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August 2014

  1. Dr. A. Vijayakumar and Sandhya V. Pillai

    In this age of information, everybody expects to get timely, reliable and precise information that they want to acquire. In the wake of rapid technological advancement, the library has to function in accordance with the changing needs. Today libraries are undergoing tremendous changes in their functioning by adopting latest technology. Ayurveda medical college libraries goal is to provide the student, staff, the scholar and the workers with the maximum tools acquired for the advancement as for as acquisition of knowledge. The present study explores the use of library resources by PKAM-Pankagajasthuri Ayurveda Medical College (self financing), Thiruvanathapuram.

  2. In this age of information, everybody expects to get timely, reliable and precise information that they want to acquire. In the wake of rapid technological advancement, the library has to function in accordance with the changing needs. Today libraries are

    The fact that the periodontium is anatomically interrelated with the dental pulp by virtue of apical foramina and lateral canals creates pathways for exchange of noxious agents between the two tissue compartments when either or both of the tissues are diseased. Proper diagnosis of the various disorders affecting the periodontium and the pulp is important to exclude unnecessary and even detrimental treatment. This is a clinical case report of an enododontic-periodontic lesion in relation to upper left central incisor. Root canal treatment had been done with the respected tooth, but the lesion showed no sign of healing resulting in draining sinus and increasing pocket depth. Radiographic examination revealed extension of inflammation into periodontal space. Periodontal flap surgery was performed and a 10mm defect was found and filled with bone graft mixed with platelet rich fibrin (prf). Patient was reviewed for six months which showed uneventful healing, no recurrence of the lesion and significant bonefill in the region.

  3. Manprit Kaur, Rupinder Deol, Dr. H. S. Bains and Dr. Jasbir Kaur

    Introduction and Need: The prevention of pain is important because repeated painful exposures can have deleterious consequences on preterm neonates. Facilitated tucking is a non-pharmacological comfort measure that can relieve procedural pain in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. The nurse or care givers can effectively implement facilitated tucking for reduction of pain in any setting as it is a very simple technique. Therefore, the investigator taken up the study. Objective: To assess the effect of facilitated tucking on level of heel lance procedural pain among preterm neonates admitted in Neonatal Unit. Material and Methods: The study sample comprised of preterm neonates with gestational age less than 37 completed weeks selected by convenience sampling technique and admitted in Neonatal Unit of DMC & H, Ludhiana. The study sample comprised of total 60 preterm neonates with equal number (30 each) of preterm neonates included in control and experimental group. Structured pain scale was used to collect the data. The experimental group was provided with facilitated tucking intervention during heel lance procedure and the control group received only routine hospital care. Video recording of preterm neonates was done from two minutes before, during and till three minutes after heel lance procedure to assess the level of pain. Major Findings: The mean pain score of control group was 7.17±2.73 whereas the mean pain score of experimental group was 8.27±2.67 during heel lance procedure (p=0.121NS). At one minute after heel lance procedure the mean pain score of control group was 3.30±2.18 and in experimental group it was 4.17±3.15 (p=0.221NS), at two minutes after heel lance procedure the mean pain score of control group was 2.23±2.18 while the mean pain score of experimental group was 2.53±2.78 (p=0.643NS). In the control group the mean pain score was 1.73±2.45 whereas in experimental group it was 1.44±1.69 at three minutes after heel lance procedure(p=0.583NS). This difference was found statistically non significant (p>0.05). Conclusion: The findings of the study concluded that facilitated tucking was not statistically effective in reducing the level of pain among experimental group during heel lance procedure and at one, two and three minutes after heel lance procedure, when provided just prior to the heel lance procedure.

  4. Vijay Kumar and Chakravarty, A. K.

    In the present study, breeding information spread over a period of 14 years from 1995 to 2008, was collected from the history-cum-pedigree sheets and milk yield registers of Murrah buffaloes maintained in four centres of Network Project on Murrah Buffalo Improvement (National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal; Central Institute for Research on Buffalo, Hisar and Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Ludhiana and Choudhary Charan Singh Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar). Data on Average first lactation daily milk yield (MY/FLL) of 832 Murrah buffaloes sired by 95 bulls were used for the study. Farm had significant effect on MY/FLL, while season and year of calving did not affect significantly in the present study. Breeding value for MY/FLL was estimated using best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP) method. The breeding value of different bulls varied from 5.750 kg in first set to 7.065 kg in seventh set.

  5. Safa A. AL Hag, Khalid A. Enan, Mustafa E. M. Yassin and Isam M. Elkhidir

    Background: This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of WNV IgG and IgM among multi blood transfused patients in Khartoum, State Sudan. Material and Methods: Ninety one sera samples were collected from multi blood transfused patients from Khartoum teaching Hospital during the period from August to November 2013 and subjected to Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) to detect WNV IgG and IgM antibodies. Results: Out of ninety one 50(54%) were positive for WNV IgG antibodies, while 11(12.1)% were positive for WNV IgM antibodies. Conclusions: In conclusion, the incidence of WNV among multi blood transfused patients in Khartoum State, Sudan was documented through detection of WNV-specific IgG and IgM antibodies. Further study using various diagnostic methods should be considered to determine the prevalence of WNV disease at the national level.

  6. Akmal A. Diab, Salah I. Zaghloul, Abeer A. Khalefa and Eman R. AboZaid

    Background: polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), one of the most common causes of infertility with increased incidence of inflammatory state and oxidative stress. Apelin is unique among adipose tissue hormones in being up regulated in the obese state and exert antioxidant activity. Objective: This research aims to evaluate serum apelin Levels in Rat models of letrozole induced PCOS and asses its relation to oxidative stress markers, TNF- hormonal state, and insulin resistance. Design: 48 Adolescent healthy female albino rats were used. It was divided into two equal groups; group I (normal diet) and group II (high fat diet) for 12 weeks, after the ninth week each group was subdivided into group A (control) and group B (PCOS induced). Fasting serum levels of apelin, insulin, glucose, estradiol, progesterone, LH, FSH and TNF- were measured and ovaries oxidative stress markers were estimated. Results: Serum apelin levels are increased in Letrozole induced PCOS in lean and HFD obese rats. While serum apelin levels positively correlated with TNF-insulin, HOMA-IR, BMI and ovarian tissues antioxidant markers, it correlated negatively with ovarian tissues oxidant markers. Hyperandrogenemia, Irregular cycles, incidence of subcapsular ovarian cysts with a diminished granulosa cell layer were detected in PCOS groups. Conclusion: Inflammatory markers as TNF-  is one of the major mechanisms which increase apelin levels in lean and obese PCOS, beside the synergistic role of hypeinsulinemia. Increased serum apelin levels in PCOS can be considered as compensatory against risk factors of PCOS as it induced increase in ovarian antioxidant markers.

  7. Dr. Mahasweta Mallik, Dr. Sujata Mallick, Dr. Puskar Shyam Chowdhury and Dr. Richa Madhawi

    The best method to confirm diagnosis of carcinoma of urinary bladder is cystoscopy and biopsy. Urine cytology is a non-invasive method of detecting carcinoma bladder. We aimed to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of urine cytology to detect bladder carcinoma as a screening test. All patients with suspicion of carcinoma bladder with risk factors like increased age, symptoms of painless haematuria, dysuria and frequency attending the Urology out-patient department (OPD) of Patna Medical College and Hospital over a period of 3 years were screened. A total of 80 symptomatic patients were screened by cytology. 55 cases revealed abnormal cells in urine cytology. Out of these patients, 28 patients underwent cystoscopy and biopsy when deemed necessary. 13 cases of bladder carcinoma were diagnosed and confirmed by biopsy. Urine cytology was positive in 61.5% cases.

  8. Pradeep Kumar, L.

    Sputum cytology is a simple, accurate, reliable, cost effective and non-invasive procedure for the diagnosis of pulmonary lesions including preinvasive and invasive malignancies. BAL (Bronchoalveolar lavage) is a valuable diagnostic and research tool in pulmonology. Aims: To compare the efficacy of Sputum cytology with BAL in the diagnosis of lung cancer. Material and Methods: 2 year study was carried out. Sputum cytology, BAL and bronchoscopic biopsies were done in 97 cases. Comparison of effectiveness of Sputum cytology and BAL in diagnosing lung cancer is done with ‘z’ test. Results: Total 97 cases were included in the study, 33 cases were positive for malignancy. Sensitivity of sputum cytology and BAL were 30% and 69.6% respectively. On applying ‘z’ test for statistical analysis p value of <0.0001 is obtained. Hence we conclude that there is a significant difference in proportions between sputum cytology and BAL in diagnosing lung cancer. So BAL is more effective diagnostic modality for lung cancer in comparison to sputum cytology. Conclusion: BAL cytology is significantly more effective in the diagnosis of lung cancer in comparison to sputum cytology. As sputum cytology is a simple, reliable, cost effective and non-invasive procedure it can still be used as one of the diagnostic modality for lung cancer with fairly good sensitivity.

  9. Philippe Manyacka Ma Nyemb

    Because of the advent of new technologies of information and communication, teaching methods are changing in medical schools. The use of video for teaching anatomy is an interesting innovation, because studies show that it improves the performance and motivation of students. A few months after the introduction of the use of video for anatomy lectures and praticals, we evaluate this method with our first year medical students. This evaluation was conducted on several aspects through a Likert scale. This work highlights the interest of using video to our students. It shows a better understanding of the anatomy course and an increased student involvement. Thus, to optimize teaching methods, it is important to combine new technologies with traditional education.

  10. Dr. Girish V. Patil, Dr. Shishirkumar, Dr. Apoorva D, Dr. Thejeswari, Dr. Javed Sharif, Dr. C. Sheshgiri and Mr. Sushanth, N. K.

    According to WHO, self-medication is defined as obtaining and consuming drugs without the advice of a physician either for diagnosis, prescription or surveillance of treatment. Self medication is very helpful if the suffering person is economically poor or not able to bear the expenses if he shows his illness to the concerned expert doctor. Many times self-medication gives self confidence of handling minor illnesses on their own. Self medication is the choice when there is lack of accessibility to an expert doctor due to various reasons. Out of 400 students participated in the study, Mean age of the students was 21.3(±1.32) years. 100% of the students were practicing self medication one or the other way by themselves or with the help of parents or friends. Most common reasons favoring self-medication were that probplem is not serious (249, 62.25%) can be managed by themselves followed by, previous experience (142, 35.5%) and lack of time (130, 25.75%). Advice by parents and friends was the most common source of information for the participants for self-medication (273, 68.25%), followed by Doctor’s previous prescription which were (242, 60%) and also by advice from Pharmacists (164, 41%). Repeated health education should be given to bring down behavioral change in practice of self-medication.

  11. Sadik Ali Mohammad, Shaik Sarfaraz Nawaz, Imran Ahmed Siddiqui, Sasikala, M., 1Rathindara Mohan Mukarjee, Nagaraj Rao and Nageshwar Reddy D.

    Background: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a chronic liver disease, ranges from simple steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, fibrosis and cirrhosis. Several adipocytokines such as leptin and adiponectin have been implicated in the pathogenesis of NAFLD. However, there are only few data concerning visfatin. Objective: This study is aimed to evaluate the relationship among circulating visfatin and proinflammatory cytokines in NAFLD. Material and Methods: The study includes 64 NAFLD and 22 healthy controls with no evidence of liver disease were included. NAFLD was clinically diagnosed on the basis of USG and ALT levels. Serum Visfatin levels were measured using ELISA kit, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6 and interlukin-8 were measured by Flow Cytometer (BD FACS Array II). Fasting blood glucose, lipid profile and liver enzyme were measured using auto analyzer (Randox). The data were analyzed by SPSS 13.0 version and P value˂0.05 were consider significant. Results: Serum visfatin concentration in the NAFLD group (6.38±5.18ng/ml) was significantly lower than in controls (24.62±15.14ng/ml) (P<0.001). There was no correlation between visfatin and anthropometric parameters, TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-8. Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-6, IL-8 and decreased levels of Visfatin are independently associated with NAFLD.

  12. Dr. Girish V. Patil, Dr. Shishirkumar, Dr. Apoorva D, Dr. Thejeswari, Dr. Javed Sharif, Dr. C. Sheshgiri and Mr. Sushanth, N. K.

    Nasal index is a regional and racial sensitive anthropometric index. It is also one of the important anthropometric parameter for classifying the race and sex of an individual in the world. This study was carried out in 250 south Indian populations. The result shows the mean nasal breadth in males is 49.28mm while in females its 38.02mm, nasal height in males was found to be 58.04 and 56.12 in females, also nasal index was found to be 84.91 in males and 67.75 in females. All the measurements are found to be higher in males than females. Present study which showed that the south Indian males have mesorrhine type of nose and south Indian females have leptorrhine type of nose. Such regional studies parameters will help for the purpose of clinical practice (plastic surgery), forensic medicine and anthropological study.

  13. Deporal, P., Kanakavalli, K. and Kaliyamurthi, V.

    Diabetes Mellitus is a common metabolic disorder seen in all age groups. Gandhaga chooranam (GC) has been employed as a traditional remedy for Diabetes mellitus which is a herbo mineral formulation. As a mandate, steps were taken to evaluate safety profile of GC in rats following OECD guidelines. Acute toxicity studies, were done on female wistar albino rats as per OECD guidelines 423 and 28 days repeated oral toxicity study was done on wistar albino rats of both sex as per OECD guidelines 407.Acute oral toxicity study of GC revealed no mortality at the dosage of 2000 mg/kg body weight and the median lethal dosage of GC is estimated to be above 2000 mg/kg body weight. Repeated oral toxicity study of GC does not exhibit mortality at the high dosage of 400 mg/kg body weight given up to the period of 56 days including 28 days of drug administered. At the end of 28 days no specific changes are observed in hematological, hepatic, renal and other biochemical parameters. No gross morphological and histological changes were observed in the organs. The GC was found to be safe in animals. No toxic effect was observed upto 400 mg/kg of Gandhaga chooranam in acute and sub-acute toxicity studies. The above studies recommend that GC is a safest drug under intended human adult dosage (1000 mg) as illustrated in the literature.

