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June 2018

  1. Madhumita Ghosh Dastidar, Akshaya Simha, N., Ananth Koushik, B., Aradhya, D., Harishmitha, N., Nayana, S., Nidhish, P., Shakthi Vignesh, S., Siri, G. and Tavisha, V. K.

    Background: Lignin is an organic polymer made up of various aromatic compounds which in combination with cellulose and hemicellulose forms a chief partof the woody tissues. Wood processing industries like paper-pulp industries have been among the most significant of industrial polluters of the waterways and environment. The pulp and paper industry produces large quantities of toxic brown/black effluent (around 100 million kg) that comes primarily from lignin and its derivatives (e.g., lignosulphonic acid, resins, phenols, and hydrocarbons) that are released during various processing steps of lignocellulosic materials. Discharge of such untreated effluent results in increased BOD, slime growth, thermal problems, scum formation, discoloration, loss of aesthetic quality and toxicity to the aquatic life, in the receiving water bodies. These problems can be overcome by biological treatment using certain ligninolytic microbes processing ligninolytic enzyme systems. Objective: The goal of this research work was to isolateligninolytic microbes from various environmental niche and to screen them for potential ligninolytic activity. Methods: The lignin extract was prepared from saw dust. The ligninolytic bacteria were isolated from samples of garden soil, sewage and compost using Minimal Salt Medium containing lignin extract(MSML). The isolates were qualitatively screened for ligninolytic activity using Methylene blue dye reduction test. A comparative study of growth rates of screened isolates in MSML and Nutrient broth (NB) was performed. Various biochemical tests were conducted for identification of screened isolates. Result: Ligninolytic microbes were isolated from various environmental niche. The isolated microbes were screened based on their potential to reduce the basic dye methylene blue. The isolates showed varied growth rates in MSML and NB with few having more affinity to lignin. The isolates were found to be Gram positive bacilli and cocci along with few being actinomycetes. Few isolates were motile showing varied biochemical characteristics. Conclusion: Ligninolytic microbes were found in garden soil, sewage and compost samples.The dye reducing activity of the isolates indicates the presence of the oxidative ligninolytic enzymes. Isolates showing high growth rate in MSML had greater efficiency of lignin degradation.

  2. Guilherme Guimarães Murad, Amalia Rossi Dourado, Lany Fiorin, Patrícia Garani Fernandes, Leandro Moreira Tempest, Taylane Soffener Berlanga de Araújo, Elias Naim Kassis and Idiberto José Zotarelli Filho

    Background: The tooth whitening has been proposed long in dentistry, but in recent years the emphasis of the media in creating a standard of beauty increasingly clear teeth this has gained a huge demand in offices, because it is a technical conservative that returns the smile the desired beauty. Objective: The objective of this study was to analyze through the literary finds the best whitening cosmetic treatment, home and / or office and guide the professional and choosing the best whitening technique and control in reducing sensitivity caused by bleaching. Methods: For the identification of studies in this review study, carried OUT A detailed search strategy for Medline, Pubmed, Embase, Ovid and Cochrane Library in the years 1989 - 2016, as well as books and related to the topic magazines. Discussion: Nowadays it created a new smile pattern, the search for white teeth has been increasingly sought after day for greater acceptance as a standard of beauty. With all the information nowadays these bleaching techniques were more efficient when supervised by a trained professional. Conclusion: Both techniques are excellent when well conducted by professional and well educated to the patient, thus enabling treatment satisfaction for the patient and the professional.

  3. Ujari K. V., Anarado A. N., Chukwu I. J. and Ogu C. O.

    The improper use of antibiotics has led to increased emergence of resistant organisms, making it essential to investigate Healthcare providers’ perceived barriers to effective administration of prescribed antibiotics to inpatients in National Orthopaedic Hospital Enugu (NOHE) Nigeria. Study adopted a descriptive cross sectional design. The target population was 344 doctors and nurses, 273 met the inclusion criteria and were involved in the study. Data were collected using questionnaire, items constructed in 4 point Likert type response scale with decision mean score of 2.5. Data were analyzed with the aid of statistical package for social science (SPSS) version 20. The result showed financial constraint as the major patients’ barrier (3.4), improper timing as the major healthcare providers’ barrier (3.0) and lack of antibiotics stewardship as the major health system barrier (3.2). There was no significant relationship (p>0.05) between the professional status, gender and years of experience of the healthcare providers and their perceived barriers to effective antibiotics administration. Patients should be educated on antibiotics use, and encouraged to register with Health Insurance Scheme which is designed to alleviate the financial burden associated with healthcare services. Healthcare providers should administer antibiotics as prescribed and hospital system has to set-up antibiotics stewardship.

  4. Dr. Adimoolam Sendilkumar and Dr. Kannah, E.

    Background: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the leading causes of death and disability. It is a critical issue in dealing with public health and socioeconomic crisis throughout the world. Extradural hematomas (EDH) accounts for 10.6% of all head injury patients admitted to the hospital and occur in 5-15% of fatal head injuries. This was a single center, retrospective, multivariate analysis of 1150 patients with EDH treated at a tertiary care hospital in India. Objective(S): To assess the immediate and long term outcome of patients in terms of the Glasgow outcome score (GOS), and to analyze the factors predicting outcome in patients managed for traumatic EDH. Methods: Retrospective single center study. Details of patients who were admitted with traumatic EDH from August 2013 to July 2016 were collected from medical records and discharge summaries, namely, patient’s age, sex, mode of injury, Glasgow coma scale (GCS), nature of pupils at admission, head CT at the time of admission including volume of EDH, associated lesions, midline shift and degree of effacement of basal cistern, management and duration of hospital stay. Results: 1015 patients were males (88.1%) and 137 patients were females (11.9%). Median age at presentation was 30 years (22-43 years). The most common mode of injury was road traffic accident which accounted for 87.8%. The most common presenting complaint was head ache (61.8%) followed by loss of consciousness (31.4%). There exists a significant negative correlation (spearman correlation coefficient - -0.171; p - 0.000) between age and GCS at admission. significant relationship exists between GCS at admission and age, sex of the patient, volume of EDH, pupils at admission, cisternal effacement and midline shift (p - <0.05). 387 had associated intracranial lesions. 64.5% had associated fractures, of which temporal bone fractures were the most common (33.2%) followed by frontal bone fractures (19.5%). Among those patients who survived (966 patients (83.85%)), mean duration of stay was 8 days (6-12 days). Surgery was indicated for 402 patients (34.9%) Conclusions: Factors for good functional outcome of treatment of EDH as noted in this study are abnormal pupils on admission, GCS at admission, presence of associated intracranial lesions and time between neurological deterioration and surgery. Other prognostic factors identified from our study includes age of the patient, sex, volume of EDH >30ml, cisternal effacement and midline shift >5mm.

  5. Dr. Asok Patel, Dr. Dhanashree Dalal, Dr. Laxmi Lakade, Dr. Preetam Shah, Dr. Sheta Caudhary and Dr. Rahul Lodaya

    Introduction: The quest for better restorative material still continues which has led to newer materials introduced having better mechanical properties such as better marginal seal, biocompatibility, high compressive and diametral tensile strength in evolution. GIC is no exception to it; a newer class of restorative zirconia reinforced glass ionomer is being evolved. Aim: Comparative evaluation of compressive and diametral tensile strength of Zirconomer, Ketac Molar and Type IX GIC. Method: These three study groups will be evaluated for compressive strength and diametral tensile strength, by preparing the specimens using cylinder moulds. All these specimens was subjected to the Universal Testing Machine. The data obtained from the study will be compiled, tabulated and analyzed statistically. Result: Conventional GIC has higher compressive strength (p=0.805) and tensile strength (p=0.045) followed by Zirconomer and Ketac molar. Conclusion: Conventional GIC has better compressive strength and tensile strength followed by Zirconomer and Ketac molar.

  6. Touyz, L.Z.G., Touyz, S.J.J. and Nassani, L.M.

    Provenance: Kissing as a societal habit, is as ancient as recorded History. Kissing , long practiced in many cultures and regarded as a benign from of social communication, is not as innocent as most will believe. Aim: This article appraises types of kissing and possible disadvantages arising from ignorant sub-conscious spread of infection. Discussion: Progressive knowledge about viruses (mainly Hepatitis, Human Papilloma Viruses, and others), and their relation to infections and cancer, have coerced compelling re-assessment of social and personal kissing habits. Concluding Remarks: Kissing may be a dangerous practice for picking up infections and increased awareness of this should be publicized by all health care workers, particularly dentists.

  7. Dr. Shaista Choudhary, Dr. Ravishankar Katkar and Dr. Divya Nagaram

    Introduction: Breast lesions are a challenge not only for Pathologists but also for Surgeons. The complexity of breast structure and the physiological changes it undergoes at various stages of a female’s life makes it a unique organ for histopathological studies. The number of deaths with breast carcinoma are alarmingly increasing over recent times. Aims and Objective: To Study the diagnostic efficacy of Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of palpable lesions of breast along with the morphologic spectrum of lesions in breast on cytology. Materials and Methods: The study period was from May 2016 to June 2017. All the cases which came to Cytology Unit of Pathology Department with palpable lump/mass in breast were included in the study. Subsequently these cases were subjected to surgical excision. Results: Out of 120 patients, 110 were benign (90%) and 10 cases were malignant (10%). Out of 100 cases which were reported as benign 96 cases proved the same diagnosis on histopathology whereas four cases turned out to be malignant on histopathological examination. Most cases which were reported as malignant on FNAC showed malignant features on histopathology too.

  8. Jainny Mehta, Vidhi Jayswal Priyadarshini Nadig, Shivlal Vishnoi and Gaurav Bakutra

    A multidisciplinary approach is often necessary to treat dental problems in patients. Periodontics and Orthodontics are interrelated in variety of situations. A variety of periodontal procedures can be performed which are beneficial for orthodontic outcome. An impacted maxillary anterior tooth, particularly the canine, is a common problem. Unerupted teeth were usually scheduled to be extracted in the past, nowadays can be saved and take their place in the dental arch. A 20-years-old female Patient with impacted canine was treated with surgical exposure to form well- aligned dental arch. Selective alveolar corticotomy is defined as an intentional injury to cortical bone. A 25-years-old male patient was treated with corticotomy for the space closure between maxillary left canine and premolar. This technique is an effective means of accelerating orthodontic tooth movement. Thus, there are many benefits to integrating orthodontics and periodontics in management of patients for accelerating tooth movement.

  9. Dr. Durgesh Tiwari, Dr. Nehal Sonawane, Dr. Sunil Rao, B. and Dr. Roopa Babbannavar

    Success of endodontic treatment depends on the proper scouting identification and thorough chemo mechanical preparation of all the canals followed by three dimensional obturation .The prime Failure to achieve this steps may be due to unusual tooth morphology. Usually mandibular molars have two roots with three canals (mesiobucccal, mesiolingual & distal) but in few teeth, the number of roots and canals vary. The variation in the number of roots is called radix entomolaris.(1) This article presents five case reports of mandibular first molars with extra roots. Also mentioned are the modifications in the canal preparation, problems encountered during the treatment, common iatrogenic errors which occur during the treatment and factors which affect the prognosis.

  10. Bashir Naheena, Besina Y. Syed

    Introduction: Image guided fine needle aspiration biopsy of retroperitoneal masses is an increasingly common diagnostic procedure in oncology (Porter, 1981). It has a brought a revolution in the field of cytopathological diagnosis of a less accessible site like retroperitoneum. Aims and Objectives: The aim of our study was to assess efficiency of image guided FNAC in pre-operative diagnosis and management of retroperitoneal lesions. Material and Methods: The study was conducted over a period of three years from june 2014 to june 2017. It included analysis of 108 patients who presented clinically and radiologically with retroperitoneal lesions. Results: Out of the total 108 retroperitoneal lesions studied with majority of the patients belonging to the age group of 51-60 years (39.13%).The study revealed a male predominance (58.3%). The malignant lesions predominated and constituted a total of 61(56.4%) cases. Majority of the cases were from the pancreas (62.9%) followed by kidney (23.2%). Among the pancreatic lesions adenocarcinoma (63.9%) was the most common tumor. RCC constituting 47.4% of the renal lesions was the most common. Among the retroperitoneal lymph nodes also metastatic adenocarcinoma (40%) was the most common lesion. Histopathological correlation could be done in 38 cases and all 38 cases were compatible with the cytological diagnosis. Conclusion: The study revealed that image guided FNAC is an excellent diagnostic modality and shows high accuracy and high sensitivity in diagnosing retroperitoneal lesions with minimal complications

  11. Aruri Suryam, Rafiyuddin and Singara Charya, M.A.

    Pectinases are group of enzymes that attack pectin and depolymerize it by hydrolysis and transelimination. Polymethyl galacturonase catalyzes the cleavage of  – 1, 4-glycosidic linkage of pectin with exo (sequential) and endo (random) activities. The maximum endo PMG in Asthana and Hawker’s medium showed by Rhizoctonia solani during its 14 days (50.0 RVU). the Endo PMG was studied in six fruits i.e., Apples, Mango, Tomato, Sapota, Grapes and Orange. The maximum endo PMG was recorded in Grapes (62.4 RVU) by Aspergillus niger and next best organism is A. flavus, while the maximum exo PMG was noticed in Penicillium citrinum (1070 g/ml) during its 7 days of incubation and in vivo studies showed the maximum activity in sapota fruits 995 g/ml by Mucor racemosus and in orange fruits by A.niger. These potential fungal strains viz., Apergillum niger, A. flavus, Penicillium citrinum and Mucor racemosus shall pave the way for exploitation of these fungal enzymes in fruit juice technology.

  12. Amoikon K. E., Essé S.E., Kouamé K. J. and Kati-Coulibaly S.

    Protein-energy malnutrition is a major public health problem worldwide, particularly in developing countries. This work aims to determine the cultural and socio-economic risk factors of protein-energy malnutrition in children, from 0 to 59 months, attending the General Hospital of Bingerville (Côte d’Ivoire). The methodology is based on anthropometry. It thus gives ratios of weight for height (W/H), height for age (H/A) and weight for age (W/A) which respectively determine acute malnutrition, chronic malnutrition and global malnutrition. The results show that in a cohort of 129 children, aged 0 to 59 months, 5.22 % of children suffer from acute malnutrition, 14.78 % suffer from chronic malnutrition and 7.75 % are suffering from global malnutrition. It appears from these results that the nationality is linked to chronic malnutrition, the educational level of the mother is a risk factor of chronic and global malnutrition, and the type of housing is linked to the three kinds of malnutrition.

  13. Dan Feldman, Amir Mari, Oren Gal, Fadi Abu Baker, Roman Depsames, Baruch Ovadia and Yael Kopelman

    Small intestinal bleeding accounts for 5–10% of all patients presenting with gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB).In the modern era of capsule endoscopy, Angiodysplasias of the small intestine turned out to be a major cause of “obscure GIB”, particularly in the elderly. Due to the multifocal nature of Angiodysplasia, effective therapy is a challenge. Recurrence rate after endoscopic treatment ranges from 20 to nearly 50%. Additional systemic therapy options are available. A 62 years old male was presented to our institute with an acute recurrent upper GI bleeding originating from several angiodysplasia foci. Using capsule video endoscopy, followed by push enteroscopy and argon plasma coagulation temporary hemostasis was done. Due to the nature of the lesions, recurrent bleeding episodes recurred and mandated the need of systemic treatment with somatostatin.

  14. Dr. Anita Sannakki

    Aim of study: To compare efficacy of Clonidine and Dexmedetomidine as an adjuvant to local an aesthetic agent in supraclavicular brachial plexus block with respect to onset and duration of sensory and motor block, potency and duration of analgesia. Methodology: Total of 100 patients were studied Patients of either sex was randomly allocated into Group C and Group D. Group C –. Received Bupivacaine 0.25% (35 ml) + inj Clonidine 1 mcg / kg. Group D--. received Bupivacaine 0.25% (35 ml) + injDexmedetomidine 1 mcg/kg Sensory block was assessed by the pin prick method. Assessment of motor block was carried out each minute till complete motor blockade after the drug injection. Patients were assessed for duration of analgesia as per a numeric rating scale of 0 to 10. Results: The mean time for onset of sensory block in group D was 9.17±1.26 mins and that observed in group C was 11.07±2.14 mins. Mean duration of sensory block in group D was 690 ± 87.41min and in group C was 470 ± 55 min. The mean time for onset of motor block in group D was 12.63 ± 2.18 min and 15.17±1.77 min in group C. The mean duration of motor block in D group was 353.17 ± 41.24min and in group C was 270.51 ± 51.61min. The duration of analgesia was 448.40 ± 91.97 min in D group and 309.20±37.30 min in C group. Both Dexmedetomidine and Clonidine when used in the mentioned doses above does not produce haemodynamic instability and respiratory depression. Conclusion: From our study, the use of α-2 agonists, Dexmedetomidine (1 mcg/kg) and Clonidine (1 mcg/kg) as adjuvants to local anaesthetic solution (0.25% Bupivacaine ) in supraclavicular brachial plexus block for upper limb surgeries, we conclude that faster onset of sensory and motor block is seen with Dexmedetomidine as compared to Clonidine. Duration of sensory and motor block and postoperative analgesia is significantly prolonged with Dexmedetomidine as compared to Clonidine. Haemodynamic parameters, side effects and sedation scores are comparable between the two groups.

  15. Aya Salah Eldin Fouad Rostom, Prof. Dr. Mohamed Mahmoud Abd El Khalek Khalaf, Assis. Prpf. Dr. Naglaa Abd El- Moneim Morad and Dr. Walid Ahmed Ibrahim Aboue lnaga

    Background: The use of Aerobic exercises and weight loss in the post bariatric surgery patients is new, and thus the scientific evidence for its effectiveness needs to be evaluated through a systematic review. Objective: To provide updated evidence-based guidance for Aerobic exercises effects on losing weight of post bariatric surgery patients. Data sources: Pub Med (Medline), Ovid, Physiotherapy Evidence Database (Pedro) ,Google scholar website, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Electron library of Cairo University, Science direct website were searched from their earliest records up to August. Data extraction: Template was created to systematically code the demographic, methodological, and miscellaneous variables of each RCT. The Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) scale was used to evaluate the study quality. Data synthesis: Three studies included 108 participants in total. Best evidence synthesis was applied to summarize the outcomes, which were weight loss, physical fitness, blood pressure and anthropometric measures. Conclusions : However researches on Aerobic exercises is still preliminary , the available data demonstrated the efficacy of Aerobic exercises as a new modality on rehabilitation of weight loss in post bariatric surgery patients with immediate and long term effect on improving physical fitness. Further studies are still needed, especially those involving both physiological and functional evaluations and to cover further domain on weight loss.

  16. Edirisinghe, N.P., Goonewardena, C.S.E., Makuloluwa, P.T.R. and Amarasekara, A.A.T.D.

    Pain is the most distressing consequence ever experienced by the patients during their life journey. Pain assessment is vital in supporting the diagnosis of the source of pain and for effective treatment. McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ) is a multidimensional tool widely used clinically to evaluate significant qualities of pain. It can be used to assess the pain over time and to determine the usefulness of any intervention. It was developed by Dr. Melzack at McGill University in Montreal Canada and updated for another two versions; the latest version being enabled to assess both neuropathic and non-neuropathic pain. It demonstrated good construct and concurrent validity. The objective of this paper was to review the published literature to describe the applications of MPQ in pain assessment. From the eligible studies, 23 different MPQ language versions and 5 adapted versions were identified. The MPQ has been adopted as a pain assessment tool in many countries and validated in different patient populations such as those with cancer pain, low back pain and post-operative pain. Validity and reliability of the MPQ as a qualitative and quantitative measure of pain for statistical analysis among cross cultures and languages were shown.

  17. Pcr amplification by two different primers for early diagnosis of schistosoma mansoni infected snails

    The traditional methods for detection of snail infections cannot differentiate between animals and human Schistosoma and cannot detect early infection so the need for PCR is obligatory. In the present study, two types of primers for conventional PCR were used and compare between them and other traditional methods (shedding, crushing) in attempt to apply this technique in the field for early diagnosis of Schistosoma infection as a trial for better control and prevention of the disease. To fulfil this aim in our study we use two main groups of snails the laboratory groups (L) and the environmental groups (E) collected from water canal in Dakhalia and Sharkiya governorate. All laboratory groups are examined by PCR by using two different primers (121bp, 247bp). All environmental snails are examined for infection by shedding, crushing methods then PCR amplification by two different primers (121bp, 247bp). for detection of infection and the obtained results are compared. DNA was extracted from laboratory infected snails in addition to non infected (as negative control) and subjected to PCR using121 bp primers and 247 bp primers which specific to a partial sequence of S. Mansoni aldolase. The percentage of detection of infection in the laboratory snail were 53,3%, 66,6%, and 73.3%by using of 121bp primer at the 1st, 5rd, and 8thday of infection respectively, however the detection were 86.6%,73.3% and100% by using of 247bp primers. Regarding the environmental snails,on comparing the sensitivity and specificity of crushing method in relation to PCR amplification using 247bp primer in Sharkiya, were found to be 36.3%, 100% respectively while in Dakhalia were found to be 28.5%,100% .the average sensitivity of PCR amplification by 121bp compared to PCR amplification by 247bp was 63.3%. In conclusion, PCR is superior to the conventional methods and can detect positive cases that were negative when examined by shedding or crushing methods. 247bp primer are more specific than 121bp primer for detection of infection in S. Mansoni infected snail and can detect early snail infection and this help control of the disease.

  18. Kumar Avinash, Lakhkar Bhushita, Hittalamani Iranna Mallappa and Ballur Holebasu

    Background: Acute scrotum has different etiological factors. Some factors like epididymo-orchitis can be treated with medical management, but some conditions like torsion and incarcerated hernia require immediate surgical intervention to treat the patient. Ultrasound with colour Doppler is an important non-invasive tool to rule out these aetiologies for acute scrotum. Aims: • To study cases of acute scrotum with ultrasound and color Doppler and note the diagnostic appearances of various diseases. • To correlate sonographic findings with clinical follow up and post operative diagnosis. • To find out limitations of sonography and color Doppler for evaluation of acute scrotum. Settings and Design: This is a cross section type of study performed in our department of radiology. Methods and Material: Patients of acute scrotal pain referred to Department of Radiology for sonographic evaluation were taken for study from November 2015 to April 2017. Echotexture and vascularity of both the testes and epididymis were evaluated. Statistical analysis used: Data was analyzed using diagram, mean ± SD, proportions. Results: In our study of 50 patients presenting with acute scrotum, 5 cases were of torsion, 36 cases of epididymo-orchitis, 2 cases of incarcerated hernia and 7 cases of varicocele. The diagnosis was confirmed by surgical exploration or follow up on the medical line of treatment Conclusions: Ultrasound with colour Doppler is an excellent modality for diagnosis of acute scrotum.

  19. Dr. Ashim Roy, Dr. Rahul Maheshwari, Dr. Soumyarup Sen, Dr. Alisha Dey and Dr. Rajashekar

    Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) ankylosis results in the mandible being fused to the articular fossa by bony or fibrotic tissues. This interferes with several functions such as mastication, speech, oral hygiene, and normal life activities, and can be potentially life. Threatening especially while trying to acquire an air way in an emergency. Attempting to open the mouth, stretching the periosteum, can also result in pain. Multiple factors can result in TM Jankylosis, such as trauma, arthritis, infection, previous TMJ surgery, congenital deformities, idiopathic factors, and iatrogenic causes of which trauma is the commonest cause. In growing patients TMJ ankylosis results in dentofacial deformity with severe trismus. Diagnosis usually is madeby clinical examination and imaging studies, such as plain films, orthopantomograms, computedtomography (CT) scans, MRI, and three dimensional reconstruction. The management goal in TMJ ankylosis is toincrease the patient’s mandibular function, correct associated facial deformity, decrease pain, and prevent reankylosis. Multiple surgical modalities including gap arthroplasty, interpositionalarthroplasty, and total joint reconstruction (TJR) has been suggested. Autogenoustissues, such as ear cartilage, temporalismuscle flap, dermis, fat, and bone, have also beenused or after gap arthroplasty. Distraction osteogenesishas also been used to manage TMJ ankylosis with release of ankylosis before and after the distraction process. The common post operative complications include reankylosis, resorption, overgrowth, fracture, and pain.

