showed 56.9% of patients’ defaulted AED doses prior to the seizure attack. The remaining 43.1% of the patients were affected by emotional stress, fever, weather and alcohol. The DRPs identified were non-adherence towards medication (64.6%), dose inadequacy (51.9%, inappropriate drugs of choice with respect to specific indication (35%), underreporting of adverse effects (76.2%), underutilisation of Therapeutic Drug Monitoring services (41.5%) and inappropriateness of therapy of patients with liver diseases. Nevertheless, medication adherence was found to be the major factor for uncontrolled epilepsy (OR= 7.06, CI= 1.29-38.56, P = 0.019). Among the non-adherers, only 19% received medication counselling upon discharge (P = 0.043). In summary, pharmacists are needed to address the mentioned DRPs so as to optimize drug therapy in achieving the desired treatment goal.

  60. Mohamed Mansor Manan, Salmiah Mohd Ali and Mohd Dziehan Mustapa

    Introduction: This study is to explore the relationship between cognitive and emotional parameters of patients’ attitudes and beliefs and adherence toward prescribed medicines among Malay T2DM patients in a Primary Health Clinics. Method: This is a cross sectional survey conducted over a period of two months at the outpatient department in seven government primary health clinics in the district of Kuala Langat, Selangor, Malaysia. A non-probability convenience sampling method was employed and patient’s recruitment based on the set inclusion criteria. Consented patients need to complete the survey form. BMQ and MARS were used to measure patients’ beliefs and adherence towards their medications. Results and Discussion: 345 registered Malay T2DM patients were selected. Most were women and only three subjects are single. At least half had primary level of education (51.6%). 72% of the subjects were housewives and pensioners. The majority (47.8%) had a monthly household income of RM999.00 or less. The average medications prescribed/ patient was five and the mean total frequency/day is 7.28. >50% had poor HbA1c control. Those with upper secondary and college graduate education were concern as to why they need to take medications other than those for DM. MARS also showed 45% forget to take their prescribed medicine and 41% miss out the dose. BMQ findings showed Malay patients’ belief necessity toward prescribed medicine is similar to that reported westerners Relationship of belief and adherence showed statistically significant positive correlation between beliefs specific-necessity on oral hypoglycaemia agent (OHA) and adherence. Necessity-concern differential correlated higher adherence showed patients’ beliefs necessity of prescribed OHA outweighs concern or worried about the long term use, side effects and dependence of the OHA. Conclusion: Malaysian Malays attitudes and beliefs are not affected by race, gender, and socioeconomic status. However the patients’ are concern about long term use, side effects and dependence towards the prescribed medicines that can lead to poorer adherence. Finally by improving the patient’s beliefs on the necessity of prescribed OHA medicine will lead the stronger adherence.

  61. Dr. Samander Kaushik, Kiran Sharma, Vikrant Sharma, Divya Dhull, Dhruv Chaudhary and Sanjiv Nanda

    Herpes simplex viruses (HSV) are important human pathogens causing diseases in a variety of different human tissues and animal species. HSV-1 is being most often transmitted non-sexually and HSV-2 most usually transmitted sexually. Primary HSV infections are usually symptomatic but may be sub clinical. Worldwide 65% - 90% rate of HSV infection found in different part of world and HSV1 is more common than HSV2. Few studies from India documented for HSV 1 and HSV 2 infections in different population groups. In India HSV 1 and HSV 2 seroprevalence in adults are 63% and 16.6% respectively. Due to the high impact of these viruses on our health, there should be a rapid, sensitive, specific and cost effective method for the detection of these viruses. Presently Herpes viruses are diagnosis by virus isolation, rapid commercial kits, conventional and real time PCR. Virus isolation is time consuming, rapid kit have low sensitivity and specificity while real time PCR are costly hence convention PCR are comparatively good choice. Thus this study was conceptualized for HSV1 and HSV2 detection by conventional PCR from standard strains of HSV1 and HSV2 which can on the clinical samples. First we standardized two monoplex PCR in two separate PCR tubes for HSV1 and HSV2 then Single tube Multiplex PCR for HSV 1 and HSV 2 was standardized. The specificity of the primers was checked with other related virus such as human cytomegalovirus. Multiplex PCR assay was applied on panel of clinical samples. The study will serve as rapid, accurate, specific and sensitive diagnostic assay which is crucial for HSV1 and HSV2 to help in patient management and prevention of spread of disease.