  14. Pooja Sorathia, Ramesh Pradhan and Rosy Lekharu, B.

    Myocardial infarction is a major consequence of coronary artery disease. In addition to the traditional risk factors of myocardial infarction, hyperhomocysteinemia has emerged as major factor. Plasma homocysteine level was determined in 30 myocardial infarction patients and 20 age matched healthy individuals. Statistically significant differences (p<0.01) were observed in the mean of plasma homocysteine concentrations between the acute myocardial infarction patients (25.89 ± 6.18mM/L) and normal healthy individuals (13.83 ± 3.51 mM/L). Homocysteine in myocardial infarction patients was seen to be significantly high (p <0.01) when compared to that of the controls. The study indicated a strong association between plasma homocysteine and acute myocardial infarction, which establishes plasma homocysteine as a key risk factor for myocardial infarction.

  15. Shitole Shilpa Mohan and Dhumal, K. N.

    The present investigation was carried out to study the effect of Plant Growth Regulators (PGRs) on b iochemical constituents of Cassia angustifolia. The foliar application of PGRs like Gibberellic acid (GA3), Indole acetic acid (IAA) and the growth retardant Abscisic acid (ABA) were applied at the concentrations of 25, 50 and 100 mg/L as foliar spray at 45 DAS up to the flowering stage at the interval of fifteen days. The physiological analyses were carried out on pre-flowering stage (75 DAS), flowering stage (90 DAS) and post-flowering stage (120 DAS). Results revealed that there was positive and highly significant increase in photosynthetic pigments, proteins and phenols due to all the concentrations of PGRs used. The improvement in basic metabolites through PGRs application may probably lead to enhancement in secondary metabolite contents. From the results of the present investigation, we can conclude that all the treatments of PGRs enhance the contents of photosynthetic pigments, proteins and phenols. The most important antioxidant like phenols having pivotal role in abiotic stress tolerance, were significantly increased at pre flowering, flowering and even post flowering stage, due to the application of ABA. This increase of phenols by PGRs treatments may be further enhancing the antioxidant capacity of Senna. The increase in phenolics in the leaves of Senna might be playing important role for stimulating the secondary metabolites in it.

  16. Sriramulu Ananthakrishnasamy and Govindarajan Gunasekaran

    In every day dumping of municipal solid wastes (MSW) as a result of urban extension, over population, industrial developments and commercialization (vegetables, fruits and supermarket waste) caused a serious cause to the environment air, water (ground and stream water contamination) and land (soil pollution: heavy metals, heat generation). In the present investigation an attempt has been made to convert the municipal solid waste (MSW) into manure using the earthworm Lampito mauritii under cultured in conditions. The different experimental media were prepared on dry weight basis by mixing the municipal solid waste (MSW) and bedding material (BM); T1 ratio – 20% BM + 80% MSW, T2 ratio – 40% BM + 60% MSW, T3 ratio – 60% BM + 40% MSW, T4 ratio – 80% BM + 20% MSW, control (BM alone – C) were also maintained. The growth rate (biomass) and reproduction (number of cocoons and hatchlings) of L. mauritii was increased in all experimental media BM + MSW mixtures (T1 – T4 rtio) and control (C). The result showed that the unutilized and enormously available MSW can be vermicomposted to convert into valuable organic manure utilized for sustainable agriculture.

  17. Adeola, R. G. and Ariwoola, S. A.

    Root and tuber crops form the major subsistence staples in larger parts of sub-Saharan Africa. However, in Nigeria, root and tuber production relies mainly on smallholders that have multiple practices to choose from while considering crops to be included in their cropping systems. This study examined factors influencing the inclusion of root and tuber crops in the cropping systems among farmers in Oyo state. Data were collected from 360 farmers randomly selected using a structured interview schedule. Frequency counts, percentages and Chi-square were used for the data analysis. The study revealed that factors such as age ((χ2 = 337.600, P<0.01), high yield potential ((χ2 = 122.500, P < 0.01), availability of planting material ((χ2 = 544.150, P<0.01), compatibility with the cropping systems ((χ2 = 124.576, P<0.01), low risk involvement ((χ2 = 90.000, P<0.01) and low capital requirement ((χ2 = 168.500, P<0.01), farm size ((χ2 = 96.100, P < 0.01) and ease of management ((χ2 = 96.100, P < 0.01) significantly influenced the inclusion of root and tuber crops in the farmers’ cropping systems in the study area. The extension administrators should also intensify efforts at educating the farmers on the importance of root and tuber crops in the cropping systems.

  18. Dr. Neha Pandey, Dr. M. A. Ansari, and Dr. Bharti Singh

    Background: Immunization is an essential public health intervention for maintaining good health status in the population. It is not only one of the best indicators to evaluate the health outcomes and services distributed across social spectrum but also one of the most cost-effective intervention to prevent a series of major illnesses, particularly in environments where children are malnourished/ undernourished and die from preventable diseases. Objectives: (1).To find out the socio demographic profile of selected respondents. (2). To determine the level of Awareness, Knowledge and Practices regarding immunization. Methodology: The study was conducted in the randomly selected six slums of Kanpur city in U.P. Following an exploratory research design, the respondents were selected using multistage random sampling, and the sample comprised 150 respondents. Data was collected using structured interview schedule. Results and Discussion: Seventy percent of the respondents were fully aware of the importance of immunization. As regards the immunization schedule, a large majority (96-98 per cent) had BCG and OPV followed by DPT (54.66 per cent). The adoption of other vaccines and booster doses was found to be very low, ranging from 44 per cent to as low as 19 per cent (Hepatitis ‘A’ vaccine). Conclusion: Sustained IEC campaigns need to be undertaken to generate high levels of awareness and knowledge about complete immunization schedule among the target groups to induce practices adoption. Grassroots health educators should stress on the criticality of complete immunization for the good health and disease free growth of children in these urban slums.

  19. Divakar Suma

    In India, Women constitute about 21 percent of the total software work force, which is higher than their participation in the national economy. Owing to the target oriented time schedules, the effort to be put in by the software professionals, especially women in highly strenuous. This new work culture is paving way to a new set of health problems, along with emotional and social problems. Technopark at Trivandrum housing 104 IT and ITES companies, providing employment to more than 12,500 software professionals, was selected as the locale for the study. One hundred and fifty software professionals and 50 non software professionals were taken as the sample for study. The independent variables studied were socio economic and personal characteristics, life style pattern and dietary particulars. The dependant variables studied were morbidity pattern, anthropometric measurements, reproductive health and stress level. Most of the Socio economic, personal characteristics life style patterns and dietary profile were comparable However Occupational diseases like joint pains, vision problems, back pain, muscular pain and spondilitis were higher for software professionals. High level of stress was observed among software professionals than non software professionals.

  20. Ilangovan, R., Manikandan, R., Ezhili, N. and Subramaniam, K.

    The present study concerns monthly variations of phytoplankton species composition, population density, species diversity during September 2012 to March 2013 in Ukkadam, Kuruchi and Singanallur Lakes Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India. The total of 20 (Ukkadam Lake), 34 (Kuruchi Lake) and 26 genera (Siganallur Lake) were identified under phytoplankton diversity in studied three lakes. Present study revealed maximum species composition of Chlorophyceae (15 species), Bacillariophyceae (12 species) and Euglenophyceae (6 species) were recorded at Kuruchi Lake. When compared genera wise, Euglenophyceae group were rarely found in both Ukkadam Lake and Singanallur Lake during the study period, it was indicated that these lakes were polluted by organic components. The present baseline information of the phytoplankton distribution and abundance would form a useful tool for further ecological assessment and monitoring of these lakes of Coimbatore.

  21. INFLUENCE OF ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAL FUNGI (AMF) AND PHOSPHORUS APPLICATIONS ON PLANT GROWTH AND NODULATION OF Vigna radiata (L.)

    This paper reports the effect of mycorrhiza as a biofertilizer and different concentrations 5%, 10% and 15% of phosphorus on seed germination, nodulation and growth of Vigna radiata (L.). A significant increase was observed in all parameters over control. At 15% concentration of phosphorus, the Vigna radiata (L.) showed favourable effect on seed germination, seedling growth and production of fresh and dry matter as compared to 5 and 10%.

  22. Pakutharivu, T. and Suriyavathana, M.

    In the present study, Molecular docking was done in order to find out whether the chemical compounds of Hippo-08 an ayurvedic formulation, were docked into the active sites of cytochrome p-450 2E1 and cytochrome p-450 3A4 using Accelrys Discovery studio2.1. These two enzymes were increased several folds after ethanol consumption, and these are the major source of free radicals or reactive oxygen species (ROS) causing oxidative stress in the liver. Based on the Dock score the compounds could be ranked for their activity against the protein. Highest Dock score means it has good interaction (inhibition) towards the selected target protein. Seven different chemical compounds present in Hippo-08 have good Dock score against CYP2E1 and five different chemical compounds present in Hippo-08 have good Dock score against CYP3A4. These lead compounds may possess the effectiveness against Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disorder.

  23. Dr. Nayak, J. B. and Rajani, B.

    The present study was carried out to establish the properties of leaf extract of Vitex negundo was tested for larvicidal activity against early 4th instar larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus mosquito using standard WHO technique. The mortality rate was observed at 5 to 200 ppm, after 12, 24, 36 and 48 hrs of the treatment. And no mortality rate was observed in control. The methanolic extract of V. negundo was found effective and 100% result was observed in this treatment. This plant extracts are easy to prepare, inexpensive, and safe for mosquito control which might be used directly as larvicidal agents in small volume aquatic habitats or breeding sites of around human dwellings.

  24. Paul Anubrata and Dubey Rajendra

    Biofertilizers are defined as preparations containing living cells or latent cells of efficient strains of microorganisms that help crop plants' uptake of nutrients by their interactions in the rhizosphere when applied through seed or to soil. They accelerate certain microbial processes in the soil which augment the extent of availability of nutrients in a form easily assimilated by plants. Very often microorganisms are not as efficient in natural surroundings as one would expect them to be and therefore artificially multiplied cultures of efficient selected microorganisms play a vital role in accelerating the microbial processes in soil. Use of biofertilizers is one of the important component of integrated nutrient management, as they are cost effective and renewable source of plant nutrients to supplement the chemical fertilizers for sustainable agriculture. In the present study biofertilizer with carrier materials was more effective than the without carrier materials.

  25. Amitha, V., Shylaja, M. D. and Nalini, M. S.

    Endophytic microbes are often associated with the internal parts of plant tissues. Endophytic fungi were isolated from the surface sterilized root fragments of herbaceous culinary leafy vegetable and spices viz., Coriandrum sativum, Anetham graveolens, Spinacea oleracea and Trigonella foenum-graecum. 533 isolates were obtained from the plating of root fragments. Important fungi were identified as Myrothecium roridum, Chaetomium fumicola, Heterosporium alli, Fusarium oxysporum and Aspergillus tereus. The dominant endophyte documented was M. roridum (29.85%) from the roots of T. foenum-graecum, and was evaluated for the antioxidant activity. The fungus was inoculated onto potato dextrose broth (PDB) and cultivated for two weeks and mycelia was harvested and dried into fine powder. Both the endophyte and the host powder were extracted in water and methanol and the extracts tested for their total phenolic content and radical scavenging potentials. Results indicate that the water extracts of both host and endophyte showed good phenolic content (2.8 mg/g and 2.5 mg/g GAE) as well as radical scavenging ability (72% and 59%). Similarly, a decrease in the phenolic content and the scavenging potentials of endophyte with respect to its host were observed in the methanolic extracts. Results indicate the antioxidative potentials of fungi from herbaceous species.

  26. Sanjay Kumar, Kishlay Kumar and Navneet

    The aim of this research was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of Terminalia arjuna bark extracts was aimed to investigate against three gram-positive, two gram-negative bacteria and one fungi causing respiratory infections. Dried plant materials were crushed and extracted in petroleum ether, acetone, methanol and water by using Soxhlet apparatus. The agar well diffusion method was adopted to examine antimicrobial activity of extracts against test organisms. Phytochemical analysis was done for plant extract also. The results showed that methanol extract was most active as comparison to other extract. The maximum inhibition was found against S. pneumoniae (17.3±0.57 mm) followed by H. influenzae (16.6±0.57mm), P. aeruginosa (14.6±0.76 mm) and S. pyogenes (13.6±0.28 mm), S. aureus (12.6±0.28 mm) and minimum against C. albicans (11.3±0.28 mm) respectively. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides, steroids, saponins and tannins in plant extracts. The results signify traditional values of T. arjuna in treatment of respiratory diseases which might be accountable for its antimicrobial potential.

  27. Tejender Kaur Sarna and Nimali Singh

    Obesity is a pandemic, spread throughout world and is attributing largely to industrialisation with reduced physical activity, increased screen timings and lack of adequate sleep. Overweight and obese children from affluent class schools were screened, their sleeping pattern, screen time and outdoor and indoor gaming time was studied. Two thousand four hundred and ninety nine children were screened for overweight and obesity on the basis of BMI cut-off given by IOTF. Children were categorized as normal (57.94%) overweight (20.89 %) and obese (5.20%). Based on WHR classification more than 85% girls were categorized as ‘at risk’ and 27.27 % boys were ‘at risk’. Overweight and obese children’s screen time was more than 1.5 hours/day and had a sleep of less than 8 hours per day. A strong association was found among the environmental factors like weight, diet (milk and energy intake), sedentary life style, total energy expenditure, basal metabolic rate and the time spent in front of computer playing games.

  28. Mini, V. S., Amrutha, B. V., Soorya, S. R., Jayalekshmi, G., Aruna Devi, C. and Francis Sunny

    The present work aimed to estimate the effect of different concentrations of CdCl2 on biochemical parameters of freshwater fish, Anabas testudineus. Electrophoresis of the blood serum, Liver RNA extraction and agarose gel electrophoresis were done. 96-h LC50 of CdCl2 was 7ppm. Levels of liver protein, AST and ALT and serum glucose content showed significant change after 14 days of exposure to different concentrations of CdCl2 (2ppm, 3ppm and 4ppm). The electrpherogram showed a reduction in blood protein content on exposure to higher doses of CdCl2 (3ppm and 4ppm) and also a mitigation in liver RNA was observed in the liver of CdCl2 treated fish when compared to the control in the agarosegel electropherogram.