  20. Dr. Ujjal Chatterjee, Dr. Ravi Raj, Dr. Anubhuti, Dr. Rohit and Dr. Ritu

    Aim: To evaluate retention of complete denture with different types of posterior palatal seals Material and methods: In this study, we had selected ten male patients between the age group of 50 years to 60 years. After the primary and secondary impressions were taken, five casts were made including a cast without posterior palatal seal, a cast with single bead posterior palatal seal, a cast with double bead posterior palatal seal, a cast with cupid bow shaped posterior palatal seal, and a cast with posterior palatal seal with low fusing compound by functional method. Results: It was observed that retention increased up to 101% in the posterior palatal seal with low fusing compound with functional method and the posterior palatal seal that was obtained by using functional method provided greater retention than a denture base without posterior palatal seal. Conclusion: It was concluded that the incorporation of a posterior palatal seal is important for obtaining optimum retention of the maxillary complete denture.

  21. Shaukat Ahmad Jeelani, Abdul Hamid Samoon, Irfan Nazir Mir, Amir Hussain Chirag, Alfar Ah nafae and Hilal Ahmad Wani

    Introduction: About 1-2% of boys at age of 1 year have an undescended testis (UDT). Nonpalpable testis represents a diagnostic challenge and a therapeutic dilemma. Laparoscopy was first used in 1976 to locate undescended testes. Methods: This prospective comparative study was carried out in the postgraduate Department of General Surgery, Government Medical College, Srinagar from May 2010 to October 2015. 100 undescended testes were managed operatively during this period, laparoscopic (n=50) (Group A) and open (n=50) (Group B).Various parameters like, Operative time, Intra and post operative complications, Conversion to open were recorded, Post operative assessment like hospital stay and analgesia required. Patients were followed for 6 months. Results: The median age was 2.51and 2.86 years in laparoscopic and open group respectively. In the laparoscopic group 26 patients had right sided non-palpable testis, 14 had the left sided and 5 patients had bilateral abnormality. In the open group 28 had right sided undescended testis, 16 patients had left and 3 patients had bilateral abnormality. The sensitivity of ultrasonography in localizing the undescended testis was 74 % as against 100% in laparoscopy. There were two minor intraoperative complications in group A as compared to one in group B. There were nine postoperative complications in total. The complications were relatively more in the open group and added to hospital stay and morbidity significantly. Most of the patients were discharged on first postoperative day (mean hospital stay 1.3 vs. 1.8 days in group A and B respectively). Laparoscopic orchidopexy group had generally lesser use of analgesics. On long term follow up a total of 3 patients developed atrophy of operated testicle; of these 2 were from the laparoscopic group. Conclusions: laparoscopy is an extremely useful and safe modality for both the diagnosis and management of impalpable testes. However, traditional open orchiopexy is also a feasible alternative.

  22. Shobha, C.M. and Dr. Hamsaven

    Krimi Granthi is explained as one of the nine Sandhigata netra roga. It is a common clinical condition comes across in general ophthalmic practice, which can be correlated to Blepharitis. Its cardinal features are Kandu, Daha, Pakshmapota and Pooyasrava Granthi with Krimi. Study carried out to evaluate the efficacy of Pratisarana with Triphaladi Rasakriya & Ela Choorna after Darvi Seka in the Management of Krimi Granthi. 20 patients in each group fulfilling the inclusion criteria of Krimi Granthi were selected from O.P.D and I.P.D of Shalakya Tantra, SKAMCH & RC, Bangalore. Darvi Seka done for 5 days in both the groups followed with Triphaladi Rasakriya Pratisarana and Ela Choorna Pratisarana in each group respectively for 7 days.Overall the effect of treatment was statistically highly significant After Darvi Seka, After Pratisarana and at Follow up on all the parameters. Though both groups showed highly significant differences, within the group analysis however on comparing the t- values it can be inferred that Group A has showed better results when compared to Group B on Burning sensation, Congestion and Scaling. Whereas on Itching, Lacrimation, photophobia and lid margin edema Group B has showed better result than Group A. But at the time of follow up Group A has showed better result than group B. Triphaladi Rasakriya Pratisaarana was Marginally better than Ela choorna Pratisarana, due to the combination of Chakshusya, Kandugna, Vranaropana drugs which proved beneficial for sustained duration and no any adverse effects noted in the both groups.

  23. Dr. Rupali Bhatia, Dr. Sumita Mehta, Dr. Nalini Mittal and Dr. Anshul Grover

    Background: HIV screening in antenatal women is being conducted routinely in most countries today. It is necessary to identify the infection to start antiretroviral drugs as soon as the diagnosis is confirmed. The antiretroviral treatment helps to reduce the risk of mother-to-child HIV transmission (MTCT) as well as prevent maternal morbidity. In present study we aim to identify the relevance of measuring CD4 counts in respect to perinatal transmission and risk of maternal tuberculosis in HIV infected antenatal women. Methods: In an observational study, 64 antenatalHIV positive women on antiretroviral therapy were studied for their demographic profile, the CD4 counts, mode of delivery and presence of concomitant pulmonary tuberculosis, over 3 years (2014-2016). HIV status of the newborns was then confirmed by dried blood spot test at the end of 18 months. Results • MTCT risk was not significantly higher in women with low CD4 counts as compared to women with high counts (p=0.69). • HIV positive women with lower CD4 counts were at risk of having concomitant pulmonary tuberculosis at rates similar to those with higher counts.(p=0.85) Conclusion: Routine measurement of CD4 counts during antenatal period in HIV positive women may be omitted owing to their doubtful role in determining perinatal transmission or maternal immune response to occurrence of tuberculosis. In countries with low resource settings and restricted infrastructure the omission may prove beneficial in reducing treatment cost especially when the counts do not dictate even the commencement of antiretroviral therapy in affected individuals.

  24. Dr. Tejaswini Gudibande

    Background and Objectives: With the establishment of FNA procedure for diagnosis of lymphadenopathy, biopsies of lymph nodes have drastically reduced in number. However some clinical scenario warrants further evaluation of lymph nodes, especially as lymphomas are a heterogenous group of disorders. This case series includes five cases diagnosed on FNAC as reactive lymphadenitis where the architecture and distribution of cells played a key role in diagnosis. Methods: A total of 491 patients were diagnosed with reactive lymphadenitis during a study period. Biopsies were obtained in nine cases of reactive lymphadenitis. Result: Four cases of reactive lymphadenitis diagnosed on histopathology were also diagnosed on cytology. 5 cases reported as reactive on cytology showed features of tubercular lymphadenitis, Hodgkin’s lymphoma, Non Hodgkin’s lymphoma, metastatic deposits of squamous cell carcinoma and Castleman’s disease (one each) on histological examination. Interpretation: Positive predictive value of FNA diagnosis of reactive lymphadenitis was 77.27%. That leaves a huge number of cases where possibilities of other diagnosis can not be excluded. Architecture of the lymph node is key in the diagnosis of most lymphomas. Conclusion: Reactive lymphadenitis / a negative cytology, although reassuring for the patient, should always be interpreted with the clinical picture in mind. It does not rule out serious underlying disorder.

  25. Dr. Sagar Pabale, Dr. Sauvik Galui, Dr. Anwesha Adak, Dr. Subrata Saha and Dr. Subir Sarkar

    Dental development and eventual eruption of teeth in the oral cavity has for long been an enigma with respect to physiology and timings of every related aspect. The non eruption of teeth can be confused from something as simple as a delay in eruption to as complicated as congenital absence and to a plethora of causes in between. This condition in a pedodontic setup is further complicated by lack of knowledge among dentists, a series of referrals and ends up being a confusing and horrific experience of the parents and the child. From involvement of surgery to orthodontia, this condition is another example of wonders worked by a ‘interdisciplinary approach’ in the dental care of children.

  26. Emmanuel Kooma

    The Zambian government through the Ministry of Health and Ministry of General Education has a responsibility to ensure that conditions for schooling are the best to achieve through establishing health-promoting schools and structures. World over, there has been substantial evidence, which indicates that the health of children and young people has been a major factor affecting their capacity to learn. Similarly the level of individual`s education influences their health. This document provides a framework for supporting the growth and development of health-promoting schools in Zambia. Its purpose is to support the national, regional and district structures in developing their actions for health promoting schools in the country. The document is not prescriptive in nature and offers freedom of interpretation while upholding the cornerstones of health promoting schools in the country. Greater detail on how to carry out activities will be contained in a health –promoting school strategy. The “Health-Promoting School Concept” has been found to offer some advantages such as: • The concept utilizes a holistic model of health that includes the interrelationships between physical, social, mental and aspects of the environment • It encourages participation of communities and families in the development of knowledge and health skills of their school going children • It addresses the significance of the physical environment such as school buildings, safe water, sanitation, play grounds and these contribute to the health of the children • The importance of the social ethos of the school becomes recognized in supporting a positive learning environment and one in which healthy relationships and the emotional well-being of the pupils/students is strengthened. • The concept links the national, regional and local health service delivery with the learning institutions addressing specific health concerns, which affect school children and teachers [health concerns, diseases, events and medical conditions]. • Finally, the concept enhances equity in education and health in raising competencies in health of girls, boys, men and women in the school and community through the provision of a positive and supportive school/home working environment. The Ministry of Health, Ministry of General Education and their Collaborating Partners are dedicated and focused to ensuring successful execution of the health-promoting school “Concept Note”. I therefore request that all the stakeholders involved in health –promoting schools program have a focus and make the concept initiative a reality for the country.

  27. Mrs. Jayadeepa, T., Dr. Muthulakshmi, P., Dr. Kayalvizhi, E. and Dr. Malarvizhi, A.

    Menopause is a transitional phase in a women’s midlife encompasses a transition from reproductive to non-reproductive stage. Objectives: To assess the level knowledge of Menopausal symptoms among menopausal women. Design: A Descriptive research design. Sample: Menopausal women at Namakkal (Dt). Sampling Technique: Multistage sampling technique. Data collection: Structured Knowledge questionnaires were used to assess the level of knowledge on Menopausal symptoms. Results: Frequency and percentage distribution of knowledge scores on menopausal symptoms among menopausal women depicts that, majority 16 (80%) of them had poor knowledge and 4 (20%) of menopausal women had good knowledge. Conclusion: There was no significant association between levels of knowledge scores on menopausal symptoms with their demographic variables. It concluded that IEC (information, education, and counseling) on menopausal symptoms to be prepared, so as to help the women to live their lives more healthy and active.

  28. Dr. Ridhima Seth

    Periapical inflammation occurs as a consequence of insult to the dental pulp in different ways including infection, physical and iatrogenic trauma, and, following endodontic therapy by the damaging effects of root canal filling materials. A problem of endodontic origin is solved mainly by cleaning and disinfecting the root canal system that in turn is dependent on various factors which includes efficient instrumentation, type of irrigant used and the technique applied for irrigation, intracanal dressing, the apical limit of the root canal preparation and obturation, and last but not the least, the quality of the sealer. Moreover, the use of systemic medicines is a great auxiliary in combating pain, inflammation and infection, thus helping to alleviate the clinical symptoms and accelerate the process of healing. The systemic therapy is indicated for treatment of an inflamed and infected pulp can assist in tissue repair by the modulation of the host's immune response. Nevertheless, different therapeutic factors and clinical conditions may interfere in this process of periapical healing. Hence, it is of fundamental importance that the dentist knows about the type of medication to be used in each case and whether systemic therapy is really necessary in a particular case through a comprehensive case evaluation. Hence, this review aims to discuss the success of root canal treatment by presenting the clinical indications of systemic medication application in endodontics. This will aid the professional in achieving more effective results with respect to periapical inflammation.

  29. Mark Hinchey and Ronald S. Laura

    During the last 40 years, the world has witnessed a significant change in the practice and delivery of health-care (Leach and Tucker, 2017). According to Leach and Tucker (2017), these changes are the result of advances in technology, and the exploration of new frontiers in the field of Health Science, thus expanding our understanding of the aetiology and mechanism of disease, along with the burgeoning complexity of patient illness. In addition to these contributing factors, however, the ‘movement’ that is now referred to as ‘evidence-based practice’ features as having a causative role in the changes observed. Moreover, there also exists a growing body of research on this topic which claims to demonstrate that if ‘only the best available evidence’ were to be applied to clinical practice, significant improvements in the quality of naturopathic health practice, its service delivery, and its safety would be conspicuously enhanced (Boaz, Baeza and Fraser, 2011; Dickersin, Straus and Bero, 2007; Leach, 2006). The purpose of our paper is to determine the extent to which the epistemological framework within which these presumptions are embedded prove to be adequately articulated.

  30. Rinto Agustino and Imam Waluyo

    This paper describes mathematical model to determining the knee joint injury using kinematics knee model. The model consists of rotations and translations vectors. The result modeling maximum torque is angle 70º knee joint injury,in the present study, there significant difference between angles 60ºand 90º.

  31. Karma, Bako Rimamcwe, Chavan, U.D., Ashok Kadlag, Todmal, S.M. and Wani, V.S.

    In food processing, rheological properties are critical engineering indices for raw materials pre-considered in food formulations to establish processing requirements suitably adopted for converting raw materials efficiently into finished products. Effects of inclusion of Whole Roselle Seed Flour (WRSF) in composite formulation with Whole Wheat flour in varying percentages 10 to 25 % showed outcomes for Amylograph: gave 60.73 to 63.48 0C for Beginning of gelatinization at 59.58 0C control, 84.53 to 83.65 0C for Gelatinization temperature at 87.08 0C control, 563.25 to 348.00 (AU) for Gelatinization maximum at 838.75 (AU) control. Farinograph: gave 494.00 to 502.50 (BU) for Consistency at 498.75 (BU) control, 83.65 to 78.48 % for Water absorption at 85.18 % control, 83.45 to 78.50 (BU) for Water absorption corrected for 500 BU at 85.08 (BU) control, 78.63 to 73.38 % for Water absorption corrected for 14 % at 79.58 % control, 6.00 to 5.50 min for Development time at 6.78 min control, 2.88 to 1.68 min for Stability at 3.98 min control, 46.00 to 89.50 BU for Mixing Tolerance Index at 31.75 BU control, 8.60 to 7.08 min for Time to break down at 11.68 min control and 85.50 to 70.25 FQN for Farinograph quality number at 116.75 FQN control. Extensograph at 30, 60 and 90 min Proving time; gave 34.00 to 12.50, 29.25 to 13.75 and 22.00 to 12.75 for Energy (cm2) at 38.75, 34.75 and 31.75 (cm2) respectively as control; 273.00 to 97.75, 185.00 to 97.00 and 165.25 to 94.75 for Resistance to Extension (BU) at 304.75, 263.75 and 251.75 BU respectively as control; 87.00 to 81.75, 86.00 to 75.75 and 79.00 to 70.75 for Extensibility (min) at 88.75, 89.75 and 81.75 (min) respectively as control; 275.00 to 120.75, 185.50 to 122.75 and 173.25 to 124.75 for Maximum (BU) at 317.75, 277.75 and 270.75 (BU) respectively as control; 2.93 to 1.28, 1.95 to 1.38 and 1.93 to 1.38 for Ratio Number at 3.58, 3.08 and 3.18 respectively as control; 3.03 to 1.40, 2.03 to 1.58 and 2.03 to 1.33 for Ratio Number (Max) respectively as control. Research findings proved that inclusion of WRSF up to 25 % still holds good functional and great nutritional potentials in value added food products.

  32. Dr. Ravinder S Saini, Dr. Sanjeev Laller, Dr. Mamta Malik, Dr. Rahul Jain, Dr. Rajesh Kumar and Dr. Dinesh Kumar

    Backround: Zygomatic arc fractures are very common next to nasal bone fractures. For proper management of fractures, its imaging is very important which is accomplished by jug handle view – a modification of submentovertexview. For this technique patient is required to extend his/her neck which is troublesome for patients with neck injuries. Aims and Objectives: To devise a new simplified radiographic technique for patients with neck injuries, as an alternative to jug handle view. Materials and Methods: The demonstrated new technique was performed on 20patients. It requires intra oral dental X-ray machine and an occlusal X-ray film with elimination of general X-ray machine and extra-oral cassette. The image of zygomatic arch to rule out fractures is obtained with normal head position of patient in sitting direction which is easy for patients with real or suspected cervical injuries. Conclusion: This novel technique is easier, cheaper, performed in conventional dental set up, with less radiation exposure on patients with cervical injuries, thus overcoming the drawback of jug handle view.

  33. Georgia Maria Granja Aureliano, Jaqueline Alves do Nascimento, Severino Alexandre Barbosa da Silva, Maria Michele Viana de Souza, Antônio Jackson Andrade Gonzaga de Oliveira,4Felipe Gouveia Santos , Caio Raull Bezerra Saraiva, Tiago Norões Gomes, Victor A

    Introduction: After the loss of the dental element, the process of bone loss and adaptation of the soft tissues begins, allowing a remodeling of the edentulous area, creating defects in height and width of the residual bone, which may lead to pneumatization of the maxillary sinus, impairment the aesthetics, function and oral health of the patient. The quality and quantity of tissue and bone graft and conjunctive membrane are considered to be fundamental to the successful implantation of the implant. The technique of maxillary sinus lift and the installation of osseointegrated implants has made it possible to recover the aesthetics and function for the patient. Case report: Patient R.L.M.S., 43, female, leucoderma, sought care in a private clinic reporting dissatisfaction with the absence of dental elements and the aesthetics of her smile and desire to perform dental implants. At the clinical examination, it was observed low in the cortical bone at the height of the element 15 due to the loss of it and accommodation of the soft tissues on the region. Radiographically and tomographically, bone remnants are observed at reduced height and width, in addition to pneumatization of the maxillary sinus in the region of 15. Final considerations: It is corroborated that the technique of maxillary sinus lift, assisted with bone graft and heterogenous membrane for immediate installation of the osseointegrated implant in the posterior region of the right maxilla, it is configured as an optimal reconstructive technique, since it does not allow the accomplishment of two surgical steps for the patient, lower costs, and reduced treatment time.

  34. Ahmad El-Sayed Hudieb

    Purpose: To assess the central macular thickness after phacoemulsification surgery. Methods: Twenty eyes of 15 non-diabetic, more than 40 years old patients, who underwent uneventful phacoemulsification, central macular thickness using swept source optical coherence tomography was estimated preoperatively and four weeks postoperative. Results: The central macular thickness increased with highly significant degree from (248.35 ± 30.10) preoperative to (271.90 ± 36.49) four weeks postoperative (p=0.006), only one eye developed cystoid macular edema representing 5% of patients. There was high significant improvement of visual acuity. The BCVA increased highly significant from 0.67 ± 0.21 on log MAR preoperatively to 0.38 ± 0.231week post operatively and to 0.24 ± 0.23 four weeks postoperatively (p=0.000). Conclusion: There was a significant increase in CMT 4 weeks postoperatively.

  35. Lemahafaka, J.G., Rahanitrandrasana, E.O., Andrianomenjanahary, J.W., Raharivelo, A. and Tehindrazanarivelo, A.J.

    This is a retrospective study from January 2017 to December 2017 at the Department of Neuropsychiatry, University Hospital Joseph Raseta Befelatanana Antananarivo, Madagascar. This study aims to describe the clinical aspects after waking up of ethyl coma. We included all woken-up comas after resuscitation with neuropsychiatric symptoms. But excluded, unknown patients, incomplete files or released against medical advice. We collected 123 patients, one hundred and ten (89%) are male versus thirteen (11%) female. The middle age is 37 years old. Farmers and low education represent the majority of our patients. Seventy-six patients (61.79%) were married, thirty-three (26.83%) were single, and fourteen (11.38%) were divorced and widowed. The main neurological clinical manifestations were withdrawal syndrome (n = 90), seizure and status epilepticus (n = 60), Gayet Wernicke's encephalopathy (n = 22), korsakoff syndrome (n = 12), pellagous encephalopathy (n = 7), cerebellar syndrome (n = 30), alcoholic polyneuropathy (n = 40), optic neuropathy (n = 3), alcoholic dementia (n = 2). The Psychiatric manifestations were mainly depression (n = 16) and alcoholic psychosis (n = 7). At the end of this study, we can conclude that wakeful comatose patients often have serious neuropsychiatric complications that are still a problem of management.

  36. Bhumi Mori, Dr. Patel, K. S. and Dr. Kori, V.K.

    Thalassemia is a genetically passed down blood disorder in which body makes an abnormal form of haemoglobin that leads to anaemia, several organ failure due to iron overload and even death. Disease similar to Thalassemia is not described in Ayurveda, but on the bases of conceptual understanding through Ayurveda concepts it concludes that Thalassemia may be correlated with Beejadoshjanya, Adibalapravruta and Sahaja Vyadhi and nomenclature was coined as Beejadushtijanya Pandu. It can be understood that Pittapradhana Tridosha affects the functions of Raktadhatu. Some of main effective drugs like Devdaru, Agatsya, Kumari, Rohitaka, Agnimantha which was also given in Ayurveda taxies were added in Musta Triphaladi avaleha. Other medicine Gandhakadi Yoga is suggested for Lohasevanajanya vikaraprashamana (iron overloading management). Present study is a Case study on 7 year old male child who have been diagnosed Thalassemia major. His complaint was that severe anemia he is on regular blood transfusion every 20-20 days, liver and spleen enlarged and the serum iron and serum ferritin values were above normal limits according to investigation. At the end of three months of Ayurveda therapy as adjuvant, his blood report and the symptoms of the disease showed very promising results.

  37. Nuzhat Parveen

    Objective: To determine the number of children, association of various socio-demographic and birth interval related factors with multi-parity in Saudi women. Methods: This descriptive cross sectional study was conducted in Hail university and Maternity and childcare Hospital, Hail Saudi Arabia. One hundred and eighteen (118) married females having age 20 to 45 years, who presented in outdoor patients department of the hospital, were included. Married females having no child were excluded from analysis. A questionnaire containing information regarding marital information, child age and perceptions about multi-parity was filled by the participants. Chi-square t-test was used to determine the association of knowledge regarding the appropriate birth intervals with number of children taking p-value <0.05 as significant. Results: Mean age of females at the time of marriage was 22.21+4.42 years and mean age at the time of birth of first child was 23.92+4.47 years. There were 59.3% females who obtained college level education and 20.3% had high school education whereas only 2.5% were having master level education. Habit of breast feeding was found in about half 49.1% females. Most of the females (53.4%) gave birth to 5-6 children, 22.9% were having equal to or more than 7 children. There was no association of educational status, breast feeding, mode of last delivery and knowledge regarding benefits of breast feeding on number of children. Conclusion: Number of Children born to per Saudi Women is 5-6 on average. There is no effect of Socio-demographics variables and knowledge regarding benefits of birth intervals on number of children born to per Saudi women.

  38. Joyce Waigwe Kinuthia and Luke Odiemo Okunya

    This study sought to find out the relationship between adult education and women’s self-efficacy. It was part of a wider study examining 3 elements of psychological empowerment: self-esteem, self-efficacy and awareness of women rights. It focused on one adult education center in Starehe Constituency, Nairobi County. Transformative learning was used as the theoretical framework within which the relationship between the acquisition of literacy skills and psychological transformation were discussed. Data was collected and analyzed from 43 participants; 10 from primary basic, 12 from secondary basic, 8 from primary advanced and 13 from secondary advanced. The relationship between adult education and self-efficacy, was assessed using linear regression, while the differences between the four groups were tested using independent samples Kruskal-Wallis and median tests. The relationship between participation and self-esteem was found to be slight and insignificant and no notable differences were seen among the groups examined.

