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September 2016

  1. Sanjay Madhavan and Dr. Sherlin Herald

    Background: Iatrogenic injury can be defined as any trauma that has been induced by the dentist's activity, manner, or therapy. Any dental treatment during any phase can become iatrogenic. Dental iatrogenic treatment can produce injury to either on hard tissues or soft tissues of the oral cavity. Several examples of dental iatrogenic errors include traumatically induced dental materials and instruments, root perforations, bur perforations and soft tissue lacerations, apical extent of root canal fillings, overhanging restorations, injury to pulp, spherulocytosis, papillary hyperplasia, nerve injuries etc. Clinicians should make every effort to minimise iatrogenic injuries to the soft tissues. Objective: The aim of the present study is to investigate the type of dental procedures likely to cause soft tissue iatrogenic injuries in patients undergoing varoius dental procedures, and to identify the most common anatomical site of injury. Materials and Methods: A survey was conducted among 100 dental practitioners of Saveetha Dental College, Chennai. A self administered questionnaire was distributed and descriptive data in terms of percentage was analysed. Result: The age group of the respondents ranged from 20-27 years. Most of the respondents had an accurate understanding of the term ‘iatrogenic’. A majority of them identified mechanical damage to be common and considered mucosa and gingiva to be the likely site damaged during tooth preparation. Most of them chose that iatrogenic errors were common during crown preparation. Iatrogenic errors have been caused by a majority of the practitioners mainly while using burs and the commonly affected site being the mucosa and gingiva. The commonest preventive strategy employed by most dentists was careful handling of materials and instruments. Conclusion: There is a need to know and increase awareness among dental practitioners about the role of iatrogenic factors for the successful outcome of any dental therapy, which unfortunately is ignored for a long time. Hence this study has been designed to identify the common iatrogenic errors and injuries that can occur during various dental treatment procedures and the common site of injury by the dental practitioners

  2. Norhafizah Sahril, Tahir Aris and Roslinah Ali

    Background: In Malaysia, injury is one of the leading causes of death and disability. The aims of this study are to determine the prevalence of home injury and its associated factors among elderly population in Malaysia. Methods: This study is a cross sectional population-based survey design using two-stage stratified random sampling of households. Data was collected using a validated questionnaire by face to face interview and analysed using SPSS version 19.0. Results: The overall prevalence of home injuries among elderly population aged 60 and above was 5.3% (95% CI: 4.3-6.5), out of an estimated population of 107,035. The prevalence was higher among females, rural dwellers, those 80 years old and above, ‘others’ ethnicity and elderly from medium family income. Kitchen was the most common place of injury (20.4% [95% CI: 12.4-31.5]). The most common cause of injury was falls (42.2% [95% CI: 32.0-53.2]) and self-neglect was the main contributing factor (47.0% [95% CI: 36.6-57.6]). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that women (aOR=1.801, p<0.001), elderly aged 70-79 years old (aOR: 2.049, p<0.001) and elderly aged 80 years and above (aOR: 2.485, p<0.001) were more likely to sustain a home injury. Conclusion: Home injuries among elderly are indeed a growing public health problem which deserves more attention than being currently given. There is a need for educational and intervention programmes to increase the awareness and understanding of elderly safety and injury prevention in Malaysia.

  3. Harris P, Feroz P Jenner, S. Vijayalekshmi and Shazam Aboobacker

    Sheehan’s syndrome also known as postpartum hypopituitarism or postpartum pituitary necrosis is a condition in which hypopituitarism develops after severe bleeding during or immediately after childbirth. Here we report the case of a lady who presented with hyponatremic encephalopathy, and was diagnosed to have Sheehan’s syndrome after detailed evaluation.

  4. Rashmi and Dr Anuradha Pathak

    Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of lip prints for sex determination in children in 12-14 years of age. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on 100 subjects, which included 50 males and 50 females, in the age group of 12-14 years from various schools in Patiala. After applying lip stick evenly, the lip-print of each subject was obtained on a simple bond paper. The lip-print was then analyzed and interpreted to determine the sex of individuals. Results: We found that out of 50 male children 32 were correctly interpreted as males, 15 were incorrect and 3 were undetermined. Of 50 females, 36 were accurately interpreted, while 12 were misinterpreted as males and 2 went undetermined. Type I was the most commonly occurring trend in females whereas Type IV was the most commonly occurring trend in male children seen in Patiala. Conclusion: Along with other traditional methods, cheiloscopy can also serve as very important tool in the identification of a person based on the characteristic arrangement of lines appearing on the lips.

  5. Archit S Ajgaonkar, Belgaumi, U. I., Malik N. A., Pramod, R. C., Baad, R. K., Vibhute, N. A., Kadashetti, V. and Sushma Bommanavar

    Background - Smokeless Tobacco, betel quid and areca in various forms are widely used in the Indian Subcontinent. The habit is not restricted to the elderly but also increasingly gaining popularity among adolescents. The association between these habit and OSMF is well proved, however the influence of age and variables related to the habit on the prognosis and behaviour needs further study. Aim: Aim of the present study was to compare the effect of age on the clinical stage of oral sub mucous fibrosis and to compare the effect of form, dosage and frequency of habit on the clinical stage of OSMF. Material and Methods: After due approval from the ethical committee, the present study was conducted at, School of Dental Sciences, KIMSDU, Karad. Consent was obtained and the information about the study given to the patients. Demographic data, habit related information was collected and clinical examination was performed. Results: Stage 2 and stage 3 OSMF is most commonly seen in 26-30 years and stage 1 in 15-20 years age group. When stage is correlated with the type of habit stage 1 patients had an habit of chewing of betel quid and stage 2and 3 patients had an habit of chewing areca nut followed by betel quid. Results were found to be non significant when staging was correlated with the gender. Conclusion: In this present study, Stage 2 and stage 3 OSMF was most commonly seen in 26-30 years and the results of the study indicate a more rapid progression when the habit is taken at an earlier age. There was a significant correlation between duration and frequency of habit with clinical staging of OSMF.

  6. Khurana Divleen, Bhullar Mandeep, Kapoor Pooja, Hayer Jaspal, Aggarwal Isha, Verma Rashmi and Ryait Jasmeet

    In today’s world, shorter treatment duration with con¬sequent lower costs are important to all patients, particularly to adults who have been increasingly seek¬ing treatment. It is challenging to reduce the duration of orthodontic treatments and it is one of the common deterents that an orthodontist faces. A number of attempts have been made to create different approaches both preclinically and clinically in order to achieve quicker results which can be categorized as Biological, Physical and Surgical. The surgical approach is the most frequently used clinically and most tested with known predictions and stable results. However, it is invasive, aggressive and costly. Piezocision technique is one of the newest techniques and has good clinical outcome and is considered the least invasive in the surgical approach. This article reviews different methods of accelerating Orthodontic tooth movement.

  7. Thangavel Kavita and Shanmugapriya, N.

    Rhizosphere soils from nine medicinal plants were used to identify the plant growth promoting ability of rhizobacteria. The bacterial isolates were purified and identified based on their morphological and biochemical characteristics. Altogether twenty nine bacterial species were identified belonging to seven genera (Staphylococcus, Micrococcus, Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Neisseria, Serratia, Streptococcus). All the isolates were identified up to genus level except the potential isolates. Results showed that the colonization of rhizobateria vary among the medicinal plants. The rhizobacterial isolates were screened for their plant growth promoting activity such as Ammonia, Indole acitic acid, Phosphate solubilization and Hydrogen cyanide production. Among the isolates Pseudomonas sp from Leucas aspera and Bacillus sp Cleome viscosa gave better result for almost all the test. However Bacillus sp effectively inhibited the fungal pathogen. Hence it was characterized through 16s r DNA sequencing and identified as Bacillus cereus NK2.

  8. Piyush Kumar Sengar, Smita Priyadarshini and Piyush Setu

    Introduction: We compared the effects of addition of intrathecal clonidine and midazolam to 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine in terms of efficacy of sensory and motor block achieved and observed the side effects if any. Method: Forty patients of ASA Grade I and II between 18 – 60 years age of either sex undergoing lower limb surgeries were randomly allocated to any of the groups of 20 each by lottery method. Group M: Patients received Midazolam 2.5 mg preservative free (0.5 ml). Group C: Patients received Clonidine 75 micrograms (0.5 ml). These drugs were given with bupivacaine 15 mg (3 ml of 0.5 % hyperbaric solution) intrathecally. The time of onset, peak sensory and motor, 2 segment regression, time of rescue analgesia, haemodyanmic changes and any other side effect were recorded. Result: The motor blockade was significantly prolonged in group C (809.56  290.38) than group M (533.80  164.91). Two segment sensory regression, motor regression and time of rescue analgesia in group C (110.44  28.77, 411.11  82.07, 8.69  0.92) was significantly more as compared to group M (66.10  10.15, 159.80  35.28, 4.28  0.7) suggesting prolonged analgesia in intra-op & post-op periods. Conclusion: 75 micrograms clonidine when added to 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine prolongs the sensory and motor block and reduces requirement of rescue analgesia as compared to 2.5mg midazolam.

  9. Farnaz Sohrabvand, Adel Taherkhani, Mamak Shariat, Masumeh Masumi, Sudabeh Bayoos and Maryam Mohebbi

    Introduction: Infertility leads to a variety of psychological problems. This study examines the prevalence of sexual dysfunction in infertile women and its relation with depression and anxiety in patients referred to the infertility clinic of Vali-e Asr Hospital. Method: In this study, 60 women suffering from primary and secondary infertility referring to the infertility clinic of Vali-e Asr Hospital from February 2014 to February 2015 were studied. Data were collected in forms and Persian language versions of the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) and the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21) were gathered. Results: The average age of the patients in the study was 29.69±5.47 and the average age of their spouses was 33.24±6.34 (24-65 years of age). Average duration of infertility in these patients was 4.44±3.10. In the present study, 52% of the patients were diagnosed with sexual dysfunction, 52% with anxiety, 46% with varying degrees of stress, and 42% with varying degrees of depression. Depression and stress had the strongest correlation with satisfaction, and anxiety had the strongest correlation with orgasm. Furthermore, anxiety had the strongest correlation with sexual function in patients under study. Only the correlation between stress and satisfaction was statistically significant. Conclusion: According to the results, anxiety occurs more frequently in infertile women, and it can co-occur with female orgasmic dysfunction. Despite the negative effects of mental disorders on sexual function, in this study only the inverse relationship between stress and satisfaction was statistically significant. More comprehensive studies with greater sample sizes can lead to clarification of the relationships between the study variables.

  10. Dr. Swapnali Shamkuwar and Dr. Bhuiyan, P. S.

    Introduction: Iatrogenic lesions of recurrent laryngeal nerve may occur during thyroid surgery and may cause paralysis of the vocal cords. The aim of the present study is to determine the relationship between recurrent laryngeal nerve and the inferior thyroid arteryto identify and save the nerve during surgery. Material and Methods: 60 specimens (120 sides) of thyroid gland of both sexes were studied. Configuration of recurrent laryngeal nerve and inferior thyroid artery in each specimen was noted and documented. Results: Three types of relationship between the recurrent laryngeal nerve and inferior thyroid artery were found. On the right side the nerve was frequently in front of the artery and on the left side nerve was often behind the artery. The relationship between artery and nerve were similarly occurred in opposite sides in 35% of cases. Conclusion: Thorough knowledge of anatomic configuration between recurrent laryngeal nerve and inferior thyroid artery can reduce the potential for nerve injury and resultant vocal cord paralysis.

  11. Dr. Paromita Mazumdar, Dr. Utpal Kumar Das and Dr. Debarshi Jana

    Background: Dental caries is the single most prevalent chronic childhood disease worldwide. It affects 60-90% of school going children in most developed countries and in several developing countries the prevalence rates are increasing. Dental caries is a multi factorial disease. Some socio-demographic and behavioural indicators that prone an individual to increased caries experience include: presence of plaque, poor oral hygiene, increasing age, gender, inadequate tooth-brushing habits. Objective: This study was carried out to measure the caries prevalence in school going children of 6-16 year old residing in West Bengal in relation to oral hygiene maintenance. Materials and Methods: A total of 1000 children of 6-16 years age group, in standard one to senior secondary classes were examined over a 2 months period (camp frequency 1-2 times/wk) using World Health Organization criteria (1997) to record the prevalence of dental caries along with their history of oral hygiene. The treatment needs were also calculated according to that given criteria. Results: 2.3% students were using tooth brush only, 97.9% students were using tooth brush with toothpaste, 0.2% students were using only finger, 0.4% students were using finger with toothpaste, 0.2% students were using finger with tooth powder, 0.1% students were using neem datum, 49.6% students using rinse mouth after snacking and 82.1% students were rinse mouth after meals. Conclusion: Child oral health is always a matter of concern for a developing country so further research is required to explore actual causes.

  12. Dr. Ram Shankar, S., Dr. Saraswathi Gopal, K., Dr. Harsha Vardhan, B. G. and Dr. Rupesh Mandva

    Background and objectives: Oral submucous fibrosis is a well-recognized and most prevalent premalignant condition of oral mucosa in India and Southeast Asia. Frequent and prolonged chewing of tobacco exerts undue pressure on muscles of mastication, which in turn may result in work hypertrophy of muscle. The present study was undertaken to measure thickness of masseter muscle at rest and at clenching position by ultrasonography in oral submucous fibrosis patient and in control group, and also to establish the normal value of masseter muscle thickness ultrasonographically and to prove that ultrasonography is reliable diagnostic technique for the evaluation of masseter muscle hypertropy in oral submucous fibrosis patient. Materials and methods: Ultrasonographic measurements of masseter muscle thickness were performed using high frequency linear transducer for 45 subjects comprising of 30 oral submucous fibrosis patients and 15 controls. Results: Study group showed higher thickness both on right and left side masseter muscle and also in relaxed and contracted state when compared to controls. The thickness of masseter muscle is more in contracted state than relaxed state which was highly significant

  13. Khan Mohammed Firoj, Hai binYu and Xian en Fa

    Objective: To observe the effect and significance of low-level laser irradiation (LLLI) on expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in rat model of myocardium infarction (RMMI). Method: 110 SD rats were randomly divided into Sham, control and treatment group. Control and treatment group established rat model of myocardial infarction (RMMI) by ligation of left anterior descending artery while Sham group performed only threading around the same site of ligation. After 3 weeks of RMMI, irradiation was done at infarct region in the treatment group by using low level laser diode (635nm, 6mW, 125s, 0.96J / cm2), while the control group and the sham group were irradiating without putting the power on. 4 to 6 rats were euthanized at 1h, 24h, 48h, 72h and 7d after LLLI. The irradiated myocardial tissue were excised to measure the expression of VEGF and iNOS by using Western blot method. Results: After the LLLI treatment, VEGF expression continued to rise at 1h-48h in the treatment group, peak expression compared with the control group (2.27 ± 0.22:1.46 ± 0.19,P<0.05) there was a statistically significant difference. iNOS expression started to rise after exposure at 1h in the treatment group, peaked at 48h, compared with the control group (1.90 ± 0.18:1.4 ± 0.08,P<0.05) there was a statistically significant difference. 1 week after the 2nd thoracic irradiation, compared control group with the treatment group; left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) (%) (39.83 ± 1.64vs47.62 ± 2.75,P<0.05), left ventricular fractional shortening rates (LVFS) (%) (18.03 ± 1.25vs24.15 ± 2.53,P<0.05), there was a statistically significant difference; 1 week after LLLI, a new capillary density compared between the control group and the treatment group (69.50 ±14.50)/mm2 vs. (111.50 ± 9.00)/mm2,P<0.05, there was a statistically significant difference. Conclusion: LLLI can significantly increase expression of VEGF and iNOS in infarcted myocardium which can promote angiogenesis to improve the microcirculation of infarct zone and improve the cardiac function.

  14. Anamika Jaiswal and Ankit Kaushik

    Baker’s cyst is a synovial fluid filled cyst found in the popliteal fossa. It usually presents as a localized swelling in the popliteal fossa. We present an unusual case of long Baker’s cyst located antero-lateraly in the leg, extending from the popliteal fossa to the lateral malleolus, diagnosed on fine needle aspiration cytology. Rupture of Baker cyst can lead to medical emergency like acute compartment syndrome. Fine needle aspiration cytology along with radiology can establish the diagnosis of unusually presenting Baker’s cyst and can prevents complications like posterior compartment syndrome due to rupture of these cyst.

  15. Dr. Arjun Pratap Joshi, Dr. Vishwas Sathe, Dr. Divya Madaan, Dr. Deepika Sareen and Dr. Olvyna D’souza

    Ankylosing Spondylitis is a chronic, progressive inflammatory disease of the axial skeleton and surrounding tissue causing widespread fibrous ossification of intervertebral joints and spaces leading to ankylosis. Extra articular involvement is common with severe AS manifesting as aortic insufficiency, conduction defects, restrictive lung disease and lung fibrosis. Anaesthetic challenges are plenty and compounded by the involvement of cervical vertebrae which make it arduous to manage with difficult airway and intubation protocol. After evaluating the predictors for difficult airway, the diverse modalities at disposal warrant meticulous preoperative examination and planning. Avoiding pitfalls while positioning and extubation, and managing unforeseen complications aggrandized by the pulmonary and cardiovascular involvement, make for a very intriguing study. We report a case of 50 year old male suffering from severe AS scheduled for corrective osteotomy in thoracolumbar area for correction of forward visual gaze.

  16. Dr. Ish K Dhammi, Dr. Amit Srivastava, Dr. Anil K Jain and Dr. Rehan Ul Haq

    Objective: We report the efficacy of indirect spinal canal decompression by short segment pedicle screw fixation and distraction in burst fractures of thoracolumbar region of spine.
    Methods: Thirty eight patients with mean age of 34.5 years of thoracolumbar burst fractures were operated by short segment pedicle screw fixation and indirect reduction. Patients in which – fracture pattern was not burst type, direct reduction for canal clearance was required, bone graft was used for fusion and more than one spinal level involved were excluded from the study. X ray of spine (antero-posterior and lateral view) were done in all patients, MRI and CT scan were also done. Neurological examination was done by Frankel’s grading system. Patients were followed for the average period of 2.8 years, the change in vertebral height, kyphotic angle and neurological deficit were recorded postoperatively, at 3 months, 6 months and at final follow up.
    Results: Twenty six patients (68%) had neurological deficit, till last follow up 23 patients had complete neurological recovery. In our series Denis Type B was the most common burst fracture pattern, seen in 63% of cases. The vertebral height was restored to 81% (60-88%) postoperatively and kyphotic angle improved to -1 degree (-10 to +14 degrees) from 14.1 degrees (0-28 degrees).
    Conclusion: The short segment stabilization and indirect reduction of burst fracture provides stabilisation and reduction of retro pulsed fragment. More space for neural tissue is created after decompression, thus better chances of neural recovery.

  17. Jeyanthi, S., Narkeesh Arumugam and Raju K Parasher

    Background: Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD), is a neuro developmental disorder, which is defined by developmentally inappropriate symptoms of inattention, impulsiveness and behavioral over activity. Objective: To assess motor skills and physical fitness in elementary school children with ADHD and compare them with typically developing children. Methods: Nineteen (19) typically developing children and seventeen (17) ADHD children between 8 and 12 years were recruited as participants. Motor skills and physical fitness was measured using a battery of test: (1)muscle strength, muscle endurance, Sit and reach test,6 Minute walk test, step test, Single leg triple hop test, Ball throw test, Nine hole peg test. Results: Independent t-tests were carried out between ADHD group and typically developing children on all the dependent variables. The analysis revealed statistical significance for all the dependent variables tested at p<0.05. Conclusion: This pilot study concludes that the ADHD children has reduced motor skill abilities and physical fitness compared to typically developing children.

  18. Segbo, J. A. G., Tapara, S. D. M., Houngnonvi, C., Missihoun, A. A., Sedah, P. and Agbangla, C.

    The paraoxonase has anti-atherogenic activity which may be altered by the coding gene polymorphisms. The purpose of this study was to assess the genotypes distribution and allelic frequencies in paraoxonase 3 gene Ala99Ala polymorphism in Beninese different ethnic groups. The paraoxonase 3 gene Ala99Ala polymorphism distribution of 228 subjects from three different populations, was studied respectively using Polymerase Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism technique and compared with those in other word populations. The alleles A and G frequencies were 78.0 percent and 22.0 percent respectively of our study population. The allelic frequencies were 98.0 percent and 2.0 percent respectively of Abomey Calavi population; 67.0 percent and 33.0 percent respectively of Adja ethnic group; 66.0 percent and 34.0 percent respectively of Mahi ethnic group. There were no significant ethnic differences for these allelic frequencies between Adja and Mahiethnic groups (p > 0.05), but there were significant differences compared to Beninese Abomey-Calavi population and other word populations (p < 0.05).These ethnic variations in PON3 gene polymorphisms distribution can be used as an excellent genetic marker and as the basis for further investigation on the association of this polymorphism with the risk of inflammatory diseases.

  19. Kaushik Ankit, Jain Manisha and Mandal, A. K.

    A case of primary cardiac carcinosarcoma of left atrium is presented because of extreme rarity and poor prognosis of the tumor. The patient was a 70 year old man admitted with sudden cardiac arrest and dyspnea. He was resuscticated and operated for a large left atrial tumor.

  20. Agrawal, R. C. and Shiwa Mishra

    Cancer is one of the leading causes of mortality worldwide. The present study was carried out to evaluate the anti-cancer activity of methanolic extract of Lagenaria siceraria on skin Papilloma model in mice. Lagnaria sciceria leaves and fruit extract against 7, 12 - dimethylbenz (a) anthracene (DMBA) induced papillomagenesis in Swiss albino mice was studied. The methanolic extract of Lagnaria sciceraria was analyzed for chemopreventive activity. It was evaluated by two stage protocol consisting of initiation with a single topical application of a carcinogen (7, 12 - dimethylbenz (a) anthracene (DMBA) followed by a promoter (croton oil) two times in a week were employed. A significant reduction in tumor incidence, tumor burden and cumulative number of papillomas was observed, along with a significant increase in average latent period in mice treated topically with Lagnaria sciceraria extract as compared to the control group treated with DMBA and croton oil. The Phytochemical analysis of methanolic extract of leaves and fruits of Lagnaria sciceraria showed presence of Alkaloids, triterponoids, flavonoids steroid, glycoside, tannin resin and saponin. However in methanolic extract of fruits of Lagnaria shows presence of all above compounds except alkaloids. The carbohydrate and protein were present in fruit extract which were absent in leaves sample. The above studies revealed information about the anticancer activity of Lagnaria sciceraria extracts.

  21. Dr. Omeshwar Singh, Dr. Shakeel Ahmed, Dr. Jabreel Muzaffar, Dr. Mohammad Azhar ud din Darokhan, Dr. Anuradha Sen and Dr. Sumeet Singh Charak

    Introduction: During the past 10 years, there has been a worldwide effort in all medical fields to base clinical health care decisions on available evidence as described by thorough reviews of the literature. Hip fractures pose a significant health care problem worldwide, with an annual incidence of approximately 1.7 million. Globally, the mean age of the population is increasing, and the number of hip fractures is expected to triple in the next 50 years. One-year mortality rates currently range from 14% to 36%, and care for these patients represents a major global economic burden. Purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical and functional outcomes of Total Hip Replacement using Modified Harris Hip score. The incidence of femoral neck was more in 7th decade of life than in 8th and 9th decade with males outnumbering females. Methods: The study was carried out on 40 patients more than 60 years old with displaced intracapsular fractures of femoral neck in whom Total Hip Replacement was done by the Department of Orthopedics, Government Medical College and Hospital Jammu from August 2013 to August 2015. This was a prospective study with an average follow up of 13.75 months. Results: The average post operative Harris Hip Score was 86.45(range 77-93). 95% of patients achieved good to excellent result. Conclusion: Our study suggests that THR can provide satisfactory clinical and radiographic outcomes after an intermediate duration of follow-up for displaced femoral neck fractures in patients more than 60 years.

  22. Rohini, M., Prajakta Kishve and Rao, S. V

    Background: With advancement of technologies, medical education has been changed vastly. Audiovisual aids like overhead projections (OHP) and power point presentations (PPT) are replacing traditional teaching methods of using chalk and board (C&B) alone. Recent and vast knowledge in a limited time of lectures cannot be provided to the students by chalk and board only. So, use of different audiovisual aids can supplement our lectures for better illustrations, learning, and understanding of the topic. Aims and Objectives: The objective of our study was to find out first year medical students preference for different teaching aids i.e., Chalk and board, Overhead projection and Power point presentation commonly used in medical teaching. Materials and Methods: A Cross-sectional, pre-structured, pre-tested, self-administered questionnaire based study was conducted in English among first year medical students of 2015-16 batch, MNR Medical college and hospital, Sangareddy, Telangana. 100 first semester medical students including girls and boys participated in the present study. A 16 item questionnaires were used to get the opinion of students regarding different teaching aids. Statistical analysis: Data was entered in MS excel and were analyzed. Results were shown with the help of tables and figures as bar diagram and pie charts. Results: In present study, most preferred (63%) teaching aid was the combination of chalk and board and power point presentation. 68% students feels lectures were easy to understand and subject per lecture is covered more by combination of chalk and board and power point presentation. Chalk and board is preferred for drawing diagrams (36%) and for better problem solving (55%). Best mode to recall tough points (46%), understanding flow charts (54%) and for demonstration of clinical aspects (61%) was power point presentation. Overhead projection was the least preferred mode of teaching among students. 72% students prefer quick revision by using multiple choice questions (MCQs) and 67% feels videos or animations to be used for better understanding of the topics. Conclusion: Present day medical students prefer combination of teaching aids rather than traditional method of chalk and board only. Chalk and board should always be supplemented with power point presentations or overhead projections for improvement of medical teaching.

  23. Kanav Mahajan, Mohinder Singh Chib and Sumeet Singh Charak

    MRI has become the modality of choice in acute knee injuries. It assists the clinician in diagnosing ligamentous & meniscal injuries. Also subchondral osseous contusion known as bone bruise can be assessed. These occult osseous injuries produce persistent pain, loss of function. They are not detected by clinical examination or x rays. The present study aims to assess significance of bone bruise following trauma of knee & their presence in isolation or in association with soft tissue damage

  24. Dr. Girish V. Gaikwad and Dr. Chetali V. Dhuri

    Isoniazid (INH) has been associated with neuropsychiatric side effects commonly peripheral neuropathy and psychosis. A case of mania is rarely reported in this context. We report a case of classical mania and peripheral neuropathy in a patient diagnosed with extensively drug resistant pulmonary tuberculosis. We discuss the role of high dose of INH and pyridoxine deficiency in development of these symptoms.

  25. Dr. K. Seshagiri Rao, Dr. Attenbirth N Sangma, Dr. Chandan Champak and Dr. Chaitra Somashekar

    Tubular adenomas are rare benign epithelial tumors of the breast, occur commonly in young women of reproductive age. Very few cases were reported in the literature. Preoperative diagnosis is often difficult as they mimic fibroadenomas both clinically and radiologically. Histopathological examination is necessary for correct diagnosis. Tubular adenoma must be differentiated from other benign and malignant lesions, which are closely related such as fibroadenoma and tubular carcinoma respectively. We reported such a rare case of tubular adenoma in young female who presented with gradually enlarging breast lump. Other systemic examination was insignificant. Clinical diagnosis was given as fibroadenoma. Surgical excision was done and on histopathological examination, diagnosis of tubular adenoma was made. They are associated with good prognosis and recurrence after surgery is rare.

  26. Elsamani, M., Garelnabi, M. E. M., Osman, H. and Elsafi Ahmed Abdalla

    Introduction: Duplex ultrasound (DU) provides a simple, portable, reproducible, and non-invasive assessment of blood flow. Measurement of luminal diameter and blood velocity allows estimation of blood flow and peripheral resistance and the detection of arterial occlusive disease. Owing to its size and anatomic position, the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) is also accessible to DU. Applied to the superior mesenteric artery; the method confirms that blood flow in this vessel increases in response to a meal. Objective: To investigate the contribution of the different types of meals to blood flow of the Superior Mesenteric Artery (SMA) by Doppler ultrasonography as a means of determining the relative potencies of the major nutrient stimuli in healthy human subjects. Materials and Methods: One hundred healthy volunteers , with age variation (20 -50) years, were examined before and after different two meals type that include varying Kcals and contents (250 gram, 545 Kcal and 270 gram, 477 Kcal) in order to assess (SMA) , diameter DM and blood flow volume BFV. Results: The peak values of DM and BFV for the fatty, and carbohydrate meal appear at 60 min, and 30 min respectively, after meal taken up to 90 min. There was significant value for the correlation between the varying time with the mean values of DM, and BFV of SMA for fatty and carbohydrate meal. Conclusion: The fatty compared to carbohydrate meal take long time for SMA response songraphically.

  27. Yashika Kalra, Dr. Aga Ammar Murthuza, Dr. Geetanjali, B. G., Dr. Varsha Mokhasi and Dr. Rajini, T.

    Introduction: Pesplanus is one of the most common foot problems. It is characterized by-fatigue during the gait, metatarsalgia, pain in the forefoot, rearfoot, ankle, medial edge of the foot, near the insertion of the posterior tibialis, dorsal part of the foot (in case of a rigid foot), The patient has difficulty in standing, walking, running, etc. Materials & Methods: The main purpose of this study was to apply quantitative and qualitative analysis of the footprints to determine the incidence of pesplanus (flat foot) in South-Indian student population by Plantar Arch Index method and to grade the severity of pesplanus. A Sample size of 284 students from Vydehi Institute Of Medical Sciences & Research Centre Bangalore was selected comprising of 142 males and 142 females, aged between 18-24 years.Informed consent from the students and ethical clearance from the institute was obtained. Printing India ink was applied on the soles of both the feet of each student and dynamic footprints were obtained on A4 size papers. Analysis of the results was done. Results: This study revealed that 113 out of 284 subjects had pesplanus. The overall incidence of pesplanus was 39.7% including 21.8% in males and 17.9% in females. Furthermore, the incidence of unilateral flat foot was 9.15% among males, 7.74% among females and a total of 8.45% in the study population and the incidence of bilateral flat foot was 25.3% among males, 20.4% among females and a total of 22.8% in the study population. Totally out of 568 feet (284 subjects) 178 feet were flat i.e. had pesplanus which included 52 Grade I flat foot, 53 Grade II, 32 Grade III and 41 Grade IV flat foot. Conclusion: It may serve as an early warning sign of structural and functional defects of the foot in a young population and can provide help for making appropriate footwear for persons with pesplanus

  28. Guruprasad, B. R. and Akmal Pasha

    Organophosphates are commonly used for the control of insects in agriculture and public health in developing countries like India. Many of them have become less effective due to the development of resistance by the target insects. To combat this problem, novel phosphorothioate derivatives of hydroxybenzaldehyde were synthesized and screened for their toxicity to the stored product insect Rhizopertha dominica and Tribolium casteneum in comparison with the standard methyl parathion. The results indicate that the O, O-dimethyl phosphorothioates were more toxic than the diethyl derivatives and the toxicity was comparable with methyl parathion.

  29. Dali Beridze, Malkhaz Jokhadze, Aliosha Bakuridze, Mariam Metreveli and Zurab Manvelidze

    The article deals with the results of the study of 21 endemic plant species in Ajara and Ajara-Lazica on the content of biologically active compounds applying tandem chromate mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) method. Basically, the content of biologically active compounds containing nitrogen was confirmed in 11 species: Erysimumcontractum Somm. et Levier., Seselifoliosum (Somm. et Lev.) Mand., Astragalussommieri Freyn., Quercuspetra var. dshorochensis c. Koch., Rubusadzharicus Sanadze – Rosaceae Juss., Rhynchosporacaucasica Vahl., Amaracusrotundifolius (Boiss.) Briq., Rhododendron smirnovii Trautv., Rhododendron ungernii Trautv., CentaureaadzharicaSosn., Astragalusadzharicus M.Pop. The research on the above stated endemic species is a novelty and a primary one, therefore, proceeding from the results, it requires further through study for the purpose of application in medicine.

  30. Muhammad Shahid Khan, Lorenzo Maria Di Giacomo, Arif Jatoi and Muhammad Safdar khanzada

    Objective of this study is to emphasize importance of early diagnosis and management of vitamin D deficiency, an easily manageable problem which could otherwise lead to significant morbidity for the patients and subsequent burden for the health system and to the family as well. Methods: This prospective case series was conducted in Shah Bhitai district Hospital Hyderabad, Pakistan, from March 2015 to September 2015. Children and adolescents of the age less than 18 years with clinical and radiological evidence of vitamin-D deficiency were included. All patients were given intramuscular vitamin D 600,000 IU followed by oral calcium supplements. Patients were followed with clinical and radiological response at 2 months. Data was analyzed using SPSS. Conclusion: Proper anticipation and early treatment of vitamin D deficiency is important not only to prevent developmental delay or gross skeletal deformities which take months for improvement and sometime needs surgical intervention. Results: 28 patients with clinical and radiological evidence of rickets were selected. Mean age of our patients was 0.5 – 17 years (mean 5.10 years, SD +/-4.802). Two out of 28 patients were found to have pseudofracture of proximal femur and pubic rami. At two months follow-up, 23 out of 28 patients showed clinical and radiographic improvement. 3 of our patients reported improvement in clinical symptoms but they then lost to follow-up and we could not get their radiological follow-up. 2 patients did not showed improvement in their clinical and radiographic parameters.

  31. Mariya Angelova

    Qualified as a very rare disease, the Pentalogy of Cantrell comprises a number of defects, such as: anterior abdominal wall defect, lower sternum defect, diaphragmatic and pericardial defects, and congenital heart malformations. The typical form of the pentalogy includes all these five defects. The cases of the complete pentalogy described in the existing literature are only a few. The first description of the pentalogy was made by Cantrell et al. in 1958, who gave an account of 5 cases presented with this abnormality. Cases with only two, three or four of the defects are more frequent. The case we present here involves the 16-year-old A.M.A., pregnant in the 18th gestation week. The fetus is male with bilateral cleavage of lip and palate; low-set ears, congenitally deformed feet (pes equinovarus), absent little toe of the right foot, complete absence of sternum and whole abdominal wall defect. The heart, liver and intestinal loops, as well as the kidneys and urinary bladder are ectopically located outside their corresponding cavities. A lack of pericardium is noted, together with ventricular septal defect, and atrial septal defect. My colleagues and I believe this case is typical for Pentalogy of Cantrell.

  32. Dr. Ankush Agarwal, Dr. Sanket Kunte and Dr. Gandhali Deshpande

    Tooth impaction is defined as any tooth that fails to erupt into a normal functional position and remains unerupted beyond the time at which it should normally erupt. Reports of impaction and eruption failure in primary teeth are relatively rare compared to permanent teeth. Several factors contribute to the impaction of a deciduous tooth. Impacted primary teeth may be associated with defects in development and eruption of their permanent successors, long-term observation is therefore necessary until the permanent successors erupt. This report describes the diagnosis and treatment of a 8-year-old boy who presented with an impacted maxillary first primary molar.

  33. Dr. Subramanian, S. S.

    An alarming increase in the prevalence of diabetes globally, this research study analysis the efficacy of aerobic (n=50) and resisted exercises (n=50) among Indian type II diabetic subjects. With control group (n=50) for a period of 24 weeks duration. Results were encouraging for RET subjects P<.001, aerobic subjects P<.05 and control groups have shown insignificant outcome. Quality of life RET was two times improved than aerobic subjects with their subjective rating score, with control group showing no betterment.

  34. Dr. Rajesh Kumar Abbey, Dr. Avinash Pandey and Dr. Malik, A. R.

    Josef T.K. Linkosh was first to refer this condition as a hernia in 1764. This hernia is also known as interparietal, interstitial, intermuscular or intramural hernia as it is usually located between the different muscle layers of the abdomen. Spigelian hernia is rare and its diagnosis is difficult because of its location and vague symptoms. As these hernias are situated between the muscular layers and are not obvious, therefore may be overlooked. The presence of strangulated meckel’s diverticulum in obstructed spigelian hernia is very rare phenomenon. C.T. scan and ultrasonography are helpful and diagnostic in surgical management of these patients. Surgery remains the only option and various surgical modalities available, are discussed in this article. As the condition is quit uncommon it is important to have high index of suspicion to diagnose the condition. The article is being presented for its rarity and clinical interest.

  35. Dr. Mirjana Kjaeva Pejkovska

    The family planning becomes very important issue in every society. It is linked with many different aspects. In this article are presented the purpose and the components of the genetic counselling. The main goal of genetic counselling is to set specific and accurate diagnosis with information regarding the aetiology and recovery risk, manifestations, treatment and reproductive alternatives. Also the components of genetic counselling and the need of collecting genetic information about the health of each child are emphasized. The presentation for every day practices and activities in Genetic counselling institution in the Republic of Macedonia is explained. Also are explained the indications for genetic counselling and the process of how the genetic counsellor should talk to people about their actions and possible alternatives. The forms of prevention which exist in some countries, and also in the Republic of Macedonia, are expressed as relationship for the protection of healthy children and to avoid hereditary diseases. The system of prevention and care should be regulated especially in environments where there are health, social and other services and institutions that monitor these aspects of the health and planning of the family.

  36. Hema Venigalla, Hema Madhuri Mekala, Mudasar Hassan, Sara Rehman Noor and Saeed Ahmed

    Suicide is the seventh leading cause of death in the US. An estimate of 37,000 people dies every year by suicide in the US, of which 6 percent are attributed to inpatient suicide. Despite taking certain measures to prevent inpatient suicide like assessing the risk factors and treating the underlying psychiatric condition appropriately, continuous monitoring and making patients sign no-suicide contracts, the rate has not decreased significantly. Sixty-five percent of people who commit inpatient suicide sign the no-suicide contract beforehand. This reflects that these contracts are less effective in reducing the inpatient suicide rate. Moreover, such contracts can give an impression to the patients regarding mistrustful attitudes from the doctor’s or therapist’s side. These contracts can also provide a false sense of security to psychiatrists and decrease their clinical vigilance. Also, these contracts do not protect the physicians from malpractice judgments if lawsuits occur. Also, if we think a signed contract can give a positive incentive for the patient to avoid suicide, this could have been achieved with just good counseling and therapy to reinforce the strength of self-controlling themselves and decrease suicidal ideation. Rather, it is essential to focus on proper suicide assessment, accurate and safe monitoring of high-risk patients and removing environmental dangers. Most importantly psychiatrists should make sure to develop a good therapeutic alliance with the patients to prevent and decrease inpatient suicidal rates instead of entirely relying on no suicide contracts. In this paper, we will review risk factors for inpatient suicide, the validity of the risk assessment, strategies to prevent inpatient suicide, and we will later discuss the reliability of no-suicide contracts to prevent suicide.

  37. Syed Sajeed Ali and Wakte, P. S.

    Development of biofilm by Pseudomonas aeruginosa in wounds infection caused severe threat to patients and prevents the healing of wounds. To control such infection it’s important to characterize the pathogenic biofilm forming bacteria of wounds infection. The present study was aimed to isolate and identify the biofilm forming Pseudomonas aeruginosa from wounds infection. Ten P .aeruginosa were isolated from different wounds infection and identified based on morphological, biochemical and fatty acid methyl esterase analysis. Biofilm formation capability of isolates was studied by tube and microtiter plate methods. From the ten isolates the strain PA01, 02, 03 shown strong biofilm and strain PA04, 06, 10 moderate, while strain PA05, 07, 08, 09 showed weak biofilm formation on both methods except the strain PA10 shown strong biofilm on microtiter plate method.

  38. Seyed Mansour Alamshah, Nozar Dorestan, Iraj Nazari, Alireza Kabiri and Seyed Ali Mohammad Sadat

    Background: Muscle compartment syndrome is a known morbid complication of physiologic and mechanical lower extremity trauma. Determining the critical range in different centers for optimal management is suggested. Methods: In a two sectional prospective clinical study, 149 referral patients of lower extremity trauma and vascular injuries were recruited for compartment pressure assessment during eleven months by Whiteside apparatus. Compartment pressures and ΔP simultaneously recorded in admission, pre and post operative and before fasciotomy and discharge in order to determine critical range, the outcome and comparing for correlations. Results: Of 149 patients, 117 cases of normal recovery, 14 cases of activity deficits, 14 fasciotomized patients and four amputations were detected. Causes were 122 trauma cases and 27 thrombo-embolic events. Pressure range was 12- 46 mmHg and ΔP was ranged 58-25. There were significant correlations between extremity outcomes and compartment pressure in all defined periods (P=<0.02). ΔP was not correlated except in post operation time (P=<0.001). Significant correlation was found between outcome and fluid resuscitations (P=<0.001). Fasciotomized patients were presented significant correlations with liquid resuscitation, operative duration, compartment pressures and ΔP at defined periods (P=<0.001). Critical thresholds were found similar to medical literature, compartment pressure about 35- 40 mmHg and ΔP lower than 20 mmHg below diastolic pressure. Conclusion: regarding the results, we conclude that frequent simultaneous compartment pressure and ΔP recording alongside clinical examination is necessary. Even without clinical presentation, fasciotomy is advocated in critical levels. On-time fasciotomy may be final therapeutic key but do not completely support the outcome.

  39. Dr. Rao Naman Rajeshkumar and Dr. Chandramani B. More

    Introduction: Controversies relating to the application of lasers in the periodontal therapy have been persisting despite of enormous available literature. This review intends to analyze and clarify the hiding facts about lasers application in periodontal therapy which can develop a new ray of hope in its treatment aspect.
    Methods: A comprehensive computer-based search was done using data bases like Medline and Cochrane Library. Manual hand search was also done to search the articles which were not accessible online. All the articles from year 1960 to 2016 were taken in to consideration from which only Randomized control trials, Meta-analysis, Systematic reviews, Case reports, cohort study, case series, review articles were taken in to the consideration. Any other than these with no authenticity like manufacturer’s brochure, or any information without references were excluded. After filtering, only 280 articles were found to be useful as topic of interest.
    Conclusions: After reviewing the articles, it can be concluded that lasers have definitely given promising results in the treatment of periodontal therapy, but still there are lots of research required for developing Evidence Based Practice of lasers at a clinical setup. More of longitudinal studies with randomized control trials are required for generating the proof and efficacy of lasers in the use for periodontal therapy.

  40. Mathew Asok, Amira Hafez Azouz, Nader Ahmed, Ahmed Al- Radaideh, Shibu Thomas, Sudhir Varma and Nisha T Varghese

    Background: Oral health is an integral part of general health. It directly and indirectly reflects the overall well-being of an individual, thus maintaining oral hygiene becomes a crucial factor.Tooth brushing plays an important everyday role for personal oral hygiene and effective plaque removal. Regular toothbrush care and maintenance are also important considerations for sound oral hygiene. This study was designed to evaluate the antibacterial bristles self-protection among the Miswak stick, toothbrush with silver nanotechnology and regular toothbrush (as a control group). Materials and Methods: Thisstudy was conducted in vivo by randomly selected 30 volunteers without any reported systemic diseases and habits.Theyare divided into 3 group 10 in each group first group was given Miswak stick, the 2nd group was given regular toothbrush, and the last group was given silver care nano-silver coated toothbrush. Each subject was instructed to brush their teeth for 3min after signing a patientconsent. Part of the bristles was collected in different time duration to evaluate the antibacterial bristles protection among different kinds of brushes. Results: It was shown that the silver care toothbrush has the maximum bacterial reduction in the period of 24hrs followed by Miswak stick and the last was the regular toothbrush which showed minimum bacterial reduction. Conclusions: The present report indicates that silver tooth brush had the highest antibacterial self-bristles protection and the Miswak had moderate effect and the regular toothbrush had minimum effect.

  41. Dr. Kumudini Borole and Dr. Subash Raj

    Objectives: To assess the influence of case based learning (CBL) as a teaching-learning tool over the traditional method, with respect to increase understanding, development of interest and improvement of performance in the subject Biochemistry in first year Dental students. Methodology: Selected volunteers from first year were divided into ‘Control Group’ (N=22) and ‘CBL group’ (N=26), which were subjected to three hours of traditional didactic lecture and CBL methods respectively. An assessment of both groups was performed immediately after the lectures and feedback on CBL method was acquired by distributing questions to CBL group using 2 point likert scale. Result: Average marks obtained and percentage of passing (>50%) were more in CBL group than the control. In feedback analysis, 96.15% found CBL more interesting and also helped them in understanding the subject better. 84.6% felt it will help score well and 92.3% suggested implementing it in regular first year curriculum. Conclusion: CBL method showed positive influence on interest and understanding of first year dental students in the subject of biochemistry. Further large scale studies will be helpful to implement CBL in regular first year learning curriculum.

  42. Dr. Prateek Pandey, Singh, D. K., Dr. Lav Kumar and Dr. Anupam Singh

    An interim obturator acts as a bridge between surgical and definitive phases of treatment of a maxillectomy patient. Apart from restoring the functions of speech and deglutition, it has a great psychological benefit to the patient in regaining social acceptance. The following article attempts to describe the steps followed in the fabrication of the interim prosthesis.

  43. Dr. Anupam Singh, Dr. (Prof.) D. K. Singh, Dr. Irfan-ul-Huda and Dr. Prateek Pandey

    Ectodermal Dysplasias comprise a large, heterogenous group of inherted disorders that are defined by primary defects in the development of two or more tissues derived from embryonic ectoderm. A multidisciplinary approach to dental treatment is required. This clinical report attempts to describe the prosthodontic management of a 13 year old girl affected by ectodermal dysplasia. Treatment included a maxillary teeth supported overdenture and a mandibular removable partial denture to improve function and esthetics.

  44. Karuna Gokarn, Vishwas Sarangdhar and Ramprasad B. Pal

    Genomic DNA isolation from Mycobacterium smegmatis has always been a challenging task due to the tough cell wall of the organism. Published methods for DNA extraction from M. smegmatis are tedious that yield only small quantities of DNA. This paper presents a simple and reproducible protocol for obtaining good quality DNA. The method is a part of a procedure used for extraction of the cell-wall-associated iron-chelating compound, mycobactin S from M. smegmatis. This method yields significant quantities of DNA as a by-product of mycobactin S extraction.

  45. Nagendra, Ashok, N. C., Somashekar, M. P. and Prathyusha, K.

    Background: Women forms the vulnerable group in every community and specially more in economically weaker section of urban India represented by slums of urban India. The urban poor (slum dwellers) are at the interface between underdevelopment and industrialization as well as interface between rural and urban areas. Their disease pattern and personal habits also reflects the problems of both. Objectives: To study personal habits and morbidities of Women residents of Slums in Mysore City. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional study carried out on 653 women of slum dwellers of Mysore, between January 2014 and December 2015. Information was obtained by interviewing the study participants. Results: Around 48% had any morbidities with 95% CI of 44-51.8, 5.7% have menstrual morbidities, and with 9.5% & 7% of smoking and alcohol use respectively. Conclusions: Women centric focused health education among economically weaker section of communities should be encouraged. Women centric public health infrastructure should be made available for urban poor with focus on slum dwellers. The focus should be for communicable as well as non-communicable diseases as the group is vulnerable for both.

  46. Vanja Filipovski, Vesna Janevska, Katerina Kubelka Sabit and Dzengis Jashar

    Introduction: As the prostatic carcinoma progresses, stromal changes become more pronounced. The aim of this study is to correlate stromal changes with tumor grade and extraprostatic extension of the disease. Material and Methods: Stromal changes were quantified histochemically and immune histochemically in 70 patients treated with radical prostatectomy for clinically localized prostatic carcinoma and the results were correlated with areas of benign prostatic hypeplasia and with tumor grade and tumor stage. Results: Spearman rank correlation showed significant correlation between Trichome Mallory intensity index and higher tumor grade (R=0,27 p=0,023) and higher tumor stage (R=0,24 p=0,049), between vimentin expression and higher tumor grade (R = 0,35 p = 0,003) and higher tumor stage of the disease (R = 0, 28 p = 0,019), and also significant inverse correlation between desmin expression and higher tumor grade (R = - 0,25 p=0,035). Conclusion: Quantification of stromal changes, using a combination of histochemical stains and immune histochemical antibodies, could serve as an additional important complement in the already well established Gleason score for determining tumor grade and tumor stage of the disease.