  29. Vandana Sharma, G., Sarma, H. P. and Bhattacharyya, K. G.

    This study was done for the aim to bring notice to local people about the reason of degrading wetlands and suggestion to develop this degraded wetland to get benefits. Submerged plants are the generator of oxygen in the aquatic system. Siltation being the major cause, the beel turns into unproductive areas with extensive weed cover. In controlled growth situation either naturally or by human interference aquatic plants can purify water, but if uncontrolled growth takes place they can reach the levels of pests & are frequently regarded as aquatic weeds aquatic plants can reduced DO, BOD, pH. Many terrestrial plants are also found in the ecotone region of wetlands the aquatic plants litters degrading on beel change the composition of water quality. The results are important in the context of the possible adverse impacts on aquatic life. Water sample were collected and some parameter were analyzed on spot with water analysis kit and soil samples were collected for laboratory analysis. Water and air temperature were recorded with thermometer. D.O value was as low as 2mg/l-10mg/l. Mg content was as low as 0.48mg/l-26.0mg/l. Total alkality ranges from 20mg/l-27mg/l. Soil phosphorous minimum content is found to be 0.1mg/l & highest 80mg/l which shows the unproductively of water bodies

  30. Nagaraju, N., Bandaru V. Rao, Tarakeswara Naidu, M. and Srinivasa Rao, D.

    The study was conducted to assess the phytosociological studies of weed species in rice fields of Visakhapatnam District, Andhra Pradesh. The survey has been carried out at 100 randomly selected rice fields and well explored covering all the geographical areas of Visakhapatnam district, to identify the weed flora, species composition, density, frequency and importance values index (IVI). A total of 80 plant species, belonging to 75 genera and 29 families were identified. Among the 29 families have been recorded, out of these 16 families are representing each species. Poaceae is the largest family representing 15 species. The results of phytosociological studies revealed that the species Bacopa monnieri (4.2) is most abundant weed in rice field followed by Ammania baccifera (4.0), Chromolaena odorata (3.2), Merremia gangetica (3.1) and Marsilea quadrifolia (2.8), these five species were concluded as the most competent weeds which enter into real competition with the rice crop.

  31. Pooja Sorathia, Ramesh Pradhan, Rosy Lekharu and Kiran Saxena

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the leading cause of death worldwide. Many recent studies have shown that anomalies in circulating lipid levels are a predisposing factor for coronary heart disease. Oxidative stress has been implicated in the patho-physiology of CAD. Lipid peroxidation measured as malondialdehyde (MDA) is an indication of the extent of free radical mediated tissue damage. The difference in the malondialdehyde levels between the case and control groups was highly significant (p value < 0.0001) suggesting Malondialdehyde as an important risk factor for myocardial infarction. The difference in Malondialdehyde levels observed between patients with LDL-C > 100 mg % and those with LDL-C < 100 mg % was statistically extremely significant (p value < 0.0001).

  32. Borah Nilay, Deka, N. C., Deka, J., Barua, I. C., Nath, D. J. and Medhi, B. K.

    An incubation study was carried out to assess the quality of the vermicompost and farmyard manure in terms of total nutrient content and microbial population count following inoculation of various microbial cultures. Azotobacter, Azospirillum and phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB) culture @ 0.2 % each was inoculated in different consortia to farmyard manure (FYM) or vermicompost and incubated for thirty days in a completely randomized design laboratory experiment maintaining moisture content at about 25±1 % (w/w). The population of Azotobacter, Azospirillum and PSB significantly increased in the composts by about 35 to 133% during the 30 days incubation period with different consortia. The C:N ratio reduced significantly in FYM and vermicompost after 30 days incubation due to significant decrease in total carbon content. The content of total N, P and K was not affected in vermicompost at 30 days after inoculation of microbial culture, but the same in FYM decreased significantly barring few occasions.

  33. Umar Garba, Aminu Shehu Abubakar and Muhamammad Said Bashir

    The delivery systems of bioactive food components through nanoencapsulation provide maximum stability, protection and permit the release of encapsulated compound during mastication and digestion for efficient absorption into the body system. Bioactive compounds are secondary metabolite of plant which forms the constituent of foods or dietary supplements responsible for the health benefit other than provision of basic nutrition. They are grouped into isoprenoids, fatty acids, proteins and amino acids, polysaccharides and minerals. These compounds are found useful in treating coronary heart diseases, inflammation, immune disorder, and psychiatric disorder etc. The use of nanoparticles to deliver a bioactive compound provides greater advantage due to their greater surface to mass ratio and their ability to absorb and carry the compounds to the required destination with minimal destruction, increased absorption and bioavailability. However, the fate of the bioactive compounds depends on its physicochemical properties and release site. Depending on the compatibility of the target bioactive compound, nanoparticles properties and the required application, the delivery system has been grouped as either solid (including lipid nanoparticles, nano-crystals, and polymeric nanoparticles) or liquid system (nanoemulsions, nanoliposomes, and nanopolymersomes).

  34. Falih H. Saeed, Kadhum D. Hasan and Hadi M. Aboud

    An experiment was carried out on influence of organic, inorganic and bio fertilizers on yield and economics of cucumber grown under field condition during spring and autumn 2013. The results revealed that the plants treated with 100% RDF + AZT + PSB + TD (T2) registered lowest number of days for female (48.0; 53.0) flower appearance, highest sex ratio (1.42; 1.18 %), highest fruit length (21.0; 20.3 cm), l), fruit diameter (38.0; 36.0 mm), fruit weight (150.0; 138.3 g), fruit yield vine-1 (2.41; 1.83 kg), Yield early (5.46; 2.76 t ha-1) and total fruit yield hectare-1 (64.2; 48.9 t ha-1) Spring and Autumn 2013 respectively, While the results show that less Agawam standards flowers and winning above recorded in the control treatment (without any fertilization)The results also showed that reducing the proportion of mineral fertilizers added by a brother% and 50% and compensated the same proportions of organic fertilizer with the same combination of bio-fertilizer (75%RDF+ 25% org + + AZT + PSB + TD and 75%RDF+ 50% org + AZT + PSB + TD) gave the results did not differ significantly from the treatment of 100% RDF + AZT + PSB + TD.The results confirm that the fertilization system offers an alternative to the integrated systems and organic fertilization Chemical and bio individually and achieve higher production yields not differ significantly from the full treatment dose of mineral fertilizers and less environmental damage.

  35. Sonali Johri and Geeta Chauhan

    The study was planned to prepare chicken noodle with the incorporation of refined flour. Two types of chicken noodles were prepared. Method of preparation of chicken noodles was same. (Sample A) was without fried chicken noodles, (sample B) was fried chicken noodles. Chicken Noodles were evaluated for physicochemical and sensory properties. Ratio of chicken and refined flour was 50%. Results showed that a fried noodle (sample B) was showed good results on all attributes. The quality parameters studied included physicochemical Moisture %, Ash%, Protein%, fat% and pH showed significant (P<0.05) difference in samples, where as Thiobarbituric Acid (TBA) showed non significant difference. As well as sensory evaluation of chicken noodles was done. Fried chicken noodles sample (B) scored the highest values in respect to all sensory attributes as compare to (sample A) without fried sample. Thus, this chicken noodle will be a good source of instant food for children, teenagers, sport persons, pregnant and lactating women.

  36. Saranjeet Kaur

    The aim of the study was to investigate genetic polymorphism in leptin receptor gene, (LEPR) and the risk of bladder cancer through a retrospective case-control analysis that consisted of 270 cases of bladder cancer and 252 controls. For the LEPR Gln223Arg polymorphism, no significant differences were observed in the genotype frequencies with regard to bladder cancer. The interaction of LEPR Gln223Arg polymorphism also did not show any significant associations either with environmental factors or with histopathology. This is the first case-control analysis carried out on Single Nucleotide Polymorphism in leptin receptor gene and carcinoma of urinary bladder so far. No other studies pertaining to same are available in the literature.

  37. Sanjeev Kumar, Patel, N. B. and Saravaiya, S. N.

    An investigation was conducted during April, 2013 to study the response of fertilizers and training systems on parthenocarpic cucumber var. Dinamik under NVPH. The whole experiment was arranged over 12 treatments consisting of 4 levels of fertilizers [F1-60:50:50 kg/ha (RDF through Conventional method), F2-50% RDF (Fertigation), F3-100% RDF (Fertigation), F4-150% RDF (Fertigation)] with common dose of micro-nutrients and 3 training systems having system specific spacing [P1-‘Umbrella’ (60 x 60 cm), P2-‘V’ (60 x 60 cm), P3-‘Single Stem’ (60 x 45 cm)]. The characters like days to first flowering, days to first picking, plant height, sensory characters, fruit diameter etc. were significantly influenced by individual effect either of fertilizer or training system. The significant differences for crude fibre were observed among various treatments and F4P1 recorded high value for this character which was at par with F4P2 and F4P3. The leaf area index (LAI) determined after 30 days of planting was significantly highest in F4P3 (2.15), whereas the interaction effect was not significant for LAI after 60 days of planting but F4 and P3 individually expressed significantly highest value of 5.59 and 4.85, respectively, thus signifying its importance vis-a-vis interception of light for photosynthetic activities. However, F4P2 registered significantly highest number of fruits per plant (41), but higher yield (10.76 t per 1000m2) was registered by F4P3 having statistically similar results with that of F4P2. The benefit-cost ratio (BCR) of 1:1.30 was found to be highest for F4P3 with net realization of Rs. 121771, thus highlighting its significance in gaining maximum output from cucumber cultivation under NVPH during the growing season April to July, 2013.

  38. Surender Kumar, Meena Deswal and Jitender Laura

    Because of its high vulnerability, seed germination is considered to be the most critical phase in the plant life cycle. In an attempt to find the possible reason for extremely fast decline in population of Salvadora oleoides in north-west India; the experiments were conducted on seed germination, seedling growth and vegetative propagation. Seeds were sown in different soils types. Desert sand was best in terms of higher percent seed germination and also a shorter time taken for germination. Whereas vermicompost was better in terms of seedling growth parameters such as height, number of node per seedling, fresh and dry weights of seedlings and number of leaves per seedling. The study showed that the seed viability is very short with only 20 per cent germination after three months of storage. Seeds with fruit pulp resulted in to very poor germination as compared with de pulped seeds indicating an ecological adaptation for dispersal by fruit eating animals. Effect of pH on seed germination and seedling growth was maximum (100%) near neutral pH and declined both at lower and higher pH levels (20% at pH 4 and 50% at pH 10), the effect being more drastic at lower pH. Salvadora oleoides did not respond to stem cuttings and air layering vegetative propagation techniques.

  39. OKEYINKA Yetunde

    In many cities of the developing countries, the ability of housing authorities to provide housing and services for large number of poor people is limited. This is because cities are about opportunities, and across the world people have moved to cities in increasing numbers, especially poorer people seeking a new life with greater employment or livelihood opportunities whether real or perceived, and as such, slums develop. Slums pose a significant threat to the green agenda; and at the same time the brown agenda for those living in the slums is seriously compromised. Generally slums usually have dire consequences for the urban environment. Currently building cities without slums is one of the most important goals of urban planning in developing countries. This study provides explanation about the green and brown agenda of sustainable development in Africa, as well as a house form through which the poor can get access to accommodation in cities of developing countries. It proposes that this house form be adopted by governments of developing countries as a means of meeting the accommodation needs of the poor, in order to checkmate the proliferation of slums in developing cities.

  40. Stephen, J., Nichodemus, M., Subramani, K., Shankaran, K. R., Muniyappan, K.

    The kinetic studies of oxidation of 3-methylindole (3-MI) by Peroxodisulphate (PDS) has been carried out in ethanol medium. A total second order, first order first order each with respect to [3-MI] and [PDS] has been observed. The reaction was unaffected by increase of [H+]. Increase of percentage of ethanol decreases the rate. Variation of ionic strength had no influence on the rate. Activation and thermodynamic parameters have been calculated from kinetic values. A suitable mechanism scheme based on these observations is proposed.

  41. Dr. Gunasekaran K. and Mrs. Mohana N.

    The basic concepts and theorems of k-Hermitian doubly stochastic, s- Hermitian doubly stochastic and s-k- Hermitian doubly stochastic matrices are introduced with examples.

  42. Ilda Mallkuci and Pranvera Lazo

    Mercury and its chemical compounds are considered very toxic for plants and human beings. Nevertheless, mercury compounds are used in cosmetic and drug products, and particularly in whitening creams in Eastern countries. Mercury is used as a preservative (antifungal and antiseptic) in pharmaceutical liquid or cremates products, even in eye, ear and nasal drops. Creams containing mercury have been manufactured and used despite their confirmed health risks. These products are widely available in pharmacies and beauty aid stores in Albania. They are primarily used by women for makeup and skin lightening effects and also for local pharmaceutical treatments in the human body. The aim of this work was to analyze the mercury content in some cosmetic and drug products by using the cold vapor atomic absorption technique (CVAAS). Preliminary studies were conducted in order to evaluate a proper digestion method able to destroy the matrix of the sample and to convert all forms of mercury to elemental mercury. The results showed that a mixture of H2SO4 and HNO3 digestion provided a higher signal of mercury by destroying first the matrix of the cream type samples. Microwave digestion of liquid pharmaceutical products in the presence of strong acids (HNO3) and strong oxidants (K2Cr2O7) was established as an effective method for a complete digestion of the liquid samples. A total of 19 samples from the local pharmacies and beauty shop market were investigated. No warning information was noted on the packaging of these products. The mercury content of six of them varied between 18.5-0.10 ppm (mg/L or mg/kg). The results are compared with the well known regulations regarding the limit of mercury content for each category of the samples. Even so, the products containing mercury are poorly controlled in Albania.

  43. Maskey, S. M., Burghate, P. D. and Rahangdale, P. K.

    Selenium in its oxyanion form is major cause of contamination in mining aqueous waste streams. The aqueous oxyanions are rather more toxic than elemental form of selenium. Excessive intake of Selenium can cause dizziness, fatigue, irritations of the mucous membranes, collection of fluid in the lungs and bronchitis. Therefore, research is required to explore efficient methods for abetment of excessive toxic Selenium from contaminated water. In the present investigation, initially 4-HAOT-II co-polymer was synthesized in the laboratory and its structure has been assigned based on physico-chemical evidences. This co-polymer was subjected to surface modification employing molecular adsorption deposition method. This improved surface modified co-polymer has been characterisized using modern techniques like FTIR, SEM and XRD. It was tested for selenium removal efficiency from contaminated water. The material reported in the present article has shown an excellent efficacy towards removal of excessive toxic oxyanion Selenium from contaminated water. Thus, it can be used successfully for wastewater treatment.