  39. Dr. Pooja, Dr. Vijay Kumar Vijayran, Dr. Mamta Malik, Dr. Sanjeev Laller and Dr. Navneet

    Abnormal changes in nails can be due to diseases primarily affecting nails and some of these nail changes can be a presenting feature before other signs of a systemic disease become clinically evident. The purpose of this review is not to address localized trauma or nail infections but offers examples of nail abnormalities that may occur with systemic disease. This paper includes information on common nail changes like koilonychia, longitudinal and transverse grooves, nail pitting, clubbing, nicotine-stained nails, cyanosis, and jaundice, information on the -nychias (leuko-, pachy-, melano- and dyschromo-), onycholysis and onychoschizia, yellow nail syndrome, Terry’s nails etc.

  40. Rao Nouman Ali, Muhammad Khalid Butt and Khalid Hussain

    In hemodialysis vascular access is of prime importance. There are different types of techniques used for arteriovenous anastmosis.1) side to side anastmosis 2) end to side anastmosis,3) end of vein with end of artery. These different techniques are associated with different incidence of complications and patency. Objective: We intended to compare the efficacy of side to side anastmosis with distal vein ligation in terms of complication rate and patency rate with side to side anastmosis without distal vein ligation. Materials and Methods: We fashioned 60 radiocephalic fistula from January 2016 to May 2017 at DHQ teaching hospital Gujranwala which 30 patients were dealt with side to side anastmosis with distal vein runoff (group A) and 30 patients dealt with side to side anastmosis without distal vein runoff (group B).We compared data in terms of complications and patency rates after surgery performed at wrist between cephalic vein and radial artery. Results: During study period total 60 radiocephalic fistula were fashioned in which 30 patients were dealt with side to side anastmosis with ligating distal vein and 30 patients dealt with side to side anastmosis without distal vein ligation. There were 24 males(40%) and 36 (60%) females which were divided into two similar groups each having 12 males and 18 females irrespective of their age and their weight. The mean age was 49.63 years with standard deviation of 10.41 in Group A patients while in Group B patients mean age was 50.83 years with standard deviation of 11.0. Patency rate was 90 % with a p value of 0.9 in patients with distal vein runoff while it was 86.6 % with a p value of 0.8 in side to side anastmosis without distal vein runoff at 6 months. Surgical complications e.g post operative infection found 6.66 % in both groups 6df ccand numbness at thumb in 3.33 % in group A and 10 % in group B. Venous hypertension documented in 3.3% in group B patients and 0 % in group A patients. About 6.6 % patients of group B encountered aneurysm formation postoperatively while carpel tunnel syndrome symptoms not found postoperatively in any group. Conclusion: It is concluded that distal vein runoff should be the preferred option for Radiocephalic fistula as it is more efficacious in terms of patency rate with minimum complications.

  41. Piyush Paul

    The importance of livestock in Indian agriculture is well recognised. In agriculture of Bundelkhand region, domestic animals play a vital role in the farmer’s life. The present investigation comprises 22 species of fodder tree distributed in 17 genera belonging to 10 families. The observation of present study exhibited that the rural inhabitants of region used total 22 trees species. The leaf fodder availability period was give an idea about that green leaf fodder was available around the complete year. All studied 22 tree species produced leaf fodder in different months of year.

  42. Dr. Deepa Rani, Prof . Vijai Tilak and Dr. Stuti Kumari

    Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) with basophilia is a rare condition and has yet to be classified under the 2016 revision to the World Health Organization classification of myeloid neoplasms. However, few reports have described the prognostic significance of basophilia in MDS. Here, we report a case of a 60 year old male who was admitted to the hospital with complains of generalised body weakness, easy fatiguability and breathlessness on mild exertion for one month. Initial investigations showed features of pancytopenia with basophil 12% on complete blood count (CBC). Reticulocyte count was less than 0.5%.Bone marrow aspiration (BMA) showed myeloid and erythroid series cells with features of dysmyelopoiesis and severe degree of dyserythropoiesis. Quadrinucleate, pentanucleate and gigantoblasts forms of erythroblasts were also noted. These findings led to the diagnosis of MDS with basophilia, but patient died within two months of diagnosis showing its poor prognosis. To increase awareness of the prognostic significance of MDS with basophilia, we report a case of MDS with basophilia which is a rare entity and showed poor prognosis.

  43. Tareq Jawad Kadhim

    Background:-Use of FIBRIN GLUE as an alternative modality to surgery for the treatment of fistula in ano. Objectives:-To evaluate the influence of FIBRIN GLUE on healing of the fistula in ano. Patient and Method:- This prospective interventional study on 50 patients was carried out in the Department of Surgery, Jenen private hospital with different types of fistula in ano by using FIBRIN GLUE as an alternative modality to surgery for the treatment of fistula in ano. Results:- Fifty patients were studied, 42 male (84%) and 8 female (16%) and male to female ratio was 5.25:1, the age ranged from 11 to 70 years, with a mean age of 35 years + 5 years, the majority being in the 4th decade of life constituting 20 patient (40%). Low type 32 patients (64%) and high type 18 patients (36%). Thirty four patients (68%) were cured and 16 patients (32) were failed. Conclusion:- Use of FIBRIN GLUE as an alternative modality to surgery for the treatment of fistula in ano is a viable and attractive alternative method.

  44. Uruj Jahan, Yashodhara Pradeep and Nuzhat Hussain

    Background:Atrophic vaginitis is inflammation of vagina due to thinning and shrinking of tissue as well as decrease lubrication due to estrogen deficiency. As estrogen level drops after menopause, the vaginal tissue become atrophic, leading to various urogenital symptoms. Objective: To correlate clinical signs and symptoms with vaginal maturation value for diagnosis and assessment of severity. Methods: In this prospective study,100 postmenopausal attending gynecology OPD in KGMU Lucknow, inquired for the symptoms of atrophic vaginitis, out of which 49 came out symptomatic and were included in study. Apart from detailed history and examination, vaginal maturation value (VMV) assessment was done. Results: Symptoms of dryness, burning, perineal pressure, something coming out vagina and increase frequency of micturition were significantly more common in severe atrophic vaginitis. Dry vagina, shiny flat vaginal mucosa, narrow vaginal introitus and genital organ prolapse were significantly more common in severe atrophic vaginitis in comparison to mild atrophic vaginitis. Conclusion: To conclude, severity of atrophic vaginitis can be assessed by signs and symptoms and treatment can be started on basis of symptomatology only.

  45. Dr. Devarajan, M., Dr. Shafie Ahamed, Dr. Bhavani and Dr. Rajaraman

    Aim and Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare the depth of penetration of 3 different root canal sealers into the dentinal tubules, Apexit plus, AH Plus, Roekoseal, Using Scanning Electron Microscopy. Materials and Methods: Thirty freshly extracted single rooted premolar teeth were taken and coronal portions were cut with a diamond disc and the root canal length standardized at 14mm.Then, the teeth were instrumented by using the protaper technique to a size of the F2 insrument at the working length. After preparation, thirty samples were randomly divided into 3 groups of 10 each, Group I (Roekoseal), Group II (AH plus), Group III (Apexit plus) and obturation done with lateral compaction technique. Then the samples were examined under scanning electron microscope and the results are obtained. Results: the mean value of depth of penetration of three root canal sealers at the apical third of the roots are Group-III(Apexit plus)167.80±0.84,Group II (AH plus)155.60±0.89 and Group I (Roekoseal) 116.00±0.71. Group III and Group II showed higher penetration depth values compared to Group I.Conclusion: Apexit plus showed deeper sealer penetration into the dentinal tubules than AH plus and Roekoseal sealer.

  46. Arbela Espina, Vincent Layug Salas, Amabelle Pacana and Aaron Pineda

    Learning idiosyncrasies which is interchangeably used to refer to learning preferences in this research is an important topic in education since students learning preference are part of their individuality, their idiosyncrasies. Oftentimes, this topic is an important topic for investigation in educational institutions for the sole purpose of maximizing teaching and learning experiences of both the teachers and students. This research studied the learning idiosyncrasies of the students in the GCC region covering two academic institutions offering business administration program. There are 293 business students who have participated in the study. The findings indicate a large percentage of both populations have multimodal learning preferences. And, that there is a difference in learning preferences with respect to gender.

  47. Ayushya Warang, Swapna Mahale, Dipali Chaudhari and Lavanya Kalekar

    Achondroplasia is a non‑lethal form of chondrodysplasia. It is transmitted as an autosomal dominant trait, with complete penetrance. It results in a disturbance in the endochondral bone formation which causes dwarfism and other associated features. A young female patient suffering from achondroplasia reported with oral manifestations showing features of aggressive periodontitis, hypoplasia of the mid‑face, clinical attachment loss, and mobility of teeth. This case report brings to light the possible association of achondroplasia and aggressive periodontitis and the importance of early referral of such cases.

  48. Dr. Sangeetha, P., Dr. Maragathavalli G. and Dr. Arivaruliyar, U.

    Fibrous dysplasia is a developmental disorder characterized by replacement of fibrous tissue which causes destruction and overgrowth of the affected bone .when this dysplastic process occurs in single bone is called as monostotic and when occurs in multiple bone is called as polyostotic. This report discusses about a case of polyostotic condition that involves right maxilla, left elbow, right knee and the management of occlusion.

  49. Dr. Saraswathi Gopal, K. and Dr. Ram Shankar, S.

    The ectodermal dysplasias (EDs) are a large and complex group of diseases. More than 170 different clinical conditions have been recognized and defined as ectodermal dysplasias. Commonly involved ectodermal-derived structures are hair, teeth, nails, and sweat glands. In some conditions, it may be associated with mental retardation. We report a case of 10-year-old male child with ectrodactyly, syndactyly, ED, cleft lip/palate, hearing loss, and mental retardation.

  50. Dr. Aritra Banerjee, Dr. Parul Kaushal and Dr. Raj D Mehra

    Foramen on the articular pillar formed by the fusion of the superior and inferior articular process is a rare finding. Compression of dorsal rami in such foramina may present as low back ache and fusion of the articular processes may limit the movement in the lumbosacral region. The embryological basis and possible functional significance has been appraised.

  51. Prachi Tambur, Alaa Alshammari, Atheer Almutairi, Noura Alsahali, Waad Alghamdi, Wateen Alshahrani, Kavita Sudersanadas, Winnie Philip and Shoeb Qureshi

    Objective: Nowadays, Smoking is expanding around the world to younger people, even in Middle East, which is more common among older people. Moreover, the bad effects of smoking on health are more than benefits. Therefore, many organizations are being held to raise awareness about stopping smoking around the world. We aimed to assess the effect of majoring in the respiratory therapy field on students’ smoking habits. Methods: The participating subjects were respiratory therapy students senior and junior A Semi-structured questionnaire that is include the information about the smoker. It administered to 130 participants by using stratified random to select the subjects in proportion to the population. Result: The study examined the prevalence of smoking among respiratory therapy students in Riyadh after majoring. The results of our study have shown that there is no significant difference between senior and junior students regarding their smoking habits. According to result, the majoring on Respiratory therapy has no effect on smoking habit of the students. Conclusion: This study is aimed to investigate the effect of majoring in the respiratory therapy field on students’ smoking habits and we found that there are no significant differences between the senior and junior students regarding their smoking rate. In addition, as the increased number of female students who will graduate from the college of applied medical science, respiratory therapy program, Riyadh. Due to that, there is a need to understand the prevalence among female students. Moreover, we need more studies to evaluate the reasons

  52. Dr. Divya Khanna

    Human papilloma virus (HPV) is amongst the most common virus groups affecting the skin and mucosal areas of the body globally today. Occurrence of squamous papilloma may represent a caveat of viral, venereal or pre-cancerous conditions. As an oral lesion, with cauliflower-like clinical appearance and exophytic growth, it raises aesthetic concerns and hence warrants an early diagnosis and prompt treatment. The presented article discusses the benign, painless, slow growing, proliferative squamous papillomatous lesion of the hard palate which was treated by surgical excision and examined histopathologically.

  53. Dr. Supratim Tripathi, Dr. Ramesh Chandra and Dr. Poonam Singh

    The forensic odontologist utilizes the human dentition throughout each stage of dental evaluation, restorations and root canal treatment are as unique as fingerprints, and their radiographic morphology, as well as the types of filling materials, are often the main feature for identification. The detection of root canal filling materials and its properties is a valuable toolmark in the presumptive identification of the dentition of a burned victim. Thermo plasticized gutta purcha, b-fill, obtura III, MTA and MTA fillapex have a different resistance to prolonged high temperature. Therefore, the identification of burned bodies can be correlated with adequate qualities and quantities of the traces. Most of the odontogenic examination relies heavily on the existence of the obturating materials as well as the relationship of one dental structure to another. This greatly narrows the research for the final identification that is based on postmortem data. The purpose of this study is to examine the materials integrity and tooth integrity to variable temperature and duration, for identification. The crowns were fabricated (n = 10) with one of the following materials Group 1: Thermo plasticized gutta percha, Group 2: B- fill, Group 3: Obtura III, Group 4: MTA and Group 5: MTA Fillapex. Crowns were heated in the furnace to 200°C, 400°C and 600°C during different time intervals and assess for surface characteristics based on visual image analysis. The MTA fillapex used in this study proved to be more resistible to heat, and it proves to be the better material of choice as a forensic tool since it did not show much of a change in the morphology even at the higher temperature compared to other materials.

  54. Dr. Adimoolam Sendil Kumar and Dr. Aravinth Kumar Ashok

    Aim: To assess the impact of clinical features like pre-operative GCS and status of pupils on the survival of patients presenting with combination of EDH+EDH, EDH+SDH and SDH+SDH on the opposite sides. Materials and Methods: 79 patients admitted in the Institute of Neurology, Rajiv Gandhi Government General Hospital & Madras Medical College, Chennai, with bilateral traumatic intracranial extra parenchymal haematomas were included in this study. Acute, bilateral, traumatic, intracranial-extraparenchymal haematomas that is composed of EDH+EDH, EDH+SDH and SDH+SDH patterns were included in the study group. CT-Brain was done in all patients. In patients having bilateral intracranial haematomas, the GCS and the condition of pupils on admission were ascertained and documented. The impact of these factors on the survival of the patients was analysed. The data was subjected to statistical analysis and a “p” value of less than 0.05 was supposed to indicate a positive association of the results and survival. Results: The patients who had a low GCS score had higher mortality rate when compared to patients with GCS score of more than 9 and the patients with a normalpupils had better survival rate than patients with pupillary asymmetry in the pre-operative phase Conclusion: The statistically significant positive correlation of the included clinical factors makes the early clinical assessmenta useful tool in the assessment of the survival in patients with combination of intracranial haematomas on the opposite sides.

  55. Vijay Viswanathan, Ezhilarasi Krishnamoorthy and Satyavani Kumpatla

    Introduction: Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) is associated with a high risk of developing further severe complications such as, cardiovascular disease and eventually End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) leading to death. The aim of the study was to determine the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism in different stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD) among subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Methods: A total of 226 subjects with T2DM were screened for the study and classified into two groups based on estimated Glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Those with eGFR ≥60 ml/min/1.73 m2 (Group 1: n =109, M: F, 73:36) and those with eGFR <60 ml/min/1.73 m2 (Group 2: n=117 M: F, 64:53). ACE genotyping was performed using Polymerase Chain Reaction. Results: The genotypic and allelic frequency of group 1 was II 52(47.7%), ID 47 (43.1%), DD 10(9.2%), I 151 (69.3%), D 67 (30.7%) and group 2 was II 13 (11.1%), ID 76 (65%), DD 28(23.9%), I 102 (43.6%), D 132 (56.4%) respectively. The OR (95% CI) for ID and DD genotype between the groups were 6.4 (3.2-13.1) p<0.001 and 11.2 (4.4-28.8) p<0.001 respectively after adjusting with gender, age and Body Mass Index. The genotypic frequency was also compared between genders. The OR (95% CI) for male was ID 3.1(1.3-7.4), DD 6.1(1.7-12.4), and female was ID 5.3(1.3-4.5), DD 8.8 (3.0-10.7) Conclusion: The ID and DD genotype of ACE gene confers a greater role in genetic variations underlying high risk stage of CKD especially in women subjects.

  56. Dr. Swarga Jyoti Das and Dr. GarimaRuhela

    Background & objections: Changes in root surfaces in the environment of periodontal pocket hinder regeneration of the periodontal tissues. Periodontal treatment, therefore, must create a root surface compatible for the cells that mediate repair and regeneration of the periodontal tissue. To achieve this, a procedure called root biomodification is recommended as an adjunct to scaling and root planing. Various agents, namely citric acid, phosphoric acid, ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA), tetracycline hydrochloride, hydrogen peroxide, fibronectin, enamel matrix proteins, recombinant human growth factors, dentin bonding conditioners, etc., have been tried for root biomodification. However, the role of root biomodification in regeneration of the periodontal tissues is questionable. Considering this, an in vitro study was carried out to evaluate the morphologic characteristics of the periodontitis-affected roots after biomodification using citric acid, ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) and tetracycline hydrochloride (HCl) solutionunder scanning electron microscope (SEM). Since first step in periodontal regeneration is the adherence of blood clot to the root surfaces, the study is also intended to evaluate the attachment behaviour of blood clot to those biomodified roots. Materials and Methods: The present study was carried out on periodontally compromised human anterior teeth (n=40) comprising of maxillary (n=20) and mandibular (n=20). They were randomly divided into four groups (comprising ten teeth in each group) based on the biomodification agent used: Group 1 (control group): treated with normal saline, Group 2: treated with citric acid, Group 3: treated with EDTA and Group 4: treated with tetracycline HCl solution. Two specimens were prepared from each tooth. One of the specimens was evaluated for the patency of dentinal tubules after treating with the allotted biomodification agent, while other was evaluated for clot adhesion following treating with blood after biomodification under SEM. Results: Numbers of the patent dentinal tubules and scores of the blood clot adhesion were found to be significantly higher in all the three test groups compared to that of the control group. Conclusions: Biomodification of root surfaces may play a significant role in accomplishment of periodontal new attachment by increasing the patency of dentinal tubules and making the root surfaces more conducive for blood clot adhesion.

  57. Dr. Steffin Elsa Money, Dr. Swetha, H.B. and Geeta, I.B.

    The benefits of correct use of antibiotics include the resolution of infection and prevention of the spread of disease. During endodontic treatment, antibiotics may be given systemically or regionally to achieve aseptic environment and to prevent the pathogenesis and progression of pulp and periapical diseases. This paper is to discuss the use antibiotic in the field of Endodontics.

  58. Dr. Shubhabrata Pal, Dr. Sauvik Galui, Dr. Saikat Mahata, Dr. Subrata Saha, Dr. Subir Sarkar

    A three-month-old male infant was brought to the Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry with the chief complaint of feeding difficulties. On examination, bilateral cleft lip with complete cleft palate and upper limb deformities were found. In radiographic examination of forearms and chest absent radii and thumb, left rib crowding and neonatal right ventricular hypertrophy were evident. The diagnosis of Holt-Oram syndrome was made based on clinical, radiological and echocardiographic findings. A feeding appliance was fabricated and delivered to the patient.

  59. Dr. Adimoolam Sendil Kumar and Dr. Aravinth Kumar Ashok

    Aim: To assess the impact of radiological indicators like pre-operative Mid line shift and status of basal cisterns on the survival of patients presenting with combination of EDH+EDH, EDH+SDH and SDH+SDH on the opposite sides. Materials and Methods: 79 patients admitted in the Institute of Neurology, Rajiv Gandhi Government General Hospital & Madras Medical College, Chennai, with bilateral traumatic intracranial extraparenchymalhaematomas were included in this study. Acute, bilateral, traumatic, intracranial-extraparenchymalhaematomas that is composed of EDH+EDH, EDH+SDH and SDH+SDH patterns were included in the study group. CT-Brain was done in all patients. In patients having bilateral intracranial haematomas, the midline shift and the condition of basal cisterns on admission were ascertained and documented. The impact of these factors on the survival of the patients was analysed. The data was subjected to statistical analysis and a “p” value of less than 0.05 was supposed to indicate a positive association of the results and survival. Results: The patients who had a mid line shift of less than 0.5 mm and the patients with a normal basal cistern in the pre-operative phase had statistically significant positive impact on the survival. Conclusion: The statistically significant positive correlation of the included radiological factors makes CT-Brain a useful tool in the assessment of the survival in patients with combination of intracranial haematomas on the opposite sides.

  60. Dr. Sauvik Galui, Dr. Shubhabrata Pal, Dr. Saikat Mahata, Prof. Dr. Subrata Saha and Prof. Dr. Subir Sarkar

    Nanotechnology is a scientific approach of altering the properties by manipulating a material in nanoscale. This emerging field has the potential to bring enormous changes in the field of dentistry by the means of nanorobots, nanomaterials, nanodiagnostic aids and nanotherapeutic approaches. Nanodentistry will be engaged soon in maintaining a near perfect oral health. But human safety, biocompatibility, cost effectiveness should be considered before its wide application in the field of dentistry. This article reviews the current status of nanotechnology in the field of dentistry with its possible applications.

  61. Kavita Nagar, Sujatha G.P, Ashok L., Shivaprasad S.

    Peripheral Ossifying Fibromas (POFs) are benign reactive gingival overgrowth; comprising about 9% of all gingival growths. It occurs mainly in the anterior portion of maxilla in young adults, predominantly among females. It has been described with various synonyms and is believed to arise from the periodontal ligament. In this article, we are presenting two case of peripheral ossifying fibroma occurring in female patients as a solitary growth in the anterior maxillary gingiva.

  62. Vandna Dewangan, Himanshu Pandey, Trilochan satapathy, Ram Kumar Sahu and Amit Roy

    Polyphenols are a large and heterogeneous group of phytochemicals containing phenol rings and are divided into flavonoids, phenolic acids, stilbenes, and lignans. Among all polyphenols, the beneficial effects of flavanols (flavan-3-ols) and their primary food sources, including cocoa, chocolate, and red wine, have been most widely examined in clinical trials. Polyphenols can exert a beneficial effect on type 2 diabetes by a number of mechanisms including slowing carbohydrate digestion and glucose absorption by interacting with oral cavity and intestinal α-amylase and intestinal α-glycosidase and sodium-dependent glucose transporter and by stimulating insulin secretion in the pancreas via increasing 5′ adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathway, and insulin receptor substrate (ISRS) and decreasing β-cell oxidative damage which preserves β-cell integrity. In present paper we have discussed briefly about the role of ployphenols and diet rich in polyphenols contains antioxidant which help in management of diabetes induced by oxidative stress. we also highlight the mechanism of oxidative stress in induction of diabetes and role of antioxidants in management of diabetes mellitus.

  63. Dr. Nishta Lulla, Dr. Rajkumar Kapan and Dr. Swarga Jyoti Das

    Peripheral ossifying fibroma (POF) is a reactive lesion of the gingival tissues, usually originates from the periodontal ligament cells. It is characterized by highly cellular connective tissue exhibiting dystrophic calcification with the formation of bone and cementum-like materials. It predominantly occurs in females compared to that of males and occurs in relation to maxillary teeth particularly the anterior to the molars. A 14 years old girl child was reported with a localised gingival overgrowth in relation to the 11, 21 and 22.The growth was excised and healing was found uneventful. However, removal of the growth revealed the unesthetic black colored gingiva in adjacent areas in contrast of normal colored (coral pink) gingiva at the surgical area. It subsequently demands the depigmentation of gingiva, which was carried out using scalpel. The present case was under observation for considerably a long time and shows no sign of recurrence.

