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November 2016

  1. Dr. Vijaykumar, T. K., Dr. Santoshkumar Alalamath and Dr. Vijay Katti

    Introduction: Adrenal myelolipoma is a rare benign tumor composed of mature lipomatous and hemopoietic tissue. It is often discovered as an incidental finding on imaging of the abdomen for some other reason or at autopsy. These are harmonally inactive. They are associated with a fluctuating clinical course during anaesthesia and surgical intervention. Case report: A 64 year old male patient, ASA Grade II diagnosed to have left adrenal myelolipoma as evidenced by CT scan showing 7.6 X 7.8 X 6cm fat density lesion of left adrenal gland, posted for left adrenalectomy. The physical examination was unremarkable, Laboratory investigations revealed the non-functioning nature of the adrenal mass. Combined general anesthesia and epidural anesthesia was planned. Epidural catheter was inserted. Patient premedicated, sedated and induced. Intra-operative anesthetic management was uneventful except hemodynamic instability which was managed successfully. Patient was extubated after giving adequate reversal. Post-operative period was uneventful and post-operative analgesia was managed by epidural route. Conclusion: The management of patients with Adrenal myelolipoma remains a challenge for the anaesthesiologist. Our role in the successful outcome of such surgeries begins from adequate pre-operative preparation, extensive intra operative monitoring and careful follow up during the post-operative period.

  2. Dr. Vijayalaxmi, N., Dr. Sudhakara Reddy, R., Dr. Ramesh, T., Dr. Lavanya Reddy, R. and Swapna, L.A.

    Introduction: Saliva plays a significant role in oral homeostasis. Nevertheless, its diminution or absence can cause significant morbidity and a reduction in a patient’s perceptions of quality of life. Aims and Objectives: The study aimed at finding the effects of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) on whole salivary flow rates and comparison between healthy adult subjects and patient with xerostomia. Materials and Methods: Un-stimulated whole saliva and TENS stimulated whole saliva was measured in control as well as study (xerostomia) groups. Data obtained was subjected to statistical analysis using the student t test. Results: 75 % of patients in control group and 61 % of patients in study group responded to TENS therapy by increase in stimulated whole saliva flow rate [p value of 0.001]. Comparison between control and study groups in regards to the un-stimulated and stimulated whole saliva showed high statistically significant difference (p value 0.000) in flow rates. Conclusion: In this study extra oral transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation was found to be effective in stimulating whole saliva. The results presented here in healthy and xerostomia subjects warrant further studies in future on the aspects using TENS modality of treatment for xerostomia.

  3. Hassan Vatandoost, Ahmad Ali Hanafi-Bojd, Ahmad Raeisi, Mohammad Reza Abai and Fatemeh Nikpour

    Malaria continues to be a main vector-borne public health problem in Iran. The endemic foci of malaria are mainly located in south-eastern part of the country. Iran is now launching the elimination of malaria. Susceptibility of malaria vectors to insecticide is essential. Mosquitoes were collected from different breeding places in Hormozghan province and reread at insectary and F1 generation was used for susceptibility tests. All the impregnated paper provide by WHO and tests was carried out according to WHO guideline. Results of adult susceptibility tests against females of An.fluviatilis revealed that, this species is susceptible to all WHO-recommended imagicides. Results of the evaluating will help for decision making of authorities for vector control.

  4. Dr. Maheshbabu, N. and Dr. Jadhav, S. G.

    In this study an attempt has been made to find out the difference in job anxiety, job satisfaction and mental health of working teacher couples. The sample consists of 50 working teacher couples Selected randomly from various secondary schools from Yadagir districts of Hyderabad Karnataka. Job anxiety, Job satisfaction and mental health inventories were used to collect the data. The data were analyzed by means of t-test and Pearson coefficient of correlation. The results revealed that there was no significant difference in job anxiety, job satisfaction between husbands and wives, and it was also found that there was no significant difference in mental health between husbands and wives. Further it was found that there was significant and negative correlation between job anxiety and mental health, job satisfaction and mental health.

  5. Prudence P. Mwini-Nyaledzigbor, Diana Bazaadut, Luguterah Albert, Belinda E. Adzimah-Yeboah, Robert Kaba Alhassan, Judith Anaman and Worlali Nyaledzigbor

    This study examined the quality of life of the elderly, and relationship between caregiver psychosocial factors and the quality of life of the elderly. A multistage sampling method with a sample of 400 elderly and their caregivers was used. A modified Older People’s Quality of Life scale, in addition to a structured questionnaire, were used to collect the data. The data was analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 16 software. The findings of the study showed that, the quality of life of the elderly is above average. Age, gender and educational level had a significant influence on the quality of life of the elderly. Psychological and Emotional well-being, Independence, Freedom and Health were the most significant factors influencing the quality of life of the elderly. Caregiver psychosocial factors were significantly negatively correlated to the quality of life of the elderly. Thus, the higher the caregivers’ stress, the lower the quality of life of the elderly and vice versa. The study further revealed that all the caregivers were related to the aged either by blood or by marriage. Age, gender, educational level and duration of care of caregivers had a significant influence on the quality of life of the elderly.

  6. Dr. Sonali S. Dahiwale, Dr. S. P. Dange, Dr. Arun N.Khalikar, Dr. Smita A. Khalikar and Dr Ulhas E. Tandle

    A beautiful smile is a key to many hearts! What more would be a tragedy than not having this natural and captivating smile for a sixteen year old girl? The impairment is not just of form and function or for that matter aesthetics! The debilitation extends to the social outlook and psychology of the affected individual. It was such a problem that, the adolescent female having Turner Mosaic syndrome reported to Department of Prosthetic Dentistry. An interim overdenture was provided for the patient. Restoration of the function and aesthetic along with correction of lost vertical dimensions of occlusion was the successful outcome.

  7. Rajendra Baad, Uzma I. Belgaumi, Nupura Vibhute, Mouneshkumar, C. D., Vidya Kadashetti and Sushma Bommanavar

    A teratoma is a true neoplasm, containing tissue from the ectodermal, mesodermal and endodermal layers. (Ward and April, 1989) Teratoma of the head and neck region are very rare, true neoplasms of unknown etiology, composed of an assemblage of tissue often alien to the site in which they arise. (Becker et al., 2007; Haghighi and Cleveland, 2004; Tolentino et al., 2005). The present article describes a case report of a lesion with an unusual location and a detailed description of the histopathology.

  8. Dr. Ramniwas M. Kumawat, Dr. Axita dedhia, Neeta Bokade, Vishal D. Solanke, Priyanka S. Kadoo and Dr. Ravi Tale

    Parry Romberg Syndrome (PRS) is relatively rare condition of debatable etiology, usually restricted to one side of the face, rarely being bilateral or involving the limbs. Characteristically, the atrophy progresses slowly for several years and become stable after certain time period. After stabilization of the disease multispeciality approach including physicians, dental surgeons, psychologists and reconstructive surgeries can be performed to correct the deformity. PRS is frequently associated with localized scleroderma, known as “en coupe de sabre” (ECDS). A debate exists whether PRS is a form of linear scleroderma or these conditions are inherently different processes or appear on a spectrum. We present a case of progressive hemifacial atrophy of left side of face in a 28 year old male with ECDS without any neurological or ophthalmic complications.

  9. Dr. Humeera Mulla, Dr. Nilesh Mishra, Dr. Rajendra Baad, Dr. Nupura Vibhute, Dr. Uzma Belgaumi, Dr. Vidya Kadashetti and Dr. Sushma Bommanvar

    Unicystic Ameloblastoma (UA) refers to those cystic lesions that show clinical, radiographic or gross features of a jaw cyst but on histologic examination show a typical ameloblastomatous epithelium lining the cyst cavity with or without luminal and/or mural tumour proliferation. (Nagalaxmi et al., 2013) A number of morphological variants of ameloblastoma have been documented in the literature and at times, may pose a diagnostic challenge to the pathologist. (Shaikhi et al., 2012) The dilemma in the diagnosis of UA exists on a radiograph, when it is associated with impacted third molar where it exclusively shows similarity to the dentigerous cyst. Thus, the diagnosis of UA becomes evident only when the entire specimen is evaluated histopathologically. (Laxmidevi et al., 2015) Till date, lot of controversies exist among oral surgeons and oral pathologists regarding this entity. An attempt is being made here to discuss all the diagnostic dilemmas associated with UA. (Arora, 2015) Here, we report one case of luminal, intramural variant of UA in a young male patient.

  10. Dr. Utkarsh Tiwari, Dr. Shilpy Singla, Dr. Ruchi Ahuja Thakur, Dr. Vidhatri Tiwari, Dr. Aishwarya Singh and Dr. Binu Santha

    Aim: To access the Prevalence of malocclusion and oral hygiene status in school children of 8-12 years of age in Bhopal city. Materials and Methods: This is a cross sectional longitudinal study. A sample of 1019 school going children was randomly selected out of 28 schools, divided in 14 zones* of Bhopal (Map Issued by Bhopal Municipal Corporation, 2012). It includes one Private and one Government school from each zone. The study included 8-12 years of student with prior consent and who are able to understand the instructions. Those students with developmental defects, syndromes or any special conditions were excluded from the study. Results: Out of total population of 1019 individuals, crowding (23.4%), spacing (10.89%), diastema (17.0%), largest anterior mandibular irregularity (9.8%), Crossbite (5.09%), Overjet (51.7%), overbite (51.0%), vertical anterior open bite (1.0%) and poor oral hygiene(15%) was seen more in government school children which is statistically insignificant.(p>0.05) Largest anterior maxillary irregularity (6.6%) was found more in private school children. (p<0.05) Crowding, spacing, diastema, largest anterior maxillary irregularity, largest anterior mandibular irregularity, crossbite, overjet, overbite, and poor oral hygiene was seen decresing with increase in age which is highly significant.(p<0.05).Vertical anterior open bite has no significant relation with age. (p>0.05) The table demonstrates highly statistical significance relationship between crowding, spacing, cross bite and oral hygiene status of the students. (p<0.05) Discussion: One of the major responsibilities of a pedodontist is the early recognition and management of irregularities of the developing primary dentition. The notable increase in child population in recent years warrants an increased need for pedodontic attention. Number of studies recognizing these irregularities and their significance are few to validate the necessity of rendering specialized preventive measures that are characteristic of pediatric dental care. Conclusion: The study suggests that children with malaligned teeth had more chances of having poor oral hygiene and no difference was noted among private and government school children oral hygiene status and occlusal anomalies. There is a correlation between dental anomalies with respect to age groups, crowding spacing and cross bite had more tend to had poor oral hygiene as they show a significant difference.

  11. Dr. Khalida Naz Memon and Prof. Aneela Atta Ur Rahman

    Background & Objective: Marriages between close blood relations are extensively researched as being a risk factor for new borne but this aspect of research has not been done in our setup. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of consanguinity on birth come. Methods: A comparative cross sectional study was conducted on 356 new borne delivered in various hospitals by filling a pre designed questionnaire. Intra uterine deaths, premature births & low Apgar score at birth were the selected variables for the study. The results were compiled through bivariate & logistic regression analysis. Results: Among 203 new bornes of consanguineous parents, highest number was recorded for first cousins i.e. 99 (48.8%). In all, twenty four (6.7%) died intra utero, 38 (10.7%) were the premature, 64 (17.9%) had APGAR ≤ 6 at birth; five (1.4%) had no improvement at 5 minutes. Mean gestational age in consanguineous new borne was recorded as 38.15 ± 1.81 weeks as compared to 38.68 ± 1.11 weeks in non-consanguineous. Lowest gestational age at birth was observed among new bornes of uncle-niece relation i.e. 37.76 ± 2.02 weeks. Strong association was seen between consanguineous status & adverse birth outcome (p= 0.02); parental inbreeding revealed even more strong association (p=0.00). The odds of adverse birth oucome for consanguinity after incorporating other possible covariates, was 1.84 (95% CI= 1.56 - 8.905; p= 0.02). Interpretation & Conclusion: Parental consanguinity is a risk factor for undesired birth outcome; however more rigorous studies with a large sample size separately incorporating adverse effects will be more conclusive.

  12. Swati Mohanty and Sindhu Ramesh

    Background: Dental procedures have a potential risk of cross infection- that is, the transmission of disease from patient to patient, patient to clinicians through direct contact or to even transporting laboratory personnel through indirect contact. As clinicians, we must not only prioritize health of our patients and ourselves but also should consider the assistants, technicians and helpers who work with us. Therefore thorough knowledge of sterilization and disinfection is extremely essential for all the clinical practitioners. Aim: To assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of Cross infection control among dental practitioners in Chennai. Methodology: The cross-sectional study was carried out in Chennai in the month of August, 2016. The questionnaires were handed out to 350 dental practitioners, out of which 346 forms were filled completely and submitted. Data collection was done. Results: 346 surveys were completed by specialists (21%) and general dentists (78.9%). Fifty-five percent of respondents were male. Out of the all the dentists who participated in the survey, 52.3% of the general practitioners and 80.9% of the specialists had a satisfactory knowledge on cross infection and its measures of control. Conclusion: The KAP of the dental practitioners in Chennai during this cross sectional survey, towards cross infection was satisfactory. Even though most followed the Universal Protocols of Sterilization, most of the practitioners, especially the general dentists didn’t know much about cleaning and that it also plays a major role in infection control along with sterilization and disinfection. Continuing dental education programs on all these 3 aspects of infection control would help to improvise the knowledge of dentists.

  13. Sajad Hussain Bhat, Farooq A. Jan, Yatoo, G. H., Abdul Hakim and Nowsheen Zaffer

    Background: Safety is a concern in many professions including healthcare. Medication use in hospitals is a complex process and depends on successful interaction among healthcare professionals functioning at different areas. Medication errors may occur at any stage of prescribing, documenting, dispensing, preparation or administration. Objective: • To study the frequency of drug administration errors. • To study the types of drug administration errors. Methods: A prospective observational study was carried out for a period of one year in the inpatient wards of Sher-i-kashmir institute of medical sciences (SKIMS) Soura Srinagar. The researcher used to visit one ward two days in a week; the wards were selected by simple random sampling. The administration of drugs was observed and compared with concerned patient’s prescription. Any deviation observed was noted as error. Results: A total of 4752 drug administrations were observed and compared with patient’s prescription. These involved 312 drug rounds done by 138 staff members. A total of 592 errors were noticed. The frequency of drug administration errors was 12.4%. If wrong time errors were excluded, the error rate reduced to 8.1%. Regarding the types of errors noticed, the most frequent type of error observed was wrong time error viz. 208 (35.1%) followed by wrong rate error 152 (25.2%). The frequency of wrong dose error, missed dose error, unprescribed drug error and other type of errors was 96(16.2%), 72(12.2%), 24(4%), and 40(6.8%) respectively. Conclusion: Drug administration errors is a common problem in healthcare settings which needs to be addressed on priority basis for patient safety.

  14. Diagne, N., Djiba, B., Ndao, A. C., Faye, A., Dia, D. G., Ndour, M. A., Kane, B. S. and Pouye, A.

    The association of Grave disease of with the syndrome of Gougerot remains rare. The purpose of the presentation of this observation is to make it a meta-analysis through the literature and to work towards an early treatment. We are reporting a case of Myasthenia associated with a syndrome of Gougerot-Sjögren in a 32-year-old patient that were lately diagnosed. The diagnosis was retained in front of the myogenic syndrome with muscular deficit, a left (awkward) unilateral ptosis on the left side, a poly arthralgia and a Sicca oculo-buccal syndrome. These signs were associated with a positivity of antibodies. This association seems exceptional. A Good therapeutic result was first obtained with the triple prostigmine-prednisolone-azatioprin association.

  15. Jasmin Elizabeth Thomas, Ammu, A., Josna James, Merin Joseph, Muraleetharan, G., Apollo James and Sivakumar, T.

    The present study is to assess the association between environmental triggers and asthma severity in children. The parental questionnaire was obtained from 500 respondents (202 non asthmatic & 298 asthmatic) between the age of 2-15. The questionnaire consists of patient demographic details, socio economic status, family history of asthma/atopy and environmental risk factors which leads to asthma exacerbation. Most of the patients were diagnosed with controlled (45%) or uncontrolled (15%) asthma. In controlled asthmatic, about 40.99% of the patients were within the age between 2-5 where as in uncontrolled asthmatic 36.88% belongs to the age between 6-10.The family history of asthma were significant among 27.5%. Boys have more predominance of asthma incidence than girls. Majority of the asthmatic patient were reported with lower socio economic status. There was no significant association between domestic animals, rat/mice, cockroach allergy, mould /dampness, exposure to parental smoking, vegetation and development of asthma in paediatrics. The study suggests that there is a positive relationship between seasonal exacerbation, dust allergy and outdoor pollutants with the asthma severity in children.

  16. Dr. Priyamvada, H. V.

    The patients who attended to KIMS OPD with the complaints of Abnormal Uterine Bleeding (AUB) are enrolled in this study after written and informed consent. 60 of the patients who met the required criteria are subjected to relevant clinical examination and investigations. Local causes of bleeding were excluded in these patients. These patients were subjected to TVS and Hysteroscopic examination respectively. Results: In the present study, transvaginal ultrasound showed an accuracy of 83.3% in detecting the proliferative phase and 66.67% in detecting the secretory phase. TVS has a sensitivity of 0% for a local lesion of endometrial cavity which is in accordance with the study by the others, who concluded that endometrial thickness evaluated by TVS was preferable but not sensitive enough to exclude endometrial pathology. Conclusion: Both TVS and hysteroscopy can detect endometrial intracavitary abnormalities with varying accuracies. These can supplement and enhance the accuracy of tissue diagnosis. Thus the first procedure to which patients with AUB are to be subjected should be TVS followed by hysteroscopy and hysteroscopically directed biopsy, wherever required.

  17. Dr. Priyamvada, H. V. and Dr. Sudha, C. P.

    Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a cliniconeuroradiological entity presenting with headache, confusion, visual disturbances or blindness, and seizures. Parieto-occipital white matter changes due to vasogenic oedema can be observed on imaging modalities. It rarely occurs without seizures and usually occurs after delivery. We are reporting 9 post-partum patients with and without history of preeclampsia complicated by PRES with seizures and other clinical features at the postpartum period. Clinical improvement with complete resolution without any complications was observed except for one mortality which was admitted with advanced stage. Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome is reversible when early diagnosis is established and appropriate treatment is started without delay.

  18. Dr. Hussein A. Mohammed and Ansam F. Yasir

    Background: Is to study the glucose, hemoglobin, creatinine, red blood cell level, gender, age and blood white cell level in patients with kidney stones in a Wasit government. Aims of study: Cross-sectional study of two groups of during the whole year, comparison between two groups; 1st group have kidney stones and the 2nd control group. Patients and Method: the study was conducted on patients attending Zahra teaching Hospital and Karama teaching Hospital / Department of Surgery in Kut city for the period beginning from the September 2015 until the end of September 2016 ,The number of patients (60) were aged between 20-60 years and the number of males (40) and females (20) compared with healthy controls and numbered (24) aged between 20-60 years and the number of males (14) and females (10). In this study included estimate the concentrations of biochemical parameters : glucose, creatinine, HB, RBC, and WBC . Results: Prevalence of kidney stones disease in Wasit government in males, is much more than twice the proportion among women (P <0.05) and the concentration of Glucose increased in people who suffer from a kidney stone disease compared with control group was Significantly increase (P <0.05) and also the concentration of createnine in people who suffer from a kidney stone disease compared with control group (P <0.05) and the level of WBC in people who suffer from a kidney stone disease was increase compared with control group (P <0.05). while the concentration of Hb and also the level of RBC decreased in people who suffer from a kidney stone disease compared with control group (P <0.05), Also there was significant difference between gender and the ages of the patients with Kidney stone compared to healthy persons. Conclusions: there was significant difference and increases the level of glucose, creatinine, WBC while decrease the level of Hb and RBC in patients with renal stone in comparison to control group.

  19. Dr. Sarvesha Bhondwe, Dr. Vishal Mahajan, Dr. Rohit Dhoot, Dr. Ruchira Bhamare and Dr. Sonam Bhandari

    Biomechanical preparation is a very essential step for successful endodontic treatment, which removes the root canal debries and disinfect the root canal. Practitioner will be able to achieve this aim easily with nickel titanium (niti) rotary instuments. The recently introduced Single file NiTi-rotary systems such as Neoniti rotary file system, WaveOne, Reciproc, OneShape, Neoniti, Hyflex EDM & F360, Self Adjusting File claim to be able to completely prepare and clean root canals with only one instrument. With the use of these single file systems, practitioner can save time, it is cost effective, reduces instrument fatigue and cross contamination. The purpose of this article is to review single file Niti-Rotary systems for canal preparation.

  20. Haya Alkanhal, Sara Alsaggabi, Deema Alshammari, Soha Alasmari, Bandar Alabdulwahhab and Tasneem Alsubaih

    Background: Facial attractiveness plays an extremely important role in the human mating success and explains more variance in overall attractiveness than bodily attractiveness. Understanding patients perceptions of their dental appearance is an important aspect of patient management which may assist dentists in planning treatments that are acceptable to the patients leading to higher levels of patient satisfaction. Aims of this study to assess if certain facial features count differently in people’s opinion while assessing facial attractiveness in correlation with factors such as age, gender, culture and specific training in the Middle East. Material and Methods: An illustrated questionnaire was sent as a Google survey form to 547 in the dental field in the Middle East. For each of the questions sets of images consisted of multiple variations of deviations mixed with the original photo in a 5-item multiple choice. The software program was used in order to obtain the illustrated images was Adobe Photoshop CS4. The original image was picked from the Internet after specific measurements of symmetry and proportions on several photographs to have a highest possible score in aesthetic measurement the photographs done by Dr. Chris Solomon had been used in the questionnaire after his permission. Results: Percentage was used to Describe statistics to interpret the data gathered, using IBM SPSS 21. Analyzed the group of subjects observed that from 547 questioned persons, 346 (63.3%) were expert in aesthetic assessment (specialist related to aesthetic and senior students) and 201 (36.7%) were not- expert (specialist not related to aesthetic and junior students) and divided expert to 129 (35.5%) male, 217 (64.5%) female. Conclusions: The horizontal facial lines Slight deviations are more visible and should be considered more important than facial symmetry. The female expert concentrates on the lower third of the face while the male concentrates on the upper third of the face. Expert and non-expert In the Middle East prefer the teeth as the most attractive element in the face.

  21. Dr. Samiksha Acharya, Dr. V. K. Lohe and Dr. R. R. Bhowate

    The peripheral ossifying fibroma (POF) is a reactive gingival overgrowth usually arising from the interdental papilla. It is a relatively common benign and non-neoplastic lesion in adolescents. Because it is possible to misdiagnose POF as pyogenic granuloma, peripheral giant cell granuloma, or odontogenic tumors, histopathological examination is, therefore, essential for accurate diagnosis, and differential diagnosis is important because of POF's tendency to recur. This article presents a case of peripheral ossifying fibroma in 24-years-old female along with the clinical, histopathologic, and radiographic features and treatment details.

  22. Soumya, K. R., Krishnamurthy, M. S. and Hebbar Janardhana, V.

    The urge to live, the fear of death, the desire to youth and the quest for rejuvenation have always attracted mankind from antiquity to modern times. The average life span of humans are found to be decreasing gradually in recent times. It is a result of decreased immunity, caused by so many public health issues. The focus of public health intervention is to improve health and quality of life through prevention and treatment of disease and other physical and mental health conditions, through surveillance of cases and health indicators, and through the promotion of healthy behavior. Rasayana is one of the 8 branches of Ayurveda. Rasa nourishes our body, boosts immunity and helps to keep the body and mind in best of health. The Rasayana therapy enhances the qualities of Rasa. In Ayurveda, immunity is refferred by the word Vyadhikshamatwa. Immunity is also considered as 'Bala'. Among the 3 types of Bala, Yukthikrita bala represents Acquired Immunity, in which disease can be defended against by Satmya, Vyayama(exercise) and Rasayana(rejuvenative). Rasayana is capable of promoting the whole physiology, producing resistance against disease, both physically and mentally. This paper highlights the current issues of public health and role of rasayana for developing immunity and thereby intervene the public health issues which are increasing day by day.

  23. Dhiman Sonia, Kumar Ajay and Dhiman Monika

    Aloe barbadensis Miller showed significant results in management of dysmenorrhoea in the form of Musabbar i.e. 25.11% more relief than Swarasa, significant at p<0.05. (t =3.283). To evaluate the reason of pharmacotherapeutic difference, analytical study was done to analyse phytochemicals in both formulations. Kumari contain properties as: - Guru, Snigdha, Pichhial Guna; Tikta, Madhur Rasa; Sheeta Veerya whereas Musabbar has: - Laghu Ruksha, Teekshna Guna; Katu Rasa; Ushna Veerya. Swarasa was exuded from pulp and sap of leaves. Musabbar was prepared by heating sap at low temperature up to complete evaporation of water. Qualitative tests, T.L.C. and UV spectral analysis were done on different extracts of both formulations to assess phytochemicals. Drug was curacoa aloe, anthraquinones, cardiac glycosides, protein; sapponins were present in both formulations. Phytosterols were present in juice not in Musabbar, Polysaccharides were present only in juice but monosaccharides and disaccharides were present in Musabbar, Flavanoides were present in both extracts of Musabbar, T.L.C. suggested presence of aloin, polyphenols, cholesterols, proteins and glycosides in Musabbar. Spectrum of acetyl groups and Phenolic compound were observed in UV spectral analysis of both formulations. Musabbar contains more anthraquinones having similar chemical structure to prostaglandin substrates to act as false substrate thus blocking prostaglandin synthesis, Musabbar contains glycosides, monosaccharide and disaccharides but Kumari Swarasa had only polysaccharides. So better result of Musabbar, may be due to these chemical constituents. Phytochemical study showed that drug prepared was genuine and difference in phytochemicals and Rasapanchaka supports the difference of results in clinical study.

  24. Amber Aguilar and Travis K Svensson

    Introduction: The purpose of this paper is to review an evidence based tool and intervention strategies to make sure patients with dementia receive effective nursing care in the medical setting. Currently in the medical setting dementia is under diagnosed and geriatric patients are not receiving evidence based interventions. Methods: In this paper an evidence-based educational program based on the Progressively Lowered Stress Threshold model, and an evidence-based toolkit for the medical units staff compared to current practice affect knowledge of nurses about effective assessment and intervention strategies for working with patients with dementia. Results: This article shows that a proactive approaching to assessing for dementia during admission could prevent or help nurses in better dealing with behavioral outbursts commonly seen in dementia patients. Discussion: Training on tools for assessing dementia and implementation of interventions for behavioral outbursts is key.

  25. Muhammed Basheer, K. T., Sunil Kumar Agarwalla., Pulak Ranjan Mallik and Subhrajit Parida

    Ectrodactyly [Split hand/foot malformation (SHFM) or cleft hand or claw hand or lobster anomaly or central ray deficiency] is a limb malformation involving central rays of autopod and presenting with median clefts of hand and feet, hypoplasia/ aplasia of phalanges or metacarpals or metatarsals and variable syndactyly. It can occur either as part of a syndrome like EEC (ectrodactyly-ectodermal dysplasia-cleft syndrome) or isolated non-syndromic malformation. Inheritance pattern is autosomal dominant with variable penetration. Likely pathogenic mechanism is failure of defects in median apical ectodermal ridge activity. Here we are reporting autosoal dominant non-syndromic ectrodactyly (with syndactyly and transverse bone) in an Indian family due to rarity of incidence.

  26. Sandesh S. Baralay, Vivek, P. Sonawane, Satish B. Baralay, Udita A. Khare and Sameer S. Patil

    The patient was a18 year old girl with a Class II Division 1 malocclusion, a large overjetand a horizontal growth pattern. Treatment started with a fixed appliance therapyfollowed by a fixed functional appliance.

  27. Elham Youssef Elhanafy and Marwa R. Moustafa

    The nursing profession contains two main parts, the first is the theoretical part, which reflects the knowledge that is received in the classroom; while the second is the practical part, which focus on the enhancement of the students’ skills in the clinical area. The aim of the present study is not only to evaluate the theoretical learning Gap perceived by Nursing students, but also to evaluate the practical one. The present study represents a descriptive design, includes 300 nursing students enrolled in Nursing College, Taibah university, Saudi Arabia (half of them of age ranging from 18 to 23 years and the other half have previous qualification). The results indicate that the Cronbach’s alpha value ranged from 0.65α to 0.86α, which is acceptable. In addition, the results showed that the instrument is reliable, all the subscales were a statically significant at P≤0.05. It could be concluded that this study supports the need of reconsideration in the practical skills training in nursing education, as well as emphasized to observe gap in the knowledge and the practicing among nursing students.

  28. Vijayakumar, S., Tamilmaran, P., Sivasakthi, C. and Raja, M. G.

    The article present clinical sings, diagnosis and successful treatment of trypanosomosis in crossbred jersey cow presented to veterinary dispensary in Rasipuram, Tamilnadu. Clinical examination revealed high fever (105ºF), pale mucous membrane, diarrhoea, with the history of anorexia, dullness, excess salivation, dyspnoea, ocular discharges. Blood smear examination revealed presence of Trypanosome evansi in the peripheral blood. The cow was treated with single dose of inj. Diminazenediaceturate (Berenil) @ dose rate of 3.5 mg/kg B.W and Oxytetracycline @ dose rate of 22 mg/kg B.W along with supportive therapy for three days. The cow responded well and recovered uneventfully.

  29. Dr. Ankur Shrivastava and Dr. Sankalp Verma

    Aim: To compare the healing of mandibular third molar extraction wounds with and without Platelet Rich Plasma. Materials and Methods: This was parallel comparative double blind study involving two groups viz group A and B. In study group (group A), Platelet rich plasma was placed in the extraction socket before closure of the socket in 30 patient. Group B consists of 30 patients who will be the control group where the extraction sockets will be closed without any intra socket medicaments. The patients would be allocated to the groups randomly. Results: The result of the study shows rapid bone regeneration in the extraction socket treated with Platelet Rich Plasma when compared with the socket without Platelet Rich Plasma. Conclusion: Incorporation of Platelet Rich Plasma in the extraction sockets has significant improved soft tissue healing and bone regeneration.

  30. Dr. Sandhya Jain

    Ethics are moral conduct which we learn throughout life. Ethics are essential in every walk of life. So, ethics are paramount importance in medical and in research. Unethical practices may be harmful for the subjects being treated in study or may bias the results of study. The objective of this article is to highlight the importance of ethics in medical research.

  31. Dr. Sapna Maheshram and Yeshwant Maheshram

    While the internet has long been a source of medical information, it has only recently been used for online private patient-doctor consultations. Online Medical Consultation (OMC) is now offered by many providers internationally with diverse models .This study reports a review of the literature on OMCs and an empirical analysis of existing OMC web sites to explore their major themes, these features have been studied for a better understanding of the promise on which these services operate. Resultant study shows OMC is a growing phenomenon featuring several interaction modalities, serving various medical consultation purposes, and accessible to consumers throughout the world. The contribution of this work is to present the current status and synthesize features of available OMC services

  32. Ifrah Khalil, Farooq A Jan, Yatoo, G. H. and Sheikh Adil Bashir

    Waiting time for elective care is defined as the time that elapses between firstly the physician’s decision to admit a patient for elective surgery following clinical assessment and secondly the date of hospital admission (Merehau Cindy Mervin and Sukhan Jackson, 2009) The 2005 edition of the Fraser Institute Report on Hospital Waiting Lists in Canada indicates that wait times for plastic surgery are the second lengthiest of all specialties (The 2005 edition of the Fraser Institute Report on Hospital Waiting Lists in Canada). The objective of our study was to study the relation between various types of patients admitted in the department of plastic and re-constructive surgery at Sher-i- Kashmir Institute of Medical Sciences, J&K and their respective waiting times. The study was conducted for a period of one year from 1st October 2013 to 30th September 2014. It was a prospective observational study carried out on the patients admitted in the ward of plastic and re-constructive surgery. The study was done based on the interviews from relevant informants, study of records .Out of the total of 2238 patients admitted 495 cases were that of RTA(road traffic accidents), 162 bear mauls, 135cleft palate, 117 cleft lip, 99 tin cut injuries, 90 PBC(Post burn contracture) hand, 72 cases of SCC(squamous cell carcinoma) face, 60 cases of BCC(Basal cell carcinoma) thigh. Maximum cases of BCC thigh, bear mauls, RTA, electric burn, tin cut, machine injuries had a wait time of less than 30 days while post burn contractures had to wait for more than a month for their treatment.

  33. Ajit Patil, Rajendra Shivde, Amol Jagdale, Nikhil Murkhey, Saurav Mittal, Uday Singh and Shopnil Prasla

    Aim and Objectives: The purpose of this study is to define role of MRI in evaluating and grading various ligaments tears. Another objective of this study was to correlate joint effusion with ligamentous injuries. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted using Siemens Essenza 1.5 T MRI machine. Ninety cases were studied and descriptive analysis performed. Joint effusion was measured by documented methods in lateral suprapatellar pouch in antero-posterior measurement at its widest point. Statistical analysis was performed using these values. Results: In present study, the most common ligamentous injury was ACL tears (53%) followed by MCL tears (32%). Complete tear (42%) was common grade among ACL tears and partial tears (81%) were more common among PCL tears. MCL tears were more common than LCL tears and grade I was commonest grade among them. Joint effusion more than 10 mm in lateral suprapatellar pouch was associated with 25 out of 27 patients (i.e. 92.59%) with higher grades of ligamentous injuries. Conclusion: MRI is excellent non-invasive modality for evaluation and grading of ligamentous injuries of knee joint. Joint effusion of more than 10 mm in lateral supra-patellar pouch was associated with higher grades of ligamentous injuries.

  34. Prof. Dr. Suzan Ahmed Mustafa Elfiky, Prof. Dr. Seif El Islam Mahmoud Nafees, Dr. Reem Abd el Hameed Harfoush, Dr. Noha Mohamed Aly Abouseada and Gehad Mahmoud Saadeldeen Sultan

    Candiduria is an increasingly difficult problem to recognize and manage. It is associated with high mortality, especially in patients with comorbidities. Secretory aspartyl proteinases (SAPs) have been recognized as virulence factors and are considered to be key enzymes that contribute to Candida infection by promoting damage to the host mucosa. In the present study we investigated the extent of Candida urinary tract infection (UTI) among hospitalized patients and the presence of Sap genes as virulence factors. A total of 50 Candida species were isolated from urine samples of UTI patients, processed at the routine Laboratory in Medical Microbiology Department, from different departments. Out of the 50 Candida species isolated, 52% were Candida tropicalis followed by Candida glabrata (30%), Candida albicans (14%) and Candida krusei (4%) identified by both conventional methods and MALDI-TOF. This study revealed the predominance of Non- albicans Candida species as causative agents of Candida UTI with different antifungal susceptibility patterns, where Candida tropicalis reported the highest sensitivity to amphotericin B (23/26=88%), fluconazole (19/26=73%) and finally voriconazole (17/26=65%). Again amphotericin B and voriconazole had equal effect (14/15=93%) on Candida glabrata, while fluconazole was less effective (12/15=80%). All Candida albicans strains were sensitive to fluconazole, followed by voriconazole and amphotericin B (6/7=86%). Finally both Candida krusei isolates were sensitive to amphotericin B and voriconazole. Sap genes were detected in 6 Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis isolates, 3 were SAP 1, 3 in Candida albicans and 2 were SAPT4 in Candida tropicalis and 1 was SAPT 1 in Candida tropicalis.

  35. Dr. Talikoti, D.G., Dr. Manjunath Shivapujimath, Dr. Shivanand, L.K.

    Background and objectives: Adjuncts to local anaesthetics for brachial plexus block may enhance the quality and duration of analgesia. Clonidine, an Alpha-2 adrenergic agonist, is known to produce antinociception and enhance the effect of local anaesthetics when given epidurally, intrathecally or in various peripheral nerve blocks. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of Clonidine added to brachial plexus block by supraclavicular approach. Materials and methods: A prospective, randomized, single blinded study was conducted on 96 ASA I or II adult patients undergoing upper limb surgeries under supraclavicular brachial plexus block. Patients were randomly divided into two groups. Patients in Group B (n = 48) were administered 30mL of 0.375% Bupivacaine and Group BC (n = 48) were given 30mL of 0.375% Bupivacaine with Clonidine 1μg/kg. The onset time and duration of sensory and motor blockade were recorded. Haemodynamic variables (i.e., heart rate, noninvasive blood pressure, oxygen saturation), sedation scores and rescue analgesic requirements were recorded for 24 hrs postoperatively. Results: The onset of sensory and motor block was significantly faster in Group BC compared to Group B (P < 0.05). Rescue analgesic requirements were significantly less in Group BC compared to Group B (P < 0.05). Haemodynamics and sedation scores did not differ between groups in the post-operative period. Conclusion: Clonidine (1μg/kg) in combination with 30mL of Bupivacaine (0.375%) hastened onset of sensory and motor block, and improved postoperative analgesia when used in brachial plexus block, without producing any adverse events.

  36. Dr. Sanjay Kumar Sinha, Dr. Birendra Prasad Gupta and Dr. Abhay kumar

    Hyperdontia is a condition of having supernumerary teeth, or teeth that appear in addition to the regular number of teeth. Supernumerary teeth are considered to be most common dental anomalies affecting the primary and permanent dentitions. About 90% of all supernumerary teeth have been found in the anterior maxillary region. Multiple supernumerary teeth without any associated systemic conditions or syndrome are relatively rare. Complication associated with supernumerary teeth include displacement, delayed eruption and root resorption of adjacent teeth and even cyst formation with bone destruction. Surgical removal of supernumerary teeth is the first choice of treatment, avoiding any damage to neighbouring teeth and structures is important.We here by report a case of 17 years male having 5 supplemental premolars 4 in the mandible and 1 in the maxilla, which is a unusual clinical entity.

  37. Vinathi Reddy

    Alveolar ridge deficiencies are the most often problems encountered during implant placement. Reconstruction of these alveolar ridge deficiencies through different bone augumentation technique is very much necessary before implant placement. These Osseous defects occur as a result of periodontal disease, trauma, congenital anomalies, prolonged edentulism and infection, and they often require soft and hard tissue reconstruction. Pouch and tunnel technique is a new technique which helped in good retention of the Autogenus graft and GBR membrane for ridge augumentation. This case study is a 2 year follow up where we placed Autogenous bone graft and guided bone membranes which are considered as gold standard for jaw reconstruction. The results of this case study were very satisfactory which showed that this technique can be used a novel approach for ridge augumentation.

  38. Alvarado Ibarra Martha, Báez Islas Pamela and López Hernández Manuel

    Background: Patients receiving chemotherapy (CT) for haematological malignancies usually present febrile neutropenia (FN), defined as fever and neutropenia <0.5 x 109/L. The usual treatment is empirical (antibiotics with known action against the usual pathogens in place). Objective: To compare the success rate of the antibiotics schemes used for management of FN in the hematology department of Centro Médico Nacional“20 de Noviembre”.Methods: A randomized, retrospective, longitudinal, descriptive and comparative study of FN cases between 1994 and 2014 was conducted. The results of ceftriaxone/amikacin, ceftazidime/amikacin, imipenem, quinolones and cefepime were compared. The principal outcome was to determine the success (defined as disappearance of fever for 4 straight days, before 15 days of treatment, without changing antibiotics) rate with each scheme. Results: We studied 493 episodes. Mean age was 38 years (16-92). Fifty-three percent were female. Predominant neoplasia: acute leukemia (59% lymphoid and 32% myeloid). Source of infection was identified in 63% of cases. We eliminated 25 cases. There were thirty-three deaths (7%). There were 402 successful cases (82%). There was no difference (p> 0.26) between the first four schemes. Only cefepime was less effective (p = 0.04), with 68% of success. Conclusion: No difference in success rate between the several antibiotic scheme was observed, except for cefepime.

  39. Roberta Weber Werle, Eduardo Matias dos Santos Steidl, Ana Tereza Bittencourt Guimarães, Marisa Bastos Pereira, Luiz Henrique Schuch and Renata Mancopes

    Objective: To investigate the presence of dysphagia in neurological patients after mechanical ventilation (MV) in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU). Method: Study case control study carried out in the ICU of a public hospital in the South. We evaluated 38 patients with primary neurological disorder, divided into group dysphagia and no dysphagia, which were on MV for a longer period than 24 hours and they were in the process of extubation of endotracheal tube (TOT) or Weaning from tracheostomy (TQT). Prior to extubation process was performed strength tests of the respiratory muscles, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) and Peak Cough Flow Reflex Test (PFTR) in patients. Between 24 and 48 hours after extubation or wean TQT, patients underwent clinical test by Protocol Risk Assessment for Dysphagia (PARD). Results: It was possible to verify that the two groups had similarity in respiratory muscle strength, GCS and PFTR. Already age and time hospitalization showed significant statistical differences between the two groups. Conclusion: dysphagia neurological patients have more advanced age and require greater hospital stay. Thus, advanced age affect the swallowing function in neurological patients and detect early dysphagia in this sample can reduce hospital stay.

  40. Shah Riaz Ahmed Chowdhary, Rajesh Jindal, Shashi Nayyar and Shahbaz Singh Dhindsa

    Material and method: The study was conducted on 16 apparently healthy Murrah buffaloes, maintained at dairy farm GADVASU, Ludhiana. Study was conducted in two phases i.e. Pre-summer and Summer season. Cervico-vaginal mucus samples were taken from all the animals at the time of artificial insemination during both the seasons. Various physical parameters of CVM viz, Transparency, Viscosity, Fern pattern, pH and Spinnbarkeit were observed. Results and Discussion: CVM samples of the buffaloes during pre-summer were more transparent with typical fern pattern, low viscosity, higher pH and spinnbarkeit value as compared to summer stressed buffaloes. Further when the data was compared according to the conception status the parameters were found to be favourable in conceived animals as compared to non-conceived ones. Data so obtained was analyzed between the two seasons and according to the conception status of the animals. Conclusion: It is concluded that physical parameters of CVM at the time of insemination may alter due to heat stress in buffaloes. Higher transparency, more typical fern pattern, lesser viscosity, higher pH and more spinnbarkeit are favorable for conception in Murrah buffaloes. Thus these physical properties of CVM at the time of insemination in summer season influence the chances of conception and can be used as an important indicator for prediction of conception in Murrah buffaloes.

  41. Dr. Anupriya

    Recently the measurement of C-reactive protein in maternal serum has been suggested to have a predictive value in the diagnosis of preterm labour. CRP can prove useful in identifying early infection which could lead to preterm labour. Study is to assess the role of maternal plasma CRP levels in early and mid-pregnancy as a diagnostic marker for predicting preterm delivery. Material and Method: The present study comprised of a total of 100 pregnant women with singleton fetus with gestational age less than 28 weeks. CRP levels in maternal blood were measured in both groups in early and mid-pregnancy. Patients were followed subsequently to see how many go into pre-term labor. Study group comprised of 50 cases who delivered pre term while control group comprised of 50 cases who delivered at term (≥37 weeks). Result: In the study group, mean CRP level was 11.32±3.66 mg/L whereas in control group mean CRP level was 6.63±2.69. Thus mean CRP level in study group was significantly higher than control group. The ideal cut off value of CRP is 8.0 mg/L according to our data. In CRP positive cases (CRP≥8mg/L) the percentage of cases delivering preterm was higher (76.36%) than in CRP negative cases (17.77%). The sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of CRP was 84%, 74%, 76%, 82% respectively. Conclusion: Very high levels of maternal CRP (≥8mg/L) in early and mid-pregnancy were associated with increased risk of preterm delivery.

  42. RẮzvan Creteanu, Monica Popa, Cristina Horga, Rita Ghitulescu, CẮlina Creta, Ana Maria Inze and Cristina Creteanu

    Subject Area: Health Sciences Introduction: The health of teeth could be considered an indicator for evaluation of the exposure to different environmental contaminants and for appreciation of the nutritional status of individuals. Aim: There is need to evaluate the relationship between the risk assessment levels of trace elements in water and decayed tooth dentin. Material and methods: First part to determine the evaluation of the levels of fluorine in the drinking water from centralized water supply sources distributed to the population and individual sources in 9 counties of Romania and second part to determine the concentration of fluorine in carious dentin of permanent teeth from 30 male adults from different areas of residence in a pilot study. Determination of mineral composition in water samples and fluoride in dentin of permanent teeth decayed was used an ion chromatography method and to determine the metals in dentin of teeth was used absorption optical emission spectroscopy method with inductively coupled plasma (ICP-OES). Result: In the water samples with low fluoride concentrations we found low concentrations of trace elements, showing a poor overall mineralization of water which, together with a general lack of fluoride, has a potential negative impact on the health of consumers, including oral-jaw system. Mineral and fluoride levels determined in dentin samples were of a significant negative correlation. Conclusion: Variability of the concentration of trace elements and fluoride in dentin of permanent decayed teeth from different people in different geographical areas, regardless of the types of teeth (premolars and molars), is of a significant negative correlation. The strong effect of geographical location implies the fact that these communities have unique features that are important determinants of dental fluorine, dependent on the individual characteristics and professional exposure.

  43. Dr. Meenakshi Kumari, Dr. Krishna Murari and Dr. Mamta Kumari

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the role of colposcopy as a screening and diagnostic tool in women presenting with cervical erosion, to co-relate colposcopic findings with histopathology of cervical biopsy and to find out the outcome of different treatment modalities for cervical erosion. Methods: All the women included in the study were subjected to colposcopic examination. Colposcopic guided biopsy was taken in cases with abnormal colposcopic findings and the results were compared. Results: Fifty women in reproductive age diagnosed with cervical erosion were subjected to colposcopy and colposcopy guided biopsy, If any abnormal findings were seen. On colposcopy 68% revealed normal findings and 30% revealed abnormalities like acetowhite areas, abnormal vascular patterns, mosaic and puctuations and iodine negative areas. When the colposcopic findings were subjected to Copplesons Grading -3 cases were in grade I, 8 cases in gradeII and 4 cases in grade lll. Histopathology of these 15 cases revealed CIN I and chronic cervicitis, cervical metaplasia with atypia in grade I, CIN II and chronic cervicitis in grade II and CIN III and invasive cancer in grade III colposcopic abnormalities. Among 50 cases of cervical erosions. 8 cases has CIN and 1 had invasive cancer. Mode of treatment: 1. Premalignant- Cryotherapy or Hysterectomy 2. Invasive – Radical Hysterectomy Conclusion: Colposcopy and histopathology are complementary in diagnosis and management of cervical erosions.

  44. Eloisa Lorenzetti and José Renato Stangarlin

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the induction of phytoalexin gliceolin in soybean cotyledons by homeopathic products Nosode of Macrophomina phaseolina, Sulphur, Arsenicum album and Sepia. Two experiments were conducted to assess the inducing activity of phytoalexin gliceolin being the first using the homeopathic medicines Nosode of Macrophomina phaseolina and Sulphur and in the second test it was used the homeopathic medicines Arsenicum album and Sepia. In both assays, the boosting used were 6, 12, 24, 36 and 48CH. As additional treatment we used distilled water and hydroalcoholic solution at 30% of ethanol. The experimental design was randomized blocks, with five repetitions. The Nosode treatments did not induce phytoalexin synthesis, unlike Sulphur product which gave an increase of up to 85% in the production of this compound. The Arsenicum album treatment did not induce phytoalexin synthesis, unlike Sepia medicament which afforded an increase of up to 166% the production of this compound. These results indicate the potential of these homeopathic medicines in inducing phytoalexins gliceolin.

  45. Dr. Bhushan Jawale, Jatan Sanghavi, Dr. Ketan Vora and Dr. Amit Jaisinghani

    Completing graduation or post-graduation in any field of dentistry does not make the dentist a good clinician. Some additional skills are required apart from the theoretical and practical knowledge to be a successful dental professional. In this article, the authors have described a few of these skills. It is important that skills which enhance the practice management in a practitioner, like time management, self development and organization skills are included in the dental curriculum (BDS: Bachelor of Dental Surgery; and MDS: Master of Dental Surgery). The institution should help generate dentists that are not only good at their work, but also imbibe a set of skills and personalities that help them achieve success as a good practitioner and a well-equipped human being.