  44. Selvaraju P. and Kumara Ghuru S.

    In this paper, a deteriorating inventory model with time-varying demand, time-varying deterioration is analyzed. The general time-proportional backlogging rate and general form deterioration rate is also discussed.

  45. Selvaraju P. and Kumara Ghuru S.

    In this paper, a deteriorating inventory model with time-varying demand, time-varying deterioration is analyzed. The general time-proportional backlogging rate and general form deterioration rate is also discussed.

  46. Manu S Gowda and Shiva Keshava Kumar P.

    The ZnO and 1%, 2% copper doped ZnO nano particles were synthesized, by using the chemical precipitation method. The resulting nano particles were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, UV visible spectroscopy. Photo catalytic degradation of methyl orange in aqueous solution by ZnO and Copper doped ZnO under UVC (464 nm) irradiation was studied. The Scherrer equation for X-ray diffraction spectra was used to determine the crystallite sizes of ZnO and Cu-ZnO nano particles. The average crystallite size of un-doped ZnO was found to be 21.65 nm, while the crystallite sizes of 1% and 2% were 31.64 nm and 29.39 nm respectively. Effect of catalyst dosage, initial concentration of methyl orange on the degradation rate constant were also studied, effect of copper doping on degradation and in addition reusability aspects of nano particles where also studied which revalue’s that reused nano particles exhibited same results as that of virgin particles.

  47. Sophia Porchelvi, R., Vasanthi, L. and Irene Hepzibah, R.

    Here, the concept of fractional linear programming problem is extended to Multi objective Fractional Linear programming problem (MOFLPP) in crisp as well as fuzzy sense. Procedures for also solving Multi objective fractional linear programming problems are provided for both crisp and fuzzy cases. A new idea for solving a MOFLPP in both crisp and fuzzy sense is also given. A numerical example is provided to illustrate the proposed methods.

  48. Dr. Sophia Porchelvi and Sudha, G.

    In this paper, we proposed a new approach that can obtain a minimum path in a network using Triangular Intuitionistic Fuzzy number (TIFN). The path labelling algorithm is illustrated with the help of numerical example. The minimum paths obtained from one node to each node of a network can be helpful to decision makers as they make decision to use minimum number of nodes.

  49. Saphina Biira and George Kilama

    Solar energy is an alternative to fossil fuels for more sustainable and reliable energy options; with a huge potential to meet many times the present world energy demand. Readily available solar radiation data is a key to design and simulation of all solar energy applications. In this project, only sunshine hour data is considered which were obtained from the meteorological Department, Entebbe. The sunshine hour’s data got were measurements from 2007 to 2012, from three stations of Jinja, Soroti and Kasese. These stations are well spread throughout the country and hence the data gives a fair over view of the level of solar radiation in the country. It was observed that Soroti had high monthly averages compared to Jinja and Kasese with three minima occurring in April, July and November. This analysis revealed that more sunshine is received in the months of December to February and June to August in all the three stations. Low sunshine hours are encountered from November to December and lowest March to May. the distribution of mean sunshine interval from the three stations indicate that more sunshine occurred in Soroti with the average value of all the data recorded between 2007 and 2012 being 8.2 followed by Jinja with a value of 7.1 and finally Kasese with the lowest value of 6.1 hours. In general, a reduction in the percentage of the number of values in the lower interval range is observed across all the months implying that overcast days were either followed by a clear or partially clear days. Therefore Uganda encounters bright sunshine days most of the time in the year.

  50. Parwate, W. N. and Rahangdale, P. K.

    Out of known 104 naturally occurring elements some are very useful, rather essential for human life, while a few others inclusive of cadmium are toxic and dangerous. Cadmium is mainly used in the industries for coating steel, glass, plastics etc. and also for the production of Ni-Cd battery and automotive tyres. Cadmium is much dangerous due to its long half life and it can exert toxic effects on almost all systems of the human body. The intake of cadmium depends on its concentration in natural sources such as air, land and water and should not exceed 20 mg per day. Cadmium would also be shown to be associated with occurrence of Itai-Itai, a kind of disease, under which patient shows a wide range of symptoms such as low grade of bone mineralization, high rate of fractures, increase rate of asteoporosis and intense bone associated pain. In the present investigation, attempt has been made to study the applicability of Terpolymer Resin derived from 2-Hydroxybenzaldehyde (2-HBA), Oxamide (O) and Trioxane (T) as a potential metal adsorbent to remove Cadmium from aqueous solution (contaminated water). A direct proportionality between the percentage of divalent Cadmium removal and adsorbent doses was noted. Maximum removal of Cd(II) was achieved at pH ranges of 6.5 – 9 for this adsorbent. The optimum temperature of 308 K for efficient removal of Cd (II) was observed. The effect of anions like SO42-, Cl-, NO3- and ClO4- on divalent Cadmium adsorption has also been investigated. The adsorption isotherm data have been confirmed to Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms. Kinetic studies indicated pseudo second order kinetics. Thus the terpolymer resin (2-HBAOT) under present investigation is found to be successful for the removal of toxic Cadmium from aqueous solution (contaminated water).

  51. Mercy Tartsea-Anshase and Terver Jime

    The paper appraised the media vis–a–vis press freedom with specific implication for a developing country like Nigeria. Based on the discussions surrounding the assumptions of the concept of press freedom which the media are supposed to enjoy in the course of their watchdog role and accountability to the masses and to which they have always lived without, it becomes pertinent to see how with the passage of the freedom of information bill into law can help things move well for the Nigerian journalist as he carries out his responsibilities. Anchored on the libertarian and social responsibility theories, the concepts of press, media and press freedom have been explained, how the law can be best utilized as well as the journalists’ understanding of same. The conclusion is that, press freedom is an integral part of the Fol Act and should be preserved and sustained by all concerned while journalists should not on their part abuse the said freedom. The paper recommends amongst others that given the enabling atmosphere, the media should facilitate the promotion of positive judicial attitudes to the FOIA. It is also imperative to sensitize the courts on the import of the law and secure the “buy-in” of judges which most times stands in the way of smooth judicial processes in order to ensure effective implementation of the Act.

  52. Emmanuel, S.D., Adamu, I. K., Ejila, A., Yabaya A., Ja’afaru, M. I., Bobai, M. and 2Blessing Y.

    Laboratory investigations were ascertained to determine the comparative studied of bacteria on fermented yoghurt and locally available fulani nono (Diary product) within Samaru Zaria. Standard plate count (SPC) method was carried out in eight milk samples four from local Fulani nono (A1,A2,A3,A4) and four from yoghurt (B1,B2,B3,B4,) the microbial colonies were found to be high in Fulani nono samples than the yoghurt (B1,B2,B3 and B4) samples. The methylene blue test performed for the milk sample showed that out of the eight samples two sample were poor, one was fair, four were good and one was excellent. Biochemical characterization was also carried out in-situ. The following pathogens were identified viz; Bacillus sp, Staphyloccus sp Streptococcus sp. Pseudomonas sp, Klebsiella sp, Salmonella sp, Proteus sp, Enterobacter sp and their occurrence was noted in-situ. Health implication of the foregoing results in their effort of identification of pathogens in local Fulani nono (milk) and the pasteurized yoghurt are discussed.

  53. Comparative studies of microbial production of poly β-hydroxy butyrates as biopolymer using bacillus sp megaterium sp, alkaligen sp and clostridium sp isolated from tannery sludge reservoir

    An investigation was undertaken to isolate poly β hydroxylbutyrate (PHB) producing bacteria from Tannery waste sludge reservoir In Mario Jose Kano. A total of six isolates were purified, only three sp were selected for the production of PHB viz: Alkaligen sp Bacillus megategarium and Clostridium sp. PHB extraction was carried out by sodium hypochlorides digestion method. The effect of mutant on different bacteria using different UV – light radiation exposure were carried out on three bacteria sp base on time duration (5,10, 15, 20 and 30 min) which shows a significant reduction of growth with increase in time of UV light exposure. The culture conditions have been investigated at optimum conditions. Alkaligen sp and Bacillus megaterium were found to be most efficient PHB producers. Maximum production of PHB yellow purple "Dorowa” (Pakia biglobosa) was shown by Alkaligen sp (2.02 g/g using dried cell weight at 2.80 g/l) and Bacillus megaterium (1.52 g/g using dried cell weight at 1.93 g/l) yield and dried cell weight respectively. Thus, the present data indicate that yellow purple (Pakia biglobosa) could be alternatively used for PHB production. Use of bioplestic produced by these organisms, will help to reduce environmental pollution.

  54. Dr. Gajraj Singh Rathore

    Ahimsa has had a place in Indian religions since ancient times. It has evolved in meaning within and among different religious groups. Ahimsa is the highest law. It is the very essence of human nature. Gandhi gave the practical message of spirituality, love, truth and non-violence, but he did not enunciate any system of philosophy. From his early childhood he loved truth and as he grew up truth and non-violence became his sole objects. He became the apostle of Ahimsa. In other words, he perfected the art and science of Ahimsa. Nehru’s attitude towards non-violence is interesting. Though he was attached to it he did not give absolute allegiance to it as Gandhi did. Mahatma Gandhi was a practical idealist who practised ahimsa in his own life. Nehru also believes that the ideas of non-violent resistance and the non violent technique of struggle were of great value to India as well as to the rest of the world and Gandhi has done a tremendous service in forcing modern thought to consider them. Although the doctrine of non-violence has great future yet probably mankind is not sufficiently advanced to adopt it in its entirety. Nehru is firm in his belief that all life is full of conflict and violence and it seems to be true that violence breeds violence and is thus not the way to overcome it.

  55. Karunaratna, A. C.

    Delivering services quality is a vital strategy for success of an organization in today’s highly competitive business context. Globalized competition has stressed the strategic importance of product quality and loyalty in the battle for winning consumer preferences. Since winning customer is not an easy task in highly spirited business context, more marketers attempt to enhance customer loyalty and remain customers by delivering services quality. In the services business context, the telecommunications industry is a high velocity industry throughout the world. When scrutinizing the telecommunications industry, the most dynamic change at current can be recognized in the field of mobile phone sector. The purpose of this study is to present empirical evidence of services quality effect on customer loyalty. The survey method was used as the main research method for the study. The sample consisted of 300 respondents. The Pierson’s Correlation and Regression analysis were employed to test the impact of services quality on customer loyalty. The study findings showed that services quality dimensions of responsiveness and empathy have significant positive relationship with customer loyalty while other three services quality dimensions namely tangibles, reliability, and assurance also indicate positive correlation with customer loyalty. Exhibiting their level of loyalty, no significant difference between male and female subscribers was reported. The result together with respondents’ comments towards SERVQUAL to evaluate service quality in mobile phone industry is also discussed.

  56. Dr. Pawan Kumar Sharma

    The problem of Micro-level regional disparities in the levels of social and economic development is a universal phenomenon. Educational status of the population in a region determines its standard of living and overall socio-economic development. India is committed to reduce its considerable inequalities in education sector through various programmes. In Jaisalmer district there are considerable inequalities among three physiograpic units with respect to literacy level and availabilities of facilities for primary, secondary and higher education. These inequalities create various socio-economic problems. Therefore, it is essential to ensure the development of educational facilities in backward areas. The study is based on the village wise educational data obtained from Primary survey and mainly secondary data are collected from statistical district outline of Jaisalmer district 2011. The various indicators for educational status have been taken for analysis. In the present study an attempt has been made to examine the Physiographic unit wise study of relationship between educational variation in population threshold and traveled distance to avail the particular educational facility. The main findings brought out the foregoing analysis are the considerable expansion of educational facilities and awareness towards the importance of education has help in socio-economic transformation of the district. The South-Eastern Plain Region of the district shows high level of educational status and socio-economic development whereas the Western Longitudinal Sand Dune Region shows low educational status and socio-economic development. The present study reveals that educational status of any region is based on educational, infrastructural facilities and socio-economic level.

  57. Odongo Salome Awuor

    Instructional resources or materials including human and audio-visual are essential components of a curriculum. They are designed to help the teachers to understand and implement the ideas contained in the new curriculum. The main purpose of the study was to investigate the factors that affect the teaching and learning of life skills curriculum in secondary schools within Eldoret East District. This paper evaluates the instructional resources used by teachers. The study was based on Gagne’s theory of instruction which states that learning is influenced by both internal and external conditions of learning in an educational setting. The study adopted a descriptive survey research design. The techniques used to select the research sample were stratified, purposive and simple random sampling. Two hundred and forty (240) students, 45 teachers and 15 heads of humanities department were selected to participate in the study. To collect data, questionnaire and interview schedule were used. Data collected were coded in Statistical Package for Social Scientists (SPSSv 13.5) and analysed by non parametric Chi-square (χ2) test, descriptive statistics and frequency distribution. The findings were presented in form of tables, charts and graphs. The findings revealed that textbooks were the most available resources for teaching life skills. It is recommended that schools should strive to provide adequate and appropriate instructional materials for LSE. The findings of the study is hoped to benefit teachers of life skills and to guide the policy makers in improving the quality and teaching of life skills curriculum.

  58. Deshmukh, S. U., Potdar, D. S. and Pawar, S. M.

    A field experiment was conducted at the Central Sugarcane Research Station, Padegaon, Dist. Satara (M.S.) to study the effect of briquette on sugarcane ratoon for cane yield, nutrient uptake and soil health during 2009-10 to 2011-12 for three years. The results indicated that application of 100 % RD NPK through briquette recorded significantly highest cane yield and CCS yield and it was at par with application of 75 % RD NPK through briquettes. The same treatments 100 % RD NPK through briquette and 75 % RD NPK through briquette recorded improvement in soil health after completion of three years. The highest fertilizer use efficiency of N, P and K fertilizers were recorded in the treatment 100 % RD NPK through briquettes. The % increase in fertilizer use efficiency of briquettes over non briquettes was highest in 75 % RD NPK through briquettes. The application of 75 % RD NPK through briquettes recorded higher cane yield of sugarcane ratoon, higher B:C ratio with improvement in soil health.