  47. Bhargava, N., Manchanda, R., Kulkarni, S., Chunduri, V., Nagraj, V., Mahawar, P. and Meena, J.

    Introduction: Endometriosis is defined as presence of endometrial glands and stroma outside the uterine cavity. This definition suggests that confirming the endometrial stroma and glands in ectopic location histopathologically should be necessary for diagnosis of endometriosis. But in some cases, one or both of these components may be absent or obscured by a superimposed hemorrhagic, inflammatory or fibrotic process and all that remains is a fibrotic area containing haemosiderin macrophages. In such cases only a presumptive diagnosis of endometriosis may be made with the possibility of other hemorrhagic ovarian cysts to be kept in mind. Materials and Methods: We have studied histopathological reports of laparoscopically treated endometriotic ovarian cysts retrospectively from january 2014 to july 2016 in PSRI hospital and interpreted the results Results: Out of total 52 endometriotic ovarian cystectomies done, only 27(51.92%) were reported as confirmed diagnosis of endometriotic ovarian cyst. Seven (13.46%) were reported as hemorrhagic corpus luteal cyst, 5 (9.61%) as hemorrhagic follicular cyst, 3(5.76%) were reported as theca lutien cyst, 5(9.61%) as benign hemorrhagic ovarian cyst most likely consistent with endometriotic etiology, 4 (7.69%) as benign hemorrhagic cysts of indeterminate nature and one (1.92%) as non mucinous cystadenoma of ovary. None was reported to be malignant or borderline. Conclusion: Through this study we would like to emphasise the various possible histopathological outcomes of an apparant endometriotic cyst which would change the further plan of management of patient.

  48. Chunduri, V., Manchanda, R., Bhargava, N., Nagraj, V., Mahawar, P. and Meena, J.

    Chronic pelvic & abdominal pain is persistent pain of greater than 6 months duration, debilitating ones daily activities. Patients with chronic abdominal Pain of unknown etiology are often subjected to a variety of procedures in an attempt to find a cause, simple investigations may give way to more complex and invasive ones in the pursuit to confirm diagnosis. We report a case of a patient aged 41yrs, with surgical history of LSCS twice with complaints of pain abdomen & pelvis presented to emergency department at night. Her history revealed on & off pain abdomen & pelvis for 2 years which was aggravated since 2months. A multidisciplinary team approach was given to her, she was attending pain management clinic & gastrosurgical unit, took multitude of tests along with upper & lower GI endoscopy of which nothing is conclusive & was interpreted as normal, simultaneously treated for UTI but with no permanent cure of her symptoms. Before taking up for laparoscopy we repeated surgical profile as well as USG abdomen & pelvis which was suggestive of normal study & CT scan was normal. Definite diagnosis preoperatively was not made hence we took her up after pain mapping & marking the site. Intraoperatively single large adhesion of omentum stuck from bowel to midline scar present which was the site she was referring to, multiple adhesions between the bowel & omentum stuck to left pelvic wall & adhesions in the right upper quadrant of the abdomen present, adhesiolysis done & anatomy was restored. Patient was pain free postoperatively & was completely asymptomatic in the follow up visits after 2 months. Purpose of presenting the paper is to stress the importance of laparoscopic approach for managing cases of chronic abdominal & pelvic pain of unknown etiology and to prepare an open broad minded multidisciplinary view of such cases at the same time reviewing available literature on it.

  49. Dr. Amit Sharma, Dr. Sameer Agarwal, Dr. Chetan Suwalka and Dr. Chirag Patel

    Adrenal gland surgery needs a multidisciplinary team including endocrinologist, radiologist, anesthesiologist and surgeon. The indications for adrenal gland surgery include hormonal secreting and non-hormonal secreting tumors. Adrenal hormonal secreting tumors present to the anesthesiologist unique challenges requiring good preoperative evaluation, perioperative hemodynamic control, corrections of all electrolytes and metabolic abnormalities, a detailed and careful anesthetic strategy, overall knowledge about the specific diseases, control and maintaining of postoperative adrenal function, and finally a good collaboration with other involved colleagues. This review will focus on the endocrine issues, as well as on the above-mentioned aspects of anesthetic management during hormone secreting adrenal gland tumor resection.

  50. Dr. Manita Duggal, Dr. Ashish Prakash, Dr. Gaurav Bmbha and Dr. Chandi Garg

    Introduction: The incidence of metabolic syndrome is increasing, evidence is accumulating that adaptive responses made by the fetus in-utero to malnutrition can result in increased susceptibility to adult onset diseases. Aim and objective: The objective of the study was to find out the cord blood lipid profile in low birth weight babies so that vigilant monitoring of these high risk babies can be done in future. Material and method: All babies delivered at Subharti hospital during the one year time frame who fitted the inclusion criteria were enrolled and their cord blood lipid profile was sent. Cord blood was investigated for TC(total cholesterol), TG(triglyceride), HDL(high density lipoprotein), LDL (low density lipoprotein), VLDL(very low density lipoprotein), and AI(atherogenic index which was calculated as TC/HDL). 80 Babies were enrolled and classified according to the weight and gestation age into four categories TAGA, TSGA, PTAGA and PTSGA. Cord blood in these four categories were compared and analyzed. Conclusion: Preterm and SGA babies had deranged lipid profile at birth and are at higher risk for developing metabolic syndrome later in life. Thus we must be cautious and judicious while fortifying feeds for preterm (PT) and small for gestation age (SGA) babies and life style modifications need to be made right from the start.

  51. Gaurav Bambha, Anjali Solanki, Manita Bambha and Chandi Garg

    Introduction: Otitis media is defined as “an inflammation of the middle ear without reference to etiology or pathogenesis. Otitis media also implies concomitant inflammation, to a greater or lesser extent mastoid air cell system, owing to its anatomic linkage to the middle ear cleft i.e. the tympanic cavity Aim & Objective: To analyze and compare the surgical outcome of tympanoplasty with and without cortical mastoidectomy in central perforation C.S.O.M. (TTD) type. To assess the role of cortical mastoidectomy in the management of C.S.O.M. (TTD) type. Study Design : A prospective comparative study comprising of 50 patients who were randomly divided into two equal groups according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria as given below with 25 patients undergoing type 1 Tympanoplasty and 25 patients undergoing type 1 Tympanoplasty with cortical mastoidectomy, done over 2 years from july 2006 to july 2008 at Sri Ramachandra University, Chennai. Conclusion: • Cortical mastoidectomy is recommended in patients of CSOM (TTD) with subtotal perforation (involving all the quadrants). • The graft take up rate is similar in both the groups in patients with central perforation (involving one or two quadrants). • In successful graft take up, results of hearing improvement and graft mobility are similar with and without mastoidectomy. • Possibility of finding mastoid antral pathology is more in patients with CSOM (TTD) with subtotal perforation as observed in this study.

  52. Dr. Taisir Shahriar, Dr. Md. Akramuzzaman, Dr. Sadia Afrin and Dr. Shaouki Munir

    Worldwide bronchial asthma is one of the most common non communicable disease of rising prevalence. The main feature of bronchial asthma is bronchial eosinophilic inflammation induced bronchospasm in genetically predisposed known and unknown agents. The goal of pharmacological control includes, neutralize precipitating factors of bronchospasm and reduce inflammation. Though the modern step care management is not so difficult but the difficulty remains in adherence to the ideal treatment schedule for the patient and also for the physician. This issue is concerned about the up to date pharmacotherapy of bronchial asthma so that the physician can manage the patient effectively and efficiently. The ultimate aim of our paper is to help the asthma patient to maintain their daily activity with minimum or no symptoms in a safe and cost effective way.

  53. Alhusain, Faisal Ahmed, M., Alotabi, Ibrahim MuthyibI, Almegbel, Faisal Yousef, I., Alhasan, Ahmed Hassan, A. and Masuadi, Emad, A.

    Introduction: Chronic diseases are among the commonest health problems that affect an individual’s quality of life and have become a major problem that faces many of the world population, especially in the developing countries. Researchers have found that the increase in age and suffering from chronic conditions are closely related. In Saudi Arabia, the rapid population growth, the growing aging segment, and the prevalence of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) increase the needs for healthcare services. Aims: To assess the prevalence of NCDs among Saudi elderlies living in Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia. Settings and Design: This Design for this study was a cross sectional study. Recruitment and data collection lasted from January to June, 2016 and the study population included 1182 people who were Saudi citizens, >60 years old and live in Riyadh City. Statistical analysis used: Descriptive variables were analyzed and reported as numbers and percentages using SPSS v.21. Results: Of the 1182 participants, 637 (53.9%) were female, 505 (42.7%) falling in a category from 60-66 years old, and 868 (73.4%) were classified as obese or overweight. Majority of the population were married (63.6%) and uneducated (36.3%). 1090 of the participants (92.2%) had one chronic disease or more. Diabetes was the most common self-reported chronic diseases (51.9%). Of the total population, 531 (44.9%) mentioned hypertension, 428 (36.2%) mentioned poor vision, and 400 (33.8%) mentioned dyslipidemia. Conclusion: The findings from this study showed that self-reported chronic conditions were common among Saudi elderly, especially, diabetes, hypertension, poor vision, and dyslipidemia. The results showed that obesity is a common problem among Saudi elderly.

  54. Duggal Rohit, Munjal Sudhir, Kaur Amandeep and Natt Amanpreet Singh

    On a daily basis, the practicing dentist and his personal are at risk of being exposed to a wide range of patients with blood borne diseases such as HIV/AIDS, hepatitis B, C and air borne diseases such as tuberculosis. Infection can be directly transmitted by oral fluids, blood, contaminated instruments and surfaces or via the respiratory system.Control of infection that spreads through various instruments and armamentarium used in the field of orthodontics and dentistry in general is of utmost importance as a preventive measure for cross infection. So, this article reviews the various methods of sterilization by focusing on the guidelines for an effective and efficient orthodontic practice.

  55. Dr. Amit Kumar Nirmal, Dr. Kirti Nirmal and Dr. Jaykant Jha

    Eosinophilic cholecystitis is a rare and poorly understood entity first described in 1949 which diagnosed on the basis of classical presentation of cholecystitis with the trans-mural inflammatory infiltrates predominantly presence of more than 90% eosinophilic with in the gall bladder. It may be idiopathic or it may be associated with other disease conditions, like hyper-eosinophilic syndrome, drug intake, eosinophilic myalgia syndrome, few herbal medicines and some parasitic infestations. We report three cases who presented with pain in right upper quadrant. On ultrasonography of all three cases reveals multiple stones in first & second cases and third case are single stone, which on histopathological was diagnosed as eosinophilic cholecystitis. Retrospective analysis of their histories and their investigations. We present these cases because of their rare occurrence and worst prognosis than cholecystitis.

  56. Piyush Kumar Sengar, Smita Priyadarshini and Piyush Setu

    Introduction: We compared the effects of addition of intrathecal clonidine and midazolam to 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine in terms of efficacy of sensory and motor block achieved and observed the side effects if any. Methods: Forty patients of ASA Grade I and II between 18 – 60 years age of either sex undergoing lower limb surgeries were randomly allocated to any of the groups of 20 each by lottery method. Group M: Patients received Midazolam 2.5 mg preservative free (0.5 ml). Group C: Patients received Clonidine 75 micrograms (0.5 ml). These drugs were given with bupivacaine 15 mg (3 ml of 0.5 % hyperbaric solution) intrathecally. The time of onset, peak sensory and motor, 2 segment regression, time of rescue analgesia, haemodyanmic changes and any other side effect were recorded. Results: The motor blockade was significantly prolonged in group C (809.56  290.38) than group M (533.80  164.91). Two segment sensory regression, motor regression and time of rescue analgesia in group C (110.44  28.77, 411.11  82.07, 8.69  0.92) was significantly more as compared to group M (66.10  10.15, 159.80  35.28, 4.28  0.7) suggesting prolonged analgesia in intra-op & post-op periods. Conclusion: 75 micrograms clonidine when added to 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine prolongs the sensory and motor block and reduces requirement of rescue analgesia as compared to 2.5mg midazolam.

  57. Dr. Jitendra Chawla, Dr. Prashant K. Pandilwar, Dr. Pawan Kumar and Dr. Saindhya T. Sonowal

    Study Design: A prospective, randomized double-blind clinical trial was conducted (n=100)to compare the anesthetic efficacy of 4% articaine versus 2% lidocaine, with epinephrine 1:100,000, in truncal block of the inferior alveolar nerve during the surgical extraction of impacted lower third molars the Department of Oral and maxillofacial surgery at Government Dental College and Hospital, Nagpur, India. Single operator performed surgery on an extemporaneous basis. The study variables were: latency (time to action) and duration of anesthetic effect, the amount of anesthetic solution used, and the need of re-anesthetize the surgical zone. A visual analog scale was used to assess pain during surgery, and thus subjectively evaluate the anesthetic efficacy of the two solutions. Results: The mean anesthetic latency period for Articaine was found to be short (64.05 ± 10.25secs) as compared to Lignocaine (84.2 ± 10.61 secs) (p<0.0001). The duration of anaesthesia was longer for Articaine (275±48.10 mins) as compared to Lignocaine (198.66±39.30 mins) with p <0.0001.Subjective intra-operative pain scoring by the patients indicating depth of anesthesia showed no significant differences between the two. There was no significant differences between the need for re-anesthesia with Articaine or Lignocaine (p= 0.2919). The duration of onset of post-operative pain was 223.33±29.44 mins and 166.67±32.93 mins for Articaine and Lignocaine respectively, indicating longer anesthetic duration with Articaine (p<0.0001). There was no significant difference in pain intensity at different point times between the two groups (p=0.987). The post-operative analgesic requirement between two groups at different point times showed a quantitative difference in number of analgesics used after surgery (p<0.001) at all period of time, considering both anesthetic solution. Conclusion: Articaine was found to have longer duration of action than Lignocaine. Thus, adding to the patient comfort after extraction by increasing painless duration. Duration of analgesia was more with Articaine as compared to Lignocaine thus providing a larger pain-free post-operative period for patient after surgical extraction. Artcaine offers better post-operative analgesic effect clinically with a significant reduction in post-operative analgesic requirement as compared to Lignocaine thus increasing the patient comfort after surgical extraction and a faster recovery.

  58. Dr. Ankur Bhupendrakumar Pachani, Dr. Jaimin K. Shah, Dr. Milan K. Senjaliya, Dr. Sandip R. Solanki, Dr. Vikash J. Singh, Dr. Nikunj R. Godhani, Dr. Shailendra J. Solanki, Dr. Sachin V. Bhimani, Dr. Riteshkumar R. Parmar and Dr. Jigar M. Shah

    Background: Endoscopic third ventriculostomy is increasingly used in the treatment of hydrocephalus. It is considered treatment of choice in obstructive hydrocephalus. There are varying opinions about results of ETV in infants. We therefore prospectively studied the outcome of endoscopic third ventriculostomy in infants with obstructive hydrocephalus. Aim: To investigate the outcome of endoscopic third ventriculostomy in infants with obstructive hydrocephalus. Methods & Materials: A prospective study of 34 infants undergoing ETV in our institution from July 2013 to December 2015 was carried out. Obstruction was revealed by preoperative computed tomographic scan and magnetic resonace imaging. The etiology of obstructive hydrocephalus was congenital aqueductal stenosis in twenty five patients, posthemorrhagic obstruction in two patients and postinfection etiology in seven patients. The results of ETV were determined by assessing clinical signs of raised intracranial pressure, head circumference measurements and fontanelle tension, as well as by MRI / CT scans and post operative CSF flow studies. ETV was considered successful if a patient showed clinical evidence of normal intracranial pressure and structural evidence of stable or decreased ventricular size whereas was considered failure in cases in which a patient showed no change in clinical symptoms or requires placement of a shunt within days or months of the procedure. Results: ETV was successful in 28 patients with a mean follow up period of 14.6 months. Successful procedure was noted in 88% patients with aqueductal stenosis, 50% with posthaemorrhagic and 71.4% with postinfective obstructive hydrocephalus. In 6 patients ETV was considered failure. These patients required a shunt. Out of 6 patients with failure, five of them were less than 6 months old when ETV was performed and four of them were low birth weight pre mature infants. Overall success rate was 82.3% in infants with obstructive hydrocephalus. Conclusion: ETV is a better alternative surgical treatment to shunt surgery for obstructive hydrocephalus in infants. Its fairly safe and effective. Posthaemorrhagic and Postinfective obstructive hydrocephalus have more failure rate as compared to congenital obstructive hydrocephalus due to aqueductal stenosis. Efficacy of ETV was better in full term normal birth weight infant as compared to low birth weight pre mature infants.

  59. Dr. Santosh Kumar Verma, Dr. Barun Deo, Dr. Madhu Ranjan, Dr. Om Prakash, Dr. Manish Shekhar and Dr. Sankalp Verma

    Context: Gingivitis is the most common inflammatory diseases of supporting tissues of teeth. Role of microbial aetiology and host response in progression of gingival diseases has been well established. The most common variant; plaque induced gingivitis is an inflammatory process, limited to the gingiva, resulting from bacteria located at the gingival margin. To prevent gingivitis and its progression to periodontitis, daily and effective supra-gingival plaque control methods are considered the most effective methods to regain and maintain dental and periodontal health. Chlorhexidine is considered to be the “gold standard” agent for chemical plaque control methods, as it is a broad spectrum antiseptic. However, chlorhexidine is discouraged because of its unpleasant taste and undesirable side effects such as tooth staining. The objective of this article is find alternative treatment methods. Aim: With this aim we investigate the application of ozonated oil and compare its efficacy with that of chorhexidine in treatment of plaque induced gingivitis. Materials and Methods: A total of 50 subjects, aged from 18 to 70 years, with plaque induced gingivitis were selected from the outpatient Department of Periodontology, Hazaribag College of Dental Sciences, Hazaribag, for this study. They were divided randomly into the test or ozonated oil group (Group I) and the control or chlorhexidine gel group (Group II) with 25 subjects in each group. Subjects were instructed to gently massage their gingiva thrice a day for 3 weeks with the drug. Plaque index and gingival index scores were recorded for all the subjects at baseline and after 3 weeks. Results: Ozonated oil (Group I) and chlorhexidine gel (Group II) groups showed statistically significant differences with respect to plaque index and gingival index, from the baseline to 3 weeks (P < 0.001 in both). But the difference between Group I and Group II, at the end of the study period, was not statistically significant with respect to the plaque index and gingival index. Conclusions: The ozonated oil and chlorhexidine gel both can be used as an effective agent in maintaining and improving gingival health. But the added benefit of ozonated oil over chlorhexidine is freedom from side effects like unpleasant taste and staining of teeth.

  60. Dr. Rabia Bilal

    The prevelance of class III maloclussion is 4.2% at most. According to the Angle classification, class III malocclusionis defined as the lower molar mesially positionedrelative to the upper molar with no specifications in regardsto the line of occlusion. Nevertheless, as withall Angle’s classification of malocclusion, class III malocclusioncomprises several skeletal and dental componentsthat may differ from the concept of normality. It can be characterized by presenting a mandibularskeletal protrusion, amaxillary skeletal retrusion, a combination of both, or noanteroposterior skeletal imbalances. Bone discrepancy may have an unfavorable impact on esthetics, which is frequently aggravated by the presence of accentuated facial asymmetries. This type of malocclusion is usually treated with association of Orthodontics and orthognathic surgery for correction of occlusion and facial esthetics.

  61. Pokharkar K. K., Delvadia D. V., Jadhav P. B. and Bhor P. B.

    The present investigation entitled "Effect of pretreatments and drying methods on quality of tomato slices" was carried out at Post Graduate Laboratory Department of Horticulture, College of Agriculture, Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh in factorial completely randomized design with three replications and consists different levels of pre-treatment viz., P1 (Peeled by hot water dip blanching), P2 (Peeled by hot brine dip blanching), P3 (Unpeeled, hot water blanching), P4 (Unpeeled, hot brine blanching) and P5 (Control-Unpeeled, Unblanched) and two drying methods viz., D1 (Tray drying) and D2 (Sun drying). The results of sensory evaluation exhibited that on 1st, 40th and 60th day of storage, P2D1 secured highest score for sensory characteristics i.e. 9, 7.5 and 6.1, respectively, on 20th and 80th day of storage, P2D1 and P4D1 recorded highest average score for sensory characteristics i.e. 8.1 and 4.6, respectively. Therefore treatment P2D1 can be suggested to the farmers or post-harvest technocrats for commercial based preparation of tomato slices.

  62. Gajendra Singh Pushkar Choudhary Syed Asif Yaqoob Rajveer Singh Rawat and Dr. Bhanwar Lal Jat

    Triphala (Digestive Support) is a composite herbal preparation containing equal proportions of the fruits of three myrobalans, Emblica officinalis, Terminalia chebula and Terminalia bellerica. This preparation is known to be a safe hypoglycemic agent. Triphala prevents aging, imparts immunity and improves mental faculties. It helps to detoxify the liver, restore digestion and purify blood. Triphala is widely used in a large number of medicinal preparations. Phytochemical screening reveals that the major constituents of Triphala, Amla, Baheda & Harad extract are phenolic, alkaloid, and flavanoid, compounds. Phenolic compounds which may be responsible for the activation of antioxidant. DPPH radical scavenging activity: Triphala & its individual fruit extracts had significant scavenging effect on the DPPH free radical which increases with increasing concentration from 20-10μg/ml. The anti microbial activity was found maximum with the methanolic extract of Triphala followed by Amla then Baheda and Harad. The antimicrobial activity and may be due to the extracted phytochemicals in methanolic extracts. Triphala, Amla, and Baheda & Harad shows positive results for phenolic component in the methanolic extract thus we can assume that the phenols may be responsible for the antimicrobial activity. But further chemical characterization is needed to confirm the molecule responsible for the activity. Triphala as a mixture shows better antibacterial activity as compared with individual fruit extracts therefore Triphala can be used in therapy as it has multiple other health benefits also.

  63. Sharma, S. P., Sharma, P. P. and Mukesh Vyas

    Pulses are known to have additional advantage on seed production and quality if inoculated with symbiotic strains. A considerable variation in nodulation efficiency has been observed in genotypes. Thus twenty diverse genotypes of cowpea Vigna unguiculata (L.) walp were inoculated with two Bradyrhizobium strains under field conditions to investigate nodulation efficiency. Observations recorded were- number of nodules, nodule fresh weight, nodule dry weight, leghaemoglobin content, nitrogen content. The overall performance of genotypes was superior in Bradyrhizobium treated (S2>S1) than untreated (S3). Genotypes DCP-9, IC-39890, DCP-10, HC-03-04 RC-19, COVU-702, DCP-9 and RC-101 exhibited higher number of nodules per plant, nodule fresh weight, nodule dry weight. Leghaemoglobin content and nitrogen content in plant.

  64. Ivan Ricardo Carvalho, Maicon Nardino, Gustavo Henrique Demari, Diego Nicolau Follmann, Tiago Olivoto, Alexsander Rigatti, Alan Junior de Pelegrin, Vinicius Jardel Szareski, Cleiton Antonio Warths, Felipe Koch, Geison Rodrigo Aisenberg, Tiago Pedó, Tiag

    This study aimed to determine the dissimilarity among landrace common bean genotypes through multivariate techniques aiming the selection of individuals to compose the crossing blocks and determine among the evaluated genotypes, which ones have proximity to an agronomic ideotype. The experiment was carried out during the 2014/2015 agricultural year in TenentePortela– RS, southern Brazil. The augmented blocks design was composed by the control treatments: BRS Estilo, IPR Uirapuru, IPR Tangara, BRSMG Realce, IAC Formoso, IPR Imperado, and IPRTiziu, and the regular treatments were constituted by the genotypes: LMGPP01, LMGPP2, LMGPP3, LMGPP4, LMGPP5, LMGPP6, LMGPP7, LMGPP8, LMGPP9, LMGPP10, LMGPP11, PORTELA16, PORTELA37, PORTELA38, PORTELA39, PORTELA64, and PORTELA65. The genotypes LMGPP09 and PORTELA16 are the most dissimilar, while LMGPP01 and LMGPP02 are the most similar ones. The BRSMG REALCE and PORTELA16 genotypes can be used as genitors in combination with other genotypes in the formation of segregating populations with wide genetic variability. The hierarchical UPGMA clustering method, the Tocher optimizing method, and the principal component analysis are consistent and complementary, enabling a reliable response in the data interpretation on the genetic dissimilarity in common bean.

  65. Alan Júnior de Pelegrin, Ivan Ricardo Carvalho, Maicon Nardino, Alesxander Rigatti, Vinícius Jardel Szareski, Mauricio Ferrari, Gustavo Henrique Demari, Diego Nicolau Follmann, Daniela Meira, Tiago Olivoto, Velci Queiróz de Souza, Valmor Antonio Konfla

    The study aimed to identify the phenotypic classes and the relative contribution of traits, which points linear associations and the genetic variation among corn hybrids used for silage production. Was conducted in 2012/2013 crop year, in the city of Campos Borges – RS. The experimental design was a randomized complete blocks, with eight corn hybrids, arranged in six replications. The analysis showed significance at 5% probability tomineral material (MM), total crude protein (PTN), hemicellulose (HEM), lipids (LIP), total carbohydrates (TC) and non-fiber carbohydrates (NFC). However, no significant differences were observed for plant height (PH), ear insertion height (EIH), prolificity (PRO), chlorophyll content (CC), hydrogenic potential (pH), dry mass percentage of silage (DMPS), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), lignin (LIG), cellulose (CEL), leaf area (AF), green mass yield per hectare (GMY) and dry mass yield per hectare (DMY). The frequency distributions indicate that the traits with more phenotypic classes were the total crude protein and hemicellulose. The cellulose present high relationship with the structural carbohydrates fraction and difficult digest. The cellulose and hemicellulose percentage is inversely proportional to the non-fibrous carbohydrates of corn silage. Neutral detergent fiber, non-fibrous carbohydrates and hemicellulose traits are those that contribute most to discrimination of corn genotypes. The contribution of descriptive, univariate and multivariate analysis demonstrate to be techniques which can be used successfully in the discrimination of corn genotypes and traits of importance for the production of corn silage.

  66. Mutai Paul, A., Oliech G. O. and Omega J. A.

    Rabbit farming (cunniculture) is not yet a popular livestock business enterprise in Kenya due to high feeding and lack of ready market for rabbit products. Cunniculture can be a profitable enterprise, but there is lack of knowledge on rabbits nutrition that is based on locally available forage germplasms. This has led to slow growth and low weight gain of rabbits. This experiment was carried out to determine the nutritional value of locally available field legumes using growing rabbits as the animal for bioassay. Thirty Newzealand White one (1) month old rabbits were randomly placed in rabbit cages in pairs. There were 5 treatments representing the legumes i.e. Lucerne, Desmodium, Vetch and Beans and a control of Rhodes grass hay and each treatment was replicated thrice. Feed and water was given adlibitum. From the five treatments, samples were taken in duplicate for proximate analysis to evaluate their nutrient composition. Data on daily feed intake was used to assess the growth rate and feed conversion efficiency. Daily rectal temperature were taken from the 2nd week of experiment. This was done randomly on three rabbits in each treatment for a period of 2 weeks, this was to monitor possible clinical signs of toxicity, especially hypothermia. At the end of the experiment, two rabbits from each treatment were sacrificed and their gastro-intestinal organs weighed and examined for any toxic effects of the legumes. The results demonstrated that beans had the highest CP of 28.98% while Vetch, Desmodium and Lucerne had % CP of 25.90, 21.05, and 20.66 respectively. However Desmodium had the best average daily gain (ADG) of 12.72gm, and feed conversion efficiency of 0.097. Toxicity investigation revealed that Desmodium had the least toxicity score while the beans had the highest. The research design was a CRD and data analysis was done using ANOVA and SPSS, while mean separation was done using Fischers Least Significant difference (LSD), (P<0.05). From these results it can be concluded that Desmodium is the best legume as a protein source for growing rabbits.

  67. Lubna S. Nawar

    Botrytis cinerea is quite destructive and damaging plant disease, which infect tomato and many other plants. Effective means of protection using bioicides is of interest in recent years. The used bioagents were Streptomyces anulatus SM21, S. coelicolor SM1, Bacillus pumilus and Trichoderma harzianum. They were selected for the high production of lytic enzymes including chitinase and protease on solid and broth media. Effect of these bioicides on spore germination and radial growth of Botrytis cinerea in vitro were recorded. Streptomyces anulatus SM21 was the most active bioagent and inhibited Botrytis cinerea spore germination by 83% and inhibited fungal growth (inhibition zone diameter, 26.5 mm). Tomato plants were grown in sterile soil and infected with Botrytis cinerea. The infected plants recoded significantly higher level of pectinase, peroxidase and catalase enzymes compared to control plants (non infected plants) while treatment with biocides decreased levels of both peroxidase and catalase to levels near to that of healthy plants. Moreover, inoculation of the infected plants with the bioagent decreased the fungal infection and enhanced plant growth criteria. Shoot height (cm /plant) root depth (cm/plant), number of leaves, dry weights of shoot and leaves were enhanced compared to infected plants. Infection of the plants with Botrytis cinerea decreased Chlorophyll a+b content of fresh leaves, Nitrogen (N), Phosphorous (P) and Mg+2 contents (mg/g) of the shoot system compared to healthy plants while increased total soluble protein and total soluble sugars. Treatment of plants by biocides removes almost the bad changes associated with the plant fungal infection. The most effective treatment was using Streptomyces anulatus SM21. In conclusion, Botrytis cinerea can be controlled using Streptomyces anulatus SM21, S. coelicolor SM1, Bacillus pumilus or Trichoderma harzianum due to the presence lytic enzyme and their effects were similar to that obtained by the antifungal Mancozeb.

  68. Mauricio Ferrari, Alan Junior de Pelegrin, Maicon Nardino, Ivan Ricardo Carvalho, Vinícius Jardel Szareski, Tiago Olivoto, Rafael Belle, Antonio Costa de Oliveira, Luciano Carlos da Maia and Velci Queiróz de Souza

    Agronomic performance of soybean genotypes results from the genetic constitution, environmental conditions and genotype x environment interaction. We aimed to evaluate the traits with agronomic importance in elite soybean genotypes, with Roundup Ready® and Intact RR2 PRO® technologies in different sites of Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil. The trials were carried out in 2013/2014 growing season in a randomized complete block design, arranged in a 4x10 (four soybeans genotypes and ten sites) factorial treatment design, with four replications. The sites were Frederico Westphalen-RS, Derrubadas-RS, Tapera-RS and Independência-RS. Tem used soybeans genotypees were: NS 5445 IPRO, TEC 6029 IPRO, 6458 RSF IPRO, 6061 RSF IPRO and CD 2611 IPRO with INTACTA RR2 PRO® technology and NS 6211 RR, TECIRGA 6070 RR, DMario 5.8i RR, Don Mario 5.9i RR and CD 2585 RR with Roundup Ready® technology. Assessed traits were: plant height, first pod insertion height, number of branches, number of pods in branches, number of pods on the main stem, total number of pods, number of pods with one kernel, number of pods with two kernels, number of pods with three kernels, grain yield and thousand-kernel weight. 6458RSF IPRO and NS 6211 RR genotypes show greater agronomic performance and can be indicated for Independência-RS environment. 6061 RSF IPRO genotype shows superior agronomic performance and can be recommended for Tapera-RS and Derrubadas-RS environments. NS 6211 RR genotype shows superior agronomic performance for Frederico Westphalen-RS environment. Based on assessed traits, Tapera-RS, Derrubadas-RS and Frederico Westphalen-RS cultivation environments, have more favorable soil and climatic conditions for growth and development of elite soybean genotypes.

  69. Karri. Apprao, Surendra Babu, M. S., Basaveswara Rao, M. V. and Nageswara Rao, T.

    A simple and high sensitive method was developed using solid-phase extraction, together with high performance liquid chromatographic method with PDA detection for determination of triafamone and its metabolite residues. The evaluated parameters include the extracts by silica gel SPE cartridge using acetonitrile and 0.1% acetic acid solvents. The method was validated using weat leaves spiked with triafamone and its metabolites at different fortification levels (0.05 and 0.5 µg/g). Average recoveries (using each concentration six replicates) ranged 84-94%, with relative standard deviations less than 2%, calibration solutions concentration in the range 0.02-2.0 µg/mL and limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) were 0.02µg/g and 0.05µg/g respectively. Finally the weat leave samples were re analyzed by HPLC.

  70. Alan Junior de Pelegrin, Ivan Ricardo Carvalho, Maicon Nardino, Mauricio Ferrari, Vinícius Jardel Szareski, Rafael Belle, Daniela Meira, Gustavo Henrique Demari, Diego Nicolau Follman, Tiago Antonio Webber, Tiago Olivoto and Velci Queiróz de Souza

    This study aimed to test performance resistant soybean to Asian rust in different environments of Rio Grande do Sul. The experiment was conducted in the agricultural year 2013/2014 in five producer of soybeans regions of Rio Grande do Sul. The experiment was conducted in randomized block design, arranged in four replicates. Data were subjected to variance analysis by F test, and the means were performed comparing by Duncan test at 5% probability of error, in the Genes statistic program. Soybean rust resistant does not have the same performance at all cultivation environments, indicating that a narrower agricultural zoning should be effected. The best performance of soybean rust resistant is expressed in Derrubadas, under the variable grain yield, grain yield per plant, number of branches and number of pods with 2 and 3 grains.

  71. Kamlesh Patel, Dr. Ashaben Patel, Upendra Patel and Pradhuman Parmar

    A isocratic reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography method was developed for the assay of levo bupivacaine base in bulk and dosage forms. The HPLC method was validated as per ICH guidelines. The chromatographic separation was achieved on a Hypersil BDS C18, 250×4.6mm,5µm column, mobile phase mix buffer using analytical grade K2HPO4, K2HPO4, KOH and acetonitrile in 1000 ml, isocratic flow rate 1.0 mL/min and system detection is performed at 235 nm has been used for HPLC-UV. Levo bupivacaine base in synthesis process and formulation. The method determination limit of specification of are the correlation coefficient was 0.999, accuracy, precision and the limits of detection and quantification found to be linear in the range of 1 µg/mL to with 300 µg/mL, recovery of assay levo bupivacaine base (99%-101%) also analyzed on newly developed HPLC method.

  72. Raghu, B., Shashi Vemuri, CH. Sreenivasa Rao, Swarupa, S. and M. Aruna

    Dimethoate is a systemic organophosphorous insecticide, applied on chilli to control sap sucking insects, thrips and mites in India. Use of dimethoate in poly house and open fields is very common. As per the ICAR recent suggestions dimethoate 30%EC was applied twice @300g a.i. ha-1, first spray at fruit initiation followed by second spray at 10 days interval as per the farmers practice to compare the dissipation dynamics of pesticide residues in open field and poly house situations so as to suggest PHIs for addressing the food safety issues. Dimethoateresidues were quantified through regular sampling till the residues fell below determination level (BDL) of 0.05 mg kg-1 following the validated QuEChERS method. The qualitative and quantitative analysis of dimethoate was performed on GC-FPD and GC-MSMS (TQD). Initial deposits of2.42 mg kg-1 detected in chilli samples collected from poly house, dissipated to BDL by 10th day with a half-life of 2.61 days. In open fields, deposits of 0.19 mg kg-1 dissipated to BDL by 7th day with half-life of 36.47 days, indicating that dissipation is slow in poly house compared to open fields due to various factors. There are no maximum residue limit for dimethoate in chilli as per Codex Alimentarius Commission (CAC) and hence based on the present study Dimethoate initial deposits (0.19 mg kg-1) are less than FSSAI MRL of 2 mg kg-1, hence a PHI of 1 day can be recommended. In case of poly house, initial deposit of 2.42 mg kg-1 was observed and hence a safe waiting period of 7 days can be recommended since FSSAI MRL is 2 mg kg-1 for food safety.

  73. Mamta Gupta, Bunty Sharma, Veena Chawla and Neelam R. Yadav

    In the present investigation 94 recombinant inbred lines from wheat cross Aldan (resistant) and WH542 (susceptible), were used. There was significant variation among all the recombinant inbred lines for coefficient of infection of Karnal bunt (Neovossia indica). The chi-square analysis indicated that a single dominant gene was responsible for Karnal bunt resistance. Total thirty five inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) primers were used for amplification of DNA from the two parents. ISSR markers based finger print database were generated using only 25 primers. Out of 25, six primers showed 100% polymorphism. A total of 193 alleles were detected at 25 ISSR loci. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 4-14 with an average of 7.72 alleles per locus. The two parents were genetically diverse (similarity coefficient 0.419). The cluster analysis led to distribution into two groups: group 1 had resistant parent Aldan and group 2 had susceptible parent WH542, resistant bulk and susceptible bulk respectively. Among all the primers used one primer (IS-43) was identified to be associated with Karnal bunt resistance. This showed an amplification profile (650 bp product) characteristic of resistant parent, in corresponding bulk and in individual genotyping of the recombinant inbred lines. This might have an application in marker assisted selection after converting it to SCAR marker.

  74. Usha, D. K., Kanimozhi, G. and Panneerselvam, A.

    Pectins are polysaccharides, ubiquitous in the plant kingdom and constitute the important major component of middle lamellae of plant cell walls. Pectin lyases are widely used in the food industry in the production of juice, fruit drinks and wines. In present study, pectin lyase producing fungi was isolated from fruit, vegetable, and dead organic waste soil. Totally 25 fungal organisms were isolated and identified. Screening of pectin lyase producing fungi were isolated using pectin screening agar medium. Out of 25 organisms, only two fungi namely Aspergillus niger and Penicillium citrinum were able to produce pectin lyase activity. The pH, temperature, carbon sources, nitrogen sources and trace elements were also optimized. Enzyme assay was determined by Thiobarbitutric method (TBA). There are a lot of industrial processes can be applied to improve the quality and the yield of the final product.

  75. Yadav, N. K., Ghimire, S.K., Sah, B. P., Sarker, A., Shrestha, S. M. and Sah, S. K.

    The present experiment was conducted using one hundred and eighty five genotypes of lentil collected from different locations to determine the genetic variation, association and divergence among them. Data on various characteristics were recorded. Wide range of variations found in mean values suggested variations for all agronomic traits under study. ANOVA showed statistically significant differences among the genotypes for all the traits. Genetic parameters like genotypic and phenotypic variances and correlation coefficient, heritability and genetic advance were estimated. Estimates of phenotypic and genotypic coefficients of variations were high for grain yield (55.10, 51.15), number of pods per plant (49.31, 47.56) and harvest index (53.17, 40.89) while it was very low for days to flowering (3.77, 3.63) and days to maturity (2.46, 2.23). Estimates of genotypic coefficient of variability constituted major component of variability suggested variation in the genetic constitution irrespective of environmental influences. All the characters showed high heritability. The traits grain yield per plant, number of pods per plant, harvest index, number of branches and seed weight showed high genetic advances, suggested selection of genotypes considering these traits will lead to high yielding varieties. Phenotypic and genotypic correlation revealed that all the traits possess positive correlation with grain yield, except days to flowering and days to maturity. Genotypic and phenotypic path coefficient revealed that traits like number of pods per plant,; biological yield and harvest index have direct positive effect on grain yield. Genetic divergence analysis grouped 185 genotypes into eight clusters. Cluster VII had highest mean value of grain yield, number of pods per plant and harvest index while lowest was that of was that of II. Hybridization between the genotypes of these clusters may give rise to more valuable transgressive segregates.

  76. Swati Rai and Prof. Sunita Mishra

    Functional foods and nutraceuticals provide an opportunity to improve the human health, reduce health care costs and support economic development in rural communities. The tenet “Let food be thy medicine and medicine be thy food,” espoused by Hippocrates nearly 2,500 years ago, is receiving renewed interest. Within the last decade, however, the term functional as it applies to food has adopted a different connotation—that of providing an additional physiological benefit beyond that of meeting basic nutritional needs. In particular, there has been an explosion of consumer interest in the health enhancing role of specific foods or physiologically- active food components, so-called functional foods (Hasler, 1998). While nutraceuticals, sometimes referred to as natural health products, are often used in medicinal forms as tablets, capsules or liquid. Among diseases of concern, cancer and coronary heart disease (CHD) are high on the list. In this respect, phenolics of plant origin, as an example, have been found to act as free radical scavengers, inhibitors of cholesterol oxidation and DNA breakage, among others, thus serving as potential cancer preventing agents. On the other hand, marine foods have often been considered as “heart food” because of the role of their omega-3 fatty acid constituents in lowering of triacylglycerol and cholesterol levels and hence the incidence of CHD. This review article focused on some examples of the functional foods and nutraceuticals and their health benefits, like probiotics and prebiotics, proteins and peptides, oils and fatty acids, carbohydrates and fibers, catchine and lycopene.

  77. Ismael Martins Pereira, Vera Lúcia Gomes-Klein and Milton Groppo

    The MaxEnt algorithm was used for study the geographical distribution and species richness for Dilleniaceae family, considered an important plant group of Cerrado. The aims were to analyze the species distributions and richness, comparing the species occurrence with biological reserves and priority areas for Cerrado conservation. The species distribution and richness of Dilleniaceae occurs predominantly in open cerrado that encompasses greater geographical area and larger plant biodiversity of Cerrado. The Dilleniaceae richness indicates that the Cerrado possesses gaps in network of biological reserves, therefore, are not effective in biodiversity protection. The Cerrado priority conservation areas are consistent with the Dilleniaceae richness, therefore, it is necessary new researches for support the creation of new reserves. These measures are necessary due to current rates of environmental degradation such as fire damage in vegetation, fragmentation and habitat loss.

  78. Yi-Hsuan Tsai, Hui-Shan Chan, Chii-Fang Hwang and Yi-Chun Huang

    Taiwan’s education strategy is developing within process to fit the students’ personal needs, interests and self- development. It is important to understand the Attitude and value factors that influence individual educational choices. In this article, the study conduct a literature review of the current knowledge surrounding individual attitudes in STEM, personality and using expectancy–value theory as a guiding framework. The overarching goal of this paper is to provide both a well-defined theoretical framework and complementary empirical evidence for linking specific external and internal factors to individual value differences in personality and STEM attitude. A sampling of 147 first-years of college students with health-care educational background was randomly selected from a technological university in Taiwan. Multiple research methods were adopted, including: the questionnaire consists of three constructs: STEM attitudes (thirty-eight items), students’ expectancy–value (eleven items), and students’ personality (thirty-two items). The results of the questionnaire analysis are as following that students had a positive attitude towards STEM, especially technology and engineering are the most popular subject with using expectancy-value. However, that there were significant differences of STEM attitudes depending students’ different personality traits, especially in the dimensions of Openness, Extraversion, Conscientiousness. Most of the students had weak significantly attitudes only towards the science, engineering and technology disciplines in the STEM.

  79. Yosephina Ardiani Septiati and dan Neneng Yetty Hanurawaty

    The use of plastic packaging is already a requirement, such as packaging or protective and food wrappers used in a relatively long time. Almost all cases are associated with PVC can have adverse effects on health, because of the reaction of one substance with other materials such as wrappers materials and contents resulted from the use of additives through diffusion and migration. Bioplastics can be used as food packaging, to reduce the risk arising from the use of health (Darni et al., 2008). Based on the nature of the protection that the packaging must be able to defend the food of the influence of gas, light, moisture. Bioplastics can be described by nature within 6 months. Decomposition can occur due to natural factors and activity of microorganisms. Purpose of the study was to determine the effect of cassava peel and glycerol as bioplastic packaging food for physical and microbial quality of food. The addition of glycerol variations in the manufacture of bioplastics in order to obtain a more flexible and elastis plastic. (Bayu et al., 2008) Bioplastics also have a resistance to water and air to be able to protect food. Based on the research, that bioplastics have surface morphology and resistance to varying water. Conclusion of the study is There is the effect of the use of bioplastics on the physical quality dodol, there plastizer effect of glycerol in the manufacture of bioplastics made from leather cassava starch to total bacterial leather dodol, glycerol is used more and more the higher the total bacteria, and a dose of 3 ml Glycerol plastizer that can prevent bacterial contamination of the most high.

  80. Keli Kehl, Kassiana Kehl, Geison Rodrigo Aisenberg, Felipe Koch, Manoela Andrade Monteiro, Vinícius Jardel Szareski, Ivan Ricardo Carvalho, Maicon Nardino, Velci Queiróz de Souza, Tiago Pedó, Francisco Amaral Villela and Tiago Zanatta Aumonde

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the physiological performance of wheat seeds derived from plants subjected to desiccation with different herbicides and seed moistures, before and after storage. A randomized block experimental design was used in a 4 x 3 factorial, with three herbicides and application absence and three seed moisture contents at application. 1000-seed weight, germination and first count, germination speed index, emergence and emergence speed index, and accelerated aging and electrical conductivity were assessed. Seed vigor is reduced by herbicide action when applied in 40% moisture, what is related to the active principle. Germination and vigor of wheat seeds from plants subjected to herbicide application in different seed moistures have similarity when assessed before sowing and after storage.

  81. Kassiana Kelh, Keli Kelh, Vinícius Jardel Szareski, Ivan Ricardo Carvalho, Maicon Nardino, Gustavo Henrique Demari, Tiago Corazza da Rosa, Luiz Carlos Gutkoski, Tiago Pedó, Tiago Zanatta Aumonde, Velci Queiróz de Souza, Paulo Dejalma Zimmer and Géri Edua

    Agriculture is an activity largely dependent on climatic factors, where changes may affect productivity and crop management, as well as social, economic and political factors. As the main crop producer of winter grains in southern Brazil, wheat may suffer from possible negative impacts of climate variations, being necessary to adjust the production system. The duration of wheat development stages depends on their sensitivity to photoperiod, vernalization and length of its basal phase. Temperature, water, solar radiation, nutrition, pests, diseases and weeds occurrence are variables that influence plants growth and development, therefore, the final product of economic interest, the grains. Thus, the prevailing trend is to combine different tests results, always considering the final purpose, however not always the most suitable test for assessing the seedlings emergence potential is the most suitable for detecting differences between the seed lots storage potential.

  82. Antonio Francisco de Mendonça Júnior, Ana Paula Medeiros Rodrigues dos Santos, Francisco Fernando Ramos de Carvalho, Alexandre Paula Braga, Neymar Mendes Lucena, Claudia Daianny Melo Freitas, Iago Antonio Ananias da Silva and Anderson Bruno Anacleto de

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of different fiber sources (forage fiber and non-forage fiber) in diets based on Cactus pear on non-descript breed sheep in Northeastern of Brazil, by analyzing the resultant meat quality. Intact male sheep (21 hing legs), weighing 17.10±0.98 kg, were allocated to three treatments: tifton hay, soybean hull and whole cotton seed. Proximate composition (moisture; total dry extract; mineral matter; fat and protein), physical parameters (pH; cooking loss and shear force) and sensory scores (firmness; juiciness; flavour; odour and colour) did not differ significantly (p > 0.05) between the different fiber sources. The experimental results showed high sensory quality for the sheep meat. So the non-forage fiber sources (by-products of agro-industry) adequately replaced the forage fiber. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of different fiber sources (forage fiber and non-forage fiber) in diets based on Cactus pear on non-descript breed sheep in Northeastern of Brazil, by analyzing the resultant meat quality. Intact male sheep (21 hing legs), weighing 17.10±0.98 kg, were allocated to three treatments: tifton hay, soybean hull and whole cotton seed. Proximate composition (moisture; total dry extract; mineral matter; fat and protein), physical parameters (pH; cooking loss and shear force) and sensory scores (firmness; juiciness; flavour; odour and colour) did not differ significantly (p > 0.05) between the different fiber sources. The experimental results showed high sensory quality for the sheep meat. So the non-forage fiber sources (by-products of agro-industry) adequately replaced the forage fiber.

  83. Fernandes Antonio de Almeida, Wéverson Lima Fonseca, Maria Lúcia Tiburtino Leite, Tiago Pieta Rambo, Francisco Fernandes Pereira, Fabiano André Petter, Augusto Matias de Oliveira, Rezanio Martins Carvalho and Francisco de Alcântara Neto

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the nematicidal and nematostatic effect of nettle (Fleurva aestuans), neem (Azadirachta indica), castor bean (Ricinus communis) and cassava (Manihot esculenta) bark extracts prepared through different methods. Tomato seedlings were inoculated in the roots region with a suspension containing 3,000 eggs/juvenile Meloidogyne incognita, and after 72 hours 100mL of the plant extracts were added to the soil. After fifty days, plant height, stem diameter, fresh and dry biomass of shoots, fresh and dry biomass of roots, number of galls on roots and number of juveniles in the soil were evaluated. Castor bean and nettle extracts promoted increments in plant height of 48% and 43%, respectively, if compared to water control (positive). Dry biomass of shoots and roots were significantly influenced by the extracts, especially by neem, that provided an increase of 71% and 90% for these variables. The cassava extract, prepared by infusion, provided the greatest reduction in the number of juveniles. Extracts of castor bean and cassava, cooked and prepared by infusion, respectively, reduced the number of galls in 70% and 79%. All extracts regardless the method for preparation, reduced the number of juveniles, especially neem and cassava, which reduced juveniles in 84% and 88%, respectively. These findings look promising for use in sustainable nematode control in tomato crops.