  62. Kamalnath Reddy, K. R., Abhinav Jain, Nagendra. K., Devendra Payasi, Mohan Kumar Varma, Kalmeshwar Gouda Patil, Anantha, M. S., Shashidhar H. E., Vinay Shenoy

    Hybrid rice systems are based on three line Cytoplasmic Male Sterility (CMS) which has been an efficient tool in commercialization of hybrid rice technology. Therefore, identification of potential restorers in rice is the basic step in development of rice hybrids. In the present study, 70 drought tolerant lines were crossed with two cytoplasmic male sterility lines viz., IR58025A and IR79156A and the F1s were analyzed for pollen fertility (1% I-KI Solution) and spikelet fertility. Based on the fertility restoration in F1s, 23 genotypes were classified as restorers with IR58025A and 25 genotypes were classified as restorers in IR79156A. Highly significant correlations of 0.88 and 0.93 between pollen and spikelet fertility were obtained in hybrids involving CMS line IR 58025A and CMS IR 79156A respectively. KMR 3, IR 84891-B-112-CRA-15-1 and IR79906-B-192-2-2 produced F1s with highest pollen and spikelet fertility and are considered as the most promising restorers.

  63. Karthik, R., Padmavati, G. and Jayabarathi, R.

    The bloom forming mixotrophic dinoflagellate, Ceratium furca, has been linked with the coastal eutrophication in tropical and subtropical coastal regions. During November 2012, a bloom of C. furca was observed in Chouldari, Port Blair, South Andaman. Such events of dinoflagellate have not been previously reported in this area. The bloom was recorded during II phase of Monsoon (November 22nd – 26th) of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. During the bloom period, C. furca was counted as 22, 230 to 37, 132 cells.ml-l. Analysis of nutrients and environmental parameters also studied. The results revealed that the increase in the nutrient concentration have initiated the bloom. Changes in the nearby land use practices of the study area may have been the primary inducer of this bloom. Intense fertilization of the farms coupled with ineffective management strategies is hypothesized to have a direct link to the increase in nutrients found in Chouldari and may have been the trigger for the initialization of these blooms.

  64. Aziz-ur-Rahman, Pervez Akhter and Muhammad Mansha

    In this study, statistical techniques such as Multiple linear regression analysis is applied to water quality data set monitored during Pre and Post monsoon 1982 -2012 to investigate in the extent of pollution and seasonal variation in river Indus waters. The variables were pH, BOD (Biochemical Oxygen Demand), COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand, TSS (Total Suspended Solid), TDS (Total Dissolve Solid), alkalinity, Cl-, HCO3-, SO4-2, Ca+2, Mg+2, Na+ and K+. Multiple linear regression equations established between above parameters and dependent variable such as electrical conductivity, which caused to predict the value of one parameter, if value of other is known. The above study provides us a tool to find the value of physico-chemical parameters and extent of pollution theoretically and seasonal variation, which is time saving as well as cost effective. The result obtained provides a method to characterize river water quality using statistical multiple linear regression analysis.

  65. Benhammou, M., and Draoui, B.

    The geothermic low temperature can be used to produce the fresh air with the help of an adequate heat exchanger. This last one is often constructed from a pipe in PVC buried in soil and in which we make circulate the ambient hot air. Certainly, the air outlet temperature depends on the climatic conditions of the site and the geometric and dynamic parameters of the heat exchanger. In this work, we present a study led on an earth-to-air heat exchanger (EAHE) operated under the climatic conditions of Algeria Sahara. A dynamic modeling of the system has been presented in detail and the effect of pipe extremities has also been taken into account in this study. Results indicate that the air outlet temperature decreases with increasing of the length of buried pipe whereas it increases with increasing of the pipe section and the air velocity. However the daily mean efficiency increases when the pipe length increases but it decreases if the pipe section or the air speed increases. In addition, the effect of the pipe thickness is also studied in this work and it was found that the performances of the EAHE are weakly affected by this last parameter.