  59. Dr. Laila M. Al-Taweel

    Businesses rely on Accounting Technology (AT) to provide relevant and reliable information to internal and external users with for decision making. As a response to new governance requirements, Information Technology (IT) governance has been under development for several years. Just as business management is governed by generally accepted good practices, IT, including AT, should be governed by practices that help ensure an enterprise’s IT resources are used responsibly, its risks are managed appropriately and its information and related technology support business objectives. AT governance is the process by which decisions are made around AT investments. How these decisions are made, who makes the decisions, which is held accountable, and how the results of the decisions are measured and monitored are all parts of AT governance. This paper evaluates the AT governance using COBIT Maturity Model (CMM) in Syrian organizations listed in the Syrian Commission on Financial Markets and Securities (SCFMS) and examines the associations between maturity levels of AT governance and the reliability of accounting information.

  60. Ahamed Kabeer, M.

    India has traditional producer, consumer and exporter of spices, there are about 109 spices listed by international organization for standardization. India grows about 60 of these spices almost all the state in India produce one or other spices. India is considered as the home of spices as no country in the world grows as much kind of spices as India. India exports spices to more than 120 countries in the world. Main objective of the present study is to examine export performance of selected spices in India during 2001to 2010 by using average growth rate and compound annual growth rate. Study found that the most of the selected spices in India both in terms of value and quantity shows a positive trend, among the selected Indian spices pepper, ginger, and cardamom small registered negative compound annual growth rate both in terms of quantity and value. India needs to increase spices production to meet increasing domestic demand and world demandas well.

  61. Jagtap, P. K., Sandipan, P. B. and Patel, M. C.

    Niger (Guizotia abyssinica L. Cass.) is an important traditional oilseed crop of India, cultivated mainly in hilly and tribal areas. Inspite of high oil content and a wide range of adaptability, little attention has been paid towards maximization of this oilseed crop. Among the agronomic practices, fertilizer, thinning, weeding and plant protection play important role in maximizing the seed yield. Keeping in view all facts, the study of performance of niger as influenced by resource constraints was formulated in RBD design in three replications with 12 different treatments. The results in the present investigation revealed significant differences in respect of seed yield for all the treatments studied. Among the different treatments, highest seed yield was recorded by the treatment T1 (484 kg/ha) with B:C ratio 3.61 followed by T3 (451 kg/ha, BC ratio: 3.64) and T4 (414 kg/ha, BC ratio: 3.57) and lowest yield recorded by T12 (164 kg/ha).

  62. Huei-Chen Yeh, Ph.D.

    Numerous of previous studies on language learning strategies are found to discuss the importance of adapting language strategies to help individuals improve their language learning. SILL inventory was developed by Oxford in 1990; since then it has been used to investigate the language learners’ strategies used at different study groups around the world. Many studies indicated that English majored students have better strategies applied into their language learning. English learning efficiency is consistent to be found to be enhanced by individual’s proper use of language learning strategies (Oxford, 1990), which are memory, cognitive, compensative, metacognitive, affective, and social strategies. The study aimed to explore how English strategies as good predictors help students achieve their language requirements of university graduations; and furthermore, a good learning experience and better test results lead to help students’ lower their anxiety levels and become better motivated language learners. The PLS Analysis is used to investigate possible predictors to English proficiency levels at a small group of the English-majored university students. The results of statistical analysis and the model are presented in the paper. Four factors (SILL, period of studying English, cognitive and social strategies) are found to be statistically significant predictors to students’ test scores.

  63. Dr. Parveen Banu, K. and Dr. Lakshmi Manokari, S.

    In this study an attempt has been made to study the wicking behavior of micropolyester cotton blended yarns. 100% micropolyester, 65/35 micropolyester/cotton, 50/50 micropolyesrer/cotton, 35/65 micropolyester/cotton and 100% cotton were used for this study. The yarns were treated with hot water, dried and then subjected to wicking behavior in distilled water. Among the selected yarns, 100% micropolyester showed better wicking performance.

  64. Raghuveer Naidu, K.

    The present Study Area of Kalyandurg, Brahmasamudram and Setturu mandals are located worst drought prone area of Rayalaseema Region of Andhra Pradesh. The Groundwater Resources are not exploited properly. The present study was under taken to analysis the groundwater potential zones by using IRS - P6 LISS IV FMX (False Colour Composite).Remote Sensing and geographical information system (GIS) has become one of the leading tools in the field of groundwater research, which helps in assessing, monitoring, and conserving groundwater resources, thematic maps such as geology, geomorphology, soil hydrological group, land use / land cover and drainage map were prepared for the study area Using Remote Sensing and GIS Techniques by analyzing the IRS Multiband data of LISS IV and Merged data. From the analysis of the groundwater potential zones with excellent, very good, good, moderate and poor prospects are observed in the three mandals of the study area, it is observed that high potential zones are mainly located along lineaments and in the floodplain areas, pediment areas, Alluvial fills, valley fills are good potential zones, the geomorphic units like buried pediplains, peniplains and denundational hills are moderate to good groundwater prospective zones. Undulating upland and buried pediments with intermontane valley, mainly confined in undulating upland, Inselberg are the regions of poor groundwater prospecting zones.

  65. Hukmaram D. Pawar

    The term Commercial Co-operative Banks (CCOB) not formally defined same as Urban Co-operative Banks. It may defined as “The Co-operative banks works in urban area and providing all services same as commercial banks and controlled by RBI, Banking regulation act 1949 and State Governments as per the provisions of respective State Acts.” The main functions of these banks to provide short term loan to businessman, traders, entrepreneurs etc. These banks are established under Co-operative act but provide all the services which provided by commercial banks like ATM, E-Banking, Housing Loan, Vehicle loans, Demat account facilities, Fund Transfer Facility, SMS facilities etc.

  66. Sheriff Ghali Ibrahim, Abdullahi Liman and Kabir Mato

    The regimented institution of the military is designed and established to be professionally well trained in the process of national defense and protection of the citizenry against external aggression and invasion. But this institution (the military) had for the past century been involved in political participation through an illegal and unconstitutional modus-operandi. This paper examines the historical background of military as an institution in Africa, revisiting the hitherto pre-colonial African militaristic structure. It also analyses the nature of colonial military institution as it was used to dominate the African continent and its structure after decolonization. The paper has adopted the secondary methodology to arrive at its findings. It discovered that, the military had grossly underdeveloped the continent after the withering of colonialism, as a result of corruption, favoritism, ethnicity and lack of proper bureaucratic principles. The paper concludes that, albeit the military is dictatorial in nature, but it has maintained law and order especially in Nigeria better than the so called democratic government (of President Jonathan). The paper recommends maximum restrain of the military vis a vis political power and stronger military-civilian relations as constitutionally defined, among other things.

  67. Hossain Yavari

    The present study aims at investigating the zoning of Tehran according to the most severe polluted days. In this regard, 100 days with the highest pollution level recorded by the stations were selected from 2004 to 2008 in five selective stations around the city and the zoning progress was done based on them. In respect to co.PM10 and SO2 level, Azadi station was the most polluted and Sarkhehesar and also Ray town were the cleanest regions. Considering the NO2, Ray station was the most polluted and Sarkhehesar station was the cleanest one. Regarding O3, Ray station was the most polluted and Pardisan was the cleanest one. Despite the fact that the wind direction was from west to east, wind flow has no a considerable effect on air purification because of the high density of the buildings and low speed of wind. The findings revealed that pollution level in center and west is more than east. Likewise, pollution concentration level of O3 and NO2 increase and pollutant concentration levels of SO2, PM10and CO decrease from north to south of Tehran.

  68. Umofia, I. D., Igwe, J. C., Adeshina, G. O., Ehinmidu, J. O., Ojiego B. O., Kachallah M., Enose O. Dauda, Oladipo H. O., Adeboye S., Sidi M. T. and Salihu M. S, Aliyu A.

    Milk has an outstanding nutritional quality, but is also an excellent medium for bacteria growth and an important source of bacterial infection when consumed without pasteurization. This study was conducted to evaluate the hygienic quality of packaged milk and identify predominant bacteria in milk marketed in Zaria. Two hundred packaged milk samples were bought from five locations (forty samples from each) in Zaria. Isolation and identification of the bacteria species were carried out using standard bacteriological procedures. The study revealed that the four brands of packaged milk sampled in this study were contaminated. The bacterial load obtained from four brands of milk ranged from 19.40 – 1.10 x 106 cfu/ml. The bacteria identified and their prevalence rates were Escherichia coli (13.1%), Proteus species (2.6%), Salmonella specie (0.65%), Providencia species (3.26%), Enterobacter species (36.6%), Citrobacter spp.. (0.65%), Klebsiella species (1.31%), Yersinia specie (0.65%), Pseudomonas species (37.9%) and S. aureus (3.28%). One hundred and fifty-three bacterial isolates were identified from the two hundred milk samples, 27.5% were obtained from the first brand of milk sample, 21.6% from the second brand, 12.4% from the third brand and 38.6% from the fourth brand of milk samples. Most of the organisms identified belonged to enterobacteriaceae family, thus indicating probable faecal contamination of the milk as a result of poor hygiene during production processes. This shows that packaged milk is a potential hazard of pathogenic food borne bacteria that may have public health implications. This can pose health hazard to consumers of such milk products. There is the need for some additional food safety measures to be applied before the consumption of milk.

  69. Parthajoy Bhattacharya, Dr. Rakesh Rajput and Dr. Mahua Bhattacharya

    Man’s various activities have resulted in increase in greenhouse gas emissions which is causing global warming and climate change. In order to keep this earth fit for our future generations to survive there is a dire need to reduce our carbon footprint. The carbon footprint is a measure of the total amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) (primarily) emissions of a defined population system or activity, considering all relevant sources, sinks and storage within the spatial and temporal boundary of the population, system or activity of interest. Carbon footprint is used as an environmental indicator to understand and quantify the main emission sources and it constitutes as an effective tool for energy and environment management. Energy intensive multi-specialty hospitals can also reduce their carbon footprint to a great extent by introducing certain measures in areas of HVAC, lighting etc. Fortis Hospital – a multi specialty hospital in Kolkata has taken significant steps in reducing carbon footprint without compromising quality health-care service to patients. Fortis Hospital has done so by reducing consumption of energy for HVAC and lighting. Introduction of vegetarian food and green travel are other carbon footprint reduction measures of Fortis.

  70. Dr. Veena Vidya Shankar and Dr. Roopa Kulkarni

    Introduction: The liver is supplied by hepatic artery and portal vein. The knowledge of the hepatic veins opening into the retro hepatic part of IVC will help in understanding the causes for bleeding in injuries of liver, pathology of Budd – Chiari syndrome, spread of tumors and surgical excision in case of tumor resection. Scope: To provide morphologic & morphometric data of retro hepatic segment of inferior vena cava (RHIVC) and hepatic veins openings into it. To study the size and number of openings of hepatic veins into retro hepatic segment of inferior vena cava Material and methods: The study on the RHIVC was conducted on 45 Indian cadaveric livers, free from major gross pathological changes. The orientation of RHIVC was recorded. The length of RHIVC was measured. The number, size and nature of openings of hepatic veins were determined. Observations & Results: The average length of RHIVC in cadaveric livers was found to be 71.95 mm +/- 9.36 (mean+/_ SD). The direction of axis of the RHIVC was predominantly oblique towards the left in 23 (51.11%). The number of major ostia was predominantly one on both sides. The average size of right superior major ostia was 17.97 mm and left superior major ostia was 13.6mm. The major hepatic veins had single ostium on both sides predominantly. The number of medium sized openings in RHIVC ranged from 1 to 12 and the number of minor ostia ranged from 5 to more than twenty. Conclusion: The present study provides information on the RHIVC – it’s axis – curved to the left being predominant; length - 71.95 mm +/- 9.36; number of tributaries from liver, which may help the surgeons to plan for the interventional radiology and surgical procedures.

  71. Dr. Mariam Philip, Dr. Joan Felicita Samson, Dr. Simi, P. S. and Susan Ebenezer

    A retrospective descriptive analysis of 43 leprosy patients who attended the leprosy clinic in Dr. SMCSI Medical College was carried out. The male: female ratio was equal. The maximum number of patients were in the age group of 21-40 years. A childhood incidence of 9.3% was noted. Multibacillary (MB) cases were more than paucibacillary (PB) cases and more men had MB cases than women.

  72. Nasrin Jaber Ghaderi

    Background: World Health Organization has identified violence against children as a growing public-health issue with a global magnitude. However, control-trial studies on using abuse focused CBT in treating child victims of domestic violence in Iran is lacking. Method: 99 urban students (aged 8-12 years old) who fulfilled the inclusion criteria, randomly assigned to each CBT or control group. Children and their parents were examined by using a Life Incidence Traumatic Events scale (LITEs), Child Report Of Post traumatic Symptoms (CROPS) and Parents Report Of Post traumatic Symptoms(PROPS) before and after treatment. Results: The findings suggested a significant between groups differences on the CROPS and PROPS. Using Cohens’ d effect size revealed a moderate to high practical significance in CBT group. Conclusion: CBT can help children to greatly recover from the outcomes of domestic violence and lead to greater improvement than what can be expected from natural recovery in control group. Professionals should use more trauma focused psycho-therapeutic methods like abuse focused CBT in the treatment.

  73. Malik A. Elfadni, Habab M. Yassin, Hind M. Abushama, Emtinan Khalid and Eltahir A. G. Khalil

    The ABO and Rh blood groups are the most important blood group systems in humans with tremendous variability among different races and ethnic groups. Their clinical importance is evident in blood transfusion and hemolytic disease of the newborn. A number of associations have been reported between diseases and blood group systems. This study aimed to determine the frequencies of Rhesus blood group phenotypes and probable genotypes of major Sudanese tribes. Following informed consent, one thousand venous blood samples were collected from unrelated individuals from ten Sudanese tribes. Red blood cells were tested for common Rhesus antigens suing Particle gel immune diffusion and slide agglutination techniques. The phenotypes, haplotypes and most probable genotypes were determined. Similarities between different Sudanese populations were calculated using Jaccard’s coefficient of similarities. Phenotypic data obtained was referred to as alleles, haplotypes, genotypes based on reasonable assumptions that every Rh blood group antigen represents a gene that is always expressed and has a Mendelian dominant mode of inheritance. The ē, and D were the most common antigens/alleles with frequencies of 98.4%, 93.8% and 90.7% respectively. The C and the E antigens/alleles were less frequent. The most prevalent haplotype complex was / (frequency= 44.2%) and the least common was the / (frequency= 0.1%).The most prevalent genotype was with a frequency of 44.2%, while and genotypes were detected with lower frequencies of 21.7% and 10.9% respectively. The , , CdE and C E genotypes were the least common. In conclusion, ē, and the D antigens/alleles were the most common among the major Sudanese tribes. The C and the E antigens were the least expressed. The Commonest Rh haplotype/genotype encountered was the .