  46. Manickam Selvamani, Meghala Priya, P., Nandini, D. B., Praveen S. Basandi and Madhushankari, G. S.

    Background: Identification of a person is the goal of forensic investigation. Elevations and depressions on the lip form a characteristic pattern called lip prints, the study of which is known as Cheiloscopy. Cheiloscopy is an established forensic technique that can be used to identify a person. The lip print pattern is unique for each individual, even for monozygotic twins. The lip prints also show differences according to ethnic origin of a person. Aim: The aim of the study was to determine the distribution of lip print patterns among males and females of Kerala sample population and to determine the most common lip pattern in the study population. Method: The study group consisted of 100 Kerala students in the age group 17-25 years. Lip prints were obtained by applying lip liner evenly on lip. Lip impression was made on the glued side of a transparent cellophane tape which was then transferred on to a white sheet for permanent record. Lip print patterns were classified according to Tsuchihashi et al. Results and conclusion: Type III pattern was the most common lip pattern among the whole study population. In males, the predominant lip print pattern was type III, followed by type I and type II. In females, the predominant lip print pattern was type III, followed by type II and type I’. There was no statistically significant difference between the distribution of lip print patterns in males and females.

  47. Dr. Amrendra Kumar, Dr. Arunoday Kumar Dr. Pallawi, Dr. Debojyoti Das, Dr. Anirban Das, 6Dr. Abhinaba Bose, Dr. Debashish Basak and Dr. Sankalp Verma

    Introduction: Reconstruction of bony defects represents a challenge for the oro-facial reconstruction team. Defects in the facial skeleton present several prosthetic, functional challenges unique to the stomatognathic system. The major aim of the reconstruction is to achieve complete regeneration and restoration of function. However, this becomes a daunting task as the body’s immune and inflammatory mechanisms come into play simultaneously allowing repair to occur; instead of complete regeneration. Recently, the use of platelet concentrates has been proposed as an aid for enhancing regeneration of osseous and epithelial tissues in oral surgery. Aim: To evaluate platelet rich fibrin (PRF) as an autologous grafting material in 3rd molar extraction sockets as post- surgical jaw defect. Materials and methods: A total of 15 patients of either sex, aged between 19-30 years were selected to be a part of this study. They were divided into two groups: group I: Third molar extraction socket with Platelet rich fibrin (PRF) placement after extraction (Test). Group II: Third molar extraction socket without Platelet rich fibrin (PRF) placement after extraction (Control). Post extraction instructions were given and the patients were recalled for follow-up on the 3rd, 7th day post-operatively and also after 1 month, 2 months and 6th month for recording of radiographic parameters. Results: Statistically significant difference with reference to the periodontal pocket depth, distance between CEJ to highest point of alveolar bone and bone density of regenerate was noticed. However, no statistically significant difference between the 2 groups was recorded in pain, extra-oral obvious swelling. Conclusion: platelet rich fibrin (PRF), can be of paramount importance in minimizing periodontal complications that may follow the extraction of impacted lower third molar.

  48. Dr. Kavarthapu Avinash and Dr. Kaarthikeyan Gurumoorthy

    Aim: orthodontic corrections are required to maintain the periodontal tissues in health. When doing such treatment, there is a more chance of causing periodontal destruction which is a result of plaque present surrounding the orthodontic materials used. It is the duty of the orthodontist to reinforce the patient in maintaining the oral hygiene.The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the knowledge of an orthodontist towards the periodontal health care during orthodontic treatment. Materials and Methods: The questionnaire was distributed to a total of 120 orthodontists randomly that includes clinical practitioners and post graduate students in South India Population. The questionnaire included a total of 16 questions descripting the common gingival problems encountered during the course of treatment, control measures to prevent them and the duration of the follow up. Results: Approximately three-quarters of responding orthodontists stated that gingival diseases are common during the orthodontic treatment while only 64.2% subjects know the ideal indicator for gingival diseases. However, half of the subjects believe that cervical third of the teeth is more prone for plaque accumulation in healthy subjects. The minority of subjects (27.5%) recommend scaling every time they change the wire and only 31.7% subjects recommended both oral prophylaxis and use of mouthwash in eliminating halitosis Conclusion: The present study shows that there is a lack of awareness among orthodontic practitioners towards periodontal health. Hence, there is a need for every orthodontist to be aware of gingival diseases that prevail during the course of the treatment and the ways to prevent them from occurring.

  49. Dr. Debashish Basak, Dr. Debojyoti Das, Dr. Arunoday Kumar, Dr. Rohit Anand Dr. Anirban Das, Dr. Abhinaba Bose and Dr. Mohamed Ali, S. A.

    Most of the geriatric patients in the population undergoes nutritional deficiency. This is due to inability of having inadequate intake of proper nutrients in the diet, their improper food choices or their low socioeconomic status. These affect their general as well as oral health. Adequate diet and nutrition can improve their oral tissues that will lead to success of the prosthesis. This article gives a brief information about the importance of nutrition in diet for geriatric patients.

  50. Munesh K Sharma, Navpreet Singh, Anupama Dhiman, Sonia Puri, Naveen K Goel and Dinesh Walia

    Introduction: The profile of the geriatric population, who are coming to a health institution is an essential step to lay down the premises for planning any strategy to provide proper health-care facilities for this group of people. The present study was undertaken with the objectives: (1) to find out the magnitude and the trend of cases reporting in geriatric clinic at a tertiary care hospital over a period of eight years, and (2) to find out gender and seasonal differences of geriatric cases, if any. Methods & results: Secondary data for eight years i.e. from March 2008 to February 2016 was obtained from Geriatric clinic at tertiary care institution and analysed as per gender and seasons. Total of 129 087 elderly patients reported to geriatric clinic. Majority of the elderly were male (67 033, 51.9%) and reported during summer (45 824, 35.5%). More number of male geriatric cases reported in the clinic (male: female=1.03 – 1.23) during study period except in the year 2015-2016. No significant difference was found in reporting of patients as per gender (p=0.69). The seasonal variations shown indefinite trend with statistically significant difference was found overall (p=0.00). A significant drop in reporting of geriatric patients was seen from the year 2011-2012 (20 316 cases) to the year 2012-2013 (12 989 cases) (p=0.00). The patients in the age group of 60-69 years reported more during all seasons as compare to patients in other age groups, and this difference was found to be statistically significant (p=0.00). Conclusion: The gender of elderly, type of season and preference for female physicians by female geriatric patients, effects the reporting by elderly patients in geriatric clinic. These findings will help in improving overall planning and management of health care of elderly in an institution.

  51. Joshi Bharat and Gupta Kumar Rajesh

    Gingival recession is a frequent periodontal pathology in our present day life, which is often associated with dentinal hypersensitivity and unpleasant looks. It is regarded as a major barrier for preserving the gingival health and is considered the most important and challenging tasks esthetic dentistry is facing today. Although, there are a variety of treatment options available for gingival recession ranging from the free gingival grafts to guided tissue regeneration, every technique has its own merits and demerits. It is the duty of the clinician to select the most suitable and atraumatic technique for managing gingival recession. Among all recession coverage surgical procedures, Semilunar flap is an ideal atraumatic treatment modality. It does not requires sutures and can be useful for managing even multiple recessions too. Hence, the aim of this paper is to highlight and potentiate the advantages and predictability of semilunar flap for managing gingival recession.

  52. Chukumati, C. N., Okpako, J. E. F. and Akpan, U. S.

    The study investigated Demographic factors as predictors of health problems among prison inmates in south-south region of Nigeria. The study aimed at identifying which demographic factor predicts health problems among prison inmates in the region. One research question and one hypothesis guided the study. The study adopted a correlational research design. The population comprised all the 4,752 prison inmates from three prisons in south-south region. A sample size of 1,520 inmates was determined using proportionate stratified and purposive sampling techniques. Validated and reliable Self-structured questionnaire was used for data collection. Research question was answered withmultiple and linear regression, ANOVA and t-test associated with multiple and linear regression analyzed the hypothesis. The result of the study proved that level of education and occupation had high prediction. However, demographic factors jointly predicted health problems. The study recommended Government and NGOs to improve educational system as well as skill acquisition facilities in prison to enhance the life of this vulnerable group when they are discharged to the free world.

  53. Dr. Athul Antony Simon, Dr. Shashirekha and Dr. Varsha Mokhasi

    Introduction: The 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene is located on chromosome 1 at 1p36.3. MTHFR enzyme catalyzes the conversion of 5,10-methylene tetrahydrofolate into 5-methyltetrahydrofolate, which is the major circulating form of folate. Its deficiency results in insufficient methylation of crucial metabolites and direct toxicity of homocysteine, the two factors which have been suggested as possible mediators of teratogenesis. Objective: To find out the cause for neural tube defect and multiple congenital anomalies in the case under scrutiny. Materials & Methods: An anomalous female fetus of 37 weeks gestation, post demise, was procured from Department of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, Vydehi Institute of Medical Sciences & Research Centre. A written consent was taken from the parents. Mother had previous history of spontaneous abortion during 1st trimester. Blood samples of parents were taken for cytogenetic analysis, and to check for possible MTHFR gene mutations. The baby was then subjected to radiological investigations, CT & MRI, following which, it was dissected in the department of Anatomy after fixation in 10% formalin. Observations & Results: MTHFR gene mutation was detected, and this accounts for all the findings observed in the various investigatory modalities. Conclusion: To obtain high methylene tetrahydrofolate levels for an adequate homocysteine metabolism, individuals with a decreased MTHFR activity need a higher dietary intake of folate during the periconceptional period.

  54. Kant Utkrisht, Ranjan Satish Kumar, Jha, N. K., Pratap Vinay and Sinha Mini

    Introduction: Appendicectomy is the most frequently performed urgent abdominal operation, often the first major procedure performed by a surgeon in training. Recently, elevation in serum bilirubin was reported in acute appendicitis, but the importance of the elevated total bilirubin has not been stressed. This study aims to evaluate the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value of serum bilirubin as a diagnostic marker of acute appendicitis and its complications. Material and Methods: This prospective study was performed on 100 consecutive patients who were operated on for treatment of acute appendicitis. Clinical diagnosis of acute appendicitis was based on symptoms of abdominal pain, migration of pain, nausea, vomiting, anorexia, fever and signs of peritoneal inflammation like right iliac fossa tenderness, rebound tenderness and guarding. Apart from the routine investigation all the 100 cases were subjected specifically to the following four investigations i.e. Total WBC count, Differential Leukocyte count, CRP and Serum Bilirubin, to evaluate their role in accurately diagnosing a case of acute appendicitis. Results: Of total 100 patient operated for acute appendicitis or its complications, histopathology shows signs of inflammation in only 80. So out of 80 cases of acute appendicitis, 57 (71.25%) had elevated Serum Bilirubin. In those cases 19 (23.75%) had appendicitis associated with complications and 38 (47.5%) had appendicitis without any complications. In the rest 23 (28.75%) patients Serum Bilirubin were normal. Conclusion: The sensitivity, Specificity, predictive value of positive test and predictive value of negative test of Serum Bilirubin in my study is 71.25%, 80%, 93% and 41% respectively.. Patients with clinical signs and symptoms of appendicitis and with hyperbilirubinemia higher than the normal range should be identified as having a higher probability of Acute appendicitis associated with complications suggesting, serum bilirubin levels have a predictive potential for the diagnosis of Acute appendicitis associated with complications.

  55. AlirezaKhalaj, Ali Eslamifar, Mohammad Hosein Gheini, Mansour Abachi, Ebrahim Azizi, MonirSalati, Mehrad Eslamifar, Saeid Mahmoudi, Hassan Ehteram, Maryamossadat Moin Azad Tehrani and Bahareh Soltani Ahmadi

    Background: Vitamin D deficiency is common at all ages, and although vitamin D deficiency has been documented as a frequent problem in studies of young adults, elderly persons, and children in other countries, there are limited data on the prevalence of assess the status of serum vitamin D pathway with serum vitamin D level in elderly people in Iran. Design: We measured the serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in 3156 subjects aged 60 to 90 years old men and women in ShafaghlabLaboratory of Iran. Results were collected and the data were analyzed with SPSS, chi square tests and linear regression. Results: 89% of the all had 25-OH-vitamin D deficiency (defined as a level below 20 ng/mL), and 67% had a severe deficiency (below 10 ng/mL). Only 4% had levels in the target range (30–60 ng/mL); none had a level above100 ng/mL. Conclusion: Our findings revealed higher prevalence of osteoporosis in elderly people especially in women compared to other studies in Iran, and also showed high prevalence rate of vitamin D deficiency. Persons of very advanced age need a better supply of vitamin D not only to keep their bones healthy, but also to lessen the risk of falls and fractures.

  56. Jayashree Natarajan

    Cases of vulval cancers are in a increasing trend in young population. This may be attributed to the increasing trend in HPV infections. The vulval surgeries pose risk to conception in these patients. Hence fertility is a matter of concern. Though the surgeries for carcinoma vulva are less radical now, the conception in these patients is still less due to various factors. Here we present a case of radical vulvectomy who had post operative labial adhesion with partial colpocleisis, necesscitating vulvovaginoplasty with urethroplasty, who conceived naturally and delivered after these surgeries.

  57. Devi, M., Mohan, C. and Niranjana, R. F.

    Sweet potato weevil is considered as one of the most significant pest of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) in Karaikal region. Field trial was conducted in a season with two different cultivars. Two different cultivars of sweet potato were studied during the year 2010-2011 recent years have appeared Moderately susceptible to Sweet potato weevil in the field condition. Pest assessments based on the proportion of infested to healthy vine cuttings about the plant crown were conducted. Significant differences in the levels of infested vine were found between two cultivars evaluated. Villupuram local (Red) had a low level of infested tubers recorded in term of percentage tuber yield kgha-1 (54.64%) while Karur local (White) recorded as high level of infested tuber (60.41%) but both cultivars showed Moderately susceptible levels.

  58. Luciana Aparecida de Souza Abreu, Dayliane Bernardes de Andrade, Elizabeth Rosemeire Marques, Janaína Guarieiro Ribeiro de Assis, Camila Aparecida Lopes and Maria Laene Moreira de Carvalho

    All technology developed by plant breeding programs is spread through seed and image analysis has proved to be a promising technique in assessing the viability of seeds per constitute an objective method, economical and practical. Thus, the objective with the survey was evaluate the physiological quality of coffee seeds submitted to drying and to estimate the seedling vigor through the Seed Analysis System (SAS ®) in order to correlate them with the quality seeds. Coffee seeds were dried until they reach levels of 40%, 20%, 15% and 12% of water by slow drying in the shade. After this process, the quality of the seeds was evaluated by germination test and first count. The SAS® equipment was used to estimate the strength and uniformity of coffee seedlings obtained during the course of the germination test. The use of images with the help of SAS® program analysis is a promising method for assessment of the viability and vigor of coffee seeds and seedlings.

  59. Muhammad Ahmad Zeshan, Muhammad Rizwan Bashir, Ahsan Mohyo-ud-Din, Muhammad Mohsan, Hafeez ur Rehman, Sunny Jabbar and Qamar Anser Tufail Khan

    The research was conducted for the source of resistance against leaf rust of wheat caused by Puccinia triricina. In the present study, eight varieties/advanced lines were evaluated in 2013-14 against this disease using Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) at the experimental research area of Department of Plant Pathology, University College of Agriculture, University of Sargodha, Pakistan. During the month of March, 2013-14 seven genotypes/successions viz. A-24, A-20, K-11, A-09, A-17, A-08 and A-29 exhibited moderately susceptible response against leaf rust of wheat as compared to an advanced line i.e. A-25 expressed moderately resistant response. Similarly, during month of April, four varieties/genotypes namely A-24, A-20, K-11 and A-25 showed moderately resistant response whereas other four genotypes/advanced lines such as A-09, A-17, A-08 and A-29 showed moderately susceptible response against leaf rust of wheat. However, conclusively it was pragmatic that eight lines/genotypes were screened out against leaf rust of wheat. Four lines namely A-09, A-17, A-08 and A-29 exhibited susceptible response to leaf rust of wheat whereas other four genotypes/successions such as A-24, A-20, K-11 and A-25 expressed moderately susceptible response to this disease. No genotype/succession/advanced line showed resistant, moderately resistant or immune response to leaf rust of wheat. It was concluded that screening of leaf rust of wheat for the source of resistance is the most economical management strategy for farmers.

  60. Ivan Ricardo Carvalho, Maicon Nardino, Gustavo Henrique Demari, Alan Junior de Pelegrin, Mauricio Ferrari, Vinícius Jardel Szareski, Patrícia Brezolin, Cleiton Antonio Warths, Antonio Costa de Oliveira, Luciano Carlos da Maia and Velci Queiróz de Souza

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of sowing date on yield and physiological components aiming to identify the period that enhances the increment of the components and analyze via multivariate techniques the dissimilarity and the relative contribution of traits in elite wheat genotypes. The experiment was carried out during the 2014 agricultural year in a randomized block design (11 wheat genotypes x 2 sowing dates) with three replications. Sowing in May (date I) increases the spike weight and grain weight per spike, grain yield, thousand grain weight, first germination count, germinated seeds, and seedling dry weight. Genetic dissimilarity discriminated genotypes into two major groups, being TBIO Mestre and BRS 327 the most dissimilar genotypes. The largest relative contribution for the discrimination of genotypes was expressed by the spike insertion height, germinated seeds, number of grains per spike, and plant height, explaining 61.8% of the total variation.

  61. Lúcia Helena Garófalo Chaves, Jacqueline da Silva Mendes and Iêde de Brito Chaves

    Biochar is an option in agriculture have been used with fertilizer and soil conditioner. Ultisol, Oxisol and Entisol with electronegative character were used for studies of electrochemical properties, before the addition of poultry litter biochars. Soil samples were incubated for 100 days with different treatments. After this period, the soil samples were dried, sieved, analyzed for pHH2O and pHKCl. With the values of pHs were calculated the values of the zero point of charge (ZPC) of electric charges and the surface electric potential (Ψ0). The addition of biochar in soils increased pH, decreased the negative charge and the surface electric potential, increasing ZPC values. The values of ZPC correlated positively with the values of organic matter and biochar applied to all three soils and negatively with ΔpH and Ψ0 values only in Oxisol and Ultisol.

  62. Debina Sanasam, Geetha, K. N. and Shankar, A. G.

    A field experiment was conducted during the kharifand rabi season 2011 at UAS, Bangalore to examine SSNM effect on growth, yield and nutrient uptake of the sunflower cropping system. Application of soil test value based NPK along with limiting micronutrient, boron and FYM (5t/ha) along with Trichodermavidride (T6) has recorded significantly higher seed yield (2367kg/ha) and oil yield (970kg/ha) as well as a higher growth and yield parameters viz. plant height (154.8 cm/ plant), stem girth (1.95cm), head diameter (13.55 cm) and 100 seed weight (4.88g) as compared to the control.The results also revealed that a higher economic returns were obtained with respect to cost of cultivation in T6 when SSNM was practiced in groundnut- sunflower cropping system.

  63. Dr. Grace O. Manlapas

    The objectives of the study was to determine the quality attributes of the aggregates such as sand and pea gravel as to sieve analysis, moisture content, unit weight/mass determination, specific gravity, and absorption; to determine the compressive strength of the concrete hollow blocks using two different treatments- 1:2:4+0% (without abaca fiber) and 1:1.88:3.76+6% (with abaca fiber) after 14 days curing period; to determine the significant mean difference between the two treatments; and to determine the cost and return analysis. Tests showed that on the 14th day of curing, the CHB samples with abaca fibers attained a compressive strength of 500 psi, the minimum value stipulated in ASTM C129 for hollow non-load bearing concrete masonry unit. It’s not only about the addition of abaca fiber that improved the CHB, but equally significant is the potential of recycling materials for a better environment and the economic impact in communities where abaca industry is active.The difference between the two treatment means is significant material at 5% level. Hence, the CHB with abaca fiber has higher compressive strength than the CHB without abaca fiber. CHB A with a design mix of 1:2:4+0% abaca fiber can produce 55 pcs. Per bag of cement at Php10.00 per block while CHB B with a design mix of 1:1.88:3.76+6% abaca fiber can also produce 55 pcs at Php9.90 per block with a return of investment of 19% for one year.

  64. OTHMANI Afef, AYED Sourour, CHAMEKH Zoubeir, REZGUI Mounir, SLIM-AMARA Hajer and BEN YOUNES Mongi

    The effect of Silicon treatments on 11 durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) seed germination under in vitro drought stress conditions was studied. The laboratory experiment was performed using a factorial completely randomized design with three levels of drought stress (0, 100 and 200 g/l PEG8000) and five Silicon concentrations (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 mg/l Si) with three replications for each treatment. Fresh weight, dry weight, germination percentage, seedling length and vigor index were measured under the experiment conditions. Variance analysis results (ANOVA) showed highly significant (p<0.001) differences between treatments and varieties for all traits. It was observed that PEG concentrations decrease seed germination and seedling growth traits and that adding Si mitigates PEG effects as a significant increase especially with highest Si concentrations (15 and 20 mg/l). Silicon increase fresh weight, dry weight, germination percentage, seedling length and vigor index by 25 %, 21.42 %, 12.67 %, 17.45 %, 164.67 % and 143.12 % when the Si concentration was 0 mg/l and 20 mg/l respectively. It is concluded that Si addition is beneficial to improve durum wheat seed germination and plant growth under drought stress.

  65. Aariff Khan, M. A. and Krishna, A.

    The field experiments were conducted in pearl millet kharif, 2010, rabi, 2010-11 and 2013-14 in young plantations of Pongamia pinnata and Meila azedarach at Agroforestry research block, Professor Jayashankar Telangana State Agricultural University, Hyderabad, T.S. All field experiments were laid out in randomized block design, replicated thrice with nine treatment combinations in Sweet Sorghum, pearl millet and finger millet. The experimental soil was red sandy loam in texture, neutral, non saline and medium in organic carbon, low to medium in available NPK. In pearl millet kharif 2010, the results showed that, integrated use of 80 kg N along with 10 t ha-1 pongamia green leaf manure (PGLM) was significantly influenced the grain (2345 kg ha-1) and stover yield (3600 kg ha-1) in Pongamia based agri-silvi system. The combined application of 80 kg N ha-1 + PGLM 10 t ha-1 significantly the NPK content in both grain (1.54, 0.51, 0.53%) and stover (0.40, 0.22, 2.7%). Pertaining to soil parameters significant and higher available N (171 kg ha-1) and P (27.86 kg ha-1) was found with 80 kg N + PGLM 10 t ha-1, where as higher available K (292.0 kg ha-1) was found with by fertilizer alone i.e. 80 N kg ha-1. In rabi pearlmillet 2010-2011, the grain (2167 kg ha-1) and stover yield was significantly affected by the conjunctive use of 75% RD N + 25% N through Poultry manure. Regarding soil parameters the highest content of OC (0.73%) and available N and P (219.8 and 24.53 kg ha-1) was found with same nutrient management practice. In case of finger millet the highest grain (2681 kg ha-1) and straw yield (5063 kg ha-1) was recorded in sole crop without trees and on par with agroforestry system, where conjunctive use of inorganics and organics i.e. 75% RD N+ 25% N poultry manure (2405 and 4733 kg ha-1) and 100% RDF (2393 and 4745 kg ha-1). The same treatment resulted higher nutrient content (1.32, 0.265, 0.47 and 1.31, 0.264, 0.47%), OC (0.92 and 0.88%) and available NPK (317.0, 37.76, 366.0 and 291.8, 39.04, 355.3 kg ha-1).

  66. Narayana, E. and Raju, E.

    The fish diversity in Pakhal Lake, Khanapur Mandal, Warangal District, Telangana State, India, the survey was focused mainly on fish biodiversity and undertaken during the year 2013-2014. A total of 22 species of fishes belonging to 18 genera, 11 families were identified. Cyprinidae were found most family represented by 8 species followed by Anguillidae with 1 species, Bagridae with 2 species, Siluridae with 2 species, Notopteridae with 1 species, Channidae with 3 species, order Perciformes with 4 species and family Belonidae with 1 species. This was the systematic survey on the fish diversity of this lake. It is proposed that the scientific information on ichthyofaunal diversity and distribution status will surely help in serving the future purposes of sustainable exploitation and concurrent conservation of fish resources.

  67. Janani, N., Rengarajan, R. and Revathi, K.

    Pesticides is a common pollutants of freshwater ecosystems where they induce adverse effects on the aquatic biota. Freshwater carp fish, Oreochromis mossambicus is an important carp species in Tamil Nadu region having good nutritional values. Fishes living in close association with may accumulate pesticides. In the present investigation, the toxic effects of the malathion LC50 0.25 ppm on some biochemical characteristics (total protein in gill, kidney, liver and muscle) of the freshwater carp fish, Oreochromis mossambicus were estimated. There is decreased in all tissues on compared with control. The results indicated the toxic nature of the pesticide malathion.

  68. Janani, N., Rengarajan, R. and Revathi, K.

    Impact of pesticides is common pollutants of freshwater ecosystems where they induce adverse effects on the aquatic biota. Freshwater fish, Oreochromis mossambicus is an important carp species in Tamil Nadu region having good nutritional values. Fishes living in close association with may accumulate pesticides. In the present study, the toxic effects of the malathion LC50 0.25ppm on some Haematological parameters (RBC, WBC, Hb and MCH) of the freshwater fish, Oreochromis mossambicus were estimated. There is decreased in RBC, Hb and MCH on comparison with control and increased in WBC on compared with control. The results indicated the toxic nature of the pesticide malathion.

  69. Altaf Hussain Sheikh, Moni Thomas, Rita Bhandari and Khushboo Bunkar

    Terrestrial insects are most diverse groups of animals and contribute to the biodiversity to a large extent. Light trap sampling is commonly used in insect biodiversity studies. A wide variety of light traps with different light designs are being used. Numerous light sources have been used to access the photo response of the different insect species since last forty years. However, not all the light sources proved efficient to attract and collect all the nocturnal insect species insects in a particular habitat. The success of light traps is affected by a wide variety of factors. Environmental conditions, trap design, height of the light source, attraction radius of a light source, surrounding anthopogenic lights, wave length, intensity of light source, timing and duration of light trap, all affect the success of light traps. Therefore, we are presenting an exclusive review of light trap in a single window system.

  70. Ibraheem.M.Aliyas, Ali Kh.Alazzam and SalemA.Hassen

    Recently increased interest in the natural balance of the biosphere to achieve environmentally sustainable development and achievement the positive interaction to its vocabulary where became the biodiversity issue from priority concerns because of its great importance in the environment and its disproportionate effect on the international environmental variables in general, including Iraq by especial form, the importance of this research, where the wildlife an important part of the ecosystem, in the case preserve their balance and stability so will be an important indicator for the human security by treating with his environment and the sustainability of their welfare. From here came establishment the natural reserves that contribute to biodiversity development in a sustainable manner and achieve the interaction with natural environmental resources, which called the biosphere (soil, water, air) to protect the wildlife of all kinds; flora, fauna, Microorganisms and ecosystems, the study aims to assess the wildlife in Sinjar mountain reserve which have a great role in biodiversity protection, which explain that the rate of plant diversity was 92 species, 84genus and40 family where the coverage proportion reached 95% and density (376,78) plant/m2. There are animal diversity in the reserve, such as mammals, reptiles, birds, rodents, rabbits, insects, spiders and other. Clear the type of prevailing climate that drought indicator (14,175) were semi humid, rainfall (422 ml/year), relative humidity (69, 2%-16, 7%), rate of maximum temperatures (32, 9C0), Minimum temp. (6,6C0), the kind of the soil texture from clay soils, alluvial and gypsum, which characterize availability of water surface, whether from rain in winter and from project of rainwater harvesting in reserve or wells in summer, where the factor of favorable climate that made the stability and sustainability of the nature reserve, though to some of human factors challenges, such as hunting, overgrazing, pollution (acid rain) and desert encroachment, logging, fires, war impacts by stripping the lands from natural content. Although the above, to Sinjar mountain nature reserve has a bright future while appears their sustainability by the content of their biodiversity.

  71. Narayana, E., Raju, E. and Achaiah, N.

    This paper deals with avifaunal diversity of Pakhal lake, Khanapur Mandal, Warangal District, Telangana State. Observations were carried out during the period of 2013-2014. Visual method was used for counting the different birds. During the study period 23 genera belonging to 15 families and 7 orders were recorded. Pelecaniformes were highest among the observed birds. Maximum 7 species of birds were recorded from order Pelecaniformes followed by 5 species in Charadriiformes, 4 species in Passeriformes, 2 species each in Bucerotiformes, Coraciiformes and Suliformes and 1 species in Ciconiiformes. Continous monitoring on the avifaunal diversity was suggested to evaluate and ecological status of the birds in habitats.

  72. Nikhil Reddy, C., Vidyasagar, G. E. Ch. and Laxminarayana, P.

    A field experiment was conducted to study the integrated weed management practices in groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) during rabi 2016 at college farm, college of agriculture, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad, PJTSAU with 10 weed management practices in 3 replications.Weed free check (two hand weedings at 15 and 40 DAS) was found more effective to control weeds recorded highest pod yield and lowest nutrient removal by weeds. It was also recorded significantly highest growth and nutrient uptake by the crop and lower removal by the weeds higher pod yield was observed in treatments with Oxyfluorfen @ 0.15 kg a.i ha-1 (PE) fbimazamox+imazethapyr @ 70 g a.i ha-1 (POE) at 25 DAS fb HW 40 DAS was found next superior treatment after weed free check in respect of above crop and weed parameters. Though weed free treatment recorded significantly higher net returns, which were 68,601 ha-1 and on par with oxyfluorfen @ 0.15 kg a.i ha-1 (PE) fbimazethapyr (POE) @ 100 g a.i ha-1at 25 DAS and HW at 40 DAS 67, 848 which were found to be more economically feasible weed management practices for groundnut.

  73. Nazia Nissar, Omar Bin Hameed, Lubna Masoodi and Fiza Nazir

    Essential oils (EOs) have received increasing attention as the natural additives for the shelf-life extension of food products, due to the risk in using synthetic preservatives. These are concentrated liquids of complex mixtures of volatile compounds. Essential oils, also called volatile odoriferous oil extracted from different parts of plants, for example, leaves, peels, barks, flowers, buds, seeds, and so on. They can be extracted from plant materials by several methods like steam distillation, solvent extraction, and so on. Essential oils are a good source of several bioactive compounds, which possess antioxidative and antimicrobial properties. In addition, some essential oils are being used as medicine. Furthermore, essential oils can be incorporated into packaging, in which they can provide multifunction termed as “active or smart packaging.” New technology for lowering the unique and undesirable smell of essential oil, which can limit their use in foods by encapsulation technology, can be utilized to counter their negative effect on sensory perception. As a consequence, essential oil can be widely used without any negative effect on sensory property of foods. Novel technologies such as encapsulation of EOs into Nano emulsions and the use of EOs as part of hurdle technology to improve the microbial stability and the sensory quality of meat and meat products are being used in the meat industry; traditional methods of adding EOs directly into meat batter during manufacturing of meat products are also used. The development of release system for essential oil from packaging or fuming system inside packaging is conducted to maximize the activity of active compounds in essential oils. Therefore, it can serve as the convenient packaging, which can effectively extend the shelf life of foods.

  74. Haleem Khan, A. A., Naseem, B. and Vidya Vardhini

    The plant based foods are rich in nutrients and dietary fibers that improve health. The plants are consumed as leaves, flowers and fruits in raw salads and cooked multiple cuisines. The leafy vegetables from amaranth are inexpensive in cost though enriched with phytochemicals that support healthy body. In the present study, extracts from leaves of Amaranthus gracilis Desf., A. tricolor L., A. polygamus L., Alternanthera repens L., A. sessilis L., Aerva lanata L., (Amaranthaceae), and from fruits of Benincasa hispida (Thunb.) Cogn. (Cucurbitaceae), Capsicum annum L., Citrus aurantium L., were evaluated for organoleptic characters, extractive value, phytochemical constituent, total phenolic content and antioxidant activity. The solvents used for the extraction of plant material were polar and non-polar to check the solvent that yield more phytochemicals. The organoleptic characters of leaf and fruit extracts were found to have acceptable sensory properties. The extractive values (%) showed the suitable solvent applicable for phytochemical extraction. The phytochemical constituents under study were detected in selective solvents due to their solubility. The total phenolic content of leaf and fruit extracts were high with alcoholic solvents, and hence based on the findings from our studies, it can be aptly suggested that alcohols are ideal solvents for extraction of phytochemicals. This study reveals that the extracts are moderate potential sources of natural antioxidants.

  75. Ajith Kumar, K.G., Sunil Kesava Deth, G., Pratheepkumar, V., Suresh Kumar, K. A. and Dinesh Babu, K. V.

    Myristica fragrans is an evergreen tree commercially cultivated for their valuable essential oils present in the mace and nutmeg. India is a leading producer and exporter of these spices. Unfortunately, the Indian market and world market markets have been flooded with the mace and nutmeg obtained from their wild relatives with inferior qualities. There should be some checks for the detection of adulterants from the original one. The present investigation explores the possibility of utilizing FTIR spectral analysis for detecting the possible adulteration. The results indicate that a set of biochemical markers which are unique in the mace of Myristica fragrans can be used for the detection of original mace from adulterant.

  76. Praveen Kumar Nagadesi, Arun Arya, Sudheer, P. D. V. N. and Shaik Mastan

    Several molecular methods for detecting wood decay fungi have been developed, but methods for direct extraction of fungal DNA and fungal species identification during the incipient stage of decay could benefit to save the timber from decay. Timber degrading fungi was collected from different areas of Gujarat. The samples were brought to the Lab for their DNA isolation and quantification as well. Random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis was used to determine the % variability in the genomic profiles of Lenites sterioides, L. betulina, L. exima, Flavodon flavus strain 1, F. flavus strain 2, Ganoderma lucidum, G. applanatum, Phelinus robustus, Schizophyllum commune, Pluerotus pulmonarius, and Stereum hirsutum. Initially 18 RAPD primers (20 primers Kit E, IDT USA; 160 primers, kit- J, K, L, N, O, P, Q, R, Operon technologies Inc., USA) were screened and out of which 15 primers responded with minimum 6 loci (bands) were included in the study. 10 primers were screened for the amplification of DNA fragments. 100 percent polymorphism was observed when primers OPL-1, OPL-5, OPO-7, OPL-14, OPL-18, OPN-10, OPL-4, and OPQ-15. Dendrogram of the RAPD analysis provided information of the genetic variability among the timber degrading fungi. Over all PP among seven genera through RAPD was found to be 98.81 with 2 markers common among all genuses studied. In the pair wise comparison the mean PP was 98.87.

  77. Aline Klug Radke, Vanessa Nogueira Soares, Andrea Bicca Noguez Martins, Leticia Winke Dias, Paulo Eduardo Eberhardt Rocha and Francisco Amaral Villela

    Currently, due to the growth of vegetable crops seeds market there is a demand for tests to evaluate the physiological potential quickly and efficiently for selecting vigorous commercial lots. The study aimed to adapt the electrical conductivity test methodology to stratify lots of arugula seeds into vigor levels according to seedling emergence. Five lots of arugula seeds were used. The initial quality of seeds were evaluated by the water content of the seeds, germination, first count, seedling emergence. After that, were analyzed the following methodologies for the electrical conductivity test: six periods of soaking (1, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 24 hours), combined with three volumes of deionized water (25, 50 and 75 mL), and repeat number of seeds (25 and 50) at soaking temperature of 20 ⁰C. When using fewer seeds and an amount of water that promotes the reading of the leachate without over- or underestimation values in shorter periods of time, the use of this test becomes compatible routinely seed analysis laboratories. The conductivity test using 25 seeds and 50 mL of water at 20 ⁰C, whether for 6 or 8 hours were effective to stratify lots of arugula seeds into vigor levels according to the seedling emergence test.

  78. Kranthi Kumar, G. and Raghu Ram, M.

    A total of eight rhizobacterial strains were isolated from the root nodules of Vigna trilobata plants raised in soils of different districts of Andhra Pradesh, India. Morphologically all the strains were rod shaped gram negative and mucus producing. All these strains were positive for biochemical tests such as ammonia production, catalase test, oxidase test, nitrate reduction test, and urease test. These strains gave negative results for Ketolactose test, growth on glucose peptone agar medium and Hoffer’s Alkaline medium. For amylase activity, three strains Sinorhizobium sp. MRR 101, Sinorhizobium sp. MRR 109 and E.xinjiangense MRR 110 showed negative results and rest of the strains showed positive results. For citrate utilization test except Ensifer sp. MRR 125 all isolates showed the positive results. Good colony growth was recorded at 0.1% NaCl with pH range of 7-8 and temperatures between 30⁰C - 35⁰C for all the strains studied. Indole acetic acid and EPS production was common for all the strains with IAA production in range from 8.5-70µg/ml, and EPS production from 379-892 mg/ml. Two out of eight strains i.e. Sinorhizobium sp. MRR 101 (250 µg/ml) and S.kostiense MRR 104 (510 µg/ml) exhibited phosphate solubilisation ability. Only one strain E. xinjiangense MRR 110 showed the chitinase activity (0.30 U/ml) on colloidal chitin agar medium. And three strains viz., S. kostiense MRR104, E.xinjiangense MRR 110, S. terange MRR 121 were HCN producers. None showed siderophore production. Among the eight strains, Sinorhizobium sp.MRR 101, S.kostiense MRR 104, and E.xinjiangense MRR 110 were proved to be better as plant growth promoting rhizobateria.

  79. Serge SAMANDOULOUGOU, André J. ILBOUDO, Fidèle W. TAPSOBA, Hamidou COMPAORE, Aly SAVADOGO and Alfred S. TRAORE

    This study was conducted to highlight antibiotics’ residues in eggs from laying hens consumed in Burkina Faso. 400 eggs from four areas of Burkina Faso were collected. The presence of antibiotics residues has been put in evidence by a microbiological method using Geobacillus stearothermophilus, Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli as test microorganisms. It appears from this study that 41.75% of eggs laying hens consumed in Burkina Faso contain antibiotics’ residues. Evolution in the prevalence of antibiotics residues in eggs ranged from 39% to 46% from one zone to another. This study reveals a strong presence of antibiotic residues in the yolk than in the albumen of eggs. The presence of antibiotics residues in table eggs in Burkina Faso is a danger to the health of consumers.

  80. Chinmuanthang Guite

    An ethnobotanical survey of wild edible plants used by the Paite tribe residing in Churachandpur (Lamka) hill districts of Manipur was carried out. The information was collected from 70 informants of various ages from 16 Villages of Churachandpur district of Manipur. A total of 115 plant species belonging to 46 families are listed. Ethnographic data related to vernacular names, various parts used, recipes had also been recorded. Present ethnobotanical survey revealed that wild edible plants play an important role in the Paite tribe dietary system and further investigation on nutritional and commercial aspects, pharmacological prospects and conservational needs.

  81. Ashwag Shami, Malcolm Horsburgh and Alistair C. Darby

    Enterococci are Gram-positive bacteria that inhabit the gastrointestinal tract of humans and animals as commensal flora. In recent years two species, Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium, have become an increasing medical concern by virtue of their ability to gain and spread antibiotic resistance. In this study, genomes of vancomycin-resistant isolates of E. faecium from pig, chicken and calf were sequenced using 454 platforms. The assembled genomes were annotated and compared with human E. faecium isolates to identify their repertoire of genes potentially associated with colonising each host. Phylogenomics of E. faecium was used to investigate the relationship between animal and human strains. The genomes of the chicken, pig and calf isolates differed in size (2.5 Mb to 3.3 Mb) with the size difference due to horizontally-acquired elements (mostly phage, transposons and insertion sequences); the chicken isolate genome contained five prophages. The aims were to sequence the genomes of three vancomycin-resistant isolates of E. faecium from chicken, calf and pig using next generation pyrosequencing on the Roche 454 titanium platform. These genomes were selected specifically to investigate host adaptation in mammalian hosts.

  82. Abhijit Das

    The rice-beer is extremely popular among the tribal people and is probably therefore the most ancient method for brewing alcoholic beverage from cereals by herbal formulation of yeast culture. The rice beer is an integral part of several tribal communities of Assam and is known as jumai by the Bodos, suze by the Deoris, morpo by Mikirs, chu by Garos, jou by Meches and Dimasas, zu by Tiwas, apong by Mishings, laopani and mod by some other tribal communities. The survey was done during August to December, 2015 in the villages Borchila, Ga-khujuwa, Kahua-ati, Gokhai-khonda and Dalang-ghat of Morigaon district bordering the district of Nagaon in Assam. Tiwas believe that the rice-beer have curative properties against some ailments of human beings as well as cattle. The Tiwa people consumed the rice-beer in many common ailments such as fever and various enteric diseases and also got cured. About 19 plant species has been identified which is used to prepare the rice cake or the bakhor. Each of the plant species has medicinal values. Rice-beer is therefore efficient in relieving headache, body ache, inflammation of body parts, throat infection and tonsillitis, gastroenteritis and urinary problems. The rice-beer is highly effective in expelling worms from the alimentary canal and also cures cholera.

  83. Can Burak Sisman and Yusuf Yılmaz

    In this study, the effects of ash and slag on the physical and mechanical properties of the concrete were investigated experimentally, and the change in the cost of concrete was examined. For this purpose, concrete samples containing a series of standard concrete, 3 series of ash and 2 series of slag were poured. As a result of the study, ash and slag generally increased the beginning and ending of setting times. It was observed that both pozzolan materials increased the workability of fresh concrete and decreased the hydratation heat.In concrete compressive strength, it was observed that the ash and slag replacement decreased the strength at early ages and caused a higher concrete strength at older ages.

  84. José Alberto Maqueo Jiménez, María de Jesús Martínez Hernández, Gabriel Díaz Padilla, Ana Lid del Ángel Pérez, Gustavo C. Ortiz Ceballos and Gabriela Sánchez Viveros

    In Latin America, the socioeconomic development models are based, generally, on the exploitation of natural resources with a poorly planned vision. Promote the environmental fragility. The producer typology, in Mexico, is composed of the ejidatarios, comuneros and the intermediate or in transition individuals, and the agro industrials. The changes of agro cultural habits cannot be achieved by decree, without losing sight of the fact that public policies favor the globalized agricultural market, not the interim. The ability to call for the participative planning with a comprehensive management approach of watersheds, presents difficulty for its instrumentation, requiring planning instruments more aimed for the different degrees of environmental sensitivity in specific areas of the whole of the river basin. The inclusion of the social sector in the decision-making. For that purpose, it is raised the research question, What crops can be selected for the agro productive diversification in the Tolapan Coatepec State of Veracruz micro-watershed, on the basis of the particular conditions that are agro-ecological, climatic, soils and physiographic with technical, economic and social feasibilities, which can be integrated to a territorial model for the decision-making, the objective was to develop a support system, for decision-making in the production diversification for crops with technical, economic and social potentials to transit towards a more sustainable benefit. The subsystems are integrated by properties in the individual and in its articulation, (approach, analysis, diagnosis, prognosis, understanding). Operated through a territorial information system with free software and hardware. The statistical design combines quantitative and qualitative researches. We identified 27 crops with productive, technical and economic feasibility potential. This model is complementary with other methodologies, also flexible, and it can be adapted to different scales and different conditions of information availability, therefore, it is suitable for the Local, Regional and National managements.

  85. Pander Sitindaon and Haposan Situngkir

    Rotary knife cutter is a part of cane chopper machine that mounted on the machine shaft. The number of rotary knife cutter mounted on the machine are 24 pieces that arranged to 6 lines and each line has 4 pieces. Chopper machine is driven by steam turbine, when the engine is operated shaft rotates and rotary knife cutter also rotating because it being tied to the engine shaft. Sugarcane entering through the hopper machine will cut into small parts with a size of 1 - 1.5 cm and further the pieces of cane will be processed on a hammer machine. Rotary knife cutter used in the Sei Semayang and Kualamadu sugar factories is straight shape and sharpened at one end and both sides. Rotary knife cutter materials used are aumtits that imported in the form of plate and manufactured in local workshops. This knife can be used to cut sugar cane upto 60,000 tons, and then be replaced due to wear. In this study resulted four pieces of rotary knife cutter that fabricated by metal casting techniques. Blade material is adopted from the ASSAB, XW-41 standard by modifying the elements molybdenum into three variations. To obtain the actual dimensions used milling and drilling machines. Casting that has been finished on the machine, processed again by heat treatment to a temperature of 10000C and cooled in the air blow to obtain an appropriate hardness. Rotary knife cutter has been tested in the Sei Semayang and Kualamadu sugar factories, from the test results obtained the life time of rotary knife cutter is 175000-210000 tons sugarcane.

  86. Hima Bindu, Vellaingiri, S. and Nagendra Babu, P.

    The Cloud Service Providers (CSP) is deployed to support data storage and computational resources for the users. Data owners share the data values under the Cloud Service Providers. Authorized users access the data from the CSPs. Increasingly more and more organizations are opting for outsourcing data to remote cloud service providers (CSPs). Customers can rent the CSPs storage infrastructure to store and retrieve almost unlimited amount of data by paying fees metered in gigabyte/month. For an increased level of scalability, availability and durability, some customers may want their data to be replicated on multiple servers across multiple data centers. The more copies the CSP is asked to store, the more fees the customers are charged. Therefore, customers need to have a strong guarantee that the CSP is storing all data copies that are agreed upon in the service contract and all these copies are consistent with the most recent modifications issued by the customers. The cloud data sharing system is constructed with a map-based provable multi copy dynamic data possession (MB-PMDDP) scheme. The MB-PMDDP scheme achieves the following benefits. 1) it provides an evidence to the customers that the CSP is not cheating by storing fewer copies; 2) it supports outsourcing of dynamic data, i.e., it supports block-level operations, such as block modification, insertion, deletion and append and 3) it allows authorized users to seamlessly access the file copies stored by the CSP. The system verifies the data storage with multiple data copy model and data distribution operations.

  87. Salah Mehdi Salih

    In this paper we introduce the concepts of generalized higher centralizer and generalized Jordan higher centralizer of rings R as well as we proved that every generalized Jordan higher centralizer of rings is generalized higher centralizer of R.

  88. Anitha S Nair, Vinila, V. S. and Jayakumari Isac

    In this article the effect of temperature on optical properties of nano crystalline ceramic Ferromanganese nickel zinc oxide Fe2Mn2Ni2Zn2O11 were studied. Using the Tauc model, the absorption spectrum method was applied to estimate the optical band gap. The sample was synthesized thermo chemically by solid state method at different treating temperatures. A characteristic feature of all solid-state reactions is that they involve the formation of product phase(s) at the interfaces of the reactants. UV-VIS analysis of the sample was carried out. The optical constants of refractive index, extinction coefficient, normal-incidence reflectivity, and absorption coefficient showed systematic variation with temperature. From these data the absorption coefficient was calculated and the band gap energy determined. Using the Wemple- Di Domenico single-oscillator model the dispersion of refractive index was analyzed.

  89. Naresh Kumar, Dr. Pardeep Kumar and Sunita Rani

    Any electronics system is the comprises of basically three units: first is an input device to give the command to the system, second is the processor to perform the specific operation according to the command received and last is output device to get the result in the different form of information like graphical form, mechanical work, numerical value etc. Generally all the available input devices uses the different type of switches, these all devices have different no. of demerits such as large power consumption, bulkier in size, occupy large space etc. in order to eliminate all these limitation we have another advanced technology that is touch screen. In the field of touch screen technology we have different type of resistive touch screen technology. But they also have some disadvantage so our main focus on to design new capacitive touch screen devices or to design new algorithms to detect the touch event on the specific location of touch screen device. In this new algorithms methods we uses the concept of capacitance of the device when there is touch will be occurred, this increases capacitance is the combination of parasitic capacitance & finger capacitance of the touching body. This relative increasing capacitance increases the Γ (time constant) which decreases the frequency of signal generated at the time of touching the devices. Now this increases capacitance of the device by touch event can be identified by the decreases frequency or the increases time for which touch screen produce the voltage signal. And then assign the specific operation to each touch portion of the screen.