  84. Kalitha Parveen, P., Kandasamy Prabakar, John Pote Wembonyama

    The morphology of the silver nanoparticles synthesized from aqueous extract through bioreduction method shows spherical morphology. Silvernanoparticles are randomly distributed with average diameter >100nm. The biological way of synthesizing silver nanoparticles has advantages like cost effectiveness and eco-friendly. Biosynthesized nanoparticles showed maximum antimicrobial activity against k.pneumonia (15mm), bacillus subtilis (15mm), bacillus pumillus(13mm), E.coli (15mm) followed by Candida albicans (17mm), aspergillus flavus(13mm).The silver nanoparticles were studied using UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, FTIR, XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Zeta potential analysis. This was the first work to report on sliver nanoparticles synthesis from the leaf extract of blepharis maderaspatensis hyne Ex.roth. This investigation may be used in future direction as alternative therapeutic agents for the treatment of human diseases.

  85. Ambika Sahoo and Suma Divakar

    The study was carried out with the objective to develop raw jackfruit based flour to study its suitability for baking by assessing its functional qualities. The raw jackfruit bulbs of cv koozha varieties was cut into small pieces(1.5x2 cm), blanched, immersed in 0.2% KMS solution, dried milled, sieved in 0.5mm siever and packed in PP covers.. The flour prepared from dehydrated bulbs were analysed for various functional properties such as water absorption index, oil absorption index, foaming capacity, swelling power and solubility were analyzed.

  86. Flávio da Silva Costa, Lucia Helena Garófalo Chaves, Antônio Suassuna de Lima, Ivomberg Dourado Magalhães and Ana Carolina Feitosa de Vasconcelos

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the vegetative growth, production of achenes and efficiency of use of nutrients in sunflower crop in function of N and B fertilization under semi-arid conditions of the Brazilian Northeast. The experiment was carried out in the experimental area of the State University of Paraíba, Campus II, Lagoa Seca, PB, Brazil. The experiment followed a randomized block design with three replications in a factorial outline 2 x 4 x 4; with two sunflower cultivars (Helio 250 and Helio 251), four doses of nitrogen (30; 60; 90 and 120 kg ha-1) and four doses of boron (1; 2; 3 and 4 kg ha-1).The following parameters were analyzed: plant height, stem diameter, area and leaf area index, the mass of achenes, the mass of 250 achenes and nutrient use efficiency. The cultivars differed significantly on the vegetative growth and mass achenes. The increments of nitrogen influenced, significantly, growth and yield characteristics of the sunflower. Boron application in soil up to 4 kg ha-1 did not cause significant effect on the variables analyzed in this study. Smaller doses of nitrogen and boron provided the greater efficiencies of use of these nutrients.

  87. Guilherme de Freitas Furtado, *Lucia Helena Garófalo Chaves, Geovani Soares de Lima, Elysson Marcks Gonçalves Andrade and Leandro de Pádua Souza

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of mineral fertilizer NPK associated with poultry litter biochar on growth initial of sesame cv. BRS Seda. The experiment was carried at city Campina Grande, PB, Brazil, in greenhouse with a completely randomized experimental design, with three replications. The treatments were arranged in a factorial 5 x 4 consisted of five doses of mineral fertilization with N:P:K (D1 = 0:0:0; D2 = 13.5:50:14; D3 = 27.5:100: 27.5; D4 = 41.:150:41.5; D5 = 54.5:200:55 mg kg-1) associated with four doses of poultry litter biochar (0; 20; 40; 55 g kg-1) calculated based on the volume of soil. At 30 and 45 days after sowing were determined plant height, stem diameter, number of leaves by plant, leaf area and dry biomass of shoot. The mineral fertilization promoted increase in plant height, stem diameter, number of leaves, leaf area and dry sesame biomass at 45 DAS, reaching maximum growth with the N: P: K = 50: 150: 75 mg kg-1 of soil. The fertilization with poultry litter biochar promoted reduction of all variables in sesame at 30 and 45 DAS and raised the pH and electrical conductivity of the soil.

  88. Pradeep Nathu M. and Thirumala, S.

    Concentrations of airborne fungi and its Endotoxin were studied in a poultry farm area of Davanagere district of Karnataka. Samples were collected three different locations for a period of one year from February 2012 to January 2013 by Petri plate exposure method containing czapeck Dox agar media. The present investigation shows the total number of 1056 CFU of fungal colonies were identified thought out the year. The station I and II show maximum fungal diversity while minimum diversity recorded in station III. The present study it shows that diversity of airborne fungi and its Endotoxin were found maximum in poultry farm area of Davanagere city.

  89. Chinchitha Lawrence and Rajani, V.

    Pulses are important source of macronutrients, containing almost twice the amount of protein compared to cereal grains. In addition to being a source of macronutrients and minerals, pulses also contain plant secondary metabolites that are increasingly being recognized for their potential benefits for human health. Pulses, whose history of cultivation dates back to earlier times, are essential for human and animal nutrition as well as crop rotation. It has been established that pulses contain various substances, some varieties of which can be toxic (though rare) or may cause indigestion. However, it has been observed that the effects of these factors disappear or decrease when legumes are properly prepared. The present study was based on the comparison of effects of processing on some of the nutritional and anti- nutritional properties of five selected pulses (Mung bean, Chickpea, Soya bean, Horse gram and Green peas) during various stages of processing (soaking, sprouting and cooking). In all the cases, it was observed that the pulses were affected by the processing methods. The carbohydrate content was increased as a result of cooking in all the pulses, while other factors decreased. The highest value of carbohydrate was found to be in cooked Horse gram (68730 mg/ml) and the lowest in sprouted Green peas (7460 mg/ml). Sprouted Soybean gave highest protein content (3562.5776 mg/ml) and the lowest by cooked Horse gram (102.6416 mg/ml). Soaked Chick pea showed maximum value for Total Phenol (2.615 mg/ml) and cooked Horse gram, the minimum value (0.089 mg/ml). In case of Tannin, soaked Soybean gave the highest value (2077.1422 mg/ml) and the lowest by cooked Horse gram (61.4284 mg/ml). Soaked Soybean was found to give maximum Phytic acid (16.2375 mg/ml) and the minimum by cooked Green peas (4.217 mg/ml). The sprouting led to the increase in the protein content in all the pulses, while carbohydrate, tannin, phenol and phytic acid contents were decreased. The decreased concentration in Total phenol, Tannin and Phytic acid content was due to enzymatic changes during germination period in seeds. The reduction of anti-nutrients may improve the nutritional quality of legumes. Thus it can be said that through proper processing methods, the nutritional factors can be improved and negative impacts due to anti- nutritional factors can be minimized.

  90. Anandganesh, E., Nazar, A. R., Marichamy, G., Sunithadas, Gowtham, K. and Shanker, S.

    The fish body oil was extracted from the tissues of Leiognathus spp., Trichiurus savala and Sardinella fimbriata employing four different extraction methods, namely, Bligh and Dyer, Modified Bligh and Dyer, Mcgill and Moffat and Direct streaming (boiled tissues were then pressed using Fish Oil Extractor, designed in our laboratory). Fatty acid composition in different fishes using different methods, amino acid composition of crude oil by DS method and amino acid composition of crude oil extracted from Sardinella fimbriata in various methods were done and the results were explained in desk and in graphically. The result shows the superiority of the fishes in human health.

  91. Padma, A. and Rajendran, R.

    The high protein content of Spirulina (Spirulina platensis), a blue green algae has several therapeutic properties. The present study was made to explore the availability and easy use of Spirulina to people especially to the children and elders who need protein supplement. Hence the study focused on incorporating spirulina powder with little millet flour (Panicum miliare) in the preparation of cookies. The physico-chemical properties, texture profiles and sensory qualities of the prepared cookies are evaluated. Cookies were standardized with little millet flour and spirulina powder at different levels of incorporation. Along with the ingredients in the standard recipe, spirulina powder was incorporated at various percentages with little millet flour. Result of organoleptic evaluation showed that 8 % spirulina powder with 75% little millet flour was highly acceptable, with score for overall acceptability being 8.5 than the control cookies. Protein, fibre and iron content of the standardized cookies were found to be 14.6, 6.92g and 4.28mg/100g respectively than the control cookies. The shelf life of the product was better in plastic containers (600G) than propylene bags (200G) up to 30 d.

  92. Nany Djuhriah, Fany Perwirawati and Teguh Budi, P.

    Food packaging is the material used to contain or wrap food, either in direct contact with food or not. Polypropylene plastic widely used as a cup for beverage containers, Polypropylene use often do not pay attention to the health hazards, dangers, Polypropylene plastic use at temperatures of 800C to cause migration of plastic. Several factors can affect the migration of plastic is food or drink temperature, contact time and surface area. This study is experimental. Purposive sampling technique that the sample is determined by the researchers themselves using drinking water with a temperature of 800C with a type of plastic Polypropylene. The aim of research to determine the effect of contact time on the activities of the plastic migration in drinking water at a temperature of 800C. The results showed there were two chemical compounds are styrene and pthalic acid. The results of the examination of samples of 18 samples of the activity of the compound styrene on contact time of 20 minutes amounted to 67.856%, 30 minutes 72.403%, 40 minutes 74.881% while the activity of compounds pthalic acid on contact time of 20 minutes 32.144%, 30 minutes 27.596%, 40 minutes 25.119%. Suggestion research that people use plastic type in accordance with the designation, especially regarding temperature and use a plastic that has the label of food grade as well as for further research are expected to continue to compound concentration and compatibility between types of plastics by type of compound migration results.

  93. Gadhe, S. K., Dale, N. S., Umbarkar, R. B., Antre, S. H., Labade, G. B. and Khandelwal, G. A.

    Citrus canker is the most serious bacterial disease caused by bacterium Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri. In the present investigation the effect of crude methanolic, ethanolic and aqueous extracts of ginger rhizomes, curry leaves, neem, tulsi and parthenium leaves on in vitro growth of plant pathogen Xac causing citrus canker were tested. Different concentrations (25%, 50%, 75% and 100%) of these extracts were prepared. Among them all extracts of neem were found effective in inhibition of the growth of the test pathogen and its effect gradually increased with concentration. The methanolic extract of neem at 100% conc. given highest inhibition zone i.e. 14.0 mm followed by that of parthenium (10.6 mm) and tulsi (9.6 mm) extracts.

  94. Kumari, M. B. G. S.

    Effect of plant density and gypsum application on yield of groundnut was demonstrated under rainfed conditions in farmers fields of Srikakulam district of Andhra Pradesh. Based on two years demonstrations, pod yield increased 18.14 % by adopting optimum plant population and gypsum application.

  95. Kuhu Roy, Uma Iyer and Tushar Vaishnav

    Introduction: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has detrimental hepatic and cardio-metabolic outcomes in type 2 diabetics. Appropriate self care for holistic disease management is dependent on knowledge attitude and practices (KAP) of the patients. However, there is no data on KAP of type 2 diabetics with NAFLD. Objective: To assess the KAP of type 2 diabetics with ultrasound diagnosed NAFLD. Methodology: Information on KAP was elicited with a close ended questionnaire through semi-structured interview method from outpatient type 2 diabetics with ultrasound diagnosed NAFLD (N=60), along with anthropometric and biochemical assessment. Results: The NAFLD males (n=22) had higher waist hip ratio (0.98 vs. 0.92, P 0.000) and the NAFLD females (n=38) had higher body mass index (30.5 vs. 25.8kg/m2, P 0.000) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (112.2 vs. 91.2mg/dl, P 0.010). Gender irrespective, majority of the subjects could not define NAFLD (95%), risk factors, diagnosis and treatment modalities for NAFLD (96.6%). Only 5% opined that diabetes might have impacted their liver and 98.3% were unaware about the clinical presentation of NAFLD. The attitude and practice score (7.72 vs. 6.31, P 0.019) and the KAP score of NAFLD males was higher than the NAFLD females (8.3 vs. 6.6, P 0.031), but 95% of the subjects had low KAP score. Conclusions: Type 2 diabetics with NAFLD had a poor KAP score. Nutrition education for imparting NAFLD knowledge to improvise self care is the need of the hour that may aid in effective holistic management and lead to favourable health outcomes.

  96. Kaleeswaran Balasubramanian and Ramadevi Shanmugam

    Main objectives of the present work to estimate the phytochemical profile and antibacterial activity of whole plant Pedalium murex (L.) with highly medicinal value against urease producing pathogens. Plants are the effective source of both traditional and recent medicines. Nowadays, medicinal plants were used to treat most unbearable disease among humans such as Urinary tract infections (UTI). The extraction was done by using Traditional Healer Method (THM) and different solvent such as ethanol, methanol, ethyl acetate and petroleum ether by using standard procedures. The antibacterial assay was carried by using agar well method with different Pathogens. The ethyl acetate and petroleum ether extracts of P. murex (L.) (500 µg/ml) showed higher antibacterial activity against gram positive bacteria and gram negative bacteria using micro-dilution method. Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) and Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of ethyl acetate extract showed the value of 625, 62.5, 125, 125 and 15.125 µg/ml against the E. coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi, Proteus mirablis, Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus cereus respectively and the petroleum ether extract has 0.39, 12.5, 6.25, 1.56 and 1.56 respectively. MBC value found only in ethyl acetate against S. aureus (>125) and B. cereus (>31.25). From the present work, we conclude that the ethyl acetate and Petroleum ether have potential of antibacterial activity and contain secondary compounds which responsible for biological activities. Due to the presence of phyto-components in the plant extract it may control the bacterial growth either in high concentration/long durations and it may have the ability to control the UTI bacteria.

  97. Kaleeswaran Balasubramanian and Ramadevi Shanmugam

    Main objectives of the present work to estimate the phytochemical profile and antibacterial activity of whole plant Pedalium murex (L.) with highly medicinal value against urease producing pathogens. Plants are the effective source of both traditional and recent medicines. Nowadays, medicinal plants were used to treat most unbearable disease among humans such as Urinary tract infections (UTI). The extraction was done by using Traditional Healer Method (THM) and different solvent such as ethanol, methanol, ethyl acetate and petroleum ether by using standard procedures. The antibacterial assay was carried by using agar well method with different Pathogens. The ethyl acetate and petroleum ether extracts of P. murex (L.) (500 µg/ml) showed higher antibacterial activity against gram positive bacteria and gram negative bacteria using micro-dilution method. Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) and Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of ethyl acetate extract showed the value of 625, 62.5, 125, 125 and 15.125 µg/ml against the E. coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi, Proteus mirablis, Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus cereus respectively and the petroleum ether extract has 0.39, 12.5, 6.25, 1.56 and 1.56 respectively. MBC value found only in ethyl acetate against S. aureus (>125) and B. cereus (>31.25). From the present work, we conclude that the ethyl acetate and Petroleum ether have potential of antibacterial activity and contain secondary compounds which responsible for biological activities. Due to the presence of phyto-components in the plant extract it may control the bacterial growth either in high concentration/long durations and it may have the ability to control the UTI bacteria.

  98. Govindaiah, T. N. and Ramakrishna, B. N.

    We report the results of our studies on the optical and thermal properties of multi-component systems namely, laurylpyridinium chloride (LPC), 4-cyano-4′-octyloxybiphenyl (8OCB) and Glacial acetic acid (GAA), which exhibits a very interesting lower temperature reentrant nematic and reentrant smectic-A phases, sequentially when the specimen is cooled from its isotropic liquid phase. The order parameter (S) of the reentant lyotropic nematic (ReND) phase is estimated with the help of temperature dependence of optical anisotropy from the measured values refractive index and density data. The temperature variation of order parameter of the experimental curve is very well fitted with the Mayer-Saupe theoretical curve. Thermodynamical response of order parameter of reentant lyotropic nematic (ReND) has also been discussed to understand the stability of liquid crystalline phase, chemical structure and molecular dynamics of the given mixture.

  99. Charis K. Ripnar and Umadevi S. Hiremath

    Cluster bean or guar (Cyamopsis tetragonaloba) is a deep rooted, summer annual legume. It belongs to the tribe Galagae (Indigoferae) of the Leguminosae family. The crop is mainly grown in the dry habitats of Rajasthan, Haryana, Gujarat and Punjab and to a limited extent in Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and Kerala. Developing products from cluster bean is another way of consuming it, especially, for those not liking the taste of cluster bean and reason being that cluster bean is a perishable vegetable leading to a loss in procuring it. Formulation and development of cluster bean products were made (Cluster bean vermicelli and cluster bean jelly). Organoleptic evaluation of the developed products was conducted by 20 semi-trained panel members. Results revealed that no significant difference was found among the variations and sensory attributes of vermicelli upama. Control sample of jelly was found to achieve the highest sensory scores in all the sensory characteristics except taste. CBJ-II achieved highest score in taste characteristic (7.95) when compared to the three variations. Lowest score in aroma was found to be lowest in CBJ-I. Overall acceptability score was lowest in CBJ-I and CBJ-III. However, when compared only the three variations, CBJ-II achieved higher scores than the other two variations (CBJ-I and CBJ-III). There was no significant difference seen in aroma. It can be concluded that, cluster bean was able to be made into different products and were accepted by the panel members.

  100. Sugunthan, S., Shailaja, R. and Mohamed Musthafa

    Musculoskeletal diseases are an increasing healthcare issue globally, being the second leading cause of disability. For these ailments anti inflammatory, analgesics and corticosteroids are the drugs of choice which often results in many adverse effects like hepatotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, immuno-suppression. Traditional herbal medicines are being in use since time immemorial for these ailments. Villaiver Kudineer (VVK) is a poly herbal formulation from the traditional Siddha literature. It is traditionally being advocated for ailments related with musculo skeletal system. Hence, an attempt had been ventured to study the anti inflammatory and analgesic activity of VVK in laboratory animals. The animals were divided into four groups containing five animals each for analgesic activity and anti-inflammatory activity. Analgesic activity was done in acetic acid induced writhing method and anti-inflammatory activity was done in Carrageenan induced rat paw oedema method. Administration of VVK at the dose of 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg b.w produced analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity. Both the experiments had shown dose dependent activity against their standards Diclofenac sodium and Indomethacin for analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity respectively.

  101. Gilvanise Alves Tito, Lucia Helena Garófalo Chaves and Josely Dantas Fernandes

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of bentonite application on the melioration of cadmium contaminated soils, by evaluating the production of beets, radish and grass, as test plants. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse in a completely randomized design, with four replicates. Red Eutrophic Latossol was contaminated with 3 mg kg-1 of Cd and mixed to treatments which consisted of four doses of bentonite 0; 30, 60 and 90 t ha-1. After that was planted beet, radish and grass. The cadmium content in the plants, as well as the translocation index in the plants was evaluated. The present study led to demonstrate that addition of bentonite in soil contaminated with Cd had a significant positive effect on development of beet and radish. The increasing doses of bentonite applied to soil contaminated with Cd decreased the concentration of this metal in the edible parts of the sugar beet plants and grass. The amount of bentonite applied to contaminated soils, in general, was not enough on its improvement despite having decreased the concentration of cadmium in plants. The translocation index of cadmiun in the grass was reduced with the bentonite application, allowing to find a great quantity of cadmium in the grass roots.

  102. Shrivastava, P., Verma, S., Anand, K. S., Sood, R., Kumar, R. and Ramesh, K. L.

    Iron deficiency anemia is found commonly associated with nutritional deficiency. It has been found in various studies that increase in platelet count or thrombocytosis is seen in patients with iron deficiency anemia. Rarely has it been reported with low platelet count or thrombocytopenia. The cause of thrombocytopenia in iron deficiency anemia is not well understood. In few studies role of iron in platelet synthesis and aggregation is suggested. This case study here presents a case of young man with iron deficiency and thrombocytopenia with no pathological disease related with thrombocytopenia. Further patient’s platelet levels improved to normal with oral iron therapy alone suggesting role of iron in platelet synthesis.

  103. Prakash, J.V.S., Dhanasekaran, D. and Barani, S.

    Objectives: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of fluoroscopic guided instillation of povidone iodine with contrast agent. To compare the results obtained with that of povidone iodine instillation without using fluoroscopy. Methods: A prospective study was done in Institute of Urology, MMC, Chennai between February 2015 to February 2016. 43 patients were included in the study after conforming chyluria. Patients were randomly divided into 2 groups- Study group including 20 patients and Control group including 23 patients. Study group was treated with fluoroscopic guided instillation of povidone iodine with contrast where as in Control group, fluoroscopy was not used.Single instillation of 10 ml of 0.2% povidone iodine were given in both groups.Post procedure ether test and cystoscopy was done every 3 weeks for a total duration of 3 months. If symptoms of chyluria recurred, instillation was repeated. Results: Majority of participants in study group were affected in right side (55%), while in control group majority were affected in left side (56.5%). This difference was not statistically significant. On comparing frequency of sittings needed, only 15% patients in study group needed more than one sitting versus 56.5% in control group, which was statistically significant. 15 % of patients in study groups experienced any complication versus 13% in control group. The difference was not statistically significant. Conclusion: Use of fluoroscopy guided instillation of povidone iodine is safe and efficacious. Single instillation is as efficacious as multiple instillation regimens.

  104. Narahari Deshapande, Pujar, G. H., 1Manjunath G. Sunagar, Supreet Gaonkar, Ningaraddi S. Belavagi, Inamdar, S. R. and Imtiyaz Ahmed M. Khazi

    We have designed and synthesized a novel series of unsymmetrical small bipolar organic molecules 5(a-h) via the palladium catalyzed Suzuki coupling reaction. The structural identities and purities were confirmed by 1H NMR, 13C NMR, IR and MS and were found to be in good agreement with the proposed structures. We have studied the photophysical and thermal properties of the synthesised compounds with UV-Vis/fluorescence spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The systematic investigations of photophysical and thermal properties of newly synthesised compounds were performed with a view to under their suitability in optoelectronics.

  105. Priyankar Singha

    The present study focuses on the impact of life events and gender difference in job satisfaction among the employees of private sector of India. Attempts were also made to assess their coping style along with its all dimensions. The sample size was 350 divided into 2 groups (male- 175 and female- 175). Each group was consisted respondents age ranging between 22-35 years and having minimum 2 years of job experience. The data were collected from several private sub-sectors (IT sector, BPO sector, social development sector, educational sector, cultural sector, marketing sector and banking sector) of India and the sample size of each sub-sector was 50 (male-25 and female-25). Presumptive live event scale, Job satisfaction scale, and coping checklist II were administered to assess the life events, job satisfaction and quality of coping style of the employees of the private sector. It is revealed that female employees were found to be more satisfied than male employees in their job. No significant gender difference has been revealed in the selected variables except in social support as a domain of coping strategy. Furthermore, no significant correlation has been found between the predictor variables and criterion variables and finally the investigation of the present study reveals that life events and gender difference has no impact on the coping style and level of job satisfaction among the employees of private sector of India.

  106. Pujiono, Dindin Wahyudin, Teguh Budi Prijanto and Elanda Fikri

    Bandung is city in west java with the problem of waste. The objectives of the research are relationship between application of economic valuation with waste volume, composting and 3R (reuse, recycle and reduce). The research was located in RT 07 RW 03 Sukaraja district in Bandung. Desain of this research is quasi experiment (pre & post test) with 31 sampel. Data were collected with interview, questionnaire, observation, and documentation. The result of this research show volume of waste before aplication of economic valuation is 327,21 Kg and after is 118,47 Kg, there is reduction until 63,82%. The economic value after 3R anorganics (plastics, papers, metal/glass) are Rp. 113.819. The result of composting is 26,54 Kg with economic value Rp. 66.350. The result of dependen test is significant different between waste volume before and after aplication of economic valuation with p value 0,00 and then significant different economic value of anorganics waste before and after aplication 3R principles with p value 0,00 and significant different between compos before and after aplication of economic valuation with p value 0,00.

  107. Cardoso, A. F., L. da Almeida, S., Lana, R. M. Q. and Luz, J. M. Q.

    The effect of organo-mineral fertilizers on potato plants is still poorly understood. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the extraction and uptake of macronutrients by potato plants. The experiment was conducted in the municipality of Cristalina (GO), Brazil, with Agatapotato cultivar during the winter crop. The experimental design was a randomized block with 6rates and 4 repetitions. The rates of organo-mineral fertilizer were based on recommendations for a mineral fertilizer, corresponding to 40, 60, 80, 100 and 120% of a mineral fertilizer. The mean accumulation of nutrients in potato plants was higher for the organo-mineral treatments relative to the conventional mineral fertilizer. Tuber yields in the organo-mineral treatments were identical to the treatment with a mineral fertilizer, including the treatment corresponding to 40% of a mineral fertilizer, which demonstrates the efficiency of organo-mineral fertilizers. The average translocation of macronutrients in treatments with organo-mineral fertilizers was 14% N, 73% P, 45% K, 13% Ca, 83% Mg and 24% S accumulated during the potato growth cycle.

  108. Krishnamurthy, V. S. and Sampathkumar

    Clinicians who treat people with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) disease have long accepted the notion that stress affects immune function. The stress is the common Psychological disturbance among HIV infected people. Stress varies across stages of disease progression from HIV to AIDS. This article summarizes the large body of evidence examining whether perceived stress varies across Asymptomatic Acute HIV condition, Clinically Symptomatic Condition and AIDS Indicator Condition. A cross sectional research design is employed and Persons were classified as having asymptomatic, clinically symptomatic and AIDS according to case definitions established by the Centres for Disease Control and Prevention. The data is obtained from 480 participants and the level of perceived stress as influenced by the HIV/AIDS disease progression is analyzed. A one way ANOVA,F results showed that Asymptomatic acute HIV condition, Clinically symptomatic HIV condition and AIDS indicator groups are significantly differ in the level of perceived stress and Tukey’s HSD post-hoc analysis indicated that Clinically symptomatic acute HIV condition group had exhibited statistically significant higher level of perceived stress than asymptomatic acute HIV condition group and significantly lower level of stress compared to AIDS indicator group.Implications of the findings are discussed in the context of psychological factors and services in India.

  109. Sathiamoorthi, T., Joseph Sahayarayan, J. and Arivoli, A.

    The genus Campylobacter is of great importance to public health. These species may be found in water, food and in the intestinal tract of chickens. This study was carried out to determine the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter jejuni from chicken fleshes sold for human consumption at public markets of Erode city. Out of total 500 chicken fresh flesh samples screened, 208 (41.6%) revealed the presence of Campylobacter. Based on their morphological, cultural and biochemical tests by standard microbiological procedures, the isolates were identifies as Campylobacter jejuni. Highest resistance was detected towards nalidixic acid (81.25%), followed by ciprofloxacin (63.46%), tetracycline (41.34%), amoxicillin (31.25%), and colisitin (37.01%) and lowest resistance was observed in (11.05%), ampicillin (15.86%), chloramphenicol (6.73%), erythromycin (5.76%) and gentamicin (3.84%), respectively. Thus, erythromycin and gentamicin could be opted as drug of choice for treatment of campylobacteriosis when compared to other antimicrobial agents. The present studies was confirms the prevalence of antibiotic resistant Campylobacter spp. in raw chicken meat, an important source of infection in humans; warrant the necessity to continue monitoring of antibiotic resistant and pathogens in raw chicken meat. Unification of parameters and interpretation criteria for antibiotic resistance testing ensures good conditions for comparative studies both in the Erode, Tamilnadu, India.

  110. Jean Fausto Carvalho Paulino, Douglas Mariani Zeffa, Fábio Henrique Krenchinski, Alcindo Pastore e Leandro Paiola Albrecht

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of composted poultry litter on the growth, development and productivity of soybean, as well as the residual of this fertilization on productivity of a later crop, which was the second harvest corn. The experiment was conducted in the field in Palotina, state of Paraná, with a randomized block experimental design, consisting of six treatments with four replications per treatment. For soybeans the treatments were the absence of chemical and organic fertilization in the control (T1), chemical fertilizer considered standard for the region at a dose of 0.25 t.ha-1 NPK (T2), poultry litter compost at 2, 4 and 6 t.ha-1, respectively, in treatments T3, T4 and T5, and 0.125 t.ha-1 chemical fertilization associated with composted litter at a dose of 4.0 t.ha-1 in the treatment T6. There were significant results for soybean productivity, with the best results found in T4 and T5, i.e., at doses from 4 to 6 t.ha-1 composted poultry litter. The effects of residual nutrients in the soil on the crop following soybean, which was second harvest corn fertilized with 08-20-20 NPK for all grown plots, the best result of productivity was observed in the treatment T4.

  111. Resham Bhalla

    The present study investigates the effect of Methomyl induced alterations in lipid level of gills, gonads and digestive gland tissues and its possible recovery by treating with L-Ascorbic acid in the fresh water bivalve, Lamellidens marginalis after chronic exposure. The freshwater bivalve Lamellidens marginalis were exposed to chronic dose of Methomyl (35 PPM LC50/2 values of 96 hours) alone and in combination with 50mg/L L-ascorbic acid for 21 days. Percent lipid contents in the gills, gonads and digestive gland tissues of control bivalve, Lamellidens marginalis were 4.5460±0.1560, 5.7463±0.0984, 6.2547±0.0758 respectively. Percent lipid contents in the gills, gonads and digestive gland of bivalve, Lamellidens marginalis on Methomyl intoxication were 4.5654±0.0831, 5.7658±0.1877 +10.63, 7.1566±0.0564 +18.42 respectively. Percent lipid contents in the gills, gonads and digestive gland of bivalve, Lamellidens marginalis on exposure to Methomyl intoxication with 50mg/L L-ascorbic acid were 4.9025±0.0440 +17.76, 5.9541±0.0365 +14.23, 8.098±0.2341 +34.43 respectively. Lipid contents in the gills, gonads and digestive gland of Methomyl and Methomyl with 50mg/L L-ascorbic acid exposed bivalve, Lamellidens marginalis showed remarkable increase in lipid content as compared to control. The increased level of lipid was observed in digestive glands as compared to other tissues. Exposure to pesticide Methomyl in combination with 50 mg/L of L-ascorbic acid showed considerable increase in the lipid levels. The pre-exposed bivalves for 21 days exposure to chronic dose of Methomyl showed recovery in normal water and the lipid contents were decreased to 4.2679±1.0255 +23.76, 5.2986±0.0286 +35.72, 6.4794±0.0469 +25.47 while percent lipid contents in presence of 50mg/L of L-ascorbic acid were decreased to 4.0077±1.0544 +17.65, 5.0457±0.3769 +27.48, 6.00652±0.1638 +25.66 respectively. Lipid content was found to be more in different tissues exposed to Methomyl without ascorbic acid as compared to Methomyl with ascorbic acid. Fast recovery of percent lipid contents was observed in presence of L-ascorbic acid than the recovery in the normal freshwater. This study indicates the protective and curative property of the L-ascorbic acid against the Methomyl induced damage.

  112. Hailu Muleta and Habtamu Garoma

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the performance of grade10 students in mathematics tests and identify the major causing factors that influence students’ achievement in mathematics. A correlation research design was employed. 10 secondary schools were sampled by purposive sampling technique. 21 sections (1378 students) of 10th grade students studying in the academic year 2014/15 and 40 mathematics teachers were sampled by Systematic sampling technique in the sampled schools. The study was carried out by employing close-ended questionnaires addressing issues attributing to mathematics achievement like gender stereotype, attitude, demographic factors, instructional factors, individual factors, students’ mathematics semester average and grade letter of Ethiopian General Education Certificate Mathematics Examination (EGSECME). These variables were analyzed statistically with t-test and correlation analysis using version 20 SPSS-PC software package. The results of the study indicated that there is statistically significant differences between male and female students in mathematics achievement in EGSECME grade letter; and male students significantly performed better than female students. Moreover, the analysis of close-ended questions showed Demographic Factors, Instructional Factors, and Individual Factors are the causing factors that attribute to students’ low mathematics achievement.

  113. Eshwar Sharma and G. C. Jain

    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) have been proposed for various biomedical applications which require their systemic administration. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to investigate the effects of carboxyl group functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (COOH-MWCNT) on hematological parameters and morphology of erythrocytes of Wistar rat. Forty eight adult rats of both the sexes were used for the study. Rats of experimental groups were intraperitoneally injected with 0.5 ml of COOH-MWCNT suspension in double distilled water containing 1% tween-80 at a dose of 2.5, 5 and 10 mg/kg body weight on alternate days. Rats of control group received 0.5 ml of vehicle. Half of the animals of each group were sacrificed after 30 days and remaining half after 60 days of treatment. The results of present study indicate a significant reduction in the number of total erythrocytes, hemoglobin levels and hematocrit values while significant increment in the number of leukocytes in MWCNT administered rats at both the durations of the study as compared to control rats. Mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) remain significantly unaltered while Mean corpuscular volume (MCV) decreased in high dose group only at 60 days of treatment duration. Differential leukocyte count revealed a decrease in the percentage of neutrophils while increase in the percentage of monocytes and lymphocytes. Scanning electron micrograph of blood of treated rats showed presence of echinocytes and acanthocytes. Thus, results of our study suggest that intraperitoneal administration of COOH-MWCNTs have adverse effect on the hematological parameters of rats.

  114. Dr. Poonam Tomar Rana, Dr. Kuldeep Singh Rana, Dr. Dhanesh Sable, Dr. Amol Jadhav and Dr. Ruchira Bhamre

    Garlic is one of the edible plants and is common ingredient available in the kitchen. Garlic (Allium sativum) is one of the most extensively researched medicinal plants and its typical odor and antibacterial activity depends on allicin produced by enzymatic activity of allinase (acysteine sulfoxide lyase) on alliin after crushing or cutting garlic clove. Today, both scientific and herbalist tradition support the fact that garlic, in its various forms can provide extraordinary health benefits. Unquestionably, it can significantly reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and certain kinds of cancer. Taking garlic in certain dosages can help protect human cells from oxidation, free radicals and certain types of radiation. Garlic is an effective immune system. Booster and has anti-bacterial, anti-viral and anti-fungal properties. PubMed, Google scholar, Ebscohost databases were searched for publications from 1982 to the present (2013) using terms such as garlic, medicinal plant, traditional plant. Here, in this review, we discuss the constituents, properties, medicinal uses, dental application, advantages and disadvantages of garlic.

  115. Pankaj Verma, Priya Singh and Punj Prakash Mishra

    Giant hydronephrosis is a relatively rare condition caused by obstruction of the renal collecting system that can present with a great number of different types of abdominal signs and symptoms. A32 year old man (alchohlic) presented in our hospital with massive ascites clinically misdiagnosed as chronic liver disease. The condition, although unusual, is not rare. However, for the hydronephrosis to attain such proportions that clinically it simulates ascites, as occurred in our patient presented in this report. Our purpose in describing this case to call attention to the dangers attendant upon misdiagnosis.

  116. Karma Bako Rimamcwe and Chavan, U. D.

    The physical and nutritional properties of Indian Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L) seeds where studied. In India the Roselle seeds are not well known as such underutilized, the plants are cultivated and used mostly for their fiber, vegetables and calyces for making local drinks. The vast proportions of the seeds often go to waste as it is used mainly for the purpose of propagation. The seeds have been found to be a good source of lipid (23.80 %), proteins (38.06 %), a rich fiber source (19.87 %) and inorganic minerals such as calcium (Ca) 320.45 mg/100 g, magnesium (Mg) 464.36 mg/100 g, phosphorus (P) 590.14 mg/100 g, potassium (K) 1925.67 mg/100 g, iron (Fe) 11.45 mg/100 g, zinc (Zn) 17.43 mg/100 g and manganese (Mn) 7.57 mg/100 g , also containing significant percentages of bioactive components that could provide massive suitable substitute nutritionally as a cheap nutrients source especially in a vegetarian society as India and other parts of the world.

  117. Suraj Sharma, Parthankar Choudhury and Narayan Chetry

    Over past three decades, Remote Sensing has emerged as one of the most fascinating science. The overall state of the environment and Earth’s observation through remote sensors has provided a vantage means of monitoring land surface dynamics and natural resource management. The increasing human activities with natural environmental systems have raised series of environmental issues. Remote Sensing has made remarkable progress in recent decades in solving many environmental issues. With the advances in the Geographic Information System with powerful computing systems, the studies have become easier. Distribution maps (based on GPS location and numbers of species present) through Inverse Distance Weighted of vegetation with their respective types and the extent of land degradation (hill cutting) in large scale maps (Survey of India) and (LISS-III IRS P6 satellite imagery) using GIS tools have proved significant. Hill cutting increased from 6.06 Km2 to 10.75 Km2 in site 1 and from 2.02 Km2 to 4.6 Km2 in site 2 during 2009. Dominating species belonging to family Poaceae among grass species, Asteraceae, Araceae, and Fabaceae among herbs/shrubs, and Fabaceae and Moraceae family among trees were found. The biodiversity of the region which can become locally extinct, if these act of land degradation continues henceforth.

  118. Sowmya Poosapati, Ravulapalli Durga Prasad and Navaneetha Tippirishetty

    The study focuses on the morphological and physiological cell responses to high temperature stress in thermotolerant isolates of Trichoderma viz., T. longirachiatum 673 (TaDOR673) and T. asperellum 7316 (TaDOR7316). Heat shock of 52 °C led to changes in morphological characteristic viz., decrease in the size and volume of spores but the reduction was significantly less in comparison to susceptible Trichoderma isolates tested. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of fungal cultures heated at 52 °C demonstrated shrinkage of cytoplasm and reduced intracellular spaces and mitochondrial count. The observations have supported the hypothesis of reduced metabolism during stress conditions. TEM analysis also revealed increased accumulation of vacuoles indicating their role as scavengers of toxic metabolites generated during heat stress. The isolates showed different patterns of lytic enzyme production and we observed that the thermotolerant isolate T. asperellum TaDOR7316 was able to produce β-1, 4-glucanases even after heat stress and thus it can be further tested for biological control of plant pathogens under stress conditions.

  119. Sowmya Poosapati, Ravulapalli Durga Prasad and Navaneetha Tippirishetty

    The study focuses on the morphological and physiological cell responses to high temperature stress in thermotolerant isolates of Trichoderma viz., T. longirachiatum 673 (TaDOR673) and T. asperellum 7316 (TaDOR7316). Heat shock of 52 °C led to changes in morphological characteristic viz., decrease in the size and volume of spores but the reduction was significantly less in comparison to susceptible Trichoderma isolates tested. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of fungal cultures heated at 52 °C demonstrated shrinkage of cytoplasm and reduced intracellular spaces and mitochondrial count. The observations have supported the hypothesis of reduced metabolism during stress conditions. TEM analysis also revealed increased accumulation of vacuoles indicating their role as scavengers of toxic metabolites generated during heat stress. The isolates showed different patterns of lytic enzyme production and we observed that the thermotolerant isolate T. asperellum TaDOR7316 was able to produce β-1, 4-glucanases even after heat stress and thus it can be further tested for biological control of plant pathogens under stress conditions

  120. Priyadarshini, N. R., Srikantaswamy, S., Shiva Kumar, D., Jagadish, K. and Abhilash, M. R.

    Clinical waste management system is a integrated procedure for monitoring, aggregating, assorting, accumulating, transporting, and discarding of clinical waste produced by an organization such as hospitals. Clinical waste constitutes various potential health and safety risks and hazards. In addition to their virulent and lethal features, the majorly unsteady and erratic nature of clinical waste streams has increased public concern about storage, treatment, transportation and ultimate disposal. The management of clinical waste is still in its genesis all over the nation. Today as of now, there is no substantial work done on medical waste management in several hospitals of Mysore city. Now, medical wastes are just mixed up with other domestic wastes and disposed crudely in municipal dumping sites. There is a lot of disorder along with plight among the operators, generators, and the general populace about the innocuous, uncontaminated management of clinical waste. This research paper finds environmental exposure and public health impact of poor medical waste treatment and disposal in Mysore city, based on several months of survey and finally proposes recommendations to the problems identified during the survey.

  121. Dr. Vijaykumar Biradar, Dr. Patil, M. S., Dr. Mashetty, S. B., Pooja Shrigiri and Pooja Lachuriye

    Present work was carried out to generate new somoclones by local existing sugarcane cultivar Co740. Three somoclones of this variety were generated such as GSBT-7, 8 and 9, and their growth parameters with respect to productivity were studied along with other local existing sugarcane cultivars (early maturing variety CoC-671 and late maturing varieties Co-740 and Co-419). These clones were screened along with other local cultivars in agro-climatic conditions of Bidar. The developed somaclones were analyzed for the study of quanto-quality yield and biochemical characterizations like enzymes involved in sucrose metabolism, protein profile, etc. All 3-somaclones, GSBT-7, 8 and 9 have shown high polyploidy nature. Increase in sugar content found especially in lower internodes at final stages of growth with decreased sucrose synthase activity. The Invertase activity was higher in 4th and 5th internodes during early growth period but its activity has shifted gradually in 1st and 2nd internodes during later stage of growth. The average activity of SS enzyme declined during maturity i.e. from 1st to 5th internode indicating its activity is more in growing region. Activity of SPS enzyme was gradually increased from immature stage (5th month) to mature stage (10th month) of growth of all sugarcane varieties proportionately with accumulation of sucrose in mature internodes. The polymorphism using total protein was not conspicuous to provide any confirmed conclusion at this stage of investigation. GSBT-9 compared to other late maturing varieties has shown improved sucrose recovery in the late growth period. This trend of better keeping quality was seen up to 10th months of crop standing in the field that encouraged us to recommend cultivation of GSBT-9 instead of Co-740 in the areas of late crushing of sugarcane.

  122. Dr. J. Roopavathy

    Studies were made to evaluate the effect of sub lethal concentration of methyl parathion on biochemical changes of Oreochromis mossambicus. The fishes were caught from culture pond of Vallam fish farm near Thanjavur and acclimatized to the laboratory conditions. Experiments were conducted at Serfoji college lab. LC50 values for 96 hours were determined for methyl parathion and were found to be 0.29 ppm. The fishes were exposed to 10% sub lethal concentrations of the 96 hours LC50 value for 7, 14 and 21 days along with control. The changes in carbohydrate, protein and lipid content of ovary observed at different exposure periods. Significant depletion of biochemical constituents were observed in 21 days of exposure.

  123. Maurício Reginaldo Alves dos Santos and Eloísa Santana Paz

    The objective of this research was to determine the effect of dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) callus in peach friable calluses in leaf explants of Bactris gasipaes H.B.K., aiming for further induction of somatic embryos. The explants were inoculated in MS medium supplemented with 30.0 g.L-1 sucrose, 8.0 g.L-1 agar and 2,4-D (0.0, 0.31, 0.62, 1.25, 2.5, 5.0, 10.0, and 20.0 mg.L-1). The cultures were kept in a growth room at 24±2°C under light conditions (50 µmol.m-2.s-1, photoperiod of 16 hours), and also under dark conditions, in factorial arrangement: 2 (light and dark conditions) x 8 (2,4-D concentrations), totaling 16 treatments. On the 14th day of cultivation, occurrences of oxidation and necrosis of the explants were observed and, on the 35th day, the formation of friable calluses, and the percentage of explant area covered by callus cells (EACC) were evaluated. Oxidation was more intense in the cultivations under light conditions, and reduced as the 2,4-D concentrationsincreased. However, the highest concentration, 20.0 mg.L-1, caused necrosis of the explants. The concentration of 10 mg.L-1 was the most efficient for friable callus induction reaching all the explants in the cultures kept in the dark. This concentration also resulted in the highest EACC, with an average of 56.5% of the explant area covered by callus cells.

  124. Raka Yusuf

    Nowadays application needs to always on and never get down time. If your application has downtime, you will lose your business. Load balancing and automatic failover become the way that Bank XYZ choose to support their new application, Internet Banking. In the implementation they use the technology from F5 with their product BIG-IP LTM and BIG-IP GTM. Internet Banking in Bank XYZ can perform well and never get down time anymore because they have failover and balancing method for the traffic.

  125. Caroline Ribeiro Tunes, Polliana Peixoto de Morais, Augustus CaeserFranke Portella, Raimundo Wagner De Souza Aguiar, Átila Reis da Silva, Debora Portella Bis and Gessiel Newton Scheidt

    The expansion in the production of ethanol from sugarcane in Brazil resulted in increased production of vinasse, which is the main by-product of the sugar industry.The vinasse is a highly polluting effluent is generated in large volumes, which aggravates the problem of its final disposal.An treatment alternative of vinasse is its use for the generation of biogas in UASB (Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket) that can be used as an alternative source of sustainable energy.In this study, the UASB efficiency for the production of biogas from the anaerobic digestion of vinasse from sugarcane was evaluated. The experiment was conducted in laboratory scale using the UASB in mesophilic temperature and 87 L capacity, and using as raw material the vinasse from the process of the production of ethanol.The UASB reactor has operated for 15 days with VOC 2 kg DQO m-3 d-3 and TDHof 11.5 days. The results obtained in this study showsa good functioning of the UASB applied vinasse. This study obtained an COD removal efficiency of 71% and the volume of accumulated biogas 1160 liter andmethane concentration around 48-57%.

  126. Michale Gebrekiros Gebreselassie and Semu Ayalew Moges

    Main rainy season onset, cessation and growing length are not the same for the entire Tekeze river basin. Knowledge on onset, cessation and growing length of the main rainy season in the river basin is very important for various decision making activities such as agricultural activities for sowing and harvesting, in optimum utilization of limited resources including water, labor and fertilizer, for efficient irrigation water utilization, for interpreting a given seasonal forecast and for drought risk identification and assessment. This study examined the spatial variability and distribution of Kiremt (June to September) season onset, cessation and growing length over Tekeze river basin, Ethiopia. Daily rainfall data were used over the basin based on data available from 23 meteorological stations. Data quality control was done for infilling missing values and main quality tests of outliers and homogeneity tests. Spatial distribution and variability were investigated using ordinary kirging interpolation technique. The results showed that: (1) The Kiremt onset (start of main rainy season) begins earlier in the west part of the Tekeze river basin and is distributed slowly to central and east parts of the basin; (2) Kiremt cessation (end of the main rainy season) is late in the south and west part of the river basin than the other parts; (3) Kiremt growing length which is the difference between Kiremt cessation and Kiremt onset is high over south and west part of the basin and is low over northeast part of the basin. Higher growing length over south part of the basin is due to late kiremt cessation over the area and high growing length over the west part of the basin is due to early kiremt onset and late kiremt cessation over the area. The reason of low kiremt growing length in the northeast part of the basin is due to late kiremt onset and early kiremt cessation over the area; (4) The spatial variability of kiremt onset is higher than the spatial variability of kiremt cessation especially in the east part of the river basin.

  127. Eray ÖNLER, Soner ÇELEN, Aytaç MORALAR and İlker H. ÇELEN

    Wireless electronic telemetry system is designed for prototype electric powered agricultural vehicle. Telemetry system is crucial for electric vehicles to monitor its data, remotely. It is important to measure electrical parameters in real time for safe operation. Designed telemetry system consists of hardware and software which can broadcast information by using wireless connection over serial communication protocol. Wireless connection range is up to 3 km which is sufficient for using at orchards. The designed data acquisition and telemetry system is based on RF modem. Graphical user interface is also written by using C# and Visual Basic programming languages for monitoring device features easily from groun station. Vehicle speed, voltage levels and temperature of battery packs, drawing current, total power usage and remained battery power can be monitored by this system.

  128. Ranjita Chowdhury, Dalia Ghosh, Puja Agarwal and Prof. Samir Kumar Bandyopadhyay

    Biometric authentication is one of the newest authentications techniques researched today. The vein information is hard to duplicate since veins are internal to the human body. The palm vein authentication technology offers a high level of accuracy. This paper presents a novel idea on the biometric authentication system using palm vein authentication that uses vein patterns as a personal identifying factor and ear based authentication as a secondary approach towards authentication.