  64. Supriya Sharma, Shalini Gupta, Surya Kant, Kanchan Srivastava and Priyanka Gaur

    Genodermatoses are congenital skin disorder often grouped into three categories: chromosomal, single gene, and polygenetic. Several of these disorders are isolated and also has oral phenomenon, called oral genodermatoses. Among these Ectodermal dysplasia (EDs) is a large group of an inherited disorders represented by a primary defect in hair, teeth, nails or function of sweat gland, in collaboration to another abnormality in an ectodermal derived tissue e.g. ears, eyes, lips, mucous membranes of an oral cavity or nose, central nervous system. The diverse forms of ectodermal dysplasia are caused by the mutation or deletion of specific genes located on different chromosomes. The signs and symptoms differ markedly among the different forms of the condition and rely on the structures that are affected. Presently there are about 150 different forms of ectodermal dysplasias. The commonest forms are Hypohidrotic (anhidrotic) Ectodermal Dysplasia and Hidrotic Ectodermal Dysplasia. The frequency of the different ectodermal dysplasias is highly variable in a given population. There is no particular treatment, only disease management is accessible.

  65. István Széchenyi, Zsuzsanna Antal and Gabriella Hegyi

    Background: Our research in 2015 verified the immediate stress-reduction effect of the NADA 5-point protocol with needles. Objective: The primary aim of the research was to discover whether the NADA 5-point ear acupuncture therapy with soft-laser (biostimulation) method has significant stress-reduction effects that can be verified regarding prolactin(PRL) and cortisol(CORT) levels, as well as to discover if that effect is stronger than the effects gained by informal talks in the control group. Our secondary goal was to research the placebo effect and also we tried to investigate into the importance of exact localization (of auricular points). That is why we compared our results with those of a Battlefield control group. (In effect it meant, comparison among specific and non-specific points.) Materials and Methods: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted at the Széchenyi Health Center in Budapest, Hungary. 110 patients were included in the study: 22 in an experimental test group and 88 in control groups (e.g. 4x22 persons). Volunteering students and workers aged 20–70 were included. Ear acupuncture treatment was performed on 5 points: Shen Men, Sympathetic, Kidney, Liver and Lung. Each blood sample was taken between 2 and 4 pm twice from the same person. The starting and ending points of the 12 main meridian pairs of the body were measured with the MeriDiM® screening device (SCR). Results: As a result of the soft laser 5-point acupuncture treatment, both stress hormone levels were reduced significantly, which verified the stress-reduction effect. Conclusions: It was possible to attain a significant stress-relieving effect by laser acupuncture proved by hormone levels (PRL, CORT) according to Western medicine, and by SCR (Skin Conductivity Response) as Oriental medicine goes. The results obtained by ’sham’ laser pointed out how important the healing attitudes and expectations of the healer are, as well as the patients’ hopeful behaviour regarding the outcome of the healing process.

  66. Ladislav Krapac and Mislav Pap

    Measurements during physical therapy and rehabilitation process are considerable contribution to the patient and therapist cooperation, better compliance and persistence. In this regard, thermography (TG) as a diagnostic method can be very helpful. It is also suitable for tracking the course of the disease because it may show activation or calming the process and can be repeated without harm to the patient. Technological progress has now made it easy and economically acceptable use of TG via a smartphone with a FLIR camera. By elaborating the TG application process, while respecting the thermal environment during measurement (the desired temperature of the environment between 50 and 75 F), we will confirm the credibility of non-aggressive Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine procedures, as well as enable scientific monitoring and better interpretation of treatment results. Due to technological progress, we consider that there is a great potential for wider application of thermography in physical and rehabilitation medicine in the future. In this paper we have presented the course and effectiveness of treating the violinist with tenosynovits and epicondylitis of the left hand.

  67. Ar. Meenal Kumar

    This paper in continuation with the http://www.journalcra.com/current-issue paper discusses the Yali [Vyala] Pillars with respect to elements of space making in temples of Vijaynagar era, and how these Yali Pillars when treated with extraordinary ornamentations enhanced, beautified and lender unique character to the structure and identified the temples given impression of strength, stability and reliability. The volume of distinct spaces, movements and visual impact created by these pillars in temples gives an idea of the distinct identity of architecture to create a sense of group identities between those who built and those who inhabited or used these structures, such elements embody not just the earth or stone from which they were built, but the people and experiences involved in their construction, holding special place in human memory giving distinct identity to structures of architecture.

  68. Kalaimathi, P., Kumarimanimuthu Veeral, D., Krishnamoorthy, R. and Sangameshwari, P.

    Rupture of A field experiment was conducted on sandy loam soil of Kodukkanpalayam village, Cuddalore, Tamilnadu under irrigated condition during 2016-2017 to study the effects of planting techniques and intercropping in groundnut. The experiments were laid out in split plot design replicated thrice with two main and five sub treatments viz., M1 – flat bed method of sowing, M2 – ridges and furrow method of sowing, S1 – sole groundnut, S2 – groundnut + black gram, S3 – groundnut + green gram, S4 – groundnut + sesame and S5 – groundnut + cowpea. The study revealed that when groundnut seeds were sown in ridges and furrows recorded the maximum growth, yield and yield parameters. In sub plots (intercrops), groundnut intercropped with blackgram, recorded the highest growth, yield and yield parameters. Hence, this study clearly revealed that yield maximization in groundnut could be achieved by adopting ridges and furrows, intercropped with blackgram proved to be effective, economically feasible and eco-friendly approach for better returns in groundnut rather than traditional methods of sowing.

  69. Dr. Riyaz Ahmed, Dr. Manu Sharma and Dr. Soundarya Singh

    Dentigerous cyst is the most common odontogenic cyst. It is characterized by a unilocular radiolucent lesion that encloses permanent tooth buds or, under certain circumstances, displaced tooth buds. Such cyst remains initially completely asymptomatic unless when infected and can be discovered only on routine radiographic examination.Here is a case of dentigerous cyst, present in left mandibular region associated with cortical expansion and facial asymmetry which has been enucleated and tooth extracted surgically is discussed in the present case report.

  70. Pradnya V. Bansode, Seema D. Pathak, M.B. Wavdhane and Devika M. Kalaskar

    In recent years, there has been an increased demand for improvement in the appearance of natural teeth. The conservative technique of tooth bleaching has gained attention and acceptance from both patients and clinicians. A subjective perception of tooth discoloration, or of having an unattractive natural tooth colour, can entice a patient to seek aesthetic enhancing procedures such as tooth bleaching. (1)

  71. Dr. Mirau Mbise

    Tanzania is one of the countries where the problem of food insecurity has been prominent to poor rural households. Due to this, Tanzania supports the second target of Sustainable Development Goals of eradicating hunger. Mostly, Tanzania target on maize for food security; traditionally, shortage of maize has been equated to food shortage. Although many studies have been carried out, less weight has been put in analysing the relationship between expected farm-gate price and farm household food security. Thus, this study intends to estimate the relationship between expected maize farm-gate price and rural household food security in Ludewa district of Njombe region-Tanzania using logit model. Among others, the main results indicated that farm-gate price has the negative significant effect on farm household food security. This leads to conclusion that farm-gate price is important for increased maize production. Thus, the study recommends measures that will increase producer price for motivating more production while ensuring the only surplus is sold.

  72. Morlu Stevens and Bareki S. Batlokwa

    In this work, fish scales waste biomaterial was used as an alternative adsorbent for the removal of anions from wastewater. The pulverized waste materials revealed a rough surface which is often associated with effective sorbent. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy revealed the presence of hydroxyl, carboxylate esters, phosphate and amine functional groups. X-ray diffractometer also show the presence of hydroxyapatite in the fish scale waste. The optimum parameters for anions removal were found to be 7.03, 73.18 mgL-1, 69.19 min and 23.11mgL-1for pH, pulverized fish scale dosage, contact time and initial anions concentration respectively at n = 3. Kinetic studies showed that pseudo-second-order reaction model best described the adsorption process. The percentage removal of anions from the wastewater by the waste material was averaged at 88 ± 2% at n = 3.

  73. Dr. Mushtaq Chalkoo, Dr. Mumtaz Din Wani, Dr. Wasim Raja, Dr. Awhad Mueed Yousuf, R. Syed Shakeeb Arsalan, Dr. Zubair Gul Lone and Dr. Aabid Rasool Bhat

    Incisional hernia is one of the commonest surgical problems encountered in our day to day surgical practice.The laparoscopic technique for repairing ventral and incisional hernias (VIH) is now well established. Intraperitoneal on lay mesh hernioplasty without closure of defect (S-IPOM) has been the standard technique for a long time. However, concerns like seroma formation, mesh eventration, bulging and recurrence were of much concern. Intra peritoneal on lay mesh Hernioplasty with closure of defect (IPOM – PLUS) has shown promising results vis-à-vis these complications mentioned with S-IPOM. The theme of our study was to evaluate and observe the results with both the techniques for the repair of incisional hernia.Majority of the patients in our study were females in both groups and had undergone previous surgery through midline incision.Postoperative complications in terms of seroma formation, recurrence and mesh bulging were significantly less in IPOM-PLUS as compared to S-IPOM. We recommend that intraperitoneal on lay mesh hernioplasty with closure of defect is a better technique for the incisional hernias.

  74. Annabela Rita

    This essay aims to observe how the poetry of Cesário Verde develops its own aesthetic archeology, forming poetic “lineages” (TS Eliot) marking the creative and innovative itinerary.

  75. Dr. Ashley Ann Varughese, Dr. Alfy Ann George and Dr. Elizabeth K. Abraham

    Cotyledonoid dissecting leiomyoma of uterus is an unusual variant of uterine leiomyoma that presents with an alarming gross appearance. We report a case of cotyledonoid dissecting leiomyoma in a 36 year old, 35 weeks pregnant lady who presented with lower abdominal pain. On caesarian section, two fungating polypoidal masses (mistaken for placental tissue), arising from the anterior and anterolateral surfaces of uterus, were excised. Macroscopy revealed multiple bulbous congested nodules connected by fibrous tissue. Microscopy showed benign smooth muscle cells arranged as micronodules with prominent perinodular hydropic degeneration and rich vasculature. There was no cellular atypia, increased mitosis or necrosis. It is important to recognize this rare variant of leiomyoma to prevent overtreatment.

  76. Rishab Bhattacharyya

    This article explores the applicability of the 1996 advisory opinion of the International Court of Justice on the legality of threat of nuclear weapons in the current geopolitical scenario when it comes to nuclear weapons. It scrutinizes the changes in nature of circumstances, and certain unexplored domains during the 1996 judgment.

  77. Didier Aristide Ikpe Kouamé, Betty Meuwiah Faulet, Gbocho Serge Elvis Ekissi, Bedel Jean Fagbohoun and Patrice Lucien Kouamé

    Effects of sprouting time (0, 1, 2, 3, 4 days) on the physicochemical and biochemical parameters of sesame seeds oils raw, soaked and sprouted was investigated. Sesame seeds were sprouted in laboratory under room conditions (humidity 85%, temperature 28±3°C) during 4 days. The process significantly decreased the oil content (51.50 to 41.58%) and increased the free fatty acid (FFA) from 0.22% to 9.05%, the iodine value (IV) (from 105.70 to 108.91 mg KOH/g), saponification index (SI) (191.11 to 193.82 mg KOH/g) and the peroxide value is very low (less than 0.1meqO2/kg. Germination has decreased the viscosity of the germinated seeds oil (from 71.09 to 66.29 mPa.s) and have significantly changed color of the extracted oil from (8.17Y, 2.73R) to (72.90Y, 5.70R). Furthermore it also increased the α-tocopherol (vitamin E) level from 0 to 597.65 µg/g and β-caroten content (provitamin A) from 0.80 to 4.80 µg/g. Oils extracted with present a small percentage of impurity (0.078 to 0.096%). The major unsaturated fatty acids were oleic acid (around 45%) and linoleic acid (around 37%), while the main saturated fatty acid were palmitic acid (around 9%) and stearic acid (around 7%). Sprouting has resulted in a decrease in saturated fatty acids (16.72 to 16.43%) while unsaturated fatty acids have increased slightly (83.28 to 83.57%). So the present study revealed that germination significantly affects the physicochemical and biochemical parameters of sesame seeds oils sprouted.

  78. Suresh, V., Bhumika Patel, Purvi Patel, Riya Patel, Snehal Patel and Sonali Patel

    Objectives • To assess the level of anxiety among family members of patient admitted in ICU DGH. • To find out association between the level of anxiety with their selected demographic variables. • To prepare an information booklet on prevention of anxiety. Material and method: The selection of design depends upon the purpose of the study, research approach and variable to be studied. Descriptive research design was used for the study. The study was conducted on 30 family members of patient admitted in ICU, DGH using non-probability purposive sampling technique. The tool used for data collection MHARS was selected to assess the level of anxiety among family members of patients. The data was tabulated and analyzed in terms of objective of the study, using descriptive and inferential statistics. An information booklet on prevention of anxiety provided to prevent anxiety among family members of patients admitted in ICU. Results: The result showed that 3 (10%) family members have no anxiety, 13 (43.33%) family members have mild anxiety, 13 (43.33%) family members have moderate anxiety and only 1 (3.33%) family members have severe anxiety. The findings variable indicate such as Age (X2 = 4.314), Patient’s age (X2 = 5.484), Gender (X2 = 0.557), Religion (X2 = 0.384), Education (X2 = 5.923), Type of family (X2 = 0), Family monthly income (X2 = 1.45), Was patient admitted earlier in ICU? (X2 = 0.554), Type of personality (X2 = 0) showed significance at 0.05 level of significance. Thus it can be interpreted that there is significance association between the levels ofanxiety.H1 is partially accepted. Conclusion: The study was undertaken to assess the level of anxiety among family members of patients admitted in ICU, DGH, Piparia and found that the majority of family members had mild and moderate level of anxiety related to patients admitted in ICU. Therefore to reduce the anxiety level among family members the researcher or investigator provided information booklet to reduce anxiety.

  79. Ahmet Semih Altiparmak

    The research was conducted at the study plots of Department of Field Crops, Faculty of Agriculture, Ankara University, in arid conditions representing the Central Anatolia, in Ankara, in years 2010 and 2011. The does of the phosphorus fertilizer that generates the highest grain yield per unit was investigated on Lebanese-origin H1; 5143, Turkish-origin H2; 5526, and Iraqi-origin H3; 5538 vetch lines that were obtained from ICARDA. Four doses of phosphorus, corresponding to P2O5, and including Pk; 0 kg/da, P1; 4 kg/da, P2; 8 kg/da, and P3; 16 kg/da were used in Triple Super Phosphate form on three repetitive narbonvetch lines that were structured as randomly split parcels. In the study, positive effects were observed on plant height (62.53-77.88 cm), main stem thickness ( 4.90-5.91 mm), thousand grain weight (77.39-114.03 g), biological yield (359.11-397.43 kg/da), harvest index (% 36.21-48.89), grain yield ( 123.41-217.37 kg/da), number of pods per plant ( 11.37 to 15.30 pieces/plant ) at 4 kg/da P2O5 and 8 kg/daP2O5 phosphor doses. On the other side, adverse effects were detected on the number of stems per plant (2.12-2.99 unit/plant), the number of seeds per pod (3.59-3.71), germination rate of seeds (91.17-86.33 %), phosphor ratio of seed (0.29 to 0.37 %) and crude protein content in grain (25.00-25.30 % ) at levels more than16 kg/da. In the study, 4 kg/daP2O5and 8 kg/da P2O5fertilizer doses gave the best results while the amounts over 8 kg/da were not considered statistically significant.

  80. Gokul, K., 2Suseela, M., Jacob Doss, P. and Venkata Chandrudu, M.

    Pesticides are widely used in most sectors of the agricultural production to prevent or reduce losses by pests and thus can improve yield as well as quality of the produce, even in terms of cosmetic appeal, which is often important to consumers. Oxidative stress by increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been implicated in the toxicity of various pesticides. The present study was designed to investigate the induction of oxidative stress by Lambda cyhalothrin; a Type II pyrethroid in mice Intestine and Testis. Animals were divided into four equal groups; the first group used as control while groups 2, 3 and 4 were treated with sub lethal dose of Lambda cyhalothrin (4.8 mg/kg bw). Mice were daily administered with their respective doses for 30 days by gavage. Repeated oral administration of Lambda cyhalothrin was found to reduce the activities of the antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase(CAT) and level of reduced glutathione peroxidase(GPX) and glutathione reductase GR. Intestine and Testis injury was confirmed by the histological changes. In conclusion, the oral sub-acute toxicity studies of Lambda revealed that this pyrethroid is of risk in albino mice.

  81. Dr. Kokila, Dr. Tamilselvi, Dr. Esther Nalini Dr. Renuka Devi and Dr. Arunkumar Prasad

    One of the most common esthetic concerns associated with periodontal tissue is gingival recession. Gingival recession is the exposure of root surface due to a displacement of the gingival margin apical to cement-enamel junction. Various surgical techniques are described such as free gingival graft, coronally repositioned flap, connective tissue graft, guided tissue regeneration and tissue engineering to correct the mucogingival problems and to cover the denuded root surfaces. This case report presents a bridge flap technique, which is a combination of coronally repositioned flap and vestibule extension procedure, which can be used to cover the multiple gingival recession. The treated case revealed adequate root coverage and increase in width of the attached gingiva at three months follow up.

  82. Rebecca Dillu and Kusum Roy

    Aim: A study to assess the expressed practices of pregnant women regarding the nutritional needs to prevent anemia during antenatal period at selected hospital of Gurugram, Haryana. Methodology: Non Experimental descriptive survey design was adopted in the present study. Purposive sampling technique was used to select the sample size of 60 Pregnant women visiting the O.P.D for antenatal assessment at selected hospital of Gurugram. The assessment of expressed practices of pregnant women regarding nutritional needs to prevent anemia during antenatal period was carried out using a validated checklist regarding. Results: Assessment of the expressed practices scores revealed that equal number of pregnant women i.e. 50% of antenatal mothers were following healthy dietary practices and same number (50%) of pregnant women were following unhealthy dietary practices regarding iron deficiency anemia. Chi-square test was used to find the association between expressed practices scores with selected demographic variables. The results indicated that there was a significant association between the expressed practices scores and educational level of pregnant women. Conclusion: The findings of the study depicts that The pregnant women also expressed unhealthy dietary practices that can lead to various complications for women as well as their babies i.e. abortion, maternal mortality, IUGR, preterm baby etc. Hence the nurses must increase their efforts to impart more knowledge and create awareness on treatment to prevent anaemia in pregnancy.

  83. Yogesh Suhas Parale

    The focal point of a war in Afghanistan is dominated by Taliban in the last 17 years. Terrorist Organizations like Al Qaeda or Islamic State (IS/ISIS) have traditionally not been considered as powerful adversaries as compared to Taliban. Yet, policy of making a clear distinction between Taliban and Terrorist Organizations has not paid well. For US, the cost of having been at an extensive war for more than 17 years is huge and it is taking a substantial toll. With resources dwindling, influence declining; the war on terror is on the verge of a major catastrophe. On the other side, the unflinching resilience of the forces of Taliban and Islamists has proved to be just imperishable. The attack of 9/11 compelled US to invade Afghanistan. Compelling USA to fight in Afghanistan has proved to be one of the greatest stratagems. With the war in Afghanistan, the scourge of terrorism has spread like never before in the modern times. The riddle of Afghanistan thus poses a few critical questions. The most important question of all is - Can there be a clear distinction established between Taliban and terrorist organizations like ISIS?

  84. Dr. Sweety P. K. Pradhan, Dr. Sumanta Kumar Mondal, Dr. Debarshi Jana and Dr. Sambhunath Bandyopadhyay

    Introduction: The rapid increase in cesarean birth rates from 1996 to 2011 in US without clear evidence of concomitant decreases in maternal or neonatal morbidity or mortality raises significant concern that cesarean delivery is overused. Increasing women’s access to nonmedical interventions during labor, such as continuous labor and delivery support, also has been shown to reduce cesarean birth rates. Several examples of interventions that can contribute to the safe lowering of the primary cesarean delivery rate is by induction of labour by various modes where indicated. In the present study focused on medical method of induction of labour where potential risk of continuing pregnancy is more than terminating. Materials and methods: This study is a parallel group open labeled randomized control trial conducted in the Institute of post graduate medical education and Seth Sukhlal Karnani Memorial Hospital (SSKM), a tertiary care hospital in West Bengal for a period of 1 year and 6 months from April 2016 to October 2017 in the department of obstetrics and gynaecology. During the study period a total of 90 pregnant women, 45 women in mifepristone group and 45 in the dinoprostone group, scheduled for induction of labour. Safety, efficacy and fetomaternal outcome of both the drugs were compared in the study population. Results: The following observations were made: Baseline characteristics like Parity, obesity were comparable in both the groups. Multigravida women had successful induction and vaginal delivery more than primigravida, obese women had less successful induction and vaginal delivery than nonobese with both mifepristone and dinoprostone. Successful induction of labour and postinduction improvement of bishop’s score were more with mifepristone group than dinoprostone (p value=0.0038). Requirement of augmentation with oxytocics were more in the dinoprostone group than mifepristone (p value =0.0567). Uterine hyper stimulation during the period of induction noted in dinoprostone group is more than mifepristone (p value= 0.0112)Vaginal deliveries were more with mifepristone and less with dinoprostone whereas caeserian section rates were more in dinoprostone group than the mifepristone group (p value=0.020). Fetal outcomes were observed with 2 variables NICU admission and APGAR score at 5 minutes after birth which showed that less NICU admission and good APGAR score is noted with mifepristone than dinoprostone group. Discussion and conclusion: Main advantage of mifepristone is that it can be given on outpatient basis and the patient is asked to report after 24hrs or with onset of labour whichever is earlier provided that the patients were thoroughly explained about the outcomes. Whereas with dinoprostone, patient must be hospitalized on induction with first gel of dinoprostone itself. Thus the total duration of hospital stay in mifepristone group is much lesser than in dinoprostone group.

  85. Gberikon, G.M., Dahil, K.M. and Sar, T.T.

    Image classification has gained vital attention Investigations were carried out to determine Hepatitis B virus profile of patients in Karu, Karu Local Government Area of Nasarawa State, Nigeria. A total of three hundred and eighty four (384) blood samples comprising of two hundred and forty (240) male and one hundred and forty four (144) female were collected from patients using 5ml syringe and needle. The blood samples were dispensed into ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid (EDTA) tubes. Each sample was centrifuged at 3000 revolution per minute for 5 minutes in a centrifuge to get the plasma. Three (3) drops of each sample (plasma) was dropped into the five sample wells and results were recorded in fifteen minutes. Results showed that the highest rate of infection was from those in secondary schools with 90(48.39%) followed by tertiary institution with 78 (41.93%). Those in the tertiary institution and secondary schools were more at risk with 12(40.00%) positive HBe Ag each with the least from the adult education and no any form of education 0(00.00%). There was significant difference (p<0.005) with rate of hepatitis B virus infection between educated and uneducated individuals. Business individuals were more infected with 78(40.63%) followed by students 66(34.37%). Civil servants infected with HBV were 36(18.75%) and applicants 12(6.25%). There was no significant difference (p>0.05) between business men and their non- business counterparts. Vaccination is important in the prevention of infection with this virus. Therefore mass immunization of those not vaccinated and enlightment programs be encouraged through campaigns, seminars and workshops.

  86. Ananda Rama Rao, B. and Nikhil, V.

    Vacuum-assisted closure (VAC) therapy is a new modality in wound care after growth factors and hydrocolloid dressing, in the treatment of large infected wounds. We have been using this technique for diabetic foot ulcers. A 58yr old diabetic man who is a post CABG pt, presented with a large horse shoe shaped peri anal abscess after drainage of the abscess in the O.R., a diversion colostomy was done and VAC therapy was applied, a complete closure of the peri anal wound by secondary suturing was achieved in 6 weeks. Avoiding regular dressing and constant soiling of the wound, which is a hindrance in the management of large infected wounds.