  90. Prof. Dr. Kyoo Jae Shin and Amarnath Varma Angani

    The present work is about the design and installation of the heat pump and vertical aquarium energy management system (VAEMS). This design is new invention to the world. The main concept of this project is to recycle the waste hot water produced from the power plants. This hot water after processing is filled in the vertical aquarium for aquaculture. The vertical aquarium means building the aquariums one over the other to reduce the space occupation. The processing of hot water is to maintain constant thermal equilibrium temperature of water in the aquarium that is suitable for fish living, which is possible by this design. This warm water is continuously supplied by the 48 URT heat pump according to the need. This design is eco-friendly,easily available, reduces maintenance and electricity cost. The design of aquarium is done based on experimental results of the heat pump. The dimensions of heat pump is 1700mmx850mmx1720mm (i.e length 1700 mm, width 850 mm and height 1720 mm) is installed on site. It can be operated with automation (PID) and controlled by sensors. The performance of and heat pump is evaluated experimentally by the monitoring system.

  91. Prof. Dr. Kyoo Jae Shin

    In order to design the optimal well-being cow system, it had researched the fully electrical driving system for automatic milking robot, which can reduce the stress of cows such as actuator noise sound and mechanical vibration. The milking robot can detect exactly the nipples position in the moving condition of a cow. Also, the robot manipulator must control tracking the teat cup to the detected nipple position. The proposed milking robot is designed by the fully electrical driving system. It had designed and realized the automatic milking system that is the nipples of the cow are detected by the laser scanning unit and the manipulator has the tracking control to 3 axes driving unit. It includes high technology such as 3 axes manipulator, detecting nipple unit, vacuum generating unit, milking storage unit, manipulator protection bar, AC servo motor with feedback sensors, inverters and 3 axes position tracking boards using PIC18F8720 microprocessor and interface communication using TCP/IP. The presented nipple detection method and the electrical driving manipulator have the advantages of a simple, low cost and very quiet. The designed manipulator is realized by the fully electrical motor and servo position control algorithm with tracking PID compensation. The presented robot is realized by using the nipple detection unit, 4 teat cups, 3 axes robot arm, 6 servo motors and automatic milking control line. The designed robot is tested in the cow farm, which is satisfied with the design specification for milking robot manipulator.

  92. Prof. Dr. Kyoo Jae Shin and Yogendra Rao Musunuri

    In the last two decades, the research on biomimetic fish robots has fascinated scientific communities’ attention progressively. With its character of high flexibility and intelligence, biomimetic fish robot has developed in the field of underwater robots. Predominately, Biomimetic robot systems are robots that mimic the structure and function of biological systems such as natural fish, cheetah, ant, kangaroo and snake etc. This paper addresses the detecting the moving objects that is earlier developed fish robot in the aquarium because we need to acquire the position to track the fish robot. This algorithm has modeled to detect the position of the fish robot using the MATLAB and Simulink. This intends to recognize the neighborhood of the fish robots using an image processing technique through video device that is camera. Here, we have applied the proposedobject tracking algorithm to control the motion of the fish robots. This algorithm used to detect the moving objects, by using this detecting position data; we compute the distance between two fish robots using mathematical expression. Then, we send this data to control and track the fish robots through RF (Radio Frequency) modem. Certainly, the performance test of object tracking algorithm has been satisfied by the proposed experimental system.

  93. Lambrine Athanasopoulou

    In this paper, it is examined how executives, employees in their workplace and students in the universities with or without learning difficulties can work using technologies. In this investigation, the participants are evaluated on handwritten exercises and on exercising by using technology for development of text and words. This research aims to explore the use of technology in order to improve the organization and the performance of adults with and without learning difficulties. The results were supported the hypothesis that the use of technology improves the organization and the performance of adults with and without learning difficulties in business and education environment.

  94. Yirga Yayeh and Shambel Ferede

    The basic objective of this research was identifying and discussing the obstacles that affect knowledge sharing among Assosa university academic staffs. Descriptive survey research design method was used to achieve the objective of the study. The target population of the research was all Assosa university academic staffs including faculty deans. Questionnaires were used to collect data from the academic staffs and interviews were also used to collect data from the faculty deans. Data was analyzed using qualitative and quantitative methods. Descriptive statistics (frequency and percentage) were used to analyze quantitative data. The study attempted to assess the knowledge sharing mechanisms and practices of ASUAS, knowledge sharing obstacles ASUAS and the models of KS. The results or findings of the study showed that there were obstacles that prevent knowledge sharing among academic staffs; such as lack of ICT infrastructures, lack of knowledge storage mechanisms, The lack of trust among academic staffs, lack of incentives or rewards for those who share knowledge for others, Lack of interaction between those who need knowledge and those who can provide knowledge among ASUAS, physical layout of work areas (office arrangement of staffs) and ASUAS culture.

  95. Kouamé NGUESSAN and Yao Jean Jacques KOUAKOU

    The article presents the results of a qualitative research analyzing the knowledge to be taught on the concept of energy of classical mechanics of four (4) physics textbooks classes first, scientific series used on the period from 1980 to today in Côte d’Ivoire. It shows that these structures provide few tools to reduce the trouble and bring the transfer of relevant skills, despite the succession of reform programs and changes in the theory and practice, and discusses educational implications of this analysis. These results indicate that these textbooks are difficult to use and are a source of difficulties for their users. This search will note that at the approach mode: causal approach - functional approach - consumerist approach, used in the manuals does not allow students to conceptualize the energy’s notion from what they already know about this concept ; then the type of approach proposed most common: Particular Approach (PA) in EURIN-GIE and AREX ; and represents a search for simplicity knowledge to teach, which preserves the appearance of physical literacy but characterized, in fact, by continually increased distance between the taught knowledge and scientific knowledge; and finally, teaching styles and iconographic documents do not allow teachers to conduct an adequate education, and users to participate in the construction of their knowledge on the energy’s concept. It seems that the way to conceptualize the energy’s notion in these manuals is not suited to effectively describe the energy aspects is that the linking between theory and experience.

  96. Md. Moshrur Raihan, Farid Ahmad, Md. Abdul Malek and Farhan Kabir Shifat

    Waste containing toxic elements has been found in the project area Hazaribagh in Dhaka. This paper aims to explain & mention the various types of toxic elements & their intensity in the study area. Pollution of living environment with inorganic and organic metallic species is one of the serious problems in the world. (Pollutants cycles in the environment (Environmental Chemistry, UNEP, 3rd edition, (1979), Pollution of the living environment with inorganic heavy metals is one of the serious concerns because of its non-degradable character. (World leather vol 13, no 7, November 2000) With the progress of Science and Technology today it is possible to detect and quantify heavy metals and metalloids in different matrices and explain their movements through various environmental compartments and trace their pathways. Through these routes, the toxic metals such as As, Pb, Cd, Hg, Cr etc. are incorporated into drinking water and various food chains through bio geochemical cycling. (HMSO, London, 1987) By using low-cost adsorbent, it is possible that near about 89% chromium can be removed.

  97. Srikanta Bhaya and Dr. Abhisek Chakrabarty

    Ecotourism is one of the fastest growing sectors in the tourism industry at present. The market for nature holidays is certainly a growing one. The World Tourism Organization (WTO) has estimated that nature tourism generates 7 percent of all international travel expenditure, the relations Eco- tourisms this is widely used today, but is rarely explain. It is often used interchangeably with others terms such as soft tourisms responsible tourisms and nature tourisms. In simple terms eco-tourisms simply means that the main motivation for travel is the desire to view eco system in their natural state. Both regarding wildlife and the original population, however, ecotourism is often taken to be more than this with its proponents requesting that is also concerned and the lives of the local people improved thought of effects of tourisms. The present study is an attempt to identify potential ecotourism sites in Jungle Mahal using Remote Sensing and GIS techniques in forest dominated area of West Bengal. GIS approach of visualization is an innovative discipline to recognize the ‘Ecotourism’ assessment of tourism by integrating spatial and non-spatial data. After identifying the potential sites, a demonstrative plan has been made for Ecotourism development based on locally available natural resources.

  98. Şükrü Kitiş and Hasbi Apaydın

    Alzheimer is a serious ilness which usually occurs over 65 years old people. The number of patients with this disease are very high in our country and the world. This disease begins as forgetfulness then extends up to an inability to perform daily activities and can be fatal if not treated within 7-8 years. In this study was conducted a study to be diagnosed with 5 data through 32 questions test data for patients suspected to be suffering from Alzheimer benefiting from data mining.

  99. Sengothai, R.

    Using Combinatorial Group Theory an area of mathematics arising from Abstract Algebra, the so called Word Problems can be effectively understood. With the objective of finding applications of the elements of fundamental groups, an attempt has been made in this paper to discuss the word problem in the form of finding the generators in the English Alphabets. These ideas can be widely used in Cryptography, the science of secret codes.

  100. Sivaraman, R.

    In this Paper, we see about “Graceful Graphs” and have discussed the important application of Graceful Graphs in the field of Computer Science, namely, MULTI PROTOCOL LABEL SWITCHING (MPLS) related to Networking. The MPLS technique has many useful applications in networking, for example, it can be effectively used in ATM network infrastructure, as the labeled flows can be mapped to ATM virtual circuit identifiers, and vice-versa. This feature signifies the existence of graceful labeling concept in Computer Networks via MPLS.

  101. Joseph John, N.

    Single crystals of triglycine sulphate (TGS) doped with L-proline have been grown from aqueous solutions by low-temperature solution growth method. The Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy has been recorded in the range 400 to 4000 cm–1 and the functional groups of the grown crystals have been identified. The structural studies on the grown crystals were carried out by X-ray diffraction analysis technique and found that the grown crystal crystallizes in monoclinic structure. The lattice cell parameters of pure Triglycine sulfate are a = 9.5020 Å, b = 12.6010 Å, c = 5.271 Å. Ultraviolet-Visible spectra show that the grown crystals have wide optical transparency in the entire visible region. It is found that solubility of the samples increase with the increase in temperature. Density of the grown samples were determined by floatation. Since the work hardening coefficient is found to be more than 1.6, all the grown crystals of this work are in the category of soft materials. Thermal studies were also carried out.

  102. Pasupathy, N., Arokiyaraj, A., Vincentraj, A., Vadivel, T., Benjamin, R. and Juliatmary, P.

    Groundwater samples have been collected from 105 various location of major costal area, 35 revenue village of sirkali Taluk of Nagapattinam district, Tamil Nadu, India and these samples were used to assess the water quality for drinking purposes. The study area is sirkahi Taluk of Nagapattinam district coastal region in the southern Tamilnadu State located in the coastal region of Bay of Bengal 11.02903730N Latitude and 79.85068150 E Longitude. The physico-chemical parameters of groundwater like pH, Electrical conductivity (EC),Total dissolved solids (TDS) Total hardness (TH), Ca, Mg, Na, K, SO4,Cl, CO3, HCO3, Zn, Mn, Cu and Fe were determined. The values were analyzed and compared with World Health Organization (WHO) water quality standards and Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS). Suitable groundwater quality zones for drinking purpose were identified through GPS system.

  103. Pramod V. Naik

    Meghnad Saha (1893 – 1956) is a prominent architect of modern science in India. He was the physicist of international reputation. His theory of thermal ionization was a breakthrough in astrophysics. Each of his contributions – as a physicist, teacher, an active social thinker, educationalist, scientific institution builder and Parliamentarian – is important in Indian history. His work as a Parliamentarian is unknown even for the well educated people. Here I overview this dimension of his multi-faceted personality.

  104. Shahid Ahamad, Satish K.Sharma, VikashSharma and Tehsin Tarannum

    One of the most common problems encountered in vegetable seedling production this time of year is "damping-off". Damping off is a disease that results in the rotting, collapse and finally death of seedlings just before or soon after they emerge. It often starts out in a few plants but can spread quickly throughout the entire flat and into neighbouring flats. Chemica lcontrol is an important tool for managing diseasesincluding soil borne ones particularly when the disease is prevalent in the field. Efficacy of eight fungicides was tested against R. solani by poisoned food technique. Among fungicides mancozeb, copper hydroxide and a combined products of carbendazim 12 % + mancozeb 63 %, carbendazim, benomyl, carbendazim 25 % + mancozeb 50 % recorded maximum inhibition of (100 %) mycelial growth at all concentrations (0.10 %, 0.20 % and 0.30 %) and captan showed 90.20 % inhibition at 0.10 per cent concentration, 100 per cent inhibition at 0.2 and 0.3 per cent concentrations. Least inhibition of 84.00, 88.88 and 89.33 per cent was observed in case of ziram at 0.10, 0.20 and 0.30 per cent respectively. Bavistin was most effective fungicide in reducing the mycelial growth of R. solani and gave complete inhibition of mycelial growth and action of these chemicals inhibit the germination, growth and multiplication of the fungus.

  105. Mete, V. G., Mule, K. R. and Elkar, V. D.

    This paper deals with the study of Bianchi Type-Vcosmological modelwith wet dark fluid and electromagnetic field in general theory of relativity. For solving the Einstein field equations, weassumed that the magnetic field is in xy-plane; therefore the current is flowing along the -axis. Thus is the only non-vanishing component of the electromagnetic field tensor . Also somephysical and kinematical properties of the model are discussed.

  106. Ashutosh Singh Jeliyang

    All students, irrespective of their sex. race, colour, ethnic or social origin, genetic features, language, religion or belief, political or any other opinion, membership of a national minority, property, birth, disability have the right to have equal opportunity in education (Klironomos et al., 2006), and to be considered as being an integral part of the learning community. This paper looks at the issue of E-Inclusion by referring to the concept of Universal Access to Education. It focuses on the strong potential Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) provide to avoid any kind of digital divide among students with special needs and its role in capitalising the opportunities offered by new technologies to support the full inclusion of all students in mainstream education systems. In this perspective, to view the Universal Access to Education as a concrete and reachable goal, teachers need to be aware of the ICT potential and they must be able to acquire the suitable knowledge and operational skills to choose and use ICT as an appropriate and promising tool promoting equity in educational opportunities helping children with special needs overcome barriers to learning, thus increasing their school achievement, together with their autonomy, willingness and self esteem.

  107. Anindita Choudhury

    The status of women in India, both historically and socially has been one of the respect and reverence. Our Constitution and other enactments are providing their protection to the utmost level. Usually respect of women is considered as the respect of nation. But in our society, monsters in the face of human being are prevailing, as a result of which inspite of so many enactments, the women in every phase of their life are being deprived and being made target of various heinous crimes from ancient era to till today. In these varieties in the world of crimes one of the most atrocious one is the trafficking in women and forced prostitution. Thus as we know trafficking means:, The recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring or receipt of persons by means of the threat, use of force or other forms of coercion, of abduction, of fraud, of deception, abuse of power, or of giving or receiving payments or benefits to achieve the consent of a person having control over another, for the purpose of exploitation. So forced prostitution and trafficking of women is being practiced since ages. Various factors are working behind such crime. Poverty, illiteracy, lack of awareness, and some binding factors upon them may be the cause. It is researched that trafficking in persons is an increasing problem that involves both sexual exploitation and labour exploitation of the victims. It affects all regions and in the world. Both men and women may be the victims of trafficking, but primary victims worldwide are women and girls, the majorities of them are trafficked for the purpose of sexual exploitation and forced prostitution. Indian legislatures are there to curve such burning issues. But inspite of the presence of several laws, the problems are not decreasing due to various factors like growth of poverty, illiteracy, views and thoughts of men towards women and mainly lack of awareness among women about their rights. Thus Prevention of trafficking in women requires examining the factors that contribute to the problem and providing education to potential victims.

  108. Khaleel Ibrahim Al-Daoud, Siti Zabedah Saidin and Shamharir Abidin

    Ownership structure, as a mechanism in corporate governance to expedite improved efficiency of a firm, has been believed to have effect on firm performance for many years. However, research interests in the field are far from been exhausted, and the research encompassing the role of ownership structure on firm performance in emerging economy is scanty. Hence, this conceptual study proposes a model for the impact of ownership structure on the enhancement of firm performance in the context of Jordan. This work is theorized on the basis of far-reaching literature survey through which a conceptual model is developed and discussed. It is found that relationship between ownership structure and firm performance is valuated and established via published research. However, research findings on family ownership-firm performance relationship and institutional ownership-firm performance relationship are inconsistent. The proposed model in this work is based on survey of published research, but it can be empirically solidified further via collection and analysis of relevant data. This proposed conceptual framework is a unique and comprehensive model that will hopefully contribute towards the enrichment of the relevant literature, and serve as a useful guide for stakeholders on how they can boost firm performance.

  109. KARIM Khaddouj

    La recherche en Management public a fréquemment mis l’accent sur la mise en place du système de contrôle de gestion dans le secteur public. En effet,il apparaît que face à une grande diversité de structures, le contrôle de gestion propose des démarches et des outils ayant un caractère general. Il n’y a pas deux contrôles de gestion, l’un public, l’autre privé, dans chaque structure particulière, il s’agit à partir d’un diagnostic de cette situation d’effectuer un choix dans la gamme d’outils et de démarches disponibles, d’adapter sur mesure cette situation aux septicités du problème qui est posé. L’objectif de ce papier de recherche est mettre en lumière les particularités du contrôle de gestion dans le secteur public, de déceler les obstacles et les blocages liés à son devloppement et de proposer des solutions pour l’amélioration et l’optimisation de ce système, aussi bien au niveau de la fonction contrôle de gestion que dans l’organisation toute entière.

  110. Shobha Bharat and Dr. Reeta Sonawat

    Parents play a crucial role in their children’s lives during their growing up years. They help shape their children’s skills, behaviour, attitudes and value systems that are necessary for successful adjustment in an ever changing society. Parenting Styles are a composite set of behaviours, practices and an emotional climate which provide the context in which children learn social and instrumental competence. For several decades, researchers have been interested in the influence of parenting styles on development of children. While the concept of Parenting Styles, its classification and influence of each style on children’s personality originated in the western world, several researchers in other parts of the world have questioned the concept, its classification and its impact on children as related research conducted in other continents have often given contradictory results. This review paper attempts to explore and understand the concept of parenting styles and its influence across cultures and regions.

  111. Co-operative movement in planned economy: A study in Indian perspective

    The cooperative sector is one of the main partners of economy; the cooperatives have more reach to the rural India, through their huge network of credit societies in the institutional credit structure. The cooperative sector has plays a key role in the economy of the nation. The cooperative covers almost cent percent villages. The place of cooperatives in Indian economy and its role in social and economic affairs has developed a new dimension with the beginning of the planning. The cooperatives, which are the life, blood of the economy and the mechanism for any development programs. The cooperative credit structure is serving the Indian society since 1904 and since then it has seen several ups and downs. Since independence, the cooperative movement has recorded substantial progress. The emerging need of the economy in the new competitive and deregulated financial environment, cooperative institutions have re-oriented their policies by drawing up their prospective mission and strategy to make them globally competitive. This paper attempts to analyze the development of cooperative movement in planned economy. Empirical result shows development of cooperative movement in five-year plan highly impressive.

  112. Bindu, K. B. and Beegam Zahida, K.

    Health care facilities unlike any other amenities, is vital for any society irrespective of its population size and administrative area. It is to be highlighted that health care facilities are not only meant for providing medical facility for unhealthy people, to save life in case of emergency, but also to spread awareness about healthy life in every area where there is a presence of human life. Hence each and every life on earth is important, so is the presence of health care facility. In Lakshadweep, several government proposals and fund are allotted for health care facility, but due to regional disparity in allocation of fund and other allowances, there exist large difference in the availability, accessibility and affordability of health care facility in different islands in Lakshadweep. The Health Services plays a vital role to enable the people of Lakshadweep to lead a healthy life by promoting programmers covering preventive, primitive and curative health care. At present there are 2 Hospitals, 3 Community Health Centres, 4 Primary Health Centres, 1 First Aid Centres. In addition to these, two Ayurvedics Dispensaries, one Homeopathic Dispensary and four Dental Units are also functioning in the Islands of Lakshadweep. In the past, epidemics like cholera and smallpox used to take a heavy toll of lives. Leprosy and Filariasis were also rampant. Lack of facilities and unavailability of doctors besides ignorance and isolation caused by the difficulties of transportation and communication were the main reasons for the slow developments of health services. The present study is a geographical appraisal of the health care facilities in Lakshadweep Islands. The study reveals that inspite of various efforts to develop the health care facilities; there exist regional disparity in the availability, accessibility, affordability of health care facilities among different Lakshadweep islands.

  113. Kiaira Felicity

    Rape is a global challenge that confronts women in all context and from all race. There has been an increase in rape cases and rape prevalence in Kenya, especially in major urban centers. The research is a qualitative study done in Nairobi, to study the phenomenon rape. Interviews were conducted with the rape victims, Church clergies, and Activists. The study found that, the factors leading to rape are many, however those discussed in this article are, media, cultural factors, poverty and robbery to name but a few. Further, the findings indicate that rape affects the victims, their immediate family, and all people related to the victim. Rape as well affects the economy of the victim and even that of the entire society.

  114. Collince Gworo

    Social responsibility accounting is the ability to provide accurate information in the financial statements regarding the estimated social cost occasioned by the production externalities on the environment and the public and how much deliberate intervention cost had been incurred to bridge the gap between the marginal social cost and the marginal private cost by a firm. The objective of this paper is to establish whether there is any significant relationship between social responsibility accounting and profitability of selected firms listed in Kenya. The study would employ a cross-sectional descriptive survey design. Secondary data would be collected on Return on Capital Employed (ROCE), Earnings per Share (EPS), Net Profit Margin (NPM) and Dividend per Share (DPS) as a measure of profitability of firms over a period of five years. The data would be analyzed using multiple regression models. The paper suggests that there is a significant relationship between Social Responsibility Accounting and Return on Capital Employed (ROCE) and Earnings per Share (EPS), Profit Margin and Dividend per Share. Based on this it is recommended that government should give tax credit to organizations that comply with its environmental laws and that environmental reporting should be made compulsory in Kenya so as to improve the performance of organizations and the nation as a whole. The paper also recommends that there is a need for the Institute of Public Accountants of Kenya (ICPAK) to hold ongoing training courses and workshops regarding social responsibility accounting, methods for their implementations and their effects on the future of companies.

  115. Naomi N. Makau, Edward Tanui and Alexander Ronoh

    Instructional leadership practices refer to the activities that the principal engages in or delegates to others that promote growth in student learning. It is envisioned as the most ideal leadership model for principals in secondary schools and one that can lead to an improvement students’ academic achievement. The purpose of this study was to explore the differences between the instructional leadership practices by principals in high performing and low performing schools with a focus on Chemistry, Physics and Biology in Makueni County, Kenya. The target population was the principals in County secondary schools and the respondents were obtained through both stratified and simple random sampling. The study established that there are distinct differences between the instructional leadership practices by principals in the high performing and low performing schools.

  116. Md. Ashraful Islam Khan

    The growing attention has been given for rural development during past two decades in most of the developing countries over the world. This is because of majority peoples live in rural areas where problems of poverty, inequality, unemployment etc. are increasing rapidly. Like other developing countries, Government of Bangladesh has given priority to the development of rural peoples. Beside Government, non-governmental organizations are also playing an important role in rural developmental activities. However, Grameen bank, a leading microcredit organization, that provides micro loan to the poor women for self-employment, and the Nobel laureate Dr.Muhammod Yunus have become the subject to talk in home and abroad from last few years. This paper aims to figure out the microcredit and rural development issues through the opinion of rural people based on the Grameen bank and Dr. Muhammod Yunus dilemma.

  117. Dr. H. Zulkifli, M., Dr. Sulaemang, L., Dr. H. RusdinMuhalling, Dr. H. Abd.Rahman, P., Dr. Chairan M. Nur and SarjaniahZur, M.Pd.

    The focuse of the research how is the utilization of internet as a learning source for Tarbiyah Students at IAIN Kendari. This study is descriptive qualitative research. The population of the research was taken from the students of Tarbiyah at IAIN Kendari, the researcher used purposive sampling. The technique of collecting data used open-closed interview. The technique of data analisis was applied by descriptive qualitative technique and presentation. The result of the research showed that the utilization of internet as learning source for students of Tarbiyah at IAIN Kendari was used to develop students’ professionalism, as a learning and information center, to study independently, to reach the new insight, for society, knowledge, and to develop career. All of them were in a “fair good” category.

  118. Syed Wahid Ali Shah, Dr. Nor Aznin Abu Bakar and Dr. Muhammad Azam

    Multinational companies invest in the form of either greenfield FDI or merger and acquisitions and a massive empirical literature is available on determinants of aggregate FDI.The aim of this study is to extend the previous work through the analysis of panel data of five Asean countries, over the period 2002 to 2015, namely Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippine, Thailand and Vietnam in order to identify macroeconomic determinants of greenfield FDI. The study found evidence that GDP and gross fixed capital formation(GFCG) are significantly influential in determining the greenfield FDI from the whole of our selected sample of Asean countries. Therefore, improved level of net amount of fixed capital accumulation and increased level of economic growth is favourable for the host country to attract the greenfield FDI. It is also recommended that countries should improve infrastructure and financial institution to increase foreign investment subsequenlty economic growth in Asean.

  119. Dr. Beena John Jiby and Dr. S. Pragadeeswaran

    Online shopping is an important revolution of the Internet retail marketing in this new digital era. It has attracted many users to try online shopping as a preferred shopping channel. The number of consumers preferring internet for their shopping needs has been constantly gaining importance mainly because of its easy convenience and availability at all time. As modern day consumers are running short of time many consumers do their transactions online. Internet online shopping is seen as a boon to manage both shopping and work as consumers can look at the online stores websites and purchase products in comfort of their home. This study is to identify the relationship between customer satisfaction and loyalty in online shopping and five hypothesis formulated. Total Participation was from 194 respondents and the samples were selected by convenience sampling method Results indicate that when consumers perceive brick and motar shopping as inconvenient, their intention to shop online is greater, the online shopping intention, attitude and loyalty are not only due to ease of use alone, but also by factors like trust, product quality, Service quality, previous online shopping Satisfaction experiences and easy access in online shopping. The correlation and regression test was used to identify the relationships. Findings suggest the there is significant relationship between customer satisfaction and loyalty in online shopping.

  120. Sahar Abdul Ameer Haraj Al-Husseini

    Most of the inventive efforts offered by African American writers are to be located on the level of self-preservation and the attempt to regulate themselves where they are denied, in the society, and to complaint due to the secondary position of persons of African ancestry through their history in America. One of the great poets of African American descent was Nikki Giovanni who was capable of transforming Black Power into amazing Black Art using this art for the sake of defending herself and people due to her race-consciousness. A consciousness about the oppression and subjugation the black are facing in the community they are living in. It's the consciousness that led her have self –esteem and protest against all the types of oppression classifying them as non-human and rejected. Besides black women often got liminal position in actuality and they attempt to struggle for black self-fortitude and rambling against sexist oppression. Known as "the Princess of Black Popularity", Giovanni is considered as one of the premier of twentieth century African American poets who defended herself, race as well as gender being woman, black and black-woman.

  121. Anant Singh Jeliyang

    In the past libraries were regarded as store, houses of books they were not for use. Information is indispensable for any human activity aiming at social progress. ICT has developed to such a stage that it has given access. To information at fingertips. Developments in ICT have made significant impact on all spheres of human life. ICT libraries are also playing a very important role in facilitating access to global information and knowledge resources.

  122. Dr. Usha, M., Dr. Nandhini, M. Dr. Palanivelu, P.

    The study is about the retention factors in automobile components manufacturing industries in Coimbatore district. Industries to remain successful and competitive, it must keep its biggest assets; its people engaged and committed for the long term. This study examines the perspective of the employee to examine the morale of the employees and to identify the effective retention factors. According to (NLSY) National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, the Automobile Industry has recognized as an industry with a very high potential to increase employment and additional employment of 25 million people is envisaged by the year 2016-17 and by 2022, the Automobile Industry will employ an incremental 35 million people. It also has found that the cost of replacing lost talent is 70 to 200 percent of that employee’s annual salary. There are advertising and recruiting expenses, orientation and training of the new worker, decreased productivity until the new employee is up to speed, and loss of customers who were loyal to the departing worker. In order to create a successful Industry, employers should consider as many options as possible when it comes to retaining employees.

  123. Ardeshir, Jahani and Hossein Akbarzadeh Mohammadabadi

    This article overviews the issue of interaction and its role in second language acquisition (SLA). The role of interaction in L2 learning and in second language classrooms has long been a controversial issue. The article first introduces some definitions of input and interaction hypothesis and then reviews the studies and researches concerning the interaction theory, its role in second language acquisition and its application in second language classrooms. Finally, a number of recommendations are presented to create the right kind of classroom interaction for the second language acquisition.

  124. Ana Mafé García and Salvador Alario Bataller

    The development of this research work is due to the thought of reflecting on "search for divinity" as part of the principal theme of the doctoral thesis we have underway. In it, from discipline of the History of Art, we deepen on into the tourist activity, in particular the product called Cultural Tourism through the route of the Holy Grail, which extends from the city of Jaca in Aragon to the city of Valencia, in Spain. In a society gripped by voracious consumerism, the practice of the search for the divine relegated to the encounter of human beings, it is a question that it must be also studied from the Academy. The methodology consists of inspect-from the point of view psychological and historiography-, the following paradigms: post-capitalist culture and the pursuit of the divinity; as output to the dehumanization of global consumerism. From end of the 19TH century up to our present, through different referents in the discipline of History of Art. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate through reflection, as human beings in general, has to rethink its place in this new world that has nothing to do with industry early last century. In the end, the conclusions section invites to choose sides of that personal search which we must never stop practicing, because the humanists, -who also are generators ultimately, of academic thought that we bequeath to our forerunners-, we must know how to transmit values to build a better society.

  125. Shahzad Akhtar, Prof. Dr. Noor Hayati Binti Ahmad and Dr. Arfan Shahzad

    The aim of this study is to theoretically investigate the relationship between interest and noninterest income impact on insolvency risk of banks. The study reveals that in case of U.S banking and financial holding companies, the relationship between noninterest income is positive but at certain level of diversification, is beneficial for banks. Whereas, in case of E.U countries noninterest income is beneficial for profitability and it reduces insolvency risk. These results are similar to the studies which are conducted on Asian and Emerging economies. The paper aims to find out the policy implication for diversification but it depends on regions and countries.

  126. Ananda Rosa Beserra Santos, Marcelo Simeão, Natália Soares da Silva and Francisco Edinaldo Pinto Mousinho

    The objective of this work to estimate the monthly aridity index for the Piaui State. This index is given by the relationship between the amount of rain and reference evapotranspiration. It was used in this study daily data records of rainfall of 165 sites, 145 are located in the state of Piauí and the other in the states of Maranhão, Bahia, Ceará and Pernambuco. For the same locations was estimated monthly reference evapotranspiration by Thornthwaite Method, allowed to calculate the monthly index of aridity. The values found for the 165 sites were spatializated for Piauí State, performing slicing into six thematic classes of monthly aridity index, obtaining thus the thematic maps of monthly aridity index for the Piauí state. Between June and September, about 90% of the Piauí state area is under arid conditions. Only in February and March the rainfall exceeds the evapotranspiration, while 90% of the Piaui state is classified as humid. The spatial distribution of the monthly aridity index can identify times and places most suitable for the development of agriculture, as well as regions subject to desertification.

  127. Israel Patiño Galván and J. Jesús Ceja Pizano

    Today the needs present and future of public services are exponential, due to the increasing size of the population and the quality of services they require, derived from the above, is necessary generate proposals to collaborate with local, regional and national governments of Latin American nation. In addition to the projection of solutions that exceed the time limits of governments. In this sense, the data, and the information technology are the pillars to stimulate the solutions, because, not only is required to provide the public service but generate future strategies based on information technologies and bigdata solutions to meet and visualize properly the needs of such services. is for this, that this proposal is aimed at creating, management and use of data, information, big data to support in longitudinal and lateral strategies of governments to adequately cover these services.

  128. Neemi Devi, A. and Dr. (MRS.) Juri Baruah

    The study was conducted to assess the Mental Health Status of the adolescents of Jorhat district of Assam. Four hundred and twenty adolescents of aged 14-16 years from five private schools and five government schools were taken as the sample of the study. Strength and Difficulty Questionnaire (SDQ) both Teacher report and Self report was used to evaluate the mental health status of the adolescents. The tool consisted of five subcomponents namely Emotional symptoms, Conduct problem, Hyperactivity, Peer problem and Prosocial behaviour. There were 25 statements, 5 statements for each of the sub components. The results showed that the percentage of adolescents in abnormal category of Total difficulty score was 15.9 percent as per the teacher report and 13.8 percent as per self report. Further, the results indicated that among the five sub-components of mental health, the highest percentage of adolescents under abnormal category was in Conduct problem followed by Peer problem and Pro-social behaviour in both teacher and self report of adolescents. Significant gender differences were found in Conduct problems, Hyperactivity, Peer problem, Pro-social behaviour and Total difficulty score. Significant positive correlations have been observed between teachers report and self report of adolescents which revealed that the way the adolescents perceives themselves is reflected in their observable behaviours indicative of mental health status.

  129. Endalfer Melese and Getaw Girma

    The main objective of this study is to explore university EFL instructors’ and students’ perception and motivation towards one-to-five team learning in Ethiopian public universities. To achieve this objective, relevant data were collected using a five point likert scale close- ended questionnaire (filled out by 28 EFL instructors and 80 third year English Language and Literature students). Results of the quantitative data were analyzed via frequency, percentage, mean and two tailed Pearson correlation using SPSS version 20. The qualitative data gathered through the general open-ended questionnaire was thematically organized and analyzed. Similarly, results of the department heads and mentors’ interview, group leaders’ Focus Group Discussion (FDG) and the randomly selected low and middle achievers’ FGD were audio recorded, transcribed and thematically analyzed. The results indicate that most of the respondents show positive perception (with mean values of 3.15 and 3.44 for students and instructors respectively) and motivation (mean score of 3.37 for instructors and 3.17 for students). There is also strong correlation between students’(r =.615) and instructors’ (r = .660) perception and motivation respectively. Results of the qualitative data show that many of the student respondents believe team learning is important; however, almost half of them do not think this approach is better than that of the teacher centred approach and they complained that team works are usually done by group leaders and do not help the team members as expected. Similarly instructor’s responses show that though learning in teams is pedagogically acceptable, some of them reflect that one to five grouping becomes a means by which clever students help others to score better grades but has limited academic contribution to group members for different reasons. Most of the respondents appreciate mixed ability grouping; however, most of the team members do not actively participate and develop dependency on team leaders.

  130. Rusagara Jean Bosco and Dr. Sreedhara, T. N.

    Currently, Rwanda is engaged in a process of poverty reduction. It is in this context that the country considered its development in its Vision 2020. The study ascertained households’ perception towards the role of local government in community development in Rwanda. In order to meet the objective of the study, a total of 322 respondents comprising household’s heads participation in community development programmes and non-participation in community development programmes were selected through stratified random sampling technique participated in the study. Descriptive statistics were utilized in realizing the objective. Results reported that the general performance on Good Governance the majority 45.3% count the number of respondents that select the top choice(Good) while the general performance on Service delivery, Accountability, Capacity Building, Health and Women Empowerment the Top score is the same as the very Good score respectively.

  131. Parmar, M.K. and Negi, R.S.

    The quantitative analysis of drainage system is an important aspect of characterization of watersheds. Using watershed as a basic unit in morphometric analysis is the most logical choice because all hydrologic and geomorphic processes occur within the watershed. The geographical position of watershed is 300 14’ to 300 23’ N latitude and 780 37’ to 780 46’ E longitudes. The elevation of the watershed ranges from 605 m to 2278 m. The study was carried out using the method of Horton and Strahler, to rank the stream segments using ERDAS IMAGINE 9.1. The relevant numbers of the streams were entered into the attribute table and all other analyses based on the mathematical formulas. The results indicated that the watershed area is 131.43 km2, The drainage Density ranges from 2.55 to 5.91, Stream frequency ranges from 3.65 to 13.13, Relief ratio ranges from 0.18 to 0.70, Ruggedness number ranges from 0.88 to 4.00 and Drainage texture ranges from 9.30 to 71.68. The results of this analysis would be useful in determining the effect of watershed characteristics such as size, shape, slope of the watershed & distribution of stream net work within the watershed.

  132. Ana Carolina Bernal Bueno and Mauricio Alberto Franco Hernández

    This report presents the results of a professorial research that analyzed the concept of public space from their observation as a collective right, as well as from the perspective of the people who use it for economic purposes, for which reference was usedthe Public Policy formulated by the city of Bucaramanga (aimed at the recovery of the Public Space), the sentences handed down by the Administrative Tribunal of Santander and some Administrative Courts of Bucaramanga, in the period 2008-2015, also statements of the Constitutional Court and the Council of State in the same period. This to resolve the collision between the rights to the public space and the use of them for economic purposes; there where review theoretical and doctrinal references of some authors that address the legal arguments.

  133. Abhijith, T. S.

    The paper entitled “Dalits as Homines Sacri: The Politics of Inclusive Exclusion in Select Dalit Poetry” is an attempt to read select Dalit poetical texts from an Agambenian perspective and thereby exploring the political underpinnings of inclusive exclusion suffered by dalits. Homo sacer is a Roman outlaw who is included in the juridical order in the form of exclusion; a figure that questions the nature of law and power. Agamben considers politics as the space where you translate your bare life (zoe) to good life (bios). Dalit poetry can be regarded as a scathing remark on the vicious politics that constitutes their identity through an exclusion of bare life and they are concrete historical evidences of the production of a group of homines sacri which describe the transformation of their human life into “sacred”. Hence, dalits as a group, experience an inclusive exclusion and their poetry offers the key by which the codes of political power unveil their mysteries. By analysing the poetical texts, the paper thus tries to expose the decadence of the political realm that imprisons the dalits in a state of inclusive exclusion.

  134. Dr. Preeti Shukla and Payal Shrivastav

    This case study is about Patanjali Ayurved Ltd., also known as PAL, an Indian FMCG which has registered phenomenal growth in the last 5 years. The case tracks the different factors which worked for Patanjali Ayurved Ltd (PAL) in the hyper competitive Indian FMCG sector. Main driving forc e behind Patanjali Ayurved Ltd is Baba Ramdev, an ascetic and yoga guru of Indian origin. The case narrates the growth of Patanjali Ayurved Ltd and key role played by Baba Ramdev to bring it to its present stage. SWOT Analysis of case study is done to look into the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of PAL and various USP that plays key role in success story of Patanjali Ayurved Ltd.

  135. Amr Saad Eldin Abd Elhamed Sadek

    The standard protocol regarding traditional seafarers training was based first on theoretical teachings in the classroom, followed by practical training onboard the ship. This teaching method underwent profound changes in the 1980s, due to economical and practical reasons; reduction of crew size, improvement of technology and better access to simulator based training proved to be determining factors that changed the way training was completed. Although training through simulators ashore eliminated the difficulties presented on the ship, the lack of these experiences causes students to not be fully prepared for the real problems that may arise on ship. Instructors play an important role in training because they connect the lessons learned from the simulators with the expected, practical experiences among the ship at sea. This article examines the use of marine simulators in parallel with the role of the simulator instructor. It is necessary for the instructor to obtain proper qualifications through IMO so that when partnered with the simulator, the training will prove to be effective. Only through integration of these measures can effective and efficient training of the seafarer be achieved in line with the training objectives of the STCW Convention.

  136. Mesut Sipahi, Hasan Borekci, Sinan Karacabey, Elif Borekci, Zeynep Tugba Ozdemir and Mustafa Atli

    Objectives: Chronic anal fissure is one of the most common disorder in the anal region. In the treatment, surgical methods and topical treatments are used together or as a single. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effectiveness of a new medical topical treatment combination and its comparison with lateral internal sphincterectomies in chronic anal fissure. Materials and Methods: A total of 144 chronic anal fissure patients, were divided into two groups. In the topical medical treatment group, a topical cream mixture that includes bacitracin, neomycin sulfate, neomycin, diltiazem, dexapanthenol was applied in the anal region in 82 patients. In the surgery group, 62 patients underwent surgery. After the treatment, defecation pain scores, stool bleeding, healing, gas-fecal incontinence, treatment-related side effects were evaluated in two groups. Results: Recovery rates were higher in the surgical treatment group (93.5%) according to the topical treatment group (82.9%). The visual analog pain scores were higher in the surgical group too. But gas-fecal incontinence ratio, severity of pain with defecation were significantly different as supporting the medical treatment. Conclusion: We would like to underline that of medical treatment in patients with chronic anal fissure can be applied before surgical treatment.

  137. Mubashir Hassan Wani and Rashida Masrat

    Women empowerment is a process in which women challenge the existing norms and culture, to effectively promote their wellbeing. The main theme of the present study is to describe the aspects of women empowerment and to give an overview on the major steps taken by the nation in that connection and on the concept of Self-Help Groups (SHGs). The study highlights some of the main objectives of SHG’s with regards to women empowerment. The attempt was made by the researchers is to bring out the importance of women empowerment in the present scenario and involvement of SHGs in it. SHGs in Kalakote (Rajouri) are mainly meant to empower the rural poor women’s especially the women in rural areas. The study concluded that the involvements of SHGs are helpful for the empowerment of women and eradication of poverty.

  138. Dr. Harleen, Dr. Smita Singh, Dr. Munish Singla and ,Dr. Prashant Monga

    Diagnostic tests for pulp vitality are indecisive in cases of traumatized teeth. The major drawback with present pulp testing methods is that, they measure the neural response and not the vascularity. This case report confirms the efficiency and reliability of pulse oximeter as a definitive diagnostic tool for determining pulp vitality status in recently traumatized permanent teeth with open apices.

  139. Ishwar Dutta Sharma, Jyoti Dabas, Rahul Khatri and Hari Mohan

    Group A rotaviruses are the most common causative agents of acute gastroenteritis among the children less than 5 year of age around the world. This study was performed during 2014-2016 to detect electropherotype of group A rotavirus infection and characterize G genotypes circulating in Haryana. In the present study 300 stool samples collected from diarrheic children (<5 years of age) hospitalized in six major hospitals and medical college of Haryana. Rotavirus group A confirmation assay was done by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). Genotypic determination was done by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using specific primers of VP7 gene, followed by semi-nested type-specific multiplex PCR. Total 70 samples were found positive for rotaviral infection by RNA-PAGE. All the isolated exhibited 4-2-3-2 migration pattern of group A rotavirus. In this study 53 samples were shown long electropherotypes and 17 samples were shown short electropherotype migration pattern. Among these six different types of comigration pattern were detected in this study. The most common electropherotype was observed with comigration of 7th, 8th and 9th segments, that was 27.2%. It is concluded that long electropherotype profile of rotavirus is more prevalent in stool samples of Haryana. This study also suggests that dominance of G1 strain with long electropherotype in the study area.

  140. Shailja Singh, Ramesh Chandra, Jyoti Jain, Supratim Tripathi, Manjusha Mohan and Faisal Naseem

    The success of the endodontic treatment depends upon the fluid tight seal between the intraradicular space and the periradicular tissues, both apically and coronally which should prevent microleakage. In some cases according to periapical conditions indicated for periapical surgery where in this procedure includes exposure of involved apex by flap reflection, removal of necrotic tissue, resection of the apical end of the root, root end preparation and placement of retrograde filling restorative material. Ideally retrograde filling materials should be biocompatible, easy to manipulate, radiopaque, dimensionally stable and non resorbable. It should not be affected by presence of moisture and should be adhesive to dentin, nontoxic, well tolerated by the periradicular tissues as well as promote healing.

  141. Dr.Girish V. Gaikwad and Dr. Chetali V. Dhuri

    Dysphagia can be due to a variety of causes in a psychological disorders. It could be globus hystericus, side-effect of anti-psychotic medication, manifestation of a psychotic disorder oroesophageal motility disorders likely to be “inherent” in psychiatric disorders. We report a case of dysphagia in a young lady with dysphagia as a singular symptom of her psychosis. We would specifically like to emphasize the need to look beyond hysteria and broaden the psychiatric differential diagnosis in such cases with ambiguous presentation of medical symptoms.

  142. Tansila Din, Wani Sajad, Sheikh Imran, Kumar Pawan, and Shiv, S.

    Background and Objectives: The contemporary results of open ventral hernia repair are not that satisfactory because of high rate of wound complications, recurrence rates and increased morbidity. Laparoscopic repair of ventral and incisional hernias (LIVH) can be accomplished in a simple, reproducible manner while dramatically lowering recurrence rates and morbidity. The aim of this study was to compare laparoscopic verses open ventral hernia repair. Materials and Methods: It was arandomized prospective study conducted over 1 and 1/2 years. A total of 80 patients were randomized in two groups, laparoscopic and open (n =40 in each). Polypropylene mesh and composix mesh was used in both the groups. Post-operative pain, hospital stay, return to normal activity and post-operative complications were compared in two groups. Results: Post-operative pain, hospital stay, return to normal activity and post-operative complications were less in laparoscopic repair as compared to open repair. Seroma formation occurred in 10 patients in laparoscopic group. Wound infection/ mesh infection was seen in2 patients in open group. There was no conversion from laparoscopic repair to open repair in our series. Conclusions: Laparoscopy is safe and effective in the management of ventral hernia. Laparoscopy does not compromise the basic principles of surgery for ventral/incisional hernia and provides all advantages of minimal access surgery in terms of less pain, better cosmesis, low rate of complications, lesser hospital stay, low risk of recurrence rate and early return to routine activity as compared to open technique.

  143. Smita Patil, Dr. Chetan Bhat, Dr. Preetam Shah, Dr. Rahul Lodaya and Dr. Shweta Choudhary

    Introduction: Dental caries is the most common childhood illness with nearly half of children aged 2–19 have had dental caries in their teeth. Fluoride varnishes prevents dental caries by increasing remineralization. Aim: To determine substantive fluoride release from 3 different fluoride varnishes over a period of 6 months time. Materials and Methods: Sixty extracted human deciduous anterior teeth were divided into four groups, i.e., ClinproTM XT, Flouritop SR, Flourprotector and Control group. Fluoride varnishes were applied on 3mm x 3mm window on labial surface of the teeth and then the teeth were immersed and stored in artificial saliva. The concentration of fluoride in ppm was measured for 4 hours, 8 hours,1 month, 3 months and 6 months. Fluoride release at each time interval for different groups was statistically analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey’s Kramer test. Results: All the fluoride varnishes released fluoride for period of 6 months, with greatest release observed during 1st 8 hours Fluoritop SR, ClinproTM XT Varnish released consistently and substantially more fluoride than Fluoritop SR and Fluorprotector during 6 months analysis (p<0.05). Conclusion: Over a period of 6 months Clinpro- XT Varnish released consistently and substantially more than other tested products.

  144. Samhitha, J. and Dr. Indira, S.

    Television, internet and video games are common forms of technology that are used for entertainment and because they all involve a screen they are sometimes referred to as “screen media.” A lot of TV, internet and video games are designed to engage children and youth through fast paced images and increasingly violent content. The aim of the study is to assess the effect of Electronic Media on physical activity and physical health among school age children in selected schools at Nellore. A quantitative descriptive survey research design was adopted. A sample size of 30 school age children was selected using Non-probability convenience sampling technique. Structured questionnaire, modified standardized PDPAR tool, and structured checklist were used to assess the effect of Electronic Media on physical activity and physical health among school age children. The data was tabulated and analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The study concludes that majority of school age children are sedentary to moderately active and are using electronic media at moderately high level. The effect of electronic media on physical health is moderate to severe.

  145. Dr. Parul Pandey, Dr. Rituraj sharma, Dr. Ashish Chhajlani, Dr. Prashant Shetty and Dr. Sandeep Metgud

    Fabricating a crown with inadequate interocclusal space may be challenging to the clinician. Endodontically treated teeth with the loss of coronal tooth structure when left untreated for a long period may cause supraeruption, tipping, and rotation of adjacent and opposing teeth. This may be challenging to the clinician, when tooth with less remaining crown height is indicated for post and core followed by crown to restore normal anatomy, function and esthetics. Patients with reduced interocclusal clearance and having very steep incisal guidance are most difficult to manage. Richmond crown is a feasible approach for such cases that can be performed with very less incisal clearance to accommodate post, core and crown thickness. In this article diagnosis, treatment planning for such case has been discussed along with fabrication technique of Richmond crown.