  74. Dr. Sarika P. Kombade and Dr. Gopal N. Agrawal

    Introduction: Ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP) is a type of nosocomial pneumonia which occurs in patients who receive mechanical ventilation (MV). In India, occurrence of VAP among intensive care unit (ICU) patients varies from 9% to 24%. Global crude mortality rate of VAP ranges from 24% to 50%. Aims and objectives: To determine the incidence rate, bacteriological profile and antibiotic sensitivity pattern of VAP. To determine Multidrug resistance pattern among the isolates. Materials and methods: 245 ICU infected patients who were on MV > 48 hours were studied prospectively in the Department of Microbiology, Indira Gandhi Govt. Medical College from Sep. 2010- Dec. 2012. After the clinical confirmation according to CDC criteria, the endotracheal secretion were collected and processed as per standard microbiological methods and antibiotic sensitivity pattern of each were recorded. ESBL, AMPC, MBL along with MRSA were detected. Results: Of total 107 clinically and microbiological diagnosed VAP patient, 114 isolates were obtained. Most common Organism isolated are Pseudomonas aeruginosa (33.6%), Acinetobactor spp. (29.9%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (26.2%) and Gram positive coccii (8.4%). Maximum gram negative isolates were sensitive to imipenem followed by piperacillin-tazobactum and amikacin. All Staphylococcus and Enterococcus species were sensitive to vancomycin and linezolid. High MDR were obtained. Conclusion: Due to the increasing incidence of multidrug-resistant organisms in our ICU, early and correct diagnosis of VAP is an urgent challenge for an optimal antibiotic treatment and cure. Hence, knowing the local microbial flora causing VAP and effective infection control practices are essential to improve clinical outcomes.

  75. Dr. Girish V. Patil and Dr. Shishirkumar

    Stature is the height of the person in the upright posture. It is an important measure of physical identity. Establishing the identity of an individual from mutilated, decomposed and amputed body fragments has become an important necessity in recent times due to natural disasters like earthquakes, tsunamis, cyclones, floods and man-made disasters like terror attacks, bomb blasts, mass accidents, wars, plane crashes etc. The present study was conducted at Department of Anatomy of DM- Wayanad Institute of Medical Sciences, Wayanad, kerala and Srinivas Institute of Medical Sciences, Mangalore, Karnataka. Sample size was taken as 450 (200 male and 250 female). Stature in Males varied from 138 cm to 184 cm, Stature in Females varied from 132 cm to 166 cm. Foot length in Males varied between 20.2 to 28.6 cm, In females range of Foot length was from 20.3 to 27.4cm. The correlation coefficient between height and foot length is + 0.658 in male and + 0.567 in female which is highly significant. Estimation of stature among the population can be carried out using foot length and there is positive correlation between stature and foot length in a particular population.

  76. Dr Asima Banu, Dr Mir Mohammed Noorul Hassan, Dr Eswari Loganathan and Rashmi, K. N.

    Background: At the end of 2008, 3 people out of 1000 between 15 to 49 years of age were affected with HIV in India. Commonly used prognostic markers like CD4 count and viral loads for HIV monitoring are expensive and sophisticated. Anemia is a frequent complication that occurs in 20-80% of HIV infected persons and is associated with faster disease progression and mortality. Therefore we aimed to determine the changes in Hb concentration and its correlation with CD4 counts and also to determine whether Hb alone can be used as an indicator for disease progression. Materials and Methods: 2 ml of venous blood was drawn for CD4 cell count and Hb% once monthly for a period of 3 months from 100 patients between the age of 18 to 60 years attending the Antiretroviral therapy (ART) Centre of our hospital. The results were compiled and descriptive and inferential statistical analyses done Results: Of the 100 patients majority of patients had CD4 counts above 200 and most had hemoglobin more than 12g/dl i.e. 63% while anemia was found in 37%. Over 3 months, out of the patients who had anemia, majority had CD4 counts below 500 and also, CD4 count was found to be less in people having Hemoglobin less than 12g/dl. Conclusion: Hemoglobin concentration is directly related to the number of CD4 cells. Measuring CD4 counts using flow cytometry is an expensive technique and as per guidelines is being repeated once in 6 months. Hence the Hb concentration, which is easy to estimate and can be done frequently may be used as a prognostic indicator in resource limited setting.

  77. Hemanth Sureshwara Ghalige, Karthik, K., Babitha, N., Birkumar Sharma, M. and Sudhir Chandra Singh, Th.

    The entity of double carcinoma in a single patient of different pathologies is not encountered commonly in clinical practice, especially in Indian subcontinent. Lack of medical insurance and poverty often compels treating surgeons To use minimum of diagnostic tests for the workup of malignancies. This leads to under diagnosis and reporting of such occurrences. Here we present a case report of 60 year old female with a painful swelling of left breast and a left lower neck swelling. On examination there was warmth, oedema with peau d’ orange appearance in more than one third of breast with enlarged solitary axillary lymph node and multiple left supraclavicular lymph nodes. Fine needle aspiration cytology of lymph nodes confirmed left inflammatory breast carcinoma with metastasis. Computerised tomography scan of chest confirmed the malignant changes in breast parenchyma, pectoralis major as well as axillary lymph node. Our protocol of performing oesophago-gastro-duodenoscopy in cases with Virchow’s node involvement unearthed the obscure asysmptomatic primary duodenal adenocarcinoma. Considering the grave prognosis, the patient was considered for palliation with oral Capecitabine. The rarity of such associations together with non-standardised protocol in the metastatic workup in the subcontinent makes us report such an entity to sensitize the clinicians.

  78. Suman Sharma, Chanchal Shrivastav, Suman Jain and Dr. M. L. Suhalka

    Aim: To assess the accuracy of C-reactive protein in predicting the severity of acute pancreatitis. Method: In this study 20 patients with acute pancreatitis were included. Ranson’s criteria were fulfilled and C–reactive protein level was estimated at the time of admission. Result: Out of 20 patients of acute pancreatitis, 12 were having severe disease with CRP level between 96-192 mg/L, while in mild disease 7 patients were having severe disease with CRP level between 24-48 mg/L and only 1 patient was having normal CRP level i.e. below 6 mg/L. Conclusion: Value of C - reactive protein is to provide a guide to the severity of the inflammation. Measurement of CRP level is a simple method to assess the severity of disease.

  79. Hemanth Sureshwara Ghalige, Karthik, K., Sanjeev Somashekar Rathod, Zochampuia Ralte, Manohar S. K., Prasad V. N., Birkumar M Sharma and Sudhir Chandra Singh, Th

    Background: The most common and significant cause for morbidity following appendicectomy is surgical wound infection. There are conflicting reports regarding the optimal duration of antibiotic prophylaxis in interval appendicectomy. The efficacy of prolonged prophylactic antibiotic treatment in preventing wound infection for appendicectomy is poorly defined. Objective: The objective of this study was to compare length of hospital stay, the rate of wound infections, post-operative fever for open interval appendectomy between no antibiotic group(A) and antibiotic group(B). Design: Randomized Controlled trial. Duration of study: 1st June 2012 to 31st May 2013. Patients and Methods: The patients were divided into A and B groups and their age, time of discharge, wound infection rates were compared and analysed. Results: Total of 100 patients were included in the study, 50 in each group. There were 58% male and 42% female patients. Mean age was 22.78 years (±6.2). The length of hospital stay in group A and group B was almost same. Wound infection was seen in 1 patient in both groups. One patient had fever in group A which was attributed to malaria. Conclusions: with good aseptic and antiseptic precautions antibiotics can be omitted for interval Appendicectomy (clean contaminated surgery)

  80. Dr. Girish V. Patil, Dr. Shishirkumar, Dr. Thejeswari, Dr. Apoorva, D., Dr. Javed Sharif, Dr. C. Sheshgiri and Mr Sushanth, N. K.

    The palmaris longus (PL) is one of the most variable muscle reported up to 90% of humans. The characteristic of this muscle is shown by its short belly and long tendon. The belly soon gives way to a long slender tendon of variable length that inserts adherent across the front of the flexor retinaculum to the palmar aponeurosis. This study is done by using 200 upper limbs of 100 cadavers. The overall prevalence of absence was 16% (16 subjects). In the development of the forelimb as a prehensile organ, its function has been taken over by the intrinsic muscles of the hand and the PL has become degenerate. It should therefore necessary to investigate the prevalence of PL in other Asian ethnic groups and perhaps by socio-economic strata in such populations.

  81. Kavitha Madhavan, Dr. Muthuswamy, P. R., Sunil Franklin, A. and Anitha, P.

    Quality refers to excellence of a product or a service, including its attractiveness, lack of defects, reliability, and long-term durability. Quality assurance provides the mechanisms to effectively monitor patient care provided by health care professionals using cost-effective resources. Quality is defined as the extent of resemblance between the purpose of healthcare and the truly granted care. The main function of the quality department in a hospital is to implement quality system & to establish quality and safety culture. Improvements are based on many, small changes rather than the radical changes that might arise from Research and Development. As the ideas come from the workers themselves, they are less likely to be radically different, and therefore easier to implement. Small improvements are less likely to require major capital investment than major process changes. All employees should continually be seeking ways to improve their own performance. It helps encourage workers to take ownership for their work, and can help reinforce team working, thereby improving worker motivation. Patient safety is a new healthcare discipline that emphasizes the reporting, analysis, and prevention of medical error that often leads to adverse healthcare events. The frequency and magnitude of avoidable adverse patient events was not well known until the 1990s, when multiple countries reported staggering numbers of patients harmed and killed by medical errors. Recognizing that healthcare errors impact 1 in every 10 patients around the world, the World Health Organization calls patient safety an endemic concern.

  82. Ramesh kumar, T. and Sethuraman, S.

    The dynamic aspects of insect reproduction has received more attention in recent years. Insect reproduction is an essential physiological process from the view point of propagation due to the fact that, its processes are so intimately associated with other systems and are controlled by both intrinsic and extrinsic factors. The male and female reproductive system generally consists of paired gonads connected to a median duct leading to the gonopore. Insect ovaries are composed of several ovarian tubes termed ovarioles. The classification of the ovary type is essentially based on the general architecture of the ovarioles. In panoistic ovarioles all germ cell becomes oocyte and consequently egg cells. In meroistic ovaries divisions of ogonial cells are fallowed by incomplete cytokinesis. In the phytopesticide neem gold treated ovaries (25ppm median lethal concentration) of Odontopus varicornis shows drastic histopathological changes in germarium, follicular epithelium, trophocytes and oocytes. The application of neem gold results in a significant reduction in the rate of cell membrane, chromatin clumbing in the nuclei of zone 1, zone 2 & zone 3. The follicular epithelium exhibits a shrunken and folded appearance with damaged trophic core and nutritive cords.

  83. Mayur Prajapati, Solanki, K. D. and Thakkar, K. A.

    Widespread poverty is a stable crisis and poverty alleviation has been a key component in development plan. Poverty is a complex set of problems, and that poverty alleviation can only be accomplished by a portfolio of policies and programs customized to explicit aspects of the problem. It recognizes that poverty alleviation efforts must reflect the best practices in public management, including the specification of concrete goals, the assessment of the strategies and the ability to learn and improve. Formulation of programmes to mitigate poverty essentially requires knowledge of what are now recognised as enormously comp Agriculture and agro-based industries play an important role in the improvement of the rural economy in India. At present, about 70 per cent of Indians depend on agriculture for their livelihood. A large number of tribal community is bereft of stable livelihoods and thus they fall in the category of the vulnerable section of Indian society. Therefore, It is essential to provide the latest information regarding the agricultural modernizations lead to formalization of the sustainable livelihood approach. Sustainable Livelihood security to basic human needs, food security, sustainable agricultural practices and poverty and describes as an integrating concept. A Livelihood comprises the capabilities, assets (including both material and social resources) and activities required for a means of living; a livelihood is sustainable which can cope with and recover from stress and shocks and maintain or enhance its capabilities and assets. The present study was conducted in Sabarkantha district of North Gujarat region of Gujarat State, as the economy of the districts basically dependent on agriculture and the district ranks first with respect to tribal population amongst the districts of North Gujarat region. It is seen that only 14 villages out of 1.372 were having percentage range of scheduled tribes population of 41-50, covered in Khedbrahma, Vijaynagar, Bhiloda and Meghraj talukas of the district. Among these four talukas considering the numbers of villages Meghraj and Bhiloda talukas were selected purposively. All 11 villages of Bhiloda and Meghraj talukas, having scheduled tribes population of 41-50 range of percentage were selected purposively. Ten tribal farmers and ten non-tribal farmers from each village were selected randomly. Thus, total 220 farmers were selected. Sustainable livelihood was measured through three different indicators viz., social, economic and environmental indicator. To measure these indicators a teacher made test was developed, and total 12 sub indicators were determined. The score of sub indicators were given by organizing conference method of the teachers. All indicators score were summed up to get the Sustainable Livelihood Index (SLI) of individual respondent It was found that the average mean score of all the selected sub indicators of S.L.I. of non-tribal respondents were higher than tribal respondents. The indicators of sustainable livelihood in both groups of farmers were differentiate with some specific indicators viz., consumption pattern, cultural events, tradition, health services and financial system. Which were indicated the standard and the gap of sustainable livelihood between the tribal and non-tribal respondents. The majority (90.91%) of the tribal respondents were having low to medium extent of sustainable livelihood. In the case of non-tribal respondents 87.27 per cent were having medium to high extent of sustainable livelihood. The size of family, annual income, livestock possession and cosmopoliteness were associated positively and significantly with S.L.I. of tribal farmers. While in case of non-tribal respondents, all the independents variables, except livestock possession were important variables affecting the S.L.I. lex causes. Empirical identification of these causes is a formidable task because of the conceptual issues involved in defining the many dimensions of poverty, the data constraints in measuring its incidence and econometric problems in estimating the relationships between the casual factors and poverty levels. The development of the concept of Self Help Group was one of the most prominent poverty alleviation programmes. This paper focuses on the status of micro finance through SHG bank linkage programme in Assam.