  87. James K. Njuguna, Mercy Kintu and Julius Nkusi

    Background: The use of Aerobic exercises and The Nile flows for about 6,700 kilometers through ten eastern African countries namely Rwanda, Burundi, D. R .Congo, Tanzania, Kenya, Uganda, Eritrea, Ethiopia, the Sudan, and Egypt before emptying into the Mediterranean, and is the longest international river system in the world. During the colonial era, boundaries were created so as to demarcate territories for easy governance by the majorly Europeans masters. The boundaries created a sense of ownership of natural resources including mountains, valleys, lakes and also rivers that neighbored or passed through various states. While these resources management and sustainability requires the partnership of all the communities around them, their use in social, economic and other livelihood advantages remains a source of dispute among the same would be beneficiaries. A formula for equitable sharing of the water body resources remains elusive for decades with blame games and accusations peddling hostility to almost war levels between the countries that share them. The river Nile region of the world is such an example. The constant attempts to bring all the emissaries together to come up with an agreeable approach to manage and utilize what the waters provide has often failed, with each individual states supporting a certain course hidden behind self-seeking agenda. However all is not lost, as solutions, though few, can be drawn from successive trans-boundary water management initiatives in other regions of the world where a take and give approach among other formulas are deployed.

  88. Nandeibam Premita and Christina, M.S.

    Uvular oedema can be a serious sign of suffocation due to the obstruction of the airway path. There are various causative agents of oedematous uvula such as Idiopathic, hereditary angioedema, trauma, inhalation exposure, medication reactions. Snoring is a common predisposing factor to uvular oedema. Therefore, we should rule out the etiology and try to remove the stimuli as early as possible so that we can conserve the patient’s life. In most cases of oedematous uvula, patients usually complaints of difficulty swallowing and feel like something is stuck in their throat. In this article, we report a case of an asymptomatic oedematous uvula with increased its length.

  89. Reji, R. K., Induja, P., Kristi Moktan, Shalini Pokhriyal, Parvathy, P. R., Prashella Simon and Archana Pandey

    A cross sectional study was conducted to assess the knowledge and preventive practices regarding Dengue infection among the women attending selected OPD services of A tertiary hospital. The sample consisted of 50 women and the tool was a structured questionnaire to assess the knowledge and preventive practices Study findings revealed that 96.3% had heard about dengue. 89% of them considered Dengue as a serious problem.86% of the subjects were aware of spread of Dengue mosquitoes. Mosquito nets, liquidators were used by 61% of respondents, coils by 56% and repellants by 22%.Majority (46%) were from the age group of 20-30 years and were residing in the cantonment area. Among all the samples 16% or their family members were infected with Dengue fever. 18% of the samples were having good knowledge level, Majority, 54% were having average and 28% were having poor knowledge. A High majority (92) were having satisfactory level of preventive practices. Though the preventive practice among the subjects were good but more emphasis is required for the improvement of knowledge level of the subjects.

  90. Dr. Suhail Bhat, Dr. Rahul Mahajan and Dr. Kanav Mahajan

    Fractures of the patella constitute almost 1% of all skeletal injuries[1], resulting from either direct or indirect trauma. Most patellar fractures are caused by a combination of direct and indirect forces. The most significant effects of fracture of the patella are loss of continuity of the extensor mechanism of the knee and potential incongruity of the patellofemoral articulation. Opinions differ as to the optimal treatment of patellar fractures. Accepted methods include a variety of wiring techniques, screw fixation, partial patellectomy, and total patellectomy. The aim of present study was to analyze the result of partial patellectomy by reverse suturing technique, complications associated with the procedure and restoration of range of motion and function of knee and to evaluate the results clinically regarding pain, activities of daily living, range of motion, power, radiologically regarding failure of procedure. A total of 35 cases of inferior pole patella fracture which were comminuted, extra-articular, closed and fresh were included. They were treated by partial patellectomy (reverse suturing technique). The age of patients in this study ranged from 20-50 yrs. Males formed 68.5% of the patients. Most common cause of fracture in this was direct blow to patella due to fall (62.8%). Duration from injury to surgery was an average of 3.56 days and hospital stay was an average of 4.44 days. Time taken to return to previous level of activity ranged from 8 to 12 weeks. Overall excellent results were obtained in 28 patients and good in 7 patients.

  91. Chirag R. Ratwani

    Engineered nanoparticles (ENMs) are extensively used in varied consumer products. Along the period of usage for nano-enabled products, these nano particles can be released into the environment and get accumulated in the waste streams. Accidental or deliberate release of nanoparticles in the environment results into a new type of waste which is termed as nanowaste. In the framework of this review paper, details about nanowaste, challenges encountered during nanowaste management, Analysis of nanowaste along with methods for its efficient and methodical disposal are summarized. Suitable analytical methods for characterization of nanowaste form the backbone of the nanowaste management system. Various methods for nanowaste sampling, separation and quantification are used according to the nature of the nanomaterial. These methods are not sufficient as per the current requirement due to their inability to distinguish between ENMs and Naturally occurring Nanomaterials. Development and Standardization of analytical protocol is the need of the hour. Appropriate handling of nanowaste during its analysis and treatment becomes obligatory due to the hazards by nanoparticles on human life and the environment. Method of nanowaste disposal should be carefully chosen while keeping in mind the nature of the material, Post treatment requirements and disposal conditions. Currently, four methods are available, namely Incineration, Recycling, Landfilling and Organic treatment. Landfilling is usually known as the method of ultimate disposal, while other methods are usually followed by Landfilling or recycling at the end. With full regard of the current developments in this field, further work must be conducted for apposite characterization of the nanoparticles. Moreover, improvement of the current disposal methods, to minimize hazards and disposal costs is essential along with development of new methods.

  92. Dr. Rajesh K.S., Dr. Vino Tito V Kurien, Dr. Shashikanth Hegde and Dr. Arun Kumar, M.S.

    Aim: This study was conducted to estimate and compare the salivary pH, uric acid and periodontal status in vegetarians and non vegetarians. Material and Methods: The study consisted of 90 systemically healthy subjects in the age group of 18 years or above which was further divided into two groups: vegetarian and non vegetarian group. Plaque index, gingival index, sulcus bleeding index, probing pocket depth, clinical attachment level were recorded. Estimation of salivary pH was done using pH meter and salivary uric acid was estimated using Uric acid Kit in a semi automatic biochemical analyser. Statistical analysis was performed using independent t test with a level of significance 5% and power 80% and median effect size of 0.6. Results: A total of 90 patients were recruited for the study (21 females and 24 males in the vegetarian group and 25 females and 20 males in the non vegetarian group) The results revealed that comparison of uric acid between the non vegetarian and vegetarian group shows a statistical significant difference ( p-value=0.003) . There was significant difference between the groups on comparing gingival index and sulcus bleeding index with a p value of 0.041 and 0.045. Conclusion: This study has shown that vegetarian subjects had a statistically significant higher uric acid level (antioxidant) and reduced inflammatory signs.

  93. Fadime Çınar, Halil Şengül and Arzu Bulut

    Objective: Mobile health applications provide opportunities for individuals to monitortheir health and access their health information whenever and whereverthey want. The purpose of this study is to examine the frequency with which smartphone owners use health-related mobile applications. Materials and Method: This study, which is a descriptive study, was carried out between December 2017 and January 2018 on 660 people who agreedto participate in the research in private hospitals that allow European-based work in Istanbulto participate in the study and outpatient services. A 31-item mobile application and a set of questions assessing sociodemographic characteristics were used to collect the data. The findings obtained in the study were subjected to appropriate descriptive statistical analyses transferred to the SPSS 25 computer program for Windows. For the significance level of the statistical tests, p <0.05 was accepted. Findings: The health-related mobile app download rate was found to be low among mobile phone users. It was determined that the most common health practices used werethe step-by-step, fitness, and family physician practices, and the majority of the participants used them on a daily basis. The general reasons for not downloading mobile health applications were determined to be opting for applications related to interests, internet spending costs, and the collection of data. Conclusion: Mobile health applications are becoming increasingly costly, and an increasing number of patients are receiving continuous acceleration, prolonged treatment methods, limited and inadequate human power, it may be a solution step in eliminating hardware and building deficiencies.

  94. Karthikeyan, K., Jayanthi, G. and Malukannan, M.

    An interleaved boost dc/dc converter is developed featuring smaller input/output filters, faster dynamic response and lower device stress than conventional designs, for solar electric vehicle (SEV) regulation particularly for a common dc bus. The advantages and disadvantages of several topologies of dc/dc converters, based on their component are presented and compared in (Li, 2011). applications. The converter is connected between the photovoltaic power generation and dc bus in a multisource energy storage system of a SEV. Typically, interleaved converters require a current control loop to reduce the input current ripples, the output voltage ripples, and the size of passive components with high efficiency. A Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) controller for a Photovoltaic (PV) solar system associated to backup source (Battery) guarantees an uninterrupted power supply and assist the propulsion of the vehicle during transients and recover energy during regenerative braking. The design, construction, and testing of an experimental hardware prototype is presented, with the test results included.

  95. Susana Callao, José I. Jarne and David Wróblewski

    This study analyzes and compares the earnings management behaviour between Eastern and Western European countries taking into consideration the particularities and differences of both markets. The paper fills this gap in the literature as it analyzes the context of earnings management in the developing Eastern countries and its comparison to the Western well-developed European countries. This is the first study which compares these two markets. The results show that companies in the European countries included in the study, engage in earnings management, in particular in decreasing earnings practices. Around 70% of the companies from Eastern and Western European countries manage earnings to downward. Mean ranks from the Kruskal Wallis test indicate lower manipulation in Western European countries than in Eastern European countries. Additionally, in the heterogeneity of the European countries based on the cluster analysis we confirm that Eastern European countries follow the German companies’ way of managing earnings. Finally, time-line analysis revealed that earnings management does vary in time and in extent for Eastern as well as for Western European countries. Nevertheless, we detect two main tendencies for all European countries: firstly, a decrease in manipulation between 2003/2004 and 2007; and between 2008 and 2009.

  96. Oleg Gorgadze and Giorgi Bakhtadze

    Steinernematids and Heterorhabditids are lethal insect pathogens with biocontrol potential for managing insect pests of agricultural importance.The efficacy of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) of Steinernema tbilisiense and S. thesami was evaluated by oak pests, such as Lymantria dispar L. (Lepidoptera: Liparidae) and Tortrix viridanaL. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). To determine the efficacy of nematodes under laboratory conditions, suspensions of the following concentrations were tested: 700 nematode, 350 nematode, and 200 nematode in 1 ml of water. The experimental objects were mainly L. dispar and T. viridana. In those experiments, where a suspension of S. tbilisiense 700, 350 and 200 nematodes in 1 ml of water was used against L. dispar, 96.5, 62.0 and 55.0% insect mortality were respectively recorded. When applying S. thesami - 98.0; 71.0 and 57.5% deaths.During the action of S. tbilisiense on the caterpillars of T.viridana, 95.5, 58.0 and 53.0% died. When using S. thesami, respectively, 90.5., 66.0 and 56.0%.The most effective concentration was 700 nem. in 1 ml of water, in which a maximum biological efficiency (99-100%) was achieved in a number of replicates.When using combined suspensions of two species of S. tbilisiense and S. thesami nematodes (350 N each per 1 ml of water) caused the death of 98.0% of L. dispar caterpillars, while the effectiveness of S. tbilisiense alone was 62.0% and S. thesami - 71.0%.The same high efficacy was observed when using this suspension against T.viridana - 92.0%.Thus, in the joint application of two species of nematodes, higher results were obtained than when each nematode was used separately. From this, we can conclude that in this case there is a phenomenon of synergism.Field surveys were conducted in Saguramo, Lelubani, Tezami (Mtskheta district).Oak trees were treated with suspensions of S. tbilisiense and S. thesami (700 nematode in 1ml of water). The best results were obtained in the fight against caterpillars of III and IV stages (mortality 62.5 - 65.2%).It was found that when using S. tbilisiense at 19-220 and relative humidity of 75 to 81%, the mortality of caterpillars of III and IV ages was 59%. In case of S. thesami, the mortality of caterpillars reached 64.5%.With an increase in the dose of nematodes in a suspension of up to 1000 nematodes in 1 ml of water, the effectiveness of the preparation also increased accordingly.The mortality of caterpillars in the case of S. tbilisiense reached 74.2%; when using S. thesami - 76.5%.On the basis of the conducted studies, it was established that the nematodes S. tbilisiense and S. thesami used in our experiments are equally effective against leaf-eating pests of oak. The effectiveness of nematode preparations varies with the temperature and relative humidity of the air. The main condition for obtaining high effects is high air humidity (above 80%) and an increase in the concentration of nematode suspension. It is proved the mortality of insect increases with an increase in the concentration of up to 1000 nematode 1 ml of water.

  97. Cristina Stoicescu

    The purchase decision process began to be studied 300 years ago by John von Neumann and Oskar Morgenstern. Over time, due to the social and demographic changes and the fast evolution of technology, people needs became more diverse and so, a new science was developed in 1960: Economic Behavior. The study of consumer behavior is now an important issue for any company that wants to expand its dimensions, to become more competitive and ultimately to survive to the daily changes of the economic environment. The goal is to create a model that will improve the profitability of companies by increasing the number of products sold by the company and by creating stronger relationships between the company and its customers. In conclusion, by studying the behavior of their clients, companies can deliver products in a more efficient manner, increasing consumer satisfaction and ultimately, increasing their profitability.

  98. Onwe John Ituma and Ademiluyi Joel

    An equation expressing filterability in terms of Filter Cake Yield has been derived using Buckingham- method of LMT Dimensional Analysis. The model equation developed (Equation 27) shows that the cake yield from a filter press is directly proportional to the filter area of the pressure vessel, applied pressure and initial solids content of the sludge while being inversely proportional to specific resistance of the filtrate, viscosity of filtrate, compressibility coefficient of the sludge and pressing time. This is in agreement with scientific reasoning and experimental observation. The new equation enables performance of a pressure filter (Filter Press) to be predicted from a simple laboratory determination of cake yields. Curves derived from the model show how filter cake yield depends on a number of these parameters, for instance, figures 3,4,5 and 6 respectively illustrates the effects of pressing time, pressures, conditioner dosages and initial solids content on the filter cake yield. It was observed that increasing ferric chloride dosage from 11.87% to 22.61% increased filter cake yield from 3.785 x 10-4g/Cm2.S to 4.4118 x 10-4g/Cm2.S while reducing specific resistance from 1.7372 x 1010Cm/g to 1.5940 x 1010Cm/g. The optimum dosages from the graph to attain acceptable filtrate quality is 19.63% for an operating pressure of 6628.18g/Cm2. Considering the differences in the parameters tested, it is significant that they all responded similarly when compared with previous research works. Moreover, experimental verification of the equation and the derived curves has been described and it may be concluded that for practical purposes, the predicted performance agrees with measured values with a correlation coefficient of 0.998. Although, the scope of the experimental verification was somewhat limited, it was sufficient enough to demonstrate the use of the equation and curves derived in this study. The method can be applied in predicting full-scale performance for any sludge from laboratory experiments and the procedure has been fully described and comparatively analyzed.

  99. Dr. Anjana H Rao and Dr. Vinayaka Hegade, P.

    Introduction: Fresh frozen plasma (FFP) is a blood component which is being used as a rational replacement therapy for various clinical conditions. Many of the times FFP being used irrationally and associated with a variety of hazards. Because of ease of availability and gap in the knowledge of medical professionals blood products are being used liberally and sometimes inappropriately. Methodology: Prospective cross sectional observational study was done over a period of 1 year in a tertiary hospital, in the western part of India. 100 events of FFP therapy was studied in neonates (< 1month) and pediatric (1month-16years)age groups. Indications and reactions to transfusion of FFP were studied in both the groups and its indication was compared with BCHS guidelines for terming it as appropriate or inappropriate. Results: Out of total 100 events of transfusions majority of the transfusions was in age group of 1 to 5 yrs (44%), most common indication being sepsis. In the pediatric age group 58% of the transfusions were done in ICU, We found that overall 36 % FFP transfusions were Inappropriate. Use of FFP for volume expansion was the most frequent form of inappropriate use followed by cases of bleeding without derangement of coagulation tests. Increasing awareness among the clinicians and strict protocol in management may have helped to reduce the percentage of inappropriate transfusions. Overall 3.0% had transfusion reactions, commonest being had FNHTR. Conclusion: Regular audit of blood and its component usage is essential to assess the blood utilization pattern and set ideal policies in all the medical specialties to make it appropriate, ensure availability and save patients from its hazards.

  100. Chopfoza Catherine

    This article tries to highlight the work of a faith based NGO in its endeavour to build peace in the North East region of India. Drawing on case study documents from four target states, it seeks to draw out how in its peace programme, the organisation capacitated women and girls enabling them to participate in the process of mitigating conflict and take actions on social issues relevant in their village and community.

  101. Dr. Babita Dubey and Dr. Khushboo Jain

    In this research paper the researcher analyzes the effect of neuroticism personality in empty nest syndrome in middle aged women. 480 women were selected from twin city of Bhilai and Durg. The data was collected by using Empty Nest Syndrome Questionnaire and Personality Test Questionnaire. Mean, Standard Deviation and ANOVA were used for analyzing the data. The finding reveals that neuroticism it is not found that who has more feeling of empty nest syndrome neurotic people or emotionally stable people.

  102. Dr. Humayunm S.I. and Col. V.P. Singh

    Naxalism, also known as Left Wing Extremism (LWE) is perhaps the most serious threat faced by the country at present. The Naxalites or Left-wing extremists or Maoists initially launched their violent campaign of armed agrarian revolution on the lines of the Chinese revolution led by Mao Tse Tung, in Naxalbari village in 1967, in the Siliguri sub-division of West Bengal and hence the movement, Naxalism, got its name from this place. This ideology based movement was initiated by extreme left wing elements of the Communist Party of India- Marxist (CPI-M). The movement was brought under control in the mid 1970s owing to a number of factors, including an intense crackdown by the state, ideological and personal differences leading to recurring splintering and to some extent because of the land reforms implemented by the West Bengal government. However, in the 1980s the various splinter groups under different leaders regrouped themselves. Today, the Maoists have a strong presence in Andhra Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh, Bihar, Jharkhand, Orissa, Maharashtra and West Bengal etc. The emergence of the so called ‘Red Corridor’, which stretches all the way from the border with Nepal through Central India to Southern India, has become a grave security concern. In the districts where the Maoists have a sizeable presence, the writ of the state does not run. In these areas, the Maoists collect taxes, impose fines and levies, control the roads and even dispense crude form of justice. The movement has picked up rapidly, and poses a grave internal security threat to the country leading to an intense debate in the academia and the intelligentsia regarding the possible role of the Indian Army in controlling the menace.

  103. Dr. Tushar M Shah and Dr. Foram R Lalcheta

    Background: Amenorrhoea is absence of menstrual bleeding . Primary Amenorrhoea is absence of menstruation and secondary sexual characters by age of 14 years or absence of menstruation regardless of secondary sexual characters by age of 16 years. For a normal menstruation to occur the normal genetic makeup, neuro-endocrinological, embryological development is must. Any abnormality in above leads to amenorrhea. Incidence of Primary Amenorrhea is less than 1%. Objective: The objective of this study was to note the various causes, complete clinical picture and the management in 25 such cases of Primary Amenorrhoea. Materials and Methods: This is a Prospective study done in 25 cases .They were thoroughly investigated (i/e clinical examination,radiological examination and hormonal study) to get the exact cause of Primary Amenorrhoea. Results: Out of 25 cases studied, maximum cases presented at 14-16 years of age, with chief complaint of primary amenorrhoea, out of which 8% of them were married, 44% cases were of MRKH (Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser syndrome) which was the most common cause of Primary Amenorrhoea in our study. Conclusion: Most common cause of primary amenorrhoea in our study was MRKH Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser syndrome with normal secondary sexual characterstics.

  104. Dr. Babita Dubey and Dr. Khushboo Jain

    In this research paper the researcher analyzes the effect of personality dimension and socio economic in empty nest syndrome in middle aged women. 480 women were selected from twin city of Bhilai and Durg. The data was collected by using Empty Nest Syndrome Questionnaire, Personality Test Questionnaire and Socio Economic Status Questionnaire. Mean, Standard Deviation and ANOVA were used for analyzing the data. The finding reveal that extraverted middle aged women have less feeling of empty nest syndrome than introverted middle aged women. In the case of neuroticism it is not found that who has more feeling of empty nest syndrome. In the case of socio economic status that middle aged women with middle socio economical status do not suffer from high empty nest syndrome now they are equally mature as middle aged women of high socio economical status. They know there rights and values so that they can change their moods according to the situation.

  105. Pranit Bora, Dr. Deepak Vikhe, Dr. Aruna Bhandari and Namita Gandhi

    The edentulous state of the oral cavity is equivalent to the absence of any other body part with specific morphological and psychological sequelae. The dentist has a difficult mission in evaluating the biomechanical differences in the supporting tissues for the two arches and applying the appropriate procedures to produce and maintain the conditions necessary for long-term treatment success. The dental literature evidences suggest that the maxillary arch exhibits earlier tooth loss due to various factors and that the mandibular anterior teeth are preserved the longest, so this case focuses on the oral condition in which the maxillary arch is edentulous and opposed by a natural mandibular dentition2. The main problem is that there are important qualitative and quantitative differences between natural tooth and complete denture support. The natural dentition is capable of specialized responses to occlusal demands that preserve its function, whereas the residual ridge is not and it will respond in a variable way depending on age, sex and racial category. Therefore, the replacement of the missing maxillary dentition must provide an optimum distribution of the occlusal forces in order to minimize the negative effects in the compromised edentulous arch. There has been so much debate regarding the Masticatory loads and forces transferring in the case of a single complete denture opposing a natural dentition. In most of the times flexural fatigue and stress concentration is found to be major cause of denture fractures3. So a single complete denture opposing natural dentition should be reinforced to that extent that it should withstand the huge occlusal forces acting on it. Metal can be added in form of wires, bars, mesh or plates. Metal strengthener has a beneficial effect on the fracture resistance of the poly-methyl-methacrylate.

  106. Yusuf Ali and Dr. Alex A. Bruce

    The paper is centred on an assessment of the impact of industrial training fund (ITF) on youth skill and capability development from 1999-2018. Questionnaires were administered to sample the opinion of employees of I.T.F. training and capability development do not have impact on youth, Industrial Training Fund has not fulfilled its enormous potential of ensuring that the required manpower skills and knowledge required by the country in the twenty first century are provided to the Nigeria economy. The paper recommended that adequate training should be given to youth so as to enhance higher productivity and management should critically assess the training and development needs with a view to determined types of training and skill youth should acquire. The study concluded that, training and development is necessary to enable youth compete favourably in today’s competitiveness and highly dynamic global environment.

  107. Dr. Kandalgaonkar, S.R. and Mrs. Jyoti Harchekar

    Grocery items is the day to day need at all levels of the society India is emerging as the second largest market of family requirements over last decade. The emergence of online shopping groceries is adopted by most of the developed countries and now the same is penetrating in Asian continent with India as the biggest market. The nucleus family size, outbound nature of all the adults of a family, growing size of urban population, rising traffic and other issues, technology up-gradation in banking, logistics and communication have made it mandatory to follow the technology driven marketing. Consumers in urban areas have already started ordering household foods such as rice, flour, sugar, vegetables and dairy products. The study is focused to investigate the retailer trade using new technology for change in the buying behavior of the urban consumers. This enables retailers as well as consumers to enjoy number of benefits.

  108. Dr. Arti Gangurde, Dr. Niraja Jaiswal and Dr. Parag Gangurde

    A beautiful smile enhances the self esteem of the patient. Cosmetically acceptable smile shows a harmonious relationship between the displays of teeth to the gingival tissues. A gummy smile poses a restorative challenge for dentist attempting to achieve ideal esthetics. However with advancement in cosmetic dentistry bleaching, bonding, veneering and laminates have opened door to a wide variety of elective dental treatment. A case is reported here on the cosmetic correction of gummy smile wherein periodontal plastic surgery for esthetic crown lengthening was performed and the teeth were restored with all ceramic restoration for aesthetic enhancement.