  146. Rajeev, G. K., Richa, A. and Gaurav, A.

    Aims and Objectives: To assess cardiac manifestations in patients of dengue fever and to find out the correlation of cardiac manifestations with prognosis/warning signs of dengue fever. Methods: It was conducted at Rohilkhand Medical College and Hospital, Bareilly in the Department of Medicine in the month of July to September 2016. Fifty patients of age 20 years or more with positive dengue serology were interviewed and examined after taking an informed consent. ECG was done for all patients and few suspected patients underwent echo evaluation. The data was analyzed using statistical significance tests Results:12 patients had no warning signs, 38 patients had one warning sign or the other. Nine patients had severe dengue. The minimum pulse rate was 34 beats/minute. The most common cardiac abnormalities noted were rhythm abnormalities of which the commonest was sinus bradycardia, found in 32 percent. There was statistically significant correlation between cardiac manifestations and all the warning signs except persistent vomiting. Among severe dengue, fluid accumulation causing respiratory distress was found to have a significant correlation with the cardiac manifestations Conclusion: The most common cardiac manifestations noted were transient rhythm abnormalities, of which sinus bradycardia was the commonest. There was no evidence of myocarditis in any of the patients. There was statistically significant correlation between cardiac manifestations and all the warning signs except persistent vomiting. Among severe dengue, fluid accumulation causing respiratory distress was found to have a significant correlation with the cardiac manifestations

  147. Dr. Kavita R. Wadde, Dr. Jayant S landage, Dr. Monali Ghodke and Dr. Saroj Kumar Sethy

    Odontogenic myxoma (OM) is a rare and locally invasive benign neoplasm found exclusively in the jaws. It commonly occur in the second and third decade. The mandible is more involved than maxilla. The lesion often grows without symptoms and presents as a painless swelling. The radiographic features are variable, and the diagnosis is therefore not easy. Radiographically myxomas appear as unilocular or multilocular radiolucencies. The radiolucent defect can contain thin, wispy trabeculae of residual bone which are often arranged at right angles to each other. The Histopathology of myxomas shows loosely arranged spindle-shaped stellate cells and few areas of inactive odontogenic epithelium in a mucoid intercellular substance. OM tumor cells are mesenchymal in origin and express vimentin and muscle- specific actin. In OM, Enucleation and curettage has proved an effective approach. This paper highlight a case of 13 years old male of OM in the maxilla and short review of the current literature on its pathogenesis, radiographic features, histopathology and surgical management.

  148. Dr. Vijaykumar, T. K., Dr. Santoshkumar Alalamath and Dr. Shivanand, K. L.

    Aim of study: Etomidate and Propofol are popular rapid acting inducing agents. Present study is undertaken to compare the hemodynamic response to induction of anaesthesia with Etomidate and Propofol and various untoward effects on patients. Materials and Methods: A randomized study of Eighty ASA I and II patients of age group 18-60 years scheduled for elective surgical procedure under general anaesthesia were divided into two groups of 40 each receiving either Etomidate 0.3mg/kg or Propofol 2.5mg/kg as an inducing agent. Hemodynamic parameter recordings were taken one minute before premedication and every minute for first three minutes after induction and post intubation 3, 5 and 10minutes. Adverse effect such as pain on injection, apnea and myoclonus were watched carefully. Results: Patients induced with Propofol had significant decrease in systolic (p<0.001), diastolic (p<0.047) and mean arterial pressures(p<0.009) at 2 to 3 minutes after induction and post intubation upto 5minutes compared to Etomidate. Pain on injection and apnea were more in Propofol group while myoclonus, post operative nausea, vomiting were higher in Etomidate group. Conclusion: Induction with Etomidate will have stable hemodynamic profile, less pain on injection and preferred over Propofol.

  149. Dr. Binu Santha, Dr. Sudheer Hongal, Dr. Manish Jain, Dr. Vrinda Saxena, Dr. Vidhatri Tiwari and Dr. Naveen S. Yadav

    Background: Factors related to parental knowledge, attitudes, and behaviour have been associated with parental abilities to promote adequate dental health behaviour in their children. Aim: To investigate the influence of behaviour of parents on their child’s oral hygiene among preschool children of Bhopal, India. Settings and Design: Cross sectional study conducted among the Pre-school children and their parents of Bhopal City, India. Materials and Medhods: The modified WHO oral health assessment proforma (1997) was used for this purpose. General information related to age, sex, educational level, occupation and monthly income along with the behaviour of the parents towards their child’s oral health were collected using a pretested, self reported, close ended questionnaire. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS Version 20. Descriptive statistics, chi-square, t-test and spearman’s correlation were applied wherever indicated. Results and Conclusion: The study subjects comprised of a total of 1383 preschool children, out of which 759 (54.88%) were males and 624 (45.12%) were females. The prevalence of plaque induced gingivitis among male study subjects was 3.69% and females were 3.21%. It was found that parental behaviours had a correlation with gingivitis and were found to be statistically significant (p<0.05). Hence it can be concluded that, the behaviour of the parents towards their child’s oral health may have a strong impact on the oral hygiene of preschool children. The maintenance of child’s dental health behaviour is of precedence as dental health is a marker of overall health.

  150. Dr. Ritu Gupta, Dr. Arun Kumar, A., Dr. Neha Gupta, Dr. Venkatesh Goud, Dr. Somanath Reddy, Dr. Basavaraj Patthi and Dr. Ashish Singla

    Background: Occupational stress is becoming increasingly globalised. Research scientists, technicians and labourers are under stress due to irregular work pattern and prolonged working hours, making this group vulnerable to change their regular dietary habits and lifestyle. Thus, the present study was conducted to assess the impact of oral conditions on quality of life among employees of Central Sericulture, Research and Training Institute (CSR&TI), Mysore and to assess the relationship between clinical measure of oral health status; dental caries and oral health related quality of life. Methods: Cross-sectional data from all the scientists, technicians and labourers of CSR&TI, Mysore, was collected. A 14-item Oral Health Impact Profile to assess oral heath related quality of life was used and clinical examination was done to record DMFT according to WHO criteria 1997. Results: The prevalence of caries was 76.2%. The mean DT, MT, FT and DMFT were 1.98±2.49, 1.10±1.71, 0.49±1.06 and 3.57±3.19 respectively. The most prevalently affected OHIP-14 domain was physical pain (64.76%). Caries status was found to be significantly correlated with most of the domains of OHIP-14. Conclusion: Clinical indicator of oral health status; dental caries was found to be associated with OHIP-14 scores and has an impact on oral health related quality of life.

  151. Isadora Cristina dos Santos, Isis AlmelaEndo Hoshino, Mayara Esteves Chalni, Paula Nunes Tozato, Elizandra Gil Quero, Idiberto José Zotarelli Filho and Vanda Rieko Fujita Miyazaki

    The syndrome of apnea and obstructive sleep hypopnea (SAOSH) are respiratory disorders that occur during sleep, causing total or partial obstruction of the upper airway (UA). The etiology is multifactorial, mainly associated with obesity, craniofacial abnormalities and systemic diseases due to this therapy is multidisciplinary, requiring the exams for modified Mallampatti classification, Epworth Sleepiness Scale and polysomnography for the diagnosis and evaluation of severity of SAOSH. The objective of this study is to detail the importance and the main snoring plates in treating SAOSH through the literature review. The intraoral devices (AIOs) are conventional therapeutic modalities employed in very mild OSAS in patients with moderate, especially with mandibular advancement device (MAD), which provides initial patient comfort and improves the quality of sleep and life. Therefore, AIOs in treating mild to moderate SAOSH are effective, with cost-effective, satisfactory clinical results.

  152. Dr. Vinod N Sambrani and Sekappa N Makkalageri

    India is the nation which is hub for patients to provide wealth to their health capturing many needy patients from different country for their various deceases, it made name in other country for health care in other country for providing right treatment with trained Doctors where they are specialized and researched in their field to get acquaintance with patients. It made the remarks or left the mark in the minds of the people for treating with PRM (Patients Relationship Management), Indian Doctors are well qualified with human beings, some cases most of the deceases cure on the bases of the way the doctor advises and patient attitude and inner perception get adjusted with treatment. In this article we have discussed about the Problems faced by Hospitals while catering to Medical Tourists in Karnataka, here we have made survey to find out the main issues of our State.

  153. Anujavenkatesh and Neelakandan

    Cognitive behaviour therapy is geared towards the identification, evaluation, and modification of situation thoughts (i.e., automatic thoughts) that patients experience after diagnosis of cancer. The present study is to assess the effectiveness of cognitive behaviour therapy on depressed cervical cancer patients. Sample of 80 cervical cancer patients from various hospitals in Chennai are selected. All eligible patients completed the consent form, demographic sheet, and Hamilton depression scale (HAM-D). Based on the assessment and degree of problem the clients are classified as mild, moderate and severe group. Individuals with severe and moderate degree of depression were selected. The cognitive behaviour therapy sessions extended for 45 minutes, and were held thrice in a week, and continuous follow up for 3 months. The present study is a pre-post test design before and after intervention programme. Data were analysed by using t-test. Results revealed that there is significant difference in depression level between pre-test and post-test. The study concluded that after the applications of cognitive behaviour therapy to the patients level of depression has been minimised.

  154. Ifrah Khalil, Farooq A Jan, Yatoo, G. H. and Sheikh Adil Bashir

    There are a vast range of cases seen in the department of plastic and re-constructive surgery like road traffic accidents, trauma cases, burn injuries, animal bites. Trauma forms a significant part of the workload in plastic surgery. Delays to treatment currently exist and may result in poorer clinical outcomes. Despite an increase in provision of emergency plastic surgery trauma lists, the average wait for emergency plastic surgery is increasing (Khan et al., 2011). The objective of my one year study was to study the various reasons responsible for delay in surgeries in the department of plastic and re-constructive surgery at Sher-E-Kashmir Institute of Medical Sciences, Srinagar, J&K. It was a prospective observational study. The study was done based on the interviews from relevant informants, study of record and it also included the observations made by the researcher. Interviews were conducted on relevant stake-holders which included: Resident doctors, Patients, Attendants of the patients.Total of 750 informants were interviewed. Main reasons for the delay in surgeries were given as lack of OT time, over-running of theatre lists, priority of emergency patients, in-complete pre-operative evaluation of patients. Other reasons were also given by some like a wrong booking date given or a wrong list prepared. Non availability of beds, lack of resident staff was also a major reason given.

  155. Dr. Daya. K. Jangam, Dr. Prachi Shende, Dr. Kedarnath Kalyanpur, Dr. Shruti Joshi

    Objectives: To evaluate size, shape, number of Haller’s cells and its correlation with maxillary sinus pathologies, nasal septum deviation. Study Design: 56 full FOV CBCT scans were retrospectively analysed. All the CBCT scans were obtained from same CBCT centre over a period of 6 months. Size of Haller’s cells were measured by measuring the maximum mesiodistal diameter on coronal slices of CBCT scans bilaterally. All the above scans were then analysed. Maxillary sinus pathologies were categorised as Mucosal thickening, Poypoidal thickening, Opacification. Results: Chi square test was used for statistical analysis to evaluate the correlation between the presence of Haller’s cells and Maxillary sinus pathologies. And was found to be stastically significant. (p<0.05) Conclusion: We conclude that Haller’s cells can be considered as an important contributing factor for maxillary sinusitis.

  156. Sumeet Angral, Manish Sharma, Mohit Goel and Deepakshi Angral

    Introduction: Enlargement of thyroid gland (goiter) is a commonly encountered endocrine problem in clinical practice and accurate preoperative evaluation of thyroid disorder becomes important for proper management of the patient. Epidemiological studies suggest an annual incidence of 0.1% to 1.5% of nodular disease. Aims and objectives: This study designs to determine the clinical parameters, probable clinical diagnosis and comparative results of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) and definitive histopathology (performed postoperatively) of thyroid swellings. Material and methods: This study was carried out at Government medical college, Jammu for a period of 1 year i.e. from May 2015 to May 2016. This prospective study comprises total 30 cases with thyroid lesions referred to cytology after proper clinical examination and routine investigations. Definitive histopathological examination of specimen after surgery was done. Results: 16 (53%) cases were between 31-40years of age. While 77% of the patients were female, only 23% were males. Right thyroid lobe was the site of affection in 15 (50%) cases. Based on clinical signs, symptoms and FNAC report four cases (13%) were found suspicious of malignancy and staged according to TNM classification. Out of 30 cases, 24(80%) cases had colloid goiter on FNAC, while 4 (14%) cases had follicular neoplasia, 1(3%) case each was diagnosed as having Hurthle cell neoplasia and thyroid cyst. Out of 30 cases, 25 (84%) cases had post-operative HPR of colloid goitre. This included one case with thyroid cyst, whose histological nature was not suggested previously by FNAC report. Four (13%) cases had HPR of follicular adenoma and only one (3%) cases had benign Hurthle cell neoplasm. Out of 30 cases, 22(73%) cases underwent lobectomy, while 5 (17%) cases were subjected to subtotal thyroidectomy. Two cases (7%) underwent near total thyroidectomy and only 1 (3%) case was subjected to isthmusectomy. Overall specificity of FNAC was 80% and sensitivity 97%. FNAC had false-negative rate of 3% and accuracy of 80%. FNAC was 96% specific in cases of colloid goiter and in only 4% of cases of colloid goiter was non-diagnostic as it could not predict the nature of swelling in thyroid cyst. FNAC could not predict the malignant or benign nature of follicular neoplasia as well as Hurthle cell neoplasia in none of the concerned cases. All the five cases of follicular and Hurthle cell neoplasia were confirmed to be of benign nature only by definitive histopathology. Conclusion: The serum TSH should be initial screening test to assess thyroid function, as it is a sensitive and reliable index of thyroid function. FNAC should be obtained as the initial diagnostic test to exclude malignancy in prominent palpable or suspicious nodules. FNAC does not help in differentiating benign and malignant counterparts of follicular neoplasia and hurthle cell neoplasia and definitive pathology is established only on histopathology performed post-operatively.

  157. Waleed Khaleefa Alshemimary

    Objective: To discuss treatment plane of Grad 2 Medial Meniscus Injury with Posterior Horn Contusion. Design: Case Study Main Outcome Measures: The management plan was structured into separate stages of progress between 3 different weeks. The improvement for each stage was measured. Results: At the end of the treatment plane the footballer gained full stability during multi-planned movement and he was able to balance on unstable-based devices. Likewise, his stability during landing developed to the same level of the non-injured leg and the injured knee valgus angle, which was equal to 92% of the non-injured knee. In addition, he was able to complete 30 minutes of fitness running, and his sprints, acceleration and deceleration were all pain free. Moreover, he showed sufficient control of ball training. Furthermore, he became able to work at 80 percent of MHR for 30 minutes. However, the strength of the injured leg is 85% of the non-injured leg and there is minor limitation in the movement velocity level comparing to pre-injured level. Similarly, the crossover hop test showed that there is a minor shortage to the hop distance in the injured leg. Indeed, this was anticipated, as it had been previously stated that the development of speed could take months and the improvements in the strength may develop within weeks Conclusion: Focus on the problem list and building a coherent treatment program usually lead to satisfactory results, which will save the athletes' time to return for practical phase.

  158. Dr. Arnab Sinha and Dr. Rashmi Sharma

    Today mortality from SCI has declined dramatically partly owing to the improved management of urologic dysfunction associated with SCI. Neurogenic bladder dysfunction represents one of the most common and devastating sequelae of SCI.Urinary continence and volitional control of voiding influence a SCI patient’s potential for independence and the ability to function in the workplace. Early prediction of bladder function might optimize counselling and patient-tailored rehabilitative interventions. To investigate whether spinothalamic tract preservation and posterior column sparing are predictors of neurogenic recovery of bladder function after spinal cord injury, a retrospective study of case records of 30 patients were done. The results of the ASIA grade at presentation, initial perianal pinprick sensation (PPP) and position sense of the great toes (PGT) were analysed and then compared to the bladder function at 1 year after SCI. ASIA grading gives an idea of the chances of bladder recovery. Both perianal pinprick sensation and toe position sense also gives an idea for predicting return of bladder function. A patient without initial position sense of the great toes will likely not regain volitional voiding, whereas a patient without initial perianal pinprick sensation will definitely not regain volitional voiding.But these clinical tests, cannot predict detrusor hyperreflexia and sphincter dyssynergia. Therefore, urodynamic study remains an essential component of initial urologic evaluation after SCI.

  159. Muhammad A Hamid, Jabeen Fayyaz, Imrana Khalid, Marium Shahid and Denis Scolnik

    We review the literature for the association between prenatal cannabis and its derivatives use onthe human development. The psycho-active ingredient in cannabis; is prenatally transported transplacentally and later is secreted in breast milk as well. It has been found to causephysical and neuro-behavioral consequences among children.Various scientific studies in pregnancy outcome and fetal growth; and neurological, cognitive and behavioral development among children borne by cannabis users. PubMed, EBSCO, COCHRANE, MEDLINE and ProQuest databases were used to retrieve studies relevant to keywords. The data from the prospective research were taken from the three most extensive prospective longitudinal studies, namely: The Ottawa Prenatal Prospective Study (OPPS), the Maternal Health Practices and Child Development (MHPCD), and the Generation R study. The rest of the retrospective studies were selected on cannabis use in pregnancy. Beyond the postnatal period, epidemiological studies have revealed adverse effects of prenatal cannabis exposure to the brain development leading to short- and long-term cognitive impacts. Cumulative findings include exaggerated Moro’s reflex, increased tremors, impaired visual habituations, sleep pattern disturbances, memory deficits, language and perceptual skills alterations, impaired reasoning abilities, low intelligence Quotient (IQ), poor academic performance and low executive functions among children of cannabis users.

  160. Mrs. Krishnan Chellammal and Dr. R. Magesh

    Attrition is defined as the “Loss of a material or resource due to obsolescence or spoilage” Attrition in human resources refers to the gradual loss of employees over time. In general, relatively high attrition is problematic for companies. Human Resource professionals often assume a leadership role in designing company compensation programs; work culture and motivation systems that help the organization retain top employees. The attrition may be either voluntary or involuntary, though employer-initiated events such as layoffs are not typically included in the definition. Each industry has its own standards for acceptable attrition rates, and these rates can also differ between skilled and unskilled positions. Due to the expenses associated with training new employees, any type of employee attrition is typically seen to have a monetary cost. It is also possible for a company to use employee attrition to its benefit in some circumstances, such as relying on it to control labor costs without issuing mass layoffs. Nurses in most healthcare organizations have some of the highest levels of direct patient contact of any employees. As a result, they play a pivotal role in the financial performance of these companies. The financial cost of losing a single nurse has been calculated to equal about twice the nurse’s annual salary. Losing these critical employees negatively impacts the bottom line of healthcare organizations in a variety of ways.

  161. Dr. Rajib Khadka, Dr. K. Anand and Dr. Sankalp Verma

    Introduction: Although temporomandibuular joint (TMJ) ankylosis is one of most commonly encountered condition it is also the most overlooked and under managed conditions in dental practice. TMJ forms the cornerstone of cranio-facial integrity and hence its ankylosis adversely affects the growth and development of the jaws and occlusion. Impairment of speech, difficulty in mastication, poor oral hygiene, rampant caries and acute compromise of the airway are the consequences of ankylosed TMJ. Aim: The aim of this article is to present review of cases of TMJ ankylosis seen in Nepal. The various management strategies and their applications are discussed herewith. Materials and methods: The authors present here the surgeries of TMJ ankylosis carried out at different hospitals of Nepal during a period of 7 years (2003-2010) with a mean follow up period 5 years.The total numbers of patients were 20 and the total numbers of joints operated were 28. Al kayat Brahmley incison was used and aggressive post-operative mouth opening exercises for minimum of 6 months were done in all the cases. Results: Out of the 28 joints involved: 20 were bony, 5 fibro-osseous and 3 were fibrous. The Al kayat Brahmley incison was used in all the cases. Different surgeries done were involving temporalis fascia, temporalis myofascia, silastic block and dermis. The mouth opening was increased in all cases, post operative complications were noticed in seven cases and no case of recurrence was reported. Conclusion: The authors have shared their experiences of TMJ surgeries and tried to create awareness of the clinical signs and symptoms of TMJ ankylosis, to allow early diagnosis and treatment.

  162. NDAO Youssou, THIOUNE Oumar, DIOP Moussa, AHMEDOU B. K FALL and DIARRA Mounibé

    Today, pharmacy profession faced street drugs, which represent both a major public health issue and a serious threat for pharmacies viability. Such situation may under certain conditions, cause non compliance pharmaceutical practices, with respect to deontology rules. Our study which consist to compare deontology rules respect by holders in urban and suburb areas, has highlighted similarities and differences on some holders behavior. Indeed, respect for personal exercise is better in suburbs where holder is present (52%) (Figure 2) and replaced at 48% (Figure 3) against 40% (Figure 2) and 32% (Figure 3) in urban areas respectively. It is the same for the respect of health educator role in suburbs (100%) (Figure 4) against (56%) (Figure 4) in urban areas. In addition, suburbs holders participate in care services and emergency at (64%) (Figure 6) against (28%) (Figure 6) in urban areas; and compliance with required uniform by suburb holders is better 48% (Figure 9), against 32% (Figure 9) in urban areas. Holders behavior is not at all influenced by geographical position of pharmacies. Therefore, it would be interesting to conduct this study specifically in suburbs, in order to understand the motivation of such behavior.

  163. Amer O. AlAli, Mohammed Buraik, Mohammed Abdo A. Soeid, Jalal Hakami, Rayan H. Bakri, Majed A. Alibrahim, Haitham M. Alhazmi and Nasir A.M. Aljurayyan

    We describe a 9 years old female with poorly controlled diabetes mellitus type 1 (DM1). She was noted to have a painless skin rash at leg which was provoked by mild trauma when she was 5 years of age. Biopsy showed granuloma annulare (GA) which is a rare skin manifestation of diabetes mellitus.

  164. Ali Eslamifar, Mohammad Hosein Gheini, Ebrahim Azizi, MehradEslamifar, SaeidMahmoudi, Alireza Khalaj and Maryamossadat MoinAzadTehrani

    Background Iran is a tropical country and yet there is widespread vitamin D deficiency among our infants and children. Ourstudy was conducted toassess the Vitamin D statusinchildren in and around Iran. Methods This cross sectional study was conducted in196children from the newborn period to 18 ears of age. Under strict aseptic precautions 2 ml of blood was takenfrom each childand serum levels of 25(OH) Dlevels were measured by the direct ELISA method. Results Median age was 59 months (range 2–161); 3.1% were vitamin D deficient, 19.4% insufficient. There was no significant difference in mean 25 (OH)D level between Indigenous (93.2, standard deviation (SD) 21.9, n = 82) and non-Indigenous (97.3, SD 27.9, n = 112) children (P = 0.32).Median number of hospitalizations/year were similar (P = 0.319) between vitamin D sufficient (0.34, range 0–12, n = 152) and insufficient (0.22, 0–6, n = 44) children. There was no significant difference between the number of infective admissions per year between vitamin D sufficient/insufficient groups (P = 0.119). Conclusion Suboptimal vitamin D status is common among otherwise healthy young children. Predictors of vitamin D status vary in infants vs toddlers, information that is important to consider in the care of these young patients. More information is needed about the optimum level of vitamin D for non-bone-related health in children.

  165. Patricia Zaidan, Valter José Fernandes Muller and Elirez Bezerra da Silva

    Objectives: To verify if the electrical stimulation (ES) associated with the training of the pelvic floor muscles (PFM) as conservative treatment reduces urinary incontinence (UI) in prostatectomy men. Patients and methods: Patients with UI were randomized into two groups: PFM Exercises (PFME group) and electrical stimulation exercises more PFM (EE + EPFM group), with a weekly frequency from twice to 20 sessions. Results: Five of the 20 patients EPFM group and 10 patients in the 15 EE group + EPFM become continents, or no longer needed daily use protectors contain urine lost. Thus, the absolute risk of remaining in EPFM incontinent group was 0.75, whereas in the EE + EPFM group was 0.33. Electrical stimulation reduced the absolute risk of being incontinent at 42%. Relatively, this risk has been reduced from 56% (95% CI = 0.21 to 0.95). Conclusions: The data obtained in this study showed that the combination of electrostimulation the years of MAPs significantly reduced urinary incontinence in patients undergoing radical prostatectomy.

  166. Eman elsayed Mohammed elsabagh

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is an ecological disorder of the vaginal microbiota that affects millions of women annually, and is associated with numerous adverse health outcomes. The study aims: To evaluate the effect of intervention program on non Pregnant women's knowledge and genital hygiene practices regarding bacterial vaginosis. Research design: A quasi- experimental design was used in this study which conducted in Obstetrics and Gynecology clinic, at Zagazig University Hospital. Sample The study subject included 80 non pregnant women and diagnosed as bacterial vaginosis. both clinically and microbiologically. Tools of the study consist of three tools, the first tool was women assessment sheet, the second tool was questionnaire sheet for assessment of women` knowledge and practices, while the third tools was intervention program. Results: The study has revealed that statistically significant improvement in women' knowledge and genital hygiene practices regarding bacterial vaginosis were noticed at the post test. The study finding concluded that the present study had revealed low level of knowledge and practice about bacterial vaginosis among non pregnant women. The study also clearly pointed out the impact of health education in improving their knowledge and positive behavioral changes in individual, menstrual and coital hygiene habits. The main study recommendations: The study recommended that further education intervention for non pregnant women with bacterial vaginosis and careful follow up from medical and nursing team to decrease the complications of genital infections.

  167. Jayashree Natarajan

    Vulval tumors are rare disease and account for 4% of gynaecological malignancies. (Newman and Fletcher, 1991) These rare tumors are disease of elderly age group. Primary vulval sarcomas account for 1-3% of vulval malignancies (Newman and Fletcher, 1991; Disaia et al., 1971; Curtin et al., 1995). The most common subtype is leiomyosarcoma of vulva. Few subtypes of vulval sarcomas are seen in adolesents and young adults. One of such rare type vulval sarcoma is epitheloid sarcoma. The epitheloid sarcoma variety of soft tissue sarcoma is seen in proximal and distal extremities of body. The proximal type tumors are found to be more aggressive with poor prognosis. The mean age of presentation is 36 years, with patients as young as 17 years are also been reported. We report a case of proximal type of epitheloid sarcoma of vulva with multiple recurrence of tumor managed with surgery and chemotherapy.

  168. Dr. Noopur Kulkarni, Dr. Manasa Ravath, Dr. Roshini Vinod and Dr. Geeta Vadaje

    Today’s era is the “Space Era”. Our body is very well acclimatized to the gravity that is experienced on the planet earth. Under such conditions the normal functioning of the human body tissues & the oral tissues takes place at 1-g (gravity) on exposure to the routine environment. The behaviour of these general body tissues & oral tissues gets totally altered when they are exposed to the situations of microgravity almost 0-g. Space travel in the long term & outer space habitat dwelling might become a reality of tomorrow. Thus core understanding of the Oral Pathological conditions that a person will be subjected to at, microgravity is needed. This seems to be a newly emerging branch of dentistry where dental researchers & dental clinicians have a pivotal role to play.

  169. Neelam Basera

    Nobel Peace Prize Laureate Amartya Sen has said “Development should be a process of expanding the real freedoms that people enjoy, in other words giving them the opportunities and choices that will enable them to take control of their own lives. So, it is not a case of talking about people or on their behalf; rather, the role of development policy is to help them articulate and assert their own interests and rights”. Indigenous knowledge is considered as the social capital of the poor. It is their main asset to invest in the struggle for survival, to produce food, to provide for shelter and to achieve control of their own lives. ITK is the knowledge that people in a given community has developed over time and continues to develop it. It is based on experience, often tested over long period of time, adapted to local culture and environment, dynamic and changing and lay emphasis on minimizing risks rather than maximizing profits. Traditional knowledge is vital for sustainability of natural resources including forests, water, and agro-ecosystems across landscape. The practitioners of traditional knowledge tend to view people, animal, plants, and other elements of the universe as interconnected by a network of social relations and obligations. They have recognized that the wellbeing of human society is closely related to the wellbeing of natural ecosystems. Community knowledge includes scientific knowledge that is the basis of industrial development and traditional knowledge and both have separately contributed in their own way towards the process of development of mankind. Industrialized societies rely mainly on scientific knowledge whereas others are rich in traditional knowledge. A blend of modern and indigenous knowledge and practices will be imperative for environment friendly, need based, and location specific, technically sound, socially acceptable, economically viable and ecologically sustainable agricultural technologies. Hence, there is a need to plan and formulate strategies to integrate the indigenous traditional knowledge of farmers and the modern scientific knowledge of scientists from the research stations which will be effective in bringing out the aims of sustainability.

  170. Ana Paula Rockenbach, Gizelli Moiano de Paula, Braulio Otomar Caron, Julia Renata Schneider, Elvis Felipe Elli, Thaise Dieminger Engroff and Daniela Meira

    The plastochron is an important parameter in the use of agricultural modeling for annual crops. The objective of this study was to determine the plastochron soybean cultivars in different spatial arrangements. Two experiments were conducted in the field, one in the crop year 2012/2013 and other 2013/2014. The cultivars used were BMX Ativa RR, BMX Turbo RR e BMX Potência RR and spatial arrangements 45, crossed, 20, 20x40, 20x60, 20x80 cm, with three replications. The center row of each plot after emergence marked up five plants, and in these counted the number of visible nodes on the main stem twice a week, emergency until the issuance of the last node, determining also, its phenological stage. The plastochron ranged from 57.27 to 77.19 °C day node-1 among cultivars in two years. The first crop year 2012/2013 showed meaningful differences for all cultivars. In the second crop year (2013/2014), only 20x40 and 20x60 cm there are no meaningful difference between cultivars. In this cultivation, there was the inverse of the previous year, compared to the cultivars, beyond the differences are not as meaningful as in the previous year. In conclusion, the plastochron varies with cultivars, spatial arrangements and crop years. It is suggested to further study with new soybean cultivars in different arrangements, so that you can use this data in agricultural modeling.

  171. Dr. Vandana Gupta and Saloni Gupta

    Textiles and clothing are the most suitable interface between environment and human body. It can reflect, absorb and scatter solar wavelengths, but literature sources claim that, it does not provide full sun screening properties. The present work was conducted to develop UV protective fabric and evaluate the ultraviolet protection factor by comparing the finished with unfinished fabrics. Syzygium cumini (L.) leaves extract was applied on cotton knitted fabric by using pad-dry cure process. The results indicated that finished cotton knitted fabric provides excellent UV protection with decrease in UVA and UVB percent transmissions, when compared with unfinished fabric.

  172. Simone Morgan Dellagostin, Daiane Bernardi, Lúcia Helena Pereira Nóbrega, Diego Morgan Dellagostin, Ivan Ricardo Carvalho, Gustavo Henrique Demari, Vinícius Jardel Szareski, Maicon Nardino, Francine Lautenchleger, Velci Queiróz de Souza, Tiago Zanatta A

    Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) is originally from China, as the greatest Fabaceae economic importance in the world. Driven by the expansion of demand, particularly internationally, soybean began to expand more strongly in Brazil in the second half of the 70s. It began to be cultivated in Rio Grande do Sul, as a rotation option with wheat. The soybean producers sought to locate their production in higher regions, which usually occur mild temperatures. Some regions are less harsh than others, but in all these regions, the temperature and the moisture content during harvesting are challenges for the production of high quality seeds. In Brazil midwestern, it is common to find temperatures at harvest time, between 28 and 36°C, which, combined with the high moisture content of the seeds, enable the rapid development of fungi and the rapid reduction of seed quality. Seed germination is affected by environmental factors such as temperature and substrate, which can be manipulated in order to optimize the percentage, the rate and uniformity of germination, resulting in obtaining more vigorous seedlings and reducing production costs

  173. Dr. Arul, V. and Dr. Gomathy, V. S.

    This article is about the breeding behavioral pattern and natural incubation of of ostrich (struthio camelus) which were reared in the captive condition. Male and female attains maturity at 30 months and 24 months respectively. Walking, feeding and running are the most common behaviour in both sexes. Breeding season begins from august to march in southern hemisphere. During this season kantling (male), soliciting (female) and agonistic (male and female) displays are the predominant reproductive characters of ostriches reared in captive conditions. Not much appreciable difference has been found among the genders related to these behaviour. Male cock shows territorial aggressiveness towards hen resulting in mating which may lead to fertile egg production. Cock dug nest bowl of about 15 -20cm deep and 1-2m in diameter and where the hens lay their eggs. Mature female can lay 60-70eggs per year in different clutches.Interval between each clutches around 35-40 days. In each clutches it lays around 14-15 eggs. After fourteen days from laying of its first eggs. Both genders of ostrich incubate egg for a period of 42 days. Change of shift between female and male is noticed during day and night respectively. The study of breeding behaviour and natural incubation helps to better management and more production.

  174. Rahane Balasaheb

    The present study deals with the effect of heavy metals Zn, Cu, Pb and Cd on the total protein, DNA and RNA content from different soft body tissues like mantle, gills, digestive glands and whole soft body tissue of bivalves species, Lamellidens corrianus, Lamellidens marginalis and Parreysia cylindrical collected seasonally (summer, monsoon and winter seasons) from Gangapur reservoir during November 2010 to October 2011. In the present study results revealed highest concentrations of heavy metals Zn, Cu, Pb and Cd during summer season in surface water and three bivalve species sampled from gangapur reservoir. The results also revealed the lowest protein, DNA and RNA concentrations in different soft body tissues in three species of bivalves sampled during summer season, might be due to bivalves were exposed to higher concentration of heavy metals in summer than winter and monsoon seasons.

  175. Vinícius Jardel Szareski, Elias Zanatta, Felipe Koch, Geison Rodrigo Aisenberg, Gustavo Henrique Demari, Kassiana Kehl, João Roberto Pimentel, Ivan Ricardo Carvalho, Maicon Nardino, Helena Wichineski Trombeta, Velci Queiróz de Souza, Emanuela Garbin Mart

    The physiological maturation, is characterized as the point where the vigor, germination and dry weight are the highest, indicating the ideal time to carry out the harvest in order to produce seeds of physiologically high quality. However, when harvested at this time, the plant is still in a relatively large amount of green and moist leaves and stems which substantially hinder the use of harvesters, besides having greater mechanical injury due to the high water content. Thus, the use of desiccants has emerged as an alternative to accelerate and homogenize the drying of the plants, allowing an earlier harvest. However, there are precautions to be taken in regard to the effects of the use of desiccants in income, on germination and seed vigor.

  176. Rashmi Rawat, Kushmander Singh and Neeraj Kumar

    The current British Pharmacopoeia requirements, quality testing of Insulin glargine involves identification, related proteins, HMWP and assay by HPLC methods. RP-HPLC is used for tests on identification, related proteins and assay while SE-HPLC is the method of choice for determination of HMWP. Current BP 2015 method on determination of HMWP of the Insulin glargine employs two HPLC columns in series with run time of about 65 minutes. However, IP 2014 describes the HMWP test on Human insulin using single HPLC column with run time of about 35 minutes. As the molecular weights and amino acid sequence of Insulin glargine and Human insulin are very close, we may expect that the two molecules should have similar chromatographic profile when tested for their HMWP content. Therefore, it would be interesting to investigate the results of test on HMWP of Insulin glargine by the methods described in two pharmacopoeias i.e. BP 2015 and IP 2014.

  177. Dr. Krishnaja, U. and Dr. Mary Ukkuru, P.

    The evolution of the human diet over the past 10,000 years to our current modern pattern of intake has resulted in profound changes in the dietary behavior leading to lifestyle diseases reaching an epidemic proportion in industrialized countries, with similar trend being observed in developing countries. Foods contain a wide range of bioactive compounds with multiple physiological properties. Because of the importance of a healthy diet on lifestyle disease prevention and management, potential health benefits of naturally occurring bioactive compounds in foods are of greater interest. This research area has recently led to a wide variety of functional foods available in the world wide market. Locally available food substances are found to be healthy alternatives to medicines as they are rich in antioxidants and other inhibitory properties. In this context, a study was conducted to develop two Functional Food Supplement (FFS) using locally available food items like Barley, Ragi, Banana, Defatted Soy Flour, Drumstick leaves and Mushrooms. Dehydration and Fermentation were the processing techniques applied to standardize the FFSs. In depth study on antioxidant and lipoxygenase (LOX) inhibitory properties were carried on and the results showed higher activities in FFS developed with dehydration technique. The lipoxygenase (LOX) inhibitory activity of fermented FFS reduced to 40 per cent when compared to 55 per cent of dehydrated FFS.

  178. Afghan Ambreen, Riffat Sultana, Ghulam Sarwar Gachal, Muhammad Saeed Wagan, Fakhra Soomro and Santosh Kumar

    Passeriformes bird’s are generally regarded as insectivorous bird’s. These avian predators play paramount role to control the insect pest population form different cropland and forest ecosystem. Bird population occurring in the croplands of Tandojam during the year 2015 was pertaining to order Passeriformes including Common Babbler, Common Myna, House Sparrow, Indian Wren Warbler, Jungle Babbler, Rosy Pastor, Yellow throated Sparrow, Common Wood Shrike, Gray Wagtail and Crow were mainly insectivorous, whereas, Pigeon and Parrot belong to Columbiformes and Psittaciformes found occasional insectivorous. Beside this, status of 9 bird species were resident and only 3 species i.e Rosy Pastor, Grey wagtail and Yellow throated Sparrow were migrant in nature. Among the most dominant bird species, the Jungle Babbler and Common Myna were of significantly important, they exclusively derived their food from insect source. It was observed that insect based food was dominated by the order Hymenoptera compose on ants and thin larvae and wasps and their larvae, Hemiptera comprise on bugs, scale insects, aphids and lice. This study support to implement conservation tactics to increase the bird populations in different cropland ecosystems where they could function as a biological control agent of insect pests.

  179. Pruthvi, P. Hegde, Hemla Naik, B. and Beeraligappa

    An experiment was conducted to know the influence of biostimulants on growth, yield, quality and economics of chrysanthemum under naturally ventilated polyhouse at department of Floriculture and Landscape Architecture, College of Horticulture, Mudigere during 2015-16. 12 biostimulant formulations in 2 different concentrations were used for the study. Among different biostimulant treatments application of Biovita @ 0.5% at 60, 90 and 120 DAP resulted significantly maximum plant height (66.83 cm), number of leaves (82.95), stem diameter (7.30 mm), number of flowers (92.15) flower yield per plant (424.09 g), flower yield per square meter (4.05 Kg), flower yield per hectare (40.50 t/ha), sucker yield per plant (9.85), individual flower weight, flower diameter, stalk length (46.89 cm, 5.06 g and 6.70 cm, respectively) vase life (22.5 days) and shelf life (11 days) with highest net returns and B:C ratio ( 3, 12, 411.07 and 4.43, respectively). Whereas, the lowest values for all the above parameters were recorded in control (RDF).

  180. Saikat Chakraborty, Jagannath Bhattacharyya, Anulina Manna, Narattam Sikdar, Anirban Chakraborty and Bikas Ranjan Pati

    A rapid, simple and reproducible protocol for in vitro multiple shoot induction and whole plant regeneration was developed from two cultivars of Lathyrus sativus L., viz. Nirmal B1 and a locally available variety. Cotyledonary node, shoot tip of five-day-old germinated seeds and nodal explant of ten-day-old seedlings were used as experimental material. The explants were cultured in Murashige and Skoog (MS) media fortified with different concentrations (0.125-2.5 mg/L) of 6-Benzylaminopurine (BAP) and Thidiazuron (TDZ) for multiple shoot proliferation. The maximum number of multiple shoot induction and proliferation (12 – 14 shoots / explant) was observed in cotyledonary node explant within 30 days using 1.5 mg/L BAP. The micro shoots were subcultured in the same media containing low concentration of IAA (0.03 mg/L) for further elongation. Up to 85% of shoots developed roots following their transfer to half strength of Murashige and Skoog MS media containing 0.25 mg/L Indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) within 25 days. Rooted plantlets were successfully hardened under culture conditions and were subsequently established in the greenhouse with survival rate of 85%. The entire in vitro regeneration process took relatively short period of time (90-100 days). Thus, the present study remained successful in developing a rapid and efficient in vitro regeneration through direct organogenesis of Lathyrus sativus for subsequent development of efficient transformation systems. Abbreviations BAP: 6-Benzylaminopurine, β-ODAP: β N-Oxalyl-L- alpha, beta-diaminopropanoic acid, IAA: Indole-3-acetic acid, IBA: Indole-3-butyric acid, MS: Murashige and Skoog media, TDZ: Thidiazuron.

  181. Joseph John, Sujana, K. A. and Anil Kumar, N.

    This study investigated in levels both the field and laboratory during the period of 2006 to 2014. Detailed distribution, phenology, taxonomy and propagules of the plant collected from natural population and further research carried out from the plants growing in RET plant conservatory of M. S. Swaminathan Botanic Garden. The screening of phytochemical constituents, proximate analysis, antioxidant, antimicrobial properties of methanolic leaf extracts of Beaumontia jerdoniana Wight were done and results tabulated here. The results of this study indicate that leaf extracts of B. jerdoniana exhibits antioxidant, anti-microbial activities which explain its use in animal nutrition and human medicine. Among the thirteen qualitative phytochemical tests conducted nine showed presence and four showed absence. Quantitative determination of ten phytochemicals were conducted and found that the plant contain good amount of tested phytochemicals in which Flavonoids ranked highest with 0.105±0.004mg/ml followed by Alkaloids 0.94±0.03mg/ml. Proximate nutritional composition also was tested and found that quantity of Carbohydrates were highest with 0.133±0.004mg/ml while other constituents like protein and ash composition also present in various quantities. The antimicrobial activity against selected five microorganisms were tested and found that the extract showed highest inhibition against Staphylococcus aureus followed by Escherchiacoli and Kebsiella pneumonia. The study showed the importance of man assisted conservation for this important plant where in situ and ex-situ conservation strategies have to be adopted.

  182. Das, K. N. and Seema Bhagowati

    Phosphate sorption relating to soil properties in soils of Kohora watershed of Assam, India was studied. The soils were acidic in reaction with varying texture. Clay and CEC increased concomitantly down the slope. In all soils, Fe-P dominated over other P fractions contributing 29.9%. Phosphate adsorption data fitted better to Freundlich equation. Medium land soils had greatest affinity for P yielding highest sorption maxima (b = 2044.03 µg P g-1) and Freundlich K. Langmuir ‘b’ was significantly correlated with Fed, Ald, Fe2O3+Al2O3, Al-P and total-P while negatively with pH, OC and available P fractions. Bonding energy was greatly affected by Fed (r = 0.683*) only while maximum phosphate buffering capacity (MPBC) was typically affected by Al and Fe oxides. Phosphorous supply parameters of the soils increased unevenly with equilibrium P concentration. Negative ΔG values indicated spontaneous adsorption processes. Results suggest that these soils require higher external P for maintaining optimal solution concentration.

  183. Ravi Yadav, Omprakash Bharti, Pandya, R. K., Thakur, M. P. and Ashok Yadav

    Knowledge of epidemiology provides the basic information to develop efficient and workable plant disease control methods. Environmental factors play an important role to disease development. The various weather variables such as temperature (T), relative humidity (RH) and rainfall influence different parameters of infection process and disease development. Interaction between these weather variables (independent variables) and disease development (dependent variables) pave the way for the development of the prediction models. These diseases are being managed through chemical fungicides, but the efficiency of control measures depends upon the interaction between pathogen and host, which is influenced by environmental factors. Correlation studies showed significant and negative correlation with average maximum temperature (r = - 0.647*). In contrast to temperature, the maximum relative humidity and minimum relative humidity showed a significant positive relationship with the disease. The total rainfall showed a significant positive relationship with the disease (r = 0.668*) indicate that the blast severity increases with the increase in total rainfall. Development of pearl millet blast is favoured by temperature 30-35 oC, relative humidity 55-75% with intermittent rains (190-100mm) proved most effective for disease development. For greater efficiency, the disease-forecasting models must be developed by taking into account the crop variety, the prevalence of a particular pathotype and the different climatic factors.

  184. Rajni Ranjan and Deokule, S. S.

    Spermadictyon suaveolens Roxb.is an ancient Indian herb used as a various medicinal products. In present investigation the callus induction of Spermadictyon suaveolens Roxb. were carried out by using Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium with different concentration of hormones. The explants, collected from the Matwan gaon, Taluka Dapoli, District Ratanagiri (Maharashtra) and grown on the garden of Department of Botany, University of Pune. The leaf explant respond well for callus and cell culture biomass by using MS with 1.2 mg/l TDZ.

  185. Sornalatha, T. and Mahalingam, P. U.

    The present study was focused on the evaluation of diazotrophic Azotobacter biofertilizer potential of strain on the growth of Sorghum bicolor. Two potential Azotobacter strains were mass cultured and used as diazotrophic biofertilizer for crop study with S.bicolor in various treatments as individual culture and its combination using pot culture for 30 days. The result of pot culture studies reveals that the combined application of Azotobacter Strain 1 and 2 increased the growth of Sorghum crop. Thus, these two diazotrophic Azotobacter strains could be used as efficient and ecofriendly biofertilizer for the improved crop production.

  186. Reshma T. and Dr. Salikutty Joseph

    The tomato variety Anagha was raised in Ebb and flow hydroponic system (flood and drain system) at Department of Olericulture, College of Horticulture, Vellanikkara to evaluate the ideality of growing media (coco peat, expanded clay pellets and pebbles). Plants grown in coco peat medium performed the best, followed by pebbles. The coco peat medium contained comparatively high amount of potassium and also possessed high water holding capacity. Performance of plants grown in expanded clay pellets was very poor. Fruit quality in terms of total soluble solid content and titrable acidity was not significantly affected by the treatments.

  187. Saikia, P. and Borua, P. K.

    Acampe rigida (Buch-Ham Ex. SW) P. F. Hunt an epiphytic orchid of N. E. India, has immense floricultural appeal. It is a robust species with 60-90 cm long stem bearing beautiful aromatic flowers of pale yellow colour with transverse crimson bands. Like many other orchids of this region, this species is also considered to be endangered due to large scale denundation of forest areas. So, in order to preserve it from possible extinction, attempts are made to multiply it through in vitro culture of seeds. BAP at concentration of 2.0 mg/ L. increased the number of seeds germination.

  188. Gilvanise Alves Tito, Lúcia Helena Garófalo Chaves, Ana Carolina Feitosa de Vasconcelos and Josely Dantas Fernandes

    Bentonite is a clay mineral with high cation exchange capacity and it has been evaluated as an alternative sorbent in removing metals in diverse environments. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of bentonite clay in adsorbing copper present in lower quality water in radish, corn and pasture grass. The experiments were carried out in a greenhouse, with a completely randomized design with four replications. The experimental units were plastic pots with a capacity of 5, 14 and 8 kg of soil for radish corn and grass, respectively. The soil was mixed with increasing doses of bentonite equivalent to 0; 30; 60 and 90 t ha-1. The sowing was done directly on the pot, leaving two plants per pot after thinning. They have been irrigated with poor quality water with a concentration of 1 mg L-1 Cu. Plants were harvested at 30, 60 and 70 days, separated in shoot and roots and placed in air circulation oven. The data were submitted to analysis of variance. Bentonite improved the development of radish and pasture grass crops; promoted the retention of copper in the soil, and favored the reduction of copper translocation to the shoot of corn, thereby reducing the concentration of this element in the aerial part.

  189. José Alberto Maqueo Jiménez, María de Jesús Martínez Hernández, Gabriel Díaz Padilla, Gustavo C. Ortiz Ceballos and Gabriela Sánchez Viveros

    In Latin America, the socioeconomic models of development are generally based on the exploitation of natural resources with a poorly planned vision, they promote the expansion of the extraction and processing of activities of natural resources. Providing a greater environmental fragility while attacking the biodiversity ecosystem. There is the important need to balance the dynamic energy in the agro ecosystems. In this proposal, the methodology consisted on two phases: the first contemplated the construction of criteria to define the ecologically sensitive areas; and the second, the realization of the space analysis. The remote sensing technologies and the geographic information systems are research tools that facilitate the analysis of the territory; in surface areas larger than 100 km2. Therefore, the objective was to show its applicability in the space delimitation of ecologically sensitive areas. The value of identifying and measure them in the agro productive territorial ordering context with ecological criteria and agro productive diversity, while being surfaces that contain elements of the landscape, of a physical nature, biological and cultural, significant features for the functioning of the ecosystem, provide crucial information for the correct planning in the agro productive and conservation diversification. Applied in the municipality of Coatepec, Veracruz. The results show a total of ecologically sensitive areas of 4255 has, meaning the 1.66 % of the total surface area of the Municipality, therefore, we've found that the critical areas associated with communication channels and urban areas are of 7851 has, with the highest impact percentage of 3.06 and the sustainably suitable areas for slopes and vegetation cover is 1.6 % of the total of the municipality of Coatepec.