  66. Sagar Subhash Yeul

    Wastewater is mostly water by weight. Other materials make up only a small portion of wastewater, but can be present in large enough quantities to endanger public health and the environment. Because practically anything that can be flushed down a toilet, drain, or sewer can be found in wastewater, even household sewage contains many potential pollutants. The wastewater components that most wastewater facilities are designed to remove is suspended solids, biodegradable organics, and pathogenic organisms.

  67. Mahalakshmi, N. Umarani, P. R. and Samuelselvaraj, R.

    The annual rainfall data for a period of 63 years (1950-2012) of Tamil Nadu have been analyzed for climatologically pattern and trend. Climate change for a region can be analyzed only on a long–term average. Detecting climate change with seasonal variability is difficult, thus we have considered the annual rainfall to analyze any change in the climatic trend of Tamil Nadu and forecast the rainfall for the year 2013. The non parametric Mann-Kendall test is used for trend analysis. This resulted with h=0 and p-value = 0.4609 for an alpha value of 0.05. These values do not give us sufficient evidence to reject the null hypothesis (no trend) for the Tamil Nadu annual rainfall series. This result has led us to estimate the stationarity of the rainfall data. Dickey fuller unit root test was done to study the stationarity in the rainfall data. The result h=1 resulted in rejection the presence of stationatiry in the data series. Thus the rainfall data is a non-stationary series. With these preliminary statistical analysis attempt was made to predict the annual rainfall for the year 2013 for Tamil Nadu on a monthly basis. The Box-Jenkins time series seasonal ARIMA (Auto Regression Integrated Moving Average) approach was used for the forecast of annual rainfall on monthly scales. Past years data was used to formulate the seasonal ARIMA model and in determination of model parameters.

  68. Nnadi Charles Okeke, Nwodo Ngozi Justina, and Agbo Matthias Onyebuchi

    Effective remedy for common ailments associated with poisoning from environment, foods, drugs and cosmetics has gone beyond total dependence on orthodox medicines. Such ailments could require immediate attention which orthodox medicines (if available) might not provide before irreversible damages are done. The people of South Eastern Nigeria have been using Garcinia kola seeds as an antidote for the management of poison-related ailments. This research investigated the adsorptivity potential of the Garcinia kola seeds for weakly acidic antidepressant- phenobarbital sodium. Adsorption experiments were carried out by standard methods. The adsorption data were fitted to different isotherm models (Freundlich, Langmuir and Dubinin-Radushkevich) and the thermodynamic parameters (∆Hº, ∆Gº and ∆Sº) of adsorption were determined. The parameters were compared to those obtained with a standard adsorbent- activated charcoal. The adsorption parameters (Qmax, RL, E and pHZPC) for Garcinia kola seed were 5.67 mg/g, 0.098, 2.26 KJ/mol and 7.12 respectively. The R2 values of the linear plots were>0.9 while n constant of Freundlich isotherm was >1. The thermodynamic parameters, ∆Gº, ∆Hº, and ∆Sº at 298 K were 1.165 KJ/mol, 18.308 KJ/mol and -0.058 KJ/mol.K respectively. The results show that maximum adsorption of Garina kola occurred below pH of 7.12. The adsorption and thermodynamics parameters showed that the adsorption processes of phenobarbital sodium onto Garcinia kola and charcoal were physisorption, favourable and non spontaneous at temperatures 298-318 K. Garcinia kola is a powerful adsorbent for phenobarbital and could be useful as an antidote for systemic barbiturate overdose.

  69. Srinivasa Rao Vattikonda, Nageswara Rao Amanchi and Sabita Raja Sangam

    The use of plant products as pesticides against crop pests is gaining importance in recent years due to environmental and health hazards posed by synthetic organic pesticides. Plant materials comprises rich source of phytochemicals which are highly toxic to many insect species without phytotoxic properties. The lemon butterfly Papilio demoleus is an important pest whose larval forms causes serious damage to citrus family, in the field the caterpillars feed on leaves and prefer blossoms and young ones. In the present study to assess the influence Solasodine, which was isolated from the Solanum aviculare was used the feeding intensity of Papilio demoleus larvae to evaluate its antifeeding activity. A large leaf disc 36.5 sq.cm of lemon was used. Solasodine was sprayed with different concentrations such as 50, 100, 150, 200ppm uniformly on either side by using an atomizer and placed in a Petri dish. Single Papilio demoleus fourth instar larva was introduced into each Petri dish for observation at 24hrs, 48hrs and mean average of the ten sets were taken for the activity. The consumed area was measured graphically and also with Planimeter and the percentage leaf area protection was also calculated. Parallel control Petri dishes were maintained for each experiment. Solasodine showed a potent antifeedant activity against fourth instar larva of Papilio demoleus.