  84. Gulzar S Sanghera, Subhash C Kashyap, Vijay Rana and Parray, G. A.

    Genetic divergence was studied using Mahalanobis D2 statistics in a set of 68 bread wheat genotypes using 14 quantitative traits. On the basis of which, these genotypes were grouped into 10 clusters. Inter-cluster distances ranged from 4.67 (cluster III and VI) to 15.33 (cluster VIII and IX) and were more than intra-cluster distances which ranged from 0 (cluster X) to 9.25 (cluster II). Based on degree of inter-cluster distances, clusters II, V, VI, VII, IX, and X were regarded as diverse clusters, however, the maximum inter-cluster distance was observed between clusters VIII and IX (15.33) followed by clusters V and IX (14.60) and VII and IX (13.78). This indicates that the genotypes included in these clusters have wide genetic diversity and could be used in hybridization programme which may be aimed at either combination breeding or for exploitation of heterosis. Traits like number of productive tillers per running meter, 1000 grain weight and grain yield had high contribution towards genetic divergence, hence these traits are major determinants of genetic diversity in the present set of genotypes. The presence of significant genetic variability among the evaluated wheat genotypes suggests an opportunity for improvement of grain yield through hybridization of genotypes from different clusters and subsequent selection from the segregating generations.

  85. Gayatri Nath, Soumitra Nath, Kaberi Deb and Bibhas Deb

    In the present study, rhizospheric soil samples were collected from Cajanus cajan cultivated field from Hailakandi district of Assam, India. A total of thirteen (13) bacterial strains were isolated and identified on the basis of their morphological and biochemical characteristics and classified as Pseudomonas sp., Klebsiella sp., Bacillus sp. and Staphyllococcus sp.. All the strains were unable to solubilize phosphate and showed sensitivity against different antibiotics such as amikacin, tetracycline, streptomycin and gentamycin. Salt tolerance was observed upto 5% NaCl concentration for all the isolates and only two isolates showed moderate growth at 10% NaCl. Since GN1 and GN7 were able to survive at high salt concentration, they may be useful in crop fields or agricultural farms where the level of salt concentration is extremely high. In this way, it can also help in the process of bioremediation.

  86. Nehul Saxena, Anubhav Pandey, Aparna Jha Ahuja and Vijay Kumar

    In this technologically savvy world, we witness mushrooming of sophisticated line of softwares that are extensively used for predicting epitopes towards developing vaccines and therapeutics. However, most softwares also generate bulky junk data along with data of interest. Here we devised a combined usage of B cell epitope prediction softwares- ABCpred along with additional online tools such as CLUSTAL W and Sequence Manipulation Suite for stringent selection of B cell epitopes. Dengue was used as model disease since the present diagnostic kits give false positives owing to cross-reactivity with other flaviviruses. The in silico predicted 240 unique B cell epitopes of dengue viruses were reduced to 87 serotype-specific epitopes using combination of softwares. Three best ranking epitopes of each dengue serotype were functionally validated by cloning corresponding DNA sequences in thep CBP vector and expressing these epitopes as calcium-binding protein fusion proteins. Western blot analysis and indirect ELISAs of purified fusion proteins confirmed that nearly fifty percent of the epitopes were in close agreement with the predictions.Thus, stringent selection of epitopes using a combination of prediction softwares is likely to identify a compact library of B cell epitopes useful for developing more specific diagnostics in future.

  87. Hadi Mahdi Aboud, Ali Hashim Al-Mosaye and Rabab Majead Abed

    Experiment was conducted in field to study the influence interaction of B. subtilis bacteria and T. harzianum fungi with AM fungi G. mosseae in growth and yield parameters of cucumber Cucumis sativus. The present study showed that the relationship between B. subtilis and T. harzianum with G. mosseae was positive due to getting a significant increase in the number of spores and the percentage of colonization and the infection index of AM fungi and interaction among (G. mosseae + B. subtilis + T. harzianum) give highest increase in the number of G. mosseae spores (3950) spore, mycorrhizal root (14.57)% and mycorrhizal dependency (79.8)%. The result showed that the interaction between B. subtilis and T. harzianum give significant increase in the growth and yield parameters, and all treatments with or without mycorrhiza increased the growth and yield of cucumber plant excepting fresh root weight. This increase is due to get a significant increase in chlorophyll a,b and total chlorophyll in all treatments comported with control without any addition, and in mycorrhizal treatment there is a significant increase in weight of mycorrhizal roots and mycorrhizal dependency.

  88. Anjalika Maithy Roy, Soumi Ghosh, Anirban Paul, Tustu Mondal, Jaladhar Pal and Nirmalya Banerjee

    The effect of three fungicides namely Indofil, Bavistin and biofungicide on mitotic index, chromosomal abnormalities, seed protein content, radicle-plumule length variation on lentil (Lens culinaris Medik) were assessed through a seed treatment experiments. Seeds treated with different doses (0.5%, 1%, 2%) of the three fungicides (above mentioned) solution along with control set. The systemtic fungicides (indofil & bavistin) treated seeds have the ability to induce mitotic abnormalities in large number at 2% concentration, in contrast to biofungicide, which is less toxic. However, the plumule-radicle length is highest in case of seeds treated with 0.5% bavistin & indofil and with 1.0 % in bio fungicide. The endosperm weight decreases gradually in respect to total plumule-radicle weight. In general, the toxicity of fungicide in terms of chromosomal abnormality increases as follows: indofil >bavistin >biofungicide. From the proposed study, it can be concluded that Bio fungicides are more safe than systemtic fungicides as they posed very negligible effect on cell division and chromosome profile.

  89. Gulzar S. Sanghera, Vikrant Tyagi, Rajinder Kumar and K. S. Thind

    Sugarcane (Saccharum spp. complex) is an important cash crop of sugar industry. It is generally grown in tropics; however its productivity depends on the varieties cultivated from different maturity group, the agro-climatic conditions of the region and cultural practices followed. The subtropical region for sugarcane cultivation occupies about 50 per cent of the national area. So, present study was under taken to evaluate twelve elite sugarcane clones belonging to early maturity group under subtropical condition of India at Punjab Agricultural University, Regional Research Station, Kapurthala, during 2013 in randomized block design in plot size of 36 m¬2 having three replications with an inter-row spacing of 75cm. The data were recorded on eight yield and quality traits viz. cane length (m), cane diameter (cm), single cane weight (kg), juice/cane (kg), juice extraction (%), brix (%) in juice, sucrose (%) in juice and Purity (%). The analysis of variance revealed significant differences among the clones for all the traits studied. The magnitudes of phenotypic variances were higher than genotypic variances for all the traits. Moderate to high heritability coupled with high genetic advance were recorded for juice/cane, juice extraction %, single cane weight, cane length and sucrose per cent. Positive and significant associations of juice/cane, juice extraction, brix per cent and sucrose per cent in juice were recorded with single cane weight. The mean performance of different clones for traits studied ranged, cane length (1.71 – 2.70m), cane diameter (2.12 – 2.73cm), single cane weight (0.99 – 1.69kg), juice/cane (0.50 – 1.05kg), Juice extraction (44.41 – 74.48%), brix (13.35 – 18.63%), pol (11.33 – 17.22%) and purity (83.01 – 91.13%). The characters with high heritability coupled with genetic advance and positive association with cane yield are advocated as selection criteria for yield improvement in sugarcane and identification of promising early maturing clones under subtropical conditions.

  90. Zaver Somani, Rituparna Bhattacharjee, Medha Chodankar and Abhilash N.

    Chromolena odorata roots are used by traditional healers in Western Ghats for treating inflammation and tumor suppression. Hence the study tries to validate the use, by invitro antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and inovo anti-angiogenic activities. Virtual screening of active constituents of C.odorata was done using admet SAR an online web tool followed by molecular docking using autodock. Plant extract had a total phenol content of 30mg/g GAE. In comparison to the standard Ascorbic acid plant extract exhibited significant antioxidant activity by scavenging DPPH (IC50 104μg) and ABTS ions (IC50 84μg), reducing Ferric ions (IC50 50μg) and a Total Antioxidant Capacity of 27.5 mg/g Ascorbic Acid Equivalent. Percentage protection of HRBC by 300mg of plant extract was equivalent to that of 200mg of standard Diclofenec indicating anti-inflammatory activity with an IC50 value of 70μg. In inovo anti-angiogenic assay 500mg of extract disrupted the process of angiogenesis. Virtual screening highlighted the possibility of Chalcone, Kaempferide, Tamarixetin and Eupatilin becoming leads in future anti-inflamatory and anti agiogenic drugs.

  91. Sonali Johri and Geeta Chauhan

    The study was designed to prepare whey herbal spice mixture, which was used as constituent of Pani Puri. Pani puri a spicy food item liked by many Indian peoples and it is popular throughout India. Puri is puffed made round, made up of wheat flour which is consumed after filling it with sour, hot and spicy chilled water known as pani. Pani is consumed with Puri utilizing whey at the place of water, by adding some flavor of whey. Whey is a by-product obtained during coagulation of milk by using acid. It contains about half of the milk solids in which nutritional components such as lactose, protein and minerals are present in large amount. Pani puri from whey water was prepared in three flavors by adding cumin seeds (II), asafoetida (III) and tamarind (IV) respectively. Sample I was Plain without adding any flavor. Method of preparation includes whey, addition of spice mixture (20%), addition of flavoring agents like cumin, asafoetida, tamarind (1.5%) with proper mixing and chilling, filtering and storage at low temperature (4.0±1ºC). The prepared beverage has light green color, highly acceptable taste and overall acceptability. Sensory evaluation of the products was done using nine point hedonic scale on the basis of appearance, color, palatability, flavor and overall acceptability. Physicochemical analysis of the products was done by estimating pH, moisture and ash percentage. Total soluble solids, acidity and pH were found to be acceptable by the end of 0-10 days storage. Products were judged for acceptability at 5 days of interval of time. This may allow the consumers to consume whey without changing its original attributes.

  92. Singh, V. K., Srivastava, S. and Singh, K. P.

    Neutrophil from the malarial (Plasmodium yoelii) infection was isolated by Ficoll-Hypaque and Dextran sedimentation method, the viability of neutrophil was assessed by trypan blue to be 95-98%. The viable neutrophil follows apoptosis and modulates the myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. Our data suggesting that, the malarial infection inhibits MPO activity of neutrophil. During P. yoelii infection, the induction of apoptosis was found in neutrophils using FACS. This data suggesting that this apoptosis may be initiated by leukocyte hemozoin coming after phagocytic ingestion of parasite-libratedhemozon (HZ) in peripheral blood.

  93. Subin K. Jose, Rajan, R. V. and Madhu, G.

    Vegetation is a vital component of the natural environment. Terrestrial vegetation includes natural ecosystems, such as native forests and woodlands, shrub lands, grasslands and wetlands. Information on land cover is fundamental to many national/global applications including watershed management and agricultural productivity. Thus, the need to monitor land cover is derived from multiple intersecting drivers, including the physical climate, ecosystem health, and societal needs. Tropical forests have undergone rapid land cover changes especially in the last few decades. Terrestrial forest is one of the major factors in the global carbon balance, and therefore in global climate change. Change in forest cover may also have affected past climates on regional or sub-continental scales. Forest cover change accelerates the climate change and global warming. The present study analyses the vegetation change in the Neyyar wildlife sanctuary for a period of forty years using GIS and Remote sensing techniques.

  94. Emmanuel, K.V., Vignesh, S. and Arthur James, R.

    The attitude of an industry towards environment protection is influenced by the manner its constituents are organized. Dominated by small-scale units, with limited technical expertise and financial resources, the tanning industry is insular by nature. To address these issues, a study with pilot plant results were addressed to identify the reasons for high organics, particularly, the COD in the treated effluent remaining higher than the desired limits of membrane manufactures. Also understand the effectiveness of various tertiary treatment systems on different types of tannery effluents to produce the effluent with characteristics fit for the RO membranes. Based on the results the effectiveness and impact of varying operational parameters of different RO membranes are discussed

  95. Kant, A., Gaijon, P. and Nadeem, U.

    Rhodamine B (RhB), one of the toxic dyes which are extensively used for dyestuffs, textile, paper and plastics industries. RhB does not easily biodegrades in aqueous medium and show harmful effect on aquatic as well as human life. In the present work adsorption studies of RhB onto cardboard (CB) was examined in aqueous solution at 28ºC with the effect of pH, dye concentrations and contact time. Highest 68% uptake efficiency recorded was for 10 mg/L solution concentration onto 25mg of cardboard. Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherm models were applied to describe the equilibrium isotherms. The kinetic data were fitted to pseudo-second-order kinetic model and intraparticle diffusion kinetic was also investigated.

  96. David, D. and Dr. Estherlydia, D.

    Sauerkraut fermentation is usually carried out in the presence of high sodium chloride amounts. However, nowadays consumers who prefer to consume a healthy product would opt for a low sodium content food with additional health benefits. Therefore, in the present study, sauerkraut was fermented with the addition of 0.5 % garlic, 0.1 % pepper and of 1.5 % non-iodized sodium chloride. The phytochemical and antioxidant activity of reduced salt spicy sauerkraut was evaluated. Results indicate that the pH of sauerkraut brine ranged between 5.0 to 3.57 over a period of 28 days fermentation. The total acidity expressed as percent lactic acid in sauerkraut ranged between 0.05 to 0.22 showing an increasing in the lactic acid over a period of fermentation. Nutrients like protein, copper, zinc and vitamin K is found to be higher in reduced salt spicy sauerkraut compared to that of traditional sauerkraut. Preliminary phytochemical screening of reduced salt spicy sauerkraut indicates the presence of carbohydrate, flavanoids, quinines, terpenoids, and phenol. Total Polyphenol Content (TPC) of reduced salt spicy sauerkraut was found to be high containing 36.7 mg GAE/100 ml. Spicy Sauerkraut could be a more healthy option for maintaining optimal nutrition goals.

  97. Thiruppathy, J., Karuppasamy, P., Ragu, M., Ganesan, M., Rajendran, T. and Sivasubramanian, V. K.

    The corrosion and inhibition behaviour of mild steel in 0.5M H2SO4 in the presence of Sodiumlignosulphonate (SLS) has been investigated. The inhibitor effect of this naturally occurring SLS on the corrosion of mild steel in 0.5M H2SO4 was studied by weight loss , potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopic methods. The inhibition efficiency of SLS on corrosion of mild steel in 0.5M H2SO4 is very good. The result of the different techniques confirmed the adsorption of SLS on the mild steel surface as the cause for the inhibition effect. Maximum inhibition efficiency of 90.9% at 18% (v/v) of SLS suggests that the presence of SLS in solution enhances the surface coverage. Based on the experimental evidences a mechanism is proposed to explain the inhibitory action of SLS.