  129. Mallikarjuna, B. E., Dr. Shivanand, H. K., Dr. Hemachandra Reddy and Harshavardhana, T.

    In recent years, Metal Matrix Composites (MMC’s) reinforced with Fly Ash particulates have attracted considerable interest due to their inherent good mechanical properties such as tensile strength, compression strength, hardness, wear resistance etc. This research work is concerned about the production of Fly Ash particulate, S-Glass fiber reinforced hybrid Aluminium 4046 Metal Matrix Composites (MMC’s) and further to investigate on wear properties of the processed composites. In this work, experimental study begins with mixing of Aluminium billets, Fly Ash particulates and S-Glass fibers using a stir casting technique at different weight fraction addition of Fly Ash (2wt%, 4wt%, 6wt%) and S-Glass (3wt%, 5wt%, 7wt%). The test specimens are prepared as per standard to conduct wear test. It has been observed that addition of Fly Ash particulate significantly improves wear properties as compared with that of unreinforced matrix.

  130. Appa Rao, A., Babu Rao, G. and Krishna Prasad, M.

    In India, the electricity sector supplies the world's 6th largest energy consumer, accounting to 3.4% of global energy consumption by more than 17% of global population. About 21.53% by hydroelectric power plants, 2.70% by nuclear power plants, 10.42% by Renewable Energy Sources and65.34% of the electricity consumed in India is generated by thermal. The energy crisis and environmental degradation are currently two vital issues for global sustainable development. Due to Population explosion in India, people are migrating from villages to cities, and Rapid industrialization which generate thousands of tons of municipal solid waste daily, which are one of the most important contributors for environmental degradation at global level. One of the major environmental problems in India is Municipal solid waste management. The present study conducted bycollecting 100% solid waste in Bobbili municipality and separation then transportation from city to municipal solid waste management park located 5km away from municipality, then we separate the solid waste depending on dry and wet. Finally, electrical energy is calculated of all the Bobbili city solid waste which comes out. It is found that electricity production from MSW could be an alternative way of power generation as well as waste management.

  131. Sastry, P. N. V. M. S. and Dr. D. N. Rao Dr. Vathsal

    The Aim is for HDL Design Architecture and Implementation of Multi clock frequency synchronized real time industrial standard parallel Hi-tech PRBS CDMA Transceiver Bus Array ASIC SOC /Card for Ultra high Speed real time Industrial Communication Interface Cards/Products like Data Acquisition and Tracking of wireless Data Communication Protocol Interface Cards/SOC’s like Data Serializer, De-serializer, Data Communication Protocol interface ADD on cards/Products, FPGA Cards of Different Data Transfer Baud rate. This Design Consists of multiple parallel C.D.M.A Transmitters and Receiver ASIC I.P Cores, Data Transmission and Reception done by Different Clock Frequencies operated at Mega/Giga / Tera/ Peta/Exa/Zetta/Yotta/Xona/Weka Clock Frequencies. Data Transmission Speed In terms Mega/Giga/Tera/Peta/Exa/Zetta/Yotta/Xona/Weka Bytes/Frames/Super Frames etc. and also Data transmitter and receiver consists of base band signal and Carrier signal generators, Channel Encoder, Decoder, Modulator and Demodulator generates modulation and Demodulation signal by spreading and dispreading through different communication frequency spread Spectrum techniques DSSS Communication, FH , Chaos for high Bandwidth, the design done through parallel distributed computing technique, data transmission and reception done parallel for various data interface cards of different data transfer speed. In this design transmission and reception done by different PRBS Data Pattern Sequences like 2e7-1, 2e10-1, 2e15-1, 2e23-1, 2e31-1, 2e48-1, 2e52-1, 2e63-1 etc. H.D.L FPGA Industrial Software Design Flow Process Implementation Done by either Xilinx/Altera. Programming Done by Verilog /VHDL Software and Simulation, Synthesis, ASIC Floor planning and Placement and routing, Reconfiguration and Debugging Done Xilinx ISE 9.2i/10.1i EDA Software and Xilinx /Altera FPGA Development Board/Kit.

  132. Sastry, P. N. V. M., Dr. Vathsal, S. and Dr. Rao, D. N.

    The Design is mainly Intended for High Speed Random Frequency Carrier Wave Generator of 1 Tbps Data Rate using 2e7-1 Tapped PRBS Pattern Sequence. The PRBS is Designed by using LFSR Linear Feed Back Shift Register & XOR Gate with Specific Tapping Points as per CCITT ITU Standards. RTL Design Architecture Implemented by using VHDL &/ Verilog HDL, Programming & Debugging Done by using Spartan III FPGA Kit. Transmission done through this carrier frequency. Propagation Carrier Done either Serially / Parallel lines I/O.

  133. Silva, V. F., Nascimento, E. C. S., Lima, V. L. A., Andrade, L. O., Castro, C. U. B. and Oliveira, H.

    The semiarid region is characterized by poor rain distributions and prolonged droughts. Water recycling and organic waste are alternative to enable the pepper cultivation. In this context, the research was conducted to analyze the different substrates and irrigation levels in organic pepper formation and the allocation of phytomass with wastewater and water supply. The treatments were based on five irrigation levels (L) using water supply and wastewater as the water requirement of the crop (WR), they are: 100% WR (L5), 80% WR (L4), 60% WR (L3), 40% WR (L2) and 20% WR (L1). After 177 days of sowing, the following formation were evaluated: fresh phytomass of shoot (FPS) and dry phytomass of shoot (DPS), fresh phytomass of root (FPR) and dry phytomass of root (DPR), total fresh phytomass (TFP) and total dry phytomass (TDP), and length of the root (LR). With rising water levels there was increase in the formation of phytomass. The cultivation of BRS Moema pepper in bovine substrate increased the length of the root with 3.2 cm. Through the analysis of the variables, it was found that the pepper has an impressive ability to adapt to drought.

  134. Habtamu Garoma and Hailu Muleta

    The main purpose of the study was to assess factors affecting students’ extrinsic motivation and to predict ways of improving students’ academic achievement in Mathematics of grade ten students of Jimma Zone, Oromia Regional State. Attempts made to identify the major factors that contribute to students’ academic motivations. To this end, a descriptive quantitative survey design was employed. Thus, for this study 10 high schools were selected out of 32 by using purposive sampling techniques. While 21 sections out of 106 sections of grade 10 students studying in the 1st semester of academic year 2015 G.C were selected by systematic sampling technique from the sampled schools. While 1387 students included by using random sampling technique and 10 principals, 40 teachers and 40 PTA were selected by using systematic and purposive sampling technique respectively The data obtained through document analysis, questionnaire from principals, teachers and students and FGD held with PTA or community member. The data gathered through questionnaire were analysed using different statistical tools: percentage, mean score, one way ANOVA and Spearman rank order correlation coefficient. The data gathered thorough document analysis showed that, the academic motivation rate in high School of the study area showed a decreasing tendency. The findings of the study revealed that, low academic motivation rate was a function of in-school and out-of-school factors. Among in-school factors, inadequate supply of school facilities, large class size, lack of appropriate educational guidance and counselling services, lack of teachers support for learners in providing extra tutorial programs, frequent absenteeism of students, student lack of interest toward learning, and poor academic back ground of learners were the major identified factor in the study area. Concerning the out-of-school factors school distance from students home were the major identified factors contribute for students’ academic extrinsic motivation toward mathematics. Generally, the current findings implied that students’ academic motivation of high schools was the commutative effects of both in school and out-of- school factors. Thus changing the current trends of academic motivation problem the study implies that there is a need for an urgent improvement from both in-schools and out-of-schools environment. Based on the findings and conclusion, improving the supply of school facilities, improving pupils’, parents and community awareness, providing full-time guidance and counselling services, and establishing high schools at suiTable location; subsidizing educational materials for pupils were suggested as recommendations.

  135. Nirmal Kumar Duari and Tripti Chakrabarti

    This paper presents a single-period Newsboy inventory problem in an imprecise and uncertain mixed environment with deterioration. The aim of this paper is to introduce demand of Newsboy as a fuzzy random variable. To determine the optimal order quantity a new methodology is developed for this model in presence of fuzzy random variable demand where the optimum is achieved using a graded mean integration representation. To illustrate the model the classical newsboy problem is considered.

  136. Madhavarao, S., Seshu Kumar, G. S. V., Ch. Ramabhadri Raju and Anil Kumar, M.

    In this study, the experiments carried out to investigate heat transfer through conduction over composite slabs of different materials such as Copper, Aluminum, Stainless steel, Mild steel and Glass. The sizes of slab materials are 10 cm of diameter, 6 mm of thickness. The effects of different voltages and currents values are evaluated. In this experiment materials are taken in three different combinations. Based on the experimental results the theoretical overall heat transfer, resistance and experimental overall heat conductance and resistance are evaluated and depicted graphically based on the results and explanations the reason for difference in thermal conductance of composite slabs.

  137. Indrani Sengupta and Dr. Pravat Kumar Kuri

    The present study covers 17 states and 1 union territory of India over the period 2000-14 to enquire into interstate disparity in tele-density and its evolution with time. The inequality trend and the nature of polarization across the states of India in terms of tele-density over the study period have been examined for the purpose. The study also delves into the possibility of sigma and absolute beta convergence of the states in terms of tele-density. The analysis is based on overall tele-density figures of the states as well as on figures segregated for the urban and rural areas of 17 states. Results show indication of decreasing trend in inequality across the states in terms of overall tele-density as well as for rural and urban tele-density. Esteban and Ray measure shows decrease in polarization when measured in terms of urban tele-density but for the overall tele-density and the rural tele-density a rise in polarization was observed during the study period. Further, study also gives a picture of sigma convergence and absolute beta convergence across states when tried on overall tele-density as well as rural and urban tele-density.

  138. Lakhan Singh

    In this paper, we have studied various properties of the structure equation F3K + FK=0, where K is a positive integer. Nijenhuis tensor and metric F-structure have also been discussed.

  139. Priyadarshini, M. and Selvi, R.

    In this paper pre-L-compact, pre-R-compact, pre-L-locally compact, pre-R-locally compact, sequentially pre-L-compact, sequentially pre-R-compact, countably pre-L-compact, countably pre-R-compact are introduced and the relationship between these concepts are studied.

  140. Nitin Gupta and Anil K. Mathur

    The aim of this work was to study the potential use of biological solid materials aquatic weeds as alternative sources for the production of biogas. In this study six different slurry samples were used for the production of biogas. Aquatic vegetation is an essential component of the aquatic ecosystem with both positive and negative implications on the water body. In This study the aquatic weed was analyzed for total solids, volatile solids, total dissolved solids and pH content. The pH value of the digesters was taken before and after the production of biogas in anaerobic condition. Biogas production was carried out from 6 digesters containing varying cow dung and others. This was studying was carried out for a period of 63 days at ambient temperature. It is essential to replace conventional energy source with the renewable energy source to save our natural resources and environment. The anaerobic digestion of cow dung with water weeds is feasible and could serve the dual roles of producing biogas, a clean renewable energy source and reducing the cost of weeds control. Two species of water weeds Typha latifolia and Water hyacinth were evaluated as substrates for biogas production. Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) is one of the fastest growing aquatic weed known to man. It is a free-floating perennial aquatic plant with broad, thick, glossy, ovate leaves with long, spongy and bulbous stalks. The results also show that digesters with dried water hyacinth (DWH) produced slightly more biogas in comparison to digesters with cow manure (CM). This indicated the fact that substrates for methanogenic bacteria were readily available in water hyacinth.

  141. Shanthala, V. S., Shobha Devi, S. N. and Murugendrappa, M. V.

    Polypyrrole/NiZnFe2O4 nanocomposites were synthesized by in-situ polymerization with Ammonium persulphate as an oxidising agent. Optical band gap of chemically synthesized polypyrrole and Polypyrrole-NiZnFe2O4 (10% - 50%) nanocomposites have been studied at room temperature and normal pressure. Energy band gap of these materials are determined by UV-VIS absorption spectra in the wavelength range 264 –1936 nm by spectrophotometer. In this work the experimental results obtained from the optical absorption spectra are reported for nanocomposites of different wt percentages (10% -50%). Characteristic peak around 800 nm (1.552eV) was observed in all the nanocomposites confirming the formation of polypyrrole. The optical properties of this conducting polymer make them a suitable candidate for optoelectronic devices.

  142. Sudhakar Reddy, K. and Krishna Reddy, C.V.

    Sm3+ doped lithium borate (LB) glasses with compositions (in mol %) (60-x) B2O3+ 20LiF + 10MgF2 + 10ZnO + xSm2O3 (where x = 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2 mol%) have been prepared by melt quenching technique and have been investigated using thermal measurements, optical absorption, luminescence, and decay kinetic techniques as well as Judd–Ofelt (J–O) analysis. The thermal stability of host glass system can be accessed from differential thermal analysis (DTA) measurements. For these glasses X-ray diffraction (XRD), optical absorption, emission and decay measurements were carried out. The glassy nature of the present glass matrices were confirmed by XRD profiles. From the optical absorption spectra, the spectral intensities (f) and Judd-Ofelt intensity parameters, Ωλ (λ= 2, 4, 6) have been evaluated. From the photoluminescence spectra and using Judd-Ofelt intensity parameters, radiative transition probabilities (AR), experimental branching ratios (βexp) and stimulated emission cross-sections (σP) are calculated. To investigate luminescence efficiency of 4G5/2 level of Sm3+ doped different lithium borate glasses, lifetimes (τexp) are predicted from decay curve analysis for all prepared glass matrices. Finally, these observed results are discussed and compared with the literature data and suggested for the optical applications.

  143. İlker Huseyin CELEN and Fulya TAN

    Silage making technique is important. The main objective of the stack silage and bale silage making techniques are based on compression technology.In package silage technology, both vacuum and compression techniques can be used. Vacuum technology is based on the removal of air molecules from the environment. The package silage making techniques in recent years has found wide application area. In this research, vacuum type silage packaging system is planned in the central location. Regional data were analyzed with preliminary studies. Vacuum unit and the success of the system were examined. The most economical operating condition, was determined at 50 kg average package weight. Common use of machinery, ensuring quality forage and conducting similar studies are important for the sustainability of the livestock business.

  144. Emmanuel Oyemomi

    Loneliness is killing. Several people in all generations have one existential issue or the other for which they feel forsaken, alone, perplexed, and broken-hearted. It was so devastating that the Psalmist, Psalm number 22 verses 1 alarmed: “My God, my God, why have you forsaken me…? Even the Lord Jesus felt the devastating effect of loneliness that he cried similarly in the Gospels, when he was facing the ordeals of the cross. The Psalmist in his own consternation found solution in raising a dwelling place for God. Against this background, the paper hypothesizes that the praise of God in times of trouble is the legitimate solution to the crisis of hopelessness, bewilderment, and loneliness. Closely related to that are the spiritual instrument of war employed by the Psalmist namely: the weapon of prayer, hope, and trust to overcome the problem of rejection, loneliness, and dehumanizing experiences. In such situation, the distance between where God is not and where there is God is the real source of dilemma. The paper therefore attempts to answer the question of where is God in time of perplexity.

  145. Mamadou SANOGO

    Forests are terrestrial, which concentrates the largest number of life forms and species. Forests play an essential role in the cycles of water, carbon and oxygen. They help to produce, enhance and protect the soil. Hundreds of millions of people derive their livelihoods. They are also the source of much of our medicines. For centuries, men exploit forests, resources and territories to meet their needs. Like other ecosystems, we must now consider how to balance human activities and forests that are essential to the very existence of both companies in industrialized than those of developing countries. Indeed, deforestation and degradation of forest ecosystems weigh both on the conditions of collective life on Climate Change - the destruction of forests is responsible for a significant share of global emissions of greenhouse gases - and that the loss of biodiversity. As the basic functions and services that assure complex and forests are becoming better understood and recognized, they are subject to new forms of protection and management consistent with the objectives of sustainable development.

  146. Rajesh, J., Phanindra Kumar, T., Murthy, D. S. R., Baskar, G. and Masilamani, P.

    The suitability of groundwater for drinking purpose with respect to BIS: The samples are collected the period from 1981-2011. The suitability of ground water resources available in the country are also not uniformly distributed and the changing land use pattern and population growth and resulting water resources development has resulted in stress in the environment. The result shows the groundwater has partial suitability for drinking purposes and public health because of the concentration of TDS, EC, Mg and Na in groundwater. They have concentration than the recommended limits for drinking. They have partial suitability for domestic use for Human consumption. The parameter such as SAR, Na % is estimated were the one all locatle to assess. These parameter concern suitability of water for irrigation purpose. The EC and sodium concentration are very important in classifying irrigation water. The salt present in the water, besides affecting the growth of the plants directly affect the soil structure, permeability and aeration, which indirectly affect the plant growth. Considering the seriousness of the groundwater contamination and groundwater quality along the study area (Koraiyar sub watershed) has been done.

  147. Hema, K. and Lakshmi, G. V.

    Aqua culture has spread fast in coastal region of Andhra Pradesh during last two decades. but due to the erratic distribution of rainfall and adverse effects of climate, the aqua culture has failed partially. Heavy losses incurred by aqua farmers due to failure of crops. There by farmers were forced to abandon these ponds and started growing paddy. Alternate strategies are needed for the reclamation process for sustainability. In this situation, there is a need for reclamation of abondedaquaponds and the techniques were developed (based on research conducted by CSSRI, Karnal and sub center) to reclaim the abandonaquaponds. To create awareness among the farmers, the study was carried out in different villages of selected farmer fields from 2012 to 2014 in Guntur district of Andhra Pradeh. The adjoining fields of aqua culture ponds was affected severely up to 20m and thereafter the severity decreased wherever trenches were not made around the ponds to control the seepage. The concentrations of NPK in the plant samples were low while Na concentration was high due to soil salinity. Implementation of reclamation practices like application of gypsum, (leaching of soluble salts) which are accumulated in the pond surface layer, they get dissolved, diluted & drained out through drainage channel, followed by growing of dhaincha green manure and insitu incorporation. The EC levels of abondedaquaponds were drastically reduced from 22.0to 1.05 dSm-1. The soil pH levels get neutralized from 9.77 to 7.21. Whenever the EC & pH values decreased & neutralized the availability of nutrients are increased & increased the crop yields from 12 to 43% compared to earlier.

  148. Dr. Ratna Roy

    Over two thirds of Earth's surface is covered by water; less than a third is taken up by land. As Earth's population continues to grow, people are putting ever-increasing pressure on the planet's water resources. In a sense, our oceans, rivers, and other inland waters are being "squeezed" by human activities not so they take up less room, but so their quality is reduced. We know that pollution is a human problem because it is a relatively recent development in the planet's history: before the 19th century Industrial Revolution, people lived more in harmony with their immediate environment. As industrialization has spread around the globe, so the problem of pollution has spread with it. When Earth's population was much smaller, no one believed pollution would ever present a serious problem2. Today, with around 7 billion people on the planet, it has become apparent that there are limits. Pollution is one of the signs that humans have exceeded those limits. The pollution that passes directly into water from factories and cities can be reduced through treatment at source before it is discharged. It is harder to reduce the varied forms of pollution that are carried indirectly, by runoff, from a number of widely spread non-point sources, into freshwater3. In general, it takes much longer to clean up polluted water bodies than for pollution to occur in the first place, and there is thus a need to focus on protecting water resources. In many cases, clean-up takes more than 10 years. Although underground water is less easily polluted than water above ground, cleaning it once it is polluted takes longer and is more difficult and expensive. Ways are being found to assess where and how underground water is most vulnerable to pollution. Ground water is less susceptible to bacterial pollution than surface water because the soil and rocks through which ground water flows screen out most of the bacteria. But freedom from bacterial pollution alone does not mean that the water is fit to drink. Many unseen dissolved mineral and organic constituents are present in ground water in various concentrations. Most are harmless or even beneficial; though occurring infrequently, others are harmful, and a few may be highly toxic. Naturally occurring contaminants are present in the rocks and sediments. As groundwater flows through sediments, metals such as iron and manganese are dissolved and may later be found in high concentrations in the water. Industrial discharges, urban activities, agriculture, groundwater pumpage, and disposal of waste all can affect groundwater quality. Pesticides and fertilizers applied to crops can accumulate and migrate to the water table. In recent years, the growth of industry, technology, population, and water use has increased the stress upon both our land and water resources. Locally, the quality of ground water has been degraded. Municipal and industrial wastes and chemical fertilizers, herbicides, and pesticides not properly contained have entered the soil, infiltrated some aquifers, and degraded the ground-water quality. Other pollution problems include sewer leakage, faulty septic-tank operation, and landfill leachates.

  149. Keter C. Christine

    Socio-economic status is a definite background variable that represents a feature of the social structure in society. Many studies on the influence of socio-economic background on the academic performance of pupils have been conducted in developed countries. This paper specifically examines the influence of parents’ educational levels on the academic performance of their children in schools. The paper is based on a study whose purpose was to determine the influence of parents’ socio-economic factors on pupil’s academic performance in public primary schools in Nandi South Sub-County. The study adopted a survey design targeting population 1821 pupils and 528 teachers from 74 public primary schools. Simple random sampling technique was used to select22 public primary schools, 158 teachers and 273 class 8 parents. The instruments used for collection included 2 sets of a questionnaire, one for teachers and another for parents. Quantitative data was coded, entered and analysed with the help of Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS Version 20). Descriptive statistics percentages, frequencies, means and standard deviation together with inferential statistics; Chi-square analysis was also used. The study found out that educational level of a parent did not significantly influence the academic performance of pupils (p=.251). It was, therefore, recommended that schools should introduce parent-teacher engagement programmes to help teachers and parents share their experiences and measures through which pupils’ academic performance can be improved. This will equip parents with necessary knowledge and skills to enable them play specific and fruitful roles as parents and as first teachers for their children.

  150. Tarso Moreno Alves de Souza, Lauter Silva Souto, João de Andrade Dutra Filho, Francisco Vanies da Silva Sá, Hélio Tavares de Oliveira Neto, Emanoela Pereira de Paiva and Anielson dos Santos Souza

    This study aimed to evaluate the productive performance of cowpea, cv. ‘BRS Pujante’, under the influence of different levels of available water in the soil with and without mulch. The experiment was conducted under plastic tunnel conditions at the Federal University of Campina Grande, Campus of Pombal, from December 2014 to mid-March 2015. The experimental design was completely randomized in a 5 x 2 factorial scheme, which corresponded to levels of available water (AW) of 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100%, maintained after irrigations of the soil, with (WM) and without (WOM) mulch, with 10 treatments and 4 replicates, totaling 40 experimental units. Plants were analyzed for: leaf area, number of pods, number of grains per pod, 100-grain weight and production per plant. The growth and production components of ‘BRS Pujante’ cowpea are influenced by the levels of available water and soil cover. The highest growth and production of ‘BRS Pujante’ cowpea plants were observed at the mean levels of 80 and 100% of available water in the soil with and without mulch, respectively. Mulching reduces water consumption of ‘BRS Pujante’ cowpea plants, promoting satisfactory production at lower levels of available water in relation to the soil without mulch.

  151. Dr. Mohammed Jamiu Kazeem, Dr. E. S. Kolo and Prof, Dr. O. G. B. Nwaorgu

    Background: Chronic suppurative otitis media has remained prevalent in most developing countries including Nigeria with plain mastoid radiograph still playing a part as an investigation tool in patients with this disease. Aim: To determine the pattern of mastoid pneumatization in patients with uncomplicated chronic suppurative otitis media using plain radiograph of the mastoid. Methodology: This was a prospective hospital based study, which was carried out in the Otorhinolaryngology clinic and Radiology Departments of Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano. All first attendees that presented with symptoms and signs of chronic suppurative otitis media whose investigations included plain mastoid radiograph and met the inclusion criteria were enrolled into the study. Quantitative measurement of the mastoid air cells was obtained from the radiograph using mastoid planimetry. The collected data was entered into the computer and analyzed using Statistical package for Social Sciences (SPSS) Version 15 and Minitab 12.0. Results: A total of 121 patients enrolled in the study. There were 62(51.2%) males and 59(48.8%) females. Their ages ranged from 5 - 80 years (mean=19 years ± 14 SD). They were mainly students (66.6%) who presented with ear discharge (100%), hearing impairment (100%), tinnitus (59.6%), otalgia(1.6%) and vertigo (2.5%). The examination findings were mainly Tympanic Membrane perforation and Conductive Hearing Loss (100%) demonstrated. The mean area of mastoid air cells were: 4.7cm2 and 12.97cm2 in the diseased and normal ears respectively; with a prevalence of sclerotic or poorly pneumatized mastoid ranging from 59.8-62.5% (diseased ear) to 2.9-8% (non-diseased ear). There was significant correlation between the disease and mastoid pneumatization (P<0.05). Similarly, mastoid pneumatization pattern correlated well with the duration of the disease (P<0.05). On the contrary, sex, age and the side of the ear affected had no correlation with mastoid pneumatization. Conclusion: CSOM is associated with high prevalence of poorly pneumatized mastoid, which is made worse by prolonged duration of disease and thus an evidence for the environmental theory of mastoid pneumatization and may be a possible indicator of a difficult mastoidectomy.

  152. Ernane Rosa Martins and Sabrina Kellen Dos Santos Vieira

    This work aims to analyze what features or activities developed by the Local Productive Arrangement (LPA) of Fruticultura of Luziânia, Goiás, contributed positively or negatively to the competitiveness of companies it participants. The work methodology consisted of a qualitative case study. The survey results showed the following gains: increased market power, generation of collective solutions, reduced costs and risks, capital accumulation, collective learning and collaborative innovation.

  153. Geeta Chitagubbi, Annapurna Pujar, Ashwini Morab and Shreedevi Mugalkhod

    The present study was conducted in Dhawad taluka. A total of 120 rural households have been selected for the study, to select the 24 rural houses from each village. The result of study showed that seventy five percent of respondents were residing in pucca houses, whereas lesser percentage of them was residing in katcha houses. Were that most of rural houses had large / big sized living room. The average size of living was found 14.83 This is because of living room was used as multipurpose room like keeping animals, storing grains so they had large sized living room. Majority of the respondents (65.83 %) used burnt brick and mud for construction of wall for their houses followed by burnt brick and mud, stone, unburnt brick and brunt brick and thatched houses. Kadapa stone was used by major percent of the respondents. Materials used for construction of roof majority (53.33%) of the houses were having tiled roof followed by mud and others (19.17%). Major percentages (14.17%) of rural families were keeping their domestic animals inside the houses only. More than ninety percent of the respondents were cleaning and brooming their houses daily whereas, least percentage of them were cleaning and brooming house every alternate days.

  154. Dr. Asit Ranjan Mohanty, Satyendra Kumar and Suresh Kumar Patra

    The nexus between growth of bank credit and economic growth is well established at national economy level. This study will add to the existing credit-growth nexus literature by analyzing the causal nexus between total credit and growth across the sub national level in India and also examining the effect of credit on economic growth. Kao’s residual based cointegration test confirmed the long run association between bank credit and economic growth in 21 states of India for the period 2001-2014. The Dimetrius Herlin panel causality test revealed the bidirectional causality between these two variables. Understanding the potential endogeneity issue, we employed Arellano-Bond (AB) GMM dynamic panel estimation procedure which solves the endogeneity as well as serial autocorrelation problem in the model. The results of the present study revealed that bank credit, capital outlay and developmental expenditure have favorable effect on economic growth of the states. As regards policy implications, the government should enhance credit level with credit risk management and improve public expenditure both in capital outlay and developmental expenditure to sustain higher economic growth.

  155. Vinita

    The El Nino southern oscillation is known to influence surface temperatures worldwide. El Nino conditions are thought to lead to anomalously warm globe average surface temperature, absent other forcings. Recent research has identified distinct possible types of El Nino events based on the location of peak sea surface temperature anomalies. The recent forecast of low rainfall during the monsoon is a concern for many. The onus of this goes to El Nino acronym of El Nino Southern Oscillation that a country experiences in a cycle of three to seven years. It occurs when there is an interaction between the warm water of Pacific Ocean and atmosphere. This causes different weather events ranging from floods to droughts across the globe. El Nino meant The Little Boy and was first recognized in the coastal areas of South America during the seventeenth century. Monsoon in India influences Australia and different regions in South East Asia. It impacts the economy of the country and that of neighboring countries. The relationship between El Nino and the Indian monsoon rainfall is expected to be useful in forecasting in the monsoon over India.

  156. Vishwanatha and Mutamuliza Eularie

    Small farmer access to microcredit programmes has been a major constraint to agricultural development in developing countries. Agricultural investment is observed with an aim of addressing major challenges in the rural areas in order to achieve long-term development objectives. Investing in agriculture through microcredit should increase income and improve production of small farmers. This study examines the use of microcredit programmes among small farmers in Rwanda. It also assesses the factors affecting small farmer’s decision to participate in microcredit programmes in Huye District, Rwanda. Primary data was randomly collected using structured questionnaire from 300 small farmers in Maraba, Mukura and Ngoma Sectors of Huye District, Rwanda. Data was analyzed using descriptive analysis and Logit regression. The results from descriptive statistics show that more women small farmers had participated in microcredit programmes than men small farmers. The results shows also that the main purpose of agricultural loans were to buy seeds and fertilizers, to invest in irrigation, to improve in agricultural investment and to enhance agricultural development. The results from Logit model indicated that education, household size, total annual income, cooperative membership and distance are significant variables that influence small farmers’ participation in microcredit programmes. Therefore, providing credit to the small farmers could increase their agricultural production and reduce poverty. The implication of these findings is that there is a need to invest in agriculture in order to increase the standard of living of small farmers and food supply in Huye District.

  157. David Schwarz and Daniel Galily

    In the study of the Islamic State, it can be assumed that it adds a new type of objective, a political and religious objective. This goal adds the sovereign aspect of the religious-ideological objective. Future researchers of terrorism must understand that there is a new goal for terrorism in the world – the integration between a separatist-ethnic goal and a religious-ideological goal. In other words, terrorism in the 21st century no longer strives to remove a foreign presence or to establish a regular state recognized by the United Nations but to establish political sovereignty on an ancient-religious background on the global level (regardless of ethnic affiliation).

  158. Karibasappa C. Nagaraja and SampathKumar

    The study investigates the relationship between components of phonological awareness and reading measures (reading fluency and word reading accuracy), and also differences in performance on reading fluency and reading accuracy across grades. A total of 110 school going children (31 of 4th, 41 of 5th and 38 of 6th grades) participated in the study; all participants were studying in Kannada medium and Kannada as their mother tongue. The results indicate that there is a positive relationship between components of Phonological awareness (PA) and reading measures in general. Specifically, there is a strong association between components of phonological awareness and word reading accuracy (KVP) across the grades, followed by sight word reading efficiency (SWRE) showing a high correlation with more components of PA than phoneme decoding (PDE) across the grades. Furthermore, performances of 5th and 6thgraders on reading measures were significantly better than 4th graders.

  159. Doan Thanh Ha and Hoang Thi Thanh Hang

    This study considered the factors affecting the individual customers’ selection of banks to deposit money in Vietnam. By the exploring research method, this research identified six factors affecting the customers’ decisions to select banks to deposit money in Vietnam and the importance of these factors, which are: interest rates, brand, staff, sense of security, transaction procedures, convenience. From the six factors, the study suggestedsome policies to attract savings deposits at commercial banks in Vietnam.

  160. Chetna.P. Bhansali and Visalakshi Rajeswari, S.

    Construction as a major industry has been found in recent years to leave substantial impacts on the environment. Devices for providing comfort and convenience, circulation facilities and the like are responsible for more than 40 per cent of the global energy used. Emerging trends in urbanization in affluent societies showcase exponential increases in demand for modern energy sucking services in residences, commercial and public service sectors. Ensuring energy efficiency in constructions thus is found to be point in energy security prospects - the first step recommended to enhance the much sort after sustainability. Introducing value addition in buildings to ensure these facts receive global attention now. The study projects the salient findings observed with refurbished buildings and the value addition done to such buildings to qualify them as fit for adaptive reuse.

  161. Emanoela Pereira de Paiva, Francisco Vanies da Silva Sá, Salvador Barros Torres, Narjara Walessa Nogueira, Rômulo Magno Oliveira de Freitas, João Paulo Nobre de Almeida and Moadir de Sousa Leite

    Aspidosperma pyrifolium Mart. is native to the Caatinga in the northeast region and has great potential for the recovery of degraded areas, especially riparian forests; however, little is known about the influence of abiotic factors on its germination and vigor. Hence, this study aimed to evaluate the germination A. pyrifolium seeds subjected to different conditions of substrate, temperature and water and salt stresses. The experiments were carried out in two steps: the first one evaluated the influence of two temperatures and four substrates, while the second one evaluated the influence of water and salt stresses induced by two levels of NaCl and PEG 6000, plus a control (distilled water). Both experiments used four replicates of 25 seeds. For both experiments, the duration of the germination test was 10 days after sowing, period in which the following variables were evaluated: germination percentage, mean time of germination, shoot and root length, stem diameter, shoot and root dry matter and root/shoot ratio. All substrates at temperature of 25 ºC can be used for the germination test with seeds of A. pyrifolium. Water stress from the level of -0.3 MPa on is more severe on the germination and vigor of A. pyrifolium seeds in comparison to the salt stress.

  162. Anupriya Singh and Gopal Jee, S.

    A relationship between psychological factors and skin diseases has long been hypothesized. Psychodermatology addresses the interaction between the mind and the skin. Today, we know that it is essential to consider biopsychosocial approaches to treatment, involving general practitioners, psychiatrists, dermatologists and psychologists. However, Psychodermatology is a relatively new discipline, and the body of literature addressing it is still scarce. Chronic skin disease involves life adaptation which, in most cases, results in lowers life quality, influencing patient’s social life and making the treatment more difficult. Noticeability of skin lesions exposes the patient to negative society reactions and stigmatization because of disfigurement, resulting in patient’s loss of self-confidence. Factors like severe anxiety, emotional instability and loss of self –confidence reduce the quality of life and working abilities in such patients. Psychosomatic components play a significant role in a number of inflammatory, immune mediated and behavioral skin disorders (Panconesi, 2005). In one study, 10% of patients at a dermatology clinic had psychosomatic disorders and another 15% had adjustment disorders (Seyhan, Aki, Karincaoglu, & Ozcan, 2006). Reducing stress and emotions and behavioral habits that damage skin, hair, or nails can enhance response to treatment when used in conjunction with other appropriate treatments for the specific skin disorders. Stress may be measured with subjective units of distress on a 0–10 scale and may be reduced with heart rate variability biofeedback, cognitive-behavioral methods, hypnosis and self-hypnosis, meditation, relaxation training, or yoga (Ehlers, Stangler, & Gieler, 2005; Hughes, Brown, Lawlis, & Fulton, 1983).

  163. Ashmita Bhattacharya

    MEDIA is identified as the lifeline to the people on this planet. A platform for the mass, it continues to be the ruler of our existence in the field of communication. This field has unfailingly exposed to us the voices unheard of, the sights unseen and the experiences unfelt. With a wide range of issues concerning media, this area remains as one of the most widely studied and debated picture in the 21st century scenario. In the present day, as media voices the need for vehement practice of gender equality, we often tend to overlook about such practices being effective in the media house itself. Does our Indian society, which unfailingly projects its patriarchal reign over its citizens and forms the domain of survival for a majority percentage of the population, overpower the role of media in practicing gender equality? Do women in the 21stcentury continue to be victimized by the claws of an inferior identity in the professional forum which paves the path for addressing this concern? In this paper, the researcher investigates the position of women in media by highlighting the meaning women make of their work and workplace issues in the regional media of Assam. It focuses on the wide variety of domains which speak of the challenges faced by the women journalists in the media houses. This qualitative study seeks to unpack the gender inequality and discrimination in Assamese print media houses. It argues that the patriarchy within the Assamese society extends to media organizations, and recommends that without gender empowerment within the media, its aims and claims to impacting community development will remain hollow.

  164. Chandrani Sengupta and Dr. Pravat Kumar Kuri

    Subsistence households residing in the remote areas are principally dependent upon the forest for meeting their daily needs. They have very limited access to commercial fuels and therefore tend to rely on forest fuelwood to serve as a source of energy. However, in the face of forest scarcity they substitute other bio-fuels like agricultural crop residue, dung and fuelwood from trees on private land for forest fuelwoood. Although some studies have tried to analyse these issues, not much research have been made till date on this area. This paper addresses the problems associated with fuelwood production and consumption in the rural areas of Purulia district of West Bengal. Household responses to forest scarcity are analysed by a non-separable household model focusing on the prospects of fuel substitution. Based on primary data from six villages located on the Ajodhya Hills of Purulia OLS technique and probit model are fitted for estimation. It is observed that instead of reducing fuelwood collection from the forest, households respond to the scarcity by increasing its consumption. Substitution of forest fuelwood is noted only when number of trees on private land increases although the result turns out to be insignificant. This indicates that there are hardly any alternatives to forest fuelwood in the rural areas especially when the forest resources are available for free to the inhabitants residing in the vicinity of the forests.

  165. Ikenna Stephen Ezennia, Patrick C. Uwajeh, Peter C. Agbonome and Timothy O. Iyendo

    We live in a world characterized by the use of media and in the near future everything will be based on multimedia, and architectural pedagogy will not be an exception. Multimedia has a huge role to play in Architectural Education. Education is the knowledge and skill obtained or developed by a learning process; nothing is taught, unless it is learnt. It can be argued that architectural design process is driven by a method of communication between an instructor and students, which is part of are petitive process where feedback, interventions, and reflections occur. This process is formed around the intentions to achieve multiple tasks or challenges: the communication and interaction between these tasks has not been adequately maximized over time. Projected texts are mainly used in design studios during lecture sessions. However, the ability to adopt the full packages of digital multimedia as a teaching and learning aid will create rich potential for students towards increasing their cognitive and perceptive capabilities in the learning and creative process. Therefore, this research seeks an understanding as to what year in the undergraduate program and the stage in the design process that would be most suitable for adopting digital multimedia as a teaching and learning aid in architectural education; with the pedagogic objectives of bringing to the fore the benefits of digital multimedia in the design process. The results of this study reveals that, introducing digital multimedia in architecture design studios would help instructors in giving a better understanding of their courses. Furthermore, the use of multimedia approach enhances teaching and learning experience in architecture design studios. This in turn has significant impact on the learning process, as instructors and students exchange ideas and information; as well as among fellow students.

  166. Ebunoluwa Akingbaso, Timothy Onosahwo Iyendo, Patrick Chukwuemeke Uwajeh and Ikenna Stephen Ezennia

    The study highlights the present condition of an existing wetland district, as affected by migration. Its examined the now popularly known student environment within three (3) time steps, 1986, 1999 and 2013 respectively, placing these as the actor for the relative change in land-use. A multiple research method was applied, using data sourced via satellite imagery, structured questionnaire, and semi-structured interview. The outcome of the study revealed the location, extent of Urbanism and the distribution of different land-use categories in Karakol district located in Famagusta, North Cyprus. This study proposes that the implications of human migration on land use change need further investigation and better data in order to be more certain about trends.

  167. Gligor Bishev and Tatjana Boshkov

    Globalization brings the threat of a weakened SME sector, since its role in exporting is less than proportional to its size; this reflects the economies of scale characterizing big markets. But globalization can also increase the importance of a strong SME sector, either where direct SME exports are feasible or where SME subcontractors help keep the country's large exporters competitive. The domestic industry by using knowledge, innovation development and upgrading the capacity of the small and medium enterprises can take the necessary changes for its output and increase export performance. All of this can contribute to sustainability of the economic growth and economic integration especially of small and open economies. Many transition and developing countries, in particular face a need to promote and strengthen the long term development of the SME sector, which requires access to market opportunities, as well as to new technology and management know-how, often in a situation of considerable resource scarcity. This paper aims to focus on contribution for developing financial strategies that could help to strengthen the SME sector in a way to record benefits from labor markets. Implementation of good strategies should increase the attractiveness of the labor markets in transition and developing countries for foreign investors which will improve the capacity of the SME sector.

  168. Kelechi Ekwugha and Dr. Catherine Hayes

    Aim: The study was designed to investigate socio-cultural factors influencing the use of family planning services among women (15-49) years of age in a primary health centre typical of those in Port Harcourt, Nigeria Methods: Data was collected from 100 women who were between the ages of 15-49 and attending antenatal health care at the Model Primary Health Centre Port Harcourt Nigeria. Self-administered questionnaires were used to gather information on the influence of socio-cultural factors on the uptake of family planning. Findings: Bivariate analysis showed a significant relationship between education and women’s uptake of family planning, religion and contraception use. The majority of respondents (64%) indicated they do not access family planning services due to their spouse’s disapproval. Research limitations/implications: This was a study limited to 100 women from a specific region in Nigeria – further research is necessary to ascertain the general is ability of the study to a wider population. Practical implications: Husband decision making regarding contraceptive use was a strong determinant of family planning use among the population studied. Encouragement of male involvement in family planning should be encouraged alongside the establishment of strategies that empower women to make decisions about their reproductive health.

  169. Mitota Owolabi, Dr. Catherine Hayes and Dr. John Fulton

    Purpose – Conducted in Lagos State, this research study sought to illuminate a cultural and context specific insight into the experiences of seven Nigerian mothers of Down syndrome children. Design/methodology/approach – Adopting a feminist approach, seven mothers aged between 34-67years were purposively sampled from mothers regularly attending the Down Syndrome Foundation of Nigeria in Lagos. Data was collected via in-depth interviewing, which consisted of open-ended questions that were used to explore the individual experiences of these mothers, within a cultural context. Findings – There were six emergent theoretical themes from the study; birth of a child with Down syndrome - a diagnosis; challenges; positive attributes; worry; coping and knowledge gained. Findings from this research are consistent with findings on the experiences of mothers of children in alternative contextual settings. Mothers had no prior knowledge of the abnormality until they had a child with Down syndrome. The formal diagnosis was related to a process of grief characterised by depression and eventual acceptance. During the course of rearing their child, mothers face challenging situations such as financial problems, behavioural problems, and medical challenges. Moreover, mothers reported that these challenges had an impact on their health. Positive impact included family relationships, religion, and spirituality and specific support groups. Mothers indicated that the absence of government support, societal acceptance and finances made the journey of rearing a child with Down syndrome in Nigeria more challenging. Research limitations/implications – This is a small scale study which is intended to illuminate the lives of women raising children in a culturally and contextually specific region. Practical implications – This study highlights the stories of seven women, it highlights the need for further investigation to see how far generalisable to a wider population these findings are. Originality/value – To date there have been no studies of the experience of raising children with Down syndrome in this culturally specific region. The study provides a unique insight from a feminist perspective into the lives of women living in Lagos State, Nigeria.

  170. Farnaz Sohrabvand, Mohammad Kamalinejad, Mojgan Tansaz, Shima Vazifekhah, Mamak Shariat, Masumeh Masoumi, Maryam Bagheri and Maryam Mohebbi

    Background: Functional ovary cysts (FOC) are among the most common problems in women of reproductive age. Present treatment consists of either high-dose birth control pills or surgery while preserving ovarian tissue. Recent studies have questioned the effectiveness of birth control pills, with some studies even showing them to be ineffectual. The incidences of side effects, therapeutic failure, and unnecessary surgeries for ovarian functional cysts have led us to perform this study comparing the effects of an herbal product of jujube and high-dose birth control pills on FOC regression. Materials and Methods: Sixty women of childbearing age with functional ovarian cysts with diameters of 2-6 cm were randomly divided into two groups that received either high-dose contraceptive pills or Shilanum capsules, a herbal product with an extract of jujube as its active ingredient. Cyst regression was evaluated by transvaginal ultrasound examinations on the second or third day of the second menstrual cycle or after one month and repeated the following month in the case of persisting cysts. Data were analyzed using Chi-square and t-tests as well as other analytical tests where necessary. Results: Sixty patients with a diagnosis of functional ovarian cyst were enrolled. However, at the end of the study, given that some patients failed to refer for further ultrasound evaluation and were inaccessible, data from 26 subjects in the high-dose birth control pill (HD) group and 27 in the Shilanum group were analyzed. Baseline characteristics such as education, professional status, and medication intake were similar. The average age of all participants was 32.61±7.35 years, all of whom were married. Average cyst size before treatment was 27±7mm in the HD group and 39±14mm in the Shilanum group. After treatment, cysts regressed in all patients except for two patients in each group. Conclusion: The Shilanum herbal product with an extract of jujube as its active ingredient was effective on the regression of functional ovarian cysts in more than 90% of cases without any side effects. Since its effect was similar to HD pills, it can be suggested as an alternative to oral contraceptive pills(OCPs) in treating functional ovarian cysts. However, due to the fact that this is the first study with this combination, further studies with larger sample sizes are recommended.

  171. Dr. Suneeth Shetty and Dr. Sunil Tejaswi

    Aims: This in vitro study was carried out to determine the effect of delayed start of light polymerization of a dual-cured composite base on the microleakage of Class II open-sandwich composite restorations. Settings and Design: Teeth were randomly divided into 5 groups according to the method of polymerization of the dual-cured composite base: (A) self-cured, (B) light-cured immediately, (C) light-cured 30 seconds after placement, (D) light-cured 60 seconds after placement, and (E) light-cured 120 seconds after placement. A top layer of light-cured composite was placed and cured. Restorations were stored for 1 week at 37°C and 100% relative humidity, subjected to 500 thermocycles between 50C and 550C with 15 seconds of dwell time and immersed in a 1% aqueous solution of methylene blue for 24 hours. Samples were sectioned mesiodistally, dye penetration was done and finally evaluated under a stereomicroscope. Statistical analysis used: Kruskal Wallis Test Conclusions: Within the limitations of this in-vitro study it can be concluded that delayed, rather than immediate, light polymerization of the dual-cured composites base reduced microleakage in Class II open-sandwich restorations.

  172. Dr. Sanjeev Badiger, Dr. Nanjesh Kumar, S., Dr. Ranjita R. and Dr. Udayakiran, N.

    Introduction: Alcohol is the most common substance of abuse and it is responsible for 4.4% of the global burden of disease. Alcoholism has been associated with a large number of nutritional and metabolic disorders. Alcohol is a leading cause of alcohol abuse, organ damage and malnutrition. It is also one of the most preventable causes of death. So we conducted a cross-sectional study to study the clinical profile and nutritional status of alcoholics. Aims and Objectives: 1) To study the clinical profile of alcoholics visiting tertiary care center 2) To assess the nutritional status of alcoholics visiting tertiary care center Methodology: This cross sectional study was conducted at K S Hegde Charitable Hospital. A total 100 patients were included in the study. The information was obtained by patients aged 18 or more years was interviewed by using a structured questionnaire on demographic details, per capita income, alcohol consumption details, and dietdetails. The nutritional status will be assessed by direct method that is by calculating the BMI and waist hip ratio for allpatients. The collected data was analysed using SPSS version 16 Results: Out of 100 study population 98% were male. 54% of the study population belonged to 31-50 years age group and 22% belonged to 20-30 years. According to Kuppuswamy classification 52% lower middle class.73% had more than five year history of alcohol consumption. Anthropometric measurements showed that 43% of users were overweight, 15% of users were obese and 79% of male study population had central obesity Conclusion: The present study also showed significant correlation between quantity of alcohol consumption and waist to hip ratio. This might show significance in development cardiovascular diseases as they indirectly attribute to confounding risk factors. This can beas a means for early intervention and disease prevention.

  173. Reshma Narayan, Swetha, T. and Vinutha

    Abundant applications require limited calculation with a specific finish goal to agreement better implementation, security, and lesser costs. As of late, the enlargement of Internet-of-Things (IoT) gadgets has brought on an point of view change in figuring and correspondence. IoT gadgets are making our physical environment and frameworks more gleaming, conveying pervasive registering to the standard. With billions of such gadgets slated to be conveyed in the following five years, we have the chance to use these gadgets in changing over our physical surroundings into spontaneous, brilliant, and wise processing bases. Aura – a very constrained IoT based disseminated computing model. Environment permits clients to make specially prearranged mists utilizing the IoT and other registering gadgets in the adjacent physical background, while giving the flexibility of circulated computing. worth gives confined computation capacity from undiscovered processing assets. Calculations done on Aura are very adaptable, giving clients full control to begin, stop, move, and restart calculations in close-by gadgets as the customers move between various physical areas. To show the possibility of Aura, we have ported a insubstantial form of Map Reduce to keep running on IoT gadgets, and assess its execution.

  174. Lateef Ahmed Wani, Bushra Rashid Sahaf, Shaista Mushtaq, Rukhsana Akhter, Nazia Qayoom, Saymah Rashid and Ruby Reshi

    Background: The aim of this study was to find the pattern of prevalence of different ophthalmic lesion and relation of lesions with regard to age and gender of patients. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted in department of pathology, Govt Medical College Srinagar for a period of one year. Results: Ophthalmic lesions showed male dominance and the common site affected was eyelid. The most common benign lesion was noted to be Nevus while common malignant lesion reported was Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Conclusion: Squamous cell carcinoma was noted as common malignant lesion in eye followed by basal cell carcinoma (BCC). Squamous cell carcinoma was reported exclusively in males and Basal cell carcinoma was noted in females only.