  109. Dr. Santosh Kumar Panigrahi

    The unset of Globalization, while effecting life, society, economy and culture of mainstream society has scathingly effected life, livelihood, culture and society of tribal people in much more way. Liberalization, Privatization and Globalization (LPG) model of development has redefined the sustainable tribal development initiative undertaken by welfare state. The indigenous population of Asia and India particularly is much more effected by this macro-economic adjustment global model. Odisha, whose tribal populations constitute more than 22% is not immune from it instead find hard reality to coup up with the effect of globalization in the changing global scenario. The present paper scrupulously examines the impact globalization on live, livelihood, Culture and society of tribal people in India and Odisha in particular”.

  110. Dr. Manju Prasad M., Dr. Jayalakshmi K. Dr. Mahesh B.S. and Dr. Archana S.

    Background: Establishing age is a major concern in forensic applications. Legal action can be executed appropriately only if the individual is known to be an adolescent or adult. Assessment of age is helpful in anthropological studies. Determining age using third molars is of greater importance from the radiographic images. It can be used as assessment markers in mid teens and adulthood, to establish age. Combination of third molar development with skeletal analysis is more valid in estimating age. Material and Method: A Google literature search was done on various studies done using third molar for estimation of age. Based on the available data, the details were analyzed and reviewed. Results and Conclusion: To conclude third molar plays as a valuable source in estimation of age when no other valid document is available. Assessment of age obtained from the images of radiograph of the developing dentition is more reliable and helpful since it is least affected by the difference in nutrition and other systemic illness.

  111. Natchiappan Senthilkumar, Ramachandran Lakhmidevi, Ramasamy Sumathi, Rajendran Sathiskumar, Govinda Raj Divya and Lourdhuswamy Marianayagam Durairaj Lenora

    Soil macrofauna is known to play a significant role in the disintegration and decomposition of organic material added to the soil. Millipedes are the major macrofauna involved in litter decomposition in tropical, subtropical and temperate regions of the world. Millicompost is the process in which millipedes are employed for composting plant wastes. Like vermicomposting, millicompost is an ecofriendly technique involving no pollution. Hence an attempt has been made to compost invasive weed, Parthenium hysterophorus Linn. using two millipede species viz., Harpaphe haydeniana Wood, 1984 and Spinotarsus colosseus Attems, 1928. Among the composting species chosen for the present study, millipede species, H. haydeniana is highly efficient in composting the P. histerophorus leaf litter into useful organic manure than S. colosseus and ordinary compost. Physicochemical characters were significantly higher in millicompost than the ordinary compost. Increase in concentration of N, P, K, Ca and Mg was observed in compost produced with the help of millipede than ordinary compost. The narrow C/N ratio was also observed in millicompost than ordinary compost. It was observed that millicompost is superior and has positive effect on seed germination and growth of five tree species viz., Tectona grandis, Casuarina equisetifolia, Eucalyptus tereticornis, Gmelina arborea, and Ailanthus excelsa over ordinary compost. Hence, millicompost may be considered as alternate compost for the production of quality planting stock.

  112. Binu K. M., Akhila Mariam George, Jincy Mary Alex, Doddayya, H. and Manjunath, G.A.

    Background: Respiratory disorders are one of the most common diseases in pediatrics with an increase in morbidity and mortality. Bronchodilators, Corticosteroids and Antibiotics were used primarily for the management of respiratory disorders in Pediatric Population. Objective: To assess utilization pattern of drugs in Pediatric Respiratory diseases Materials and Methods: A prospective observational study was conducted over a period of six months in a tertiary care teaching hospital. A total of 225 case records of inpatient in pediatric department was reviewed. The relevant information was recorded in structured proforma and data was evaluated using descriptive analysis. Results: Case records of 225 patients who were admitted in the pediatric department were observed. Out of 225 patients 122(54.2%) were female children and 103(45.8%) were admitted due to respiratory diseases. Maximum number of patients was in the age group of 2-11 years (49.8%), 28 days-23 months (48.9%) and least were found in 12-18 years (1.3%). The duration of the hospital stay for most of the pediatric patients i.e., (36.4%) was found to be 5 days. Most of the patients were admitted due to cough and cold 220(47.36%). Most of the patients have been diagnosed with LRTI (42.2%). It was observed that most of the drugs prescribed were Bronchodilators (33.02%). Among Bronchodilators SABA 258(81.6%) were prescribed in which salbutamol were prescribed more (77.5%). Most of the bronchodilators were prescribed in the Nebulization form (87%) followed by oral formulation (13%). Majority of the antibiotics prescribed were Cephalosporin’s (58.8%), and among the Corticosteroids, Budesonide were prescribed most (26.32%). Conclusion: The study found over use of antibiotics and under use of steroids. Bronchodilators uses were found to be optimal. In order to reduce the risk of antibiotic resistance of microbes, an antibiotic policy should be carefully instituted and implemented. Educational interventions must be implemented for health care professionals for more appropriate and cost effective prescribing.

  113. Wong Ling Chai, Oswald Aisat Igau and Stephen L. Sondoh Jr.

    The evolution of mobile phones into smart multi-functional mobile computers have led to a serious Abnormal Battery Drain (ABD) issue. This has spurred the need for green practice in mobile phone to overcome ABD concern. However, far too little attention has been paid to the green practice that focuses on ABD. Hence, this paper aims to conceptualize the actual behavior of green practice on mobile phones by integrating the Theory of Planned Behavior and Normalization Process Theory. Previous studies have found that current green marketing has failed to predict the actual green practice; the intention does not come with actual behavior. Actual green practice only can be achieved through normalization of green practice across the board. Therefore, normalization is strongly suggested to be integrated with the Theory of Planned Behavior to ensure the actual behavior in green practice can be achieved. Apart from conceptualization, the paper also proposes a total of 400 self-administered questionnaires to be distributed among mobile phone users, in main cities in Malaysia via a snowball sampling technique. The Partial Least Square-Structural Equation Modelling (PLS-SEM) approach has been used for data analysis. The final section of this paper involves a discussion of the findings and limitations of the study.

  114. Dr. Soumitra Chandra, Dr. Suresh Kumar Rulaniya, Dr. Prakash Kumar, Dr. Nikhil Agarwal and Dr. Debarshi Jana

    Inguinal hernia repair associated benefits of minimally invasive surgery, such as improved cosmesis, less pain, faster recovery, and improved success rates, have been shown not just in hernia surgery but also in other general surgical procedures like cholecystectomy, gastric banding and appendectomy, as well as in other surgical disciplines like gynaecology and urology. This randomized comparative study was comparing telescopic dissections (TD) versus laparoscopic stone extractor forceps dissection (FD) in total extra-peritoneal (TEP) laparoscopic mesh repair of inguinal hernia. This prospective, comparative, randomised study was conducted at the Department of General Surgery of Vivekananda Institute of Medical Sciences, Ramakrishna Mission SevaPratishthan Hospital, 99, Sarat Bose Road, Kolkata – 700026 and was done from Sept 2016 to April 2018 and 30 patients in each group. For statistical analysis data were entered into a Microsoft excel spread sheet and then analysed by SPSS 20.0.1. In our study it was found that 3 patients had peritoneal breach in both the groups. Association between peritoneal breach in two groups was not statistically significant (p-value=1.000).There is no statistically significant difference of injury to Vas in two groups (p-value= 0.5536).In our study it was found that 3 patients had scrotal edemain both the groups. Association between scrotal edemain two groups was not statistically significant (p-value=1.000).Difference of mean pain score on VAS 6 hrs in two groups was not statistically significant (p=0.7773).Difference of mean pain score on VAS 12hrs in two groups was not statistically significant (p=0.9232). We conclude that laparoscopic stone extractor forceps dissection may be performed safely as an alternative procedure of telescopic dissections, thereby eliminating extra time for changing telescope in this advance surgery.

  115. Dr. Sushama Bhosale

    Women have played many roles in the military, from ancient warrior women, to the women currently serving in conflicts like the Iraq War. The role of women in combat has become a particularly contentious issue in contemporary militaries throughout the world. This paper focuses on the effect of policies changes on the attitudes towards women in military

  116. Dr. Trupti Naykodi and Dr. Aditya Shinde

    The loss of tooth in estheic area is quite an unpleasant experience for an individual. Since Dental Implant has evolved it is the most preferred method for esthetic rehabilitation, reasons being long term solution for replacement of missing teeth, fewer surgical interventions, reduced soft and hard tissue loss and psychological satisfaction to the patient. This case report describes extraction and immediate implant placement with immediate provisionalisation.

  117. Suresh Kumar Gigoo and Ajay Mishra

    The world has been converging and converging to the megacities in a big way in Asia, Africa and other regions since last century. As our cities have expanded exponentially, the reality and ugliness of the “growth” of the cities is coming to the fore. Today’s cities may seem glamorous with dazzling shops and malls, gleaming skyscrapers, ultra fast transport and diverse models of automobiles on the roads and attractive airports. However, on the other side, garbage and sewer stinks, dirty and polluted rivers, perpetual digging and construction debris and traffic gridlocks are leading to unlivable conditions. Open spaces are being gobbled up by malls, offices and hotels. Further, the human element in cities is clearly missing. City folks have no time for themselves. Neighbours don’t meet neighbours even in the times of crises now. Accident victims are left for hours without care because of fear of facing too many questions from authorities. No doubt cities are too busy to reach out to problems of rural hinterland. The cities are becoming heartless monsters with no human touch at all. Rural areas are again acquiring attraction because of low pollution, green spaces and more human touch and death of distances caused by great communications set up by telecom giants. The clear solution to the crisis is to stop the downstream migration from hinterland to cities and encourage upstream migration back to villages and towns. But this paradigm can only be successful on the premise that broader depth of opportunities are leveraged, targetted and encouraged to make rural areas economically strong and self sustainable. This paper attempts to give some solutions to the grave problems of 21st century of balancing growing urban rural chasm. Rural Revival, by fostering the growth of rural areas, is a compelling necessity to stop the growing congestion, pollution, crime and deteriorating humanitarian values in cities.

  118. Dr. Kanodia Aalisha, Dr. Kalita Chandana and Dr. Bhuyan A.C.

    Introduction: Maxillary anterior spacing is a common aesthetic complaint of patients, which has a multifactorial aetiology. Many therapies ranging from orthodontic intervention to full coverage porcelain crowns, laminate veneers, composite build-ups are available. The use of proximally applied composite resin is a quick, inexpensive and conservative approach to this difficult problem. It allows the dentist and patient complete control in formation of a natural smile. Aim: Closure of maxillary anterior spacing in single appointment. Method: In this case report maxillary anterior spacing was closed with direct composite resin restoration in one appointment without any laboratory preparation. Result: Complete aesthetic closure of the spaces. At six-month and one-year recalls, restorations had no fractures and margins demonstrated no discoloration. Conclusion: Composite resin augmentation serves as an excellent treatment option for anterior spacing for patients unwilling to undergo orthodontic treatment or in whom previous orthodontic treatment has not produced an acceptable result.

  119. Mary Antoinette F. Alinsangao, Pjeeco P. Bagasbas, Walther J. Talaban, Ryan Michael F. Oducado, Isabella Dianne L. Morga and Rachel Ann J. Respicio

    Background: Progressive and involuntary in nature, X-linked Dystonia Parkinsonism (XDP) causes a great impact on the quality of life of the individuals affected. With all these changes involved in XDP, it necessitates the critical participation and support of caregivers in managing and coping with the disease. Published studies about XDP are mainly concerned with the experiences of individuals living with the disease, while the caregiver’s perspective is given less attention. Objective: This study aimed to explore the lived experience of primary caregivers in taking care of individuals diagnosed with XDP in Panay. Methods: A phenomenological research design was used as the strategy of inquiry to provide rich and thick description of the participants lived experience about the phenomenon. A semi-structured, face-to-face, in-depth interview was used to gather data among five purposively chosen participants. Interview transcripts were analyzed and interpreted using the method inspired by Colaizzi. Credibility, dependability, confirm ability and transferability were adopted to maintain trustworthiness. Results: Six themes emerged: (1) overwhelming odds; (2) seal of care; (3) inescapable reality; (4) dancing under the storm; (5) finding one’s feet in; and (6) when hope springs. Conclusion: Primary caregivers of individuals with XDP are faced with increasing demands and challenges that are often overlooked. Understanding their experience is fundamental in designing interventions that highlights caring for the carers themselves.

  120. Balamurugan, V., Dhamotharan, R. and Sumathi, E.

    In the present study aqueous leaf extract of Erythrina variegata were investigated the phytochemical screening, total tannin, total saponin content and antibacterial activity. Phytochemical screening of various extracts such as aqueous, ethanol, chloroform, acetone and petroleum ether, aqueous leaf extract revealed the presence of steroids, quinones, cardiac glycosides, saponins, tannins, phenols, flavonoids, terpenoids and alkaloids than other extracts. The leaf extract were quantitatively estimated for total tannin and saponin content. The optimum yield of tannins and saponin content was found in aqueous leaf extract (46.7mg TAE/ g) and (36.1mg/gm) of Erythrina variegata. Different concentrations of aqueous leaf extracts were tested for the anti-bacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis using the agar disc diffusion technique. The aqueous leaf extracts from Erythrina variegata had a superior level of antimicrobial activity. The powerful antibacterial effect is attributed to the greater amount of tannins and saponin compound in the aqueous leaf extract of Erythrina variegata.

  121. Dr. Henna Naqash, Prof. Parvaiz Ahmad Shah, Dr. Ishrat Hussain Dar, Dr. Mohammad Hayat Bhat, Muzaffar Maqbool and Dr. Mohd Mansoor

    A 35 year old male, shopkeeper by occupation, presented to us with recurrent spells of altered consciousness with varying features for last 1 year. He was labelled as depression and was on velazodone for the same. He was finally diagnosed as insulinoma, likely unmasked by the drug. He was managed with surgery and is doing well. With this case, the importance of considering hypoglycemia in atypical neurological or psychiatric episodes is highlighted.

  122. Ms. Misbah Samir and Dr. Rita Patil

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a broad term which is characterized by difficulty in social interaction and restricted or repetitive behaviors. This study aimed to assess the nutritional status of autistic children in Mumbai. The sample size was 100 children between 5-15 years of age. Fifty were autistic and 50 were age and gender matched typically developing children. In each group, there were 37 girls and 13 boys. Anthropometric measurements (Height, weight, BMI, hip circumference, waist circumference and MUAC) of the participants were recorded. The mean weight of autistic children was found to be slightly higher than the control group (29.66±13.51 cm vs. 28.97±11.55 cm).The mean BMI of children in the autistic and control group were 16.54±3.61 kg/m2 and 16.21± 3.21 kg/m2 respectively. The mean waist circumference, hip circumference and MUAC of autistic children was significantly higher as compared to the control group. Greater percentage of autistic children were found to be overweight and obese as compared to typically developing children (38% vs. 18%). The findings suggest that autistic children may be more prone to overweight and obesity as compared to the typically developing children. Also, it was seen that percentage of overweight and obesity in children of both the groups was high in higher family income groups. Regular nutritional assessment and weight monitoring of autistic children is therefore necessary to maintain good nutritional status.

  123. Akkharadet Neelayothin, Pataraphorn Arunmala and Suthee Jariyawat

    This research aims to study the behaviors of Primary school principals that reflect self-leadership in Khon Kaenprovince and to compare behavior by gender, work experience, and levels of education. The survey methodology was used, gathering data from a sample of the population who are public Primary school principals in KhonKaen province, Thailand. The results showed that: (1) female primary school principals exhibit behavior that reflects the self-leadership higher than male, (2) primary school principals in Khon Kaen with work experience of 5-15 years showed behavior that reflects self-leadership more than two of those work experiences; less than 5 years and more than 15 years and (3) primary school principals in Khon Kaen who graduated with doctoral degree had behavior reflecting self-leadership more than those who graduate a bachelor and master degrees.

  124. Dr. Tahir Afzal and Dr. Nitish Sharma

    The concept of biological osteosynthesis refers to the conservation of vascularity of the bone during surgical intervention to ensure the continued vitality of the individual fragments and to achieve improved fracture healing. Main principle of biological fixation by minimally invasive percutaneous plate osteosynthesis (MIPPO) in long bone fractures is relative stability which is provided by using long plate with limited number of screws. Some biomechanical studies have been reported about this issue. However, clinical studies are still missing. The aims of this prospective study were to evaluate the clinical and radiological results of adult tibia fractures treated by MIPPO. Materials and Methods: A prospective study was conducted with in a period of one and a half year; from Jan. 2015 to May 2016 on 60 patients who presented to emergency wing of. orthopaedic deptt in a tertiary care centre in northern India ,during this period. In our series of 60 patients most of the patients were in the age group of 25-40 years, average age was 35.7 years.RTA accidents accounted for 50% of cases in our series. Most of the patients had a follow up ranging from 6-15 months. Patients were assessed as per the criterion laid down by S.J Lam at each follow up Most of the patients (70%) had radiological union between 16-25 weeks. Out of 30 patients, 4 patients of fracture humerus were not assessed in this group.2 pateints with deep wound infection and infected non union did not ambulate and is still under treatment for infection and non union. Conclusion: MIPPO technique provides good bone healing and decreases incidence of nonunion and need for bone grafting. The technique of biological plating can be used in fractures where locked nailing cannot be done like vertical slit and markedly comminuted fractures.

  125. Usha Verma, Lokesh Dhakar, Dr. Ravindra Singh Rathore and Dr. Prabhu Prakash

    Urinary Tract Infections is one of the most common infections observed in clinical practice especially in pregnant women. This study was conducted on 500 pregnant women to identify the prevalence of symptomatic and asymptomatic UTI, their bacterial profile and antibiogram. A total of 151 pregnant women had significant bacteriuria and 79 of them were symptomatic while 72 were asymptomatic. E. coli was the predominant organism sensitive to mainly aminoglycosides like Gentamicin, Amikacin, Nitro furantoin , Amoxiclav. Increasing resistant pattern was observed for Cephalosporins, Ampicillin. The UTI was more prevalent in the third trimester in the patients rather than in the first and second. All the women were also tested for blood glucose levels and 45 of the 500 women were positive for gestational diabetes. But there was no significant difference in the type of bacteria in gestational diabetes mellitus. Neither was there any difference in the symptomatic or asymptomatic bacteriuria among GDM. As untreated cases of UTI in pregnant women may result in severe mortality in the mother and child, it is imperative to diagnose and treat it as early as possible.

  126. Dr. Ritu Bala Soni, Dr. Ranjeet Singh Arya, Dr. Abhijeet Yadav, and Dr. Jaye Deshmukh

    Introduction: After PMT selection when a student enter in medical college, Then he/she first time introduce with cadaver. Cadaver is a term used for chemically preserved human dead body which are used for learning internal structure of human body. On cadaver student done dissection under observation of Anatomist which is very necessary for medical student for gaining knowledge of human body. Aim: Dissection is very necessary for medical student. By knowing position of organ, muscle, joint structure they correlate symptom with pathology and make diagnosis, and they can prescribe medical treatment or surgical treatment. Method: Dead body is preserved by infuse preservative (formalin) in dead body tissue, this procedure is known as embalming. After embalming dead body put in forma line filled tank for preservation. After preservation dead body is termed as Cadaver. Dissection of cadaver done by surgical instrument and By proper guidelines according to textbook for dissection under the observation of faculty of anatomy department. medical student by dissection know exact position of blood vessels, nerve, muscle, G.I.T., Viscera, bones and joint. Result: By dissection they correlate site of pain and affected organ. They make surgical incision by knowledge that where is blood loss is minimal after cutting and where is healing well after suturing.

  127. Urvi B. Ashani and Dr. Harisha C.R.

    Background: Suspension microscopy is a scientific way to observe the suspended matter in three parts. Concept arises from fresh Hima preparation. Normally any liquid preparation forms many layers after keeping sometime, with different qualities. Each and every layer consist different physical form, chemical form, organoleptic form and also at the micro level. Hydro suspension preparation forms different layers. If improper mixture is taken, Scientifically there may be a loss of active constituents in lower and upper layered mass i.e. tannins, oils, fibers, etc. Objectives: Scientifically, the light weighted dusting particles occupy a top most upper layer, the heavy particles settled down at the bottom layer. The consumer consumes only the middle portion. There may be a loss of many cellular constituents. To overcome from this, the problem creates new concept of Hydro suspension microscopy to know the constituents which are present in the different layers. Method: 5 g of both the compositions were taken individually and soak in 50 ml water in a measuring cylinder for 24 hrs in undisturbed condition. The next day, with the help of dropper, the microscopy of three different layers i.e. upper, middle and lower layers from both the compositions were done. Result: Rhomboidal, Cluster and Rosette type of crystals, cork in surface view, etc. in upper layer. Middle layer shows annular vessel, parenchyma cell, etc. and lower layer shows collenchyma cells, simple fibre, etc. Conclusion: Most of the constituents are settled down and very less portion of the drug is present at the middle and upper portion. In the microscopic study, the quantity of brown content, fibres and starch grain was high at the lower portion. The crystals and vessels were present at the upper and middle portion.

  128. Gede Sedana and I Nengah Dasi Astawa

    The existence of subak as a traditional irrigation system in Bali has tri hita karana as its philosophy and focus on social and cultural activities. The more complex of its members’ needs and problems, government has endeavored to develop subak orienting business. One of the business is run by the farmers’ cooperative. The objectives of this study are to describe the potential economic activities of subak, and to portrait the institutional adjustment of subak toward the business orientation. The collected data was analyzed by employing descriptive method. The study pointed out that the subak of Guama has great potential to establish and develop cooperative due to the previous economic activities, such as being a channel on the agri-inputs distribution, and making deposit and money lending to members. The institutional adjustment of subak is done through the set-up of organizational structure of cooperative under the subak system. The head of subak is a controller of the management of cooperative established. The regulations of subak is very effective to support the good performance of cooperative. Members of subak who are also members of cooperative could get economic benefits from the cooperative.

  129. Dr. Manjari Kishore, Dr. Prajwala Gupta and Dr. Minakshi Bhardwaj

    Cysticercosis is a condition which occurs when humans are infested by larvae of Taenia solium. It is a cause of increasing health burden in developing countries. Solitary extraneural cysticercosis may mimic soft tissue lesion; hence it is important to consider cysticercosis as a differential diagnosis during evaluation of such lesions. Here we present a case of submental cysticercosis in a young male child along with a brief review of literature.

  130. Paul Ndubuisi

    This study empirically examined the effect of capital adequacy on the performance of deposit money in Nigeria from 1990 to 2015. Data for the study were secondary data sourced from annual report of Access Bank Plc, CBN Statistical Bulletin and journal articles for the years under scope. We employed ADF unit root, Johansoncointegration and ECM techniques to analyze the nature of the relationship between capital adequacy (core capital and supplementary capital) and Performance (profitability) of deposit money bank. The result indicates that both forms of capital adequacy have positive and significant influence on bank profitability. We therefore recommend among others that provision of adequate capital regulation; provision of infrastructural base to support banking services and stability of the institution must be of imperative to the central monetary authority.

  131. Dr. Venkateswara Rao, Y. and Mrs. Ganji Srirekha

    Nature of Work Life is the presence of a specific arrangement of hierarchical conditions or practices. This definition regularly contends that a high caliber of work life exists when majority rule administration hones are utilized, worker's occupations are enhanced, representatives are treated with pride and safe working conditions exist. Nature of Work Life alludes to the level of fulfillment, inspiration, inclusion and responsibility people involvement regarding their lives at work. Nature of Work Life is how much people can fulfill their vital individual needs while utilized by the firm. Organizations intrigued by upgrading representatives Quality of Work Life by and large attempt to impart in representatives the sentiments of security, value, pride, inward majority rule government, possession, independence, duty and adaptability. To decide for themselves what activities, changes and upgrades are alluring and workable keeping in mind the end goal to accomplish the twin and at the same time objectives of an enhanced Quality of life at work for all individuals from the association and more prominent viability for both the organization and the unions.