  98. Senthiil, P. V., Miruduneka and Aakash Sirusshti

    Spring back is the major issue in the bending of tubes. Presently trial and error methods are followed in the production of components for compensating the spring back problem. This takes an ample amount of time and money for the industries. More quantity of components gets rejected due to this problem. So this makes the companies to go for a solution to this problem. In this project the spring back analysis of hollow cylindrical tubes of various thickness and diameter is made. In this project we propose artificial neural network in which initial parameters are fixed to get desired final shape. An experimental method of bending the tubes is done to obtain the initial parameters. Then the initial parameters comprising of input values and target values are taught to the artificial neural network in the learning cycles. The network error is reduced by doing further iterations. Then the validation of the values is made. Now the input value is given to get the required output value. Comparison between the results obtained by both artificial neural network and experimental method is carried out to show the integrity of artificial neural network. Now we can get to compare the required spring back value from artificial neural network and experimental method within the area taught to it.

  99. Salah A. Jassim, Faliah H. Ali, Thaera A. Mussa and Amer Y. Abdulla

    Removal of cadmium ions from aqueous solution using burned palm tree leaves powder (solid) was performed through batch studies. pH, contact time, metal concentration, dosage of solid and particle size of solid were studied to investigate the optimum conditions for removal percent and the maximum removal capacity of CdII. High removal percent was achieved at best parameters determined as follow: pH = 8.9, solid particle size= 75 µm, contact time= 120min, shaking rate= 300 rpm and cadmium concentration (Co)= 90ppm. About 99% of CdII was removed from aqueous solution with maximum removal capacity of 26.6 mg/g at these conditions.

  100. Raghuveer Naidu, K., Nagaraja.Ravoori and Ramanaiah, Y. V.

    The present paper examines the Depth to Groundwater levels and stage of the groundwater development in the study area of Kalyandurg, Anantapur District of Andhra Pradesh. The Depth to Water levels (DTW) for pre and post monsoon period of 2000 and 2012 year assessed. For this study Groundwater Samples collected for 6 locations in the study area from Groundwater department, Anantapur, A.P, the study has found that the depth to water level of pre (May) and Post Monsoon (Nov) period of 2000 observed deep water levels 10.36 and 12.55 m (bgl) in Setturu and Shallow groundwater zones is observed at Vepulaparthi 3.75 m (bgl) Golla 4.54 m (bgl) in Kalyandurg mandal, at the same time for 2012 water level depth has been increased compare to 2000. Deep water levels 12.86 m (bgl) and 16.79 m (bgl) in Setturu and shallow groundwater levels observed in Golla 2012m (bgl) and 4.96 m (bgl) for pre and post monsoon period of 2012. Present’s Stage of ground water development in the study area as estimated by the A.P.Groundwater Department collected this data and analyzed, ground water development has reached the critical or overexploited Stage in two thirds of the villages in the study area.

  101. Balasubramanian, V., Chandrasekaran, J. and Prabahar, S.

    Bi2S3 thin films have been prepared with different deposition time and temperature by chemical bath deposition method. The influence of deposition time and temperature of Bi2S3 films on I-V characteristics are investigated. The current increase with increase of the film thickness and current is directly proportional to the applied voltage. The decrease in resistivity is due to the improvement in the crystallinity of films, which increases the conductivity. It exhibits semiconducting nature of the films.

  102. Lavanya Gunamalai and Jaynthy, C.

    Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations is computational methods of studying physical movements of molecules, atoms in Nitrogen body. Montecarlo method of simulating the molecules are more common and widely used for bio-molecules on other hand it is numerical methods of predicting the realistic motion of the atoms in biological system. In this current study ,collagen the commercial important peptides were chosen for the molecular modeling studies in Insilco analysis. The complex form of N and C telopeptides of α-I collagen (I) and α-II collagen (I) with α and β cyclodextrin(CD) and water molecules were studied using simulation program available in discovery studio 2.01v. Finally it was observed that (α(I)-C - α CD) and (α(I)-C - β CD) has the maximum value for the total energy, electrostatic energy and Van der Waals energy. This also may be due to the presence of more amino acid residues when compared with other peptide fragments.

  103. Magdi F. Abadir, Fatma El-zahraa H. Ashour, Nehal S.Ahmed, Rasha S. Kamal and El-Shimaa M. El-Zahed

    In the present work, three esters were prepared by esterification of acrylic acid with alcohols having long different alkyl chain length. The structures of the prepared compounds were confirmed by Infra Red Spectroscopy. Three polymeric compounds were prepared by free radical polymerization of the different acrylate ester with vinyl acetate. All the prepared copolymers were soluble in lube oil. The molecular weights of the prepared compounds were determined by Gel Permeation Chromatography. The prepared copolymers were evaluated as viscosity index improvers and study the rheological properties of lube oil upon addition.

  104. Onyango Daniel Oduor and Prof. Jackson Kiprop Too

    The aim of this paper is to examine the relationship between provision of sufficient physical and human resources and academic performance in primary schools. The paper is based on a study conducted in Central Nyanza Region, in the Counties of Siaya and Kisumu. The study employed the mixed methods approach and was conducted using descriptive survey design. The instruments used to collect data included questionnaire, interview guides and observation checklist. The sample was selected using stratified and simple random sampling. Data was collected from 136 schools where 136 head teachers and 493 teachers were respondents¬¬¬¬. The researcher interviewed 36 teachers. The unit of analysis was primary schools. The data was analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Descriptive statistics, such as measures of central tendency and percentages, were used to analyse the data. Eta square was used to test the hypothesis. The level of significance was 50%. It was established from the study findings that school-related factors such as poor condition of physical facilities such as classes, inadequate teachers, inadequate text books, poor supervision of teaching/learning process contributed to the poor schools’ achievement in Central Nyanza region. It was thus recommended that schools should be provided with all resources required for curriculum implementation such as adequate teachers, classrooms, text books and exercise books. Moreover, head teachers should adequately supervise teaching/learning in their schools. They should ensure that teachers and pupil absenteeism are reduced to the minimum.

  105. Atolagbe, A. M. O. and Ayanda, O. O. L.

    A unique feature of African Architecture is that buildings derive entirely from, or are products of their immediate environment. This architecture has often been dubbed primitive, retrogressive and belonging to the poverty-stricken. This derision, mostly by Africans themselves, has not helped the development of African Architecture; nor its rightful contribution to international architecture. Is the philosophy and content of African architecture so terribly at variance with the so-called modern aspiration? In this study, African architecture philosophy is generally examined alongside “Organic Architecture”, by a foremost American modern architect – Frank Lloyd Wright. The similarities and curious area of convergence between these thoughts tend to portray Organic Architecture of the 20th century as an offshoot of African Architecture of 15th – 19th century. The study concludes that African architecture may have passed for the “Organic Architecture” of 15th – 19th century Africa.

  106. Tayebeh Mansuri, Reza Shah Hosaini and Ehsan Hoseini

    The occurrence of some events as development of global competition, progress of IT and access to cheap information systems in recent years and the attempt of economic unit to achieve the global rank and entering the international markets and the customer satisfactison attitude has made the activities of management necessary. Indeed, the success of continuance of the activity in new competitive environment required using new methods of putting business in the global rank. One of the most important competitive tools in this regard is the price and determining the fixed price for the services and products. The correct and real fixed price is of great importance in some aspects. The fixed price is effective in sale pricing decisions, determining the profit and loss, control and reduction of the production costs or eliminating a product or presenting a service and other activities. The identification of the suitable basics for pricing the products or services as correctly is necessary (Arab Mazar and Naseri, 2003). In industrial accounting systems, two approaches are required to compute the fixed price of the services: Traditional and common approach and new approach. In traditional approach, to compute the fixed price of the services, the information of its constituent elements such as materials, wage and surcharge are collected.

  107. Hossein Ghamari and Fereshteh Baharzadeh

    Sputum Desirable governance includes principles such as transparency, governance of law, equity, efficiency and capability and believes that if the above elements are achieved, it will result in increasing efficiency and ability of governance system leading to a comprehensive development and democracy. Iran’s administrative system must appropriately adopt itself and provide its implementation. For example, the administrative system must refrain from unilateral decisions in the light of the governance of law and provide the ground for participation in the administration of the country. Because the mentioned law was first conducted in the administrative system of the country to issues beyond the rights of personnel and their advantages, demonstrating the principle so desirable governance in materials stipulated rendered a fundamental change in this area. It can bereached based on the belief that the theory components will be realized in the administration system and especially in the official system.

  108. Dr. Muninarayanappa, M. and Ravikumar, B. V.

    This research paper examines the service quality delivered by four major airlines in India on the backdrop of stiff competition in the airline service sector. The analysis results will serve as the basis for airlines to improve their service Strategies in response to customer needs. The main purpose of this study is to the proposed method has been applied in the India’s International AIR market analysis through a comprehensive passenger survey. The application results clearly indicate that the proposed IPA method can effectively identify critical airline service items to be improved, and serve as a valuable tool to assist airline managers in developing airline service improvement strategies.

  109. Goitom Abera, Filimon Asefa and Kahsu Mebrahtu

    Industrial development has immense potential for providing decent work for a large number of people. Particularly, the textile industry creates ample jobs for urban dwellers. In the context of Ethiopia, there have not been adequate studies that investigated the role of the textile and garment industries in providing decent work to people. The objective of this paper was to examine the role of Almeda Textile Factory (ALTEX) in providing decent work to its employees. The target population of the study consisted of 5421 from which a sample of 188 was selected using stratified and systematic random sampling techniques. Primary data were obtained from the target group using structured questionnaires and interview, and were analyzed using descriptive statistical techniques and descriptive narration respectively. The findings indicate that in aggregate ALTEX has been providing decent work to its employees when decency was measured in terms of employment opportunity, adequacy of pay, respect of workers’ rights, security of work and provision of safe work environment. However, safety of work environment is relatively inadequate given the considerable number of occupational injuries and the inadequacy of compensation paid for such injuries. Therefore, it is recommended that the company management should enhance its safety standards either through benchmarking similar factories or the support of experts in the area. From the government side, introduction of compulsory insurance system for occupational injuries might ease the financial strain of employers and employees.

  110. Zemenu Aynadis

    This research has been conducted to assess factors affecting customers’ attitude towards foreign brand footwear products. And it is discovered that customers’ have positive attitude towards foreign footwear products. Different factors have contributed for the customers to have positive attitude towards such products. These factors include quality of product, the price of the product, the attractiveness of the product, the durability of the product, the quality & design of the products, the perceived social status of the product, the brand name of the product and the fashionability of the product. Moreover the correlation analysis between the dependent variable and explanatory variables is conducted. And it is found that all of the independent variables have association with the dependent variable thought their level of association differs. Such association between the dependent and independent variables is an indication that attitude of customers is affected by the above mentioned explanatory variables.

  111. Joseph Kofi Adu-Yeboah and Ibrahim Osman

    The study sought to assess the perception of quality of the electoral process in Ghana using the Tamale Metropolis as a case study. This was achieved by measuring and comparing the expectations and perceptions of voters using the SERVQUAL scores. 179 voters responded to the questionnaires used in the survey. The results showed that voters’ expectations about quality election were very high. The voters’ perception on the performance of the electoral commission was also found to be below their expectations. The study recommended improvements across all the five dimensions.

  112. Dr. Gour Krishna Saha

    Entrepreneurship is one of the most important inputs in the economic development of a country or a region. Entrepreneurship development among women is considered as a possible approach economic empowerment of women. In India women entrepreneurship are considered as “necessity entrepreneurship” rather than “opportunity entrepreneurship” The main aim of livelihood promotion is to increase household income the initial stage is forming hamlet level Self-Help Groups with rural poor women to save women from financial exploitation. The present study focuses on access the present scenario to of women entrepreneurship in the North Eastern state of India and the prospective areas of entrepreneurship in the north east India along with the promotional policies relating to women entrepreneurship for the future In view of the ever increasing problems facing the women entrepreneurs; it appears that there is a long way to go in terms of social revolution and transformation of prevailing notions and attitudes. Training on professional competence and leadership skills should be extended to women entrepreneurs. Activities in which women are trained should focus on their marketability and profitability. Education has been instrumental in increasing the participation of women in entrepreneurial activities. Government should provide better educational facilities and schemes to women folk. A Women Entrepreneur's Guidance Cell should be set up to handle the various problems of women entrepreneurs all over the state.

  113. Dr. Hemant Patidar and Dr. M. B. Singh

    This papers aims to examine the knowledge and use of contraceptives among tribal women and also to investigate the impact of spatial, socio-economic and demographic variables on the knowledge and use of contraceptive methods. This study is based on the primary data, collected from the 800 ever married tribal women of ten districts of South-East Rajasthan. SPSS 19.0 has been employed for the analyses purpose. Bivariate analysis reveals that knowledge of various contraceptive methods varies across the socio- cultural and economic strata. The logistic regression results reiterate that highly educated women and women belonging to urban areas, service class, rich wealth status and Mina tribe are more likely to use temporary methods of contraception than their counterpart women. The permanent method of contraception i.e. sterilization, irrespective of any socio-economic strata, is significantly associated with higher no. of children ever born and the age of the women.

  114. Maitreyee Kundu and Nimisha Chaturbedi

    Pterocarpus marsupium belonging to the family Fabaceae is distributed in deciduous forest throughout the India. Germination of fresh seeds was reported to be low due to their hard fruit coat. Experiments were conducted on the role of fruit coat in restriction of germination and to test whether the seeds have any physical dormancy. Imbibition test was performed to determine water uptake of seeds with intact fruit coat, scarified fruits, and extracted seeds. No significant difference in percentage increase in mass was observed between scarified and non-scarified fruits. Moisture content of fruit coat and seed of intact fruit and scarified fruit was determined during imbibition. Difference in moisture content of fruit coat and seed between intact and scarified fruits were found negligible. Therefore, the fruit coat is water-permeable and makes requisite water available to the seed for germination. However, highest germination of 100% was observed in extracted seeds, whereas 76.7% and 72.9% seeds germinated in scarified and intact fruit coat. The cause of variation in germination and ecological significance of hard fruit coat in regeneration of seeds in natural condition have been discussed.

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