  175. Lokesh Kumar Singh, Manu Bharadwaj and Bhaskar Dutt

    Introduction: Low vision or Subnormal vision is a term used to describe varying degree of vision loss that cannot be corrected by medication, surgeries or conventional glasses. Vision loss may be due to: • Decreased visual acuity • Visual field defect • Decreased contrast sensitivity • Loss of colour perception A low vision patient is one who has impairment of visual functions even after treatment and /or standard refractive correction and has a visual acuity of less than 6/18 (20/60) to light perception or a visual field of less than 10 degree from the point of fixation, India was the first country in the world to launch the National Programme for Control Blindness in 1976 with the goal of reducing the prevalence of blindness. Of the total estimated 45 million blind persons (best corrected visual acuity <3/60) in the world, 7 million are estimated to be in India. Due to the large population base and increased life-expectancy, the number of blind particularly due to age-related disorders like cataract is expected to increase. Thus, this study is being undertaken with an aim to know the prevalence of various causes of subnormal vision to rural and urban population and manage them at a proper time. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out on patients of rural and urban areas of Meerut district. For the comparison of various causes of subnormal vision, people were studied in the camps and OPD of upgraded department of ophthalmology, LLRM, Medical college, Meerut, during the study period of June 2009 –July2010. The patients of subnormal vision for this study were divided into 2 groups.1st group was of urban areas resident of Meerut City. 2nd Group was of Rural areas residents of peripheral village of Meerut District. Patients from Subnormal vision were screened for Refractive Errors, Cataract, Retinal Diseases, Amblyopia, Corneal Diseases, Optic Atrophy, Glaucoma, Others ocular diseases like Endophthalmitis, Higher visual pathway lesions, posterior capsule opacity after cataract surgery, and indeterminate causes of visual impairment. Visual acuity examination of each patient was taken by snellen’s chart. Results: The present study was carried out in the Upgraded department of ophthalmology. S.V.B.P. Hospital, L.L.R.M. medical college Meerut from June 2009 to July 2010.The study included 800 patient suffering from subnormal vision from the OPD of Eye department and Rural Camps. There were more patients from rural areas (63.5%) in comparison from urban areas (36.5%) attending the medical OPD and camps. out of 800 patients 417 (52.13%) were male while 383 (47.87%) were females. that patient presented with their complain were maximum no. from age group 16-49 years in rural and urban patient (51.9% and 62.28% respectively)\ that in rural areas males (55.73%) were suffering from subnormal vision more than female (44.29%). In urban areas females (54.2%) with subnormal vision are more than males (45.8%) this difference was found statistically significant .This may be because of lack of awareness in rural areas and ignorance of female in rural areas. Maximum no. was of patients of refractive error 366 (45.8%) and cataract 319(39.9%) other common diseases which were causing subnormal vision were retinal disorder, amblyopia, corneal disorders and others. The category of others include Endophthalmitis, Higher visual pathway lesion, posterior capsule opacity following cataract surgery and indeterminate cause of visual impairment. That refractive errors were more common in rural patient (48.03%) as compared to urban patients group (41.75%). Cataract was more common in Urban patients group (40.75%) as compared to Rural patient group (39.37%) but the difference was not statistically significant. Retinal disease, optic atrophy and glaucoma were more common in urban patients group as compared to rural patients group. The percentage of Retinal disease, optic atrophy, glaucoma were in urban patients 4.45% and 2.39% respectively. Amblyopia (3.3%) and corneal disease (2.36%) were greater in rural patients as compared to urban patients. Glucoma prevalence was similar in both the groups. The category others was more common in urban patients (5.47%) as compared to Rural patients (1.96%) Discussion: 800 people of subnormal vision (Vision less than 6/18) selected from rural and urban patients. The present study showed overall percentage of refractive error as 45.8% and cataract 39.9%, Retinal diseases 3.4%, Amblyopia 2.7% corneal disease 2.3%, optic atrophy 1.8%, Glaucoma 1% and others 3.2.%. Considering the Rural and Urban patients refractive error, ambloypia, and corneal disease were more in rural patients (48.03%, 3.34%, 2.36%). Because children and females remain neglected for their problems and also take glasses as a social taboo. Cataract, retinal disorder, optic atrophy, Glaucoma and Others were more common in urban patients (40.75%, 4.45%, 2.39%, 1.36% respectively) In urban area people have easy access to hospital and they keep on coming for regular checkups. Most of the studies found that refractive error was the most common cause of subnormal vision followed by Cataract similar to ours. Conclusion: Uncorrected refractivr errors and cataracts are the main cause of low vision in both urban and rural populations. An increase in ophthalmic care and public education is needed to minimize the irreversible blindness in rural as well as urban parts of society.

  176. Dr. Asha, M. L., Dr. Aprajita Dua, Dr. Chaitanya Reddy, Dr. Mahesh Kumar H. M. and Dr. Basetty Neelakantam Rajarathnam

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) has a remarkably high incidence worldwide, and a fairly serious prognosis, encouraging further research into advanced technologies for noninvasive methods of making early diagnosis, ideally in primary care settings. Clinical trials and other information published till the recent years has been studied and a review of noninvasive methods of diagnosing OSCC, including oral brush biopsy, optical biopsy, saliva-based oral cancer diagnosis, and others were included. It is clear that screening for and early detection of cancer and pre-cancerous lesions have the potential to reduce the morbidity and mortality of this disease. Advances in technologies for saliva-based oral diagnosis and optical biopsy are promising pathways for the future development of more effective noninvasive methods for diagnosing OSCC that are easy to perform clinically in primary care settings. Minimally invasive interventions are critical to improving healthcare efficiency, enhancing the quality of care provided, and reducing cost. The trend is toward facilitating the making of early diagnoses of OSCC by General Practitioners or dentists possible in primary care settings. This review thus provide an insight into the current concepts and future of noninvasive procedures for diagnosing oral squamous cell carcinoma.

  177. Egnon K.V. KOUAKOU, Alassane MEITE, Kouamé G. M. BOUAFOU, Kacou J.M. DJETOUAN and Séraphin KATI- COULIBALY

    Le but de ce travail est d’évaluer les qualités nutritionnelles des aliments therapeutiques à base de Poisson/riz et Pistache/riz produits à partir des procédés traditionnels pour la rénutrition des enfants malnutris. A cet effet, les régimes thérapeutiques Poisson/riz, Pistache/riz ont été produits, puis les caractéristiques biochimique ont été effectués et comparés au Plumpynut habituellement utilisé pour la prise en charge nutritionnelle des malnutris. Les résultats de ces analyses ont montrés que le Plumpynut, Poisson/riz et Pistache/riz contenaientrespectivement 15,29± 0,09g/100 g MS, 15,26±0,1 g/100 g MS et 15,29±0,02 /100 g de protéines avec les valeurs énergétiques de 574,40± 3,02g/100 g MS ; 570,19± 4,0g/100 g MS et 570,19± 5,0g/100 g MSkcals. Ces résultats ont montré que les qualités nutritionnelles des régimes tests sont simulaires voir supérieures au témoin (Plumpynut). Ces aliments thérapeutiques pourraient etre utilisés pour la prise en charge nutritionnelle des enfants malnutris.

  178. Alaa M. Atia, Emad Z. Kamel, EmanMosad, Mahmoud A. M. Ashri, Nawal A. Gad Al Rab and Hassan I. M. Kotb

    Background: Neuroaxial anesthesia for patients with cardiac disease is still a matter of debate. BNP has been added as a cardiac biomarker in response to stress. Spinal-epidural anesthesia seems to full fill some criteria of therapeutic intervention in cardiac patients. For this, in a group of patients with impaired left ventricular function, we test whether epidural –spinal anesthesia has an effect on BNP as well as testing the predictability of postoperative BNP for outcome. Methods : the authors conducted this study on 24 lower extremity vascular surgery patients with ischemic dilated cardiomyopathy (EF <40 %) under combined spinal epidural anesthesia (CSE). The primary end point was the effect of CSE on postoperative BNP and its predictability for the outcome, while the secondary outcome was the cardiac outcome over 6 months postoperatively. Results: CSE offers perioperative hemodynamic stability, and complication free early hospital stay, however it does not attenuate the rise of BNP. Mortality and morbidity rates were 8% and 41.6 % respectively over the next 6 months. Postoperative BNP ≥67.43pg/ml, provided the optimal BNP cutoff points for predicting major cardiac complications Conclusion: CSE is a feasible technique of anesthesia in such patients with dilated cardiomyopathy undergoing vascular surgery in the lower half of the body. BNP study revealed that postoperative BNP levels are valuable bed side predictors of intermediate term post-operative cardiac death and major adverse cardiac events in cardiac patients undergoing peripheral vascular surgery.

  179. Dr. Pansi Gupta, Dr. Sonia Chhabra, Dr. Sunita Singh, Dr Parveen Malhotra and Dr. Rajeev Sen

    Background: Celiac disease (CD), is a chronic immune-mediated disorder of small intestine that occurs in genetically predisposed populations. It is characterized by permanent intolerance to wheat gliadins and other cereal prolamins. The epidemiology of CD has iceberg characteristics¬ with more undiagnosed cases. The pathogenesis entails a T cell‐mediated immune response with production of autoantibodies directed against tissue transglutaminase or endomysium. The diagnosis of CD is currently based on both typical small bowel biopsy findings with clinical and serological parameters. Aims: This study conducted with aims to classify the endoscopic duodenal biopsies using modified Marsh grading in cases of suspected celiac disease and compare these grades with various clinical and serological parameters including serum tTG levels. Setting and Design: Biopsies from second part of duodenum in total of 100 consecutive cases of suspected CD (on the basis of clinical and serological profile) formed the study group. Marsh grades were compared with anti-tTG levels, hemoglobin, endoscopy, and clinical presentations. Materials and Methods: Histopathological diagnosis was established on routine haematoxylin and eosin stained sections. The histopathological grading was performed as per modified Marsh grading. Representative section was also subjected for immunohistochemical staining with antihuman CD3 antibody for evaluating intraepithelial lymphocytes. Comparison of these grades with the serological (anti tTg levels) and other clinical parameters (symptoms, weight, endoscopy and hemoglobin levels) were done. Statistical Analysis: These data were subsequently analysed using SPSS 20.0 software. Chi square test and other relevant statistics were used to assess the relationship between two variables. P-value less than 0.05 was accepted as statistically significant. Results and Conclusions: Majority of patients presented with typical gastrointestinal symptoms and significantly correlated with higher Marsh grades (p= 0.0326) but atypical symptoms can be the primary presentation of the disease. Patients with higher serum anti-tTG levels, have a high-degree probability of duodenal damage. Anti-tTG levels have conclusively been proven to correlate with increasing histological grades (p=0.005). So, in selected conditions with strong clinical suspicion and high titres of anti tTG, a duodenal biopsy may be avoided especially in children and it could be the basis to prescribe a GFD.

  180. Ansa, S., Anil Babu, A., Abdurahiman, P. and Prof. Seethadevi, B.

    Background and Objectives: A high number of populations have epileptic disorder. The choice of drug is the important factor of treatment including that for acute and chronic epileptic seizure treatment. Selecting drug depends on its safety and efficacy. Monotherapy with drug is the safest approach of treatment. Objectives include, efficacy of LEV and VPA therapy, occurrence of adverse drug reactions. Methods: It is a prospective, observational, 9 month study in department of neurology in a 500 bedded tertiary care teaching hospital. The study population includes 90 subjects. Patient data entry form, informed consent form, Patient information sheet. The main study criteria is inpatients and out patients in the neurology department. They are selected according to specific inclusion and exclusion criteria. Results and Discussion: LEV and VPA are equally effective in the treatment of epileptic disorder. But LEV over VPA have some advantages include, its minimal protein binding, lack of hepatic metabolism, adverse reaction of the drug is comparatively better than the older antiepileptic drugs, except the psychiatric manifestations, and no significant drug interactions. These properties also provide better quality of life in persons with epilepsy compared with VPA. Conclusion: VPA show better efficacy than LEV in terms of seizure frequency, percentage reduction, responder rate. Safety of LEV is higher than VPA.

  181. Dr. Suraj John Thomas, Dr. Augustine Daniel, Dr. Ajay Narayan, Dr. Sabba Fatima and Dr. Hisham M Ibrahim

    Various surgeries have been used to release the fibrotic bands in oral submucous fibrosis but all of them are associated with complications and morbidities. The aim of our study is to evaluate the effect of coronoidectomy with excision of fibrotic bands. A total of 3histological proven cases of advanced oral Submucous fibrosis having a mouth opening of less than 20 mm were surgically treated. The procedure involved (Schwartz, 1952) bilateral release of fibrotic bands (Joshi, 1953) bilateral coronoidectomy (Canniff et al., 1986) covering the buccal defects with collagen membrane if required. Regular follow up was done and results were assessed by comparing the preoperative & postoperative Mean intraoperative interincisal distance after band excision and coronoidectomy increased up to 38.2mm.The procedure of coronoidectomy after fibrotic bands release had excellent results and adequate mouth opening with no recurrence till the last follow up.

  182. Dr. Shamila Shetty, Dr. Keerthan Shashidharan, Dr. Sharath Karanth, Dr. Rashmi Nilan, Dr. Mohitha Shetty and Dr. Kiran Raj

    Aim: Periodontitis is an acute or chronic inflammatory process, initiated by the plaque biofilm, that causes loss of periodontal adherence to the root surface and adjacent alveolar bone and which ultimately results in tooth loss. Our objective was to evaluate malondialdehyde levels in healthy individuals and patients with chronic periodontitis. Materials and Methods: 50 subjects aged between 17-50 years attending the Out Patient Department of Periodontics in the A.B Shetty Memorial Institute of Dental Sciences were divided into 2 groups. 25 patients served as the control group and the rest 25 patients served as the test group 3 ml of unstimulated whole saliva was collected from subjects using disposable spittoons and were centrifuged and frozen at –20°C until analysis. Lipid peroxidation products malondialdehyde were analyzed by Thiobarbituric acid (TBA) reaction. Results: The results obtained were subjected to statistical analysis (Test for Normality and Mann Whitney U Test). Conclusion: Our study reveals that malondialdehyde levels, a lipid peroxidation product in increased in Chronic Periodontitis cases compared to Control cases with a median of 2.98 and the control has a median of 0.94 which is statistically significant with a p value of <0.001.

  183. Mr. Rahul Nigam

    The term anxiety has become a part of our everyday life. The concepts of anxiety may differ according to the individual’s state of contexts and interpretations. Certain amount of anxiety is desirable, productive and can facilitate the individuals to grow but when the anxiety exceeds disturb the normal functions. The objective of the study are 1.] To assess the level of anxiety among senior citizens staying in old age home before and after administering progressive muscle relaxation technique. 2.] To elicit the effectiveness of progressive muscle relaxation technique among senior citizens staying in old age home. 3.] To associate pre test level of anxiety among senior citizens with their selected demographic variables. The pre experimental one group pre test post test research design was used. The data was obtained from 50 senior citizens from selected old age home, Indore.

  184. Dr. Nagabhushana Doggalli, Dr. Athira Joshy, Dr. Karthikeya Patil, Dr. Mahima V. Guledgud, Dr. Mahesh K. P. and Dr. Prasannasrinivas Deshpande

    Oral leukoplakia is the most common precancerous lesion of the oral mucosa. This lesion often takes the form of white patch or plaque. The term leukoplakia means a white patch derived from Greek word “leucos” meaning white and “plakos” meaning patch2. Historically many pathologist and clinicians used the term leukoplakia synonymously with microscopic alterations, primarily that of carcinoma or epithelial dysplasia. Leukoplakia is commonly found in India that is why we constantly evolve the definition so as to accurately identify this lesion, cause of its potentially malignant nature, as timely diagnosis could prevent malignant transformation. Hence an attempt has been made to update the knowledge about the evolution of its definition.

  185. Dr. Shruthi Raj and Dr. Anand Raj

    Acute or chronic trauma to the oral mucosa may result in surface ulcerations. Eosinophilic ulcer or traumatic ulcerative granuloma with stromal eosinophilia (TUGSE) is a chronic benign, reactive and self-limiting lesion. Its etiopathogenesis is still uncertain but trauma seems to play a fundamental role. Clinically the lesion manifests as an isolated ulcer, showing a raised and indurated border in addition to a white or yellowish bed. Histopathologically, it is characterized by eosinophilic inflammatory infiltrate penetrating into the submucosal layers degenerating the underlying muscle. Hereby, reporting a case of a 62-year-old female patient who presented with a chief complaint of non-healing painful ulcer on the right ventral aspect of tongue. The lesion was excised and sent for histopathologic examination. Microscopic examination showed an ulcerated epithelium and the underlying connective tissue showed dense inflammatory infiltrate predominantely PMNs, lymphocytes, plasma cells and significant number of eosinophils. Based on microscopic findings, the lesion was diagnosed as “TUGSE”.

  186. Dr. H. Mohammed Musthafa, Dr. S. Srividhya, Dr. V. Athreya, Dr. V. Jhansi Rani and Dr. H. Faizunisa

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is treatment modality involving the administration of photosensitizing compound, which selectively accumulates in the hyperproliferative target cells followed by local irradiation with visible light of lesion. Eventually target tissue will be damaged by necrosis and apoptosis. The transfer of energy from the activated photosensitizer to available oxygen results in the formation of toxic oxygen species, such as singlet oxygen and free radicals. These very reactive chemical species can damage proteins, lipids, nucleic acids, and other cellular components. Applications of PDT in dentistry are growing rapidly in treatment of oral premalignant and malignant conditions. PDT also represents a novel therapeutic approach in the management of oral biofilms. This review emphasis on the various fundamental aspects of photodynamic therapy and the research done till date in treating various oral lesions using this new therapeutic approach.

  187. Dr. Shakeel Ahmad, Dr. Omeshwar Singh, Dr. Abdul Ghani, Dr. Sumeet Charak and Dr. Javaid Ahmad Ganai

    Introduction: Many implants have evolved for the management of subtrochanteric fractures, each with its associated set of complications. In this study, short PFN was used for the management of subtrochanteric fractures and various complications were noticed. Aim of study: To study Operative complications with respect to technical aspects & implant and to study the post operative complications of short PFN. Material and Methods: This study was a prospective study on adult patients of both sexes with a follow up of 24 weeks, conducted at orthopaedic department of Govt Medical College Hospital, Jammu. After proximal femoral nailing, patients were assessed clinically and radiologically on the 2nd post operative day, at 4 weeks, 12 weeks and then between 6 months to 1 year depending upon the fracture union. Results & Observations: Most of the fractures were reduced by closed reduction. In 30% of cases, mini-open reduction was required. Reduction was anatomical in 30% of cases, and acceptable in 62.5% of cases. Varus reduction was seen in 35% of cases. Proximal locking was found difficult in 30% of cases. Post operative complications were seen more in patients with other co-morbidities like diabetes milletus. Conclusion: Intramedullary fixation has biological and biomechanical advantages, but the operation is technically demanding. Proper case selection, gradual learning and great patience is needed in order to prevent complications. Early failure is due to poor reduction, whereas non-union results in late failure.

  188. Dr. Vijaykanth Kattamuri, Dr. Sumeet Kumar Sharma, Dr. Ravi Shankar Yalavarthy, Dr. M. Harikrishna, Dr. Satyendra Kumar Tedlapu and Dr. Sanjay Krishna Sreeram

    Background: Most of the endodontically treated teeth often show considerable anatomic defect of the tooth structure, frequently requires good core build up material having a fracture resistance and good modulus of elasticity for longevity of restoration. In developing material market and propaganda about the same has led to selection bias because of less evidence based literature; so the study was aimed to evaluate three commercially available core materials in permanent posterior teeth through the evaluation of parameters like fracture resistance and modulus of elasticity. Aims and objectives: To evaluate the in vitro effect of core materials on the fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth. Materials and Method: The in vitro study was planned to assess the fracture resistance and modulus of elasticity of three commercially available core materials. Each group was restored with 1) Metal modified Glass Ionomer cement (miracle mix, GC), 2) Bulk fill posterior composite(ivoclar) and 3) Ever X posterior core composite (GC) respectively. All the samples were subjected to fracture test using UTM (universal testing machine) INSTRON. The observer and testing person were blinded for the procedures. The results were tabulated and SPSS -20.0 was used for statistical analysis. The statistical test used were Mean, Standard deviation (SD), p-value, and One way Annova, Posthoc Tukey Test. Results: The fracture resistance and modulus of elasticity of three different materials were 1834.79 N& 270.08Mpa for Ever X posterior core material, 1352.49 N &207.84Mpa for bulk fill composite and 769.7N & 178.8 Mpa (very less) for miracle mix. Conclusion: The study results showed Ever X posterior core composite is the best core material followed by bulk fill composites and miracle mix. Within the limitation of this study Ever X posterior core composite is better than the other two.

  189. Ravi Raj, Arunoday Kumar, Madhu Ranjan, Avinash Kumar, Amrendra Kumar, Praveen Kumar and Binod Shankar

    Context: If the dentures satisfy the requirement of function and esthetics, Patients usually maintain acceptable speech. However, few patients with complete dentures face difficulty and their speech becomes a matter of concern. Recording the posterior palatal seal area and palatal rugae provides a psychological satisfaction in terms of good fit and good phonetics. Aim: To compare the perceptual and acoustic characteristics of velar sounds like/ka/,/ga/ and stop consonanats like /ta/, /da/ in an edentulous patient, with and without Posterior palatal seal and palatal rugae area recorded in the denture of complete denture wearers. Materials and Methods: The study group was then divided into two groups. In the first fifteen patients’ dentures only the posterior palatal seal was incorporated using mouth temperature wax. The speech language pathologist again recorded speech samples both perceptually and acoustically. Then the rugae were incorporated into their dentures and again the speech analysis was carried out. For the remaining fifteen patients’ dentures, only the rugae were incorporated using modelling wax. The speech language pathologist recorded speech samples both perceptually and acoustically for these patients. Then the posterior palatal seal was incorporated into their dentures and again the speech analysis was carried out. In the entire appointments patient were evaluated for the same speech and velar stop consonant monosyllable /ka/ and /ga/ mainly, along with letters like t, d. Results: Acoustic analysis showed a significant relationship between the acoustic characteristics of velar sounds and stop consonant with the posterior palatal seal and rugae area record in the denture. Conclusions and clinical Implications: The study implies that Prosthodontist and Speech Language Pathologist can work together as a team for more accurate fabrication of the denture.

  190. Bruna Michelle Freire de Araújo, Camila Barreto Vianna Martins, Amália Cinthia Meneses Rêgo and Irami Araújo-Filho

    Purpose: To identify and analyze the prevalence of hernia recurrence in patients operated with the Lichtenstein technique at the Onofre Lopes University Hospitalof the Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte in 2007, and analyze the data in relation to the possible causes. Methods: An observational study, descriptive, retrospective, analysis of prevalence, which was approved by the HUOL Ethics Committee053713/2012. Initially, we performed a study of patients undergoing primary inguinal hernia repair by the Lichtenstein technique, by searching the computer program MV 2000® that is used to mark surgical procedures. Later, research was carried out of the records in the Medical Records and Statistics Service / Onofre Lopes University Hospital during November 2012 to April 2013, and collected data from patients who met the inclusion criteria, and completed a structured form data extraction. Results: Among the 369 patient records studied, 53 were excluded because did not meet the inclusion criteria, resulting in a 316 patients study sample. Among all patients analyzed, it was not found any recurrence after 5 years of surgery. The average age was 52,09 years, 23,52% had a family history in first-degree relatives, 23,58% were active smoking and 59,17% were involved in professions related to the great efforts. Conclusion: It was found that in 5 years follow-up there was no recurrence after inguinal hernia repair by Liechtenstein technique. Further studies should be carried out, aiming to know whether this technique should be the first choice in relation to low postoperative recurrence rate.

  191. Senival Alves de Oliveira Júnior, Rielly de Sousa e Silva, Jéssica Siebra Macário de Brito, Thiago Emanuel Véras Lemos, Bárbara Monitchelly Fernandes Chaves, Amália Cinthia Meneses Rêgo and Irami Araújo-Filho

    Background: Schwannoma is a benign neoplasm derived from Schwann cells. It is usually located in the intracranial nerves, however intrathoracic presentation is possible, leadings to compression of adjacent structures and symptoms. The absence of findings on physical examination and the presence of mild symptoms (or absent) and common to other diseases makes the challenging diagnosis, accomplished through imaging. Treatment consists of surgical resection by thoracotomy or thoracoscopy. This study aimed to review these subject, with an emphasis on the diagnostic and therapeutic approaches currently available. Method: Articles were selected by searching the Scopus, Scielo, PubMed and Web of Science databases using the Key words: schwannoma, neurinoma, neurilemmoma, nerve tissue neoplasm, thoracotomy, thoracoscopy and mediastinal neoplasms. Results: Intrathoracic schwannoma often presents as asymptomatic and is identified during routine imaging tests. The recommended treatment is surgical resection by thoracoscopy or thoracotomy.

  192. Senival Alves de Oliveira Júnior, Artur Dantas Freire, Aline Vasconcelos de Carvalho, Clara Rafael Silva Xavier, Lucas de Faria Barros Medeiros, Amália Cinthia Menezes Rêgo and Irami Araújo-Filho

    The abdominal aortic aneurysm can present a serious complication, which is rupture, which is associated with a high mortality rate. As a result, the early surgery of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm can provide greater survival for these patients. However, there are two methods to do this fix. This article makes a bibliographical revision, in order to compare the procedures used in this emergency surgery (open and endovascular surgery technique), with the purpose of defining which approach offers greater benefit.

  193. Irami Araújo-Filho, Amália Cínthia Meneses Rêgo, Dinalva Brito de Queiroz and Marco Antônio Botelho Soares

    There is no large series about retained foreign bodies in abdominal cavity. In fact, data are underestimated because of the lack of reports considering its serious medicolegal implications. An inflammatory fibrotic process inside the peritoneal cavity, a virtual discharge of inorganic material through the surgical incision and also a slow process of transmural migration into the intestinal lumen are the most frequent pathophysiologic situations. It is not uncommon the incidental diagnosis of foreign body and radiographic studies may be particularly helpful to elucidate the etiology. An early recognition minimizes the surgical risks and contributes to avoid severe complications. The best approach is to adopt preventive measures. Careful perioperative materials vigilance and instrumentation and also a meticulous check at the end of operations are essential to avoid such legal responsibility.

  194. Ramin Saravani, Hamid Reza Galavi, Elhame Damani and NasrinRezaee

    Background: Transmembrane protease serine 6 (TMPRSS6) regulates iron homeostasis by inhibiting the expression of Hepcidin. Multiple common variants in TMPRSS6 were significantly associated with serum iron and hematology Indexes. Recent genome wide association studies indicated that hematologic Indexes differenced in Type 2 diabetes (T2D). The present study aimed to investigate the possible associations between TMPRSS6 polymorphism, rs855791, and susceptibility to T2D. Design: The study set to determine whether the TMPRSS6 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs855791 (V736A) was associated with blood hemoglobin, Hematocrit, serum iron concentrations, and risk of T2D in individuals in Southeast of Iran. To investigate genetic polymorphism, 500 unrelated (250 T2D and 250 Healthy controls (HCs)) Iranians were selected. Genotyping of rs855791 (V736A) in the TMPRSS6 gene variant was performed using Allele-Specific Polymerase Chain Reaction (AS-PCR). Results: The TMPRSS6 rs855791 (V736A) was not significantly associated with T2D (P =0.41, P=0.34 for TC, CC genotype, respectively). But, in evaluation between genotypes (TT and TC + CC) of this SNP and the clinical and demographic data were showed significant difference in Sex, hemoglobin (Hb) and Hematocrit in T2D(0.025, 0.025 and 0.027 respectively) and Hb (0.013)in HCs. Conclusions: These findings suggest that TMPRSS6 variant were not significantly associated with type 2 diabetes in a sample of Iranians thus further studies with various ethnics and larger sample sizes are necessary to verify our findings.

  195. Gayathri, V. and Bindhu, V.

    Chromolaena odorata is a toxic weed belonging to the family Asteraceae, wide spread over many parts of the world including Nigeria. The young leaves are crushed and the resulting liquid can be used to treat skin wounds. The leaves, roots and flowers of Adhatoda vasica belonging to the family Acanthaceae also called vasa or vasaka, were used expensively in Traditional Indian Medicine for thousands of years to treat respiratory disorders such as asthma. In the present study, a preliminary screening has been carried out to analyze the presence of various phytochemicals in the two test plants namely, Chromolaena odorata and Adhatoda vasika. The study revealed the presence of almost all the phytochemicals tested except alkaloids in Chromolaena odorata. In Adhatoda vasika, most of the phytochemicals were present except for a few extract, where it was absent.

  196. Ghanashyam Mahato and Dr. Nilanjana Banerjee

    During the present study solvent extracts (water, ethanol, acetone, methanol and chloroform) of roots, bulb, aerial part, and leaves of various local plants viz. Urginea indica (Roxb.) Kunth. (Liliaceae), Cotula anthemoides L. (Asteraceae), Curculigo orchioides Gaertn. (Amaryllidaceae), Annona squamosa L. (Annonaceae) occurring at Purulia District of West Bengal were evaluated for phytochemical analysis and their antibacterial activity using agar well diffusion method. The significant results are obtained in case of U.indica and C.anthemoides. The phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, phlobatannins, terpenoids and saponins in the studied plant parts.

  197. Karma Bako Rimamcwe and Chavan, U. D.

    A flat plate collector, passive solar dryer with dimension 0.8m x 0.6m x 0.4m has been design and constructed with locally available materials such as plywood, aluminum surfaced roofing sheet lined on the inside, with the floor plate painted black as the black body. The black paint used has an absorbance of 0.96. A comparative test carried out on the drying Okra (Hibisicus esculentus) revealed an extent of 91% moisture removal by the solar cabinet drying and 86% for open air drying as against 89% literature standards. These methods are simple and illustrate the fact that constructions of efficient passive solar dryers are possible and achievable by our local users on a do-it-yourself basis, and this will minimize cost and over dependence on electricity for drying vegetables at home.

  198. Deshwal, J. P., Saharan J. P. and Deshwal, B. R.

    Water is an essential natural resource for sustaining life and environment but over the last few decades the water quality has been deteriorated due to its over exploitation. Water quality is essential parameter to be studied when the overall focus is sustainable development keeping mankind at the focal point. The present study was conducted to analyze the various parameters of under-ground water in rural areas of Narwana city, Haryana, India and to check its fitness for drinking. Physico-chemical parameters viz. TDS, pH, fluoride, nitrate, chloride, sulphate, hardness and alkalinity were investigated. The results were compared with drinking water quality standards prescribed by the Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS). Ground water sampling carried out in January 2015 to April 2015. Most of the water samples were found to have total dissolved solids, alkalinity and hardness values more than their permissible level. The high values of these parameters might have health complications and so they need attention. The above studies are helpful to understand the ground water quality and their subsequent fitness or unfitness of water for drinking domestic purpose at various sites undertaken. It is concluded that the water quality of water supply systems in different locations of Narwana is of medium quality and can be used for domestic use after suitable treatment. Suitable suggestions have been made to improve the quality of water.

  199. Dr. Charinet Tuge and Habtamu Garoma

    Teachers’ views of mathematics, mathematics teaching and learning affects how it should be presented in the classroom. In this research 172 mathematics teachers of grades 5-8 were given a survey that examined their views on mathematics and problem solving approach in mathematics classroom. Questionnaires, observations and interviews were used to collect data. Findings revealed that majority of the teachers had an absolutist view of mathematics (61%) and their view on problem solving approach was traditional (64%) in that they considered problem solving as an end. Majority of the surveyed teachers used routine exercises (76%) in mathematics classroom. If instruction is to be transformed school districts, the Ministry of Education, Teachers Training Institutions should identify teachers’ beliefs on mathematics and problem solving approach which are essential for teachers’ professional development and implement through staff development and other measures what they perceive mathematics to be and how it should be taught via problem solving approach.

  200. Raphael Kayago Kinara

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to address the issue of integrating strategy and ethical leadership to enhance performance if public institutions. It aims to show that ethical leaders who are presumed to act in agreement with their own values and that of the organization do the opposite. The underlying assumption that only leaders should be ethical, understanding the strategy and culture of the organization, has been overtaken by dynamic changes, both within and external, which requires other stakeholders to uphold ethical values, have the same understanding of the institutional strategy and culture as that of leaders. Design/methodology approach: This is a review of literature Research limitations/implications: The subject of integration of strategy and ethical leadership has not been fully researched in the discipline of strategic management. Consequently, there is limited literature on the subject. Empirical research is needed to address the issue of integrating strategy and ethical leadership for virtuous performance in public institutions. Practical implications: Public institutions must strive to integrate strategy and the cultural tenets of the incumbent and novice employees. Ethical leadership and efficient performance in public institutions is possible when all stakeholders are involved in strategy formulation and implementation in due regard of the dynamic realities both internal and external to the institution. Strategy and ethical values should be objective and unbiased. Originality/value: The paper fills the gap in the literature review in that strategy and ethical leadership are inseparably intertwined before and after the institutions’ processes come into play. In addition, it brings into bear that all stakeholders in public institutions should be ethical, not only leaders and mangers as evidenced in the literature reviewed. Reciprocal ethical behavior is a function that is equally done by top manager, employees and other stakeholders.

  201. Urfan Ahamad Dar and Dr. Asrar-ul Ghani

    The present study was undertaken to discuss the impact of teacher’s behaviour on the academic achievement of senior secondary school students of district Bandipora (J&K). All the students of senior secondary school constituted the population. From the three senior secondary schools, 300 students from different departments were selected as a sample. A questionnaire has been developed and validated through pilot testing and administered to the sample for the collection of data. The researcher personally visited respondents, thus 100% data were collected. The collected data were analyzed by using average method. The major conclusions of the study were found that the Students are satisfied with the positive behaviour of their teachers. The relationship between the teachers’ behaviour and corresponding academic achievement (marks) revealed a highly positive.

  202. Solange Uwingabire, Balthazar Michael Msanya, Peter Wilson Mtakwa, Providence Uwitonze and Sylvere Sirikare

    Pedological characterization was carried out on soils developed on gneissic granites of Southern Province of Rwanda. Three representative soil profiles (GSK-P1, GSK-P2 and TMB-P1) were identified, described and sampled using standard manuals. A total of nineteen soil samples were analyzed in the laboratory for physico-chemical properties. Soil classification was carried out using two international systems of classification. The potentials and limitations of the soils were also identified. All studied pedons were very deep, well drained with loamy to clayey topsoil textures overlying dominantly clayey subsoil textures. The deeper subsoil of Pedon TMB-P1 consisted of loamy and sandy textures. Pedons GSK-P1 and GSK-P2 depicted eluviation-illuviation process as indicated by presence of clay cutans in subsoils. Analytical data showed low bulk and particle densities and high porosity in topsoils ranging from 1.02 to 1.34 g/cm3, from 2.18 to 2.59 g/cm3 and from 48.34 to 53.23%, respectively. Topsoilsof studied soils were strongly to slightly acidic with pH ranging from 5.49 to 6.59 while subsoils were strongly acidic to medium acidic with pH range between 5.13 and 5.86. The studied pedons had very low to medium total nitrogen and organic carbon respectively ranging from 0.15 to 0.24% and from 1.6 to 2.5%, both decreasing with depth. Topsoil and subsoil cation exchange capacity of the soils respectively ranged from low (9.8 - 21.6 cmol (+)/kg) to medium (4.2 - 13.2 cmol (+)/kg). Base saturation of the studied pedons was rated as low (< 50%) throughout all horizons of studied pedons. Whereas topsoil available phosphorus ranged from low to medium (6.4 - 15.7 mg/kg) and decreased with depth, phosphorus retention capacity was < 50% and increased with depth in Pedons GSK-P1 and GSK-P2 but didnot show any definite trend in PedonTMB-P1. All studied pedons indicated suboptimal nutrient ratios with reference to the basic cations, implying potential nutrient imbalance and toxicity of these nutrients. SiO2, Al2O3 and Fe2O3 ranged from 45.4 to 58.4%, 17.0 to 27.0% and 16.7 to 24.3%, respectively. On the basis of silt/clay ratios, the degree of weathering of the studied pedons followed the trend GSK-P1>GSK-P2>TMB-P1. According to USDA Soil Taxonomy, the studied pedons classified as Ultisols (GSK-P1 and GSK-P1) and Inceptisols (TMB-P1), respectively, correlating to Alisols and Cambisols of WRB for Soil Resources. The studied soils were generally rated as having low fertility and only marginal suitability for the major crops of the area. Specific land management and cropping systems were recommended for sustainable utilization of soils.

  203. Epari Ejakait, Lucas Othuon, Maureen Olel and Ochanda Khasenye

    Available literature on the predictors of student academic scores since the 60s continues to present mixed findings and interpretation. Utilizing the education production function models, researchers have sought to test whether school or teacher-level variables explain academic achievement variance to a greater extent than do student-level variables. Within this framework, we modelled school-level predictors of academic achievement in the Kenya Certificate of Primary Education (KCPE) examination in Mumias and Kuria East Sub-Counties in Kenya. Using a two-level hierarchical linear model (with 1824 students at Level-1 nested within 61 schools at Level-2), the explained variance in student scores by the two levels was 64.00% with 56.64% of that explained by school-level variables. At Level-2, School location in the two Sub-Counties; Boarding schools or a boarding component in a day school (often involving Class 6-8); and whether or not schools allowed their students to borrow school library textbooks and other learning materials for study and reference away from school were flagged as predictors of student academic achievement in KCPE after meeting the standardized regression coefficient cut-off of ≥0.10 to be flagged as such. Policy implications of these findings are discussed.

  204. Damilola Esther OLOTUAH and Abiodun Olukayode OLOTUAH

    Industrial peace and harmony are important in minimizing conflicts in organisations and thus ensuring the maintenance of congenial industrial relations. The paper recognizes though, that conflicts are integral to the process of change and cannot be completely eliminated, and in fact some degree of conflict is necessary and normal. Collective bargaining is the process of negotiation between representatives of workers and employers to establish the conditions of employment. The collectively determined agreement usually covers wages, hiring practices, layoffs, promotions, job functions, hours of work, working conditions and grievance-procedures, rights and responsibilities of trade unions, worker discipline and termination, and benefit programmes. The paper asserts that collectively determined agreement is the most effective process for winning improvements in the working conditions of workers in the workplace and it moderates the arbitrariness of employers.

  205. De, L. C. and Singh, D. R.

    There is immense potential for vertical and horizontal growth in horticulture sector in North Eastregion. At present horticultural crops account for only 18.60% of cultivated area. This share is highest in Sikkim followed by Manipur, Arunachal Pradesh, Meghalaya, Tripura, Mizoram, Assam and Nagaland. Major challenges to be come across are Climate change due to rise in temperature, erratic precipitation and sea level rise, greenhouse gas emission, fragmented ecosystems, loss in biodiversity and trade and competitiveness. Developmental issues include ISO certification of organizations, MoU with nearby organizations, adoption of Swachh Bharat Abhiyan and MeraGaonMeraGaurav programs. Researchable strategies on utilization of natural health, enhancing farmers income, efficient utilization of water and other resources, organic farming, development of human resources, marketing, technology dissemination and quality services to be addressed for the region.

  206. Dr. Saritprava Das and Dhaval Bhatt

    A rapidly changing economic environment characterized by globalization, deregulation of market, changing customer and investor demand and ever increasing competition has become a real challenge for today’s organization resulting in tremendous pressure on organizations to generate equally fast responses in order to survive and sustain. Organizational change and transformation triggered by a relevant shift leads to several intentional and planned change across organizations which is called Organizational development which aims at overall organizational health and effectiveness by changing the attitude, beliefs, values and structure of organization. In the last one decade industries across sectors have tried their level best to think and act global managing several techno-structural, Human Resource and Strategic Interventions, IT & ITeS sectors are no exception to this change process. With this backdrop the present paper would highlight on strategic OD Interventions in IT sector with special reference to Microsoft.

  207. Thulassi Raj L. and Dr. Ganapathy, S.

    Normative survey was adopted for the study with a sample of 300 higher secondary students in Puducherry. A four point scale with 61 statements was used to access the Environmental Attitude of the higher secondary students. The collected data was statistically analysed using Statistical Package for Social Studies (version- 16) Differential analysis were carried out to study and to check the significant mean difference between variables. The results revealed that the Environmental Attitude of the higher secondary student’s was average. It was concluded that the Environmental Attitude of the higher secondary students is at average level. It is recommended that the Environmental Attitude of the higher secondary students must be developed through improvised curriculum of school activities.

  208. Pratiksha Arya, Mrs. Monalisa Pattnaik and Dr. Patitapaban Mohanty

    Objective: To compare the effect of ventilatory facilitation along with trunk control exercises with only trunk control exercises on trunk control in spastic cerebral palsy children. Research design: Experimental pre-test and post-test study design. Participants - Thirty children with spastic cerebral palsy were taken from pediatrics Physiotherapy unit of SVNIRTAR, Olatpur, Cuttack, Odisha. Outcome measures: Chest expansion, GMFM, TCM. Results and Conclusion: Trunk control exercises incorporated with ventilator facilitation brings about more trunk control, chest expansion and overall function than trunk control exercises only.

  209. Sirisha, S. N. L., Kajal Garg and Sonali Bhatnagar

    The motivation behind the present study is to determine the correlation of muon count rate with the atmospheric parameters that affect the detector sensitivity. The geomagnetic cutoff rigidity i.e. 22 GeV of primary particle is computed for our muon paddle which is located at Agra, India (27.180 N and 78.020 E). The maximum solid angle of 0.15 rad is obtained for the assembly. The integral muon flux observed from analytical and experimental calculation is 9.61 / cm2.sec.str with a statistical error of ±0.31%. The differential intensity of muon at sea level obtained from calculation is 9.12x10-2 ( (GeV/c)-1). The count rate as function of detector separation (horizontal-vertical) is determined to project decoherence curve. The three fold efficiency of muon paddle ranges within (60-80)% over the period of 16 Dec 2014 – 24 Dec 2014. It marks the stability of muon detection. The correlation between temperature, atmospheric pressure and count rate was also analyzed for a duration of 1 Dec 2014 – 16 Dec 2015. The chi-square testing is also applied for the count rate where the p-value of the correlation coefficient is observed to be less than (0.01). To understand further the muon interactions and their phenomena in the detector, the muon paddle is simulated in Geant4.9.4.p04 toolkit. The effect of various surface treatments such as ground, etched and polished for each individual reflectors i.e. (Lumirror, Teflon, TiO2 and Tyvek) are also simulated to study the photon yield for incident muon. Among these reflectors, tyvek wrapping with a polished surface of dielectric_metal interface is observed to have a maximum of 96% photo yield is able to reach the sensitive region of the detector. The study further includes the multiple scattering phenomena to observe its effect on muon interactions in various density materials. The total cross-section and interaction length of muons are also computed relative to multiple scattering physics

  210. Peter N. Keiyoro, Kamau G. Wangui and Josephine W. Ngunjiri

    Teachers and school administrators have a big role to play in continuity and stability of peace in schools. They are closely associated with the education system hence can exert social control of the learners at many learning levels. The problem of student becoming violent in secondary schools especially in Kenya is a common phenomenon. This study investigated the influence of capacity building among teachers in peace initiatives in secondary schools in Kenya. This study adopted a descriptive survey design during data collection. Both qualitative and quantitative data were collected using closed and open ended questionnaires and Likert scale. Stratified and simple random sampling techniques were used in selecting respondents from the randomly selected schools Reliability of research instruments was measured by using, split-half technique and the value was +0.6 which was considered satisfactory. The quantitative data was analyzed using descriptive statistics. Qualitative data was analyzed using content analysis techniques. This study found that the teachers had not been exposed to various skills that are required for developing peace initiatives among students. The study concluded that the teachers in the selected schools had not been offered training in peace initiatives. The findings are hoped to assist the Education managers and other stake holders on the importance to conduct teacher training courses in peace initiatives so that they can maximize their new skills in helping to curb violence that is often witnessed in secondary schools in Kenya.

  211. Bipin G. Vyas and Nirmal Parmar

    The Practical study of heat transfer through surface contact resistance is very essential for advancement of thermal applications. It is required to understand the heat transfer between composite pair having same as well as different interface material. The outcomes will very essential for design of different heat transfer thermal applications. The sole objective of the dissertation work is to reduce the Thermal Contact Resistance (TCR) and increases thermal efficiency of the application. To minimize thermal contact resistance, the study of heat transfer with composite material pair & Thermal Interface Material (TIM) and varying pressure conditions has been carried out experimentally. The Experimental work includes effective possible pairs of circular plates of aluminum (HE30/6082) and copper (EC101) alloys. To avoid radial losses during experiments plates are designed and manufactured in circular disc form 184 mm diameter with 5mm thickness each. Each of plate having four groove, Pencil k type thermocouple (Tip length: 70mm & diameter: 3mm) placed inside that grove which measured average temperature between top surface of cu plate and bottom plate of aluminum plate with the help of 8 channel temperature indicator. The various effective pair of metal alloys disc has been considered during practical where air and brass foil are used as TIM for particulate pair. In advancement of minimization of TCR, experiments with various pressure range also has been conducted for possible different pairs of metal disc with TIM. The effect of pressure in weight ranges from 100 gm to 1800gm was investigated in different temperature condition up to 70oC. When all temperatures attain the steady condition at 40oC -70oC interval, at that time measured the average temperature of it. An experiment has been conducted with some specific conditions to achieve ideal results. With experiment, it is possible to analyze and identify suitable thermal interface material with minimum thermal contact resistance between two plates. Selection of proper TIM will lead towards higher heat transfer rate.

  212. Renu Rana

    Helvella crispa is an ancient term for an aromatic herb. The specific epithet crispa comes from Latin and means curled or wrinkled - a reference to the contorted cap or saddle of this woodland fungus. The saddle-shaped cap may have two or three major undulations and many minor curled contortions. The upper surface is smooth and cream or occasionally pinkish or pale ochre; the underside is pale ochre and slightly downy. The upward tapering stem is white and ornately furrowed or fluted; it is hollow and has thin, elastic flesh. Major factors essential for growing mycelium in laboratory are nutrients, temperature, pH and light and dark conditions. The impact of these factors on the growth of Helvella crispa was investigated under laboratory conditions. The aim of the Helvella crispa investigation was to determine optimal conditions for the development of the fungus. The results showed Yeastal Potato Dextrose Agar medium as best solid medium, Glucose-Asparagine as best liquid medium, optimal temperature was 25°C, whereas optimal pH was 6.0 under dark conditions.

  213. Paola de Castro e Freitas, Macksuel Fernandes da Silva, Raissa Tavares Silva, Ademilson Coneglian and Carlos Roberto Sette Jr

    The present study aims to evaluate the quality of briquettes produced from the biomass of bamboo species under different briquetting temperature conditions. The species selected were Dendrocalamus asper, Bambusa vulgaris, Bambusa tuldoides and, for comparative purposes, a hybrid of Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis, which were cut and transformed in sawdust to produce briquettes at three temperatures: room temperature ±30ºC, 80ºC, 120ºC. Biomass and briquettes characteristics were assessed. The species used for production of briquettes did not influence the highest calorific value, the bulk and energetic densities. Bamboo briquettes showed lower volumetric expansion values and higher values of tensile strength by diametral compression and durability when compared to eucalyptus, indicating their potential for energy use in the form of densified materials. The use of temperature on bamboo and eucalyptus biomass compacting improved the physical and mechanical properties of the briquettes.

  214. Dr. Y. Thangam

    This study evaluates the toxicity of copper in aquatic organisms like fishes and the changes were observed in different parameters including the physico-chemical parameters. Copper cause harmful effects on metabolic, physiological, and biochemical systems of fishes and it causes long-term eco-toxicological effects. Copper contamination in the aquatic environment is a potential threat for aquatic organisms, when exposed to significant amount as consequences of industrial, agricultural and anthropological activities.