  132. Dr. Nimmi Maria Oommen

    Human Resource Management is the process of recruitment and selecting employee, providing orientation and induction, training and development, assessment of employee (performance of appraisal), providing compensation and benefits, motivating, maintaining proper relations with employees and with trade unions, maintaining employees safety, welfare and healthy measures in compliance with labour laws of the land. Human Resource Management is a management function concerned with hiring, motivating, and maintaining workforce in an organisation. Human resource management deals with issues related to employees such as hiring, training, development, compensation, motivation, communication, and administration. Human resource management ensures satisfaction of employees and maximum contribution of employees to the achievement of organizational objectives. This article analyses the various aspects of HRM.

  133. Dr. Kanav Mahajan, Dr. Rahul Mahajan and Dr. Sanjeev Gupta

    It is seen that while treating fractures surgically using plating one of the challenge is to measure exact screw size to fix the fracture. Various modalities are being practiced like use of depth gauge, (Williams and Roaf, 1973) fluoroscopic guidance and clinical experience. Our study shows that among all methods used, there is one more method that we are using since 3 years (2014—2017) has much more reliability and also no need of any external appliance to depend upon. The method named by us as drill bit method proved to be very much reliable in assesessing exact screw length.

  134. Murtoz Usmonov

    The southern territory of Uzbekistan is a kind of "ethnographic oasis", since it is here that one can observe the fusion of different cultures, economic way of life, national traditions inherent in different nations and ethnographic groups, in other words - a symbiosis of ethno-cultural traditions. In the formation of such a fusion of several predominant values of features peculiar to Kungrats, which are one of the major subethnic components of the Uzbek people. In particular, such mental features of the Uzbek people as straightforwardness, hospitality, tolerance, unity of word and deed, concreteness and laconism in behavior are intertwined with love for fervent music and dances, which is clearly manifested in the daily lifestyle and culture of the region's Kungrates. The study of this topic allows one to comprehensively analyze the many ethno-cultural manifestations inherent in the Uzbek people, the historical foundations, genesis, stages in the development of customs and rituals, and their transformation under the influence of socio-political and cultural processes. The southern territory of Uzbekistan is a kind of "ethnographic oasis", since it is here that one can observe the fusion of different cultures, economic way of life, national traditions inherent in different nations and ethnographic groups, in other words - a symbiosis of ethno-cultural traditions. In the formation of such a fusion of several predominant values of features peculiar to Kungrats, which are one of the major subethnic components of the Uzbek people. In particular, such mental features of the Uzbek people as straightforwardness, hospitality, tolerance, unity of word and deed, concreteness and laconism in behavior are intertwined with love for fervent music and dances, which is clearly manifested in the daily lifestyle and culture of the region's Kungrates. The study of this topic allows one to comprehensively analyze the many ethno-cultural manifestations inherent in the Uzbek people, the historical foundations, genesis, stages in the development of customs and rituals, and their transformation under the influence of socio-political and cultural processes.

  135. Jumanazarov Khurshid Sirojiddinovich

    This article introduces information about bone caries at the base of traditional Uzbek traditional medicine. Attention is paid to the ways of treating bone caries, traditions, well-known dynasties in this profession and their history. The present activity of physicians-bone-cutting specialists is based on field ethnographic notes.

  136. Dr. Sharanappa Kambale, Dr. Suvarna Patil, Dr. Upendra Hoshing and Dr. Sayali Yengul

    Bacteria and their products are the major etiologic factors in endodontic treatment. Therefore, reduction of bacterial contamination is the main aim of endodontic treatment. The goal will be reached with an appropriate chemo-mechanical preparation along with preservation of as much of tooth structure as possible. The apical limit of root canal instrumentation and obturation is one of the major controversial issues in root canal therapy. So this article provides an overview of importance of anatomy of apex and current concepts regarding the apical preparation size for individual tooth.

  137. Ms. Anita Pandharinath Rathod and Dr. Bhavsar, S.J.

    In educational sector, finding talented people having them perform well and keeping them in the organization became difficult for management. Management institutes are trying to acquire teaching staff in place, but also to retain them from moving out of their educational institute. This research work seeks to empirically examine the process, in which the faculty members are hired, nurtured/trained and retained in management institutes and the factors affecting faculty shortage in management institutes. The methodology adopted in this study was qualitative research. The data was collected from the secondary data collection method. A major shortfall of faculty is the inability of management institutes to manage talent in acquiring, nurturing and in retaining faculty of high order. Retaining teaching staff pool is obviously a long-drawn task. Apart from remuneration packages, there is a need for ‘extra-economic incentives’ to attract and retain faculty. Setting aside more resources for research and publication activity could improve the situation in due course. Management institutes should also carve out a role for itself in this process by setting up legacies and other incentives. A great deal of flexibility regarding non-monetary and monetary incentives linked to additional deliverables would also be required for retaining teaching staff. This research paper discusses various factors affecting faculty retention strategies in management institutions, perception of youth towards teaching profession and also identifies the reasons of leaving teaching profession.

  138. Noumssi Bernadette, Nguetsop Victor François, Fonkou Theophile, Kom Meliphe Francis, Ghogue Jean Paul and Tchoumboue Joseph

    Trophic status of different waterfalls in the highlands of west and northwest regions of Cameroon was assessed by using diatomic index. Ten waterfalls were sampled, in the rainy season (August, September and October 2008) and dry season (January, February and March 2009). Diatomic index and species dominance were calculated. Diatom samples were collected upstream and downstream of each waterfall by scraping the rocks. Samples were treated with oxygenated water to destroy organic matter. Two to three drops of prepared sample were used to mount permanent slides. Identification was made using a light microscope. Diatoms species were observed at 1000x. The state of poor ecological status and moderate ecological status were the most observed respectively during rainy and dry season. The Balatchi waterfall was the most degraded and was characterized by the absence of aquatic plant called Podostemceae. Diatomic index varying between 2.27 and 3.76. Dominant species were Gomphonema parvulumand Navicula leptostriata (upstream), Cymbella amphicephala and Gomphonema parvulum var. lagermanii (downstream). The less degraded non Podostemaceae waterfall was Metchie and index values varied between 2.99 and 4.23. The most degraded Podostemaceae waterfalls was Anyajua.

  139. Dr. Chakrapani Chatla, Kamal Chand Naik Guguloth, Suryaprakash Chakramahanti, Sreenivas Rao Gadala, Prabakaran Jayaraman, Jayakrishna Kurada, Ravikumar Bandi, Sneha Shukla and Sreenivas Achuthan Nair

    Background: According to TB India 2017 report, an estimated 0.11 million were HIV-positive among the 2.8 million people who developed TB in India in 2015 and nearly 37,000 deaths were among HIV-TB co-infected. In 2013, the concept of Provider Initiated Testing and Counselling for HIV has been introduced in India under RNTCP. Objectives: This study makes an attempt to find out the utility of PITC in identifying incremental detection of HIV positive cases during 2013-16. Methods: PITC is implemented since Jan 2013 in entire Telangana State, through Integrated Counselling and Testing Centres. Towards this good linkage between of ICTC and DMC services was ensured. Task shifting of HIV testing to RNTCP Lab Technicians was ensured wherever NACP LTs were not available. A desk review of both programmes was done for PITC screening. Results: A total of 157640 (97%) were tested for HIV from 163248 total registered TB patients under RNTCP and identified 9748 (6.2%) HIV positives. Of 826186 presumptive TB cases, 682147 (83%) were tested for HIV as part of PITC which resulted in identification of 38714 (5.8%). It is demonstrated that there is an additional yield of 29966 (3.1 times higher) HIV cases under RNTCP due to PITC. Conclusions and Recommendations: PITC must be implemented in all high HIV prevalent settings which can contribute to early detection of HIV cases and help in early initiation of Co-trimoxazole prevention therapy and antiretroviral therapy and thus reducing morbidity and mortality among PLHIV. This can in turn contribute to reduction in transmission of TB as the risk of getting TB is very high in PLHIV.

  140. ABDOU GADO Fanna, GUERO Yadji, TANKARI DAN-BADJO Abdourahamane, SOUMANA Boubacar, IBRAHIM ZAKARIA Ousseïni and AMBOUTA Jean Marie Karimou

    Background and Objectives: Nowadays, pollution problems have become very crucial. Anthropogenic activities are the main sources of pollution with high concentrations of Metallic Traces Elements (MTEs), that pollute the ecosystem and cause health issues. This work aims to contribute to the establishment of biological techniques, the phytoremediation by Datura innoxia for that purpose two soils polluted by the MTEs has been considered. Methods: The soils were taken from Komabangou area polluted by gold panning activities. They are distributed in pots and seeds of Datura innoxia were introduced. The plants are watered daily with tap water. Results: After one month of culture, Datura innoxia showed a good development similar to the one of the control grown in unpolluted soil. The lengths of the entire Datura innoxia plant were 65 cm in the control soil versus to 63 cm in the polluted soil. The lengths of the aerial and underground part of Datura innoxia were respectively 49 and 16 cm in the control soil versus 48 and 15 cm in the polluted soil. These results therefore show that Datura innoxia has a good tolerance to the toxicity of MTEs present in polluted soil. The phytoremediation of MTEs by Datura innoxia has shown that in low polluted soil, Datura innoxia reduced by 110.96%, 0.025% and 51.26% respectively an initial Zn concentration of 66.8 mg / kg, a Pb of 61.31 mg / kg and a Cu of 33.61%. In highly polluted soil, Datura innoxia reduced by 10.63%, 120%, 34.67% and 44.27% respectively an initial Pb concentration of 125 mg / kg, Cd of 0.58 mg / kg, Cu of 208.48 mg / kg and in Zn of 139.83 mg / kg. Conclusion: Datura innoxia is an excellent candidate for the phytoremediation of Pb, Cd, Cu and Zn.

  141. Dr. Anchal Gupta, Dr. Padam Singh Jamwal and Dr. Manish Sharma

    Aim: To evaluate hearing results after stapedotomy and comparison with preoperative hearing evaluation. Materials and Methods: Forty otosclerotic patients were enrolled for the study. Pure tone audiometry and impedance audiometry was done in patients. All the patients underwent stapedotomy under local anaesthesia. Postoperatively the patients were followed up monthly for three months and hearing evaluation was done and compared with preoperative evaluation. Results: Statistically highly significant difference was found between preoperative Air bone gap and Air bone gap at 3 months postoperatively (p<0.05). The Carhartz notch disappeared in all the patients at 3 months postoperatively. Also the impedance audiometry showed a shift from ‘As’ to ‘A’ type of curve. Majority of the patients showed Air bone gap to within 10 db (80%).Conclusions: Stapedotomy is the method of choice for the surgical treatment of otosclerosis since the comparison of pre- and postoperative results revealed the significant and statistically verified reduction of Air bone gap.

  142. Pedro Ramos Brandão

    The appearance of the first commercial computers available. The first computers with integrated programs. The first computers with integrated storage. The Story of Eckert and UNIVAC, IBM's reaction to UNIVAC.

  143. Mohamed BACHISSE and Mohammed HASSAINATE

    Awarded by two Nobel Prize winners in economics, behavioral finance proponents claim considerable consequences of behavioral biases on the investment policies of stock market players. By administering a questionnaire, the main purpose of the study is to empirically prove the relationship between the biases in our study (Overconfidence, Herding, loss aversion, disposition effect, anchoring, over-reaction to information and under-reaction to information) and their behavioral impact on the rationality of the decision-making process. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM), adopting the Partial Least Squares (PLS) approach, using Smart PLS 3.0 software, was conducted on the empirical data collected from a panel of financial professionals in the Moroccan stock market. Our results confirm the assumptions made beforehand and testify that these behavioral biases have a significant negative influence on the rationality of decision making process of the Moroccan portfolio managers.

  144. Dr. Rachana Sontakke, Dr. Nilofer Mujawar, Dr. Himanshu Dua

    Purpose of study- This study was conducted to evaluate B12 levels in children with macrocytic anaemia and to know the etiology of macrocytosis in children, Materials and the methods-This study was a cross-sectional study carried out over a period of 18 months on 50 children up to 18 years of age of macrocytic anaemia. Children were identified as macrocytic having MCV > 95fl (mean corpuscular volume). Result- In this study for mean haemoglobin of 11 g/dl the RBC volume was at a mean of 95.7. As the haemoglobin level fell the mean MCV increased to 99.93 which was statistically significant Conclusion-Nutritional deficiency is the most common cause of macrocytic anaemia. Vitamin B12 deficiency is a major cause as nutritional anaemia among adolescent females.

  145. Ritu Saharan and Sharma, K.P.

    Pectin caused turbidity and viscosity interferes in fruit juice extraction while hydrophobicity causes problem in dyeing process in textile industry. Conventionally pectin removal requires harsh chemicals and high temperature in most of the industrial processes. Thus sustainability and thermostability are prerequisites for any other alternative process. Pectinase also finds various applications in fruit juice industry, textile industry, paper and pulp industry, bioethanol production, improvement in antioxidant property of wine etc. The present review is an attempt to provide information about thermophilic pectinase and its application towards industrial sector.

  146. Dr. Usha Verma, Dr. Lokesh Dhakar, Dr. Ravindra Singh Rathore and Dr. Prabhu Prakash

    Cryptosporidium is an opportunistic protozoan parasite that can cause severe diarrhoea in immunocompromised patients. Here we report a case of 8 years old male child who was haemophilic admitted with complaints of epistaxis. On routine investigation for epistaxis CBC, HIV, malaria and dengue were done and patient was diagnosed a case of HIV,(malaria ,dengue negative). Parents were HIV negative. FactorVIII was given 3-7times after each episode of injury. As patient was underweight and was malnourished. His stool examination was done which was negative for ovacyston iodine and saline preparation button modified ZN (1%) enormous number of cyst were seen which were microsporidic and cryptosporidium.

  147. Secondary Schools’ Teachers’ Use of Literary Texts in English Classes and their Inspiration of Students to Practice Literary Texts of English Language: Three Selected Secondary Schools in Sidama Zone, Ethiopia, in Focus

    This research was intended to explore secondary schools’ teachers’ use of literary texts in English classes and their inspiration of students to practice (read/listen to) literary texts of English language. To this end, a five-point scale questionnaire was used to gather data from 30 Grade 10 English language teachers of secondary schools (Yirgalem Senior Secondary School, Apposto Secondary School and Motto Secondary School) found in Sidama Zone of South Nation, Nationalities and Peoples’ Regional State of Ethiopia. A semi-structured interview was also held with 6 of the teachers. Data gathered by the questionnaire was analyzed quantitatively, whereas data collected by the interview was analyzed qualitatively. The study found that the teachers hardly use literary texts in English classes and hardly inspire students to practice (read/listen to) literary texts of English language. Recommendations are made accordingly.

  148. Dr. Nitish Sharma, Dr. Nidhi Sharma

    Background: Diabetic foot ulcer is one of the common and dreaded long term complication of diabetes mellitus especially in developing countries. This study attempted to determine the disease burden in terms of epidemiology and clinical profile of diabetic foot ulcer (DFU) at a tertiary care hospital in North India. Methods: In this descriptive study, the patients with known diabetes presenting with foot ulceration were enrolled over a one year period. The demographic profile, duration of diabetes, clinical presentation, type of ulcer, isolated microorganism and treatment taken were studied. Results: A total of 50 patients were included in the study. The average age of patients was 55.7 year (with range from 44 to 80 years). Majority of patients were males. 68% patients belonged to low socioeconomic status. History of smoking was seen in 44% of the cases. All patients had type 2 diabetes mellitus. The average duration of diabetes was 7.1 years. Foot ulcers in 26 patients were pure neuropathic, 4 patients had ischemic-type, while 10 had neuro-ischemic origin. 67.4% positive culture were obtained and gram negative organisms were most commonly isolated. Conclusions: Diabetic foot is a dreaded disability with long stretches of hospitalization and with the ever dangling end result of an amputated limb. It is, no wonder, one of the most feared complications of diabetes. Preventing the diabetic foot should be the first priority and it can be achieved by identifying the high-risk individuals, proper glycemic control, wound care, microbiological control and patient education.

  149. Dr. Pradnya V. Bansode, Dr. Seema D. Pathak, Dr. Wavdhane, M. B. and Dr. Vidya M. Patil

    Biodentine is a calcium-silicate based material that has drawn attention in recent years as it overcomes the drawbacks of Calcium hydroxide and Mineral trioxide aggregate. Due to its major advantages over MTA like good handling properties, short setting time and improved mechanical properties with with excellent biocompatibility, as well as instituted bioactive behavior, biodentine has great potential to revolutionize the different aspects of managing both primary and permanent in endodontics as well as operative dentistry. This paper reviews unique properties and clinical applications of Biodentine in dentistry.

  150. Lokesh Dhakar, Usha Verma, Dr. Ravindra Singh Rathore and Dr. Prabhu Prakash

    The incidence of nosocomial infections in the intensive care unit (ICU) is about 2 to 5 times higher than in the general in-patient hospital population. Endemic health-care-associated infection represents a major burden and safety issue for patients in the developing world. Infection with Klebsiella was not very uncommon in the Neonatal Intensive Care Units(NICU) at present. In this study we report an outbreak of MDR Klebsiella infection and its successful control in a tertiary care teaching hospital Jodhpur between November 2016 and January 2017. MDR Klebsiella were isolated and identified conventionally following Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines, from various clinical specimens, sent from the NICU. Subsequently, infection control measures including isolation of infected babies, maintenance of hand hygiene, screening for colonization, treatment of infected as well as carrier were implemented in NICU. Demographic data were collected from clinical records. Three (3) care givers were found to be colonized with MDR Klebsiella strains. Antibiogram pattern of 20 infected babies matched with the MDR Klebsiella strains isolated from the colonized attendant and nursing staff. Prematurity, low birth weight and top feeding were established risk factors for infection with MDR in this study. Following control measures no such isolate were reported thereafter no case of MDR was reported. MDR outbreak acted as an alarm to the infection control committee of this tertiary care center of Western Rajasthan, India for continuous monitoring and screening for MDR isolates in NICU.

  151. Satabdi Saha, Krunal S. Soni, Niharika, Subrata Saha

    Avulsion of permanent teeth in children is a common dental emergency. Immediate replantation is the standard treatment protocol. Long term prognosis of the replanted teeth depends on the time elapsed between avulsion and replantation. In children and adolescents replantation of permanent teeth with open apex is a much needed intermediate procedure irrespective of the final outcome. Finally the replanted teeth may undergo progressive replacement resorption (ankylosis) and eventual teeth loss. Replantation of immature permanent teeth not only helps to maintain the width and height of the surrounding alveolar bone which is undergoing continuous growth and remodeling, but also relieves the child of psychological trauma by restoring esthetics and function.

  152. Dr. Jyotsnarani Singh

    Aims/ Purpose: The present study was an attempt to study the status of transgender people who all are now in the main stream of the society. To understand social position of transgender people, to assess support system of transgender Methodology of study: This screening led to the selection of articles and a secondary literature search was performed using the references cited in these selected papers transgender persons in Odisha are not ready to be identified as transgender and get officially registered due to social stigma, revealed a study. The total population of transgender in Odisha is around 70,000 of whom only 2000 agreed to be identified as transgender. Unavailability of reliable data about the demography, socio-psychological status, education and economic status, and livelihood status and opportunities of transgender has been affecting the effective implementation of welfare schemes for them. (j Kumar 2015). Result and Discussion: While transgender activists estimate the numbers to be six to seven times higher, they are thrilled that such a large number of people identified themselves as belonging to the third gender, Of the total number of transgenders identified by the census, almost 55,000 are in the 0-6 population. This has come as a big surprise to the community as they did not expect so many parents to identify their children as belonging to the third gender. Over 66% of the population identified as third gender lived in rural areas, very close to the 69% of the overall population that lives in villages. The census data also revealed the low literacy level in the community, just 46%, compared to 74% literacy in the general population .Transgender or well known as Hijra in India. Many transgender people live part –time or full-time as members of the other gender.

  153. Lata S. Mushannavar, Sabrigirinathan, C. and Santosh G. S.

    Background: Porcelain laminate veneers rely on the synergistic bonding achieved between the porcelain and resin cement in order to survive the rigours of the oral environment. The enhancement of bonding through modification of the internal porcelain surface is advocated in order to increase the intimacy of the bond and may be achieved by exposing the porcelain surface to various treatments. Objectives: To compare and evaluate the effect of different ceramic surface pre-treatments on the shear bond strength of porcelain laminates with resin cements to human teeth. Methods: Forty samples of porcelain laminates (IPS Empress 2) were fabricated and randomly assigned into three different surface pre treatment conditions: (i) Group A: etched with 1.23% of APF gel for 10 minutes, (ii) Group B: sandblasted with 50 μm Aluminium oxide, (iii) Group C: etched with 5% hydrofluoric acid for 20 seconds, (iv) Group D: with no surface treatment.All samples were silanated before cementation with Variolink N resin cement. The shear bond strength was measured in a universal testing machine with cross-head speed of 1.0 mm/min. Data was compared by one-way ANOVA at 5% significance level. Results: Surface pre treatment with 5% HF exhibited the highest mean shear bond strength (22.451 ± 2.710 MPa) followed by sandblasting (15.659 ± 3.569), APF gel (13.025 ± 1.618) and control (10.60 ± 1.384) group. There was a significant difference between 5% HF (p<0.001) and other groups. Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, it may be concluded that etching with 5 % HF produced favorable micromechanical retention.

  154. Symprose M. Atieno Ogege, Olive T. Baraza and Enose M.W. Simatwa

    Induction of Newly Qualified Teachers is a requirement by the Teachers Service Commission. Its intent is to enhance Newly Qualified Teachers professional competencies. Worldwide studies have revealed that teachers who are inducted adjust very fast and perform their duties as required. In Awendo Sub County, it had been observed that despite induction, quite a number of Newly Qualified Teachers have continued to perform below par in curricular and co-curricular activities. For instance, from 2012 to 2014, ninety three (39%) of the Newly Qualified Teachers were found to be wanting in schemes of work preparation, 93(39%) in lesson planning, 86(36%) in preparation of teaching aids, 91(38%) in lesson presentation, 98(41%) in games and sports, 88(37%) in music, 88(37%) in athletics, and 104(44%) in drama compared with 62(26%), 56(24%), 78(33%), 82(35%), 95(40%), 86(36%), 76(32%) and 79(33%) respectively in Uriri Sub county while in Rongo Sub county, the cases were as follows: 82(35%), 88(37%), 68(39%), 69(29%), 44(19%), 63(27%), 73(31%) and 54(23%) respectively. The objective of the study was to determine the perceptive of stakeholders on influence of induction on Newly Qualified Teachers’ performance in games and sports in public secondary schools in Awendo Sub-county. A conceptual framework showing the relationship between induction and performance of Newly Qualified Teachers was adopted. The study established that induction had a moderate influence on Newly Qualified Teachers performance in games and sports (M =2.47). The study is useful to policy makers and school administrators in providing the way forward on induction of Newly Qualified Teachers.

  155. Dr. Varun A. Deshpande, Dr. Rucha V. Deshpande, Dr. Pooja Mudadiddi and Dr. Sejal Shah

    The treatment of choice for a specific prosthesis is multifactorial. It depends on the systemic conditions, the underlying residual bone, the economic conditions of the patient etc. The artificial prosthesis should meet the patient’s expectation for comfort, function and aesthetic harmony along with stability and retention .This case report describes prosthetic rehabilitation of periodontitis case with single complete denture and semi precision attachment.