  190. Mullaimaran, S. and Haripriya, K.

    This experiment was conducted to standardize the quantity of bulky and concentrated organic manures required for tomato as a substitute for the inorganic fertilizers. Solarization was done for a period of 6 weeks during April-May 2009, using 300 guage transparent polythene sheets. As per the schedule of treatments, basal dose of manures were incorporated before solarization. After the removal of trap, transplanting of solarized tomato seedlings were done on 3rd day leaving 2 days gap. In the main field, an experiment was conducted to standardize the quantity of bulky and concentrated organic manures for tomato to substitute the inorganic fertilizers. The experiment was laid out in a randomized block design with 14 treatments in 3 replications. The treatment schedule included various levels of bulky (25 and 75 % N) and concentrated organic manures (25 and 75 % N), inorganic fertilizers along with an absolute control. The bulky organic manures used were FYM and vermicompost and the concentrated manures used were neem cake and castor cake. The nutrient content of bulky and concentrated organic manures used in the study were FYM (0.80, 0.41 and 0.74 % NPK), vermicompost (1.60, 2.20 and 0.67 % NPK), poultry manure (3.47, 1.33 and 3.1 NPK), neem cake (5.2, 1.0 and 1.4 % NPK) and castor cake (4.1, 1.9 and 1.4 % NPK). The experiment was initiated in June 2009. Among the various levels and sources of organic manures and inorganic fertilizers tried, inorganic fertilizers recorded the maximum growth characters, yield attributes, fruit yield and highest nutrient uptake. Among the organic manures and concentrated oil cakes applied, 75 per cent N supplied through vermicompost @ 10.03 t ha-1 along with 25 per cent N supplied through neem cake @ 0.73 t ha-1 followed by poultry manure@ 2.16 t ha-1 neem cake @ 0.73 t ha-1 was identified as the best treatments in tomato The quality attributes viz., ascorbic acid content and acidity in tomato were found to be maximum under inorganic fertilization as well as 75 per cent N supplied through vermicompost along with 25 per cent N supplied through neem cake. Both the treatments were found to be influencing these traits at same level. This was closely followed by the application of 75 per cent N supplied through poultry manure along with 25 per cent N supplied through neem cake. The maximum availability of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in post harvest soil was recorded in plots incorporated with the application of 75 per cent N supplied through vermicompost @ along with 25 per cent N supplied through neem cake followed by the application of 75 per cent N supplied through poultry manure along with 25 per cent N supplied through neem cake in tomato.

  191. Roshli Aniyeri and Dr. C. Ratnam Nadar

    This study attempts to explore and focuses the framework for developing categories of an Airports in India. The airport is the gateway of any country. India’s aviation sector has undergone rapid transformation since the liberalization drive that began in 2003. The country has one state-owned airline, Air India, and eight private airline groups, which between them carried just over 70 million domestic and 17 million international passengers in 2014/15. Total passenger numbers handled at Indian airports were 190 million, making it one of the ten largest markets globally. Strong GDP growth, a young population and the expansion of India’s vibrant middle class is expected to see India achieve some of the fastest growth of any aviation market in the world over the next 20 years.

  192. Prof. Sujata S. Virulkar, Prof. Ashvini Kulklarni and Prof. Amit Kasar

    Face Recognition is the process of identification of a person by their facial image. This technique makes it possible to use the facial images of a person to authenticate him into a secure system, for criminal identification, for passport verification. Face recognition approaches for still images can be broadly categorized into holistic methods and feature based methods .Holistic methods use the entire raw face image as an input, whereas feature based methods extract local facial features and use their geometric and appearance properties. Face verification in the presence of age progression is an important problem that has not been widely addressed. The problem by designing and evaluating discriminative approaches is discussed. These directly tackle verification tasks without explicit age modeling, which is a hard problem by itself. First, we find that the gradient orientation (GO), after discarding magnitude information, provides a simple but effective representation for this problem. This representation is further improved when hierarchical information is used, which results in the use of the gradient orientation pyramid (GOP). When combined with a support vector machine (SVM) GOP demonstrates excellent performance in this topic, in comparison with seven different approaches including two commercial systems. This topic is conducted on the FGnet dataset and two large passport datasets, one of them being the largest ever reported for recognition tasks. Second, taking advantage of these datasets, we empirically study how age gaps and related issues (including image quality, spectacles, and facial hair) affect recognition algorithms. This topic found surprisingly that the added difficulty of verification produced by age gaps becomes saturated after the gap is larger than four years, for gaps of up to ten years. In addition, we find that image quality and eyewear present more of a challenge than facial hair.

  193. Dr. Ahmad, R.

    In this communication a generalized measure of ‘useful’ information is defined which has a utility scheme and two probability distributions respectively. The recent development in information theory is described to the study of characterization results based on the purely functional equation approach. In this paper, a characterization theorem is proved here with help of a functional equation. A generalized information measure of Ahmad and Khan (1977), the relative ‘useful’ information of jain and Tuteja (1986), the directed divergence of Rathie and Kannappan (1972), relative information of Kullback’s (1959) and Pearson’s - statistic is a measure of discrepancy between the two distributions and are special cases of the measure defined here.

  194. Arputharaj, S. and Samuel Selvaraj, R.

    Analysis of the ground level ozone concentration is vital for the purpose of forecasting and in identifying the changes and impacts that are very crucial for an agro-based economy like the city of Chennai. The paper examines Ozone concentration and meteorology in Chennai at Koyambedu which is a major big Bus terminus. This will be very useful for further research and future researchers. A linear ARIMA model was used for the forecast of Ozone over the study area. The performance evaluation was also done to check the best fit model for forecast.

  195. Shankarsing Sardarsing Rajput and Prashant Prakash Chaudhari

    The five membered cyclic imide derivatives were synthesized by reacting succinic anhydride with different substituted aromatic amines to get 1-(N-methylpyridin-2-yl)pyrrolidine-2,5-dione.The six membered cyclic imide derivatives were synthesized by reacting glutaric anhydride with different substituted aromatic amines to get 1-(N-methylpyridin-2-yl) piperidine-2,6-dione. All these derivatives were screened for antimicrobial activities.

  196. Katerina Tzelepi, Evangelos Karanikas, Smaro Lykidou and Nikolaos Nikolaidis

    The dye Direct Black 168 was purified using ultrafiltration technology and water based ink-jet inks were prepared for digital printing applications. The suitability of the inks for novel printing applications was evaluated via measurement of pH, conductivity, surface tension and viscosity over a period of 90 days. The inks were applied to cotton and polyamide fabric by digital printing. Also, dyeing with the dye before and after ultra filtration was done. Colour measurements and fastness properties were performed for the dyed and digitally printed samples. The results were promising and this paves the way for the production of environmentally friendly ink jet inks using pure direct dyes for the digital printing of cotton and polyamide through the formulation of suitable printing techniques.

  197. Shruthi Nambiar, K., Dr. Shwetha Nambiar, K. and Dr. Supriya Bhat

    Dental informatics is a sub-discipline of biomedical informatics and is the implementation of information science to improve practice of dentistry, research, education and management. This is an interdisciplinary field which applies knowledge and techniques from other disciplines such as information science, computer science, cognitive science and telecommunications. Image processing, digital imaging, computerized patient history records, clinical decision support and teledentistry are some popular research topics in dental informatics. It is a new field that supports patient care bridging the gap between researchers and clinicians. This field utilizes information science and it’s applications to help practitioners utilize recent advances and discuss about cases with diagnostic dilemma (evidence based dentistry). The advances made in the field of machine learning and data mining has equipped researchers with newfound approaches to tackling traditional challenges like diagnosis and risk assessment. If a sufficiently large dataset is available to train the machine learning models, then we can build a fairly accurate classifier. The collection of this data is one of the initial challenges and hence maintaining electronic oral health records, pooling of genetic data globally will help create a large database that can be used to effectively predict the diagnosis and prognosis of specific diseases. However awareness and usage of these alternate approaches is low due to lack of relevant insights among the practicing dental community. This article aims to bridge this gap and highlight the concepts of dental informatics, machine learning and its applications in oral health care.

  198. Yassine KHLIFI and Adel BESSADOK

    The exponential growth of Internet due to the emergence of advanced applications and services has provided significantly enhancement to the educational domain, especially e-learning. Currently, e-learning becomes an attractive educational domain in which the acceptance progress and more people are taking courses based on the use this platform. Principally, e-learning platform uses Internet infrastructure which has become a site for illegal events and actions, particularly exposed to a set of intrusions or threats. Moreover, most of e-learning platforms are made without considering specific security concerns. In this paper, we focused on e-learning environment, such characteristics, development, growth, benefits and challenges. We also argued the use of Technology Readiness Index (TRI) that is widely used for studying the behavior process behind the utilization of technological products and services. The TRI study results prove that there is a necessity for introduction of an advanced security scheme which incorporates users' behaviors and requirements for improving e-learning utilization. For this reason, we develop an innovative security scheme that associates the usae of information service management and a set of new algorithms for providing the security requirements and needs. Finally, we demonstrate that our approach can guarantee the appropriate environment which gives users' satisfaction and acceptance as well as e-leaning platform success.

  199. Daniel U. Onah and Edwin H. Uguru

    Investigation of the optical parameters of nanocrystalline TiO2/CoO Core-Shell Thin Films was done within the UV, Visible and NIR regions. XRD analysis confirmed orthorhombic nanocrystralline structure for TiO2/CoO Core-Shell Thin Films. The optical parameters of interest in this article were energy dispersion, refractive indices (n), reflectance (R) and extinction coefficients (k). The dependence of these parameters on the post deposition (annealing) temperature was particularly studied. Results showed that: refractive indices have the same maximum value of 2.25 each at a frequency of 4.83 X 1014Hz in IR region. The reflectance of the as-deposited film sample and the samples annealed at 373K and 473K fluctuated in the wavelength range from 260-400nm, while the reflectance of the samples annealed at 573K and 673K respectively, increased directly with wavelengths and annealing temperatures in the visible region. Samples annealed at higher temperature have higher extinction coefficients with a peak vale of 90 each.

  200. Sankaravadivu, S., Jothibai Margret, R. and Meenakshi, V. K.

    In the recent scenario of emerging infectious diseases, studies on immunomodulations as an effective and protective approach have become inevitable. Demand for safe therapeutic agents in the treatment of cancer is on the increase. The immunonature of the ethanol extract of Ecteinascidia venui was determined against Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma (EAC) bearing Swiss albino mice. After tumor inoculation, the extract at the dose of 100, 150 and 200 mg/kg body weight were administered orally and compared with the standard drug Vincristin (80 mg/kg bw). Analysis of Bone marrow cellularity, β-esterase activity, antibody titre, plaque forming cells, GGT, GSH and NO levels were carried out adopting standard procedures. Treatment with the extract increased bone marrow cellularity (26.16×106 cells/femur) and β-esterase positive cells (1218/4000 cells). The antibody titer was maximum (216.13±6.84) in Group III on the 15th day of treatment. Plaque forming cells in spleen increased gradually reaching a peak (224.53±2.65) on the 6th day. A reduction in serum Gamma Glutamyl Transpeptidase (GGT), cellular Glutathione (GSH) and restoration of NO levels was observed on the 15th day in treated mice. The results indicate that the extract contains bioactive compounds playing important role in immune response.

  201. Prasoon Prasannan and Deepak, N. K.

    Pristine and indium doped ZnO thin films were prepared on fused silica substrate using chemical spray pyrolysis technique. All films were vacuum annealed at 4000C for three hours at a vacuum of 10-5mbar. The XRD analysis revealed a shift of preferred orientation from (002) to (101) direction at higher indium doping concentration. A minimum sheet resistance of 1.986 X10-2 Ωcm and a maximum transmittance of 93% were achieved for 2 at% indium doped ZnO films. The band gap of ZnO films showed an increase with doping concentration, majorly due to Burstein Moss effect.

  202. Mahmoodi, E. and Dehghanian, C.

    In this work, iron nitride coating produced on CK45 steel by electrolytic plasma nitriding was investigated. Two types of electrolytes were used: electrolyte (A); 2 g/L Ca(NO3)2 + 2 g/L NH4NO3 + 6 g/L Na2CO3 and electrolyte(B); 2 g/L NH4NO3 + 2 g/L NaNO3 + 6 g/L Na2CO3. Structure analysis of the coating layers was investigated by X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and surface morphology by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Corrosion resistance of samples in 3.5% NaCl solution was evaluated by anodic potentiodynamic polarization and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS). Corrosion current density for the coating with electrolyte (A) was about 1.3 times lower than uncoated sample and corrosion current density for the coating produced by electrolyte (B) was 2 times lower than uncoated sample.Micro hardness test was also performedbyKoopadevice model MH3. Both coatings showed more micro hardness than that of uncoated sample.

  203. Regha, S. and Dr. Manimekalai, M.

    We find ourselves in the midst of a surge in big data use. The number of businesses, organizations, and institutions now utilizing big data solutions has exploded in recent years, as has the amount of data collected. By analysing big data many organisation are achieving Success. The main issues why these organizations are not begin their planning stage to implement the big data strategy because they don’t know enough about the big data and they don’t understand the benefits of big data. In this study, an attempt is made to review the role of big data in the business.

  204. Nikolai KOBASKO

    In the paper an overview on self – regulated thermal process and new its characteristics are provided. These specific characteristics of self – regulated thermal process are widely discussed concerning real and effective heat transfer coefficients and Kondratjev numbers Kn. It is underlined that the real heat transfer coefficients (HTCs) should be considered when calculating temperature fields during transient nucleate boiling process and they should refer to boiling point of liquid, not to bath temperature. It is shown that during recipes development for quenching technology, initial austenitizing temperature may be fixed at 850oC for all existing steel grades and irons with the accuracy of calculation . In this case the duration of transient nucleate boiling mode (self – regulated thermal process) is directly proportional to squared size of steel part, inversely proportional to thermal diffusivity of a material and depends on form of product and convective Biot number. Since in heat treating industry historically engineers are dealing with effective HTCs, the new data on effective Kondratjev number are provided to calculate approximately core cooling time and core cooling rate during quenching of steel parts. The obtained results of calculations can be used by engineers and scientists in the field of material and thermal sciences to predict processes within the transient nucleate boiling mode and convection.

  205. Evangelos Karanikas, Nikolaos Nikolaidis and Eforia Tsatsaroni

    Polyhexamethylene Bisguanidine (PHMBG), a new compound with potential antibacterial activity was used as additive in the dyeing of cotton, wool and polyacrylonitrile fibres. The fastness properties and colour coordinates of the dyed samples were measured. The antibacterial agent applied by exhaustion with after treatment of the dyed fabrics did not affect the fastness properties of the dyeings while the colorimetric data of the dyed samples were slightly affected. The antibacterial activity of the samples treated with PHMBG as well as their stability against wet treatments was assessed and found to be excellent. Abbreviations: PHMBG (polyhexamethylene bisguanidine), PAN (polyacrylonitrile), CC (colour change), CS (colour staining), omf (on mass fibre), D.O. 34 (Direct Orange 34), A.B.194 (Acid Black 194), B.B. 41 (Basic Blue 41).

  206. Sengothai, R.

    I had attempted to optimize the time needed to calculate the greatest common divisors in the Euclidean domain .

  207. Mamleeva, N. A., Autlov, S.A., Bazarnova, N. G. and Lunin, V.V.

    Ozonation of wood is considered as a pretreatment of vegetable raw materials with the aim of a subsequent cellulose processing. The process of ozone consumption by aspen wood of various moisture content (MC) was investigated. The data on wood and cellulose transformations in the course of wood ozonation are presented. Yields of ozonized wood, water-insoluble wood ozonationproduct (WOP), water- soluble ozonation products, and cellulose were found. The lignin and cellulose content in WOP was determined. Both WOP and cellulose samples were investigated by the IR spectroscopy method.The degree of polymerization (DP) of cellulose obtained from ozonized wood is presented. It is shown that the destruction of wood by ozone includes lignin hemicelluloses and, partially, cellulose degradation. The yield, DP and supramolecular structure of cellulose obtained from WOP can be regulated by the variation of the initial MC of the substrate. It was found that the MC of 55% corresponds to the most efficient ozonation with theprominent wood structure transformation. A key role of water in biomass ozonation is emphasized. It is concluded that the ozonation of wood is controlled by diffusion. It is supposed that the wood destruction is caused by reactions of molecular ozone, as well as radical species generated in the course of ozone reactions with water present in the wood structure.

  208. Thierry Godjo

    The shaping of kluiklui is the only unit step that has never been mechanized in the peanut processing into kluiklui. In order to reduce difficult working, the development of an extruder of kluiklui has been made. The method used combines functional analysis, product design, testing equipment, performance evaluation and sensory test. Materials in contact with the food product are made in stainless steel materials and wood that are adapted to food. The tests have shown that the equipment gave a better performance compared to the traditional process: equipment’s flow rate is 60.32 kg/h against 10 kg/h obtained with the conventional process and the productivity is 95.5% against 87.3% with the conventional process. These results indicated a significant difference (p<0,05) between the technical performances of the two processes (Equipment and conventional process). Analysis of the composition of the kluiklui and the sensorial test carried out showed that there is no difference between the kluiklui obtained from the Equipment and those of the conventional process (p> 0,05).

  209. Soroush Niknamian and Somayeh Zaminpira

    Natural forms of vitamin K include phylloquinone which is vitamin K1, and a family of molecules called menaquinones which is MKs or vitamin K2. Vitamin K2 deficiency may impair the activity of VKDPs and increase the risk of osteoporosis, fractures and heart disease. Phylloquinone is found at high concentrations in green leafy vegetables and certain plant oils, therefore the deficiency of it is very rare. But most menaquinones are usually found in animal livers and fermented foods. In western style diet the consumption of fermented foods is limited and low, also increasing the use of vegetable oils and the reduction of animal fat, organ meat and increasing the use of antibiotics interferes with vitamin k2 absorption. The blood test for vitamin k2 deficiency is not a regular test worldwide, so this important vitamin is deficient in many people. Heart disease is the leading cause of death in the world and Osteoporosis is increasing dramatically. So increasing the use of fermented foods like natto, increasing animal fat and organ meat in the diet, especially older people, may reduce the risk of heart disease and osteoporosis.

  210. Palani, R. and Maragatham, M.

    In this paper, we have developed a deterministic inventory model for deteriorating items in which demand rate and holding cost are quadratic and linear function of time. During deterioration period, deterioration rate can be controlled using preservation technology (PT). In the model considered here, deterioration rate is constant, backlogging rate is variable and depends on the length of the next replenishment. Shortages are allowed and backlogged. An analytic solution which optimizes the total cost is derived. The derived model is illustrated with a numerical example.

  211. Tyano Abdoulaye, Yélémou Barthélémy and Bationo Babou André

    Piliostigma reticulatum is a pioneer species of Sahelo Sudanian fallows. It contributes to degraded soils recovery. This study aimed to measure impact of P. reticulatum on fallows soils in north and south sudanian zones of Burkina Faso. Two fallows were used for experimentation: Saria site in north sudanian zone and Sala in south Sudanian zone. Soil samples were collected on soil layer 0- 20 cm under crown, limit of the crown with a control and followed four cardinal directions for chemical and biological analysis. Chemical and statistics analyzes showed that cardinal direction influenced status of Organic mater, total nitrogen and total phosphorus, in north sudanian zone. The east side presented best status of soil fertility parameters. In south sudanian zone, cardinal directions had no significant effect on chemical elements evolution. Considering parameter under crown and limit of crown, organic matter was improved by 28.34% and 10.54% respectively in north and south Sudanian zone under the crown. Total nitrogen was enhanced by Piliostigma’s crown both in north and south Sudanian zones. Microbial activities and biomass were improved by P. reticulatum’s crown. Microbial properties of soil are more marked in south Sudanian zone than north sudanian zone.

  212. Dr. Revathi, R. and Mallika, V.

    The present study discussed an agricultural production and productivity trend in India during the liberalization period from 1990-91 to 2014-15. Data on important variables like, Agricultural production, area under cultivation, yield and agricultural exports were compiled from the period 1990-91 to 2014-15. For analysis of this study were used the statistical tools like Simple Linear Regression Model, Semi- log model and annual growth rates. The major objectives of the study were to evaluate the performance of agricultural production in India, to analyse the trend of agricultural production and productivity in area under cultivation of food grains and major commercial crops in India from 1990-91 to 2014-15 and to compute the compound growth rate of agricultural production, area under cultivation and yield of food grains in India. The major findings were derived from the study on an average the production of food grains had been increased to 2.62 million per year during the liberalization period from 1990-91 to 2014-15. In 1990-91 to 2014-15, the average production of rice and wheat has been increased to 1.162 million and 1.38 million tonnesper year. Yield per hectare of food grain production was a declining trend during1990-91 to 2014-15. The share of agriculture and allied sector in the gross domestic product has registered a steady declined from 36.4 percent in 1982-83 to 14.1 percent in 2011-12. Not-withstanding, the declining trend in agriculture share in the GDP in India since liberalisation. So the Government of India has to give more importance to the agricultural sector to promote the economic growth.

  213. Meryem Alagöz and Aysu Özdoğan

    Due to the fact that we are located in a historical geoghrapy, there has always been debate as to which criteria are needed for planning without disrupting the cultural texture. In order to provide those who live in a historical environment with the opportunities of contemporary life and to adapt the buildings and places into today’s needs and contemporary lifestyle, an interdisciplinary study is required. Today, unplanned urbanization and excessive increase in the heights of buildings with the recent development zoning rights have negatively affected historical buildings and even made them impossible to be perceived. Due to being surrounded by extremely high constructions, the effects of historical spaces on the silhouette have considerably decreased. Likewise, density has been causing pressure on the extension of narrow streets in historical settlements. Not to mention the fact that visual integrity and harmony of historical environment has been fading away since the undesired technological elements got involved. Cumalıkızık Village, however, has been added to UNESCO World Heritage List by the year 2014. Established in Bursa in the context of waqf (public endowment) by Ottoman Empire founder Osman Gazi, Cumalıkızık is one of other seven villages that are located between the foots of Uludağ Mountain and valleys. The villages were named after ‘’kızık’’, which represents one of the clans of Oghuz Turks. Besides having a strong cultural heritage and involving many natural beauties, Cumalıkızık is one of the most significant examples of Ottoman rural civil architecture. It still preserves its presence by carrying the past towards the future with its historical mosques and hamams, plane trees, organic street texture and characteristic houses. Made of rubble stone, wood and adobe, Cumalıkızık Houses are triplex buildings which involve iron-made doorknockers and handles on the street doors. The houses have different colours ranging from white, yellow, red to purple. There are narrow, stony streets with no pavements where corner walls of the streets are beveled suitably for organic settlement. So far these asymmetric walls have changed depending on the stylistic features of different periods. The most prominent architectural style of Turkish Houses, “Exhedras”, which were used as living room and had a great importance on Turkish life, also reflect the characteristic features of these traditional houses. In accordance with these criteria, traditionality must be protected in the architectural designs that will be made in Cumalıkızık in the future. Additionally, these designs should preserve the building culture and physical texture of the area while responding against changing demands and functions of different periods. This study analyzes recently constructed sample buildings in terms of their accordance with cultural texture, by using scanning and evaluation methods.

  214. Mohammed Saeed Md. Ali and Dipak B. Panaskar

    The problem of water pollution by heavy metals is all over the world especially in developing countries. This problem of groundwater contamination with heavy metals becomes one of the most important environmental issues because some of these metals are toxic in their nature even at low concentrations. Groundwater is the major source of drinking water in urban and rural areas in Yemen, and is an important water supply source worldwide. Groundwater in Lahj Governorate is used exclusively to satisfy the needs of different sectors which use water for drinking, domestic irrigation and industrial use. The heavy metals can cause occupational and accidental harm to humans, and can contaminate water, soil and air as well. The aim of this study is to analyse some heavy metals from groundwater in Lahj Governorate of Yemen and its relation to the developed industrial activities. Twenty groundwater samples were collected from different wells in Lahj Governorate. The groundwater samples were analysed using (AAS) Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The mean concentration of Cadmium (Cd), Copper (Cu), Zinc (Zn), and lead (Pb) is measured. The concentration of these heavy metals ranged from 0 to 0.0735 ppm, 0 to 0.0756 ppm, 0.017 to 0.73 ppm, and0 to 0.4434 ppm respectively.

  215. Daniel Lee

    It is the developed countries with capitalism that creates luxury brands. However, there are many developing countries with people willing to buy luxury products. In 21st century of global economy, sales of luxury goods are ever increasing. Especially, in case of developing countries, as their income level increased, the demand for luxury goods has increased as well. However, increase in consumer’s income level cannot fully explain constant demand for luxury goods. So, behavioral economics that studies decision making psychology of consumers is needed. Recently, theories on neuroscience are helpful in the research on behavioral economics. It is likely that consumers that purchase luxury goods base their decisions on emotions and not on rationality. However, the specific mechanism that provokes people’s emotion is still a mystery.

  216. Amrit Panda

    Ethics in organisations now gets added focus due to the rampant violations of ethics seen in many quarters. Sometimes it becomes a moral catch-22 situation while comparing ethical and moral standpoints with financial gains. However, many organisations do stick to what they preach in and their business decisions are a reflection of their beliefs. This paper explores how a better workplace can be built (specifically based on the GPTW framework) by having robust ethical standards in organisations. This paper explores the point that ethical leadership (as it is naturally the leadership that takes crucial business decisions) can go a long way in establishing a ‘Great Place to Work’. To reinforce this opinion the paper explores various models that provide groundings to build a better workplace.

  217. Chandra Mohan Rajoriya, Brij Mohan Singh, Intizar Ahmad Sofi and Dr. Bhanwar Lal Jat

    The world ‘land’ includes all the characteristics and qualities of the earth. Land may take many physical forms, plains, swamps, hills, mountains and valleys. It may have many kinds of vegetation such as forests, Prairie or tundra, and it may have anon of many kinds of climate, from hot to cold, from humid to arid with any inclusive ideas, especially one which has population as well as professional use. Land obviously means different things to different people. The above prints reveal the fact, that urban centre’s are growing by leaps of bounds both at global as national levels makings the study of urban areas an increasingly important branch of geography. Besides population, the most important aspects of this branch of discipline are the sites on which the urban population is concerned i.e. the land in urban areas and its various uses. Land use is the use of the land by man while as land cover relates the type of feature presents on the surface of earth. Both these terms are used simultaneously for planning of management activities. The wetland of the Town is changing very fast residential use. People are cutting the trees of their own and the government to make the space for the illegal constructions. Although new roads are being constructed at a large scale but due to the carelessness of the government and the concerned authorities a good amount of land, proposed for road construction has been put under the residential and commercial use by the people. The density of the settlements is inclining very fast, which is changing the main town areas into the slums. Negligible land areas. In short, we the land use has undergone a great change due to which the morphology of the town has been changed from mono-centric to the poly centric region. Urban land use change is an inevitable phenomenon as it is a part and parcel of the overall dynamics of urbanization. Although land use changes cannot be avoided, yet its directions can be regulated in a controlled manner. The control over land use changes are essential as otherwise it leads to a haphazard and unplanned growth of cities and towns. This control can be achieved by planning of land use.

  218. Suchandra Paul, Prof. Sanat Kumar Guchhait and Dr. Nilanjana Das

    Population growth of an area over a period of time is likely to create dynamic spatial mosaic. Such spatio-temporal demographic dynamics may be perceived through size and density growth of population in the concern area through different statistical measures. All the different measures prompt concentration, de-concentration and spilling of population in different segments of the area over time. This enquiry attempts to capture the reality of block wise size and density growth of Bankura district from 1951 to 2011. Apparently silent up to 1981, the district is showing spilling of population in different parts, except the Western most blocks marked by hilly terrain, forest cover and thinner soil surface.

  219. Nabamita Das, M. S.

    Assamese folksongs have been originated from the Tribal culture of Assam and it collectively expresses the inherent traditional and cultural dimensions of Assam. The folksongs of Assam may be devided into various categories such as Songs of religious and devotional content like Sādāsivār Nāām, Dûrgāā Gôsāānir Nāām, Lākshmi Devir Nāām, Ãāi Nāām, Dèhbichāārār Gēēt, Ãājān Fākirār Gēēt etc, Songs of ceremonies and festivals like Õjāā-pāāli, Mādān–Kāām Pujā, Kāti pujā, Jorā Nāām, Khichāā Gēēt, Bihu songs and the like, Songs of love and yearning like Bhāwāiyāā and Chātkāā, Môishāli and Māût songs, Bārāmāhi songs, Lullaby and nursery songs like Nisukāni Gēēt and Dhāāināām, Songs of jest and humour song like Tāāmul Chôrār Gēēt, Chāāh-purāānar Gēēt etc, Ballad and other narrative songs like Bārphûkānār Gēēt, Mānirām Dèwānār Gēēt, Hārādāttā-Birādāttār Gēēt, Jānāābhārur gēēt, Kāmālkuwārir gēēt, Tezimolār Gēēt and the like, These are the different types of folksongs sung in Assam. But the folksongs sung exclusively by women are- Nisukāni Gēēt, Hûdûmpûjār Gēēt, Aulāā Pujā, Suwāguritolā Gēēt, Biyāānāām, Jengbihu, Nisukāni gēēt , Dhāaināām, Ãāināām, Apesārāā sābāhār Nāām, Goalpariyāā Lokgēēt etc. Lullaby in Assamese folklore is known as Nisûkāni Gēēt and the nursery rhymes are known as Dhāaināām. Such kinds of songs are usually fanciful composition containing simple, direct statement made with tenderness and delicacy. Mothers, young girls and women sing such kinds of songs to please the children. Biyāānāām means marriage songs. An Assamese marriage is a musical marriage. At every stage of celebration, from the early negotiation to the end, women sing appropriate songs. The delicacy and refinement of woman’s heart come out in caressing tunes when the leader of the chorus has to describe the beauty and the grace of the bride and other ceremonies related with the marriage. Mother small-pox is very much feared by Assamese women and therefore, flattered with all sorts of sweet names. She is called Sitôlāā, the cool one, the Ãāî or mother. Whenever a child catches measles or any other variety of rashes classed under small-pox, it is said to have “flowers” on it as Aāi is also said to have appeared on it. Aināām or prayer to prohibit Ãāi is women’s affair. The women gather together and sing to the tunes of claps. The Aināām reveal the same quality of tenderness and refinement as the Biyānāām. The Assamese mothers believe that if their children survive and attack of measles or small pox, it will have extra luck and they sing to please Aināām Goddess Sitôlāā.Children particularly young girls, sometimes are afflicted by ailment that are believed by simple village women to be caused by certain fairy-like female spirits who have been offended and who need to be propitiated through special rituals towards the affliction. Special songs addressed to the spirits are sung and known as Apesārā Nāām or Apesāri Nāām. Women also sometimes observe ritualistic fasts which feature the singing special songs. Such songs, which are special preserves of female folk are extremely simple, both in literacy and musical contents and yet have a touching quality. For example, Sāre-bārat, Subāchāni Pujāā, Ukûni-bûri Pujā etc. Sāre-bārāt or Sôrāāi brātā literally means the bird-fast where only the young girls and married women take part. Subāchāni Pujāā is held in different parts of Goalpara district. The ceremony is held outside the house in the courtyard in the morning and women observe the Subāchāni Pujāā and one Kāthātî i.e. a expert singer sings the songs of this worshpping ceremony. Hûdûmpûjāār Gēēt has also its own significance. The Hûdûmpûjāā is prevalent in Goalpara region. Hûdûm according to a belief current in Goalpara region is a rain-giver god. The women folk worship Hûdûm by singing songs of a erotic nature in paddy field. Nudity is a part of this ceremony. Another important folksongs associated with ritualistic festival is Aûlāā Puja. In some parts of Kamrup region, grown up unmarried girls perform this ceremony. It takes place at the time of Durgāā pujā. On the particular day of the ceremony, the girls keep awake whole night singing songs in praise of goddess. Bihu is the most characteristically typical Assamese festivals and many Bihu Geets are associated with this festival, Bihu songs are excellent poetry. Jēng bihū is exclusively celebrated by women folk. In Jēng Bihū, there is no any place for men. Men are totally excluded in this ceremony. Women go out to the field, worship and with Tôkā, Gāgānā and Claps they sing and thus bihu is celebrated. By this occasion, women get a chance to enjoy their womanhood and share their feelings. Thus, these are the most important folksongs sung exclusively by women through different occasion.

  220. Rogova, L. N. and Shesternina, N. V.

    Purpose: To determine the role of magnesium in the changing of intensity of the expression of specific Gelatinase B in the gastric tissue in an experimental ulcer. Material and Methods: The experiment was performed on 24 white Wistar rats. The Acetate gastric ulcer was simulated according to Ocabe S. The Investigation of Gelatinase B by immunohistochemistry was performed by standard methods. The magnesium levels in plasma and lymph were determined with a special set (Lachema), while the content of magnesium in red blood cells was judged based on the reaction with titan yellow. The magnesium-containing composition was used for the correction of the magnesium level. Results and discussion: There is a negative relation between the decrease of magnesium in red cells from the subclavian vein and activity of gelatinase B and a positive relation between the decrease of magnesium in red cells from the subclavian vein and the area of the ulcer. Using of magnesium-containing composition causes the increase of magnesium in red blood cells and the decrease of the activity of gelatinase B and the area of the ulcer. Conclusions: The results shows the optimize role of magnesium in activity of gelatinase B in gastric tissue in case of the gastric ulcer.

  221. Alan Lee, Grade

    More than any other invention of our time, the Internet has unlocked possibilities we could just barely imagine a generation ago. And here's a big reason we've seen such incredible growth and innovation: Most Internet providers have treated Internet traffic equally. That's a principle known as net neutrality and it says that an entrepreneur's fledgling company should have the same chance to succeed as established corporations. For the purpose of developing open, fair, and free Internet, internet users should have the rights to go where they want, when they want on both wired and wireless.

  222. Sumeeza Majied and Sadiqa Shafiq

    Work is a purposeful human activity which is directed towards the satisfaction of human needs and desires. It is obvious that work needs to be satisfying the job for a mutual beneficial relationship between employee and employer. Job satisfaction creates innovative ideas among the employees and thus individuals may become more loyal towards the organization. It is nothing but having a work environment where an employee’s activities become more important. This means implementing procedures or policies that make the work less routine and more rewarding for the employee. The term “work” is being used to paid work or employment. Work establishes one in the community of human kind. It links a person to others, advances the goals of culture, and gives purpose to one’s existence. The objective of this research is to study the working environment, job satisfaction, working hours, satisfactory salary, carrier prospects and various other parameters.

  223. Dr. Stamatis Kontsas

    The article explores the fundamental relation between economic growth and international trade. In addition, it analyzes the effects of export instability to financial growth. Based on the findings of the study is proved that there exists a long lasting relationship between exportinstability, income terms of trade instability, investment and economic growth. An effective strategy may contribute to governmental efforts in order to differentiate country’s international trade policy. In today's increasingly globalized world, exports and imports are key aggregates in the analysis of a country's economic situation. Whenever an economy slows down or accelerates, all other economies are potentially affected. Equally, imports reflect the same transactions from non-residents to residents. Not all goods need to physically enter a country's border to be recorded as an export or import. Transportation equipment, goods produced by residents in international waters sold directly to non-residents, and food consumed in ships or planes are but a few examples of transactions which may be recorded as exports or imports without physically crossing borders.

  224. Sharif Kabilov

    The article deals with the essence of the processes of integration and globalization taking place in the modern world, liberal options and models of globalization, negative and positive sides of influence of globalization having economic and social consequences. It is noted, that globalization means the transformation of national economy into a part of world economy, susceptibility to its external economic influence. The author makes conclusion that in the conditions of interdependence of national economies ensuring their safety demands common efforts; the international nature of safety assumes development of general programs of safety, coordination of national programs, strengthening of coordinating role of international organizations in ensuring the safety, their assistance in stabilization of national economies.

  225. Dr. Sudhir Tandel

    The objective of the present study was to know the administrative and cultural problems related to access, retention and learning of tribal children and from these problems drawing out the administrative and cultural adaptations. To study the problem four district of Gujarat Aravalli, Narmada, Dahod and Dang were selected randomly. From each district stakeholders like tribal children, their parents, teachers, Principals, SMC and community members, CRCC, BRCC, BRPs, TPEO and DPEO were interviewed and classroom activities and school activities were observed in 64 schools. Major findings of the study were lack of coordination between the administrative systems of the district was a major problem. Irregularity of teachers and students and migration of the parents were the problems affecting the teaching-learning process. Difference in home language and school language and menu not according to the culture of the tribal children were the major cultural problems related to tribal education. Based on these findings the suggestions were given for the administrative and cultural adaptation required for access, retention and learning of the tribal children.

  226. Joseph Benjamin and Pavan Kumar Lachi

    Introduction: This prospective study was done to determine the use and effectiveness of transabdominal ultrasound (TAUS) for intracavitary brachytherapy in carcinoma cervix. Materials and Methods: 20 patients of carcinoma cervix of stage II and III, treated with chemoradiation and intracavitary brachytherapy were assessed. Patients received external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) on Linear Accelerator to a total dose of 50 Gy in 25 fractions along with weekly Cisplatin. HDR Brachytherapy three fractions 7Gy per fraction, 3 fractions. TAUS was done to ensure the tandem position and to obtain tandem to uterine surface measurements in the sagittal and transverse planes. Based on these, applicator geometry was reconstructed in PLATO. Two treatment plans were generated for each patient one based on the dose prescribed to point A and an ultrasound based target and graphical optimization was done to conform dose to uterine dimensions. Plans were optimized. Dosimetric parameters with regard to the dose received by the margin of the tumor volume, posterior wall of the urinary bladder and anterior rectal wall were compared for the two plans. Results: 4(20%) patients required TAUS guided repositioning of applicators. There was a statistically significant difference between the two plans in point A dose (P=<0.001), ICRU 38 bladder point dose (P=0.001), and rectal points dose (P=<0.001). Local control was 95% at six months follow up. Conclusions: Transabdominal ultrasound is a reasonably accurate, quick, accessible, and cost-effective method for conformal brachytherapy planning.

  227. Allah Bux Kachiwal, Abdullah Sethar, Syed Khurram Fareed, Faiz Muhammad, Javed Muhammad, Masood Rabbani, Taseer Ahmed Khan, Shakeel Ahmed Khan and Aqeel Ahmad

    The present study was conducted to identify the bovine Mycoplasmas/Acholeplasmas on clinical examination and PCR based laboratory confirmation from 1590 buffaloes and 470 lung samples collected from Abattoir Karachi during 2014 to 2016. Clinical field survey along with macroscopic examination revealed that total 467 (13.48%) buffaloes had signs of respiratory distress including sticky nasal discharge, sunken eyes, dyspnea and fever. Out of 470 lung samples collected from slaughter house183 (16.76%) were found culture positive for Mycoplasma species. All the culture positive samples were further evaluated by PCR using universal mycoplasma primers. PCR revealed that 201 (5.80%) nasal discharge from buffaloes and 142 (13.00%) lung tissues collected from abattoir were positive for mycoplamas infection. The PCR for Acholeplasma laidlawii was also performed using specie specific primers and the amplified product was sequenced for re-validate the specie. This revealed that 92 (2.66%) nasal discharge samples were positive; and 44 (4.03%) lung samples were positive for Acholeplasma laidlawii. It is concluded that the frequently isolation and molecular identification of Acholeplasma laidlawii from nasal discharge and lung tissue samples are very significant and this study also indicated alarming months for dairy farmers for precautionary measures.

  228. Dr.Nilkanth Mhaske, Dr. Supriya S. Mhaske, Dr.Neelima Rajhans, Dr.Sharvari T. Tawale, Dr.Nikesh Moolya, Dr.Radhika Kumar and Dr.Dhanesh sabale

    Introduction: As we know it is difficult to remove plaque on all surfaces with the help of mechanical plaque control agents alone, hence there is need for chemical plaque control as an adjunct to mechanical plaque control methods. Unfortunately in low-income individuals who are unable to afford dental self-care products and thus research is required to provide efficacious and low cost plaque control agent. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of 0.05% sodium hypochlorite mouthwash on supragingival biofilm and gingival inflammation and compare its effects with 0.2% chlorhexidine mouthwash. Material and Methods: A total of 30 patients with gingivitis were be selected according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria and allocated randomly to three groups containing 10 patients each. At the baseline visit all the patients will received full mouth scaling and will be advised to rinse twice daily with distilled water in group 1, 0.2% chlorhexidine in group 2 and 0.05% sodium hypochlorite mouthwash in group 3 for 21 days. Clinical parameters such as plaque index, gingival index, bleeding on probing were assessed at various intervals. Results: At the day 21the average plaque index in increased to 1.19 water rinse group and to 0.22 in the chlorhexidine group, and 0.61 in the sodium hypochlorite group. Average loe and sillness gingival index had decreased to 0.894 in the water rinse group and to 0.066 in the chlorhexidine group, and to 0.24 in the sodium hypochlorite rinse group. And the average percentage of bleeding on probing had decreased to 66.3% in the water rinse group, and to 41.07% in the chlorhexidine group and to 56.7% in the sodium hypochlorite rinse group. Differences were statistically significant compared to water group. Conclusion: Dilute sodium hypochlorite resulted in significant reductions in gingival inflammation and supragingival biofilm accumulation. Dilute sodium hypochlorite may represent an efficacious, safe and affordable antimicrobial agent in the prevention and treatment of periodontal disease.

  229. Dr. Shilpi Tiwari, Dr Nandlal, B. and Dr. Shivani jandial

    Glass ionomer Cement is the most commonly used restorative material in pediatric dentistry because of its desirable properties such as anticariogenic action due to fluoride release, biocompatibility, chemical bonding to tooth structure and ease of manipulation. A 12 month follow up study was done to evaluate the success and failure rate of glass ionomer restoration in various types of cavities in different teeth. Children of age group 6-7 years having similar diet, life style, water supply and under supervised oral hygiene maintenance were selected from a residential school for this study. Primary oral health education to all children was given prior to the start of study and duration of follow up was standardized.

  230. Ugwu Cosmas Uchenna, Ofuebe Justine Ifeoma and Igbokwe Charles Chima

    Background: Maternal and child health services are appropriate measures put in place to tackle maternal and child mortality. Aim: To determine the degree of utilization of maternal and child health services among child bearing mothers accessing tax-supported health facilities in Southeast Nigeria and to verify the null hypotheses of no significant differences. Methods and Materials: A descriptive survey research was conducted on 650 child bearing mothers accessing tax-supported health facilities in Southeast Nigeria using convenient sampling procedure. Data was collected through interview method and questionnaire. Descriptive statistics was adopted for data analysis. All the analyses were done using SPSS version 18. Results: The study revealed that the degree of utilization of maternal and child health services among child bearing mothers accessing tax-supported health facilities in Southeast Nigeria was high. Statistically, significant difference existed on some socio-demographic variables while no significant difference was indicated on others at 0.05 level of significance. Conclusion: The degree of utilization of maternal and child health services among child bearing mothers accessing tax-supported health facilities in Southeast Nigeria was high. This finding is quite encouraging as it reflected on the decreased rates of both maternal and child mortality in the study area.

  231. Dr. Jaykumar R Gade, Dr. Meetesh M Banik, Dr. Saumitra Nisal and Dr. Rupesh Vaidya

    Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the tensile bond strength of denture adhesives with respect to time interval of upto 12 hours. Material and methods: 40 pair of cylindrical acylic resin samples with flat ends was fabricated with the help of brass moulds for dimensions 20mm diameter and 20mm height. Commercially available denture adhesives such as Fittydent, Secure and Fixon in powder form were tested with artificial saliva. Tensile Bond strength was compared with respect to time interval of 5 minutes, 3 hours, 6 hours and 12 hours after the applications of the adhesive material in between cylindrical samples. Maximum tensile force before failure were examined and recorded in Newton (N) using universal testing machine. Statistical analysis used: One way ANOVA and Tukey’s post hoc test were applied. Results: Fittydent, Secure and Fixon adhesives showed higher tensile bond strength compared to artificial saliva. Fittydent exhibited significantly greater tensile bond strength values than secure where as fixon having significantly lower values (P<.001). Higher tensile bond strength was recorded by all adhesives at 5 minutes time interval and decreased gradually thereafter with least values at 12 hours time interval. Conclusion: All the 3 denture adhesives had the greater Tensile Bond Strength (TBS) than the control. Highest values obtained at 5 minute time interval and where values get declined and the lowest values found at 12 hours time interval. Within all denture adhesives, Fittydent showed significantly greater bond strength at all time intervals and fixon showing the least values throughout given time intervals.

  232. Neelu Vashist, Swati Namadev, Deepti Sukheeja, Pooja Gupta and Sushil Kumar Mewada

    Objective: We conducted the study to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of image guided FNAC of benign and malignant disorders of lung. Materials and Methods: Over a period of one year 71 Sonography and CT-guided cases were collected. Results: Out of 71 cases, 51 cases (72.85%) were male and 20(27.15%) were female. The youngest patient was 25 years old whereas the oldest was 92 years old. Malignancy was the predominant lesion found in this study with 48/71 cases (67%). Among the malignant lesions, adenocarcinoma was the commonest malignancy followed by squamous cell carcinoma. Eight cases (11.3%) were inadequate for interpretation. Conclusion: Image-guided FNAC is safe and rapid procedure to evaluate neoplastic and non-neoplastic lesions of lung. Rapid diagnosis can lead to earlier initiation of therapy.

  233. Dr. Subashani and Dr. Sunil Dhaded

    Masticatory function, aesthetics is affected due to tooth loss. Loss of dentition leads to constant remodelling and bone loss is inevitable. The main aim of tooth supported overdenture is to preserve the alveolar bone and maintenance of proprioception. Improved retention, stability, decrease in alveolar bone resorption can be achieved by tooth supported overdenture.

  234. Mateen Abbas, Madeeha Malik, Azhar Hussain, Ayesha Hashmi and Muhammad Junaid Cheema

    Introduction: For the management of diabetes pharmacological treatment alone will not produce excellent result. For proper control of fluctuating blood glucose level, every individual must be counseled on life style modifications, diet and exercise. To prevent diabetes complication, a patient must be aware of basic knowledge of diabetes. Aim: The main objective of the present study was to evaluate the knowledge of diabetic patients residing in derayans community regarding diabetes, associated risk factors, complications and management. Method: A descriptive cross-sectional study was used to evaluate knowledge of diabetic patients residing in derayans community regarding diabetes, associated risk factors, complications and management. A validated semi structured questionnaire was used for data collection from a sample of 70 diabetes patients conveniently selected from derayan community residing in Pakistan. After data collection, data was coded and analyzed statistically. Results: The results showed that the most common diabetes complications observed among the derayan community were: protein urea (n = 11, 15.7 %), blurred vision (n = 30, 42.9 %) and heart diseases (n = 37, 52.9 %). The common action taken on finding blood glucose lower than normal was to do nothing (n = 26, 37.1 %). The most frequently eaten food item was: potatoes (n = 21, 30 %), rice (n = 22, 31.4 %) and fish (n = 11, 15.7 %). The most high carbohydrate diet considered was: potatoes (n = 30, 42.9 %) and dates (n = 34, 48.6 %). Conclusion: The results of the present study concluded inadequate knowledge and poor self care diabetes management among the derayan community. Diabetes self-management educational programs must be designed for the community to equip them with basic information and management skills around diet, exercise, self-monitoring and medication use.