  215. Senthilvel, G.

    Siddha, one of the ancient Indian systems of Medicine, is a treasure of simple and effective herbal remedies. Contrary to the misconception it accentuates prime importance to herbal formulations than herbo-mineral. Pancha Deepakini Chooranam (PDC) is an unique Siddha formulation with five ingredients of botanical origin. Due to its established efficacy in Gastro-intestinal disorders, it is one of the commonly used Siddha formulations. In this study, PDC was prepared in the lab and analysed using HPTLC and it was compared with the selected market sample. Further it was observed for peaks of similar Rf values between the ingredients and final product. This study of HPTLC analysis of various samples show that the traditional formulation can be standardized using such simple and economic analysis techniques.

  216. Satyajit Sarkar, Dipanjana Chakraborty, Sneha Chowdhury, Priyanka Santra, Bhaskar Chakraborty and Kabir, S. E.

    The population dynamics of Scarlet mites against synthetic pesticide, bio-pesticide and neem extract in Terai region were studied. In two experimental locations the decreasing percentage of alive Scarlet mites against three pesticide treatments, the result is more or less same for particular pesticide. In contrast between three pesticides, Hexythiazox 5.45% EC was found to be effective. Apart from that bio-pesticide and Neem oil based formulation containing Azadirachtin 0.03% respectively reduced the population of mites.

  217. Dr. Sachin Kumar and Dr. Sharon Prabhakar

    Due to change in life style and eating habits, an increasing frequency of gastric symptoms in persons can be observed now a days, the most common being peptic ulcer. Peptic ulcer in Ayurveda is considered a type of acid gastritis. This disorder is generally classified under Grahani disorder. Acharya Charaka describes some of common cause of peptic ulcer like deranged Agni. Due to deranged Agni or Pitta vikara, there are many localized disorders found one of them being gastric ulcer (Annadrava Shoola). The actual ulceration of the stomach wall which is the classic description of a peptic ulcer, is clearly due to excessive amount of heat or prakupita pitta in the body. According to modern aspect, peptic ulcer can be explained as imbalance between acid, pepsin, bile and gastric repair & defensive factors. The ulcer in the stomach is called gastric ulcer. In Ayurveda we can correlate gastric ulcer with “Annadrava Shoola”. The aim of present article is to describe the role of Ayurveda in the management of peptic ulcer.

  218. Dayawatee Goburdhun, Arvind Ruggoo, Hudaa Neetoo and Mahima Beeharry

    This study was carried out to shed light on food safety knowledge and practices of secondary school canteen workers and the level of hygiene prevailing in canteens of secondary schools. A survey questionnaire was administered face-to-face to 45 canteen workers to assess their food safety knowledge and practices with regards to food hygiene. A scoring system was used to determine the knowledge score where each good answer was allocated one mark and incorrect answer or ‘do not know’ was given a score of zero. A checklist was used to benchmark the level of compliance of these 45 school canteens to the requirements of the Mauritian Food Regulations 1999. Data was analyzed using SPSS Version 16.0. The overall mean score for food safety knowledge was 70.2 % (SD= 12.0%) ranging from 40% to 92 %. The overall mean compliance of the school canteens to the MFR 1999 was 69.7% (SD=13.9%) ranging from 32% to 94%. This study shows that compliance to the local food regulation should be enhanced in school canteens. Schools should provide adequate facilities, infrastructure and the appropriate environment conducive to safe food preparation and consumption.

  219. Gajendra Khidrapure, Vasudevan, S. N., Doddagoudar, S. R., Sreenivas, A. G. and Satyanarayana Rao

    The field experiment was conducted in two seasons’ kharif 2013 and kharif 2014 in the farmers’ organic field at Neer Manvi, Manvi Taluk, Raichur District, Karnataka, India. With a view to know the influence of organic nutrients on growth, development and root ATPase activity of paddy seedlings. Experiment was laid down in RBD design with three replications and 13 treatments. Among the treatments, inorganic treatment (RDF) recorded significantly highest mean shoot length (15.35 and 20.29 cm), chlorophyll content (25.09 and 33.20 SPAD value), dry matter production (0.489 and 0.617 g seedlings-10) and number of thrips (5.20 and 4.25) at 20 and 25 Days after sowing (DAS), respectively. Whereas, maximum mean root length (10.10 and 17.03 cm), root volume (1.007 and 1.123 cc seedling –1) and root ATPase activity (0.900 and 1.200  mol pi g-1h-1) was recorded at 20 and 25 DAS, respectively in organic treatment i.e. application of 50 % FYM + 50 % VC + panchagavya @ 3 %. From this study, it is concluded that for organic seedling production application of 50 % FYM + 50 % VC + foliar spray of panchagavya @ 3 % on 12th and 18th DAS found better in paddy.

  220. Hugo Cesar Rodrigues Moreira Catão, César Fernandes Aquino, Nilza de Lima Pereira Sales, Eriksen Patric Silva Soares, Franciele Caixeta and Roberto Antonio Savelli Martinez

    Plant secondary metabolite allows the fungus control without inhibiting seed germination. Thus, the aim of this work was to evaluate the action of hydrolates and plant extracts in the control of fungi and their effects on quality of sunflower seeds stored at room temperature. The seeds were stored for 12 months in sacks. During storage, sanity test was carried out, "Blotter test", to determine which fungi infested the sunflower seeds. At the end of storage, the seeds undergone throughout fungicide treatment, with hydrolats and with vegetable extracts. After that, the sanity test was carried out again to determine the effect of seed treatment in reducing the infestation of fungi and the physiological quality (first and final count germination, GSI, hypocotyl and radicle length) of the seeds treated with the same products. The experimental design was a completely randomized design. The Fusarium semitectum, Aspergillus spp. and Penicillium spp. were the fungi with the highest incidence in the seeds during storage. The physiological seed quality was reduced with storage. Treatment with Captan 750 TS and P. nigrum, S. aromaticum and C. zeylanicum extractsreduce the fungi infestation and do not compromise the sunflower seeds physiological quality. For sunflower seeds stored in uncontrolled conditions, treatment is recommended.

  221. Amarjeet Kaur, Amandeep Kaur and Neha vyas

    A field experiment was planned to study the effects of plantation time and protected conditions on strawberry. The runners of strawberry cv. Chandler were planted at 30x40 cm apart on the raised beds in the second (T1) and last week of October (T2). Protected conditions of white polythene of thickness 100 gauge (P1), 200 gauge (P2), reed cover (P3) were applied during peak winter months to protect strawberry plants from frost and chilling weather. Early planting on second week of October (T1) and protected condition (P1) treatment proved to be the most efficacious in improving vegetative growth, yield and fruit quality. Ascorbic acid level of the fruits was also found higher with early planting. Increased sugar contents and reduced acidity level of fruits was also observed by this treatment. It also improved plant vigour, physio-chemical characteristics of strawberry fruits and yield.

  222. Pazhanisamy, K., Kennadi, P. and Rengarajan, R.

    Heavy metal copper is common pollutants of freshwater ecosystems where they induce adverse effects on the aquatic biota. Fish, Tilapia mossambicus is an important carp species in Tamil Nadu region having good nutritional values. Fishes living in close association with may accumulate heavy metals. In the present observation, the toxic effects of the heavy metal copper LC50 1.8 mg/L on the total lipid of different tissues (liver, kidney, gill and muscle) in the fish, Tilapia mossambicus were estimated. There is decreased in all tissues on comparison with control. The results indicated the toxic nature of the heavy metal copper.

  223. Vidhya, D., Rajiv, P. and Nalini Padmanabhan, M.

    Phenoloxidase activity was detected in the serum of Spodoptera litura, which is present as an inactive proenzyme, proPhenoloxidase. Substrate screening was done using different phenolic substrates, in which the PO was high in L-DOPA at 458nm. S. litura was treated with fungal pathogens Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae, Compared to untreated S. litura, the proPhenoloxidase activity was high in fungal infected S. litura. The fungal pathogen also induced pupal and adult deformities. In both untreated and treated S. litura, on addition of activators effectively triggers the proPO activation. The addition of protease inhibitor, chelators and eicosonaids constantly inhibited the activation of proPO, in which PTU, DTT and DEX shows effective inhibition of proPO to PO, EDTA shows little effect even in higher concentration. Malformed pupae and emergence of adults with crippled wings strongly suggest the efficacy of the selected fungi as biocontrol agent.

  224. Théodora Mahoukèdè Zohoncon, Prosper Bado, Djénéba Ouermi, Esther M. A. Traoré, Souleymane Ouattara, Florencia W. Djigma, Ina M. A. Traore, Albert T. Yonli , Dorcas Obiri-Yeboah, Charlemagne Ouédraogo, Simon A. Akpona, Olga Lompo and Jacques Simpore

    Background: Cervical cancer (CC) is a global public health issue. It is due to the persistence of infection by high-risk Human Papillomavirus (HR-HPV). Recently, Sub-Saharan Africa has the highest death rate caused by CC. The objective of this study was to detect HR-HPV genotypes involved in cases of invasive CC histologically confirmed in Ouagadougou. Methods: A total of 112 formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded-blocks of cervical tissue diagnosed in the department of pathological anatomy and cytology of the ‘Yalgado Ouédraogo’ University Hospital and archived between 2009 and 2015 were included in the study. Fourteen HR-HPV genotypes were tested for by multiplex-real-time-PCR within the invasive CC tissue blocks. Results: Of the fourteen genotypes tested for, eleven were identified. The prevalence of HR-HPV infection was 72.31% (47/65). The most common genotypes in invasive CC in Ouagadougou were: HPV18(25.71%), HPV31(15.71%), HPV39(12.86%), HPV16(12.86%), HPV45(12.86%), HPV35(7.14%) and HPV58(5.71%). Findings: In this study, HPV-18; 31; 39; 16 and 45 were the HR-HPV genotypes most involved in invasive CC in Ouagadougou. These genotypes identified are not all covered by the HPV vaccines available. There is therefore a need for making a mapping of all HPV circulating in the West African region for possible development of new HPV vaccines.

  225. Tiago de Sousa Leite, Rômulo Magno Oliveira de Freitas, Moadir de Sousa Leite and Narjara Walessa Nogueira

    Aiming to provide an indication of soil issues and on how to manage them for high productivity, data of chemical and physical properties of a Red Kandosol were evaluated. Values of soil analysis were evaluated and compared to the recent literature. They suggest some problems that need to be addressed before an agricultural activity can take place in the area. In general, the soil has a low level of organic carbon and a good status of exchangeable cations. However, the soil pH indicated a problem with alkalinity. This issue may have leaded to others also present, such as sodicity and phosphorus and micronutrient deficiency. In addition, this soil is also saline, and has a risk of boron toxicity. To solve these problems, alkaline and salt tolerant plants are indicated to overcome alkalinity and salinity. Sodicity can be solved by applying gypsum to decrease the exchangeable sodium percentage. This chemical use can be improved by incorporation of organic matter to the soil, which will also enhance the use of chemical fertilizers and the activity of soil microbes on the amelioration of nutrient status and cation exchange capacity.

  226. Dr. Atul A. Agwan

    With the rapid development of network technology, e-commerce and e-marketing has developed gradually. The number of Internet users was increasing and would soon overtake the United States. On-line shopping is a recent phenomenon in the field of E-Commerce and is definitely going to be the future of shopping in the world. Most of the companies are running their on-line portals to sell their products/services on-line. Though online shopping is very common outside India, its growth in Indian Market, which is a large and strategic consumer market, is still not in line with the global market. The potential growth of on-line shopping has triggered the idea of conducting a study on on-line shopping in India. . E-Commerce/online shopping is one of those areas which have given new dimension to our Marketing ability. To this, internet service has proved a milestone in handling and completing the transaction of purchasing the product safely and comfortably. Although business-to-business transactions play an important part in e-commerce market, a share of e-commerce revenues in rapidly developing countries like India is generated from business to consumer transactions. Referring central India, in light of online shopping, I came across very unique system of marketing technique. Approach to online shopping, consumers is bit conventional/traditional in satisfying their needs of shopping.

  227. Manimegalai, A. and Dr. Manikandan, T.

    Mangroves have evolved characteristics to adjust to the stress conditions in their native habitats to by means of a number of different adaptive responses at the germination stage of development. Salt tolerance in halophytes is brought about by a variety of structural biochemical and physiological adaptations. A variety of mechanism contributes to the salt tolerance of halophytes. It suggested that compartmentation of ions in the vacuole and accumulation of compatible solutes in the cytoplasm as well as presence of gene for salt tolerance (Gorham, 1995). Salinity is the environmental stresses that can limit the growth and development of Salt – sensitive plants. In the present investigation, the effect of different concentrations of NaCl on shoot and root length of the mangrove plant Bruguiera cylindrica were collected in the tidal forest mangrove belt of Pichavaram on the north east coast of Tamilnadu, India. One month old healthy seedlings of Bruguiera cylindrica of uniform size were collected and planted in polytene sleeves. Various concentrations of NaCl solutions were prepared and treated. The shoot and root length were maximum at 400mM than control. Upto 400mM the shoot and root length were decreased gradually (500,600 and 700 mM) NaCl concentrated salt solution treated seedlings. The increased concentrations of NaCl proportional to the decreased shoot and root length in the halophyte Bruguiere cylindrica.

  228. Manimegalai, A. and Dr. Manikandan, T.

    The plants that can be naturally established in saline soil is termed the halophytes. Halophytes shape the environments they live in, changing the surface of the earth in the process. The seedlings of Bruguiera cylindrica were selected during September month for the present study and they were collected from mangrove forest in Pichavaram, Tamilnadu. This was growing in the tidal forest mangrove belt. These seedlings were washed and planted in polytene bags separately. Before this bags were filled with Sand, Humus and Red sand in 1:2:1 ratio. Various concentrations of Sodium Chloride solution (100,200,300,400,500,600 and 700mM) were prepared using distilled water. Plants treated with distilled water were maintained separately. Plants were separated into groups and irrigated with various concentration treatment separately. After the completion of salt treatment, the seedlings were collected periodically at one month intervals upto four months and utilised for the study of fresh weight. From the results the fresh weight increased in 100mM than control. While the concentration increased from 200mM and 300mM fresh weight also increased. The maximum fresh weight of seedlings of Bruguiera cylindrica were observed in 400mM concentration treatment. While the concentration increase upto 400mM the fresh weight of seedlings were decreased in 500mM, 600mM and very low fresh weight were observed in 700mM treated seedlings of Bruguiera cylindrica. Seedlings of halophytes are known to tolerate high salinity during their presence in the soil and germinate when soil salinity are reduced.

  229. Sanatan Singh, Mishra, G. and Dixit, P. K.

    Collagen is a fibrous structural protein that provide strength to the different tissue of the body. Vitamin C plays an important role in collagen synthesis and stabilization by hydroxylation of the proline residue. As a person ages the quality of the collagen degrades due to the intra molecular and inter molecular cross-linking. In our present study when Swiss a mice were treated with vitamin C a insignificant increase in collagen concentration was found in the heart tissue. Heart contains less quantities of collagen protein when compared with other organs. Earlier workers suggest that the newly synthesized collagen may helpful for enhancing the function of efficiency of the heart. Since heart also response to the vitamin C for collagen synthesis, a required amount of vitamin C intake may help to/forage related heart problems. The values for salt soluble, acid soluble and total collagen content of control and experimental condition are 8.212, 5.852, 23.163, 37.229 and 10.619, 11.142, 31.070, 52.832 respectively. Similarly the values of % of salt solubility, % of acid acid solubility of control and experimental values are 21.798, 15.214 and 20.289, 23.444 respectively. The values of salt soluble / salt insoluble and acid soluble / acid insoluble are 0.290, 0.181 and 0.256, 0.335 respectively. Values are not significant at 0.05 confident levels.

  230. Dionei Schmidt Muraro, Alieze Nascimento da Silva, Claudir José Basso, BrenoRodolfo Maron, Antonio Luis Santi and Diecson Ruy Orsolin da Silva

    The management of nitrogen fertilization in agriculture is one of the most important factors for obtaining high yields. The objective of this study was to evaluate nitrogen sources and managements on the agronomic performance in wheat crop (Triticumaestivum) in no-tillage system in the northwest of Rio Grande do Sul. The experimental design was a randomized block with four replications, in a factorial 2 x 5two N sources in side‑dressing (conventional urea, urea with urease inhibitor) and five N application managements: Control (without N inside‑dressing);½ 30 DAE + ½ flowering;⅔ 30 DAE + ⅓ flowering;⅓ 30 DAE + ⅓ stem elongation + ⅓ flowering andtotal dose 30 DAE. Urea with urease inhibitor yielded higher percentage of total proteinof the grains, however, did not affect the remaining parameters. The N management enable higher percentage of total proteinin wheat grains with more late applications of nitrogen, however, not influencing the agronomic parameters. The absence of N application brings in fewer ears per square meter, number of grains per ears, plant height, dry matter, percentage of total proteinand grain yield.

  231. Aina O.S., Amila, J.J., Hassan, A.A., Kubalu, A.I, Alechenu, B. and Yakubu S.A.

    Provision of financial support for agriculture has been a prime intervention strategy for poverty reduction. The study analyzed the impact of commercial bank lending on agricultural production and productivity in Ondo and Ekiti State of Nigeria. Descriptive statistics, gross margin, elasticity of production, return to scale as well as regression analysis were used to analyze the data. The result showed that majority of the respondents (89.2%) were male, married (92.5%), educated (84.2%) and the amount of loan range from N10,000 to N100,000. The regression result revealed that labour cost is significant to all categories of farmers at 5% and the elasticity of production with respect to labour cost was decreasing positive function to labour, for all the farms were operating in the rational zone of production with respect to labour and it was efficiently utilized that is 0˂ Ep labour ˂ 1, while return to scale were technically efficient, with only EKBN were technically inefficieny. The Ondo State Non-Beneficiaries made higher gross margin because majority of them enjoyed other credit sources outside the banking sector. The EKB made higher gross margin per hectare (₦26,246.35) than the EKNB who made an average of ₦9,896.99. It was therefore recommended that there should be active involvement of government and the private sector at boosting in flow of funds into agriculture and agribusiness.

  232. Diptendu Sarkar, Goutam Paul and Ramachandra Murthy, T. T. S.

    In our study, biosorption characteristics of Pb (II) ions from aqueous solution using corn husks biomass were investigated using batch techniques process. The effects of pH, contact time, initial metal ion concentration, and temperature were also studied. The FTIR study showed that the several functional groups such as O-H, C=O, C-O, C-H and N-H were more involved in binding Pb (II) ions to the biomass. The equilibrium datawere analyzed by the Langmuir, the Freundlich and the Temkinisotherms equations model. It was found that adsorption of Pb (II) ions onto corn husks, was best described by Freundlich adsorption model. Our biosorption kinetics data were fitted using pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order models, and it was found that the kinetics data fitted into the pseudo-second order model more perfectly. Thermodynamic parameters such as standard Gibbs free energy (ΔG0), standard enthalpy (ΔH0) and standard entropy (ΔS0) were also evaluated simultaneously. The obtained result showed that biosorption of lead (II) ions bycorn husk was spontaneous, endothermic in nature and it can be used as a potent bioremediation agent.

  233. Shadab Masud and Singh, K. P.

    Twelve morphometric and six meristic characters, length-weight relationship and condition factor of Gonialosa manmina (Ham.) from the river Yamuna at Allahabad, have been studied. The relationships determined by least squares method, by fitting straight line y = a+bx, are found to be linear. The ratios of different body parts with total length and those of head region with head length have been replaced by the percentage values. Morphometric and meristic characters analysis showed that present finding were significantly different from the earlier descriptions, specifically in case of morphometric characters. In length-weight relationship the value of the exponent (b) for males, females and pooled data were estimated as 3.0137, 3.0167 and 3.0495, respectively. The values of regression co-efficient was found to be ideal (b=3) followed by cube law hence species is showing isometric growth. The values of relative condition factor (K) were higher for different length group in pooled and in both the sexes. The biology of G.manmina is poorly known. Therefore, an attempt has been made to revise the description of G.manmina for the purpose of identification. This paper aims to provide data on LWR, condition factor and relative condition factor of this species for the first time.

  234. Dionei Schmidt Muraro, Alieze Nascimento da Silva, Claudir José Basso, Stela Maris Kulczynski, Andressa Calderan, Vanessa Graciela Kirsch, and Vanessa alba da Silva

    The pig slurry composting has been recommended as an alternative to reduce the volume and pollution potential of liquid pig manure.The pig slurry composting application can influence the physiological and sanitary quality of proso millet(Panicum miliaceum L.) seeds and their effects vary with environmental conditions. The objective was to evaluate the effect of pig slurry composting in physiological and sanitary quality of proso millet crop seeds produced under field conditions.The research was conducted in southern Brazil under a no-tillage system in a Rhodic Hapludox. A randomized block experimental design was used with four replications and five treatmentsconsisted of: a) control without fertilization; and doses of pig slurry compost: b) 4.0 Mg ha-1 c) 8.0 Mg ha-1; d) 12.0 Mg ha-1.The application of PSC doses positively affects the vigor of proso millet seeds expressed by accelerated aging, seedling emergence in the field and germination. The PSC doses provided greater weight of thousand seeds, the doses being 8 and 12 Mg ha-1 the greatest results. The PSC doses did not influence the electrical conductivity, first count, cold test in soil. Sanity of proso millet seed is not influenced by the PSC doses.

  235. Claudir José Basso, Alieze Nascimento da Silva, Dionei Schimidt Muraro, Tamara Jacoby, Diecson Ruy Orsolin da Silva, Adalin Cezar Moraes de Aguiar and Stela Maris Kulczynski

    The desiccation in soybean pre-harvest is a practice that allows early harvest, uniformity of ripeness, weed management, minor impurities and the anticipation of crops. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of desiccant application time in the pre-harvest of soybean (Glycine max L.) on the early harvest, grain yield and physiological quality of soybean seeds. The work consists of two steps: one experiment conducted in the field in the municipality of Três Passos, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil in the agricultural year 2014/2015 and another experiment in Seed Technology Laboratory of University of Santa Maria, Campus de Frederico Westphalen. The treatments consisted of four growth stages of application of the herbicide paraquat (480 g a.i. ha-1), in soybean reproductive stages: R7.1, R7.2, R7.3, R8.1 and control (without desiccation). Evaluated the thousand seed weight, grain yield, germination, first count, normal and abnormal plants. With application of paraquat desiccant was possible to anticipate the soybean harvest from four to nine days. When seeking productivity and physiological quality of seed desiccation of soybean have to be prioritized in the R7.3 stage.

  236. Khalida Naveed, Ahsan Jabbar and Syeda Tatheer Fatima

    Chlamydia psittaci is a pathogenic and bio-warfare agent that causes infections in multiple hosts including birds and mammals. In human, it mostly causes severe lung diseases that are associated with high motility rate. This pathogen also causes a major setback to the world economy. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop antimicrobial agent that can cure infections caused by these agents. In the present study, we have predicted number the possible putative drug targets against it with the aid of subtractive genome approach along with their subcellular localization, drugable potential and involvement in essential metabolic pathway. Furthermore, we have also predicted the 3D molecular structure using structural homology methodology with of one of the identified drug target that affect the isoprenoid biosynthesis in C. psittaci (a crucial pathway needed by the pathogen to survive). After molecular modeling, we also performed molecular docking to predict the possible binding mechanism of the selected protein with its ligand. This study can be utilized to identify potent inhibitor of 4-hydroxy-3-methylbut-2-enyl diphosphate reductase protein by virtual screening of number of chemical entities against the modeled protein.

  237. Sofia, S. and Merlee Teresa, M.V.

    The study was to examine the physico-chemical parameters and the concentration of heavy metals in water and sediment samples of Chirackal mangrove area, Ernakulam, Kerala. The parameters determined include pH, Alkalinity, Salinity, Chloride, dissolved oxygen (DO), biological oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), % carbon and % organic matter by titrimetric method, phosphate, nitrite, nitrate and sulphate and silicate by UV-Visible Spectrophotometer as well as the concentration of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, Co, Ni, Mn and Zn) in water and sediment samples by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrophotometer ( ICP-AES) after pretreatment of the samples with microwave digestion system.. The results indicated that the average concentration of the metals in water and sediment on the periphery (station 1) was more when compared to the other two stations. Mangrove sediments showed high Fe (2441mg/g), Cu (6.04mg/g), Cd (2.83mg/g), Zn (61.04mg/g), Mn (28.36mg/g) and Pb (2.66mg/g) concentrations than water samples. The highest average concentration for Pb in water was 1.81ppm in station 2 and for sediment was 2.11ppm in station 1. Also, the highest average concentration reported for Cr in water and sediment was 2.22 ppm and 2.36 ppm respectively. With regard to the results, the area contain low Cd, Cr, Ni and Pb contents.

  238. Sandra Ernest Joseph and Abraham Johnson

    Fluoride contamination in drinking water has been documented as one of the major problems worldwide which is a serious threat to human health. Prolonged ingestion of fluoride through drinking water in excess of the daily requirement is associated with dental and skeletal Fluorosis. The WHO and BIS has decided fluoride concentration up to 1-1.5 mg/L as a permissible limit for drinking. The concentration of fluoride in the level of 1.5-4mg/L results in dental fluorosis whereas prolonged consumption at still higher fluoride concentrations (4-10mg/L) will cause dental fluorosis and skeletal fluorosis. This review article is aimed at providing precise information about fluorosis, its ill effects and prevention in INDIA.

  239. Silvana Pasovska, Ljuben Poposki and Cane Koteski

    Chondroidsyringoma Globalization and consolidation lead to very rapid and big change in various fields of industry and in various countries, as well. Tobacco industry does not stand aside from these changes and is deeply involved in the process. Globalization and consolidation are based on the principle of marketing rationalization and effectiveness (tendencies on the market, create and open new markets), the reduction of operating cost in general and by increase of profit and investments. The aim is to improve the effectiveness of production and its quality, accompanied by scientific investigations in tobacco industry, in order to reduce as much as possible the hazardous effect of cigarettes to humans health, in conditions of increased antismoking campaign. In the spirit of these basic globalization principles, tobacco companies strart to integrate by which there are less and less multinational corporations and on to other hand, those that are globalized become bigger and bigger. National tobacco producing companies must see their advantage and chance for development in this process and each of them will have to find its own way and form how to include in it. Our aim in this paper is to conceive the needs and perspectives arising from globalization, as well as possible consequences from the failure to adapt to these worldwide trends.

  240. Ahmed A. Abdel-Aal, Islam E. Soliman, Amir A. Elhadad, AbdAllah Mubarak and Khairy T. Ereiba

    In this study, TEOS-VTES-CaCl2hybrids were synthesized via sol-gel method with different molar ratios (T0) VTES: TEOS1:0; (T1) VTES: TEOS1:1; (T2) VTES: TEOS1:2; (T3) VTES: TEOS 1:3 and, (T4) VTES: TEOS 1:4, respectively. Development of a calcium phosphate (CP) layer on their surfaces was studied by soaking them in a simulated body fluid (SBF). The consequent formation of the CP layer and structural discrepancies of the formed layer of various samples were studied by means of appropriate techniques such as X-ray diffractometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy equipped with an energy dispersive system (EDS).It was found that the rate of in-vitro apatite formation on hybrid surface decreased with increasing the amount of TEOS precursor. For biomaterials application the best surface in terms of in-vitro bioactivity, adsorbed protein amounts and thermal stability is the T2 surface containing VTES: TEOS1:2.

  241. Kalpana, B. and Lakshmi, S.

    Objectives: Cadmium ion (Cd2+) is a ubiquitous toxic heavy metal in the environment and presents a potential threat to human health via the food chain through plant root uptake systems. Cadmium (Cd) is extremely toxic metal and reduces plant growth. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate the effect of various Cd levels on seed germination and seedling growth of five rice cultivars (Co-7, Co-2, Co-6, Paiyur and Vbn-2). Methods: Seeds of Oryza sativa were germinated in glass Petri-dishes of 200 × 30 mm diameter lined with blotting paper. 75 seeds were placed in each petri-dish. Petridishes were irrigated with 25, 50, 75, and 100 ppm concentrations of Cd. A control was moistened with ten milliliters of distilled water. Results: All the rice varieties are survived up to 100 ppm. Co-7 performed better under Cd stress (62%) while Vbn-2 had poor performance (84.4%) and other varieties such as Paiyur, Co-6 and Co-2 maximum decrease in percent germination 79.3%, 75.8 and 67.2 at 100 ppm Cd compared to control. Growth parameters like root length, shoot length, fresh weight of the root and shoot decreased with increasing concentration of Cd. However, among the varieties, minimum decrease in growth parameters was observed in Co-7. Conclusions: From these results it is evident that Co-7 could germinate well on soils contaminated with Cd, however, more studies are required to signify its effects on growth and yield of rice.

  242. Akila, N., Munuswamy, N., Sangeetha, S. and Deepa Rani, S.

    The present study demonstrates the impact of serotonin (5-HT) on ovarian development and lipid profiles in the mole crab Emerita emeritus. Exogenous 5 HT, at various concentrations (1x10-6, 1x10-7 and 1x10-8 mol/crab) were injected into the crab at immature stage of ovarian development. Injection of serotonin significantly increased the gonadosomatic index, oocyte diameter and hepatosomatic index respectively. When compared to the control animals total lipid and triglyceride level increased in the ovary and hepatopancreas whereas the free fatty acid and lipase activity showed a marked decrease in hepatopancreas and ovarian tissue. Histological observations of the ovary, showed serotonin increased the ovarian maturation with regard to the arrangement and enlargement of oocytes in the ovary. Results clearly showed that 5HT, at 1x10-6 concentration has sufficiently enhanced the regulation of ovarian development with shorter duration in E. emeritus.

  243. Diego Nicolau Follmann, Velci Queiróz de Souza, Alberto Cargnelutti Filho, Maicon Nardino, Ivan Ricardo Carvalho, Gustavo Henrique Demari, Daniela Meira, Antonio David Bortoluzzi Silva and Carine Meier

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the agronomic performance and stability of soybean (Glycine max L.) cultivars seeded in not preferred time carried out in northwest region the State of the Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Eighteen cultivars were evaluated in three experiments and seeded in January 2013. In each experiment, we used randomized block design with four replications. The traits first pod insertion height, plant height, hundred grain weight and grain yield were measured. Individual variance analysis, mean comparison and joint analysis of variance was performed. After, the stability analysis was performed by the methods of Yates & Cochran, Wricke and Lin & Binns modified by Carneiro. The soybean cultivars ‘BMX Força RR’ and ‘BMX Potência RR’ have higher agronomic performance and stability in relation first pod insertion height and plant height, and cultivar ‘BMX Turbo RR’ in relation to the hundred grain weight and grain yield.

  244. Yeong Nain Chi

    Using data collected from the 2013 National Saltwater Angler Survey, this study examined respondents’ answers to fifteen statements regarding the importance of fishing trips to discern patterns from individuals’ preferences, and to classify groups exhibiting common patterns of responses. These statements were condensed into five dimensions using the principal components analysis. Empirical results based on the two-stage cluster analysis identified three groups of respondents. Discriminant analysis was conducted to identify significant differences among the clusters. A series of statistical tests employed that can detect the gender and region differences on the importance of fishing trips factors and groups. Results of this study may provide insight into the understanding of the importance of fishing trips among saltwater recreational anglers for saltwater recreational fishing planning and management purposes.

  245. Raghad Ibrahim Ahmed

    Background: Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection is a common viral illness, which classically causes oro-labial herpes (cold sores), becuase the virus are transmitted by contact with an infected area of the skin during re-activations of the virus Objective: To determined the seropositivity and determinants of serum IgG &IgM antibody against HSV-1 among pre –marital women in khalis city. Materials and Methods: Ninety one pre-Marital women were chosen from those attending the akhalis hospital in Khalis city - Diyala province, during the period from 1st December /2014 till 30th February 2015. The age range between (15-45) years. Anti- herpes simplex virus type 1 IgM and IgG antibodies were assayed by Enzyme linked immunosorbant assay technique. (ELISA) The result showed that 78 (85.7%) women had the antibody immunoglobulin (IgG), and nine (9.89%) women had IgM. The highest ratio of semple herpes virus type one for IgG and IgM were found in the age group 15-20 years. The results revealed that the highest titer of SHV1- IgG from rural areas (14.28) and 50(89.28) for IgM. Most of SHV1- IgM had medium eductional (95) and showed significant result to education Conclusion: Low prevalence rate of HSV-1 seropositivity was appeared among pre-Maritalwomen in studies area. However, it's necessary to focus on the women that demonstrated susceptibility for herpes simplex virus type 1 infection.

  246. Merry Choudhury, Bhattachary, P. and Sarma, G. C.

    A Study was `carried out in five reserve forest of Baksa district, Assam. The study area is located in the Northern part of assam, adjoining to the foot hills of Bhutan and plain topography which supports semi-evergreen, deciduous, moist deciduous, and grassland flora. The survey work was carried out duringthe year 2010-2013. The dominant flora of the study area consist of Michelia champaca, Sterculia villosa, Diospyros embryopteris, Trewia nodiflora, Flacourtia cataphracta, Hydnocarpus kurzii, Casearia glomerata, Tectona grandis, Grewia hirsuta, Tinospora cripsa, Eupetorium odoratum, Euphorbia hirta, Solanum torvum,Cissus quadrangularis, Scoparia dulcis, Calotropis gigantea, Clerodendrum viscosum, Boerhavia repens, Natsiatum herpaticum.

  247. Regiana dos Santos Moura, Hans Raj Gheyi, Maurício Antonio Coelho Filho, Onildo Nunes de Jesus, Francisco Vanies da Silva Sá and Lucas Kennedy Silva Lima

    This study aimed to evaluate the growth of passion fruit seedlings under different levels of irrigation water salinity, in an experiment conducted in a protected environment. The treatments were distributed in a completely randomized design, in a 5 x 3 factorial scheme, referring to five levels of irrigation water salinity: 0.3, 1.4, 2.5, 3.6 and 4.7 dS m-1 and three species of Passiflora: gibertii, cincinnata and edulis cv. ‘Gigante Amarelo’, with four replicates, analyzed for plant height, stem diameter, dry matter of root, shoot and total. The absolute and relative growth rates of passion fruit species are affected by irrigation water salinity. Stem diameter is the variable most sensitive to the increase in irrigation water salinity. For satisfactory growth, seedlings of P. gibertii, P. edulis and P. cincinnata can be irrigated with waters of up to 3.69, 2.14 and 1.87 dS m-1, respectively. Among the studied species, Passiflora cincinnata is considered as moderately tolerant to salinity while the Passiflora gibertii and Passiflora edulis are tolerant to salinity.

  248. Felipe Guedes de Souza, Jean Pereira Guimarães, Lúcia Helena Garófalo Chaves, Jacqueline da Silva Mendes, Luís Augusto de Lima and Francisco de Assis Santos e Silva

    Considering soil acidity importance under Paraiba State conditions and the existence of several liming requirement evaluation methods, this laboratory experiment was carried out to compare different liming methods for the sugar cane region soils of Paraiba State. Thus, one experiment involving Ultisol and Entisol soils incubation was conducted in laboratory, during 42 days. The treatments consisted of five increasing doses of calcium carbonate corresponding to the quantities necessary to increase the saturation of soil. The amount of calcium carbonate to achieve the treatments was calculated based on 100% of relative power of total neutralization (RPTN). After stabilizing the pH samples were collected and subsequently analyzed pH, calcium (Ca), hydrogen (H) and aluminum (Al). It was determined the liming requirement by the method of aluminum, by method using calcium and magnesium, by the base saturation method to increase saturation of 60% according to sugar cane culture and by method related to amount of limestone to reach pH 6.0 and pH 6.5. For ease of liming recommendation, methods of base saturation and neutralization of aluminum levels were the most suitable for the soils of sugar cane region of Paraiba State.

  249. Prasanta Sinha Mahapatra, Suman Chatterjee and Pinaki Sarkar

    Fluorosis is a major public health problem in India. The present cross-sectional observational study has been conducted in the Hirbadh block, one of the fluoride endemic zones of Bankura district, West Bengal, India, on 77 subjects by using simple random sampling in which 41 were cases for evaluating the role of fluorosis in development of anemia. The blood and urine samples were collected from the cases and serum and urinary fluoride levels were estimated by Ion-Meter, blood hemoglobin levels were estimated by Sahli’s Hemoglobinometer and then were compared with age and sex matched controls. The serum and urinary fluoride were found to have statistically significant relationship with hemoglobin in the cases. The serum and urinary levels of fluoride were higher in the cases compared to the comparison group, while the hemoglobin levels were much less in cases than in controls. We found that 21.43% were suffering from mild anemia and 71.43% had moderate anemia of all female cases. While 29.63% had mild anemia and 62.96% had moderate anemia of total male cases.

  250. Meenakshi Sheokand and Somveer Jakhar

    Salinity is one of the major abiotic stresses which are responsible for limiting crop production. Foliar spray with hormones has been an effective method for increasing growth and productivity of plants grown under salt stress. Salicylic acid regulates many physiological processes in plants when subjected to environmental stresses. Soybean cultivar Pusa- 9712 plants were grown with 150 mM NaCl were sprayed with 10-4 M, 10-5 M, or 10-6 M SA and some physiological processes were studied to authenticate our understanding of their role in tolerance to salinity-induced oxidative stress and also to see how much these parameters are induced by SA application. Results depicted that salt stress negatively affected photosynthetic pigments and protein content and enhanced lipid peroxidation in both control and stressed plants. Foliar application of SA increased the Superoxide dismutase (SOD), Guaiacol peroxidase (POD) and Catalase (CAT) activity in salt stressed plants. CAT activity was found to be highest in plants treated with 10-6 M as compared to control whereas same concentration of SA increase proline content by 89.04% to mitigate the impact of salt stress. Result further exhibited that lipid peroxidation was also reduced by about 21.53% under salt treatment. Infact, SA treatment prevents the negative effects of salt stressed soybean and this could be adopted as a potential growth regulator to improve soybean grown under salt stress.

  251. Omar Hazim Al-Rawi

    Maize (Zea mays L.) is an important food crop but its productivity in farmers’ field throughout the country is generally low due to limitation of high yielding improved maize hybrid varieties. Knowledge of combining ability and gene action is essential to identify good combiner inbred lines and high yielding potential hybrids. The objectives were to evaluate combining ability of the elite maize inbred lines with respect to yield and yield related traits. Six inbred lines were mated in a full dialle fashion to obtain of all possible crosses including their reciprocals to develop 30 single cross hybrids in the year 2014. The hybrids and parent line along were evaluated in Maize researches station-General authority for agricultural researches in Abu-Ghriab. Data were recorded for grain yield and other related traits and subjected for analysis of variance. Full dialle analysis was used to estimate the general and specific combining ability effects for yield and yield related traits. Analysis of variance revelation significant variation at (p<0.01) for most of studied traits. Regarding Combining ability analysis, mean squares due to GCA, SCA and RCA were significant for most of the traits except number of rows per ear and number of kernels per row for RCA. indicating the importance of additive and Non-additive gene action in controlling the expression of traits. Among lines ART-B263, HNG9 and UMGW4 showed good general GCA for most of the characters studied. Among the crosses HNG9× UMGW4 (192.2 g.p-1), DAQ× HNG9 (181.85 g.p-1) and ART-B263× UMGW4 (175.66 g.p-1), for reciprocals crosses HNG9× DAQ (177.54 g.p-1), UMGW4× ART-B263 (170.13 g.p-1) and UMGW4× HNG9 (170.96 g.p-1) performed better for grain yield and yield related traits studied. It can be concluded that the parental lines which manifested good general combining ability can be desirable parents for hybrids, Besides the hybrids that gave good yield can be potential varieties for commercial production. However, further evaluation of these breeding materials atmore locations and year, is advisable to confirm the promising results observed in the present study.

  252. Geison Rodrigo Aisenberg, Diego Severo Fraga, Bruno Moncks da Silva, André da Rosa Ulguim, Jéssica Dias Gomes da Silva and Dirceu Agostinetto

    One of the main alternatives found by producers for mitigating the problems caused by the occurrence of resistant weed biotypes is the use of alternative herbicides. The aim of this paper was to evaluate weed control and the phytotoxicity caused by the application of pre-and post-emergent herbicides in soy cultivars that are resistant to glyphosate. Two field experiments were carried out in a random block experimental design, with four repetitions. The treatments were arranged in a factorial design, testing two soy cultivars (Nidera 5909 RG and Coodetec STS 249 RR), four pre-emergent herbicides (s-metolachlor, diclosulan, metribuzin, sulfentrazone) and four post-emergent herbicides (chlorimuron ethyl, imazethapyr, bentazone, carfentrazone ethyl), plus infested and clean samples. Phytotoxicity evaluations of the crop were carried out 7, 14, and 21 days after the emergence (DAE) of soy plants for the pre-emergents; and 7, 14, and 21 days after the application of the herbicides (DAA) for the post-emergents. The weed control evaluation for both experiments was carried out at 14 and 28 DAE, with the exception of Ipomoea spp., at 14 DAE. In pre-emergence, sulfentrazone causes greater phytotoxicity in both cultivars studied, while in post-emergence, carfentrazone ethyl causes the greatest symptoms of phytotoxicity. In pre-emergence, the best Raphanus spp. and Bidens spp. controls were obtained with the application of the herbicides diclosulan and metribuzin, while sulfentrazone and diclosulan provide the best Ipomoea spp. controls. The herbicide sulfentrazone reduces the productivity of the Nidera 5909 RG cultivar, while carfentrazone reduces the productivity of both cultivars.

  253. Koshal Kumar, Anita Rawat Rana and Kotnala, C. B.

    Fultons’ Condition Factors (CF) and the Relative conditions factors (Kn) of the Macrobrachium assamense peninsulare were studied for an interval of one year (2013-2014) in Rawasan stream, Uttarakhand, India. The Kn was observed maximum 1.179 in October 2014 and minimum in 0.904 in January 2014 in male prawn. Whereas CF was observed maximum 1.969 in January 2014 and minimum 1.491 in October 2013. But in case of female prawn minimum value of Kn was found 0.572 in June 2014 and maximum 1.214 in October 2014, but CF value was observed minimum 0.802 in October 2013 and maximum 2.388 in June 2014. The conditions factors (Kn, CF) ranged from (0.572 to 2.388), showing that the Macrobrachium assamense peninsulare was in a good and stable environmental condition in its microhabitat.

  254. Haoua Madeleine, Ibrahima Adamou and Tchobsala

    A study was carried out on the impact of exploitation of mount Ngaoundal vegetation evolution. Anthropic activities expose mount Ngaoundal to damage and heavy deforestation. The main activities in practice on the mountain include agriculture (91.82%), pharmacopeia (85.46%), ecotourisim (75.72%), military activity (71, 38%). Hunting (69. 08%), rearing (64.58%) and activities practiced by miners (36.27%) constitute secondary activities. The local population picks enough products from mount Ngaoundal. Firewoods (92.42%), followed by barks (52.80%) and leaves (36.67%) are mainly picked from mount Ngaoundal. The populations get foodstuffs mainly from the mountain. Some people treat themselves specifically from local plants. Products less represented include arabic gum (1.44%), seeds (4.62%), and flowers (7.53%). Products such as honey (21.04%), mushrooms (33.06%), roots (33.90%) and fruits are intermediates. All these activities have impacts on the vegetation evolution. Analyses of satellite images on the mountain evolution showed that mount Ngaoundal vegetation is heavily fragmented since 1985. The grassy savanna has cut down dramatically and given room to vegetable formations such as thin or gallery forests. Those forest surfaces have increased on the detriment of grassy and ligneous savannas with 152.84ha and 430.67ha in 1985 to 505.79ha and 657.97ha in 2016 respectively. In order to preserve anthropic activities, revering populations have put in place protective measures such as village eco-keepers (31.40%), vigilante committees (21.12%) and intensification of sensitization of revering populations on the importance of mount Ngaoundal (11.52%).

  255. Renes Rossi Pinheiro, Ricardo Boscaini, Braulio Otomar Caron, Velci Queiróz de Souza, Daniela Meira and Denise Schmidt

    The use of shading nets with different spectral characteristics forthe cultivation of certain vegetable crops has become very common in recent years. The influence of solar radiation on plants was accomplished by analyzing the effect of different photo-selective shading nets on the development of lettuce grown hydroponically in floating systems. Studies were conducted the period from June-July, 2012 at the Federal University of Santa Maria, Frederico Westphalen Campus, state of RS. The treatments were: red net, bluenet, silver net, and without a net environment, all nets presented 40% shade, and were fixed at 0.90 m above the beds of lettuce; the cultivar 'Solaris' was used. A randomized complete block experimental design was used, with four environments and three repetitions. The traits evaluated were: number of leaves, leaf area, fresh and dry root biomass, stems and leaf, stem length, ratio shoot/root and specific leaf area. The greatest accumulation of fresh and dry biomass was observed in the seedlings under silver and red nets. Leaf area and specific leaf area were higher in plants grown under the shading treatment. The blue nets did not improve the development of lettuce seedlings.

  256. LaishramIbohal Meitei, SoibamJibonkumar Singh and Ksh. BeliyaLuxmi Devi

    The paper reports the prevalence of obesity, CED and hypertension among Meiteis of Ithing village, Manipur. Sample consists of 175 normal male individuals’ age range from 20 years to 85 years. The average height, weight and BMI of the population are 161.69 cm, 56kg and 21.23 kg/m2 respectively. The systolic blood pressure of both normotensive and pre-hypertensive comprise a frequency of 82.86 % whereas the hypertension stage 1 and stage 2 show 17.14%. Regarding BMI, about 14% constitute chronic energy deficient individuals but majority of them 76.57% are normal. The overweight and obese individual constitutes 9.14%.

  257. Rahul Reddy Nagavally

    This paper presents a brief introduction of composite materials followed by history, fabrication techniques, advantages and applications. A composite material (also called a composition material or shortened to composite which is the common name) is a material made from two or more constituent materials with significantly different physical or chemical properties that, when combined, produce a material with characteristics different from the individual components. The individual components remain separate and distinct within the finished structure. The new material may be preferred for many reasons: common examples include materials which are stronger, lighter, or less expensive when compared to traditional materials. More recently, researchers have also begun to actively include sensing, actuation, computation and communication into composites,[1] which are known as Robotic Materials. As the composite materials possess great properties they are substituting various other conventional materials therefore, the research on composite materials must be developed further.

  258. Maurya, K. R. and Bineeta Devi

    The present investigation was conducted to study the genetic variability in 30 indigenous populations of coriander. The genotypes were studied for two years in the rabi (Winter) seasons of 2014-15 and 2015-16. Data were recorded on 13 economic characters namely, fruit yield per plant, days to 50% flowering, days to maturity, plant height, number of primary branches per plant, number of secondary branches per plant, number of umbels per plant, number of umbellets per umbel, number of fruits per umbel, 1000 fruit weight, dry matter content per plant, harvest index and essential oil content of fruits. A considerable range of phenotypic, genotypic and environmental variation was noted for all the characters except essential oil content of fruits, number of umbellets per umbel, number of primary branches per plant, and dry matter content per plant. The highest estimates of heritability were recorded for essential oil content of fruits and fruit yield per plant. The estimates of genetic advance as % of mean for essential oil and yield were also high. Number of umbellets per umbel showed high heritability but low genetic advance. Hence breeding methods that consider heterosis was suggested to make effective improvement of this character.

  259. Neelam Basera

    Sustainability is a paradigm for thinking about a future in which environmental, social and economic considerations are balanced in the pursuit of development and an improved quality of life. World population is projected to increase [by around 2 billion] by 2050. Practically all that growth will be in the developing countries of Asia and Africa. This will put increased strain on resources and systems that are already insufficient in many cases (Emerging Risks in the 21st Century: An Agenda for Action). The sustainability paradigm is a major change from the previous paradigm of economic development with its damaging social and environmental consequences. Until recently these consequences have been seen as inevitable and acceptable. However, we now realize that major damage or serious threats to the well-being of humans and the environment in pursuit of economic development have no place within the sustainability paradigm.

  260. Lakshmi, T. V. R., Shahid Nazir, M., Raja Rao, K. G. and Aruna Lakshmi

    This research is part of an attempt to establish In vitro fertilization in pearl millet which aids an understanding the mechanisms of fertilization. We demonstrate here co-culture of isolated embryo sacs with pollen grains and/or male gametes of pearl millet in two culture media. The pollen grains in the first medium pseudo germinated, while in the second medium germinated as in planta. The pollen tubes of some pollen grains were guided to the egg apparatus, while those of others were not. Precise guidance of pollen tubes to the eggs is crucial for successful fertilization. The probable reasons for the variation in the guidance of pollen tube growth to the egg apparatus are discussed.