  70. Kumaresh Pal and Chowdhury Habibur Rahaman

    This investigation deals with the comparative studies on leaf epidermal micromorphology, vegetative (stem and petiole) anatomy and xylem elements of four members of the family Portulacaceae. The species selected for the study are Portulaca grandiflora Hook., Portulaca oleracea L., Portulaca quadrifida L. and Talinum fruticosum (L.) Juss. which have medicinal importance. In each case, the epidermal cells are irregular in shape and cell wall outline is wavy. Size of epidermal cells ranges from 37.64 µm × 71.25 µm to 48.91 µm × 81.91 µm. Stomata are of paracytic type in all four taxa. Stomatal size varies from 23.52 µm × 16.51 µm to 39.2 µm × 23.36 µm. Stomatal index varies from 12.35 to 19.7. Palisade ratio ranges from 5.75 to 7.84. Stem anatomy of the investigated taxa does not show any variation in the basic pattern of tissue arrangement. Petiole anatomy of the investigated species shows variation in number and arrangement of the vascular bundles. Number of vascular bundle ranges from 4 to 14. Vascular bundles show the circular arrangement in all three species of Portulaca. But in Talinum fruticosum, it is horse - shoe shaped. Vessel elements have simple and transverse or obliquely placed perforation plate. Tracheids are with spiral side wall thickening and their width ranges from 15.68µm to 26.41µm. Fibres are long with thick wall and gradually tapering tips. Besides the morphological characters, this study may provide some diagnostic foliar micromorphological and anatomical features that can be used in proper identification of these taxa.

  71. Shazia Habib and A.R. Yousuf,

    Nageen lake is very productive eutrophic urban lake of Kashmir valley. High concentration of dissolved nutrients like nitrates and total phosphorus promotes profuse algal and macrophytic growth. The study focuses on the impact of elevated temperature on macrofaunal assemblages. A composite Gerking frame box and grappler were used for sample collection. The effect of scorching heat was conspicuous as a result of mass fish kill in the affected area. It was found that the total invertebrate number reduced from 13 different families in reference site to just two families in the affected site. The Shannon index decreased from 1.8 (reference site) to 0.7 in the affected site. Also the dominance of some species decreased from 0.8 to 0.4, but the evenness increased from 0.5 to 1.1.

  72. Chabungbam Bijayalakshmi, Ngasepam Romen and Maibam Shomorendra

    This study presents the nutritive value of Amblypharyngodon mola (Hamilton-Buchanan), locally known as Muka-nga which is a small indigenous fish of Manipur. This fish is eaten as smoked, fried and curried form by the local people. This fish is very tasty and costly as compared to other small fishes. It may be due to its highly nutritive value. The main objective of this study is to estimate the proximate composition of this fish. The lipid content was determined by using Bligh and Dyer method. The total lipid content and moisture content was found to be 77.19% and 5.4% respectively. Further study has to be done to estimate other nutrients from this fish.

  73. Vijayalakshmi Selvakumar, Ramamourti, A., Dr. Vijayakumar, N., Gerold Ashok Kumar, Kasinathan R. and Dr. Panneerselvam, A.

    Trichoderma harzianum (Rifai) isolate was collected from the Rhizosphere soil of Tomato field and tested for their antagonistic activity against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici ((SACC.) Synder and Hans) causing Fusarium wilt of Tomato. The antagonistic fungus was very effective in inhibiting the mycelial growth of the pathogen in Dual culture. The antagonistic fungus produced lytic enzyme (Chitinase) which was found to inhibit the growth of the pathogen in vitro. In green house experiments, the antagonist Trichoderma harzianum was effective in the suppression of the pathogen Fusarium causing wilt in Tomato plants. Seed treatment with Trichoderma harzianum broth recorded an increase in the seed vigour index by 69.02 % over the control also promoting the Plant Growth (PGPF).