  235. Aishwarya Ranganath and Iffat Nasim

    Purpose: The clinical decision as to whether an endodontically treated (ET) tooth requires a post and a crown possess a challenge to dental practitioners.It is agreed that the successful treatment of a badly broken down tooth with pulpal disease depends not only on good endodontic therapy, but also on good prosthetic reconstruction of the tooth after endodontic therapy is completed.Restoration of teeth after endodontic treatment is becoming an integral part of the restorative practice in dentistry. Aim: To assess the knowledge, attitude and practice on Post-Endodontic Restoration amongst dental practitioners in Chennai. Methods: The participants were categorised into Endodontists and Non-Endodontists. A specially designed questionnaire consisting of 20 questions was used in the survey. 345 questionnaires were handed to various dental practitioners across Chennai, out of which 315 forms were completely filled and returned. Results: A total of 345 questionnaires were distributed amongst dental practitioners in Chennai, of which 315 filled questionnaires were returned with a response rate of 91.3%. The findings of this survey are that the endodontists are more aware about the ferrule effect that is 73.8%. Also 78.3% endodontists preferred that the remaining tooth structure is what that decides us to choose on what would be the preferred technique for restoration of endodontically treated teeth when compared to non-endodontists. Conclusion: The findings of this survey are that the endodontists are more aware about the ferrule effect which plays a peculiar role in post endodontic restorations.

  236. Dr. Mubeen Khan, Dr. Kondajji Ramchandra Vijayalakshmi and Dr. Taranpreet Kaur

    Malignant lymphomas of lymph nodes are rare entities in maxillofacial region. The extranodal Hodgkin’s and Non- Hodgkin’s lymphomas account for 10 – 20 % of all lymphomas; with an incidence of 0.1 – 5% in oral cavity. Those involving salivary glands are uncommon, and account for less than 5% of lymphomas with parotid gland being most frequently involved. These neoplasms pose a great challenge for clinicians and their prognosis is based on early clinical diagnosis and immunohistochemistry. This is a rare case report of Non – Hodgkin’s lymphoma in a 40 years old male which was initially misdiagnosed as an inflammatory lesion.

  237. Priyanka Biswas, Dr. Prasanta Bhattacharya and Dr. Madhusnata De

    Type 2 Diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a chronic progressive disease affecting a significant proportion of the population and becoming an epidemic worldwide. Increasing evidence in both experimental and clinical studies suggest oxidative stress (OS) plays a major role in the pathogenesis of both types of diabetes mellitus and its complications. OS leads to damage of cellular biomolecules such as lipids, proteins and DNA. OS enhance the extent of DNA damage. Our objective is to detect the extent of DNA damage and to investigate the relationship between DNA damage and oxidative stress in T2DM patients and healthy controls. A case-control study of forty seven patients with T2DM (n=47) and sixteen healthy control subjects (n=16) were screened from different areas of West Bengal. All procedures were done with the informed consent of participants. Comet assay was used to detect DNA damage. Hence, in the present study, increased DNA damage was observed in T2DM patients than healthy controls that may be due to increased oxidative stress leading to genomic instability, which in turn may lead to the progression of T2DM and its complications and contribute to an increased risk for cancer. Therefore this study will explore the role of oxidative stress for genomic instability and causing cancer.

  238. Mrigendra Rai

    Introduction: Common bile duct stones are found in 10-15% of patients having gall stone disease and the incidence increases with the age, both in India and in western countries.Since the majority of common bile duct stones are secondary to gall bladder stones, their incidence is more in Northern India. Aim of this study is to know the incidence of choledocholithiasis in our institute. Aim and Objective: To study the incidence of common bile duct stone in patients having gall stone disease in Rajendra Institute of Medical Sciences, Ranchi. Material and Method: This of is a cross sectional study of 125 patients admitted in different wards of the department of surgery on the basis of symptoms and signs of gall stone disease and latter on trans-abdominal ultrasound and MRCP confirmed that 18.4% of total patients having also choledo cholithiasis. Result: Incidence of choledocholithiasis is 18.4% in patients having gall stone disease.It is 3 times more common in females.Maximum incidence 34.78% in between 40-49 years, obese (52.17%) and middle socio-economic group (73.9%). Conclusion: Incidence of choledocholithiasis is increased in recent past and is more common in females in between 40-49 years age group.Obesity is the commonest risk factor.

  239. Dr. Nishi Nikunj Kapasiawala, Dr. Nakul N Raval and Dr. Amol Somaji Patil

    Introduction: In the field of Orthodontics and dentofacial orthopeadics, for correct treatment of various malocclusions, diagnosis of facial skeletal type is very crucial. Sometimes results obtained from lateral cephalograms are not sufficient to determine the facial skeletal pattern. Hence, the relationship between size of sella turcica and various skeletal patterns can help in determining the skeletal type and can help in taking precise decision for treatment planning. Aim and Objective: The aim of the study was to investigate the normalcy of the dimensions of sella turcica and compare the relationship of the sella turcica with the different skeletal malocclusion and also to find a relationship between the length of the mandible and the dimensions of the sella turcica. Materials and Methods: A total of 60 pretreatment digital lateral cephalograms were selected according to the criteria and grouped into 3 groups, group 1: Class I (n=20), group 2: Class II (n=20) and group 3: Class III (n=20). Lateral cephalograms were traced and analyzed on basis of sella turcica i.e. the following linear measurements were recorded: length, depth and diameter of the sella and the length of the mandible. Results: The linear measurements of length and diameter showed statistically significant differences in Class I, Class II, and Class III (p-value=0.0 and 0.02 respectively). However, the depth showed no significant statistical difference in the groups. Conclusion: The importance of the sella turcica is established and the normalcy is set by statistical analysis and the standard values are given for the dimensions of the sella turcica. This can be used for further analysis and reference standards for the Indian population. The length and diameter of the sella were statistically significant with the different groups. Largest values were given in Class III. Length of the mandible and the length of the sella in each group can be correlated.

  240. Mbongo, J. A., Bidilou A., Papandi –Ikourou, A., Peko, J. F. and Iloki, L. H.

    Purpose: To analyze the contribution of Visual Inspection with iodine (VILI) as a visual method for cervical cancer screening. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted during five years, in the department of obstetrics and gynecology and the division of pathology, anatomy cell biology of the Teaching Hospital of Brazzaville. Were included, women who agreed to undergo a visual screening, and in whom biopsies were performed. In every woman, visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) and VILI were performed simultaneously; biopsies were performed in case of failure of one or two methods. Results of both VIA and VILI were compared to the gold standard which is the biopsy results. Results: The frequency of VILI was 4.8% of gynecological consultations. Of 185 women, 163/185 (88.1%) had a positive VILI test. 182/185 (98.4%) had a positive VIA test; the positive biopsies were found in 183/185 cases (98.9%). However, two women, aged 38 and 43 respectively had normal histology while both had a positive VIA test, and only one a negativity of VILI. In 11.9% of cases VILI was negative while the VIA positive and 1.6% of cases in reverse order with significant difference in both cases (p <0.05). The confrontation of the two visual tests to the histology has mounted that when there is a discrepancy between the 2 examinations, histology confirmed the VILI t test results in 11.5% of cases, and the VIA test in 1.8% of cases. The VIA test was more sensitive than the VILI (98.36%); However, VILI test was more specific than the VIA test (50%). Conclusion: The VIA test, alone is insufficient for efficient screening of cervical cancer, the contribution of VILI test improves the diagnostic performance.

  241. Mesut Sipahi, Ghaniya Ede, Emine Çölgeçen, Çiğdem Kader and Ümmügülsüm Aliye Geçit

    Objectives: Diaper dermatitis is a prevalent disease all over the world, regardless of social and economic conditions. In some cases, it can lead to troublesome situation for parents and babies. Conventional treatment is applied successfully. In surgery, Povidone-iodine impregnated drape is used to reduce the surgical wound infection due to it has broad antifungal and antibacterial properties. Additionally, it has barrier properties in the mechanical trauma during cleaning and irritation of the urinary and stool. In our study, we investigated effects of povidone-iodine impregnated drape on diaper dermatitis. Materials and Methods: Patient's diaper dermatitis scores were determined. Considering the treatment options of family, patients were randomly divided into two groups as conventional treatment and study group. In the study group, povidone-iodine impregnated drape was pasted on diaper area. Dermatitis scores were evaluated again on post-treatment day 1 and day 3. Results: There was no significant differance on 3 th day healing levels and dermatitis scores between control and study groups. It was observed that both treatment methods were effective in the diaper dermatitis. On first day, there was more healing in the group of aplicated povidone-iodine impregnated drape than clasical treatment group (p<0.01). Conclusion: Aplication of povidone-iodine impregnated drape on diaper region was more fast effective than clasical treatment. It can be an effective treatment choice in diaper dermatitis.

  242. Eias Elzein. I.Osman and Sharaf. Y.Mohammed

    Reproductive problems of caprine, ovine, bovine and equine significantly reduce their productivity which is of great concern of production worldwide, because most reproductive problems adversely affect the future fertility. A four year retrospective study of reproductive problems of caprine, ovine, bovine and equine presented to Nyala Veterinary Hospital, South Darfur State, Sudan was conducted with the objective to determine the prevalence of reproductive problems in study animals between January 2012 and December 2015. All Data about animals were collected from case registration books and entered into Microsoft excel sheet and analyzed based on the year of study, the disease frequency and, species of the animals. Total of 362 reproductive problems of caprine, ovine, bovine and equine were recorded between January 2012 and December 2015 from a total of 5001 examined for different clinical cases at Nyala Veterinary Hospital. This study were found to have reproductive problems comprising mastitis 110 (36.42%), dystocia 67 (22.19%), retention of placenta 56 (18.54%), brucellosis 21 (6.95%) and abortion 15 (4.97%) in caprine and Orchitis 5 (33.33%) in equine. In conclusion, from this study, reproductive cases were most prevalent in caprine than bovine, ovine and equine. Therefore, Major causes of reproductive problems especially in caprine should be identified and followed by appropriate measures according to the problems, to minimize the reproductive loss.

  243. Qasim M H Almosawi

    Background: Zinc as a second trace element of human body plays an essential role in numerous function. Abnormality in the metabolism of zinc in renal problem especially nephrotic syndrome is well documented. We aim in this research to measure the serum zinc level in patients with relapsing nephrotic syndrome. Patient and method: A hospital based case control study that conducted at nephrology clinic at Al-Sadder and AL-Zahra teaching Hospitals for period between 1stJanuary 2013 to end of October 2013. A total of 60 pediatric patients with relapsing nephrotic syndrome were enrolled in this research. They were divided in two groups, (30) patients constituent of group A (patients with infrequent relapsing) and (30) patients constituent group B (patients with frequent relapsing).Control group consist of 32 healthy children. Serum zinc was measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometery. Results: Patients aged 2-14 years, boys were 40 and girls were 20.The mean age of patients was 7.5 years. The Mean serum zinc level in group B(frequentrelapse) (58.45 µg/dl) that was significantly lower than that of group A (infrequent relapse) (61.58/dl) and control group (89.64µg/dl) respectively. P-value <0.001. There was no significant difference between patients of both groups and control in the mean of serum zinc level and sex of patients. Conclusion: Hypozincemia can occur in chronic renal problem like nephrotic syndrome. The low level of serum zinc mainly found in those with frequent relapses Routine follow up of serum zinc level and other possible causes of hypozenicemia should be studied before giving zinc to the patients.

  244. Mohammed Firoj Khan, Xian en Fa and Hai Bin Yu

    Objective: To observe effects of transplantating allogenic bone marrow mono-nuclear cells on apoptosis in cardiomyocytes of rats after acute myocardial infarction. Methods: 30- Healthy, male wistar rats were randomly divided into 2 groups, control and transplant group, n=15 each. As soon as myocardial infarction (MI) model was established, Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle’s Medium-low glucose (DMEM-LG) medium and BM-MNCs labeled with Bromodeoxyuridine (BrDU) were injected in the peri-infarct area in the control and transplant group respectively. After 4 weeks, apoptotic index (AI), expression of Bcl-2, Fas and FasL were detected. Results: 4 weeks after transplantation, cardiomyocyte apoptotic index (AI) and expression of Fas and FasL decreased significantly (P<0.05), while the expression of Bcl-2 increased significantly (P<0.05) in the transplant group. BM-MNCs labeled with BrdU were observed around injected sites under immunohistochemical examination. Conclusion: Allogenic BM-MNCs transplantaion regulates the expression of Bcl-2, Fas, and FasL thereby inhibits cardiomyocytes apoptosis after AMI.

  245. Mahawar, P., Manchanda, R., Meena, J. and Bhargava, N.

    Accessory and Cavitated Uterine Mass is a rare congenital anomaly seen in young females, present with chronic recurrent pelvic pain and progressive dysmenorrhea. It is an haemorrhagic fluid filled cavity lined by endometrium and myometrium, most commonly located below the round ligament and does not communicate with normal uterine cavity. The ultrasound and MRI are two important tool in diagnosing this rare disorder. A 21 year old nulliparous female presented to us in OPD with complains of severe dysmenorrhea and pain in left iliac fossa since 5 months. She was thoroughly investigated by surgeon and gynaecologist for pain abdomen and was prescribed analgesics but her pain was not relieved. During her investigations, CT scan revealed bilateral adnexal cystic lesions with bulky uterus and she was referred to us. After routine workup she was posted for diagnostic and operative laparoscopy which revealed a 4*3 cm mass in left broad ligament simulating broad ligament fibroid. While enucleating the same it showed a cavity draining chocolate color fluid from it. Her uterus, both ovaries and tubes were normal. In her follow up she was symptom free. ACUM, a rare Mullerian anomaly is a treatable cause of severe dysmenorrhea in young females. A high index of suspicion and MRI are helpful in providing the clue to diagnosis but laparoscopy is only confirmatory option for diagnosis as well as treatment of this rare disorder.

  246. Dr. Bhushan Jawale, Dr. Priyanka Thakur, Dr. Sheetal Potnis, Dr. Ketan Vora, Dr. Sandesh Baralay and Dr. Swapnil Pardeshi

    This case report describes the orthodontic treatment of a 16 year-old woman with a skeletal Class III malocclusion. Nonsurgical orthodontic treatment of the patient with true & pseudo Class III malocclusion, reverse overjet, increased overbite is described. Although the treatment options included an orthognathic approach, high cost of the surgical procedure was the main reason for extreme dental compensation to have been performed. Intermaxillary Class III elastics were used to correct the malocclusion at the expense of increasing the initial dental compensation. Satisfactory and stable occlusion was achieved with dental and smile esthetics improvement along with significant facial profile improvement. The clinical results and implications of compensatory treatment as well as its relevance within the patient context are discussed based on scientific evidences which is a significant nonsurgical cost effective orthodontic approach for treatment of Class III malocclusion.

  247. Betty Sarabia Alcocer, Ana Rosa Can Valle, Luz Virginia Pacheco Quijano, Betty Mónica Velázquez Sarabia, Rogelio Medina Rosales, Yolib Ramos Olivera, Kevin Jesús Chuc Villegas and José Ricardo Can Cruz

    The benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a (noncancerous) malignant growth in the size of the prostate. This enlargement of the prostate gland is produced by a relative increase in estrogen (female hormones) on testosterone (male hormone), which appears in men with age. Objective: To determine the relationship of PSA, with the size of the prostate in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia admitted to General Hospital de Candelaria Campeche during the period from September 2015 to June 2016. Method: patients were studied with the diagnosis of benign prostatic hyperplasia 50 years of age and older and excluded those who had other diseases that may alter prostate specific antigen, subsequently classified by age determined through PSA ultrasound prostate-specific and the average size of the prostate in grams and the average PSA for each age range and the relationship between them, while describes how it affects their self-esteem was determined. Results: Of the patients studied, 22 belong to the range of 50 to 59 years old (51.16%), 14 to range from 60 to 69 years old (32.55%) and 7 to range from 70 to 79 years old ( 16.27%). 44.1% of patients presented a prostate of 50 grams, the 51.16% prostates 60 grams and 4.6% a prostate gland of 70 grams. The average size of the prostate in grams was 50 grams in the range 50 to 59 years old, 60 g in the range 60 to 69 years old and 60 grams in the range of 70 to 79 years, and the average value of PSA was 5.5 ng / ml, 6 ng / ml and 7.5 ng / ml respectively. In the range 50 to 59 years of age every gram prostate equivalent to 0.11 ng / ml of PSA in the range 60 to 69 years of age every gram prostate equivalent to 0.1 ng / ml of PSA and the range 70 to 79 years old every gram of prostate equivalent to 0.125 ng / ml of PSA. Similarly we find that the entire population 72% have low self-esteem and problems with its image. Conclusion: In our environment in the group of 50-59 years old is the highest number of patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia. According to data from INEGI in Mexico 55% of the population with benign prostatic hyperplasia is greater than 64 years and 30% are between 55 and 64 years, which is equivalent in our population to 8% of the total, with a life expectancy of 70 years. In this study the amount of prostate-specific antigen was determined for each gram of prostate and age range being useful this to make an estimate of the amount of prostate antigen only know the size of the prostate using ultrasound prostate especially for patients with low socioeconomic level. Importantly, most they had low self-esteem and this situation affects you emotionally about their sexuality and their innermost feelings with these findings we consider advisable to implement programs that address strengthening self-esteem and other psychological factors involved in pathologies prostatic.

  248. Dr. Sharmila Khopade, Dr. Pradnya Mali, Dr. Prachee Hendre and Dr. Shwetambari Navale

    In grooves, developmental groove become reason for periodontal disease involvement and progression. Maxillary incisors shows common occurrence of labiocervical grooves, which can Predispose to localized periodontal tissue involvement. Cervical grooves act as a locus for plaque accumulation and can cause localized periodontitis. The clinician should have an eye for early detection of such defects to prevent further tissue loss and early control of disease spread. This case report presents diagnosis and different treatment modalities for correction of cervical labial groove and elimination of periodontal pocket.

  249. Dr. Shantipriya Reddy, Dr. Prasad, Dr. Abis Amir, Dr. Huzaifa Rashid and Dr. Vimal, S. K.

    Generalized aggressive periodontitis is a form of periodontitis which shows rapid destruction of periodontal tissues. Subjects tend to lose their teeth early in life due to the severity of the destruction and it often has led to challenge in prosthetic rehabilitation of such patients. In the present study two case have been discussed which were diagnosed with generalized aggressive periodontitis and implant supported prosthesis was planned.

  250. Neelamma, G., Vanitha, B., Sai Suresh Nehru, Rajesh Kumar and Durai Swamy, B.

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the Phyto -constituents present within the different extracts of Clitoria ternatea root and to estimate total phenols, total flavonoids and anti oxidant, anti-inflammatory activities. Phytochemical studies confirmed the presence of carbohydrates, proteins, alkaloids, glycosides, resins, steroids, saponins, phenols, flavonoids were analyzed using spectro photometric technique, based on Folin - Ciocalteau reagent and aluminium chloride colorimetric assay, respectively. Gallic acid was used as for total phenols and Rutin for total flavonoids. Furthermore, the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory activities were determined by using two in vitro methods namely, 2, 2-phenyl,1-picrylhydazyl (DPPH), Total antioxidant capacity, protein denaturation, HRBC membrane stabilization methods. In these methods, ascorbic acid and Ibuprofen were used as reference compounds. The total phenols and flavonoids were found to be more in methanolic extract. The result clearly indicates that the methanolic extract of Clitoria ternatea Root of the study shows effective antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.

  251. Mbongo, J. A., Ekoutou, A., Péko, F. and Iloki, L. H.

    The authors return a case of observed bilateral mammary tuberculosis to him fallen from Brazzaville in Congo, at a teenager of 19 years flot possessing identified other bacillary localization. Clinical picture makes swilling of the two breasts, having evolved toward an abscess fistulised. The diagnosis has been assured by an anatomo-pathological exam. The recovery has been gotten after medico-surgical treatment.

  252. Satyanarayan, V. and Sagar, Z.

    Background and objectives of study: Varicose veins of lower limb is a common clinical manifestation, which starts early in the life but assumes an innocent course for variable length of time. The adult prevalence of visible varicose veins is 25–30 per cent in women and 15 per cent in men. This study intends to know the predisposing factors, management of varicose veins of lower limbs effectively and to prevent its complications. Methods: 150 patients admitted to the hospital, who met with inclusion and exclusion criteria were subjected to detailed clinical examination and investigation. INCLUSION CRITERIA being Primary varicose veins, Perforator incompetence, Varicose ulcer EXCLUSION CRITERIA being Secondary varicose veins, Deep vein thrombosis, Recurrent varicose veins. The study period was 12 months with 2 months follow up. Patients were evaluated and followed up according to a protocol. Results: In this study males are more prone to the development of varicosity of lower limb than the female (M: F = 3:1) the disease is more common in 30 to 40 years age groups (34%). Occupation involving prolonged standing are the main contributory factors, patients present with engorged vein (92%) and pain (70%) as main symptom and with its complications . Left lower limb (47%) and long saphenous and perforator systems (86%) are predominantly involved. Duplex USG is the gold standard investigation in diagnosis of the disease. Most common surgery done was SFJ with perforator ligation (56%). Among post op complications the seroma formation (10%) was more common. Conclusion: This study shows the varicose veins of lower limbs is more common in middle age group with male predominance, and occupation and family history are the other contributory factors. Doppler ultra sound scanning is the investigation of choice. Saphenofemoral junction ligation with perforator ligation showed good outcome.

  253. Sumegha Rana, Dharmendra Kumar and Mrityunjay Mundu

    Aims & Objectives: To compare the outcome of penetrating trauma versus blunt abdominal trauma patients coming to emergency ward in RIMS, Ranchi. Methods: A total 50 cases of abdominal trauma were studied out of which 32 were of blunt trauma and 18 were of penetrating abdominal trauma. All underwent exploratory laparotomy and outcome of the cases were studied. Results: Penetrating injuries mostly led to early rush for hospital, early exploratory laparotomy and hence better prognosis. Patients who died in both groups had reached to the emergency department with much delay and had comorbid injuries much more than the surviving cases. 75% cases of blunt trauma had comorbid injuries leading to increased mortality whereas patients with no comorbid injuries had better prognosis. The strongest risk factor for mortality in all abdominal injury cases was delay in treatment followed by severity of injury. Presence of comorbid injuries, Revised Trauma Score (RTS) and haemoglobin level were other risk factors. Conclusion: Improved motor vehicle safety, rapid emergency transport, and rapid intervention will definitely help to reduce the mortality and morbidity associated with this public health problem of abdominal trauma mostly caused by Road Traffic Accidents.

  254. Urfain Habib, Dr. Omar Habib and Prof. Shamim A. Ansari

    The purpose of study was to explore correlation if there exists any between resilience and self esteem, resilience and emotional competence and emotional competence and self esteem. 289 victims of Kashmir Flash Floods (2014) served as participants, who were selected through purposive sampling. 14-item resilience scale (RS-14) developed by Wagnild (2010) was used to assess the resilience of participants. Rosenberg’s self esteem scale (1965) was used to assess the self esteem of participants and emotional competence assessment scale (ECAS) developed by Paiva and Kumar (1999) was used to assess the emotional competence of participants. Results revealed a positive correlation between resilience and emotional competence, resilience and self esteem and emotional competence and self esteem.

  255. Jong Hae Kim

    Living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) is now routinely performed upon a lack of liver grafts from deceased donors. In addition to surgical technique, anesthetic management for LDLT is also important for both the safety of recipients and good surgical outcomes. Three phases, which are preanhepatic, anhepatic, and neohepatic phases, constitute the process of LDLT. Recipients, who already have physiological derangements caused by a nadir of hepatic function, encounter physiologically challenging conditions specific to each phase. Therefore, induction and maintenance of anesthesia and hemodynamic monitoring during the anesthesia should be tailored to patients’ underlying medical conditions and physiological challenges associated with surgical procedures performed during each phase. In this regard, this review will deal with anesthetic managementof recipients undergoing LDLT, particularly according to each phase.

  256. Satyanarayan, V. and Vishwanath Kuri

    Background: True solitary nodule occurs in 4-8% of the population and in autopsy it is seen in 50% of cases. The prevalence of thyroid nodule increases with age and women have a higher prevalence than men. Seventy percentage of solitary thyroid nodules are benign, indeterminate15%, malignant 5%, nondiagnostic in 15%. Increasing numbers of nodules are being detected serendipitously because of rising use of imaging technique. Solitary thyroid nodules being so prevalent in the general population, it is important to have clear strategy of assessing nodules and determining which will require surgery or can be managed conservatively. Objectives of the study: 1. Primary aim in investigating thyroid nodules is to exclude possibility of malignancy.2. Analyzing the efficacy of clinical, biochemical, radiological and cytological evaluation of nodules. 3. Evaluating the management of solitary thyroid nodule, Identifying malignant nodule requiring surgery and its incidence and its outcome. Methods: The study was conducted in ESI Model Hospital from January 2015 to June 2016. Patients satisfying inclusion criteria were enrolled. All the patients with solitary nodule thyroid are evaluated with thorough clinical examination, cytological, radiological and laboratory investigations. Appropriate thyroid surgery was performed and analyzed for histopathological examinations results. Results : The commonest presentation of solitary thyroid nodule was asymptomatic swelling in front of the neck. The peak incidence of solitary nodule thyroid observed in 3rd to 5th decade, constituting 66.3% of the cases studied, Female predominance over male with ratio of 18:1 noted in occurrence of SNT. The common causes of solitary nodule was colloid goitre (50%), follicular adenoma (25%), adenomatous goiter (3%). Euthyroid state was noted in 95% of the cases. Incidence of malignancy in solitary thyroid nodule was 14.3%. The most common cause of malignancy was papillary carcinoma (72%) followed by follicular carcinoma (28%). Conclusion: Solitary nodule of thyroid are more common among females and peak incidence in 3rd to 5th decade. Most of the patients presenting with solitary nodule of thyroid are euthyroid and only a small percentage of patient with toxicity or hypothyroidism . USG can be accurately used to detect patients with multinodular goiter who clinically present as solitary nodule of thyroid. Incidence of malignancy in male patients presenting with solitary nodule of thyroid is more when compared to female. The most common cause of malignancy in solitary nodule is papillary carcinoma followed by follicular carcinoma.

  257. Satyanarayan V. and Ashok Akula

    Background: Triple negative breast carcinoma (TNBC), defined as tumors negative for ER, PR and Her 2 Neu receptors with distinct clinical entity characterised by aggressive behaviour, no specific targeted therapy and poor outcome. Aims and objectives: 1. To study clinicopathological variable in TNBC 2. To study outcome of different modalities of management in TNBC. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study was conducted based on hospital records in Department of General Surgery between March 2012 and October 2014. Inclusion criteria: All female patients with breast cancer who were treated in ESIC who had triple negative harmone receptors. Exclusion Criteria: No follow up records in cancer registry. Demography, Stage of disease at presentation, Management, response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy, Grade of tumour and follow up for 20 months were analyzed, All patients underwent either modified radical mastectomy, breast conservative surgery as standard of care depending of stage of disease and anthracycline based chemotherapy was used for neoadjuvant or adjuvant setting. Results: Out of 40 cases in the study period 30 cases (75%) belonged to age less than 45 years. Thirty two patients (82%) had premenopausal status. Predominant cases were in advanced stage. Out of 16 cases who received neo-adjuvant chemotheraphy 100% response was noted with complete response rate at 13%. Infiltration ductal carcinoma was most common histology noted and 60% had grade 3 tumor. At mean follow up of 20 months, recurrence rate was noted in 11% of cases. Conclusion: TNBC patients present at early age with high grade and advanced stage. Anthracycline based chemotherapy has excelled response when used in neoadjuvant settings.

  258. Pradnya Rajendra Khatavkar, Rahul Ashok Patil, Abhijit Ningappa Gurav, Abhijeet Rajendra Shete, Sumit Sharad Shetgar and Sagar Prakash Kadam

    Purpose: Oxidative stress plays a causative role in pathogenesis of periodontal disease. It has been reported that Spirulina platensis or its active ingredient C phycocyanin (CPC) exerts anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative and inhibitory effects on prostaglandin and leukotriene biosynthesis. So aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary spirulina as an adjunct to SRP on salivary antioxidants level in CP subjects. Materials and Methods: The study was a randomized double-blind clinical and biochemical trial in which 70 subjects with CP in the age group of 30-55 years, reporting to Department of Periodontology, TKDC and RC, New Pargaon, were equally and randomly divided into Test Group (TG) and Control Group (CG). TG was given 2 gm Spirulina capsules daily, after meals for 1 month and CG was not given any supplementary diet. SRP was done at baseline in TG and CG. Whole saliva sample was collected. Clinical and biochemical parameters (SOD & MDA) will be recorded at baseline, 1 month & 3 months. Result: Reductions in clinical & biochemical parameters were statistically highly significant in TG compared to CG after 1month (P<0.05**). Reduction in clinical & biochemical parameters were clinically significant but statistically non significant in TG group Compared to CG after 3month. Conclusion: Spirulina appears to be promising. It exerts strong anti-inflammatory effects which are closely connected with its antioxidative activity. This study can have a significant impact on the treatment procedures of periodontitis, with the use of blue green algae in the future.

  259. Shilpi Tiwari, Sudhakar Reddy and Nandlal, B.

    Ankyloglossia (more commonly called “tongue-tie”) is a congenital anomaly characterized by an abnormally short lingual frenum, which may restrict tongue tip mobility. Ankyloglossia in the pediatric age group is a subject of ongoing controversy among various professional individuals as well as specialty groups. Oral surgeons, pediatricians, speech therapists, Otolaryngologists and lactation consultants may all voice different opinions regarding the various aspects of ankyloglossia (AG). This prospective case series on 25 children is designed to throw a light on the important aspects related to tongue tie in a simplified manner, thus helping dental practitioners to effectively and efficiently deal with this condition.

  260. Dr. D. Sathish, Dr. M. Suresh Kumar, Dr. K. Amarnath, Dr. G. Visalakshi and Dr. Santosh, V.

    The purpose of the present case report is to illustrate the possibility of inserting immediate implants into the fresh extraction socket in the infected site with the presence of a pre-existing periapical lesion. The case report : A 50-year-old man, presented with a periapical lesion developed on the labial side of right maxilla. The radiograph showed a radiolucent image in the periapical region of 11 12. Extraction and implantation including bone grafting to substitute 11 and 12 had been performed in two appointments. One Implant (13mm length × 3.7mm in diameter ADIN implants) was inserted apically through the cyst cavity. Three months later, the second surgery phase (healing screw insertion) had been followed, and no sign of alternation of radiography and clinical indication were seen after 18 months. This report showed that the placement of immediate implants in presence of a pre-existing infected lesion may not be a necessary contraindication on if appropriate clinical procedures like antibiotic administration, meticulous cleaning, and alveolar debridement are performed before implant surgical procedure. Immediate placement of implants for replacement of teeth with the pre-existing infected lesion is a predictable treatment and can be indicated for replacing teeth lost. Both implants were successfully osseointegrated, and the lesion were healed, follow up of 2 years done (CLINICAL CASE 16, Postextraction Implant Placement, Immediate Loading, Osteotomy, Reduction Guide; Vanessa Montoya-Salazara et al., 2014).

  261. Dr. Osama Bin Zia, Dr. Muhammad Asif Peracha, Dr. S. M. Khalid Karim, Dr. Faizan Iqbal and Dr. Naveed Khan

    Objective: To estimate the frequency of trauma and treatment induced nerve injuries in cases of displaced supracondylar humerus fractures in children. Materials & Methods: This retrospective observational study was conducted in department of orthopedics, Liaquat National Hospital from January 2011 to December 2015. All the cases of displaced supracondylar humerus fractures in the above mentioned period treated at our institute were analyzed. On a predesigned proforma the age, gender, variety & gartland type of fracture, nerve injuries whether iatrogenic or trauma induced were recorded and data analyzed. Result: 437 patients of displaced supracondylar humerus fractures were identified. Out of which 90 (20.5%) patients had nerve injuries. 54 (60%) patients had trauma induced nerve injury and 36 (40%) had iatrogenic nerve injury. 54.6% were male. Mean age + SD was 7 years. Most common fracture variey was extension 91.1% and most common fracture type was gartland type III 66.7%. Conclusion: Supracondylar fractures have a low to moderate association with nerve injuries. Iatrogenic nerve injury is less common and dependent on method of fixation. Diligent care must be taken for the prevention, early identification and management of these cases.

  262. Michael Ihiechukwu Onwukwe, Prof Timothy Paget, Dr Catherine Hayes and Dr John Fulton

    Background: Despite major redevelopments and changes to existing health care delivery infrastructure a range of pathologies and associated health problems prevail that impact on society as a whole. Many of these diseases and health problems are directly attributable to lifestyle choices and environmental factors. One of these diseases is Schistosomiasis (also known as bilharzias), a condition still prevalent in countries such as Nigeria, with school age children most commonly affected. This study analysed the specific age distribution of Schistosomiasis and other gastrointestinal (GI) related parasitic infections among children (0-15 years) in Holy Ghost Hospital, Imo State Nigeria from 2012 – 2015. Methodology: Using a retrospective survey design, to provide a quantitatively measurable and statistical description of the subject under study the demographic profiles of 323 children with a clinical diagnosis of Schistosomiasis were collected. Details collated included year of clinical diagnosis, age, gender, diagnosis, parent occupation and other related GI parasitic infections. Result: The demographic profiles of 353 children (between the ages of 0-15 years) were anonymised. Of the 353 children clinically diagnosed of Schistosomiasis from 2012-2015, 263(75%), were male while 90(25%) were female. The age distribution of the population sample was 11-15years (62%); 6 -10years (31%) and 0-5 years (7%) respectively. Frequency of the Schistosomiasis amongst the 353 children was; age range 11-15years 219, 6-10years 110 and 0-5years 24. Results also demonstrated that children whose parents are fishermen and traders had highest prevalence rates of GI infection, followed by those whose parents were businessmen and civil servants. The majority of the children had an additional clinical diagnosis of Ascaris lumbricoidies, which represent 91% of this group, followed by Trichuris trichura 8%, with only 1% of the population not having a formal diagnosis of GI related infection. Conclusion: High prevalence rates of Schistosomiasis in Oguta are of great significance in paediatric caseloads; this study indicates a need for urgent intervention in controlling the exponential increase of these pathologies. Findings from the survey indicate the need to implement treatment in remote geographical areas not previously targeted by mass drug administration programmes.

  263. Reena Mathur, Jagmohan, Amit Kumar Sharma, Kapil Meena and Unmila, T. N.

    Aims and Objectives: To evaluate the chest radiographs of patients having history of crystalline silica dust exposure while working in mines and further to evaluate these findings with respect to the duration of exposure to silica dust and finding correlation between the two. Materials and Methods: Data for the study was collected from 258 patients having crystalline silica dust exposure while working in the mines in Nagaur, Ajmer and Bhilwara districts of Rajasthan, who presented to J.L.N. Medical Collage, Ajmer with respiratory complaints. A cross-sectional study was conducted for a period from June 2015 to Dec 2015. Chest radiographs of these patients were evaluated by an experienced radiologist in accordance with International Labour Organisation (ILO) classification. These chest radiograph findings were evaluated and studied for their correlation with the duration of silica dust exposure. Results: In the present study, out of total 258 patients, 60 were having silicosis and 99 were having silicotuberculosis. The most common finding was multiple nodular shadows in116 patients. This study shows increasing trends in number and percentage of patients of silicosis and silicotuberculosis with increase in the number of years of exposure.Data obtained in the study was statistically analysed andp-value after applying ANOVA test was found to be < 0.01 which is statistically significant and proves that there is strong positive correlation between the disease and duration of exposure. Conclusion: As we can make out from this study that almost 2 out of 3 patient (61.7%) are suffering from either silicosis or silicotuberculosis, so there is need to make more awareness about safety measuresto decrease occupational exposure. There should be regular health check-ups and educational programmes for mine workers. Any respiratory symptom should be taken care immediately.

  264. Rajhans Nilima Shripad, Byakod Girish and Moolya Nikesh

    Background-The relationship of stress and chronic periodontitis was assessed using serum cortisol levels. Aim – To evaluate the relationship between stress and chronic periodontitis by estimation of serum cortisol levels. Settings and design- A case control study having 30 cases of chronic periodontitis and 30 age and sex matched healthy controls. Methods and materials- stress analysis was performed using standardized questionnaire method, social readjustment rating scale (SRRS). Clinical assessment of plaque, gingival inflammation, probing pocket depth and clinical attatchment level was performed. Serum cortisol level was estimated using ELISA. Statistical analysis- Pearson correlation coefficient was used for evaluating the relationship between different variables and its statistical significance was determined using students‘t’ test. Results-The SRRS scores and serum cortisol levels were higher in group I when compared to group II. There was a statistically significant correlation of plaque and probing depth with serum cortisol levels in chronic periodontitis patients. Conclusion- The present study revealed a significant correlation between serum cortisol levels and chronic periodontitis.

  265. Dr. Nimish Salunkhe, Dr. Shweta Chaudhary, Dr. Alok Patel and Dr. Mayur Chaudhary

    Background: Teeth exposed to thermal stress have the potential of not only aiding in identification but also understanding circumstances surrounding the fire. Paucity of research on the effect of deciduous teeth exposed to high temperatures necessitates research in this area. Aim: The present study therefore aims to investigate the type and extent of microscopic and macroscopic changes that can occur in deciduous teeth when exposed to high temperatures. Procedure: 66 deciduous teeth, extracted as a part of routine clinical treatment, were exposed to temperatures ranging from 100 ̊C to 1100 ̊C for 30 minutes. After exposure to high temperatures, teeth were analyzed for microscopic and macroscopic colorimetric changes. Result: Macroscopic colorimetric changes ranged from white and pale yellow crown and root respectively at 100 ̊C to neutral white with pink tinge and neutral white for crown and root respectively at 1100 ̊C whereas the microscopic changes ranged from crazing of surface enamel with no changes in dentin and cementum at 100 ̊C to decreased visibility of enamel crystals and dentinal tubules and molten cementum at 1100 ̊C. Conclusion: We conclude that these results would further add to the knowledge of forensic investigators as a part of identification of teeth.

  266. Mujtaba Ali and Mohammed Ali

    Presently, cell salvage or autologous transfusion has been incorporated in various surgeries including orthopedics. Especially in spine, hip revision and pelvic surgeries as the anticipated blood loss is always high. In this paper, we review the literature in regard to cell salvage in orthopedics surgery. In terms of indications, contraindications, cost effectiveness and complications. We performed a literature search on PubMed and included the relevant articles. We found that majority of the published literature did not prefer the routine usage of autologous transfusion mainly because it is expensive and may lead to complications. Cell salvage is preferred if the blood loss is expected to be more than 20%, the patient has a rare blood type or if the patient’s beliefs go against allogenic blood.

  267. Dr. Arthy, O. S., 1Dr. Manohar, U., Dr. P. Viswanathan, Dr. Rehana Tippoo and Dr. R. Ramesh

    Vascular transformation of sinuses is characterized by a conversion of lymph node sinuses into a complex network of anastomosing endothelial-lined channels. It is an incidental finding in lymph nodes excised during tumor surgery. Vascular transformation of sinuses is an unusual vaso proliferative lesion that is mostoften found in intra-abdominal lymph nodes removed in lymphoma staging procedures and in axillary lymph nodes removed after radical mastectomy3. A patient with vascular transformation of sinuses involving the femoral node following varicose vein is been reported.

  268. Robin Victor, Kamal Nath, Giridhari Kar and Subrata Naskar

    Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) has acquired an epidemic form and requires immediate attention. Depression is found to be common among patients with diabetes and it is associated with poor outcomes in disease control. However, the data on this important relationship are limited from North–Eastern India. Aims: To study the prevalence and severity of depression in diabetes and to identify its correlation with sociodemographic variables, glycaemic control and other factors. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional case study in which consecutive 150 diagnosed cases of type 2 DM cases were selected and interviewed to find if they fulfilled the ICD-10 criteria for depressive disorder. Severity of depression was assessed using Hamilton Depressive Rating Scale 17(items).Glycaemic control among the cases was assessed by measuring HbA1c level. Results: The mean age of the study group was 50.19 ± 7.29 years with 52.66% males while 47.33% females. Prevalence of depressive disorder among the cases was 34.66%. Majority of the cases had mild depression (38.46%) followed by moderate depression (32.69%). Prevalence and severity of depression was higher in cases with age >50 years of age (49.39%), female sex (38.08%), rural background (46.15%), unmarried/separated subjects (91.66%), joint family structure (40%), lower education (45.09%), unemployment/unskilled/retired/housewife occupants (45.12%), and lower/lower middle socioeconomic status (48.48%). Depression was also associated with the duration of diabetes mellitus and the glycaemic control Majority of these findings were statistically significant (p<0.05). Conclusions: Early identification of the type 2 diabetic cases who are more vulnerable to develop depressive disorder is extremely important for management and prognosis of both these chronic disorders.

  269. Dr.DivyaSantolia, Dr.Sunita Gupta and Dr.BhawnaMahajan

    Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma is a common malignant tumor occurring with increasing frequency among individuals. The survival rate of oral cancer is 60-80% if detected during its early stages; however this number drops to 30-40% when the cancer is diagnosed during advanced stages. Direct contact between saliva and the oral lesion makes measurement of tumor markers in saliva an attractive, non-invasive, chair-side diagnostic/prognostic aid and alternative to serum testing. The connection between chronic inflammation and carcinogenesis is well known and it is believed that cytokines and mediators of inflammation has role in suppression of apoptosis and tumor progression. Aim of the present study is to evaluate the change in levels of Interleukin-6 in Oral Potentially Malignant Disorders and Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma patients and to develop a possible prognostic marker. To evaluate the reliability of salivary IL-6 as diagnostic/ prognostic marker in potentially malignant oral disorders (OPMD). And to develop a cost-effective chair side salivary prognostic marker of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Material and method: The salivary level of Interleukin-6 in (n=25) patients in each group of Oral Potentially Malignant Disorders and Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma patients and (n=25) healthy individuals (n=25) of control groups was measured using ELISA. Result: Salivary IL-6 was detected at higher concentration in patients with OSCC and OPMD as compared to control group (P<0.001). Conclusion: From the results of present study, it can be concluded that IL-6 is an important proinflammatory cytokine, detectable at higher concentration in saliva of patients of OPMD and OSCC and prove to be useful as biomarker for diagnosis and predicting malignant transformation.

  270. Dr. Aji Markose

    Dental pulp consist of vascular connective tissue contained within the rigid dentin walls. It is the principal source of pain in the oral cavity and also a major site of attention in endodontics and restorative procedures. Thus the knowledge to pulp is essential not only for providing dental treatment but also to know the rationale behind the treatment provided.

  271. Sathyanarayanan, R., Suresh, V., Monica, S. and Venugopalan, V.

    Gardener et al. in 1987 described Glandular odontogenic cyst as an uncommon developmental odontogenic cyst. It may manifest as an intra-bony solitary or multilocular cyst of odontogenic origin. It has a high rate of recurrence similar to that of the keratocystic odontogenic tumor. The increased recurrence rate shall be due to its multilocular nature, intrinsic behaviour and incomplete removal of the lining. We report a case of large glandular odontogenic cyst in the anterior mandible treated by enucleation followed by chemical cauterisation with carnoy’s solution. The patient was followed for two years, no recurrence noted, and gradual increase in new bone formation was seen in the follow-up orthopantomograms.

  272. Ambaga, M.

    Untill now we can not drive and regulate the intensity of metabolism reaction during diabetes mellitus and hypercholesterinemia to more usefull needed direction because we do not know in which place of cells are existed driving point of regulations subjected to action of such kinds of manipulation and medicaments. Revealed by us the membrane-redox potentials three-state line system is one of more important member of proposed by us the full 9 stepped cycle of proton conductance inside the human body and one of these places of cells, which easily subjected to action of manipulation and medicaments as driving point to conduct the usefull favorable direction of metabolism reactions during diabetes mellitus and hypercholesterinemia. Correcting the С6Н12О6 + 6О2 = energy + 6Н2O + 6СO2 equation to right form as “Donators + membrane - redox potentials three - state line system + O2 + АDP + Pi + H+ + nH + membrane space = (ATP + heat energy) + H2O + nH + matrix + CO2” reaction medium, existing in the full 9 stepped cycle of proton conductance inside human body (proposed by M. Ambaga), might be giving us the possibility to drive the reaction to desired direction needed to stay healthy and to cure patients. In such a case, membrane - redox potential’s three-state line system serves the role of main driver. The theoretical and practical clinical significance of the membrane - redox potentials three - state line system of the full 9 stepped cycle of proton conductance inside the human body lies in a possibility to drive metabolism reaction by changing the membrane redoxy potential’s three - state line system to more usefull, appropriate variants, according to the need of healthy adaptation need and pathological situations. We can create all the variants of useful reaction background forms of metabolism by changing the membrane - redox potentials three - state line system of the full 9 stepped cycle of proton conductance inside the human body.

  273. Dr. K. Malathi, Dr. Dhanesh Sabale, Dr. A. Muthukumaraswamy, Dr. Shabbir A. and Dr. DnyaneshwarPunse

    Background: Fluorosis may change the mineralisation of the teeth. For this the first study was done by Vandana K L in 2007 to assess the dentinal surface changes in fluorosed teeth after chemical root biomodification. Aim: To compare dentinal surface changes in fluorosed and non-fluorosed teeth after application of EDTA and Tetracycline Hydrochloride. Materials and Methods: Thirty two human teeth extracted due to advanced periodontal disease and orthodontic treatment planning was used in this study. Also thirty two fluorosed teeth extracted due to periodontal disease and orthodontic treatment planning was used. The teeth were scaled and root planed. Sixty four dentin discs were prepared and divided into four groups like fluorosed healthy, non-fluorosed healthy, fluorosed diseased and non-fluorosed diseased. After, they were treated with EDTA and Tetracycline Hydrochloride. All the specimens were fixed and observed under scanning electron microscope and statistically analysed. Results: Overall smear layer score was more in FH group followed by NFH, FD, and NFD group in descending order with the specimen treated with TTC HCL. For degree of demineralization it was higher in FH followed by NFH and NFD were same and FD with specimen treated with TTC HCL. Conclusion: Fluorosed teeth show more degree of demineralization than non-fluorosed teeth.

  274. Hiren B. Mundiya, Hemina Desai and Hansa Goswami

    Background: Sacrococcygeal Teratomas (SCTs) are germ cell tumors arising from sacrococcygeal region containing derivatives of all three germ cell lines. It is predominantly affecting neonates, infants and children along with female preponderance. Classifying SCTs according to its location and histological grading in respect to presence of immature elements are helpful in early diagnosis and therapeutic decisions, providing better outcome. Aims and objectives: Study of histological evaluation and grading of sacrococcygeal teratoma as well as correlation with clinical aspects in paediatric patients. Material and method: A retrospective study of 22 patients presenting with sacrococcygeal mass at B.J.M.C, Civil Hospital, Ahmedabad over a period of three years from 2014 to 2016. All specimens of resected saccrococcygeal mass were received and overnight fixation in 10% formalin was done. Gross examination findings were noted followed by routine paraffin embedding and tissue sectioning. Slides were stained using H&E stain, examined microscopically and grading of SCTs was done along with clinical correlation followed by comparison with other studies. Results: In present study, 22 cases which presented with sacrococcygeal mass were evaluated. There were 15 girls and 7 boys (male:female ratio of 1:2) with the age ranging from 1 day to 5 years. Majority of the cases (18(82%)) presented in infants below 2 months of age. One patient presented with recto-vaginal fistula and another with urinary retention. 19 cases were of mature teratoma (grade 0) and 3 cases were of immature teratoma (grade I) including one case of malignant transformation with yolk sac differentiation (grade II), which correlated with elevated serum AFP levels. On microscopic examination, mature teratoma showed ectodermal, endodermal and mesodermal differentiation while immature teratoma showed immature neuroepithelial elements. Conclusion: Sacrococcygeal teratoma is the commonest congenital neoplasm presenting at birth as a sacrococcygeal mass with female preponderance. Many of them are presenting with associated anomalies or constipation and urinary retention due to mass effects. When diagnosed early at birth, majority of them are of benign mature type, so that meticulous search for immature or malignant component has to be undertaken. However early diagnosis is helpful in therapeutic decisions, providing better outcome.