  261. Himangsu Santra, Arunasis Goswami and Sunil Kanti Santra

    The adoption of new technologies and modern farm practices in agriculture is a continuous process maintained by the farmers. Sometimes farmers motivated by the advancement of new agricultural research as a result of its extension activities towards its adoption. On the other hand their knowledge and experience help them or rather to say compel them to adopt new practices to keep agricultural practices ongoing and to maintain their livelihood properly. It is need less to mention that, so many factors are responsible for the adoption of new technologies and modern farm practices. In this paper an attempt has been made to analyse the impact of socio-cultural, psychological and communication characteristics of farmers for the adoption of new technologies and modern practices in agriculture with the relationship between them. Results show that higher the leadership quality, who are strongly against fate, who possess higher modern value and have higher marketing orientation, higher risk preference, more the knowledge on farming, more the communication skill and mass media, cosmopolite and localite communication ability more is the adoption as highest the category show highest mean over other categories.

  262. Tiago Olivoto, Maicon Nardino, Ivan Ricardo Carvalho, Diego Nicolau Follmann, Vinícius Jardel Szareski, Mauricio Ferrari, Alan Junior de Pelegrin and Velci Queiróz de Souza

    Maize (Zea mays L.) has been the subject of several studies involving correlation coefficient estimates and path analysis. This critical review discusses some systematic errors that have been observed in estimating of correlation coefficients and its possible impacts on accuracy of path analysis. In a first moment, an approach about the maize crop, origin, characteristics and biometric models commonly used in genetic breeding of this crop is presented. Some obstacles found in estimates of path coefficients and the methods used to adjust them are discussed. We also present evidences and a theoretical explanation that some data arrangement methods currently used, may be overestimating the correlation coefficients in scientific studies. Data from a literature search revealing the accuracy of path analysis of some research are presented and discussed. In a last moment, we present a future perspective about how the correct estimate of the correlation coefficients may improve the accuracy of path analysis, underscoring the need for research directed to this objective.

  263. Vaishali Gangotri

    The reproductive cycle of the freshwater crab, Barytelphusa guerini is divided into three different periods i.e. (i) Pre-reproductive period (January to April) (ii) Reproductive period (May to August and (iii) Post-reproductive or quiescent period (September to December). The protein percentage was higher in the month of April. From June onwards, the percentage of proteins decreased and lowest was recorded in the month of December. Maximum fat content was observed in the ovaries in the month of April and May (breeding period) and in testes, it was highest in the month of May only. There was highest value of glycogen obtained in the month of April and there was significant decrease in the glycogen content during the spawning period. There was a little consistency in the glycogen content during the resting period.

  264. Muppala Guru Prasad, Vysyaraju Sri Devi, Bellamkonda Ramesh, Somavarapu Silpa, Biman Kiran Kumar, Bangeppagari Manjunatha and Murari Satish Kumar

    Crop improvement is important criteria in the world. For this, conventional breeding is used to increase food production and create thousands of crop varieties to fulfil the demands of agricultural products. But conventional breeding is failure due to time consuming, unpredictability and lack of relative varieties. So, to overcome such problem, genetic engineering was introduced. It allows gene transfer without conventional breeding, for unrelated genera or species. It helps in increasing genetic resource to improve crop and also introduce known function of genes to achieve the goals of crop improvement by genetic engineering programme which is more predictable. There are no robust transformation technologies available in maize for higher transformation efficiency and quality of products. For this, two methods are developed. They are tissue culture dependent and independent for gene transfer technology. The methods are Agrobacterium mediated transformation and particle bombardment. To these methods, results are evaluated and assessed for both Agrobacterium and biolistic gene gun/particle bombardment with parameters like transformation efficiency, copy number, expression level of GUS gene and its inheritance. The transformation efficiency and copy number is higher in the biolistic gene gun/particle bombardment when compared to Agrobacterium mediated transformation but expression levels are low, may be attributed due to gene silencing and suppressing. Whereas in Agrobacterium mediated method, transformation efficiency and copy number is low, but expression levels are higher when compared to particle bombardment. The present report indicates that the Agrobacterium derived transformants has low copy number, higher expression of the transgene and its stability of gene is more than the biolistic gene gun/particle bombardment.

  265. Sh. A. Anarova

    An algorithm of solution of the problem of bending torsion of the rod based on R-function method is considered in the paper. The algorithm of integration of the systems of resolving equations on the basis of Rvachеv’s R-function method (RFM) and the method of progressive approximation is developed. Computing algorithm of elastic bodies of arbitrary section and software of stress-strain state study of elastic prismatic bodies of arbitrary section with a cavity is given. The examples of validity of design algorithm of elastic prismatic bodies and software functioning are also given in the paper.

  266. Tiago Pedó, Felipe Koch, Emanuela Garbin Martinazzo, Simone Morgan Dellagostin, Geison Rodrigo Aisenberg, Vinicius Jardel Szareski, Ivan Ricardo Carvalho, Maicon Nardino, Velci Queiróz de Souza, Daniela Meira, Francisco Amaral Villelax and Tiago Zanatt

    This study aimed to evaluate the growth and yield of rocket plants under different screens shading. It was used rocket seeds of Folha Larga cultivar, which plants were cultivated in a greenhouse in black polyethylene pots without shading, with black and red shading screen, both with 35% light reduction, adopting completely randomized design with 11 collection times. The no shading rocket plants showed higher values for total dry matter, relative growth rate and net assimilation, compared to the screens of red and black shading, respectively. However, the leaf area ratio was higher in plants under the effect of black screen and, leaf matter ratio was higher in plants under red screen. The higher leaves yield was obtained without shading, then red and black screen. The growth and commercial yield of rocket leaves was favored in shading condition with red screen.

  267. Valentina Markova

    The present paper contributes to the description of combined vortex movements considered in previous articles (1). It develops further the reasoning behind the substitution of the old axiom of the Classical Field Theory with a new, broader and more universal axiom (2). The paper explains how a minor extension of the main axiom creates new laws and leads to surprising and significant changes in the subsequent structures and designs covered by the Field Theory. Furthermore, the whole philosophy of the new designs proves to be largely consistent with the real natural structures. The possibility of the new field structures to acquire a particular type of movement in a specific spacetime framework is demonstrated. The transverse vortex movement develops in a spacetime with constant time and it is established that the motion is with a direct wave. The longitudinal vortex movement develops in a spacetime with constant external distance and it is established that it generates tubes of transverse vortices nested one inside the other. Furthermore the motion is with a reverse wave from the inside-out in tubes of the first order and from the outside-in in tubes of the second order. There is also a third spacetime with constant speed. It is proved that the Theory of Relativity applies only to one of three spacetimes- to the spacetime with constant time.

  268. Petro LOHVYNENKO, Anatolii MOSKALENKO, Nikolai KOBASKO, Larisa KARSIM, Sergii RIABOV and Galyna GLIYEVA

    The paper discusses the results of investigations connected with the cooling characteristics of pure soybean oil and its PIB solutions of different concentrations. In contrast to mineral oils, in vegetable oils film boiling in many cases is absent due to formation of an insulating surface layer which decreases initial heat flux density. In the paper is shown that initial heat flux density can be decreased for 50% and can be less than the first critical heat flux. It means that nucleate boiling process starts immediately after immersion of probe into oil and additives affect insignificantly cooling processes during nucleate boiling stage. In soybean oil additives affect significantly convection due to increasing viscosity. Vegetable oils are promising as the suitable quenchants when protected from oxidation and optimized within the boiling and convection modes.

  269. Sable Jyoti, P. and Mulajkar, R. M.

    Over the years, iris recognition has gained importance in the biometrics applications and is being used in several large scale nationwide projects. Though iris patterns are unique, they may be affected by external factors such as illumination, camera-eye angle, may also pose a challenge to iris biometrics as it obfuscates the iris patterns and changes the inter and intraclass distributions. This paper presents an in-depth analysis of the effect of contact lens on iris recognition performance. The presence of contact lens, particularly color cosmetic lens, However, further research is required to build sophisticated lens detection algorithm that can improve iris recognition.

  270. Praveen A. Harari, Ghadge, S. S., Bharat N. Kokku and Vignesh D. Ezhava

    In the present world it is essential to find an alternate fuel source due to the increased industrialization and depletion in natural resources. The method of obtaining biodiesel from various sources and blending them with diesel is adopted in many economically developed and developing countries around the world. Presently lots of researches are being performed to evaluate biodiesel as alternative fuel for diesel engine due to associated problems with use of conventional diesel such as environmental degradation, petroleum depletion etc. However, the combustion behavior of biodiesel is different from diesel. To compensate the effects of utilization of biodiesel and maximize the performance, input parameters of the engine should be adjusted. Biodiesel is receiving increased attention as an alternative, non-toxic, biodegradable and renewable diesel fuel. It is derived from oils and fats by transesterification with alcohols. The main hurdle to the commercialization of biodiesel is the cost of raw materials. Increasing the consumption of fuel in power and automobile sector, increase the pollution of the environment. Smoke and NOx are main pollutants of emission from diesel engine and it is very difficult to control them simultaneously petroleum based fuels is a finite resource that is rapidly depleting. Consequently, petroleum reserves are not sufficient enough to last many years. Biodiesel is one of the alternative fuel made from vegetable oil, friendly for environment and has no effect on health and can reduce the emission compared with diesel fuel.

  271. Namala A. Keftin and Salihu Kabiru

    Motivation of craftsmen in the construction industry has become necessary due to the fact that their productivity in Nigeria have significantly dropped over the years. Political activities also tend to divert attention of youths away from these economically sustainable trade jobs. The aim of the research is to develop strategic ways of improving productivity of craftsmen in construction firms through various motivational techniques with the objective of examining whether the underperformance of craftsmen in construction firms was as a result of lack of motivation. The study randomly sampled 109 respondents across 12 construction firms from four states of Adamawa, Bauchi, Gombe and Taraba in the North–Eastern Nigeria. Structured questionnaire was used to obtain data and the data were analyzed using statistical package for social sciences (SPSS), simple percentage, mean and severity index. The study revealed that demotivation accounted for poor working rate in construction firms. Also the study identified twelve most severe factors that influence the productivity of craftsmen which were; effective supervision, training, overtime, teamwork, love, rewarding, salary increment, good working relationship, effective communication, job security, performance feedback and bonuses. The study recommends that construction firms should adopt motivational factors that had direct impact on craftsmen outputs. It was also recommends that there is need for adopting multidimensional approach on motivating craftsmen by combining two or more motivational factors at a time.

  272. Hari Babu, A. V., Dr. Subba Rao, Naresh, P., Madhava, V. and Sudhakar Reddy, M.

    Peddling washing machine is a very great innovation in its own. Peddling washing machine is specially made for the purpose of its utilization to wash the cloth by means of applying pedal. Today due to non renewable energy cries its basic need to utilize the energy from other way or save the energy. This project includes the construction and utilization of the peddling washing machine which can with any amount of requirement. The following pages in the report includes about the constructions of peddling washing machine, its raw material, it’s working, benefits of the peddling washing machine with respect to actual electronics washing machine save the time, water, electricity and not very expensive. Its main expect is exercises with applying the pedal to wash the cloth.

  273. Maragatham, M. and Jayanthi, J.

    In inventory strategy companies employ to increase efficiency and decrease waste by receiving goods only as they are needed in the production process, thereby reducing inventory costs. Normally, the vendor and the buyer problems treated separately. In this paper, we discuss a joint integrated vendor buyer model for both in crisp and in fuzzy sense. This integrated approach is the success of supply chain management to minimize the joint total cost. This proposed model is based on the joint total cost of both the vendor and the buyer. Holding cost of the vendor, holding cost of the buyer, production cost of the vendor and purchasing cost of the buyer are taken as triangular fuzzy numbers. In this model, we reduce the inventory and waste considerations through Just-In-Time. Finally, a numerical example and sensitivity analysis are given to illustrate this model. Graded mean integration representation method is used for defuzzification.

  274. Gargi Sanjay Khot and Khanwalkar P.M.

    Thermal energy storage (TES) is becoming a growing concern in modern technology and it has number of applications. Energy storage is essential whenever there is a mismatch between the supply and consumption of energy. Growing energy demands, lack of fossil fuels, and the continuous increase in the level of greenhouse gas emissions are the main driving forces to practice various sources of renewable energy. Due to irregular and unpredictable nature of solar energy; efficient, economical and reliable solar thermal energy storage devices and methods have to be developed. Among the different possibilities to store energy, systems using Phase Change Materials (PCM) can be preferred for its consistency in latent heat storage. The use of PCM is an effective way of storing thermal energy and has the advantages of having high storage density and the isothermal nature of the storage process. Due to this, the volume of material is reduces and so the cost of the system. But the PCM storage system has low thermal conductivity which leads to poor heat transfer so heat transfer enhancement techniques should be used. This paper summarise the selection of thermal energy storage systems using phase change material.

  275. Dr. Omprakash, H. M.

    The Abstract: Schizophrenia in Greek, “Split mind” a severe mental illness characterized by a variety of symptoms including but not limited to loss of contact with reality. • Bizarre Behavior • Disorganized Thinking • Disorganized Speech • Decreased emotional expressiveness • Diminished or loss of contact with reality • Diminished to total social with drawl. Schizophrenia is one of the most severe forms of psychopathology characterized by major disturbances in attention, perception, thought, emotions and behavior. Schizophrenia is characterized by positive and negative symptoms. Fundamental symptoms include through disturbance, withdrawal, and difficulties managing effect. Secondary symptoms include perception disorders such as hallucinations and grandiosity. Even symptoms may also be non-schizophrenic in nature such as anxiety, depression and psychosomatic symptoms. The world adolescence comes from the Latin verb adolescence, which means “to grow” or to grow to maturity”. Adolescence is a part of transition when the individual changes physically and psychologically from a child to an adult. It is much more their one rung up the ladder from childhood. It is the period, which beings with puberty and ends with general cessation of physical growth it emerges from the later childhood stage and merges into adulthood, it is a built in necessary transition period for ago development Psychologists have defined adolescences in the following ways: Jean Piaget: defines adolescence as “the age of great ideals and beginning of theories as well as the time of simple adaptation of life. Stanley Hall: describes the period of adolescence as “a period of great stress and strain storm and strife”.

  276. Maicon Nardino, Ivan Ricardo Carvalho, Diego Baretta, Diego Nicolau Follmann, Rogério Leschewitz, Tiago Olivoto, Braulio OtomarCaron, Antonio Costa de Oliveira, Luciano Carlos da Maia and Velci Queiróz de Souza

    Studies aimed at elucidating the gene actions that control traits little investigated in the plant breeding area are important for the choice of the parents to be crossed. The present study aimed to evaluate the segregation and reciprocal effects, relating to genetic effects prevalent in demanding thermal sum of land racescorn populations contrasting for this trait. Thus, we used three contrasting populations for thermal sum, (1 - super-early, 2 early and 3 Late), totaling a set of six crossovers, with the following combinations of population: 1x2, 1x3, 2x1, 2x3, 3x1 and 3x2. The crosses were performed in complete diallel scheme. In the first year, artificial crosses were made and in the second year, sowing of hybrid populations together with its genitor populations was carried out to assess the requirement of thermal sum of the crosses. The findings showed that: selection of populations for thermal demand should be considered the reciprocal effects. Additive and nonadditive gene actions reveal importance to the thermal sum trait. To reduce the cycle, it is necessary that the population used as female progenitor presents late cycle and male progenitor early cycle. Crosses between early-cycle females and super-early cycle males, or super-early cycle females and early-cycle males, generate populations with higher thermal requirement.

  277. SamikshaTiwari, Arunendra Kumar Patel and Rakesh Bajpai

    In this study the tensile strength, Young’s modulus and extension at maximum load of different concentration of fly ash(FA) incorporated in polystyrene(PS) composites have been investigated. Fly ash incorporated PS composite films have been prepared with the solution casting method. It is found that, tensile strength increases upto 236.9% for 5wt% FA based composite in comparison to pure PS and Young’s modulus increases upto 10.14% for 5wt% FA based composite in comparison to pure PS. The maximum extension in composite film is found 0.458 mm at the load of 117 N for 5wt% FA based composites.

  278. Kumar, V. B., Vatti and Shouri Dominic

    In this paper, the Parametric Preconditioned Gauss-Seidel Iterative Method is developed by using the Preconditioned Gauss-Seidel Iterative Method and the spectral radius of these two methods are compared. A numerical example is given to illustrate the superiority of the new result.

  279. Dr. Hamim Rahman Hassan, Dr. Anil Kumar Gujjari, Dr. Dhakshaini, M. R. and Dr. Sandeip kumar

    Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) has been commonly used as denture base material. However, repeated stress from masticatory action during function and impact force from accidental drop can result in fracture of the denture base. Thus, further improvements in the mechanical property of PMMA denture base material are still needed. This study aimed to provide us with an improved acrylic denture base resin which possesses better mechanical property and antimicrobial activity by addition of nano clay and silver nano particles. The objectives of the study are to evaluate the flexural strength and antimicrobial property of conventional PMMA denture base resin after incorporation of 3% nano clay and varied concentrations of silver nano particles. Materials and Methods: A total number of 60 specimens were included in the study. 30 rectangular specimens were fabricated for testing the flexural strength and 30 disc shaped specimens were fabricated for testing the antimicrobial property. Test specimens were divided into 3 groups based on the concentration of nano clay and silver nano particles in heat cure acrylic resin. These included a control group and two test groups with 3% nano clay and varied concentrations of silver nano particles. Results: One way ANOVA descriptive analysis showed significant difference after the incorporation of 3% nano clay and different percentage of silver nano particles in conventional PMMA denture base resin. The increasing order of flexural strength was as follows: Group B (3% nano clay and 0.5% silver nano particles) showed the least flexural strength followed by Group C (3% nano clay and 1% silver nano particles) and Group A (Control) showed the highest flexural strength. The increasing order of antimicrobial property is as follows: Group A (Control) showed the least antimicrobial property followed by Group B (3% nano clay and O.5% silver nano particles) and Group C (3% nano clay and 1% silver nano particles) showed the highest antimicrobial property. Conclusion: The flexural strength of conventional PMMA denture base resin after incorporation of 3% nano clay and 0.5% silver nano particles showed the least flexural strength. Incorporation of 3% nano clay and 1% silver nano particles showed higher flexural strength but lesser compared to the control group. The antimicrobial property of conventional PMMA denture base resin after incorporation of 3% nano clay and 0.5% silver nano particles showed lower antimicrobial property but higher compared to the control group. Incorporation of 3% nano clay and 1% silver nano particles showed the highest antimicrobial property. Clinical implications: This study provided a feasible approach of developing a modified acrylic denture base resin having sufficient flexural strength and possessing antimicrobial properties. The optimum microbial inhibition shown by the synthesized material can be considered to be an interesting material for scientific research of antimicrobial acrylic denture base resins.

  280. Kadi, A. S., Itagimath, S. R. and Gani, S. R.

    This study has explored the geographical and demographic patterns of transmissibility of HIV/AIDS in Karnataka of India, using yearly epidemiological time series, made available by monitoring and evaluation unit, Karnataka State AIDS Prevention Society. We identified spatial variations of the transmissibility of HIV by age and sex using various statistical methods. The Games-Howell Post Hoc analysis created four homogeneous subgroups. Northern Karnataka is more severally affected by HIV than southern Karnataka, in this region the commercial sex workers networks is more intense than other part of Karnataka. In addition in northern Karnataka the HIV epidemic tends seems to be more advanced in rural than in urban areas.

  281. Kuldeep Singh, Kushmander Singh and Neeraj Kumar

    N-Bromophthalimide (NBP) is reported to be a stable oxidizing agent and is used as an oxidiometric titrate for the estimation of a variety of organic, inorganic and pharmaceutical compounds. The kinetics of oxidation of primary aliphatic amines by NBS in acid solution showed first order dependence on (NBS) and (amine). An increase in [H+] increased the rate marginally. The rate of reaction increased with decrease in the dielectric constant of the medium. The observed order of reactivity of different amines towards oxidation is: methyl

  282. Murumkar, V. D.

    The zinc doped magnesium spinel ferrite nanoparticles were prepared by using sol-gel auto combustion synthesis method of the general chemical formula Mg1-xZnxFe2O4 where x=0.00 and 0.30. The raw materials used were the metal nitrates as oxidants and citric acid as a fuel in ratio of 1:3. The sintered samples were compressed into circular discs and used for dielectric measurements as a function of frequency in the range of 50Hz-1MHz at room temperature. The dielectric parameters as dielectric constant, dielectric loss and dielectric loss tangent were studied as a function of frequency for both bare and zinc doped magnesium spinel ferrite nanoparticles.

  283. Vandana Malik and Dr. Maitreyee Dutta

    According to current prevailing views, the field of energy will undergo significant structural changes in coming decades, making it radically different from what we know today. The classical approach to long term forecasting is often limited to the use of load and weather information occurring with monthly or annual frequency. So, in this work, the main objective of this work is prediction and forecast of historical energy data using ANN technique and curve fitting. It proposes a modern approach that takes advantage of daily information to create more accurate and defensible forecasts. The main scenarios are predictive modelling & scenario analysis. It uses ANN technique for predicting and optimizing the data. The other objective of this work is to minimize the error value up to 10^-5. It also uses time series analysis methods curve fitting and surface fitting methods. This research investigates the forecasting of residential energy consumption by applying the structural time series model to yearly data. It also provides power estimation at a particular time. The MATLAB software is used to set up a neural network model.

  284. Bhuvaneswari, G.

    Some equivalent conditions on k-Orthogonal matrices are given. AMS subject classification: 15A09,15A57.

  285. Deepak Sharma

    Aim of my research paper is focused on Virtual Reality, Oculus VR/Rift and Augment Reality. Secondly this paper also includes the study of applications to Virtual Reality and Augment Reality their connection, behavior and working.

  286. Todkari, S. M., Late Joshi, P. B. and Salunke, D. J.

    The present paper discusses design and development of C-V meter which could be interfaced to PC through microcontroller based smart DAC (Data acquisition card). The C-V meter for the measurement of Capacitance between 2pF to 20nF is designed. The circuit also allows measurement of Quality Factor between 101 to 104. The circuit designed here is based on Auto balancing bridge technique. A DC bias voltage of + 10 V is selected in the present case. The results on simulation using MULTISIM 11.0 (version 11.0.1) are also elaborated in the present paper.

  287. Patel, R. P.

    The magnetospheric discrete VLF chorus emissions observed at Indian Antarctic Station Maitri, Antarctica (geomag. lat. = 700 46/ S, geomag. log. = 110 50/ E, L = 4.5) has been analyzed during quite period on 5th February 2001 are presented. The detailed spectral analysis of recorded discrete VLF chorus emissions, we found that intensity seems to decrease with increase in frequency and also it varies from event to event and each chorus emissions originates from upper edge of narrow hiss band and chorus events are hiss-triggered. They are generated in the magnetosphere near the geomagnetic equator by trapping of the energetic electrons. To explain the observed dynamic spectra of these events, a possible generation mechanism is presented based on the Helliwell’s theory. To understand the generation mechanism of discrete VLF chorus emissions, using Helliwell’s (1967) theory and previous presented satellite VLF data, some plasmaspheric parameters such as phase velocity, group velocity, parallel and perpendicular velocity of interacting electrons, source length, source location, wave magnetic field, power density, transverse current etc. are computed. Our results are good agreement to other workers.

  288. Anitha, S., Arulanandam, K. and Amudha Prabha, A.

    Disease prediction and diagnosis is one of the complex applications where data mining tools and techniques are used to providing successful results because of significant improvements in technology. This research identifies gaps in the research on disease prediction, diagnosis and treatment and it also proposes a model to systematically close those gaps. Data mining have great potential for healthcare industry to enable health systems to systematically use data and identify the efficiency and improve care with reduce cost. The data mining techniques to Multi disease treatment it can provide reliable performance. So the system can be effective in reducing the death toll. The healthcare industry collects huge amounts of healthcare data which, unfortunately are not “mined” to discover hidden information for effective decision making. This proposed work has developed a prototype for the Multi Sickness Prediction System (MSPS) using data mining techniques by to compute the chance of prevalence of explicit unwellness from medical knowledge by using k-means, Large Memory Storage and Retrieval (LAMSTAR) and Medical diagnosis methodology. The system uses service oriented architecture (SOA) whereby the system elements of diagnosis, data portal and alternative miscellaneous services are provided. This reduces the multiple diseases showing the similar symptoms problem and it will increase the accuracy of such diagnosis. This proposed system will provide some reliable decision finding the disease for healthcare support.

  289. Dr. Pragash P. L. Rajendiren and Dr. Sathasivam Sridharan

    Purpose: Like any organization, Healthcare worldwide is also facing significant changes due to new technologies and innovations. To face these changes and to move forward Healthcare need a leader with the correct mix of Management Competencies. Lack of knowledge and training has resulted in many administrative issues surfacing and this study is focused on finding out the level of Management Competencies among the Primary Healthcare Heads. Methods: An Institutional based descriptive, cross sectional study among the Heads of the Government Primary Healthcare Institutions (GPHI), Western Province, Sri Lanka. A survey using a self-administrated questionnaire was conducted among the heads of the GPHI in Western Province. The respondents were asked to self-assess the extent to which they use the identified essential Management Competencies. Interpretation was done by comparison of the mean scores of the individual competency and as a whole. One way ANOVA, t-test and multiple comparisons were used to compare the relationship. Findings: Results show Management Competencies among the Heads in Western Province were above average with high level of Cognitive skills and relatively low in Administrative skills. The Competencies had significance levels when compared to the selected socio-demographic-educational factors. Recommendation: Emphasize more on the Administrative area when organizing workshops and training programs for Medical Officers In-charge.

  290. Dr. Ishu Agarwal, Dr Aarathi Shenoy, Dr. Vaibhav Rai, Dr. Harleen Bali, Dr. Esha Panwar and Dr. Sankalp Verma

    Dens evaginatus (DE) is an odontogenic developmental anomaly that can be defined as a tubercle or protuberance from the involved surface of the affected tooth consisting of an outer layer of enamel, a core of dentin, and may contain a slender extension of pulp tissue. Early diagnosis and management of DE is important in order to prevent occlusal interference, compromised esthetics, carious developmental grooves, periodontal problems due to excessive occlusal forces, or irritation of the tongue during speech and mastication. Hereby, authors have presented case report of young female patient with an ‘extra cusp’.

  291. Siddiqui, M. S., Pankaj Verma, Jalees Fatima and Priya Singh

    Objectives: The present study was carried out with an aim to detect correlation of CIMT, APACHE II and short-term mortality in patients with acute ischemic stroke. Methods: After ethical considerations, this prospective observational study was conducted on 50 patients of acute is chenic stroke. The diagnosis of ischemic stroke was based on the clinical profile and confirmed by CT / MRI as defined by ASA/AHA. Results: Among the 50 patients studied age of patients with acute ischemic stroke ranged from 45-78 years with a mean age of 61.18±7.59 years. Majority of patients were in 51-70 years of age (n=43; 86%).On day 1 of admission APACHE-II scores ranged from 11 to 33 with a mean value of 19.80±6.17.Day 3 APACHE score range expanded with minimum and maximum values being 8 and 34 respectively. Day 3 mean APCHE II scores were 19.50±6.80.On day 7, the range of APACHE II scores was 8 to 38 with a mean value of 22.54±9.71.Average CIMT value ranged from 0.055cm to 0.11cm with a mean value of 0.075±0.013. After one month, a total of 11 (22%) patients showed improvement, 13 (26%) showed survival without change in status. A total of 14 (28%) were lost to follow up and a total of 12 (24%) expired. Cause of mortality was ascertained as aspiration/pneumonia in majority (n=5; 41.67%), 2 (16.67%) expired owing to sepsis, 2 (16.67%) due to sepsis/AKI, 1 (8.33%) patient each died due to reinfarct/sepsis, atrial fibrillation/reinfarct and inability to feed respectively. Conclusion: Carotid intima media thickness in acute ischemic stroke patients did not provide any useful information with respect to outcome (short term mortality). There was some association of constituents of APACHE-II scores and short term mortality.

  292. Ashish Dalal, Dr. Sudhanshu Sharma and Muskaan Ahlawat

    Infantile hemangiomas (IHs), the most common vascular tumor of infancy, occur in about 10% of infants. Most lesions proliferate and then involute without any complications. Most common reported complication is ulceration occurring in16% of IHs. Currently, modalities like oral propranolol, provided better therapeutic options and side effect profile as compare to systemic corticosteroids. Few cases of propranolol resistant IH have been reported in which adjunctive modalities like topical timolol or intralesional corticosteroids can be tried.

  293. Dr. Mukesh Kumar, Dr. Rishav Singh and Dr. Sankalp Verma

    Aim: to evaluate whether the use of desensitizing dentifrices used 15 days prior to and after in-office tooth bleaching could eliminate or reduce tooth sensitivity. Materials and Methods: 60 subjects were selected and divided into 3 groups according to the dentifrice selected: Colgate Total (CT), Colgate Sensitive Pro-Relief (CS) or Sensodyne ProNamel (SP). The subjects used toothpaste and a toothbrush provided to them for 15 days prior to bleaching. They were then submitted to two in-office bleaching sessions (Whiteness HP Blue Calcium). Their tooth sensitivity was assessed using the Visual Analog Scale (VAS) for a week after each session. Their tooth shade alteration was measured with a Vitapan Classical shade guide to determine if the dentifrices could influence the effectiveness of the bleaching agent. Results: The use of desensitizing dentifrices did not affect the bleaching efficacy. In regard to tooth sensitivity, there was a statistically significant difference between the results of the Control Group and Group T2 after the first session (p = 0.042). There was no statistically significant difference in the results for the other groups after the first session. In regard to the second session, there was no statistically significant difference in the results for all the groups. Conclusion: The use of a desensitizing dentifrice containing nitrate potassium reduced tooth sensitivity during the bleaching regimen. Dentifrices containing arginine and calcium carbonate did not reduce tooth sensitivity. Color change was not influenced by the dentifrices used.

  294. Mohammed, R. El-Bediwi and Ahmed, I. Youssef

    The objectives of this study were to determine the incidence of Listeria spp. and Listeria monocytogenes isolated from two types of imported frozen and fresh locally marine fish samples obtained from fish markets in Damietta, Egypt. A total of 400 fish samples, comprising 100 samples each of fresh Saurus, fresh Sardines, frozen Saurus and frozen Sardines, were collected from different public fish markets at Damietta Governorate. Listeria isolation was performed according to FDA, (2011) protocols. Standard microbiological techniques were confirmed to L. monocytogenes by PCRAmplification of a fragment of hyla gene. The present data revealed that the overall incidence of Listeria spp. in was (13.75%), whereas the overall incidence of L. monocytogenes was (4.5%). Listeria spp. were isolated from fresh Saurus fish, fresh Sardines, frozen Saurus and frozen Sardines as 25(25%), 16(16%), 8(8%), 6(6%), respectively. The highest prevalence (25%) of Listeria spp. were observed in fresh Saurus, while the lowest prevalence was detected in frozen Sardines (6%). Ten isolates (10%) from fresh Saurus fish samples were confirmed to L. monocytogenes, while L. Monocytogenes was not isolated from frozen Sardines. The highest incidence of L. monocytogenes was in Kafr Saad 7/128 (5.4%) and Damietta city 9/44 (5.11%). Serovar determination of L. monocytogenes18 isolates revealed that the serovar 1/2a was the predominant L. monocytogenes serovar in the samples tested in the present study. It was isolated from the examined fresh fish and frozen Saurus while Serovar 1/2c was isolated from fresh Sardine only and Serovar 4b was isolated from fresh Saurus only. In conclusion, this study showed that L.monocytogenes were common contaminant of fish obtained from Damietta fish markets, and this may pose serious public health implications.

  295. Dr. Sonam Mahajan, Dr. Rohit Chawla,3Dr. Ruchi Gupta, Dr. Pardeep Mahajan, Dr. Prashant Monga and Dr. Deepika Singla

    Background: A growing interest in endodontic retreatment has been seen recently to preserve teeth where endodontic therapy has failed. Effective removal of gutta-percha in endodontic retreatment is a significant factor to ensure a favorable outcome from failed procedures. Objective: To compare the efficacy of two nickel-titanium rotary retreatment systems versus stainless steel hand files for gutta-percha removal with or without solvent. Materials and Methods: Ninety freshly extracted human mandibular premolar teeth were prepared and filled. They were divided into 6 groups according to the type of retreatment regimen used: Gates-Glidden and H-files, Gates-Glidden and H-files with chloroform, ProTaper Universal rotary retreatment system, and ProTaper Universal rotary retreatment system with chloroform, MTwo R rotary system and MTwo R rotary system with chloroform. The teeth were longitudinally sectioned and photographed. The images were analyzed under stereomicroscope and the filling remnants were quantified by using the IMAGE TOOL 3.0 software. ANOVA and unpaired ‘t’ test were used for analysis. Results: A significant difference between the rotary retreatment files and hand files in regard to the amount of the endodontic filling remnants (p>.05) was seen. Conclusion: All of the techniques proved helpful for the removal of endodontic filling material, but MTwo R rotary system without chloroform left cleaner canals as compared to other techniques.

  296. Muddasir Banday, Samina Farhat, Iffat Hassan and Syed Sajad Hussain

    Aim: Cutaneous adverse drug reactions (CADRs) are the commonest presentations of drug induced reactions. The present study was conducted to study the clinical pattern, causative agents and magnitude of CADRs. Materials and Methods: A prospective hospital based study was carried out by the department of pharmacology and dermatology in SMHS hospital. The study was conducted from june 2013 to june 2016 on admitted patients of CADRs. After obtaining an informed consent, these reactions were reported on a structured questionnaire based on ADR monitoring form provided by the Central Drug Standard control Organization (CDSCO) Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India. The CADRs were analyzed for their pattern, causative agents, severity and prognosis. Causality assessment was done by using a validated ADR probability scale of Naranjo as well as WHO-Uppsala Monitoring Centre (WHO-UMC) system for standardized case causality assessment. The management protocols were analyzed for their clinical outcome through a proper follow up period. Results: A total of 65 inpatients were identified as CADRs, 26% were males and 74% were females. Age group ranged from 2 – 65 years with average age of 37 years. 7 different types of CADRs were noted, most common being maculopapular drug eruption (25%), urticarias (18%), SJS(17%), TEN(14%), FDE (14%), anticonvulsant hypersensitivity syndrome(9%) and urticarial vasculitis (3%). TEN was seen in all females (100%) and in no male. Drugs implicated in causing these cutaneous reactions were identified as Phenytoin (24.6%), Fluoroquinolones (20%), Carbamazepine (15.3%), piroxicam i.m(15.3%), lamotrigine (9.2%), phenobarbitone(3%), sulfasalazine (3%), risedronate, cefixime, cefpodoxime, amoxcicillin, ayurvedic medicine and capecitabine all (1.5%). Despite higher reported mortality rates in SJS and TEN all patients survived with 2 patients surviving TEN suffered from long term ophthalmological sequelae of the disease. Conclusion: Present study concludes that CADRs are common manifestations of various drug therapies ranging from simple nuisance rashes to rare life threatening diseases like SJS and TEN. North Indian ethnic population has great predisposition of CADRs due to aromatic antiepileptic drugs, fluroquinolones, oxicam NSAIDs, lamotrigine and other antibiotics. To ensure safe use of pharmaceutical agents and newer molecules/ biologicals post marketing voluntary reporting of severe, rare and unusual reactions remains inevitable.

  297. Dr. Nimish Anand Salunkhe and Dr. Shweta Chaudhary

    Change is inevitable. With the advent of time, several changes have occurred in the field of dentistry as well. The era of smart materials has changed the face of dentistry drastically. Smart materials are materials that have properties which may be altered in a controlled fashion by various stimuli. Several such materials are discussed in this paper. Understanding their use and application in specific situations seems to pose a challenge for many dentists. With further research and development, there still is scope to go one step further and develop a class of multi-functional materials which will possess the capability to select and execute specific functions intelligently in order to respond to changes in the local environment. The benefit for the patient and the quality of dental therapy will undergo a significant improvement if such materials are developed and introduced.

  298. Dr. Shilpi Gupta, Dr. Rahul Mishra and Dr. Gunjan Verma

    Stem cells can self-renew and produce different cell types, thus providing new strategies to regenerate missing tissues and treat diseases. In the field of periodontology, adult mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) have been identified in several oral and periodontal tissues, which suggests that the oral tissues are a rich source of stem cells, and iral stem and mucosal cells are expected to provide an ideal source for genetically reprogrammed cells such as induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. Furthermore, oral tissues are expected to be not only a source but also a therapeutic target for stem cells, as stem cell and tissue engineering therapies in dentistry continue to attract increasing clinical interest. Additionally, appropriate sources of stem cells for regenerative periodontology are discussed with regard to differentiation capacity, accessibility and possible immunomodulatory properties.

  299. Avvai, T., Rajkumar, J. S., Prabhakaran Raju, Anirudh Rajkumar and Deepa Ganesh

    This series of 3 Retroperitoneal laparoscopic excisions using the alternating hands of the surgeonsintroduced through Pfannenstiel incision to facilitate traction, retraction and dissection in the surgery of these complex tumors is published to highlight the use of the specimen extraction incision. As these large solid tumors need to be removed through incisions a few inches long, we have used the incisions to insert a hand and facilitate the surgery. Also, a small Pfannenstiel will not affect the post-operative respiratory function as would a large midline or lateral incision. Perhaps in the future, hybrid procedures combining the hand and laparoscope would dominate over either procedure alone.

  300. Bushra Nazeer, Naseer Ahmed, Saba Faruqui, Mohammad Asif Ali Ansari Afsheen Maqsood, and Hudebia Allah Buksh

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine patient satisfaction by evaluating all factors influence removable dentures. Materials and Method: It was a questionnaire based study. Total of 100 patients participated in this study who was already denture wearers. Consent was taken from each participant. Results: After statistical analysis, all factors such as phonetics, pain, mastication, taste and esthetics were rated high by patients. Conclusion: After prosthodontic treatment patients show high level of satisfaction with their prosthesis though showing positive impact of prosthesis on oral health.

  301. Alabsi, M.

    The human are exposed to several prospect of toxic agents and unstable income conditions in their environments. These agents may be physically, socially, or chemically, that may enter the body through oral, inhalational, or transdermal paths. Several well-known as well as lesser known associations exist between chronic kidney disease (CKD) and physical and social environments agents and conditions, such as living area, toxin wastes, unsafety water, smoking, use pesticides and insecticides, and socio- economic status. The effects of these agents may be modulated by genetic susceptibility and other comorbid conditions and may lead to the developing CKD. This case control study aimed to determine the main risk factors of CKD among children in Gaza governorates (GGs). The sample study consisted of 400 child; 200 cases and 200 controls. The participants were selected from those medical files at Al-Ranteesy hospital while the controls were chosen from the main governmental primary health care centers in each governorate. The result shows significant positive association with living area in camps and villages, living near hazards, and unsafety drinking water was confirmed. The study concluded that most of the risk factors appeared are avoidable. It is found necessary to follow home care, encouraging child health screening for UTI and other urologic problems, controlling of environmental hazard can decrease the risks of CKD in GGs.

  302. Dr. Rajeshwar Digra, Dr. Nidhi Gupta, Dr. Pooja Ahuja and Dr. Yashveer Raghav

    Aim of this cross sectional survey was to evaluate the dentition and periodontal status of the prison inmates. Material and method WHO format of 1997 was used to extract data for the dentition status and periodontal status using WHO criteria of oral health survey. Results A total of 1274 inmates was included in the study from two prisons of Ambala district. Highest score of 2 for CPI was found among 64.8% of subjects indicating poor periodontal health required immediate attention. Tobacco related habits were also found to be common among prisoners as it was found in 59.9% of the subjects. Dentition status showed the number of sound teeth per person was 26.38 while number of decayed teeth per person was 2.32. Mean number of Teeth filled with and without decay were 0.07 and 0.13 in number, respectively. Mean number of teeth missing due to caries was 0.83 while teeth missing due to other reasons were 1.38. Conclusion Access to oral health care is important to every individual to maintain oral health and this factor implies on prisoner community. Simpler way of preventing disease is to increase awareness among prisoners community about oral health.

  303. Tamilkani, P., Karnan, M., Kanimozhi, K. and Panneerselvam, A.

    Feather waste are generated in large quantities as a byproduct of commercial poultry processing as well as through natural process. Feathers are made up of primarily keratin which is resistant to common proteolytic enzymes such as pepsin, trypsin and papain. Environmental pollution and degradation of ecosystem have assumed significance owing to an increase in the accumulation of the wastes from industries, agriculture and poultry. In India, poultry feathers, animal hairs and other keratin sources are being thrown. Keeping this in mind, the present study was planned to isolate and identify the effective feather degrading bacterial organisms. The soil sample from Thanjavur Station was taken for isolation of bacterial colonies using Nutrient Agar Medium. The bacterial organisms were identified and the effective strain was used for further study.

  304. Dr. Bolde, S. A., Dr. Pudale, S, S., Dr. Nikhar, C. K., Dr. Pandit, G. A. and Dr. Kamble, S.

    Introduction: Lump in the neck is the most likely clinical problem to be encountered. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is found to be simple, safe, cheap, OPD based procedure which is very useful in diagnosing cervical lymphadenitis, which are superficial and easily accessible, and have very little cosmetic damage. Aims: To diagnose various cervical lymph node lesions by FNAC and to correlate FNAC findings clinically and histopathologically. Material and method: This two years prospective study was done in department of Pathology in tertiary care center. A total of 234 FNAC were included in this study. Detailed clinical history, physical examination and investigations were recorded. Results: Out of 234 cases of cervical lymph node aspiration, maximum belonged to nonneoplastic category, followed by malignant lesions in 20 cases. Tuberculous lymphadenitis was the most common non neoplastic lesion encountered in 102 cases (48.11%). Malignant lesion were detected in 20 cases (8.54%), in which metastatic squamous cell carcinoma accounted for 12 cases, followed by adenocarcinoma (2 cases) and lymphoma (6 cases). Thus, FNAC plays an important role in separating inflammatory lesions from cystic and neoplastic lesions in which no surgical excision is required. Early specific diagnosis allows prompt and appropriate treatment.

  305. Sathees Chandra Mouli, G., CH. Uma Reddy, Steffina Lydia Jascinth, A., Chandra Sekar, L., Feroz Khan, A. and Anitha, M.

    Varicella zoster virus is a herpes virus, it causes both primary and recurrent infection and remains latent in neurons present in sensory ganglia. A case report of herpes zoster involving mandibular division of trigeminal nerve with differential diagnosis and treatment is discussed here. This article enlightens the knowledge of dental practitioner to diagnose and manage the disease.

  306. Bashir Abdrhman Bashir

    Dengue fever (DF) is endemic in the Red Sea State, Sudan. The objective of this study was to describe the clinical and laboratory investigations of dengue in patients of Port Sudan teaching hospital, Sudan, from February 2013 to April 2014. About 334 patients were enrolled in this study. Their mean age was 30±15 years. Males outnumbered females by a ratio 1.9:1. Of them, 289 patients (86.5%) had classic dengue fever. 45 patients (13.5%) had dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF), classified as 31 patients (9.3%) had DHF I; 12 patients (3.6%) had DHF II and two of them developed dengue shock syndrome (DSS) and died (0.6%). The common clinical demographic findings were high grade fever (100%), headache (84.4%), joint pain (78.4%), backache (59.3%), myalgia (46.7%), retro-orbital pain (20.7%), skin rash (8.4%) and hemorrhagic manifestations (10.5%). The significant laboratory findings were thrombocytopenia in (83.5%) patients, leukopenia in (53%) of patients, prolonged prothrombin time (PT) and partial thromboplastin time (PTT) in (9.0%) and (12.6%) of patients respectively. Reduced fibrinogen (FB) was noted in (18.3%) of patients. A strong positive correlation was showed between prolonged PTT and patients that developed bleeding episodes (P < 0.000).

  307. Luilson Geraldo Coelho Júnior, Rafaela Araújo Guizetti, Alessandra de Paiva Wanderley, Thales Carvalho Araújo, Débora Gonçalves da Silva and Daniela de Stefani Marquez

    The Hypopituitarism is a chronic clinical condition of multifactorial etiology, defined as the total or partial function loss of the pituitary gland, leading to a poor secretion of hormones from anterior and posterior pituitary gland. Occurs from pituitary, hypothalamus, and surrounding structures diseases. With varying clinical presentation, the hypopituitarism is often insidious; being that the clinical manifestations are determined by the severity, extent and duration of the disease, furthermore, depends on the severity of hormone deficiency. This clinical condition has high morbidity and mortality, and the diagnosis and treatment when instituted early, change the prognosis of the patient. Hormone replacement therapy should be individualized according to the specific needs of each patient. We describe a case in which the patient with pan-hypopituitarism showed an exuberant response to late start of hormone replacement therapy with GH.

  308. Dr. Vibhute Nupura A., Dr. Vibhute Aniket H., Dr Pramod, R.C., Dr. Daule Rajendra, T. Dr. Daule Neelima, R. and Dr. Mahalle Aditi, P.

    In recent times Zika virus has dominated the global attention of health care researchers. Though the virus has been known since 1947, it has caused lot of panic and alarm among many countries. It has become the first major infectious disease linked to human birth defects to be discovered in more than half a century and has created such a global alarm that the World Health Organization (WHO)has declared it a Public Health Emergency of International Concern. Though the viral fever caused by it has fairly common signs and symptoms, infection during pregnancy has been known to cause microcephaly and other brain malformations in some babies. Infection in adults has been linked to Guillain–Barré syndrome (GBS). While there is no specific treatment, paracetamol (acetaminophen) and rest may help with the symptoms. Prevention involves decreasing mosquitoes bites in areas where the disease occurs and proper use of condoms. Numerous companies and institutions internationally are developing vaccines against Zika, virus.

  309. Dr. Gayathri, P.S., Dr. Sumathy, C. and Dr. Saraswathi Gopal, K.

    The Acinic cell carcinoma represents about 1% of all salivary gland tumors. Between 90 and 95% of these tumors are found in the parotid gland. Clinically if the site is parotid gland, it may resemble a pleomorphic adenoma. Some of these tumors metastasize or recur and cause death, it is generally agreed that acinic cell adenocarcinoma should be considered a low-grade malignancy. We report a case of acinic cell carcinoma involving the parotid gland which had a history of more than 5 years. It presented as a huge mass involving the right parotid gland with no history of pain or discomfort. The parotid mass was surgically excised and histopathologically proven to be acinic cell carcinoma.

  310. Laila M. Montaser, Hadeer A. Abbassy and Sherin M. Fawzy

    The ability to heal soft tissue injuries and regenerate cartilage is the Holy Grail of musculoskeletal medicine. Articular cartilage repair and regeneration is considered to be largely intractable due to the poor regenerative properties of this tissue. Due to their low self-repair ability, cartilage defects that result from joint injury, aging, or osteoarthritis, are the most often irreversible and are a major cause of joint pain and chronic disability. However, current methods do not perfectly restore hyaline cartilage and may lead to the apparition of fibro- or continue hypertrophic cartilage. The lack of efficient modalities of treatment has prompted research into tissue engineering combining stem cells, scaffold materials and environmental factors. The field of articular cartilage tissue engineering, which aims to repair, regenerate, and/or improve injured or diseased cartilage functionality, has evoked intense interest and holds great potential for improving cartilage therapy. Plasma-rich in growth factors (PRGF) and/or stem cells may be effective for tissue repair as well as cartilage regenerative processes. There is a great promise to advance current cartilage therapies toward achieving a consistently successful approach for addressing cartilage afflictions. Tissue engineering may be the best way to reach this objective via the use of stem cells, novel biologically inspired scaffolds and, emerging nanotechnology. In this paper, current and emergent approach in the field of cartilage tissue engineering is presented for specific application. In the next years, the development of new strategies using stem cells, in scaffolds, with supplementation of culture medium could improve the quality of newly formed cartilage.

  311. Dr. Swati Kumar, Dr. Shruthi Acharya, Dr. Keerthilatha M Pai, Dr. Adarsh Kudva, Dr. Vathsala Patil and Dr. Prem Bhushan

    We are reporting a case of Pleomorphic adenoma in a 30-year-old, otherwise healthy female patient in an extremely unusual site of left upper buccal vestibule. Since the site of the tumour is extremely rare, increased awareness of such cases is essential, and they should be included in the differential diagnosis of cheek masses especially in young female patients.