  74. Avtar Singh, Harmeet Singh, J. S. Kang and Jasvinder Singh

    Climatic variability and changes in the last decade is the great threat to the sustainability in food grain production in India. In spite of technological advances, weather and climate are playing vital role in Indian agriculture. Change in climate is mainly a result of increased production of CO2, methane (CH4), Nitrous oxide (N2O), ozone, water vapors, Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), which resulted in increase in atmospheric temperature, disturbance in quantity and distribution of rainfall, melting of glaciers, rise in sea level etc. The change in climate of the world has mainly brought out by rapid industrialization, deforestation, increased agricultural operations, combustion of fossil fuels, increased number of vehicles, etc. and the driving force behind these factors is ever increasing human population requiring more food and space to live. It is resulted in global warming. This is happened due to the increase in concentration of GHGs in the atmosphere, and leads to a phenomenon widely known as ‘Greenhouse Effect’. Elevated temperature, CO2, rainfall and drought, flooding and storm affect the agriculture.

  75. Nisha Koirala, Jitender Saini, Anil and Rajesh Kumar Lohchab

    A continuously increase in demand for milk and milk products has led to increase in dairy industries. Subsequently, the wastewater generated also increased which cause environmental problems when discharged to surface water or land. Wastewater generated in dairy contains mostly organic constituents which can be treated with biological treatment methods. This research was carried out to treat dairy wastewater of different strength by using UASB reactor at different HRT. After steady state condition in batch mode, the UASB reactor was run in continuous mode. In continuous mode, the study was divided into three phases, based on increasing wastewater strength and decreasing HRT. The 50% diluted dairy effluent was fed into reactor in phase I, whereas, 100% dairy effluent was fed in phase II and III. The HRT was progressively decreased during study i. e. HRT was 20 hours, 14 hours and 10 hours in phase I, II and III, respectively. The pH of the reactor was in the range of 7.12 to 7.72 throughout the study. The COD reduction efficiency was observed 94.7%, 86.8% and 80.9% in phase I, II and III, respectively. With increase in strength and decrease in HRT, a decrease in COD reduction was observed during the study period. The VFA alkalinity ratio varied from 6.71 to 0.07, 5.68 to 0.07 and 4.17 to 0.15 in phase I, II and III respectively. The optimum pH and VFA alkalinity ratio indicate that the reactor was working properly leading to higher COD reduction rate.

  76. Lakshmi, K. V., Thasia Chandran and Aneesh E. M.

    Aim of this study was to determine the presence of potential mosquito vectors in the Irinjalakuda Municipality. Urban and semi-urban characteristics of Irinjalakuda municipality provide suitable breeding habitats for different species of mosquito vectors. Mosquito larvae were collected from 25 selected sites of the study area from July 2012 to June 2013. A total of 30 species belonging to 5 genera, Anopheles, Aedes, Culex, Mansonia and Armigeres were collected and identified using systematic keys. The vectorial capacity of these mosquito species was discussed.

  77. Nirmala Natarajan and N. Kannadasan

    Study was conducted to explore the reuse potential of the textile dyeing wastewater generated from textile dye industry. Earthworms proved to be master bio processing agents for the management of organic effluents from diverse sources ranging from domestic sewage to industrial refuse. In this context, the present paper describes the application of vermiculture based wastewater technology with the primary objective of converting liquid effluent into eco-friendly safe water. Vermifiltration of wastewater using waste eater earthworms is a newly conceived novel technology. The biological oxygen demand (BOD5), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total dissolved solids (TDS) and total suspended solids (TSS) decreased by 85-89%, 76-80%, 73-77% and 71-76% respectively through vermifiltration.

  78. Avtar Singh, Harmeet Singh, J. S. Kang and Jasvinder Singh

    Various agronomic practices have profound effect on productivity and malt quality of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). In this paper, discussed the influence of varieties, tillage methods and time of sowing, dose and time of nitrogen application, irrigation scheduling on the growth, productivity and malt quality of barley. This article helps to the researcher to plan the further studies to enhance the productivity of malt barley to strengthen the malting industry.