  275. Krishnapriya, Dr. Beena Agnes Therese, Dr. V. Suresh and Dr. R. Sathyanarayanan

    The most common mode of transmission of pathogen from patient to patient and within healthcare environment is healthcare worker’s hand. So the hand hygiene is very important measure for preventing the spread of infection and antibiotic resistance. This study aims to evaluate the knowledge and awareness about hand hygiene practice among dental students in puducherry. The objective of this study was to assess the awareness and also to create the self-awareness among dental students about the importance of effective hand hygiene in prevention of nosocomial infection as well as their compliance to follow the correct procedure for hand washing.

  276. Sandhya Sivaraman, Arun Halankar and Kavita Shalia

    Introduction: Klotho, an anti-aging protein primarily expressed in the kidney is the suppressor of the expression of multiple aging phenotypes. Aims and Objectives: Present study aimed at analyzing the soluble alpha-Klotho levels in serum, prevalence of its KL-VS (F352V) and promoter (G-395A) polymorphisms in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients & controls and their influence on soluble alpha-Klotho levels. Materials and Methods: CKD (N=100) and healthy Controls (N=97) were enrolled for the study. Soluble alpha-Klotho levels were analysed by ELISA at recruitment of subjects and further in CKD stage 1 & 2 (N=10), stage 3 & 4 (N= 14) and stage 5 (N=48) at 6 month. Genotyping of T42568G SNP (rs 9536314, F352V, of the KL-VS variant) and G-395A SNP (rs1207568) of the promoter polymorphism of Klotho gene was carried out by Taqman genotyping assay using Real Time PCR. The influence of the genotypes on alpha-Klotho levels was also examined. Results: As compared to the controls, there was a significant decrease in alpha -Klotho levels in CKD stage 1 & 2 (42.1%, p=0.01), stage 3 & 4 (74.2%, p=0.001) and in stage 5 (78.2%, p=0.001) in serum. However no significant change was seen in alpha-Klotho levels in patients at six months as compared to the levels at recruitment. The prevalence of heterozygous and homozygous genotypes for both these SNPs was low as compared to wild type genotype. The distribution of genotypes did not show any significant difference between CKD and Control groups and alpha-Klotho levels were not influenced by genotypes of both the polymorphisms. Conclusion: Soluble alpha-Klotho levels were found to decrease significantly at initial CKD stages. Thus, analysis of soluble alpha-Klotho levels may help in identifying CKD patients much before the severity sets in.

  277. Dr. Manisha, Dr. Rajesh, Dr. Manju Choudhary and Dr. Deepak

    Urethral mucosa prolapse before menarche and so in the child is an uncommon entity that affects the distal urethra and is rarely diagnosed. It is associated with significant morbidity and there is a danger of urethral loss if appropriate treatment is not initiated promptly. Here we manage a case of urethal prolase by medical management. Case report: A Patient of age 7 yr belonging from low socio ecomnomical condition presented in our OPD with a complain of vaginal bleeding & painful micturation for 1 month. My patient was on anti biotic & antifungal for last 15 days.On pre operative evaluation urine culture was within normal limit, USG within normal limit. Patient was treated by medical management with estrogen ointment sucessfully. Conclusion: Though a rare condition, medical management of premenarcheal urethral mucosa prolapse is associated with good outcome.

  278. Yagoub M. Yagoub, Anas S.A. Babiker, Babiker, S. A. and 4Idris, A .A.

    Hundred and eighty broiler chicks were divided into three treatment groups of six replicates each to study the effect of dehulling sorghum grains as a method of reducing its tannin content on broiler performance and carcass characteristics. Three isocaloric, isonitrogenous diets were formulated to contain whole sorghum grains (A), dehulld sorghum grains (B) and equal proportion of dehulled and whole sorghum grains (C). Diets were randomly divided into the three chicks treatment groups. Chicks fed dehulled sorghum grains (diet B) had lower live weight gain, lower final weight and highest mortality rate and feed conversion efficiency, whilst the chick fed on 50:50 sorghum grains (diet C) had the best performance, heavier slaughter and carcass weight and significantly (p<0.05) heavier abdominal fat and greater dressing percentage that those given diet A and B. Chick given diet B had the least slaughter and carcass weights. Carcass wholesale cuts were not significantly different among the three dietary treatments other than the drum stick which was significantly (p<0.05) greater in treatment B. Meat chemical composition though not significantly different among the three dietary treatment groups. Treatment A had higher moisture and protein and the treatment C had the highest fat. It could be concluded that dehulling 50% of the sorghum grains for broiler diet removed the depressing effect of tannins on broiler performance and carcass characteristics.

  279. Lunagariya, P.M., Vyas, H. U., Chaudhary, D.D., Patel, A.C. and Patel, J. K.

    Hand on experience (result demonstration), adoption rate, constraint faced and suggestion are important part to boost the production and economic wellbeing of dairy farmer. The result demonstration on feeding bypass fat to dairy animals showed higher milk production and milk fat%. Adoption study revealed that feeding colostrums to newly born calves, milking time and milking intervals had higher adoption (64-71%), whereas feeding bypass fat to dairy animals had lower adoption (19%). The lower adoption of technology might be linking to lower availability and higher cost of inputs at farmer’s door step. This problem can be solved by availability of credit facility, canal irrigation and more number of veterinary dispensaries in area.

  280. Suba, G. and Thirumani Devi, A.

    Consumption of refined and fast foods along with the lifestyle modification and stress has compounded to the problem of premenstrual syndrome in majority of women of reproductive age. Various studies have pointed out that there is alteration in the iron, calcium and magnesium levels among women with and without premenstrual symptoms. The present study was aimed at formulating a health mix cookies made of locally available cereals and pulses that supply good amount of minerals like iron, calcium, magnesium and B-complex vitamins. Materials and methods: The ingredients used were sprouted ragi, horse gram, soaked and dried soya bean, roasted bengal gram dhal, rice flake and gingelly seed. All the ingredients were roasted and powdered in to flour separately. Different quantities of these flours are combined into five variations and made in to cookies by adding butter, coconut oil and vegetable oil. The five variations of health mix cookies were analysed for the nutrients (calorie, protein, fat, iron, calcium, magnesium, thiamine, riboflavin, niacin and vitamin-C). Sensory evaluation of the five variations of health mix cookies was conducted by a panel of sensory evaluators. The variations which secured high score was considered as the best sample and used for further intervention study. Results: The variation V had the highest amount of iron, calcium and magnesium content and scored highest in the sensory evaluation apart from having adequate amount of essential fatty acids and amino acids. Conclusion: Hence the variation V can be taken as supplement in women suffering from Premenstrual Syndrome.

  281. Neelam Yadav, Harendra Kumar and Satish Chandra

    Lindane; an organochlorine pesticide has been used in agriculture and domestic purposes for several years. The aim of present study was to analyze the oxidative effect of lindane which caused biochemical and ultrastructural changes in adult male wistar rats and to evaluate the possible protective effect of curcumin. Tissues damage was assessed by histopathological observation. Curcumin plays an important role as an antioxidant and is consequently expected to protect tissues from damage caused by reactive oxygen metabolites. Rats were divided into seven goups. Group-A, was given normal diet and water ad libitum. Lindane (30 mg/kg body weight) was administered orally for 14 and 28 days in group- B and group-C respectively. Curcumin (100 mg/kg body wt) was given to Group-D and Group-E. Lindane (30 mg/kg body wt) along with curcumin (100 mg/kg body wt) was administered orally for 28 days in group-F. Group-G, was allowed to metabolized after 14 days of exposure to lindane. Lindane administration lead to a significantly (p<0.001) increase in renal lipid peroxidation associated with reduction in levels of GSH, activity of SOD, CAT and GST. Pre-feeding and post-feeding of curcumin resulted in decreased renal levels of lipid peroxides and increased GSH, SOD, CAT and GST activities. Results revealed that curcumin in combination with lindane partially or totally alleviated its toxic effects on the studied parameters. In conclusion, Curcumin have beneficial effects and could be able to antagonize lindane toxicity.

  282. Regiana dos Santos Moura, Aureliano de Albuquerque Ribeiro, Marcelo Simeão, Luiz Paulo de Lima Simão, Dinamara Rodrigues de Sousa, Everaldo Moreira da Silva, Carlos José Gonçalves de Souza Lima and Gabriel Barbosa da Silva Junior

    Nitrogen is the most required and limiting nutrient in the yellow passion-fruit yield. Fertilization through irrigation water provides more rational and efficient use of fertilizers. This study aimed at assessing productive and qualitative parameters of yellow passion-fruit based on different sources and doses of nitrogen through fertigation in Vale do Gurgueia – PI. The experiment was conducted from June 2013 to August 2014 in the city of Cristino Castro – PI. The experimental design was randomized and arranged in a 2 x 5 factorial scheme, with four replicates. Treatments were consisted of combined two nitrogen sources (urea and ammonium sulfate) and five nitrogen levels (100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 kg ha-1 year-1), each plot had six plants 3.0 x 3.0 m spaced, totaling 1,111 plants ha-1. The fertigation, occurred during the crop cycle, was weekly performed. Yield was evaluated per plant, productivity and mean weight of fruit. In pulp, pH, soluble solids, titratable acidity, (SS/TA) ratio and pulp percentage were evaluated. Increased ratios of N, ammonium sulfate source, cause reduction in fruit pulp percentage of the yellow passion-fruit. Soluble solids and pH of fruit pulp have chemical quality within ranges established by normative instruction of MAPA. To urea source, it is recommended 227.87 kg ha-1of N for a productivity of 15.48 t ha-1and 309.5 kg ha-1of N, as ammonium sulfate, for a productivity of 14.92 t ha-1.

  283. Hanuman Naik, M., Vanajalatha, K., Prasanth, P. and Mutyala Naidu, M.

    The investigation was carried by planting tissue culture banana plants of cultivar Grand Naine. The highest pseudostem height (234.51 & 233.51cm) at shooting stage was recorded in S2 (2 x 1.25 x 1.25 m) and F1 (100 % RDF) and their interaction compared to other treatments. However, the highest pseudostem girth (66.99 & 65.64 cm), number of suckers (8.33 & 7.33), number of leaves (32.59 & 34.36), green leaves per plant (14.02 & 14.11) and leaf area (12.68 & 12.11 cm2) at shooting stage was noticed in S1 (wider spacing) and F1 (100 % RDF) respectively and their interactions.The leaf area index (LAI) was recorded highest (3.91) in S1 (1.8 x 1.8 m) compared to S2 (HDP). The least number of days taken for shooting to harvest (96.25 & 96.13) was recorded in S1 and F1. The lowest (319.56 & 326.30 days) crop duration was registered in S1 and F1 and highest (343.87 & 333.70 days) was noticed in S2 and F2( 75% RDF). The longest crop duration was observed in high density planting and 75 per cent RDF and least in S1 and F1. The yield differed significantly due to planting densities and fertigation levels, recording highest (92.79 & 89.87 t/ha) in S2 and F1. In interaction between spacing and fertigation, the highest (103.81 t/ha) yield was noticed in S2xF1 compared to other interactions. The titrable acidity and shelf life was significantly influenced by fertigation and plant densities. The highest was registered in F3 (0.57 per cent) and S2 (0.59 per cent). The shelf life of the fruits was highest (8.92 days) in F1 (100 per cent RDF) and S1 (9.21 days).

  284. Naseem Rafiq, Asma Waheed Qureshi, Luqman Khan and Mian Naveed Shah

    Over 40% of the world population lives in area where plasmodium infection is common including Pakistan. Pakistan is endemic for Plasmodium infections and incidence rate is one case per thousand populations. These parasites not only decrease the Hemoglobin level but also reduce immunity. The present study was based on identification of anemia due to plasmodium among conceived women of district Mardan. In the present work a total number of 100 female conceived women blood was studied from April 2016 to June 2016 the microscopic examination showed that all most 100% of the female during pregnancy were suffering from anemia during one or other stage of their trimester however 64% showed positive result for Plasmodium falciparum at early or later phase of their trimester and only 34% women were anemic only during their gestation period. It was recorded from the recent study that Plasmodium falciparum was one of the major cause of anemia in pregnancy in the selected area. The positive record indicates that plasmodium infection during pregnancy increase risk of low birth weight of fetus and can increase death rate during the first year of life.

  285. Ademilson Coneglian, Niliane Pereira Campos, Carlos Roberto Sette Júnior, Anderson Rodrigo da Silva, Aécio Dantas de Sousa Júnior and Ismael Martins Pereira

    This study was carried out in order to identify and characterize the transition region between juvenile and mature wood of Tectona grandis L.f. with 17 years old, from the PU farm, located at Urutaí, Goiás, Brazil. The regions of juvenile and mature wood were characterized by anatomical studies - length of axial fibers using discs obtained at the DAP trees, following the recommendations of the International Association of Wood Anatomists. The fiber lengths were obtained from a diagnosis and image analysis equipment. A total of five slides were prepared for every 5 mm in the radial direction, and the lengths of six fibers were measured per slide. The results indicate a tendency of sharp and linear increase in fiber length, from the pith until 40 mm radius. The length between 40 mm and 60mm radius remains almost constant and, from this point, fiber length slightly increases until the bark. Therefore, for this species, when the tree is 17 years old, juvenile wood extends from the pith to 40 mm and the mature wood from 60 mm to the bark. Thus, for any use of teakwood, which includes areas of juvenile and mature wood, it is recommended further technological studies.

  286. Ankita Rajpoot, Ved Prakash Kumar, Archana Bahuguna and Dhyanendra Kumar

    Taxonomic classification of vertebrates and invertebrates is one of the most important and challenging method for biologists. Previously, species discovery and taxonomic classification were based on morphological features, ecology, reproductive isolation, or behavior. However, most species remain unidentified due to the slow progress and lack of expertise in the relevant field. Furthermore, there is very little morphological variation in cryptic species, making it difficult to discriminate between them. Therefore, there is a need for a highly informative, rapid, and easy procedure to resolve these issues. Integrative approach is a new and robust technique that uses for species identification, classification, and discrimination. Most taxonomists consider DNA barcoding as a threat to traditional taxonomy. However, research indicates that DNA barcoding and traditional taxonomy are complimentary to each other. Here we advocate a combined approach of traditional taxonomy and DNA barcoding called integrated taxonomy. Integrated taxonomy is the most authentic and informatic to new species discovering, taxonomic classification and research. Recently, most studies have employed integrated approach because it is not only used for taxonomic classification but also for phylogeney, phylogeography, population genetics, ecology, development, behavior, and temperature studies. It is the most useful and relevant approach for delineating novel species, biodiversity research, and conservation.

  287. Raquel Stefanello, Bruna Boucinha Viana, Luciane Almeri Tabaldi, Luiz Augusto Salles das Neves and Ubirajara Russi Nunes

    The contamination of soil and water with toxic metals as aluminum (Al) is an obstacle to agricultural crops resulting in productivity losses of the affected plants. The objective of this work was to evaluate aluminum tolerance of chia during the germination process. Seeds were placed on paper embedded in an aqueous solution of aluminum chloride at concentrations of zero, 30, 60, 90 and 120 mg L-1. The parameters evaluated were germination percentage, first count, germination speed index, and length and dry mass of seedlings. The results obtained indicate that concentrations of Al equal or less than 90 mg L-1 do not influence the germination and initial growth of chia. Based on the levels evaluated in this work, chia seeds are tolerant to the toxicity of Al in the substrate.

  288. Maria Johana Gonzales Vera, Pamela Peña Almeida, Diego Torres Arza, Yesmina Lezcano Aquino, Andréa Bicca Noguez Martins, Geri Eduardo Meneghello, Lilian Vanusa Madruga de Tunnes, Aline Klug Radke, Fernanda da Motta Xavier, Bruna Bezerra, Danilo Franchi

    This study was conducted at the seed quality analysis laboratory of the Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, National University of Assunção. Sunflower seeds (Helianthus annus) L. were exposed to stationary magnetic fields with different intensities and exposure times aiming to evaluate the influence of static magnetic fields on seed germination and vigor. The variables analyzed were germination, shoot length and root length. The results showed a positive effect on shoot length when seeds were magnetized. The results of the magnetic treatment at an intensity of 40 mT and 72 hours of exposure were superiorto the control in relation to the variables shoot and root length. We can conclude thatmagnetism at an intensity of 40 mT for 72 hours promotes the growth of sunflower seedlings.

  289. Aakanksha Mahindrakar, Rajiv Kumar and Aswath, C.

    Background: Gerbera hybrid seeds were obtained by half sib mating and the lines were raised in half strength MS medium. The response of in vitro leaf explants of Gerbera jamesonii to callusing and regeneration was recorded when cultured on full strength Murashige and Skoog's (1962) media supplemented with different concentrations of 2,4-D or BAP or IAA and Kinetin. Leaf explants cultured on MS medium fortified with equal concentration of BA (1 mg l-1) and 2, 4-D (1 mg l-1) produced green and greenish white granular callus within 25 days. But leaf explants cultured on MS medium supplemented with 2, 4-D produced yellowish calus. Plant regeneration was also found the earliest in the same media within 14 days.

  290. Arpit Huria and Kameswari, V. L. V.

    India is predominantly a nation of small farms. Small and marginal farmers are the main providers of food and nutritional security to the nation and face a number of challenges. To meet these challenges, the sector needs to use knowledge more intensively and put innovations to use in the shortest possible time. Innovations play an important role in increasing food production and optimizing resource utilization by farmers. Despite herculean extension efforts, there is still a wide gap between agricultural technologies developed at research institutions and their adoption by farmers. Often, innovations are rejected by the farmers after initial adoption due to several reasons. Hence, this study was undertaken to find out the extent of discontinuance of agricultural innovations. The study was carried out in U.S. Nagar district of Uttarakhand. Five agricultural innovations viz. direct seeding of rice, application of bioagents, mushroom cultivation, polyhouse cultivation and nutritional gardening were selected for the study. For data collection, 89 farmers were interviewed by the researcher using a pretested schedule. The findings revealed that direct seeding of rice had highest discontinuance, followed by the application of bioagents, mushroom cultivation and polyhouse cultivation. Nutritional gardening was not discontinued by anyone.

  291. Shveta Patel, Garima Singh and Rajendra Singh

    The praying mantids (Order Mantodea, Class Insecta) are a group of over 2500 carnivorous polyneopteran insects distributed in tropical and subtropical habitats of the world, from the rainforest to the desert ground. The order Mantodea comprises over 20 families, out of which the family Hymenopodidae, commonly known as flower mantids or orchid mantids is the most attractive with brilliant colours and camouflaging adornments and often mimic flowers. In this compilation, the family Hymenopodidae was grouped into most acceptable 5 subfamilies: Acromantinae (12 genera, 82 species), Epaphroditinae (1 genus, 3 species), Hymenopodinae (12 genera, 79 species), Oxypilinae (7 genera, 69 species), and Phyllocraniinae (2 genera, 5 species) consisting 34 genera and 238 species/subspecies. In India, 36 species of Hymenopodidae are on record so far. The global distribution of each species was given.

  292. Ouafae Benkhnigue, Noureddine Benlamdini, Maryama. Hachi, Anas Fadli, Allal Douira and Lahcen Zidane

    This study fits into the framework of the valorisation of the resources of the region of Al Haouz-Rhamna (central Morocco), medicinal plants and their traditional uses. Also, this ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants has been carried out in this region, with a view to establishing the catalog of medicinal plants to diuretic property anti-gallstones and used in traditional medicine in the said region. The information requested have focused on the plant, its local name, its parts used, its toxicity and medical practices relating in the region studied. Has the help of 1700 sheets questionnaires which have been carried out of the field during two campaigns (2012 and 2013). The results allowed us to identify 100 Medicinal plants divided into 84 genera and belonging to 41 families among which four predominate including Apiaceae (14 species), the Lamiaceae (10 species), the Fabaceae (7 species) and the Rosaceae (6 species). Among the species surveyed, 61 species are traditionally used as anti-gallstones, 12 are used as diuretics and 27 are used both as diuretics and anti-gallstones. The results also show that among these species, 35 are toxics and 11 species are more used in the region namely: Petroselinum sativum, Zea mays, Opuntia ficus-indica, Herniaria hirsuta, Lavandula dentata, Citrus limetta, Ziziphus Lotus, Cynodon dactylon, Hordeum vulgare, Crocus sativus and Juncus maritimus. Also, the results showed that the leaves (31%), the roots (25%) and seeds (23%) are the main parties used to prepare the recipes. Alone or in combination, these parties are involved in the development of revenue by processes using mainly the decoction. The revenues are administered by the oral route via the water. Furthermore, the diversity of therapies identified in the region concerned is a cultural wealth. The data reported by this study could constitute a source of information that is very valuable to this region and they could be a basis for a comprehensive study in the field of phytochemistry in order to produce and identify new natural drug that could be endowed with therapeutic properties interesting in the prevention of the formation of the urinary lithiasis.

  293. Alan Mario Zuffo, Fábio Steiner, Aécio Bush and Joacir Mario Zuffo Júnior

    Flamboyant [Delonix regia (Bojerex Hook.) Raf.] is an exotic forest species highly adapted to the Brazilian edaphoclimatic conditions; thus; it has been widely used in afforestation of parks and streets in all Brazilian regions due to its high ornamental value. Therefore, this work aims to determine the main physical and biometric characteristics of the Delonix regia fruits and seeds and establish correlation estimates among the variables. Ripe fruits of D. regiawere collected in fifteen seed trees, in Cassilândia, MS, Brazil. An total of 100 fruits and 100 seeds were analyzed in terms of longitudinal length, width, thickness, fresh mass of the fruit and the seed, number of seeds per fruit, dry mass of the fruits and seed and water content of the seed. The biometric characteristics were analyzed using descriptive statistical analysis, frequency distribution and Spearman’s correlation analysis (rS). Flamboyant fruits and seeds present variability to most of the characteristics evaluated. Flamboyant seeds presentgreat potential from the number of seeds seedsper fruit, making it possible to select fruits with bigger numbers of seeds seeds through characteristics such as fresh mass of the fruits.

  294. Saroniya, R. K. and Jeet Singh

    The Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act-2005 provides the enhancement of livelihood security to each household in rural areas and put emphasis on conservation of land and water. Many studies unfolds its positive outcomes such as social benefits viz. social security, livelihood protection, increased wage rates, decreased migration, fostering social and gender equality and ecological benefits like water harvesting, groundwater recharge, drought-proofing, and flood protection, increased soil fertility, irrigation area and agricultural production, environment security and biodiversity conservation. This programme has led to significant changes in the lives of rural people and environment conservation. This scheme has become a tool for sustainable development in India. This paper throws lights on ecological and social benefits derived from MGNREGA being implemented since a decade.

  295. Suganya, D., Rajan, M.R. and Ramesh, R.

    Objective: Synthesis, characterization and antibacterial activity of iron oxide nanoparticles prepared by of Passiflora foetida aqueous extract. Methods: Iron Oxide nanoparticles (Fe2O3 NPs) were synthesized by the reduction of iron chlorides using phyto-chemicals as bio-reductants. The synthesis of Fe2O3 nanoparticles was confirmed by UV-Vis spectrophotometry and the average particle size was determined by X-ray diffractometry (XRD). Morphology of the synthesized Fe2O3 NPs was identified using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Further characterization of Fe2O3 NPs was done to study its nature by FTIR. Biological activity of Fe2O3 nanoparticles was analyzed through its antibacterial effect. Results: Synthesized iron oxide nanoparticles exhibit cubic crystalline phase. Morphology was identified as spherical and particle size ranges from 10 to 16 nm in diameter with an average size of 20 nm analyzed from XRD. Fe2O3 nanoparticles showed antibacterial activity as that of control drug (streptomycin) towards Gram positive and negative bacteria. Iron oxide nanoparticles were also found to be non-toxic as synthesized by using green synthesis. Conclusion: Green synthesis of Fe2O3 nanoparticles using Passiflora foetida leaves aqueous extract was considered to be relatively safe and particles possesses significant biological activity.

  296. Ramani, K.

    AlternantheratenellaColla (Amaranthaceae), commonly called “Joy weed”. They are use as food and medicinal properties by folk and ethnic communities. The correct identity of aerial parts of the plants plays a pivotal role in the stability of herbal preparation. The epidermal trichomes act as a marker and taxonomic significance of plant identification. They exhibit more diversity of their distribution, type, form, size, structure and function. Through themicroscopic and powder microscopic studies, the trichome types are observed, which believed to enrich the literature on the systematic anatomy.

  297. Muni Kumar Dokka, Lavanya Seva, Usha Bolleddu, Siva Prasad Davuluri and Hemalatha, K. P. J.

    A trypsin- like protease was purified and characterized from the mid guts of Helicoverpa armigera using ion exchange chromatography and gel filtration on QAE- sephadex column. The protease activity was found to reside in two protein peaks. High BAPNAase activity was associated with a second peak eluted with 0.3M NaCl. The enzyme was found to be homogeneous by the criteria of native PAGE. SDS-PAGE analysis in the presence of 2-mercaptoethaonol gave a single band corresponding to a molecular weight of about 30.4 kDa. Trypsin like protease from the mid gut was alkali-stable and its pH optimum for activity was about pH 11. The specific activity of the purified enzyme was 1426.92 TU per mg protein. The final yield was 52.81% with a fold purification of 3.81. The enzyme followed Michaelis-Menten kinetics when the protease activity was measured at different concentrations (0.9-4.0 mM) of BAPNA. Km and Vmax values for the protease were found to be 3.84 x 10-3 M and 45 nmol/10min/mg protein with BAPNA as the substrate respectively. Strong inhibition of protease activity by TLCK not by TPCK suggests that the isolated mid gut protease is trypsin like but not chymotrypsin like specificity of serine protease.

  298. Andréa Bicca Noguez Martins, Leticia Winke Dias, André Pich Brunes et al.

    Aiming to increase the yield and quality of tomato and pepper fruits, alternatives are sought, such as the use of biostimulants applied to the seed. The objective was to evaluate the effect of the application of different doses of a biostimulant on the physiological quality of tomato and pepper seeds. The research was carried out in the period between March and July 2016 in the Laboratory of Seed Quality Analysis of the Faculty of Agrarian Sciences of the National University of Asunción. The experimental design was completely randomized in a factorial scheme 2x4, with four replications for each treatment, where factor A corresponded to the species and factor B corresponded to the doses used, totaling 32 experimental units. The variables studied were germination (%), germination rate, germination rate index, germination rate coefficient, root length, stem length and emergence. The collected data were subjected to analysis of variance and in the case of significant statistical differences, Tukey’ stest for comparison of meanswas performed at 1% error probability. The results showed that for tomato, no significant differenceswere observed in the variables germination and emergence, nevertheless, there were differences between the other variables. Likewise, for pepper, no statistical differences were observed regarding the emergence, in contrast with whatwas verified for the remaining variables. It is concluded with this work that the biostimulant application does not influence the physiological quality of the tomato and pepper crops.

  299. Sujatha, K. and Kowsalya, S.

    Green leafy vegetables being the treasure trove of micronutrients finds a place in combating the menace of nutritional anemia. Green leafy vegetables are used since ancient periods as source of food as they contain many nutrients and minerals which are helpful in maintaining human health. Methodology: Based on the consumption pattern of micronutrient rich foods among the target population (adolescent), three green leafy vegetables namely Araikeerai (Amaranthus tristis), Manathakkali (Solanumnigrum), Thandukeerai (Amaranthus gangeticus). In total three variations were formulated using the three different green leafy vegetables along with incorporation of rice flakes, wheat flour, roasted Bengal gram flour, flax seeds and gingelly seeds (Sesamum indicum), and amla. Jaggery (20g) was also added in the formulation. Nutritional and shelf-life evaluation was carried out. Keeping all the ingredients at similar proportions and by varying the types of greens and fruits, three iron rich food formulations were arrived at namely ladoo, porridge and steamed cake. Among these, ladoos prepared were most acceptable and hence using the three variations, ladoos were prepared and were subjected to acceptability trial. Out of the three formulations, variation I in the form of ladoos was found to be the best one in terms of scoring and sensory evaluation. Nutritional and shelf-life evaluation was also carried out. Results: The mean carbohydrate content of the formulation were 84.7g, iron content 18.83 mg and calcium content was 150.25 mg. The developed supplement also had good shelf life. Conclusion: Green leafy vegetables are good source of fibre and micronutrients. Multiple micronutrient deficiencies are very common than single deficiency mainly in developing countries. Nutritional problems are more severe; mostly people in the developed countries also suffer from different forms of these nutritional problems. Nutritionists are now trying to encourage people for supplementation of green leafy vegetables in nutritional recipes to combat with these micronutrient deficiencies.

  300. Ananias Pinto de Queiroz, Gissely Batista Alves, Augustus Caeser Franke Portella, Gil Rodrigues dos Santos, Ildon Rodrigues do Nascimento, Julcemar Didonet, Elison Fabricio Bezerra Lima and Raimundo Wagner de Souza Aguiar

    Infestations of virus vector insects have caused a significant increase in the production cost of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus). However, the lack of knowledge about these species, especially of thrips associated with the crop, difficult the establishment of management strategies. Thus, this study aimed to identify the trips species associated with watermelon crop in the state of Tocantins, in Central Brazil. Thrips specimens were collected in four municipalities during the harvests of 2013 and 2014, mounted in permanent microscope slides and identified following taxonomic key. Out of the 1.569 thrips species three species were identified: 76.9% corresponds to Frankliniella schultzei (76.9%), F. tritici (22.7%) and F. insularis (0.4%). F. schultzei is the most abundant speciesin watermelon crops in the state, with preference to the apical branches and flowers, while F. insularis, was identified only in the Formoso do Araguaia municipality. The identification of these thrips species provides the basis to control these insects.

  301. Luiz Gonzaga da Fontoura RODRIGUES, Viviane Dal-Souto FRESCURA, Haywood Dail LAUGHINGHOUSE IV, Tamara PASTORI, Gracieli DALLA NORA, Naylor Bastiani PEREZ, Sidinei José LOPES, Thais Scotti CANTO-DOROW and Solange Bosio TEDESCO

    Paper aims to evaluate the effect of aqueous extracts of Baccharistrimera (Less.) DC. and Bacchariscoridifolia DC. on the germination of seeds of Eragrostisplana Nees These results show that gorse and myo-myodecrease the germination of tough love grass seeds, when appliedseparately, being effective to control this invasive species.

  302. Emasushan Minj, S. John Britto, R.R. Marandi, Ignace Kindo and Mariat George

    This plant evaluates the antifungal activity of methanolic extract of Putranjiva roxburghii Wall. of Euphorbiaceae. For centuries plants are used as food and medicine. The present study focuses on the antifungal activity of leaves of P. roxburghii. Strains of Aspergillus candidus, Chrysosporium tropicum, Rhizopus stolonifer, Microsporum canis and Trychorphyton rubrum are the fungal strains used to check the mode of action. Methanol leaf extract (sample1) showed highest activity against M. canis strain than methanol bark and methanol root extracts. Methanol bark extract (sample 2) showed more activity against T. rubrum strain, here R. stolonifer and A. candidus showed very similar range of activity against fungi. Methanol root extract (sample 3) showed more activity against T. rubrum strain. Along with other properties these plant extracts also have antifungal property.

  303. Kharkongor, B. and Tiwari, B. K.

    Despite growing concern for the decline of sacred groves, measures for implementation of the various conservation strategies suggested by various organizations and researchers are still on the rough track. This study was conducted in West Khasi Hills and East Khasi Hills districts of Meghalaya using standard social science methods. It was found that several sacred groves of the district have been immensely degraded and a good number of them have lost their sacredness with time. Some of them have been converted into community forests while others have been commercially exploited. A significant reduction in area of these natural heritages was noticed and unless suitable mechanisms are put in place, most sacred groves of the district will be lost. The beliefs and traditional institutional mechanisms central to conservation and continued existence of sacred groves are eroding and science behind the concept is not percolating among the communities who had maintained the sacred grove since time immemorial.

  304. Sarika Manhas and Shivangi Gupta

    Environment provided by the parents, parental behaviour, their interaction with the child and other related factors such as socio personal and economic factors tend to influence the development of children. Many psychologists believe that three to six years in the life of an individual is the most important period of development especially for psychosocial wellbeing. The psychosocial and environmental variables are uniquely related to the development of young children (Jose, 1997). The present study was conducted to analyse the home environment available to tribal preschoolers as well as to assess their psychosocial development. The total sample for the study comprised of 100 preschooler-mother dyads selected from settled Gujjar families from District Udhampur. A modified version of Mohite’s Home Environment Inventory and five major areas of psychosocial development, namely: Gross Motor; Vision and Fine Motor; Hearing, Language and Concept Development; Personal Skills and Social Skills of the preschoolers were assessed by using ICMR Developmental Screening Test. On spot observations were also carried out to validate the results. The findings of the study reveal that overall majority (88%) of the sample children received ‘moderate’ home environment as well as most children (58%) had achieved all the developmental milestones ‘in time’. It was observed that in most of the cases the living rooms of sample Gujjars were not overcrowded with furniture, there were few toys available and even some play material available in the house. Mostly the neighbourhood was aesthetically pleasing, and infrastructure and play environment appeared to be safe. In case of psychosocial development, overall most (58%) of the sample children achieved all the developmental milestones ‘in time’. This trend continued for both male (56%) as well as female (60%) children separately. However, 30 cases of delayed developmental milestones were noted followed by 12 sample children having ‘very delayed’ developmental milestones. Statistically, there was no significant difference in the level of home environment available as well as in the level of psychosocial development between male and female sample preschoolers. Statistically, the various aspects of psychosocial development were significantly correlated among each other; but the home environment was not significantly correlated with psychosocial development.

  305. Jean-Baptiste Kouame YAO, Louise Ocho-Anin Atchibri, Emmanuel N’Dri KOFFI, Philippe Kessé N’DA and Augustin Amissa ADIMA

    Aim: The aim of this study is to apply experimental design to optimize extraction of total flavonoid and total antioxidant from Dacryodes edulis leaves. Study Design: D. edulis leaves were collected from March to April 2016 around Agboville in the southern part of Cote d’Ivoire. Afterwards, the leaves were transferred to the laboratory for drying. Place and Duration of Study: This study was carried out from June to July 2016 in the Chemistry Laboratory of Water and Natural Substances, at Felix Houphouet Boigny National Polytechnic Institute of Yamoussoukro, Cote d’Ivoire. Methodology: The harvested leaves were subdivided in two groups (Group 1 and Group 2). The leaves of Group 1 were dried in an oven at 40 ° C for 5 days and those of Group 2, dried in the shade for 2 weeks. Then the effect of 5 parameters (solid-liquid ratio, drying method, extraction solution, extraction time and the extraction mode) was observed on the extraction of total flavonoids and total antioxidants. For this purpose, we used two experimental designs: Plackett-Burman design used to identify the most important variables which influence the extraction process and the full factorial design (2k, k = 3), used to optimize the extraction conditions. Results: Results showed that the ratio (w/v), the drying mode and the extraction mode had significant effects on the extraction of total flavonoids and total antioxidants from D. edulis leaves. The optimal experimental conditions for the highest amount of total flavonoids and total antioxidants are obtained through aqueous maceration from dried leaves of D. edulis in oven for 60 minutes with a solid-liquid ratio of 1/100 (w/v). The optimized sample presented a total flavonoid content of 100.33± 1.53 mg/g EQ for antioxidant activity of 314.81 ± 11.33mg/g TE. These experimental results were very close to the predicted values.It was observed that total flavonoids showed a good correlation with total antioxidants of the sample. Conclusion: The extraction of total flavonoids and total antioxidants from D. edulis leaves are influenced by the ratio (w/v), the drying method and the extraction mode. Their optimal extraction condition is the maceration in water of D. edulis leaves that have been dried in oven for 60 min with a solid-liquid ratio of 1/100 (w/v). We came across a strong correlation between total flavonoids and total antioxidants. The good antioxidant capacity of the aqueous extract of D. edulis leaves could play an important role for the population in the fight against diseases related to oxidative stress.

  306. Vigneshwaran Vellingiri, Prabhu Thirusangu, Krishna, V., Siddanakoppalu N. Pramod and Prabhakar, B. T.

    Lagenaria siceraria (Bottle gourd) was described in ancient Indian text ayurveda for varied health benefits. We have previously reported that the crude latex sap from L. siceraria with potent lectin activity significantly regresses the tumor progression by targeting angiogenesis and inducing cell death. In this present investigation the semipurified latex lectins from L. siceraria latex were investigated for antiproliferative activity in mice models. The L. siceraria latex sap agglutinin (LSA) were isolated by ammonium sulphate precipitation. LSA agglutinated trypsinizeed chick and human erythrocytes irrespective of blood type. Heamagglutination was inhibited by glycoproteins comprising of complex oligosaccharides and not with simple carbohydrates. LSA exerted significant cytotoxicity towards murine DLA cells in-vitro. Further the in-vivo anti-proliferative of LSA elucidated a clear regression of Dalton’s lymphoma ascites tumor in mice. Hispathological and immunohistochemistry studies inferred LSA abrogated microvessel density (MVD) leading to the tumor inhibition and prolonged survival. This is further evident from the decreased VEGF levels in ascites. In conclusion, this study reports that the semipurified LSA exerts potent antiproliferative activity activity targeting tumor angiogenesis. This investigation highlighting the bioactivity of semipurified LSA for the first time, has potential therapeutic implications for malignant pathologies.

  307. Yogendra Singh

    Plants have been used as traditional medicine for several thousand years in the treatment of various diseases for human healthcare. Although, the different authors and workers have documented the uses of various medicinal plants from the different areas of India. Yet, the information on the ethnomedicinal plants medicine have been lacking from many interior areas of Aligarh district. The paper presents ethnomedicinal remedies for the treatment of fever. The paper highlights some less known ethnimedicinal practices related to 38 plant species in Aligarh district, U.P., India. The valuable information of these medicinal plants in traditional human healthcare practices; provide the new clues for new areas of research. Ethnobotanical studies were carried out to collect the ethnomedicinal informations from local people, vaidhya etc.

  308. Maria Aparecida da Cruz, Deived Uilian de Carvalho, Ronan Carlos Colombo, Luiz Henrique Tutida Yokota, Jéssica de Lucena Marinho and Elisete Aparecida Fernandes Osipi

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of different substrates on germination and emergence of Punica granatum L. seeds. The seeds were removed from the fruits and submitted to fermentation and drying. The germination and emergence tests were performed using the following substrates: washed and autoclaved sand, fine texture vermiculite, carbonized rice husk, commercial substrate (Tropstrato HT®), and the mixtures - washed and autoclaved sand + carbonized rice husk and commercial substrate + carbonized rice husk. The germination test was performed in clear plastic boxes at alternated temperature of 20 and 30oC (8h - 16h), in the absence of light, with weekly evaluation up to 42 days after sowing. The characteristics evaluated were percentage of germinated seeds, normal seedlings, abnormal seedlings and hard seeds. The emergence test was conducted at the seedling nursery using styrofoam seed trays, the counting was realized until the 35th day. The characteristics evaluated were emergence percentage and emergence speed index. In both tests, the experimental design was completely randomized with six treatments and four replicates. The data were analyzed by Assistat program and the means were compared by Tukey’s test at 5% probability. The commercial substrate and the mixture Tropstrato HT®+ carbonized rice husk, provided higher, faster and more uniform germination. In additing, the Tropstrato HT® and vermiculite substrates, as well as the mixtures promoted greater emergence speed index.

  309. Shahzad KHAN, Puangkaew LURHATHAIOPATH and Shusuke MATSUSHITA

    The main purpose of this paper was to realize why the policies were ineffective to implement in Pakistan. A review of previous literature, research articles and reports on policies were discussed in this study. The review of different authors shows that a total at least nine reports were based on the educational policies and only one document was contented the remaining all of the other approved papers were ineffective to distribute for the public welfares, this is due to lack of funding, political uncertainty, incompatible administration of the public sector. There were many funds and loans granted by plenty of international organizations around the world but all the funds and loans were not properly utilized in to the education related issues due to policies constraints. The contribution of the international communities and their funds must be appreciated and should be allocated on proper places. The government of Pakistan must take the initiatives to expand the policies and focus the education sector as Pakistan is far behind the world in educational attainment. Before designing the policies, political supervision about the past experiences and deficiencies will be taken into the consideration, they must confirm availability of the economical apportionment and the establishment of proper monitoring and evaluation cell to monitor the whole plan.

  310. Ana Raj, J. and Dr. P. Sumathi

    Indian economy has entered into a new phase of ‘Inclusive Growth’ after the eleventh five year plan of 2007 – 2012. The rising inequality in economic growth has pushed the Planning Commission to consider ‘Inclusive Growth’ for balanced economic development. The concept “Inclusion” should be seen as a process of including the excluded as agents whose participation is essential in the very design of the development process, and not simply as welfare targets of development programmes (Planning Commission, 2007). Inclusive growth entails comprehensive growth, shared growth, and pro-poor growth. The necessity of inclusive growth in India can be stressed with ease while glancing at its Human Development Index (HDI). India’s rank is 130 out of 188 nations, according to UNDP HDI report 2015. Tamil Nadu has been India’s most progressive state and is amongst the top three on several economic and social indicators. Although the State has achieved reasonable levels in terms of Human Development Index, inter-regional disparities within the State, particularly in levels of poverty in its various dimensions, per capita income, literacy, health, and gender related indicators are significant. Recognising the regional disparities in terms of Income, Employment, Health, Education and Gender attainments, the State has formulated a new scheme “State Balanced Growth Fund” to address the inter-district and intra-district disparities. This paper intends to unearth the ground realities of the fund and its impact on the overall development of the state.

  311. Hirulal Pakhira and Susanta Kumar Chakraborty

    The diversity and distribution of molluscs have been studied in different stretches of Subarnarekha River-Estuary (upstream, middle stream and downstream) during the period of July 2012 to June, 2014. A total of 23 species of molluscs belonging to 16 genera under 13 families were recorded. Out of all recorded species, 9 species were found to inhabit in freshwater habitats, 14 species preferred to reside in saline environment while 4 species were encountered both in freshwater and brackish water zones. Binary distribution and similarity index have revealed the relationships not only among different molluscan species but also on their mode of preference of habitats, especially against environmental stresses vis-a-vis their power of tolerance and sensitivity as indicator species.

  312. Salur. Divya and Rachakonda. Srikanth

    As there has been a tremendous rise of atmospheric greenhouse gases, there is a threat to the climate which in turn shows the effect on the living creatures. To overcome these problems, some scientists these days are finding ways to scrub the key pollutant, carbon dioxide (CO2), right out of the air. The increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide has attracted international attention due to its impact on global climate. Countries below poverty line release much less atmospheric carbon compared to richer countries in the terms of industrial emissions. The Kyoto protocol was thus established to prevent further increase in atmospheric CO2. Therefore a post combustion capture technique can be employed to capture carbon from already existed and new power plants. There are various sources of CO2 emission, but the major source is power plants and hence the retention of carbon dioxide into aqueous potassium hydroxide solution using plate absorption column is a reliable method to reduce carbon emissions to an extent. The CO2 gas absorbs readily at room temperatures into potassium hydroxide solution. Potassium hydroxide gives 40% efficiency of removing CO2.This paper gives an overview of post combustion capture of chemical absorption by caustic potash(potassium hydroxide).

  313. Elamaran, I., Velkumary Subramanian, Suchitra Balasubramanian and Chandrasekaran Kathiresan

    Introduction: Chess is considered as a cognitive game because of the engagement of mental resource &playing chess is believed to improve some of the cognitive domains. Aim: The study was aimed to assess & compare the cognitive functions and reaction time in adolescent chess players and non-players Materials and Methods: This was a cross sectional study conducted in 30 healthy adolescent chess players and non-chess players of either sex between age 12 and 17. The cognitive function of the subjects were assessed by the conventional paper and pencil neurocognitive test battery which includes two target letter cancellation test (LCT), trail making test A (TTA), trail making test B (TTB) and visual & auditory reaction time was assessed using reaction time apparatus. Statistical analysis: Statistical analysis was done using SPSS version 20 and the neurocognitive test parameters and visual reaction time (VRT) and auditory reaction time (ART) between the two groups were compared using unpaired t test. Results: Neuro cognitive test scores in the chess group was found to be improved significantly compared to non- chess group (TTA (p=0.002), TTB (p˂0.0001), LCT(˂0.0001). We also observed improvement in visual reaction time in chess players compared to non-chess players (˂0.001) & no statistically significant difference observed in ART between study & control group(p=0.293) Conclusion: Chess players showed a significant improvement in the tested cognitive parameters like attention, executive function, working memory, visual scanning, psychomotor speed, shift strategy & visual reaction time compared to non-chess players, as assessed by the conventional paper & pencil neurocognitive tests and reaction time apparatus. Hence students can be encouraged to play chess to improve their cognitive skills which in turn will improve their scholastic abilities.

  314. Vivek Kumar, Kapil Khulbe, Sushma Tamta, Rashmi Srivastava and Sharma, A. K.

    Oxalate oxidation, which has environmental implications, is performed by oxalotrophic bacteria. In this study, forest survey was conducted in Bhujighat (BHU), Nainital district of Uttarakhand state in India. Biomineralizing tree, Terminalia alata was identified with the help of 10 % HCl treatment which showed effervesce. Soil samples were collected at different depths of soil profile. The Schlegel's agar medium was used to obtained microbial diversity. Microbial analysis of each soil sample was done by dilution plating method. Morphologically distinct colonies were examined by morphologically and biochemically by menace of oxalate assay, siderophore production and phosphate solubilization. Total 112 bacteria were isolated, out of these 9 potential isolates were amplified with 16S rDNA primer (Gm3f and Gm4r). Amplified pcr product was sent for DNA sequencing. The sequence results obtained after DNA sequencing, sequence similarity search was performed on NCBI-BLAST tool. The similarities of 2 most potent strains BHU A4 and BHU X1 were almost 99% with Rhizobium sp. The nucleotide sequence of both strains were submitted to NCBI gene bank database, Rhizobium sp. strain BHU A4 (KY021745) and Rhizobium sp. strain BHU X1 (KY021756). Both strains are being used in glasshouse experiment for plant growth promotion related activities under different pH level of soil, which is a basic supplement for plant health. This indicates that oxalotrophic bacteria are numerous and widespread in soils and that a relationship exists between the presence of the oxalogenic trees. Terminalia alata tree having abundance of oxalotrophic guilds in the total bacterial communities which explains the biomenralization and calcium carbonate accumulation below these trees, which act as long term carbon sink.

  315. Sandeep, N. C., Raghavendra Rao, H. and Hemachandra Reddy, K.

    In this work, the fibers were extracted from the plant Hardwickia Binata and investigated in detail. The effect of alkali treatment on the chemical composition, tensile properties, morphological and thermal degradation of Hardwickia Binata fibers was studied. Chemical analysis and FT-IR indicated lowering of amorphous hemicellulose content on alkali treatment. Wide-angle X-ray diffraction studies indicated increase in crystallinity of the fibers on alkali treatment. The tensile strength, modulus and thermal stability of the fiber increased on alkali treatment. Scanning electron micrographs revealed roughening of the surface of the fibers due to the removal of the hemicellulose layer on alkali treatment. Tensile properties of Hardwickia Binata fibers were compared to those of other important natural fibers, and it was indicated as an alternative suitable source for biocomposites.