  312. Dr. Parth Aphale and Dr. Atul Rajgurav

    Anxiety is at the rise in today’s world. Anxiety neurosis is one of the commonest disorder which is found in today’s youth. This particular research was aimed at studying the neuro-pharmacological (anxiolytic) & analgesic effect of arnica plant extract in students. A. montana crude extract exhibited potent anxiolytic & analgesic effect as compared to modern anxiolytic & analgesic drugs which include NSAID’s namely diazepam derivative, paracetamol, etc. Diazepam, Paracetamol were used as reference drugs. Significant analgesic response was observed at the low dosage of arnica montana extract as compared to routine NSAID’s. These results were suggestive that the extract of A. montana possess significant analgesic and anxiolytic effect.

  313. Dr. Manasvi Praveen Kumar, Dr. Shahaji Deshmukh and Dr. Erach Bharucha

    Introduction: The interval between two surgeries is one of the important determinants of efficiency of an operation theatre. While shortening the time between two surgeries is related to efficiency, undue haste can be counterproductive as it increases risks related to infection and accident. Thus this is an optimum inter surgery period that removes unnecessary waste of time but pays extra attention. This delay can be improved by using a protocol which can improve efficiency and reduce risks. This interval is called the operation theatre changeover time. Aim: The aim of this paper is to explore the factors responsible for variations in change over time in the operation theatre related to general surgical procedures and to come up with the suggestion to optimize it. Material and Methods: Thirty instances of changeover time were captured by following general surgery patient in a general surgery operation theatre of a teaching hospital of Maharashtra. Data was collected through direct observation with the help of a checklist. Results: The average changeover time computed in general surgery operation theatre is 36.5 minutes, median 30 minutes. Whereas cleaning time is13 minutes, setup time is11 minutes and documentation time is 9 minute. Delay in clean up or set up of operation theatre for next procedure is an important factor which is one of the common reason for dissatisfaction among healthcare professionals in operation theatre.

  314. Purnima Bordoloi and Bidyut Banerjee

    Background: Immunization programme is an important determinant of the health status in a region. Full awareness regarding usefulness and safety of vaccines are required. Proper evaluation of vaccine related adverse events are essential. Objective of study was to analyze pattern of Adverse Events Following Immunization (AEFI) in children below 12 years of age. Methods: Observational prospective study was carried out in the Department of Paediatrics, Gauhati Medical College & Hospital, Guwahati, where children receiving routine immunization were analyzed & followed up through telephonic survey of parents. Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) form was used to record AEFI. Results: Total 1378 children received total of 3361 vaccine doses. 17.7% AEFI were reported. Most common AEFI per 1000 doses of all vaccinations was Fever. DPT vaccine was most common vaccine associated with AEFI. Conclusions: Strengthening of AEFI reporting and assessment is essential for improving immunization coverage.

  315. Pawan Dangi, Pradeep Shukla, C. S. Joshi, Gaurav Malhotra, Varun Dahiya and Prerna Kataria

    Aim: To evaluate and compare the clinical efficacy of laser, cyanoacrylate and laser with cyanoacrylate in the treatment of dentine hypersensitivity. Materials and Methods: The study sample comprised of 150 sites out of which 50 sites were assigned to the group 1 (laser and cyanoacrylate), 50 sites were assigned to the group 2 (soft tissue laser irradiation) and 50 sites were assigned to group 3 (cyanoacrylate). Clinical parameters were recorded at the baseline, at 1 day and at 1 month following therapy using VAS SCALE. Results: Change in the scores of pain of air blast test was observed in all the groups from baseline to follow up. At baseline 7.44 mean was observed, 4.20 at 01 day which was changed to 3.58 at follow-up. Whereas in group II, 7.28 mean was observed, 3.80 at 01 day and changed to 3.26 at follow-up and in group III at baseline 7.28 mean was observed, 4.12 at 01 day and changed to 3.50at follow-up. Change in the scores of pain of cold spray test was observed in all the groups from baseline to follow up. At baseline 7.44 mean was observed, 4.36 at 01 day which was changed to 3.66 at follow-up. Whereas in group II, 7.28 mean was observed, 4.02 at 01 day and changed to 3.16 at follow-up and in group III at baseline 7.36 mean was observed, 4.34 at 01 day and changed to 3.62 at follow-up. It was found to be statistically significant. (p= 0.00) Conclusion: According to the results, all the groups registered significant improvements of discomfort from dentinal hypersensitivity. No statistically different results were observed between Cyanoacrylate glue and the low-intensity laser in the reduction of dentinal hypersensitivity but if they both used together their results were high.

  316. Barkha Devi, Dr. Bidita Khandelwal and Mridula Das

    Introduction: A maternal death is widely regarded as one of life’s most tragic outcomes. There is a cruel irony in the death of a woman who is engaged in the act of creating life, and her death is an incomparable loss for any children who are left behind. Such deaths are almost entirely preventable given proper medical surveillance and intervention, and as such maternal mortality is often viewed as a sentinel indicator of the quality of a health care delivery system. Thus future nurses’ attitudes towards Obstetrical palpation are important to research and understand, especially in a country with a high prevalence of maternal death. Objectives: The purpose of this study is to assess the attitude of student nurse midwives towards obstetrical palpation at selected nursing institute of, Sikkim. Hence the present study was planned to assess and compare the attitude towards obstetrical palpation among nursing students from different nursing programe. Methods: A Non experimental survey approach with descriptive comparative research design was used to assess the attitude of student nurse midwives towards obstetrical palpation at Sikkim Manipal College of Nursing, Vinayaka Mission College of Nursing and School of Nursing, STNM hospital Gangtok, Sikkim, India. Data were collected using structured attitude scale for which validity and reliability was ensured. Purposive sampling technique was used to select 92 student nurse midwives who were currently undergoing 3rd yr GNM, 3rd yr B.Sc. Nursing, 4th year B.Sc. Nursing and 1st year PBBSc nursing programme , attended regular classes on obstetrical palpation, available at the time of data collection and willing to participate. Results: The findings revealed that the overall attitude score was found high among the students nurse midwives. In terms of level of attitude score between different nursing programme, 94.1% PBBSc nursing students, were having favorable attitude towards obstetrical palpation as compared to other programme, the reason might be higher side of their age and previous experience. The findings also reveals that the obtained chi square value for students exposure to mass media related to obstetrical palpation (5.478*, P<0.05) and total midwifery hours attended (6.765*, P<0.05) was found significant. Conclusions: The great majority of the students were agreed upon the areas of obstetrical palpation. The attitude of students nurse can be influenced by the information received through other sources on antenatal examination as well as the total number of theory hours attended in Midwifery subject. 39% still performed obstetrical palpation less than ten times throughout the year with quiet a good number of allotted clinical hours. Hence, although the attitude towards obstetrical palpation was favorable, but some weakness still exist which posed as hindrance to its performance.

  317. Samuel Aziz Fahmi Salib

    Aim: To introducenew theory of viral origin “Muton” and the available data on the virus origin, types, pathogeneses, and treatment. Methods: An analytic descriptive study, conducted to show new theory of viruses origin, and explore the published reports and article in international journals depending of PubMed search engine from June 2016 to August 2016. Conclusions: Viruses impact all forms of life. When the cell exposes to the vanishing power, most components sometimes vanish leaving only core and sheath protein. This nucleus is a viral cellulous called Muton caused by vanishing the living cell and the core which is usually called (DNA) of the transformed cell. Virus separates (DNA) of the original cell from it and the Virus installs it’s (DNAC) inside the cell. The origin of viruses remains a debatable topic. Early pioneers of virology studied bacteriophages, plant viruses such as TMV, and smallpox virus that caused large numbers of outbreaks and mortalities throughout recorded human history.

  318. Abdulkareem Hussain Alwan

    Background: Dentinal hypersensitivity (DH) is a common clinical condition of multifactorial etiology affecting one or more teeth. It can affect patients of any age group. It is a painful response usually associated with exposed dentinal tubules of a vital tooth. Objectives: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of dentinal hypersensitivity (DH);to examine the intra-oral distribution of dentine hypersensitivity( DH) and to determine the association of dentine hypersensitivity with age, sex and address in a sample population in Sulaimani city-Kurdistan region-Iraq. Methods: The prevalence, distribution, and possible causal factors of dentin hypersensitivity will be studied in a population attending the periodontal department, School of Dentistry, University of Sulaimani, Medical Factuality, Kurdistan region-Iraq. The stratified sample consist of 1571 (763 male and 808 female), the age (10-70 years). The patients examined for the presence of dentin hypersensitivity by means of a questionnaire and intraoral tests (air and probe stimuli). The details included teeth and sites involved with DH and the age and sex of people affected, symptoms, stimuli, pre-disposing factors. Chi-square tests were used to determine significant factors associated with DH (<0.05). Results: There were non-significant differences in presence of: DH in males and females in relation to the residency; DH in males and females in relation to the cause; DH in males and females in relation to the stimuli; DH in males and females in relation to the site, DH in males in relation to the affected teeth upper vs. lower in the right side, DH in females in relation to the affected teeth upper vs. lower in the right side. While there were high significant differences in presence of: DH in males and females in relation to the occupation; DH in right vs. left in the lower arch and In the collective frequency of the presence of DH in both males and females in relation to the affected teeth in each quadrant. Conclusions: There were non-significant differences in presence of DH in relation to the residency, cause, stimuli, site. DH is more in females than males. It is more in young than old patients. The major effective cause of DH is gingival recession and the most affected site with DH is the cervical region.

  319. Preetinderkaur

    IPV, Child abuse and Neglect is common and unrecognized problem in community. Pregnancy when coupled with domestic violence in the form of IPV health risks may be amplified. A descriptive study was conducted on 100 mothers residing in district Ludhiana, Punjab. Convenient sampling technique was used to draw the study sample. A questionnaire to assess socio-demographic characteristics, Modified WAST to assess IPV, Modified CTSPC to assess Child abuse and Neglect were developed and used for data collection. The result of present study revealed statistically significant weak positive correlation between Intimate Partner Violence and Child Abuse (r=0.323,p=0.001) and statistically non-significant i.e. negative correlation between Intimate Partner Violence and Child Neglect (r=-0.068,p=0.501). The study findings concluded statistically significant weak positive correlation between Intimate Partner Violence and Child Abuse and statistically non significant i.e. negative correlation between Intimate Partner Violence and Child Neglect.

  320. Anzar Ashraf, Dr. Anita Chakravarti, Dr. Priyamvada Roy, Dr. Premashish Kar, Dr. Oves Siddiqui and Dr. Shipra Goel

    Objectives: Mutations in NS5A region of HCV genome have been shown to mediate IFN α resistance in few instances other than genotype 1. This study was planned to analyze NS5A sequences from patients infected with HCV 3 and 1. Methods: Forty patients positive for HCV antibodies and HCV RNA, who were on the pegylated-IFN-α and ribavirin therapy, were studied. Blood samples were collected before and after therapy. Genotyping was done by restriction fragment length polymorphism. Biochemical profile was measured before and after therapy. Pre and post-treatment quantitative detection of HCV RNA was performed by real-time PCR. Direct and nested-PCR for amplification of genotype-1 and genotype-3 was done. Sequencing was performed by Sanger dideoxy method. Phylogenetic tree of HCV NS5A region sequences were constructed. Secondary structure of NS5A region of HCV was predicted. Results: Twenty-five patients responded to therapy, while 15 did not. Twenty seven and 13 patients were found to be infected with genotype 3 and 1 respectively. SGOT and SGPT showed significant difference between responders and non-responders. Thirteen and 27 patients were infected with HCV genotype 1 and 3 respectively. Base line viral load was more in non-responders as compared to responders. Genotype 3 was more responsive to therapy. Significant difference between no. of mutations in responders and non-responders was observed in NS5A-PKRBD and extended V3 region. Changes were found in secondary structure of NS5A region. Conclusions: Knowledge of HCV genotype, presence of mutations in NS5A region and secondary structure changes are essential for predicting outcome of therapy.

  321. Emmanuel Dhiravia Sargunam, A., Deepak, C., Maheeder, V. and Ravindran, C.

    Zygomaticomaxillary fractures are the most common fractures that can occur in the maxillofacial region. Fracture of these zygomafractures can be managed by different methods. Fracture in the zygomaticosphenoidsuture is difficult to visualize clinically .Post-operative radiographs are the only way to assess the adequacy of reduction of these fractures. This article describes a technique that uses the C-Arm to quickly and accurately evaluate the reduction intraoperatively so that appropriate corrections can be made.

  322. Ankit Kaushik, Kusum Gupta, Neha Tyagi and Sachin Kolte

    Chondroid syringoma or mixed tumor of skin is an uncommon benign skin adnexal tumor of eccrine/apocrine origin constituting nearly 1 % of the total skin tumors. Chondroid syringoma shows marked variation in morphology. Chondroid syringoma with squamous metaplasia is a difficult clinical and cytological diagnosis on cytology because of overlapping cytological features with skin adnexal lesion like pilomatrixoma. We present a case report of 25 year old women, presented with right cheek swelling for duration of three months. The prominent cytological findings were abundant squamous cells in the cytological aspirate along with basaloid epithelial cells component and chondroidmyxoid matrix. This case provides insight in to how Chondroid syringoma with squamous metaplasia because of its unusual cytological findings presents as a diagnostic challenge on cytology.

  323. Dr. Vivek Sonawane, Dr. Sameer Patil, Dr. Manisha Pathak and Dr. Vittaldas Shetty

    Objective: Malocclusion is a common oral disorder and can cause negative impact on oral conditions, social life and a person’s self-confidence; more so in dentists. The objective of this study was to determine whether orthodontic treatment influences Oral Health Related Quality Of Life (OHRQoL) in dental students. Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional design with self-reported data were collected from 30 dental students in a dental college in Pune city (mean age-21.71 years) in “pre- orthodontic treatment” and “post- orthodontic treatment” groups. The measure namely (Oral Health Impact Profile) OHIP-14 questionnaire was used to assess the students’ OHQoL. Results: A significant difference in impact was found in seven questions and four domains (Psychological discomfort, Psychological Disability, Social Disability and Handicap) of OHIP-14 between the two groups (P<0.05).It was found that there is improvement in patient satisfaction after orthodontic treatment. (≈ 21.43%) Conclusion: Patients who had completed orthodontic treatment had a better OHRQoL in psychological and physical aspects than before the treatment.

  324. Dr. Shamila Shetty, Dr. Mohitha Shetty, Dr. Nandini Manjunath, Dr. Roshan Athikari and Dr. Mohammed Basil

    Aim: The aim of this study was to compare and evaluate the antibacterial efficacy of alcoholic extract of coffe a canephora on periodontal pathogenic bacteria Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg), Prevotella intermedia (Pi), Fusobacterium nucleatum (Fn) and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (Aa) with 0.2 % chlorhexidine gluconate and distilled water. Materials and methods: The alcoholic extract of coffea canephora was obtained using percolation technique with ethanol as a solvent. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and disk diffusion test were used to assess the antibacterial activity of alcoholic extract of coffea canephora on periodontal pathogenic bacteria with 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate as positive control and distilled water as negative control. Results: The disk diffusion test and the MIC showed that the coffea canephora extract showed antibacterial activity against the four periodontal pathogens which is comparable to chlorhexidine. Conclusion: Alcoholic coffea canephora extract possess good antibacterial activity against Aa, Pg, Pi and Fn and thus would be beneficial for the prevention and treatment of periodontal disease.

  325. Dr. Sonia Ahuja, Dr. Saloni Mistry, Dr. JyotiKarani and Dr. Vishrut Bhatnagar

    Rehabilitation in the anterior esthetic zone has always posed a challenge to the “ABLE” practitioner. The position of the anterior teeth is crucial in creating a life-like prosthesis. Dental appearance is extremely important because it affects the self-esteem of the patient, especially for a socially active and young patient. With the evolution and advancement in the field of dental ceramics, all-ceramic systems provide a choice between various materials which give performance in terms of both esthetics and function. However, it’s not just the choice of material based of its chemical constituents but there are a lot of factors that influence the final esthetic outcome. This is a case report of esthetic rehabilitation in the anterior esthetic zone using IPS e.max ceramic system along correction of gingival zenith level using laser surgery to obtain a striking balance between red and white esthetics.

  326. Dr. Harshavardhan Talla, Dr. Vijaya Laxmi Nimma, Dr. Aravind Kumbakonam, Dr. Sandeep V. and Dr. Deepa Chillakuru

    Introduction: The strongest bone in the human body is mandible as it persists in a well-preserved state. The forensic dentist commonly uses the morphological features of the mandible in the determination of sex. Among many anatomical landmarks, the mental foramen is a stable landmark on the mandible. It is a small funnel-like opening in the antero- lateral aspect of the mandible at the terminus of the mental canal near the apices of premolars. Aim: The purpose of this study is to determine the gender from the analysis of mental foramen on panoramic radiographs in South Indian population. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 300 orthopantamograms for analysis of mental foramen in population with chronological age range 18-60 years Results: The average values of S-L and I-L were significantly higher in males than in females, while the distances for the right side is higher than the left side both the male and the females group, and the results were significant.

  327. Dr. Shailaja V. Patel and Dr. Vaittianadane, K.

    Background: Bronchiectasis unrelated to cystic fibrosis (non-CF bronchiectasis) is a chronic respiratory condition characterized by bronchial dilatation secondary to airway inflammation, infection and dysfunction of mucociliary clearance. patient with bronchiectasis may have reduced QOLand increase anxiety and depression , reduced exercise tolerance due to prolong episode of dyspnea, excessive sputum production, breathlessness, exercise limitation and recurrent infection. Many patients experience recurrent exacerbations, with more frequent exacerbations predicting a poorer prognosis. Pulmonary rehabilitation is multidisciplinary approach which incorporates self-management strategies to promote treatment adherence and this approach has been advocated for bronchiectasis. Ground-based walking training improves quality of life and exercise capacity in patient with pulmonary disease. The aim of this study is to evaluate the short term and long term effect of PR and ground based walking on exercise tolerance and cough related quality of life in non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis patient, and to compare effect of ground base walking and PR on exercise tolerance and cough related quality of life in non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis patient. Method: patient who were referred by pulmonologist and already diagnosed as having non-cystic fibrosis on CT-scan investigation were assessed before recruitment in the study.46 patient who matched inclusion and exclusion criteria were included in the study. subjects were allocated into two equal group using random table that is control group and experimental group. experimental group was treated with PR and control group treated with ground base walking for 8-weeks.outcome measure were taken at base line and after 8-week of study. After two month of study, frequency of acute exacerbation were measured .patient were asked to maintain record of acute exacerbation for 2-month.this data will collected by telephone interview. Result: Results showed a significant improvement in both the groups but, more improvement was seen in experimental group compared to control group. Conclusion: 8-week of PR is more beneficial than ground based walking in patient with non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis. Frequency of acute exacerbation was reduced in PR group than control group after 2 month of follow-up.

  328. Dr. Satyam Chakraborty, Dr. Lakshmi Dey, Dr. Ashish Kumar Basu, Dr. Animesh Maiti, Dr. Anirban Sinha, Dr. Praveen Devarbhavi and Dr. Subir Swar

    Wereport a case of 26 year old Indian male patient of hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism. The patient presented ten years earlier to a centre where he was diagnosed to have hypogonadism which was central in origin along with anosmia. Eventually a diagnosis of kallman’s was made. The patient was discharged with an advice of monthly injections of Testosterone which the patient was injected on three occasions & was lost to follow-up. Our case points out a possible misdiagnosis of Kallmann’s if other differentials are not kept in mind. Cardiac conduction defects have been documented for the first time in CHARGE for the first time to the best of our knowledge. A corrected cleft palate may at times mask aatreticchoanalaperture, one of the major criteria for CHARGE. All the above points make our case unique. Finally, a diagnosis of CHARGE was made based on the appropriate investigations and managed accordingly.

  329. Ranjan Satish Kumar, Om Prakash, Ahmed Aftab, Kumar Rajesh And Usha Preeti

    Background and Objectives: Ileostomy or colostomy is often constructed in emergency surgical conditions like enteric or tubercular perforations when patients present late in the course of illness to preclude primary closure. But the ostomy carries with it lot of morbidity making the quality of life poor. The early closure of ostomy can minimize the associated morbidity and help the patient to enjoy better quality of life sooner. Our aim was to prospectively compare the morbidity and mortality associated with early closure and late closure. Methods: A total of 47 ileostomies were made for various indications during period Feb. 2013- Nov. 2014. Patients were divided into two cohorts by the time of stoma closure. Early closure group in which stoma was closed within 4-6 weeks and late closure group in which stoma was closed after 90 days. No colostomy was closed early. So our observations are on early closure of ileostomy only. Results: Total 15 patients were taken up for ileostomy closure between 4-6 weeks (EC group) and remaining 32 were late closure (LC group). Only 4 patients in early closure group had minor complication of skin excoriation. Where as in late closure group 17 patients had minor complication of prolapse plus skin excoriation and 1 patient presented with obstruction requiring relaparotomy and re-stoma formation. There was no instance of anastomotic leak, intra-abdominal abscess, or mortality in EC group and only single case developed entero cutaneous fistula but was managed conservatively. Conclusions: The present study clearly highlights the potential advantages of early closure of ileostomy without any added morbidity or mortality, and is a feasible alternative to a more conventional delayed approach, provided careful selection of patients is done. This significantly cuts down the convalescence period of the patient and helps him to live a better quality of life much earlier.

  330. Singh, R., Singhal, A., Ghalaut, P. S. and Atri Kr, S.

    Breast is relatively rare site for non Hodgkin lymphoma as a primary site. It represents only 0.38% to 0.7% of all Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, majority being of B-cell origin. It represents generally bilateral in younger age group and unilateral presentation in elderly. We report a rare case of non-Hodgkin lymphoma present as lump in right breast which was diagnosed as a case of Non- Hodgkin lymphoma of B-cell origin.

  331. Dr. Prakhar Kapoor, Dr. Ipsita Kukreja and Dr. Shilpa Jamenis

    Calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor (CEOT) is an uncommon odontogenic tumor with well-known histopathological features. Most often located in the posterior mandible it is rarely seen in the maxilla. Appearing in the second to third decade, CEOT is a slow growing neoplasm with rare malignant potential. Even though some investigators advocate conservative approach as the cure, others consider radical surgical excision to evade recurrence or malignant transformation. We hereby present a rare case in a 28 year old female patient with the occurrence in the maxilla.

  332. Shailja Chatterjee and Damle, S. G.

    Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is a tool for studying the molecular constitution comprising of DNA and RNA. It utilizes the science involving the complementary base pairing and enzymatic reactions under optimal conditions of temperature, pH and ion concentration. This reaction can be used to study microbial and human genome for the purpose of pathogen identification and genetic defects in form of mutations. This article encompasses the various areas in which PCR can be utilized as a diagnostic aid and research tool.

  333. Amal Fathima Sameer, Vidya G., Gladwin V. and Parkash Chand

    Background: Superficial palmar arch is an anastomosis between the ulnar artery and radial artery in the palmar region of the hand, in which the contribution is predominantly by the ulnar artery. The functionality of superficial palmar arch is highly important in procedures involving radial artery since the advent of reports of pain, ischemia and gangrene following the procedures. There is paucity in the literature regarding the prevalence of a non-functional superficial palmar arch in the South Indian population. Hence, the present study was attempted to determine the prevalence of superficial palmar arch in South Indian population. Materials and Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study with a sample size of 400 adult subjects was carried out with the approval from Institute committees. Modified Allen’s test was done to ascertain the functionality of superficial palmar arch which was performed in subjects after obtaining informed consent. Results and Conclusion: A prevalence of less than 1% was observed in the population which is relatively low compared to previous studies in different population. The possible risk factors for the non-functional superficial palmar arch need to be ascertained by a study with a larger sample size for possible subgroup analysis. Though Modified Allen’s test was used to screen the patients, a confirmatory test is mandatory for patients before undergoing radial artery procedures.

  334. Dr. Yujvender Singh, Dr. Anupriya Bugalia, Dr. Eby Aluckal and Dr. Abraham Kunnilathu

    Stem cells are the body's master cells that regenerate the body's many cells, tissues, and organs. They have a great potential in enhancing future dental and medical practice with significant improvement in the quality of life of patients. In dentistry and its related branches, it is of great interest to restore periodontal defects, lost teeth or craniofacial bone defects using stem cell-mediated therapy. The dental stem cell biology might provide meaningful insights into the development of dental tissues and cellular differentiation processes.

  335. Dr. Harshavardhan Talla, Dr. Vijaya Laxmi Nimma, Dr. Jaya Krishna, B., Dr. Madhulatha, G., Dr. Deepika Meesala and Dr. Mahesh Mudavath

    Background: Oral cancer is the sixth most commonly reported malignancy worldwide. Etiology being multifactorial with tobacco usage being identified as the strongest. The scientific evidence relating to the burden of oral diseases attributable to tobacco use has been reviewed in the past and there is a need for a well-structured dental teaching program concentrating on oral cancer awareness and tobacco cessation programs. Aims and objectives: Aim of the present study was to estimate the knowledge and awareness of oral cancer. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire-based survey was conducted among 500 patients visiting outpatient department of Meghna institute of dental sciences Nizamabad, over a period of 3 months. Both males and females with deleterious habits (smoking, chewing ghutka, and drinking alcohol) were included and administered with 25 closed and open ended questions after their written consent. The collected data was statistically analyzed using students t-test. Results: 91.6% population knew about cancer. Lung cancer was the cancer that most populations were aware of (36.4 %) followed by oral cancer (33.2%). Subjects were aware that ghutka chewing as the main cause of cancer, followed by smoking and drinking alcohol. Conclusion: In conclusion, this survey demonstrates adequate knowledge and moderate awareness on oral cancer in a population of North Telangana. An oral health promotion strategy should be implemented involving the elements of basic education on oral cancer and self-examination techniques of oral cavity. Importance of regular oral cancer screening should be stressed upon & implemented for prevention and early intervention of oral cancer.

  336. Dr. Hemlata S. Talwelkar and Dr. Pragna G. Chudasama

    Background: Emergency care is one of the most sensitive area of health care, this sensitivity is commonly based on a combination of factors such as urgency and crowding. Aim and objective: The aim of present study is to survey of emergency cases in casualty at PDU medical college and Hospital Rajkot. The objective of the study was to know the pattern of cases in the casualty and to analyze the mix pattern of emergency cases in the casualty. Material and methods: A retrospective study of all cases seen at the Casualty department of PDU Medical College and Hospital was carried out. The span of the study is from December 2015 to May 2016.A total 5555 cases of patients attending the casualty were studied from the casualty records. The data was collected from the casualty registers/records and the medical record department. To study the case mix pattern, the patients coming to the casualty were grouped under the broad speciality heading of medical, surgical and others. Results: A total of 5555 patients attended the casualty, with a Medicine: Surgical cases ratio of 3:2.The analysis revealed that highest number of patients attending casualty belonged to medicine and allied speciality Conclusion: It can be concluded that almost 50% of the patients attending the casualty department had trivial complains which did not required much attention.

  337. Karthik, R. and Mohan, N.

    In the Modern era of Digital imaging there are some common radiological misdiagnosis encountered by the students and dentists in their general practice. This article describes some of the common radiological misdiagnosis in dentistry.

  338. Rajalakshmi Murugan and Maria Therese

    The world health organization has described obesity as one of today’s most neglected public health problems, affecting developed and developing countries in the world. Indians now report more and more frequently with overweight, obesity, and their consequences. This study was aimed to determine the prevalence and associate factors of obesity among adults in Theni district, Tamil Nadu State, India. Study design was cross-sectional and institutional based study. Data was collected in government hospitals and primary health center (PHC’s) in Theni District. 680 samples were collected with convenient sampling technique. Appropriate descriptive and analytical (frequency, standard deviation, binary logistic regression) were used to determine the prevalence and statistical significant association between the variables with SPSS version 20. The overall prevalence rate of overweight/obese among adults was 52.4%, more over females overweight/obese was 22.8% -34.8% and in males overweight/obese was 23.4-22%. Prevalence of obesity/overweight (BMI) age, gender, marital status, occupation, income meat/egg consumption and snack consumption were statistically significant association with Obesity (BMI) (P< P<0.05). Abdominal obesity increased in female 78.5% than male 49.6%. In Bivariate analysis result shows age between 18-34 were 1.55 times more likely to be obese than those who are greater than or equal to 50 years [ (COR=1.55(1.03,2.34)], Multivariate logistic analysis result revels that the likely hood be being obese among respondents of married living with partners were 1.76 times higher than those who were separated and diverted [AOR= 1.76(1.12, 2.78)], and Prevalence of male respondents was 0.64 times lower than female AOR=0.64 (0.42, 0.97). The prevalence of obesity was also 0.44 times lower among Hindus than other religions [AOR=0.44(0.21-094)]. An increasing prevalence of obesity was seen epically in south India. Hence, there is an urgent need to address the trouble and efforts should be made to prevent the epidemic of obesity and its allied health disasters in South India.

  339. Nidhi Bhatia, Dr. Purshottam Jasuja, Dr. Gurlal Singh Brar, Dr. Raghav Takkar and Dr. Heena Khurana

    Stem cells are the pioneer of regenerative medicine. Stem cell is a cell that has the ability to divide (self replicate) for indefinite periods—often throughout the life of the organism. These cells have been extensively used in tissue engineering to develop a biologically functional tissue that can be used to restore malfunctioned or damaged tissues. Under the right conditions or given the right signals, stem cells can give rise (differentiate) to the many different cell types that make up the organism. Craniofacial tissue engineering promises the regeneration or de novo formation of dental, oral and craniofacial structures lost to congenital anomalies, trauma, and diseases. Several craniofacial structures such as mandibular condyle, calvarial bone, cranial suture, and subcutaneous adipose tissue have been engineered from mesenchymal stem cells.

  340. Dr. Vanita Keshav, Dr. Pardeep Mahajan, Dr. Prashant Monga, Dr. Sonam Mahajan and Dr. Deepika Singla

    Introduction: To compare the amount of time required by rotary NiTi instruments and hand instruments in removing gutta-percha and resilon from root canal during retreatment. Materials and Methods: Sixty human mandibular premolar teeth with straight root canals were prepared. Half of the teeth were laterally condensed with gutta percha and the other half with resilon. Each half was further divided into two groups with one of them retreated with hand hedstrom files and other one retreated with rotary protaper retreatment files. Retreatment time was calculated using a stopwatch. Results: Rotary protaper retreatment files required significantly less time than hand hedstrom files in removing both gutta percha and resilon. Resilon was removed faster than gutta percha. Conclusion: Rotary files were significantly faster in retreatment than the hand files. Also resilon showed better efficacy for instrumentation time during retreatment.

  341. Dr. Luv Agarwal

    Class II division 2 malocclusion is a distinct category of malocclusion with a high tendency of familial inheritance. It is characterized by the permanent mandibular incisors which occludes posterior to the cingulum plateau of retroclined permanent maxillary incisors. This gives rise to a reduced overjet & frequently in increased overbite. Here, in this article a new method is described to create the space for the alignment of upper incisors for class II Div 2 correction.

  342. Avanee Khatri and Sinha, A. K.

    The introduction of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) in mainstream societies affects the way in which the societies interact, communicate, produce, assess, adapt and access vast amount of information. The information revolution has not only affected the technology and telecommunications sectors but also rippled through nearly every aspect of the economy and society at large. The proliferation of ICT in nations is directly seen to be vital for socio-economic development. However, the concept of socio-economic development and its relationship with ICT growth remains an open question in the developing and under-developed nations owing to many socio-economic, rural and cultural factors. Rural areas are geographically dispersed and if ICT programs for such rural areas are to provide equitable coverage, accessibility technological needs and user’s perspective must be considered. Also, in a country like India where three fourth populations resides in rural area, it becomes pertinent and challenging to understand how Information Communication Technologies (ICTs) are embedded in the lives of rural users. This paper explores how rural participants shaped their use of ICTs by examining the most important meanings and uses of ICTs in their lives, such as their role in emergency situations and as a status symbol. As much as possible this paper is based on the priorities and needs of participants as they themselves saw them (emic approaches), rather than what the researcher assumed was important (etic perspective).

  343. Dr. Sanjay Fotedar, Dr. Varun Yadav, Dr. Vikas Chaudhary, Dr. Vinay Rampal, Dr. Zahid Gillani and Dr. Anil K. Bhola

    Background: Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is effective but at the same time is associated with several adverse drug reactions affecting various organ systems of the body posing a constant challenge, authors conducted a study on adverse drug reactions of ART at tertiary care centre Methods: The criteria for the diagnosis of ADR was defined as per WHO guidelines. All cases were periodically subjected to clinical and laboratory monitoring for drug toxicity on each follow up during on one year period. CD4 count was done as and when required. Observations: Anemia was observed as commonest side effect 19.13% (31/162), followed by rashes 15.44% (25/162), hepatitis 3.68% (5/162), peripheral neuropathy 11.11% (18/16), dyslipidemia 9.87% (16/162), gastrointestinal manifestations 4.32%(7/162) and neuropsychiatric manifestations 1.23% (2/162). Conclusion: Though ADR are associated with HAART it has to be stressed that majority of patients are able to tolerate HAART well. The monitoring of treatment and associated toxicity by clinician is recommended in at least three monthly intervals, even in asymptomatic patients, and more often at the initiation of HAART.

  344. Dr. Vandana Pandey

    The modern era emerges as challenging era due to the Globalization effects. There is no denying that present era is competitive era there everyone want to get more profit at any cost and the result in front of us as natural hazard, global warming , environment pollution and human health. All these facts has become a challenge and burning issue In the modern era of globalization, so to keep the customers as well as consumers in fold and even keep our natural environment safe and that is the biggest need of the time. Consumers are also aware of the environmental issues like; global warming and the impact of environmental pollution and ready to pay additional amount for natural products which will be reduced adverse effect on environment and human health.. Green marketing is a phenomenon which has developed particular important in the modern market and has emerged not only as an important concept in India as well as at global level; and is seen as an important strategy of facilitating sustainable development. In this research paper, main focus has been made over concept, need and importance of green marketing. Data has to be collected from multiple sources of evidence, in addition to books, journals, websites, and news papers. It explores the main issues in adoption of green marketing practices. The paper describes the current Scenario of Indian market explores the challenges and opportunities businesses have with green marketing. Why companies are adopting it and future of green marketing and concludes that green marketing is something that will continuously grow in both practice and demand.

  345. Dr. Preeti Malik

    The research paper covers briefly that how the agricultural growth of any nation is directly proportionate to the development of that nation in various aspects. This can be analysed by studying the impact of various factors like Overpopulation, Per capita Consumption levels, Malnutrition, Disease, Need of increase in food production, production of raw materials, purchasing power of the masses, release of workers from agriculture, export of agriculture produce, Techniques of planning of agriculture, Joint or collective planning, Land reforms in India- A farce, Redistribution of land, Consolidation of holdings and service cooperatives, Capital Starvation of Agriculture, Money lender, exploitation of the farmer, deprivation of the village, Infrastructure for agriculture, Productivity in agriculture, Farmer’s suicide on the agricultural sector directly or indirectly. The paper covers the above factors briefly by analysing the data till now and discusses its relevance in the development of the nation.

  346. Rusniah Ahmad and Irma Rachmawati

    The increasing use of ship for the carriage of goods, oil, passengers has been very useful for the growth of the industry and has benefit for all parties. Otherwise there are any aspects of the hazards associated with pollution maritime been neglected in the past. Whereas it needs an advance attention from the regulatory body and the general public as well. Marine environment plays a very important role in maintaining the balance in the global ecosystem as a whole. Damage the environment will result in long-term weakness. The method used in this study is a juridical normative with the specifications of analytical description. The research was conducted by collecting primary, secondary and tertiary legal materials through library and field research, and then analyzed with qualitative method. Based on the results of this study, it is obvious that: there are various forms of Carriage Legal Liability in Indonesia there are based on fault liability, strict liability and presumption of liability.

  347. Shaji, E. V. and Midhula Mohan, K,

    Just like any other economic activity tourism is also being considered as the major bread winner of the economy. Realizing the enormous potential of tourism in the days to come government has started to extend various policies and funding plans in support of this industry. Unlike erstwhile people are very much inclined to various tourism related activities which in turn would prosper the economy and the employability. Foreign inflow of the nation is a matter of concern as far as India is concerned. Though massive inflow of foreign money is not a desirable trend it is recommended to an extent. Government mulls to expand the export segment operations by implementing Special Economic Zones in massive terms. Some relaxed policies and promotional attitude is maintained on the part of the policy makers in boosting the export potential of our country. While considering tourism an industry it is evident that we don’t have to export anything in material or tangible. Instead we need to beautify our cities and to ameliorate the infrastructure facilities which would attract the tourists in bulk. Hence it is imperative to note that our intake of resources doesn’t flow outside when we think of developing tourism.

  348. Mulu Geta Gencha and Tegegn Gobenna Dula

    The objective of this study was to examine the attitudes of Computer department students about Blended Learning (BL) on English Language instruction. The main design of study was quasi-experimental. Two sections of eighty students were selected using purposive sampling techniques. The experimental students attended BL (Face-to-Face supported by online learning materials). They filled both pre and post attitude scales. However, the control group students attended merely face-to-face classroom. The attitude questionnaires were used as study tool, and students had positive attitude towards BL. Then, finally, recommendations were forwarded.

  349. Deepti Singh and Sunita Mishra

    The Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan is an effort to recognize the need for improving the performance of the school system and to provide community owned quality elementary education in mission mode. It also envisages bridging of gender and social gaps. The scheme of SSA was launched in 2001. The Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan realized the importance of pre-school learning and early childhood care and its role in improving participation of children in school. The present study was conducted in six villages Maswanpur, Kasipur, Barasiroh, Gayagan, Nankaur, Laramaw of Kalyanpur Block of Kanpur District of Uttar Pradesh with the objectives of quantify effect and problems of the stakeholdersunder Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan. 180 respondents were selected (10 children, 10 father and 10 mother from each village) and the information was collected with the help of structured interview schedule and data was analysed with the appropriate statistical tools as percentage, average, weighted mean, rank, correlation coefficient and standard deviation and result were drawn from it. It was found that respondent were well aware about the scheme of sarva shiksha abhiyan and it can be concluded that SSA had positive effect on children, they become more regular in their attendance.

  350. Dr. Shekhara Apparaya and Dr. Sindhe Jaganath, R.

    Nursing profession is to care health of masses with 24x7 hours. More females are working in nursing profession and there is conception that female care more compared to males. As there are different work place problems such as shift duties, busy in their work place, etc, the female nurses can’t able to look after their families properly. Due to this reason, many of the female nurses remain unmarried. In this regard, a sociological study of female nurses was made in Kalaburagi city and primary data was collected from 130 female nurses. It is suggested to female nurses to marry and settle in their social life, as social life is also equally important for females.

  351. Whankatte, V. R. and Ambhore, J. S.

    Ulva lactuca, common seaweed abundantly found along the coasts of Raigad district of Konkan region of Maharashtra. Phytochemical screening of the extracts was carried out as per the standard procedure, using water, HCL (1%), ethanol, ethyl acetate, methanol, chloroform, benzene and petroleum ether. The different extracts of Ulva lactuca showed the presence of flavonoids, glycosides, phenolic compounds, saponins, steroids, tannin etc. The alga was extracted using Four different methods were used to evaluate the antioxidant activity of the extracts, including DPPH radical scavenging assay (1, 1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl), FRAP, Reducing power and Total phenolic contents. The results obtained suggest that Ulva lactuca is used as a best source of food and fodder, but has less important as a source of antioxidant.

  352. Jan-Erik Lane

    The genius from Heidelberg and Freiburg, Weber chose around 1900 the theme of modern capitalism for his early globalisatin studies on the largest social sciences aggregate, the civilisation. Today, the focus is not upon his favourite, i.e. Protestantism, but the incredible tremors in the Muslim world, at home and abroad. If the level of political violence stays as high as now with all the civil wars, bommings, hostage takings and general terrorism writ large, then the Koranic civilisation will founder. What awaits the civilisation of Islam is endless conflicts between radical Sunnis, moderate Sunnis and Shias as well as Kurds. The reason is the major reinterpretation of The Koran by the three fundamentalists; Maududi, Qutb and Faraj. Their booklets are spread and taught all over the Moslem world, calling forth the martyrs, These theological and philosophical disputes result in the untold sufferings for ordinary Sunnis and Shia. They will spread to outside the Middle East in the form of terrorism. The Muslim civilisation must come together and halt the massacres of Moslems, putting an end to religious struggle. Only the Muslims and their governments can make the characterisation of the greatest sociology ever, Maw Weber of Islam as a”religion of wariors” inapplicable. If Islam does not cherish the OPEN SOCIETY for all its sects and groups, it will be crrushed by violence.

  353. Mrs. Runu Tantuway and Dr. Michael Sammanasu, J.

    Social Media is a platform which is been used not only by individual but also by businesses. It has changed the way we think,the way we speak and moreover the way we do business. In today’s world people use social media to publicise themselves also. This paper will focus on how social media has evolved as a powerful tool of communication. It will highlight the importance of social media in business. The paper will also discuss the reasons behind the companies chosing social media as a platform for marketing their products. The paper also throws light on how social media has an impact on the buying behaviour. The paper also will also focus on the types of social media which has an impact on the customer buying behaviour. At last the paper focuses on ways through which the threats relating to social media could be converted into strengths.

  354. Mohammad Motiee, Gelareh Esfandiari and Hoda Shabrang

    “Goodbye, Mother”, a short story by Hanif Kureishi, depicts the relationship of a middle-aged man, Harry, with his family, especially his mother, and shows the problems which the hegemony imposes on his life. attempts to explore the concept of alienation and the way that the hegemony leads the life of the individuals to alienation through the division of labor and mass medi. Upon Marx’s view, ruling class has power to control the process of production, the individual’s daily life, and the society’s ideology. In Marxists viewpoint, the media as a part of capitalist system supports and distributes the capitalist ideology. All hegemony’s productions, such as media, penetrate into the life of the people to the extent that they unconsciously become far from each other. People take part in producing, not based on their pleasure but based on the market need and what determines market is the dominant system. Although Harry has been harmed from this production, he himself has become the means of this production which provides him the superficial satisfaction. All of these issues that are explored in this paper lead to alienation. Also, the capitalist system makes people as individuals who lose their love, job, and relationships; makes them be situated in the stages of grief. Indeed, “Goodbye, Mother” shows how the relationships, affections, and beliefs among the family members and, in general, the individuals can be affected by what hegemony imposes on them.

  355. Michael J. Haule

    Vast literatures have motioned and given details on the phenomenon climate change and its impact at the world scale, however, only a limited number of studies are based on location-specific data in providing immediate evidence on the existence and the impact of climate change on a particular geographical area. This paper, therefore, is an effort towards establishing the existence of climate change, its extent; and its impact on river discharges on a location specific context. The climate data collected at Songea Airport Weather Station were used in this study. Climate data analysis was linked to the status and variations in river discharge data collected at gauging stations located on the two main tributaries of the Ruvuma River, i.e. Likonde River and Ruvuma River originating from in proximity of Songea Airport Weather Station, only about 5 kilometres away. Drawing from the observed behaviors of the main variables of climate, i.e. temperature and rainfall, in terms of their variation with time it is concluded that climate of Songea District had changed. Furthermore, the changes and trends in the discharges characterized by a drastic decrease in flows demonstrated adverse impact of climate change on the river regime of the Ruvuma River, likely affecting people living along the long profile of the same river and its tributaries. Previous studies attributed such changes in climatic elements to rapid deforestation rate prompted by rapid human population growth. As climate change effects farming and other livelihood activities, its impact could likely have adversely affect human population hence underlining the causations. The two rivers are persistently affected as their flows are in a constant decrease through time. The study recommends for immediate collective action to address the challenges of climate change taking into account local conditions. Farmers are urged to comply to instructions given by Agricultural Extension Officers (AEOs) for higher crop output as growing conditions might have been altered by the observed climate change. Furthermore, it is urged that effective policy formulation for pragmatic engagement in forest conservation activities is necessary for ensuring moderation of climate and water resources at location-specific level.

  356. Dr. Rahela Tabassum and Vishal, K.

    This study mainly examines the determinants of consumer preference for an upcoming delectable cuisine- Arabian food in the city of Hyderabad. Hyderabad is famous worldwide for its Biryani. But a drastic change has been seen in the preference of consumers from Mughlai cuisine towards Arabian Cuisine. Logistic Regression Model is used to analyze the determinants of consumer preference for Arabian Food. The results of the study indicate that the key demographic variables influencing consumer preference for Arabian food is age, religion, and whether the consumer is a vegetarian or non-vegetarian. The other variables such as marital status, occupation, education and income are also statistically significant. One major result of the study is that the Arabian food seems to appeal more to the younger consumers in the age group 18 – 29 and consumers over 50 years seem to prefer the local regional cuisines. The study suggests that appropriate marketing strategies must be implemented to attract the other market segments as well.

  357. Chithra Kuruvilla and Dr. Sathyamurthi, K.

    Social determinants of Child Health can contribute to the social patterning of health, disease and illness. This can also have an impact on the wellbeing and functioning of the person throughout his or her lifespan. But there is hardly much research in this regard. This article details about the Social determinants of child health, Early childhood care and development in an ecological perspective and on the scheme -Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS). The paper also suggests the need for a participatory approach in early childhood care and development programme.

  358. Mangipudi Mruthyanjaya Rao, Dr. Rajesh W. Vaidya and Prasad, K. D. V.

    The Performance Management has become a challenge for the evaluators in the context of eCommerce and mCommerce Companies in India. In this study we attempted to study the factors influencing the scope, significance and objectives of Performance Management Systems with reference to mCommerce Companies in India. The research instrument used in this study was a structured undisguised questionnaire, which was administered to 200 employees, 120 men and 80 women of eCommerce and mCommerce Companies in India in particular in and around Hyderabad Metro. The five independent factors Performance Management Process, Policies and Practices, Rating Biasedness. Employee Behaviour, and Overall Information and one dependent factor Performance Management System (PMS) was assessed. The descriptive analysis, correlation techniques and parametric statistics like t-test carried out to arrive at the conclusions. To measure the reliability of the scale used for this study, and internal consistencies of the survey questionnaire, the reliability statistics Cronbach’s alpha (C-Alpha) were estimated. The overall C-Alpha value is 0.84, and the C-Alpha values ranged 0.64 to 0.82, for all the 5 independent and one dependent factor. The multiple regression analysis was carried out to explain the nature of the relationship between PMS and the above said five independent factors. The results showed that >50% of the variation in PMS can be explained by the changes in above said 5 independent factors and suggest the policy makers that these factors can be considered for making Performance Management Systems as a good management tool.

  359. Endang Ruswanti, Moehammad UnggulJanuarko and NiaPuspitaHapsari

    The research problem yet many manufacturers use marketing strategies through personality traits, through the personality of the product can be customized. This study aims to examine self-monitoring, materialistic and involvement of purchase. Respondents aged 23-55 years amounted to 327 consisting of office employees. In the form of survey research methods, analytical tools used Structural Equation Modeling with Amos.The results of the first findings that self-monitoring materialistic influence on it indicates that someone who knows how to monitor themselves into centrality, happy, and successful. The second person who has a materialistic nature likely to engage purchases means that individuals have sufficient property also enjoys and mainly involved the purchase of products that affect the self-monitoring dipakai.Ketiga purchase involvement, they like to keep changing views affect goods purchased. Managerial implications to understanding the properties of consumers, manufacturers are more innovation makes fashion clothes and office supplies such as mobile phones so that consumers spend more money to demonstrate centrality, life satisfaction and happiness. Limitations of the study, for future studies further expand the respondents to be generalized.

  360. Anant Singh Jeliyang

    In this paper attempts have been made to study corporate social responsibility (CSR) in the light of changed societal needs. In India CSR has always occupied an important role amongst business leaders and academicians. But it is not a static concept; it keeps on changing its form and direction from time to time. Here, the concept has been studied from societal point of view. Corporate impact has now crossed its traditional limits. Now business as a sub system of society affects each and every aspect of society including social and individual behavior. The study has focused on corporate practices that are affecting social and individual behavior. On derived practices Factor analysis was used to find out the broad area where improvements are needed to eliminate negative social impact. The paper provides a direction to the researchers of 21st century. It is the responsibility of research fraternity to come up with innovative ideas to deal with behavioral impacts of business.





Rosane Cavalcante Fragoso, Brasil


Chief Scientific Officer and Head of a Research Group

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