  79. Nithya, M., Ambikapathy, V. and Panneerselvam, A.

    Hardwood trees planted for timber production, wildlife habitat, riparian buffers, native woodland restoration, windbreaks, watershed protection, erosion control, and conservation are susceptible to damage or even death by various native and exotic fungal or bacterial diseases. Establishment, growth, and the quality of the trees produced can be affected by these disease outbreaks. Planting a mixture of tree species will help create a diverse community that could better withstand outbreaks of disease occurrences, and help minimize the risks associated with growing single-species plantings. Healthy, vigorously growing trees are generally more capable of surviving attack from diseases. Proper site, species selection, planting, maintenance, and protection may have significant impacts on tree establishment, growth, vigor, production, and economic or ecological value. India coconut is a wonderful tree and one of the precious gifts of Mother Nature to mankind. There are several diseases caused by various microorganisms in coconut among them Basal stem rot caused by Ganoderma lucidum remains the major disease of oil palm in South Asia. Infected stem of coconut palm collected and causative organism was isolated. Fungal characterization, disease spread, symptoms, cultural practices were studied. The results thus reveal that the nature of organisms and management of disease provide good exposure to the farmer for the plantation of coconut palm.

  80. Syed Gousia

    The avifauna of Dal Lake was studied from October 2010- to October 2011.Seventy six species belonging to 34 families were recorded. Of these, 26 were summer visitors, 20 were winter visitors, 9 were local altitudinal migrants and 21 were resident. Family Anatidae showed maximum species diversity. The distribution and abundance of birds varied with season and maximum number of species was recorded during spring. Landscape alteration, poaching, felling of nesting trees were the major threats for the survival of birds. Conservation aspects of birds of this region are discussed.

  81. Hassan Abdel-Hady, Ibrahim M. Baghdadi, Mahmoud A. Kora, Yassin S. Yassin, Safwa O. Toulan and Hany S. Elbarbary

    Background :The incidence of ICU related AKI has increased over the last few decades This is probably related to the rising incidence of sepsis related hospital admissions, increased prevalence of risk factors for AKI, including chronic kidney disease (CKD), diabetes mellitus, and congestive heart failure, and expanded use of intravenous radio-contrast agents. ICU patients with AKI have higher morbidity, mortality, and health care costs compared to ICU patients without AKI. Objective: To study indicators of acute kidney injury that might affect the outcome of critically ill patients. Design: Prospective study. Setting: ICU units of Menoufiya University Hospitals- Egypt. Patients: All patients with acute kidney injury (AKI) were prospectively enrolled in the study from their admission in ICU till discharge. AKI was defined by RIFLE and AKIN classification systems. All patients are critically ill assessed by APACHE III score, excluding those patients with CKD stage IV and ESRD patients. Measurements : Age, sex, cause of admission to ICU ,preexisting organ dysfunction ,DM ,HTN , type and mechanism of acute kidney injury were recorded. The Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE III) score, was recorded at admission. The most severe RIFLE class and AKIN stage that the patient reached were recorded. Investigations including Complete blood count, Liver functions {Serum albumin, Prothrombin time, Total and direct bilirubin} Liver enzymes (AST – ALT) Renal functions (Blood urea and Serum creatinine), Serum electrolytes (Serum sodium, Serum potassium, Serum calcium, Serum phosphorus), Lipid profile (Serum Cholesterol and Triglycerides) were done to the patients and recorded. Resting electrocardiogram was done and its results were recorded. There were 51 patients in the study; all patients were enrolled in the study at the time of ICU admission. Results: 55.9% of patients were in good health 3 months before ICU entry. The reason for admission was medical in 86, 3 % of cases. The type of acute kidney injury was prerenal (45.1%), renal (52.9%), or postrenal (2%). Renal replacement therapy was used in 23.5 % of patients. Twenty six (51.0%) patients died during the hospital stay. Six variables were predictive of death. These variables were male gender, severity of RIFLE class, AKIN stage, hypocalcaemia, hypertriglyceridemia and severity of illness as assessed at the time of ICU admission by APACHE III score. Conclusions: In our study the indicators of AKI that are associated with worse outcome of critically ill patients with AKI in ICU included: male gender, Cardiac cause at admission to ICU, abnormal ECG changes, severe class/stage of AKI according to RIFLE and AKIN classifications and high APACHE III score at ICU admission. On the other hand, a cutoff value of APACHE III score < 73 is a good predictor of recovery of critically ill patients with AKI at time of admission.

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