  316. Aruna, M., Subramanian, N. and Muthu, M.

    A total of 50 dung samples were collected from non-descript cattle. Similarly 50 gastrointestinal tracts of non-descript cattle was collected in and around Vembakkam Taluk, Thiruvannamalai District. The work was carried out for six months from March 2016 to August 2016. Parasitological examination of dung samples revealed the eggs of Amphistomes, Moniezia sp, Strongyle, Strongyloides and Eimeria sp. The overall prevalence of parasitic eggs and oocysts was 76.00 per cent. Amphistome egg was the only trematode parasites identified in this study. Similarly in Cestodes, Monizia benedeni egg was identified in this study. Where as in Nematodes three types of eggs were identified viz., Strongyle, and Strongyloides eggs. In Protozoan parasites, Eimeria sp. was the only coccidian parasites identified in this study. Of this overall prevalence of 76.0%, 40.0% was infected by nematodes, 36.09% by Trematodes, 16% by protozoan parasite (Eimeria sp.) and 10.00% by cestodes. The most common gastrointestinal nematodes observed in this study was the strongyle (21.05%) compared to Strongyloides (2.63%). Among the age groups (Young and Adult), younger animals had higher infection of nematodes (24.0%) and Trematode (20.00%) than the adult cattle. Among sex, male cattle had higher infection of nematodes (24.0%), Trematode (20.00%) and Eimeria sp. (8.0%) while female cattle had higher infection of Cestodes (8.0%). Among the season (summer and monsoon), cattle had heavier infection of Trematodes only during summer months (32.00%), nematodes (30.00%), Eimeria sp (10.0%) and Cestodes (10.0%) during monsoon months. The worms collected from the rumen and duodenum was identified as Paramphistomes viz., Cotylophoron cotylophorum, Fishoederius elongatus, Gastrothylax crumenifer and Paramphistomum cevrvi. The worms collected from abomasum was Haemonchus contortus, Mecistocirrus digitatus, Trichostrongylus axei and Oesophagostomum radiatum (Nematodes). The worms collected from intestines was identified as Moniezia benedeni (Tapeworm) and the caecum was Oeophagostomum columbiunum and Trichuris ovis. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection (worm count) was 86.0%. Among the age groups (Young and Adult), younger animals had higher infection of trematode (36.0%), nematodes (32.0%) and cestode (20.0%) than the adult cattle.

  317. Hemalatha, M. D., Subramanian, N. and Muthu, M.

    Patients suffering from diabetes mellitus at different age group of both sexes were taken up for the present study. A total of 100 diabetes mellitus of the both sex (male 56, and female 44) have been taken for the present study. The age group of male patients ranged between 30 – 80 years. Out of 56 male patients the incidence of diabetes mellitus is high 39% (22 patients), in the age group between 50 – 60 years. The lowest incidence of diabetes mellitus that is 4 cases (7.14%) in the age group between 30 – 40 years. The age group of female patients ranged between 30 – 80 years, out of 44 female patients the incidence is high 40.9% (18 patients) in the age group between 50 – 60 years. The lowest incidence of diabetes mellitus that is 5 patients (11.3%) in the age group between 30 – 40 years. Majority of the patients are employers living in Cheyyar Taluk, Thiruvannamalai district. They belong to urban areas. Another important study in the present investigation is food habit of diabetes mellitus patients. Out of 100 patients selected 56 were males and 44 were females. Among 56 males 28 were taken medicine for diabetes and 28 were not taken any medicine for diabetes. Out of 28 patients treated with anti - diabetic drug 16 having the food habit of millet diet and 12 were having the habit of Rice diet. The diabetic patients with anti – diabetic treatment having the habit of millet diet, showed normal blood sugar level. But the diabetic patients with anti diabetic treatment having the habit of Rice diet showed moderate level of blood sugar both FBS (Fasting Blood Sugar) and PP (Post Prandial blood sugar). In comparison to rice and millets diet the millet diet with low carbohydrate content, low digestibility and water soluble gum content (β – glucan) have been attributed to improve glucose metabolism. These grains release sugar slowly in the blood and also diminish the glucose absorption. Out of 28 patients with diabetic untreated (without any anti diabetic drugs) 18 patients were having the habit of millet diet and 10 of them were having the habit of Rice diet. The untreated patients with millet diet showed normal level of blood sugar both FBS and PP, whereas the untreated patients without millet diet that is with rice diet showed High level of blood sugar level both FBS and PP respectively. On the other hand out of 44 female patients suffering with millet diet showed normal level of blood sugar in both FBS and PP. The patients having the habit of Rice diet showed high level of blood sugar both FBS and PP. But in untreated Female patients 15 patients showed having the habit of Millet diet and 5 patients showed having the habit of Rice diet. The untreated patients with Millet diet showed normal level of blood sugar. But the untreated female patients 5 having the habit of Rice diet showed high level of blood sugar in both FBS and PP. Insufficient physical activity is one of the major causes of diabetes mellitus among the people of Cheyyar Taluk, Thiruvannamalai District, Tamil Nadu. Unhealthy diet and obesity are also important factor for diabetes mellitus among people of Cheyyar Taluk, Thiruvannamalai District.

  318. Gemechu Bekana

    In this thesis a brief discussion of definition and concept of GDP and methods of computing were presented. The Components of GDP, Consumption, Investments, Government expenditure and Net- exports, were studied. The major objectives of this study are to study the trend of GDP and its Componets, to examine the causal relationship among GDP, Consumption, Investments, Government Expenditure and Net-export for Ethiopia using time series data and to forecast the GDP for Ethiopia. Vector Autoregressive (VAR) Models, Testing Stationary: Unit root test, Estimating Order of the VAR, Cointegration Analysis (testing of cointegration) and Vector Error Correction (VEC) Models are the statistical methods were used in this study. The data used are yearly observations from 1967 to 2004 E.F.Y of the GDP and the four components of GDP of Ethiopia using time series data. The vector autoregressive (VAR) model is employed for modeling. The cointegration relations among the series were identified by applying Johansen's cointegration tests, while potential causal relations were examined by employing Granger's causality tests. Moreover, the short run interactions among the variables were determined through the application of impulse response analysis and variance decomposition. The results of the research imply the existence of short term adjustments and long-term dynamics in the GDP and four components of GDP. Unit root test reveals that all the series are non stationary at level. The result of Johansen test indicates the existence of one?? cointegration relation between the GDP and the forecasting accuracy of this model was checked using RMSE, MAE, MAPE and Theil-U statistics. Finally, using the fitted model out-of-sample forecasts were produced for Ethiopian GDP.

  319. Ramesh Palanisamy and Mathivanan, V.

    Wireless networking is the recent wonder in current communication era. This provides a vast scope of infrastructure less networking arena called as cognitive radio mobile ad hoc systems shortly coined as CRAHNs. This part of doctoral research emphasize in proposing a spectrum aware cluster based routing protocol (SACBRP). SACBRP contains a node joining appliance by which making a non-clustered node to become a member in a cluster. Cluster head election is then carried out followed up with routing. Simulations are performed using NS2 network simulator. Performance metrics such as packet delivery ratio, end-to-end latency and primary user’s activity (PU) are permitted out and the results depicts that the proposed SACBRP implementsimproved.

  320. Dr. A. Sobha, Hanna M. Naval V. P and Alpha Shinju Shaji

    The present work aims to study the effect of calcination temperature on structure and phase formation of BaTiO3 powder. Barium Titanate (BaTiO3) powder was synthesized by mixing high purity BaCO3 and TiO2 powder using agate mortar in acetone medium for 6 hours. The powder mixture was dried and kept at 60oC. The soft agglomeration was broken and the sample was divided into three portions each weighing 5gm each. These three samples were calcined at 700oC, 800oC and 900o C for 5 h with heating and cooling rates of 10oC/min. Phase transformation and particle size of the calcined powders have been investigated as a function of calcination temperature, by room-temperature X-ray diffraction techniques. It was seen that the perovskite-like phase of BaTiO3 was successfully obtained and this was compared with the standard sample. With increasing calcination temperature, BaTiO3 transformed from the cubic to the tetragonal phase. The X-ray diffraction investigations have revealed that the samples calcined at 9000C perfectly coincide with original spectrum. After finding the optimum calcination temperature, the second aim was to prepare Ba0.95Zn0.05TiO3, BaTi0.95Mn0.05O3 and Ba0.95Zn 0.05Ti0.95Mn0.05O3 under the same conditions and compare with pure BaTiO3. The X-ray diffraction analysis was performed to confirm whether the desired samples were formed. P-E hysteresis loop was analyzed and the hysteresis loop was observed for pure BaTiO3 and BaTiMnO3, due to the formation of oxygen vacancies and exchange interaction-induced polarization. The small area of P-E loop indicates better homogeneity and crystallinity of prepared samples. The dielectric constant of Mn doped sample is increased and Curie temperature is lowered. The samples with Zn dopants are behaving in an entirely different way. They do not exhibit a perfect dielectric behavior but shows a semiconducting property which is confirmed from the band gap measurement.

  321. Khushbu Kanth, TesnimArfi and Vinod Kumar Nigam

    Alkaline protease, a hydrolytic enzyme from a novel strain of halophilic bacteria Bacillus sp. was purified up to 1.42 fold purification with a recovery of about 5% and then characterized at various operating conditions. Zymography of the different fractions showed the hydrolysis of casein by the enzyme. The maximum activity of purified alkaline protease was observed at pH 9.0 and at a temperature of 50˚C using casein as substrate, respectively. Certain metal ions like MgCl2, CaCl2 andβ-mercaptoethanol enhanced alkaline protease activity while HgCl2and EDTA inhibited the enzyme activity. TheKm and Vmax for partially purified enzyme were 1.17mg/ml and 2.22mg/ml/min respectively.

  322. Nikolai Kobasko

    In the paper an universal correlation is proposed for calculating heating and cooling time of any steel part during its hardening. The equation contains Kondratjev form factor K, Kondratjev number Kn, average thermal diffusivity of a material and a function depending on how N - times core temperature of steel part differ from its initial temperature. It is shown that these parameters are enough to calculate recipes when heating and cooling the steel parts of any configuration. A tendency of thermal equilibrium establishment is considered which depends on size and configuration of objects, thermal diffusivity of a material and condition of cooling (heating) characterized by Kondratjev number Kn. The proposed generalized equation provides engineers with extremely simple and understandable parameters for calculating heating (cooling) soak time of any objects. According to proposed equation, the time of thermal equilibrium establishment is directly proportional to Kondrtajev form factor K, inversely proportional to thermal diffusivity of material and Kondratjev number Kn and depends on accuracy of thermal equilibrium measurement.

  323. Sai Prasad, K., Ilaiah Kavati, Anil, C. H. and Sai Prasad, G.

    A taxi-sharing framework that acknowledges taxi travelers' continuous ride demands sent from cell phones and timetables legitimate taxis to get them by means of ridesharing, subject to time, limit, and money related limitations. The fiscal imperatives give motivating forces to both travelers and cabbies: travelers won't pay more contrasted and no ridesharing and get remunerated if their travel time is extended because of ridesharing; cab drivers will profit for all the temporary route separation because of ridesharing. A portable cloud engineering based taxi-sharing framework is developed. Taxi riders and cab drivers utilize the taxi-sharing administration gave by the framework by means of a cell phone App. The Cloud first discovers competitor taxis rapidly for a taxi ride demand utilizing a taxi looking calculation upheld by a spatiotemporal list. A booking procedure is then performed in the cloud to choose a taxi that fulfills the solicitation with least increment in travel separation. We constructed a trial stage utilizing the GPS directions created by morethan 5,000 taxis over a time of 45 days.

  324. Roopa, V. and Ananda Kumari, R.

    The Praseodymium doped potassium dihydrogen orthophosphate (KDP) crystals were grown by Sankaranarayanan-Ramasamy (SR) method and slow evaporation technique with the vision to improve the properties of the crystal. The chemical composition of the grown crystals is confirmed by EDAX Analysis. The grown crystal was characterized by PXRD analysis confirm the crystalline nature and shifts in peak positions due to doping is observed. Using Scherer's equation particle size has been calculated. The SHG efficiency is determined by Kurtz powder technique. It is found that relative SHG conversion efficiency of crystal grown by SR method is greater compared to other technique. The UV-Vis spectrum shows that percentage transmission of crystals grown by SR method is greater compared to slow evaporation. The electronic band transition is studied from the plot of (αhv)2 versus photon energy (hv) and the band gap energy has been calculated. The dielectric constant, dielectric loss and ac conductivity of the crystal were studied as a function of frequency and the results are discussed. The functional groups are identified by FT-Raman analysis. The Optical transmission and SHG studies shows the suitability of the ingot for optical applications.

  325. Samlafo, B. V., Bobobee, L. H., Quarshie, E. and Sarsah, L. A.

    This paper screened for potentially harmful heavy metals such as As, Pb, Cd and Hg in earthenware clay deposits at Vume in the Volta region of Ghana using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometric (AAS) technique. The concentrations of As in the clay samples ranged from 0.90µg/g to 2.04 µg/g with a mean of 1.49 µg/g, and standard deviation of 0.47. Lead levels ranged from 2.85 µg/g to 4.08 µg/g with a mean of 3.67µg/g, and a standard deviation of 0.38. Cadmium was below the detection limit of 0.002 µg/g in some samples: however, the levels measured ranged from 0.15 µg/g to 0.51 µg/g with a mean of 0.29 µg/g, and a standard deviation of 0.13. The concentrations of mercury ranged from 0.18 µg/g to 0.69 µg/g with a mean of 0.53 µg/g, and a standard deviation of 0.15. The levels of Hg,Cd and Pb fell below their respective US EPA(1990) safe levels of 18.0 µg/g, 1.7 µg/g and 80.0 µg/g, except that of As which was above its US EPA(1990) safe level of 0.07 µg/g.The levels of Arsenic in the study area, though higher than the US EPA safe level, were comparable to the worldwide background level of 5 µg/g in soil. The precision and the accuracy of the AAS method were assessed via the use of reference material IAEA Soil-7. The values obtained for the various elements in the standard reference material (by analysing it with the AAS method) compared favourably well with the recommended values as Spearman’s correlation coefficient was + 0.96. The experimental values were within ±5% of the recommended value. The measurement precision determined by the relative standard deviation was within ±4%. With the exception of As levels which need some remediation, the quality of the clay at Vume was found to be generally good for the production of earthenware products.

  326. COULIBALY Talnan Jean Honoré, FADIKA Vamoryba, COULIBALY S. Lassina, Didi Sacre R. M., Issiaka SAVANE and Jean Paul DEROIN

    The methodologies used to characterize the structural elements have experienced a major boom in hydrogeology. It happens that these methods have limitations manifested by a high failure rate because of the risk of subjectivity. The aim is to propose a methodology for establishing a fracturing card minimizing human intervention and as close as possible to reality. SRTM (Shuttle Radar Topography Mission) images were used for this study. The Sobel filter was applied to accentuate the major litho logical discontinuities. A segment detection algorithm was applied for extracting structural features. The analysis of the orientation shows that the highest lineament density extract the SRTM image was recorded in the NW-SE direction. This helped to establish the fracturing map of Poro region.

  327. Mahendra, K. R. and Lokanatha Rai, K. M.

    Alcoholysis-polyesterification method was used in the study of consumption of dehydrated castor oil and linseed oil in the formulation of rosinated medium alkyd resins. The extracted oil with the iodine number for castor oil is 86-90 and for linseed oil is 175-180 were applied in the preparation of middle alkyd resins and the physicochemical characterization indicated it is semi-drying in nature Three grades of alkyds were formulated at 40%(I)-short alkyd resins, 45% (II)-middle alkyd resin and 55%(III)-long alkyds. The present work deal with the conventional method for the preparation of middle alkyd resin of dehydrated castor oil and linseed oil rosinated medium alkyd resins with 52% solid. The prepared resin was extensively used as a binder in the field of solvent based enamels and paints coating technology.

  328. Bhawna Dhruv and Vibhor Dhruv

    A mobile ad hoc network comprises of many mobile wireless nodes. MANET is a self configuring network and such network can be organized easily without any base station. MANET can be very efficiently used in salvage related area, military and law enforcement. But it faces the issues of security and confidentiality, especially when used in susceptible areas. Safe routing protocols have been refined to provide protection and confidentiality at various levels for e.g. ALARM protocol (Anonymous Location Aided Routing) provides both privacy features and security which includes data virtue, node verification and obscurity. This network focuses on achieving the major security objectives which are Confidentiality, Authentication, Authorization and Integrity. In this paper, we have proposed ALARM protocol in WSN environment which uses network time protocol synchronization and removes the malicious node from the network, hence preventing the network from attacks.

  329. Azza Mohammed Abd Elmohsen, Nagui Sobhi Nassif, Hossam Eddien Fawaz Abd ElGhaffar, Ahmed Atteya Ashour and Ahmed Salama Yamani

    Background: Weight-bearing exercises provide an effective way to stress important sites of bones enhancing the improvement of bone mineral density. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of Weight-bearing Exercise for Better Balance program on bone mineral density in postmenopausal females with osteopenia. Methods: Twenty-four postmenopausal females with osteopenia were randomly assigned into two equal groups; experimental and control. The Weight-bearing Exercise for Better Balance program was performed by the experimental group while the control group didn’t receive any treatment. Bone mineral density T-scores were measured for all participants in both groups by the dual energy x-ray absorptiometry scan of spine. Measurements were done twice before and after six weeks of the program. Results: There was no statistically significant difference in the post testing mean values of bone mineral density T-scores compared with the pre testing ones in the experimental group. Also, there was no statistically significant difference in the post testing mean values of bone mineral density T-scores between the two tested groups. Conclusions: Six weeks of Weight-bearing Exercise for Better Balance program are not enough to produce significant effects on bone mineral density in postmenopausal females with osteopenia. Trial registeration: PACTR201602001478123.

  330. Balaji, R. and Dr. P. K. Dash

    Aircraft’s both for combat and civil purpose work under different environment conditions, especially when it is a combat Aircraft or a jet trainer it will be more often subjected to high level of turbulence due to max manoeuvring and shorter runway takeoff operations. The environment conditions at which civil and combat aircraft operates are unpredictable and will change from one location to other based on weather and climate conditions. In this paper the lift and drag coefficient of a finite 3D wing of a subsonic Aircraft is presented at transonic speed conditions and at different turbulence intensity levels. 3D wing is of NACA 2412 profile. The results obtained by this work on subsonic wing can be used to compare the performance of this subsonic wing with respect to performance of Transonic and supersonic wings. A overview of Transonic aerodynamics and the Turbulence model used is presented in this paper. This subsonic wing is analyzed using K-ω SST Turbulence model and for two different AOA of 00 and 40. The Mach number of flow over the wing and the pressure plot at the wing symmetric plane at different aircraft speed and at different turbulence intensity levels are discussed in this paper. CFD software Ansys Fluent is used to analyze the aircraft wing at two different AOA and at two different transonic speeds.

  331. Jeyanth Fedal Castro, V. and Malathi, R.

    With the current advancements quality-of-life of individuals has become a focal theme in the development of advanced techniques for health care related modules and particularly to recover from cardiac abnormalities. A PSO-PID controller is designed for the dual-sensor based pacemaker to meet the desired performance specifications by using PSO optimization algorithm. The gain parameters of the PID controller are designed and applied to the controller system. The closed loop response of the controller is observed for ISE, IAE, IATE and MSE error criteria. A comparison of system performance observed for all four criteria. Comparison with the conventional PID control algorithm, PID tuned with BF-PSO based optimization techniques provide a more suitable control strategy to determine a pacing rate in order to achieve a closer match between actual heart rate and a desired profile. Simulation results confirm that the proposed advanced design is effective for heartbeat recovery. It is hoped that this study will be helpful not only for treatment of cardiac diseases but also for improving the performance of implantable medical devices.

  332. Bagri, D. S., Lakshmanan, K., Anbalagan, R. and Bipin, P.

    The Vishnugad–Pipalkoti Hydroelectric Project, a run-of-the river (ROR) scheme is located on Alaknanda River, a major tributary of river Ganga, in Chamoli District in the state of Uttarakhand. The project constitutes a 65m high diversion dam near village Helong (79°29’30” E and 30°30’50” N), a 13.4 km long Power tunnel (PT) and an underground power house to the south of village Hat (79°24’56” E and 30°25’31”N) to produce 444 MW of electric power. The reservoir area of Vishnugad–Pipalkoti project spread to an extent of 2.5km and is essentially constituted of quartzite rocks in and around the dam site and extent for a distance of 1.5km, where MCT separates the gneissic rocks on north. During drawdown conditions of the reservoir between MRL and DSL, the reservoir slopes may be subjected to alternate dry and water charged conditions, which may lead to reduction in the shear strength of slope forming materials. A detailed Engineering Geological evaluation of reservoir rim region has been carried out to assess the nature of instability of reservoir slopes during draw-down condition.

  333. Zemfira İsahan kızı Abbasova

    The study aims to learn the creation of Azerbaijan personal names. This article deals with the researching history of anthroponyms in Azerbaijan Onomastics. In this scientific work the origin and meaning of personal names are investigated scientifically. The linguistic features of onomastic unites have been attracted to the scientific research and have been received interesting facts. And also it has been used from the list of rich literature.

  334. Sakshi Varshney and Iti Gupta

    Creative accounting a euphemism, referring to process of maintaining books of accounts by the rules of standard accounting practices to reap the desired results. The study has been conducted to get a detailed view of accounting practices adopted by companies in India which fall under creative accounting. It also examines the motives and reasons of adopting such fraudulent practice by companies. It has also observed that continuous use of accounting distorts the basic objective of preparing accounts and financial statements and threatens the integrity of financial reporting. Accordingly, a brief description of practices adopted by different Indian companies viz Asian Electronics Ltd, Hindustan Zinc Ltd, ONGC Ltd, CRB Capital markets Ltd etc has been shown. The paper concludes with the analysis of possible solutions for the creative accounting problem.

  335. Manabhanjan Sahu and Dr. Jitendra Kumar Sahu

    At present time we live in the era of global village, where the cultural dynamics affects the dissension making strategies of the corporates and the government. These dynamics are the byproduct of the cultural traits which are inherited by the people of a particular country or a geographic region. Hence the researchers in this paper try to establish a real-time relationship between the personal traits and associated culture of that country. This research is a descriptive study of two factor analysis theory based on secondary data availed from Geert Hofstede dimensions of national culture . Inspired by him the matrix designed is based on the secondary data available from the different sources. The FMCG matrix tried to include the important traits of individuals which may assign a specific feature to that country. The matrix is composed of two major Traits, each of these traits are further divided in to two parts, which generates four major groups. These are (a) Shared values, which is analyzed under two cultural traits i.e. Masculinity (M) as strong cultural value for Work and Feminine (F) as Weak cultural value for work. And (b) Shared group Goals, which is also analyzed under two cultural traits i.e. Group goal (G) as Hard culture and self Centered (C) goals as Soft culture. These major groups are further divided in to twelve sub groups, and it ends with 24 treatments. As per the treatments each country can be reviewed and hence a specific strategy can be applied to get the best result from the population. The total numbers of countries taken for research are fifty, and each of those is assigned one of the above groups as per the personal traits. This is a conceptual research; the statistical tools used to analyze and differentiate the countries as per the individual traits of average people. This paper try to give a basic knowledge on present cross country dynamic of different countries, which may facilitate the Government, corporate and others to evaluate their strategies in specific to traits.

  336. Zubair Ahmad Bhat

    Hardy is considered as a novelist cum poet. He abandons the writing of novels from 1890 and then afterwards goes for the writing of poetry. He succeeds in both of the fields but his tragic dilemma is more found in his novels rather than in his poetry. He is a fatalist and his characters always fall in the hands of fate. Chance and coincidence is at the core of his works. The poetic self of the writer is patently greatly intimidated by the potentiality of the human spirit which makes the atmosphere around him so exciting and vibrating. He falls in love with a range of aspects of the living environment around him as easily as any other sensitive poet and countryman but his deeply sensitive self also goes deeper than the surface thus perceiving a tragic dichotomy between nature and human. This paper explores the relations between nature and human beings and the impact of nature on the lives of the characters, which evidently led to their tragic dilemma.

  337. Desta Kebede Ayanaa and Gemechis Teshome Chalib

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the practices and challenges of co-curricular activities (CCAs) in colleges of teachers’ educations (CTEs) of Oromia regional state. The study particularly, investigate the extent to which EFL teacher-educators and learners were engaged in the practices of CCAs and enhance English language proficiency and improve quality of education and factors that affect the implementation of effective CCAs in the colleges. To accomplish this purpose, the study employed a descriptive study method, which was supplemented by both quantitative and qualitative research to enrich data. The study was carried out in two CTEs selected through purposive sampling aimed to make the sample more representatives by including the old and the novice CTEs in the region. Then, 11 EFL teacher-educators and 62 EFL learners were selected from the two CTEs using simple random sampling techniques particularly lottery method. Questionnaire, interview, FGD, and content analysis were data collection tools used for this study. Frequency, percentage, mean and standard deviation were utilized to analyze the close-ended questionnaire. The qualitative data obtained through an open-ended questionnaire, interview, FGD, and content analyses were analyzed using narration. Hence, the major results of the study revealed as almost all EFL instructors in the colleges believe in that CCAs are vital in enhancing learners’ educational and social benefits: English language proficiency, learning psychology, and students’ social interactions in general; in the observed CTEs, CCAs has no focal person who coordinate, monitor and evaluate the practice and challenges of the activities to the concerned body; regional education bureau and college top management have no clear and smart guideline which helps them to organize CCAs particularly which enhances students English language proficiency; the very low attention given to CCAs by the college top management result in the very low outcome expected from the activities; even though the number of CCAs on the syllabus or/and curriculum were large in number, most of these clubs were not functioning/inactive in the observed CTEs. Generallythe inadequacy of the budget, unavailability of resources, the absence of in-service training programs on CCAs for teachers, were the major challenges facing EFL teachers to practice CCAs in the colleges. Finally, recommendations were drawn based on the above findings. The point of the recommendations include: awareness creation of the college top management on the purpose of CCAs through seminars and workshops about the practice of CCAs in the college. CTEs should have smart guidelines on how to organize, support, supervise, monitor, and evaluate the practice and challenges of CCAs particularly English language clubs in order to enhance the status of students’ engagement in the CCAs.

  338. Prof. Sandeep Kaur

    Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR), can be described as, the continuous dedication by companies towards the socio-economic development of communities in which they operate. It is a powerful way of making sustainable competitive profit and achieving lasting values for stakeholder. Corporate Social Responsibility is considered as an important instrument that provide competitive advantage and improves reputation of the business concern. Many Indian banks have created their individual brand image in the field of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) by taking various social initiatives for social welfare and community development. It has been found that the banks are engaged in CSR activities mostly in the area of Rural Development, Education, Community Welfare, Women and Children. There is a need for better CSR activities by the banks, which is possible by adding more and more social development issues link with corporate sector. So this paper seeks analyse the various CSR activities carried over by the Indian banks.

  339. Dr. PushpaRenu Bhattacharyya

    Demonstrative pronouns are placed under the category of central pronoun in Assamese a Neo-Indo Aryan language used in India. They are resultant from a derivational process and are derived by suffixation of a set of plural markers or classifiers to the demonstrative particles- ei ‘this’, ħei ‘that’ and ħɔʊ ‘that’ encoding proximal, distal and far distal differences respectively. The semantic differences of animacy and humanness reflected in the demonstrative pronouns emanate from the specific classifiers and plural markers suffixed to them. There is a set of unique form of demonstrative pronouns, which are derived by the suffixation of the bound morphemes -ja and -wa to the demonstrative particles ei, ħei and ħɔʊ. The methodology adopted for the study are the set of questionnaires followed by interview and the analysis of both primary and secondary data collected. The study describes the demonstrative pronouns with its complexity and unique features in Assamese and put emphasis on the morphological, syntactic and semantic properties. The study reveals that demonstrative pronouns play important role in the language. The term pronoun is used in the sense of the nominal expression and the substitution in the nominal slot only.

  340. Shilpa, S. and Srimathi, N. L.

    Online social network sites use has been emerged as a most powerful tool for communication and exchange of information all over the world. More recently the Wats app, Twitter, Face book, Instagram apps have provoked a revolution and unlocked a new dimension in the field of communication and technology; this ongoing digital revolution has touched and turned almost every sphere of life of its users whether its physical, social, emotional, moral or ethical. For Online social network users it is the need of hour to be emotionally mature to manage and monitor their own emotions, to assess the emotional state of others, to deal with the situations accordingly and purposefully. Quite often it has been observed that young online social network users get emotionally involved in this virtual world and act in that emotional flow which sometimes results in an emotional trauma leaving its impression for long. The purpose of this study was to investigate about the emotional maturity of online social network users and to find out that is there any significant impact of online social network use on Emotional maturity. Findings revealed that the young online social network sites users are not emotionally mature. Results showed that there is significant impact of online social network sites use on the independence and total emotional maturity. Young adolescents who use more online social network sites are not emotionally stable in comparison to who use less online social network sites. The implications of the study are discussed in light of the adverse effects of using online social network sites in India.

  341. Selvakumar, R. and Venkataraman, R.

    The overall objective of this study is to analysis the impact of climate change on weather variability in different water using regimes in Cuddalore district, Tamil Nadu. Climate has a vital role on biosphere of the earth. A very slight change in the climate will lead to a major change in plant and animal life. For example, some crops will not tolerate even a minute variation in temperature. In India for the past four decades (1969-2005), surface temperature has increased by 0.3 °C or by 0.08 °C per decade. The study shows the general observation made in the minimum and maximum temperature no observable trend was noticed in the period of 15 years from 2001 - 2015 but the decline in relative humidity was quite explicit. The trend in rain fall also did not exhibit any significant increase or decrease over the years it was concluded that the duration of analysis for the weather parameters to absorb any significant climatic variation should be long enough to recognize any observable trend over the years.

  342. Velmurugan, D. and Venkataraman, R.

    Tamil Nadu is an agricultural state with water constraint and depends upon its available surface and groundwater resources for irrigation. More attention on groundwater irrigation was found in recent years in TamilNadu since more than 95 percent of surface water resources were exhaustively used.Of all the districts, the coastal districts though received high rainfall also found characterized by high groundwater extraction and water scarcity in post – monsoon period. For better insight regarding this,both physical and economic access and efficiency of irrigation ground water were done in this study in selected non – saline coastal blocks vizVanur (semi critical) and Marakkanam (over - exploited) of Villupuramdistrict in TamilNadu through sample farms (90 in each block). The regression analysis revealed that increase in irrigation cost influenced more decrease in magnitude of groundwater access in semi-critical (SC) block and comparatively less decrease in over exploited (OE). The economic access of ground water extracted for increase in water used was found high in OE than SC. Both the physical and economic efficiency of ground water use were found high in SC than OE block. Arriving at the more reduced magnitude of physical and economic ground water access in OE block and raised physical and economic efficiency of water use is essential. This may be possible by less water intensive cropping and other suitable coping strategies.

  343. Open and Distance Education by nature makes the teacher and the learner work apart each other (at a distance). Distance and Open Learning system will IF provide the much sought-for openings for academic advancement of self for i our men and women who need remedial, continuing, professional education; skill acquisition, life-long education and so on. This situation when achieved will bring rapid development as many will reach their self esteem; perform better in their various life endeavour and contribute maximally for the development of our nation. But a lot of obstacles are on the way of ODL in Nigeria which includes manpower, infrastructure, facilities, energy, funding and administration. The paper proffered some solutions to the issues raised and it is hoped that ODL will give Nigeria the developmental impetus that has been lacking over the years.

  344. Dr. Paul Nwakpa and Dr. Uzoma Aja-Okorie

    The paper examined the concept of Academic Freedom and Responsibility. It exposed the logical relationship between the two concepts. It further revealed the various ways the paradox sickness plaguing the Nigeria society did not spare the academic in respect of his responsibility. The paper finally posited that if the nation will escape going down the drain, the academic needs radical reformation while the government should urgently review the conditions of service of the academic.

  345. Rajkumar, M., Karuppaiah, P., Sendhilnathan R. And Sureshkumar, R.

    An investigation entitled “Evaluation of F1 hybrids in snake gourd (Trichosanthes anguina L.)” was carried out in the Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Tamil Nadu, India. The parents from diversified genotypes and their hybrids in snake gourd were evaluated for fruit yield per plant, yield attributing characters and quality traits Based on the per se performance with specific trait and genetic divergence from different clusters, six genotypes namely P1–Hessaraghatta local (Bangalore, Karnataka), P2–Ottanchathiram local (Dindigul district, Tamil Nadu), P3–IC-212484, NBPGR, Trichur, P4–Michaelpalayam local (Dindigul district, Tamil Nadu), P5–PKM–1 (mutant variety, HC&RI, TNAU, Periyakulam), P6–Vellayani local (Kerala) were selected for crossing in full diallel programme. The analysis of variance indicated that the selected six parents and their 30 hybrids differed among themselves for all the eleven traits studied. Among the selected six genotypes, P4 and P2 were identified as the best parents. The parents P4 and P2 are suggested to be utilized for future varietal breeding programme. The hybrids P4xP5, P1xP3, P4xP2, P3xP4, P5xP2 and P2xP4 are suggested to heterosis breeding programme for commercial cultivation.

  346. Sartaj Manzoor Parray and Gh Mustafa Mir

    Almighty Allah has made this universe of which earth is best creation of Allah, because human beings are living on it Allah has created all men and women and has given equal rights. The Islamic laws recognize the full property rights of woman before and after marriage. Over 1400 years ago Islam gave woman rights women in the west have only recently began to enjoy.

  347. Dr. Unzüle Kurt, Dr. Zehra Doğan Çalişkan and Ayşen Yılmaz

    In this study is researched validity of Environmental Kuznets Hypothesis, which investigates the relationship between economic growth and environmental pollution, for the Turkish economy for 1960-2015 periods. The validity of Environmental Kuznets Curve in the relevant period is tested by means of CO2, GDP, energy consumption, industrial production and service production variables. At the end of the study, the relationship in inverse U-shaped between environmental pollution and economic growth that Environmental Kuznets Curve put forth has been confirmed.

  348. Lorna D. Capito, Ed.D.

    Disaster consciousness is an utmost tool in the mitigation of disaster hazards, thus individual should be disaster conscious if they are to have a higher chance of surviving the onslaught of disaster. Disaster risk awareness and evacuation strategies awareness are among the most crucial areas of hazard mitigation, hence there is a need to establish these areas of awareness in the population which has been determined to be vulnerable to the harmful impact of disaster. The study aimed to determine the disaster risk and evacuation strategies awareness of the participants. It further aimed to find out whether there is significant relationship between two variables. Descriptive correlation research design was employed in the study. It was participated in by 6,086 household heads from forty-five (45) barangays of Borongan that were found to be vulnerable to specific disasters such as flooding, storm surge, earthquake, tsunami and landslide. Selection of participants was through simple random sampling using Slovin’s formula based on the 2010 Census of Population and Housing conducted by the National Statistics Office (now known as Philippine Statistics Authority). Data was gathered in July, 2016 through a Likert-type survey questionnaire. The study’s results established that the respondents have a very high level of risk awareness but very low level of evacuation strategies awareness. It likewise showed that the respondents’ disaster risk awareness had positive negligible relationship to their evacuation strategies awareness. The findings indicated that although the participants are conscious of their vulnerabilities to the onslaught of disasters, they lack knowledge regarding the mechanisms set forth by the barangay officials through the Barangay Disaster Risk Reduction Management (BDRRM) as to the selected areas and proceedings of evacuation from the site of vulnerability to a relatively safer site. The gap which is found between disaster risk awareness and evacuation strategies awareness is such that implications point towards the assumption that although the population knows that they are in danger from the disasters they very little about where to go, what to take and what to do to minimize the hazards brought about by disaster. The study calls for a more serious, intensive and extensive dissemination of information at household level concerning the pre-disaster evacuation strategies within communities found to be vulnerable to disasters. Utilization of the tri-media and other creative means of public awareness campaigns such as road shows maybe effective means of communicating evacuation strategies to the public.

  349. Vierly Ananta Upa and Hananiel Mennoverdi Gunawan

    The Indonesian government declared the imposition of Luxury GoodsSales Tax on luxury smartphones to reduce the number of imported luxury smartphones. Luxury smartphones will be charged at 20%.The criteria of luxury smartphones affected the imposement ofluxury goods sales tax still and it is still under discussion by the government. The imposition of luxury goods sales tax plans on luxury smartphones also has reaped the reaction among the public. The purpose of this study is to conduct in-depth study on the imposition of luxury goods sales tax plan on smartphones related to the principles of taxation. The analysis is based on the principle of taxation theory endorsed by Adam Smith, namely the principle of equality, the principle of certainty, the principle of convenience, and the principles of efficiency. Through this study, it is expected to know whether a decent smartphone should be charged by luxury goods sales tax, and the impact that would arise if this plan is implemented. Methods of data analysis used in this study is to test the validity of the data, and the correlation of the test. The results of descriptive statistics indicate average value for all variables included in the adequate category. This indicates that most respondents shows a neutral response to the luxury goods sales taximposition plan on smartphones.

  350. Dr. Bhavani, R.

    The need for transformational ‘Leadership’ in the public sector is made most evident by the pressures for change felt by today’s public managers. With this motive an attempt has been made to analyse, “Impact of technological changes in work place on the behaviour of private sector employees”. The main objectives of conducting the researcher are; To study the socio economic profile of the respondents, To understand the nature of organizational change and reasons for the change, To identify the factors which influence the technological change, To study the reasons for resistance to change and methods to overcome these, To offer suitable suggestion for implementing the technological changes in private sector organizations. Hence the employee technological change providers are satisfied towards the employee technological change. By the application of Chi-Square test, it is clear that the demographic profile of the respondents is not significantly related to their level of attitude of employees. The management should take steps to improve the level of performance and to participate in the decision making process in an organization. The resistance to change requires individuals to make as the organization seeks a new equilibrium and the forces for change in an organization depend on and must interact with their external environment in order to survive and grow.

  351. Dr. Saro j Kumar Singh

    Macroeconomic theory has not yet come to grips with major issues of the twenty- first century. These include environmental pressures, demographic changes, the size, structure, and power of multinational corporations, and growing economic inequality. Existing macroeconomic theory also does not deal adequately with normative issues, focuses excessively on market solutions, assumes that a single macroeconomic theory can apply to all situations, and ignores issues concerning the scale of economic activity and the speed of change. For the industrialized world, macroeconomic theory needs to address the issue of whether it is possible, in the absence of continual growth, for an economy to promote human wellbeing. For the developing world, the prioritization of economic goals such as universal literacy and public health service should be an important element of macro theory. The diverging demographics of developed and developing nations pose further important macroeconomic issues regarding health care costs, tax burdens, immigration, and savings and investment rates.

  352. Solange Uwingabire and Frederic Turinzwenayo

    Productivity of pineapple (Ananas comosus L. Merr) is primarily limited by unavailability of planting material and improved management practices. This study was conducted to determine effect of spacing on growth and development of macro- and micro-propagated pineapple. Micro- and macro-propagated pineapple plantlets were evaluated at three spacings at RAB Rubona station located in mid-altitude zone of Rwanda during 2011/2012 season; the experimental design used was a randomized complete block (RCBD) with three replications. Data were collected on monthly basis by measuring plant height, length and width of longest leaf and counting the number of functional leaves. The data were analyzed by Microsoft excel and Genstat Discovery Edition 4 Software package, least significant difference test were used to determine if there is any significant difference among micro and macro-propagated pineapple plantlets in their growth resulting from spacing effect. Data were analyzed from 258th to 379th day after transplanting; At 379th day after transplanting, highly significant (P<0.001) differences among propagation modes were found for number of functional leaves, micro-propagated pineapple plantlets were found to have more number of functional leaves than macro-propagated pineapple plantlets. Significant (P<0.05) differences among macro- and micro-propagated were observed also for plant height and length of the longest leaf at 379th day after transplanting. At 379th day after transplanting, there were no significant (P>0.05) differences among micro- and macro-propagated pineapple plantlets for width of the longest leaf. Analysis of variance showed that there were no significant (P>0.05) differences among spacings for plant height, number of functional leaves, length and width of the longest leaf. Interaction between propagation modes and planting densities were found to have no significant (P>0.05) differences for all vegetative parameter. The experiment needs to be continued and repeated in other agro-ecological zones to confirm these findings.

  353. La Janu and Peribadi

    This study aims at understanding the concept of "tellutemmaserang" and "duatemmalesseng" as a cultural value system embodied in the ethos and worldview of Bugis Fishermen in Toronipa Village KonaweRegency, the function and effect of the ethos and way of life in going through the socio-economic life as well as a shift or change of the ethos and worldview principles in relation to the dynamics of social and cultural changes occurring hitherto. The data in this study were obtained through field observations and in-depth interviews and analyzed in a qualitative descriptive way. This study lead to some main conclusions. First, in an attempt to leadto a variety of social life, the Buginese fishermenin this area base their life on the ethos and social philosophy which are called "tellutemmaserang" and "duatemmalesseng". Second, in the ethos and worldview,the fishermen realize that nature is an integral part of human beings, so that the structure of natureis reflected in the social structure, social stratification and economic structure. Third, with the ethos and worldview, to meet the socio-economic needs, the Buginese fishermen keep up high morale with untiring perseverance. Fourth, the principles that shape attitudes and behavior within the framework ofintegrated and interdependent social relations seem toundergo considerable changes occurring at the same time as the process of social development and cultural changes going through in modern life. Fifth, the economic and social behavior of Buginese fishermen in the past, i.e.mutual cooperation, has now changed into individualism.

  354. Sadiqa Shafiq, Seerat, Sumeeza Majied and Dr. Muzamil Jan

    The study was undertaken to assess the quality of life, physical and material well-being of non-working females residing in Kashmir both rural and urban. This study shows the participation of non-working women in different sects and their learning power. Besides it also shows their willingness towards exercise, cleanliness status and purchasing of food commodities. Also it reveals the concept of balanced and rainbow diet and the type of allergies regarding food items.The results of the study shows that mostly subjects did not participate in public affairs organizations. Women did not prefer to go for learning outside home and they don’t have time for exercise. According to our study the subjects did not have concept of rainbow diet and they buy food items without checking food label. Aim: The study was conducted to find out the physical and material well-being among non-working women in Kashmir (Rural and Urban).

  355. Pinki Rani, Dr. C. K. Singh, Dr. B. Dhanda, Ritu Devi and Renu Bala

    Mother education plays an important role in transition of egocentric child to the socialized one. She is the first informal teacher of the child who prepares the child to face the strange world with confidence. The present investigation was carried out in Hisar district of Haryana state. From Hisar district two areas were selected i.e, urban and rural. The sample consist 100 girls between the age group of 7-8 years and their parents (both mother and father). 50 girls and their parents were selected randomly from Hisar city and 50 girls and their parents were selected randomly from rural area. A total of 50 boys between the age group of 7 to 8 years with both of their parents were selected randomly from each location. Hence, the total sample was 300 including (100 children and 200 their parents). Mother education was taken as independent variable and adaptive behaviour was taken as dependent variable. Vineland adaptive behaviour scale by Sparrow et al., 1984 used to measure the adaptive behaviour of children. Result revealed mother education is significantly associated with communication domain, daily living skill domain, social skills domain, motor skills domain and adaptive behaviour of the children’s adaptive behaviour.

  356. Samir Kumar Bandyopadhyay and Goutam Roy Chowdhury

    Philosophy of Mind is the branch of philosophy that studies the nature of the mind. Human Behavior refers to the full range of physical and emotional behaviors based on human philosophy. Facial expressions play a major role in Face Recognition Systems and image processing techniques of Human Machine Interface. There are several techniques for facial features selection like Principal Component Analysis, Distance calculation among face components, Template Matching. This algorithm describes a simple template matching based facial feature selection technique and detects facial expressions based on distances between facial features using a set of image databases. The algorithm involves three stages: Pre Processing, Facial Feature Extraction and Distance Calculations. Then, we can identify whether a human is smiling or not using the measurement of Euclidean distances between pairs of eyes and mouth region of that face.

  357. Ugwu Cosmas Uchenna, Ene Catherine Uzo, Ofuebe Justine Ifeoma, Igbokwe Charles Chima

    Background: Sexual activities are natural phenomenon that comes with some levels of satisfaction, interest, urge, desire and sensation which usually decline with advancing age. Objective: To determine the status of sexuality among healthy older Nigerian adults accessing recreational facilities and to verify the null hypotheses of no significant differences. Methods and Materials: A descriptive survey research was done on 480 healthy older Nigerian adults accessing recreational facilities using simple random sampling procedure. Data was collected through interview method and questionnaire. The descriptive statistics was employed in analyzing the quantitative data. All the analyses were conducted using SPSS version 21. Results: The study revealed that the status of sexuality among healthy older Nigerian adults accessing recreational facilities was satisfactory. Statistically, significant difference existed on some socio-demographic variables while no significant difference was indicated on others at 0.05 level of significance. Conclusion: The status of sexuality among healthy older Nigerian adults accessing recreational facilities was satisfactory. However, sexuality is a life time activity and thus should be given optimum considerations irrespective of socio-demographic differences.

  358. Azuoko George-Best

    Low velocities corresponding to the distorted reflections at depth has been examined with respect to the implications they could have on the enhancement of hydrocarbon recovery in onshore Niger delta. Detailed velocity analysis using VITAL revealed these low velocities, which were observed to remain low with increase in depth beyond 3seconds. Prestack Depth Migrated sections using the result of the detailed velocity analysis showed that although we might have multiple reflections to contend with (especially at the footwall of main boundary faults), the lower velocities give us better imaging at depth than the higher velocities that were conventionally used for previous depth migrations in the study location. Thus, if we could considerably attenuate multiples, account for anisotropy and settle overpressure concerns which are other likely causes of low velocities, then properly estimating low velocities will help us unlock hydrocarbon potentials hidden behind poor seismic imaging at depth.

  359. Anindita D. Sangma and Mishra, B. K.

    The present investigation was carried out in Garo Hills District of Meghalaya. The objective of the study was to find out the variation in the cost of milk production due to the variation in the size of dairy units. There were 142 annual varieties, 31 alternate variety, 24 crossbred and only 3 combine breed cattle samples out of 200 samples selected by stratified random sampling technique. The milk producing dairy units were classified into small (1-3), medium (4-6) and large (7 and above) herd size category using cumulative square root frequency method. The average milk yield per day in litres for NDLC- Annual type, NDLC- Alternate type and Combine Breed for both milking and milch cows was found to be highest in small herd size category with 1 to 3 animals. But for milking Crossbred it was highest in large herd size category with ≤ 7 animals. For milch Crossbred it was highest with 4-6 animals in medium herd size category. The net return was positive only for small herd size category with `1.71 in NDLC- Annual type and negative for all the herd size of NDLC-Alternate type cows.For Crossbred it was positive and highest for medium herd size category with `263.76 and for Combine breed it was also highest for small herd size category with net return of `82.32 per milch cow per day.

  360. Dr. T. S. Reena Ruby

    The aim of the present study is to find the achievement motivation of special education student teachers in Tamil Nadu. The present study was conducted under survey method. Sample of the study were selected using purposive cluster sampling technique which includes 350 special education student teachers from 12 Special Education Teacher Training Colleges and institutes from 7 districts of Tamil Nadu, India. Data from the selected sample was collected using Achievement Motivation questionnaire developed by the researcher which consisted of 25 items with each having two alternatives “a” and “b” with score of 1 for the positive alternative and 0 score for negative alternative. The tool was modified and validate. The reliability co-efficient for the above tool was found to be 0.75 using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). Quantitative analysis of data revealed that majority of the selected sample had moderate level of Achievement motivation. The result of the present study indicates that the student teachers with age above 27 have high Achievement Motivation than their counterparts and urban based samples showed high level of motivation which was reflected on their learning outcomes. Also it is found that the student teachers from Semi Urban/Hill Station area have low level of Achievement Motivation and the student teachers from the Urban area have the high level of Achievement Motivation.

  361. Endang Komara

    Indonesian National Qualifications Framework (INQF) is the frameworks for leveling learning outcomes that can be equate outcomes of formal, non-formal, and informal education or work experience in order to acknowledgment the work competence in accordance with the the structure of employment in various sectors. Building the nation's autonomy means understanding the process of autonomy as one of the efforts to build a nation that able to resolve any issues in order to build an equitable, prosperous, and dignified society.

  362. Ufaque Muzaffar and Farhat Jabeen

    Maternal complications and poor perinatal outcome are highly associated with nonutilisation of antenatal care services and poor socioeconomic conditions of the patient. It is essential that all pregnant women have access to high quality obstetric care throughout their pregnancies. Study designed to assess the educational status and sociodemographic data and its risk of pregnancy outcome in rural care teaching hospital. A total of 120 study participants were enrolled in this study. Poor knowledge about prelacteal feed, and nutrition consumption was noted in the population. The mean age was 28.3±10.6 years. A majority of the women were within the age group 20-29 years. Almost half of the pregnant women had no formal education. The majority of the women had 2-5 children, but 2.5 % had more than 5 children. The majority of the women had their last delivery after 24 months. Hence, Antenatal care and its education may improve the quality, accessibility, and utilization of maternal health care services provided by the government agencies in both rural and urban areas.

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