  156. Sr. Symprose M. Atieno Ogege, Enose M.W. Simatwa and Olive T. Baraza

    Induction of Newly Qualified Teachers (NQT) is a requirement by the Teachers Service Commission. Its intent is to enhance NQTs professional competencies. Worldwide studies have revealed that teachers who are inducted adjust very fast and perform their duties as required. In Awendo Sub County, it has been observed that despite induction, quite a number of NQTs have continued to perform below par in curricular and co-curricular activities. For instance, from 2012 to 2014, ninety three (39%) of the NQTs were found to be wanting in schemes of work preparation, 93(39%) in lesson planning, 86(36%) in preparation of teaching aids, 91(38%) in lesson presentation, 98(41%) in games and sports, 88(37%) in music, 88(37%) in athletics, and 104(44%) in drama compared with 62(26%), 56(24%), 78(33%), 82(35%), 95(40%), 86(36%), 76(32%) and 79(33%) respectively in Uriri Sub county while in Rongo Sub county, the cases were as follows: 82(35%), 88(37%), 68(39%), 69(29%), 44(19%), 63(27%), 73(31%) and 54(23%) respectively. The objective of the study was to determine the perception of stakeholders on influence of induction on NQTs’ performance in curricular activities in public secondary schools in Awendo Sub-county. A conceptual framework showing the relationship between induction and performance of NQTs was adopted. The study established that induction had a high influence (M=3.87) on NQTs performance in curricular activities. This study is useful to policy makers and school administrators in providing the way forward on induction of Newly Qualified Teachers.

  157. Shilpa, K., Jiju Janardhanan, Nisha, K.V., Saju Varghese, Benita Mary, L., Vipin Unni, Bernaitis, L. and Preesly, M. S.

    Aim: To study the prevalence of pathogenic organisms and sensitivity patterns of various isolates from vaginal swab. Method: Samples from October 2016 to October 2017 which had come to the Department of Microbiology at East Point College of Medical Science and Research Centre were included in the study. 120 Vaginal swab samples were collected and direct examined, microscopic Gram stain examination and culture techniques. Isolated microorganisms were identified using microscopical, morphological, biochemical tests. The results showed that positive vaginal cultures were detected in 52 (43.33%) women patients. Further antimicrobial sensitivity analysis were done by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. Results: These isolates were distributed between Gram- positive bacteria 17 (32.69%), Gram- negative bacteria 32 (61.53%) and fungi 3 (5.76%). The most frequent microorganisms isolated were Escherichia coli 17 (32.69%), followed by Staphylococcus aureus 11 (21.15%), Klebsiella pneumonia 9 (17.30%), coagulase negative Staphylococcus species (CONS) 6 (11.53%), Acinetobacter species 3 (5.76%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa 3 (5.76%), and Candida albicans 3(5.76%). The highest prevalence of vaginal infections were observed in the age group (20-50) years were 49 (94.23%), followed by greater than 51 age group were 3 (5.76%).Antimicrobial sensitivity analysis showed higher percentage of sensitivity to Piperacillin/Tazobactum (94%) in Escherichia coli, followed by Amikacin (81.81%) in Staphylococcus aureus, Meropenem (88.88%) in Klebsiella pneumonia, Meropenem (100%) in Acinetobacter species and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Gentamicin showed 100% for CONS. Conclusion: Vaginal infections were more commonly found in 20-50 age group in our study, Gram negative organisms were highly susceptible to Meropenem and Piperacillin/Tazobactum followed by Gram positive organisms to Amikacin and Gentamicin.

  158. Dr. Sonia Justin Raj and Abdul Rahman Shaikh

    The aim of this research is to understand the impact of ‘Make-In-India’ campaign on the development of entrepreneurs in the MSME sector. Our Prime Minister Narendra Modi for the development of our country had launched the ‘Make-In-India’ campaign. The research work focuses on how the ‘Make-In-India’ campaign has affected small businesses and its entrepreneurs who were governed by the Ministry Of Micro Small And Medium Enterprises. This research work tries to understand the level of impact that the ‘Make-In-India’ campaign has had on the MSMEs of the country. Has the campaign brought any relief to the MSMEs in terms of the policies or the workability? Do the MSMEs expect things to get better or worried about the future consequences due to such changes?

  159. Samson M. Lausa

    Mangroves have been widely optimized by the ASEAN countries to effect community economic development through tourism activities that provided economic sustainability of the local communities. However, the benefits that the mangroves ecosystem gives is misconstrued by the local community as merely an economic endeavor or as means of livelihood. Hence, the College is faced with a challenge of improving the quality of lives of the local communities making use of its vast hectares of mangroves resources while preserving the environment. Ideally, while the College is raising its banner of becoming an acknowledge school of excellence in science, technology and innovation in the region it shall likewise pull upward, if not in the same level, the economic status or lives of its immediate local communities. Therefore, it is necessary that strategic development programs, projects and activities with focus on commodity or product-based researches shall be carefully planned, designed and implemented to ensure optimum utilization of human, physical and financial resources. Planning, installing and implementing a more focus and rigorous policies in this aspect is necessary to attain research and extension outcomes in the perspective of the local communities. The ultimate mission is to improve the quality of life of the local communities and graduates through convergence of instruction, research, extension and production with the active support of the administration. Thus, this seeks to; establish sustainable livelihood programs/projects for the local community, promote conservation and sustainable management of fishery habitat-the mangrove ecosystem and increase ecotourism activities with the involvement or collaboration of the College, LGUs, DENR, BFAR, Foreign and Local Tourists, Parents, Alumni, Students and the Local Community. Essentially monitoring and evaluation of these programs, projects and activities ensures relevance, efficiency, effectiveness and inclusivity that ascertains organizational outcomes and of the NONESCOST mission-vision. Towards this, the following innovative solutions are proposed; One Tourist One Mangrove Policy (Adopt a Mangrove Approach Program), Rationalization of Faculty Loads, Students Scholarship Programs, Fishery and Agriculture Livelihood PAPs, Pasalubong Center, Boating and Floating Restaurant in the Mangrove Area, Modified Ecotourism PAPs, and Product or Commodity-Based Research and Extension PAPs.

  160. Amro, A.M., Ariffin, A.M. and Norsiah, A.H.

    In recent years, social commerce intention has become increasingly attractive and enhance by users of social networking sites that often received social support from contemporary users. This study is designed to test the influence of social support (emotional and informational support) as well as mediating effect of trust, attitude and satisfaction on social commerce intention among university students in Saudi Arabia. Thus, a framework that seeks to test these relationships is developed. Equally, the study emphasizes that the utilization of complimentary social network sites by university students, exerts a robust consequence on their social commerce intention. Accordingly, the study establishes that this relationship is mediated by trust, attitude and satisfaction. This paper includes supportive literature to corroborate the conceptualized model in the context of Saudi Arabia.

  161. Indira Parajuli

    Around 3 billion people in the world cook and heat inside their homes using solid biomass fuel with simple stoves burning biomass and coal. Indoor Air Pollution (IAP) from inefficient cooking practices is a big environmental health problem worldwide (WHO, 2016). Climate forcing pollutants viz., Carbon dioxide (CO2), Methane (CH4) and Particulate Matters (PM) have an impact on the environment and human health. Use of biomass causes deforestation and environmental degradation as well as it contributes in Green House Gases (GHGs) (IPCC, 2007). This is vital to identify the lower emitting type of cook stove as a practical solution to lessen the impacts that ensure to save environemnt and human health. This study quantifies the Integrated Environmental Performance Score (IEPS) of five types of commonly used biomass cook stoves. Tool for Reduction and Assessment of Chemical and other Environmental Impacts (TRACI) is used to derive performance scores for each of the stoves’ potential contributions to impairment of climate, environment and human health. EPS of Three-stone stove is found 2.5 and 2.2 times higher than Rocket and Fan stoves, respectively. Rocket stove contributes the least impact on the environment and human health followed by Fan, Gasifier, and Charcoal stoves. The rate of energy consumption is also2.65, 1.20, 1.50 and 1.70 times less in rocket stove than in Three- Stone, Fan, Gasifier and Charcoal stove, respectively.

  162. Pawan C. Tapre, Dr. Dharmendra kumar Singh and Dr. Sudhir Paraskar

    In several decades, the electric power industry has been structured as vertically integrated utilities which can generate, transmit and distribute power to the consumers. These utilities operate according to the policies, guidelines and regulations framed by the government and are responsible for the development, expansion and standardization of electric power industry. These state-owned utilities are obliged to provide electricity to every customer in a region and are assured of fair returns without any risk. This assurance has led to incompetent and lethargic attitude in the industry with lack of motivation for technical innovation, good management and customer focus. Hence most of the utilities are undergoing restructuring to overcome the adversities of monopolistic market. Restructuring of power industry aims at abolishing the monopoly in generation and trading sectors, thereby introducing competition at various levels, wherever possible. Competitive generation provides a market within which independent firms compete on the basis of price, to sell electricity directly to the large consumers and to supply electricity, via common carrier transmission, to distributors who in turn sell power to final users. Thus the electricity in restructured power market, is dispatched with the help of either power exchange or the pool/system operator. Power sector restructuring, popularly known as deregulation, is expected to attract private investment, increase efficiency, promote technical growth and provide good customer service with improved system efficiency.

  163. Kalaimohan, S., Agam Kumar, Runel Boro and Vijaya Bhaskara Rao, A.

    Mulberry gardens are being contaminated by various pesticides and fungicides from nearby agricultural practice. Specifically copper containing fungicides utilized in adjacent cultivations where thecrops is being protected by copper fungicides to control the fungal pathogens. Copper besides other heavy metals and pesticides can also alters the activities of ATPase’s of silkworm larvae particularly sodium/potassium, magnesium, and total ATPase’s. Hence the author aimed to study the effect of copper on silkworm ATPase’s activity. In the present study we observed that the ATPase’s activity was decreased in 2 days exposure when compared with 4 days exposure of copper in sub-lethal dose than the control worms. However there was a slight decreased ATPase activity in 2 days exposure period at sub-sub lethal dose of copper. Further it is observed that at sub-sub lethal dose on exposure period of 4 days there was no significant change in ATPase’s activity. It is concluded that the sub-sub lethal dose (1.75 g) could not induce toxic effect and silkworm could get recovered on prolonged exposure of four days exposure. This could be due to detoxification mechanism triggered in fat body cells of silkworm during the recovery process.

  164. Hassime GUENGANE, Amadou KONFE, Abdoulaye COMPAORE, Sié KAM, S.M. Thierry KY and D. Joseph BATHIEBO

    In this paper we present the distribution of simulated state variables in a -adsorber-collector prototype of an adsorption solar refrigerator designed to work with the zeolite-water pair under the climatic conditions of the city of Ouagadougou. The solar performance factor (COPs) and the cooling capacity (SCP) are the parameters studied for evaluating the system performance. The simulation of these quantities is obtained from the heat and mass transfer equilibrium equations, solved by a numerical scheme using Thomas' algorithm (TDMA).The Dubinin-Astakhov adsorption model is used to model the adsorption phenomenon. A MATLAB program has been developed for the numerical simulation of the problem. In order to get closer to the local operating conditions, we have implemented in the MATLAB program, values of the sunshine, the wind speed and the ambient temperature recorded on the IRSAT solar adsorption refrigerator collector during four successive days of April of the year 2016. For a zeolite mass of 10 kg, and for the condensation and evaporation temperatures set respectively at and , we found the COPs and the SCP varying respectively from to and from to .

  165. Ronit Bassan-Cincinatus and Ravit Feldman

    The present study aims to explore whether there are gender-oriented differences in learners' performance when solving equations which require the application of a structure sense. In mathematics one can identify that learners lack a competence of logical observation of algebraic expressions. This deficiency results in the learners' technical approach to exercises, the time they require for obtaining the solution, numerous errors and difficulty in finding the solution. This absent competence is called 'the structure sense'. When studying algebra in high school, this is manifested by the inability to identify a familiar structure in its simplest form, deal with an algebraic expression comprised as a unit as well as identify a familiar structure in its more complex way so that it can be effectively substituted. Gender-oriented studies attest to gaps between the sexes in mathematics. The research population consisted of 48 pupils, 23 boys and 25 girls, learning in the 10th grade. The research instrument comprised six mathematical questions, all of them could be effectively solved by means of a structure sense, except for one question which did not require a structure sense for its solution. Findings of the present research illustrate that the success rates are not particularly high. In most questions, the boys' rate of correct answers exceeds that of the girls. Moreover, there are differences in the choice of solution strategy. The girls opt for the safe and familiar technical way whereas the boys tend to apply an algorithm, namely the effective solution method. It is recommended integrating in the teaching process the strategy of searching special features in the questions in addition to the common algorithms studied in mathematics lessons. As part of a systematic teaching programme, it is advised adding to each study chapter several special questions in order to develop the pupils' appropriate competences.

  166. Olalekan Abiola Awujoola and Vitoria Olubola Fadeyi

    This paper x-rays the importance of assistive technology devices (ATDs) in university library for the teaching and learning of students with visual impairments. The introduction of technology has benefited the sighted however not leaving out students with visual impairments. Lack of vision significantly affects learning and it must be stressed that the education goals for students with visual impairments are essentially the same as those for all the students, therefore, the need to provide means of ensuring easy and convenient means for students with visual impairment to learn by the university libraries. The availability of Braille materials in the university library only ensures a system of reading and writing by touch for students with visual impairments but do not additional teaching and learning opportunities for students with visual impairments. However, the demand of this information age in ensuring that students with visual impairments live up to education expectation as the sighted students has led to the imperativeness of assistive technology devices (ATDs) in the collections of the university library. Academic progression of students with visual impairments who opted for university education cannot be fully realized without adequate equipment and professionals. Assistive technology devices facilitate the learning of subjects and basic skills needed for a meaningful living of students with visual impairments. The study recommended that efforts should be made by the university library to ensure proper integration of Braille and ATDs in their collection for the teaching and learning of students with visual impairment. Also, managements of universities, parents and stakeholders must ensure that these ATDs are made available in schools for students with visual impairments.

  167. Andreadou, A., Derri, V., Kourtesis Th., Michalopoulou, M.

    Background: Over the last few years, the notion that dyslexia is a learning disability, which initially appears as a difficulty in reading learning and later as unstable in spelled writing and as a lack of ability to manipulate written words in opposed to oral speech. The situation is essentially cognitive and usually genetic. It is not due to a mental deficiency, a lack of socio-cultural opportunity, emotional factors, or another brain building deficit. A large proportion of children with dyslexia are experiencing motor difficulties such as developmental coordination disorder. However, few studies have examined the qualitative gross motor skill performance of children with dyslexia. The development of gross motor skills through targeted physical education programs and instruction is of crucial importance for children’s further motor as well as overall development both in school and in everyday life. Thus, further research into children's gross motor skills is considered necessary. Object: The purpose of this study was to compare the motor skills of students with and without Dyslexia in children aged 9-12 years. Methods: 120 children with and without Dyslexia 9-12 years of age from the fourth grade (Mage=9.28), fifth grade (Mage=10.32), and sixth grade (Mage=11.18) participated. The 'Test of Gross Motor Development' test [1] was used for the qualitative evaluation of gross motor skills. Results: The results showed that in both skill categories children with dyslexia exhibited significantly lower motor performance than children without dyslexia, in each grade and in general. Also, dyslexic children in fourth and fifth grade had better performance than those in sixth grade. Conclusion: Children with dyslexia have difficulty in the qualitative performance of gross motor skills. As this may affect their social development and academic performance, it is necessary to make appropriate adjustments to the design and implementation of Physical Education lesson.

  168. Bonifacio Jr Aznar

    The topography was established using Autodesk Revit with reference to Google Earth. The mathematical model was formulated with the discretization of the Navier-Stokes equation in three dimensional form into a simplified and corrected momentum and pressure equations. The maximum positive and negative wind pressures were obtained from 180° south wind attack angle and critical wind pressures were obtained from the maximum negative wind pressures. Topography in terms of elevation showed that the recorded wind pressure of elevated houses are higher than those situated on the non-elevated areas. As the velocity profile and elevation of the topography increases, the simulated pressure also increases. The higher the simulation resolution, the more detailed and accurate are the results.

  169. Pradeep Kumar, Ramesha, M. and Madhu, T.S.

    The treatment of choice for a In this article, we find the necessary and sufficient condition under which the (α,β)-metric F=c_1 α+c_2 β+β^2/α; c_2≠0 is projectively related to a Kropina metric on a manifold M of dimension n ≥ 3, where α and α ̅ are two Riemannian metrics, β and β ̅ are two non zero 1-forms.

  170. Abebe Hailu, Manaye Misganaw, Abraham Assefa, Tesfaye Getachew, Tesfalem Aseged, Fassil Getachew Solomon Abegaze, K.

    Phenotypic characterizations of indigenous chicken genetic resources were undertaken in Guji zone of Oromia region. All HHs conditionally/occasionally provide feed and water as supplements and of the feed sources 54.2% and 16.7% were Grain and leftover; and Grain and crop residues., wall and floor which were made of 51.4% wood, 22.9% grass/bush, 14.3% (wood + mud), 8.6% bamboo, and 2.9% (bamboo + grass).. The mean separation with standard errors of the chicken population size were 18.5±1.97 of (3.4±.32) and (2.1± .30) with a ratio of 3.2:1 female with male. Population of young chicks were highest in umber (7.0 ± .70) followed by pullets (3.5 ±.33), hens (3.4 ±.3, cockerels (2.5 ±.32) and cocks (2.1± .30) per household respectively. The average mean values of all parameters except average body weight and Super Length were significantly different at (P<0.05) level between location. Quantitative traits between sex were significantly greater at (p<0.05) level, 2.1±0.05kg and 1.5±0.02 average body weight (ABW) of male and female respectively. All this qualitative and quantitative traits variations could be used as source of selection for improving the chickens which positively affect breeding program through community based improvement, conservation and setting wisely sustainable utilization in the future.

  171. Ardhendu Kumar Mandal

    Infectious diseases caused by protozoa, viruses, bacteria and other agents may be transmitted to people world-wide which relates over 17 million death annually. The treatment of the diseases is hampered mainly by blood brain barrier, multi-drug resistance, drug- toxicity, insolubility and poor bioavailability. To overcome these barriers, currently iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) have gained attraction owing to their unique characteristics such as nanosized high surface to volume ratio, low cost easy synthesis methodology, microbicidal and anti-carcinogenic activities, surface modification capability, components-vectoring ability, photothermal and superparamagnetism features for generating reactive oxygen species, non-oxidative induction and metal ion release to disrupt cells. This review demonstrates the current advances regarding their synthesis, functionalization, mechanism of action, biodistribution and elimination for the application in targeted delivery and therapy against various diseases.

  172. Sabha Malik Tashaffi Qayoom

    Background: Thrombocytopenia is seen in 6 to 10% of pregnant women, with the gestational thrombocytopenia being the most important etiological factor. Objective: To study the maternal and perinatal outcome of thrombocytopenia in pregnancy. Materials and Methods: In this study, 110 pregnant women, irrespective of their gestational ages were studied in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, SKIMS, Srinagar over a period of one year from April 2017 to March 2018. Proper history was taken and detailed examination done in all patients. All the women were followed throughout the pregnancy till delivery. Maternal and fetal outcomes were noted. Results: Out of 110 patients, 95 (86.37%) had moderate thrombocytopenia and 15(13.63%) had severe thrombocytopenia. In this study, 40% cases were primigravidas, 31% were gravida 2 and 29% were more than or equal to gravida 3. The most common etiological factor was gestational thrombocytopenia (37.2%) followed by pregnancy induced thrombocytopenia (27.2%) and intrahepatic cholestasis (24.5%) in addition to other less frequent causes. Mean gestational age at diagnosis was 37.48+2.87. There were 2 maternal deaths (1.8%), 3 still births (2.72%) and 2 neonatal deaths (1.8%). The complications were more frequent in those with severe thrombocytopenia. Conclusion: Proper management and timely adequate administration of blood and blood products have a significant impact on maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality.

  173. Dr. Praveena, P., Amitava, Dr. Sudarsanam, D. Jayanthi

    Diabetic nephropathy is characterized by progressive persistent proteinuria, hypertension, decline in renal function by decreasing glomerular filtration rate, and risk of cardiovascular disease. Recently, agents (ARBs) developed with antihypertensive and antiproteinuric efficacy that block the RAS by preventing angiotensin II from binding to its subtype1 (AT1) receptor, belong to the family of GPCRs. Hence efforts are to design the drug molecules to inhibition of angiotensin receptor blockers by using bioinformatics tools. SBDD confirms the angiotensin II binds to the AT1 receptor within the transmembrane domains in an extended conformation, and its C-terminal residue interacts with transmembrane domain VII at Phe-293/Asn-294.Methionine proximity assay, determine the molecular environment of this binding pocket (L112M and Y113M in TMD III; F249M, W253M, H256M, and T260M in TMD VI; and F293M, N294M, N295M, C296M, and L297M in TMD VII.). Based on information of Target protein id P30556 in Uniprot, Pubmed all and I-TASSER that allow to automatically generate high-quality predictions of 3D structure and biological function of protein molecules based on C-Score and TM-Score. SPICKER clustered simulated decoys and top five cluster centroids are selected for generating full atomic models. Target protein's ligand binding site was predicted by using both Q-Site Finder and Pocket Finder. Drug bank, clinical trials database was used for finding the drug molecule to blocking the angiotesin receptor type1 and drawing a ligand molecule in ACD/CHEMSKETCHI based on the ligand binding site and 2D-CORINA used in 2D to 3D convertions. Blind docking method dock the protein and small molecule at correct functional site. Based on Dock database calculation save the molecule in pdb format and view in PyMol and tools are used to finding the drug likeliness satisfying 5 Lipinski’s rules.

  174. Hiralal Jana Debabrata Basu

    High-input, resource-intensive farming systems, which have caused massive deforestation, water scarcities, soil depletion and high levels of greenhouse gas emissions, cannot deliver sustainable food and agricultural production. The core challenge is to produce more with less, while preserving and enhancing the livelihoods of small-scale and family farmers, and ensuring access to food by the most vulnerable. For this, a twin-track approach is needed which combines investment in social protection, to immediately tackle undernourishment, and pro-poor investments in productive activities especially agriculture and in rural economies -to sustainably increase income-earning opportunities of the poor. The world will need to shift to more sustainable food systems which make more efficient use of land, water and other inputs and sharply reduce their use of fossil fuels, leading to a drastic cut of agricultural green-house gas emissions, greater conservation of biodiversity, and a reduction of waste. This will necessitate more investment in agriculture and agri-food systems, as well as greater spending on research and development, to promote innovation, support sustainable production increases, and find better ways to cope with issues like water scarcity and climate change. Along with boosting production and resilience, equally critical will be creating food supply chains that better connect farmers in low- and middle-income countries to urban markets — along with measures which ensure access for consumers to nutritious and safe food at affordable prices, such as pricing policies and social protection programs. In this background, the study’s main objective was to know the role of several major global agricultural organizations in agricultural development.

  175. Larica Mohanta, Ashis Kumar Mohanty NiranjanSahoo

    Background: Haemorrhagic gastroenteritis is a highly contagious disease, which is often fatal. Causative agents of the disease are viruses, bacteria, endo-parasites and even food allergy as well as irritant drugs. Out of these, Canine Parvo Virus has emerged as a major cause of gastroenteritis in dogs. Clinical signs of the disease include fever, vomiting and severe bloody and foetiddiarrhoea with marked dehydration. Aim:Present study was conducted to evaluate alterations in the Hb concentration, TEC, PCV andErythrocytic Indices in twenty six dogs. Methodology: The study was conducted by taking 26 canines male and female out of which thirteen were infected with gastroenteritis and the rest were taken as control groups. The haematological parameters were screened by standardized procedure to stratify the difference between two groups. Results and Conclusion: The haematological analysis of diseased dogs revealed low values of haemoglobin, total erythrocyte count and packed cell volume. However, no significant difference was noticed in mean values of MCV, MCH and MCHC. Hence, there is no doubt that the findings of the present study would encourage the people to pay attention towards the general health of their pets

  176. Veerendra Babu, A., Seeta, Y. Manikya Reddy, P.

    The present paper deals with the ecological studies of Alisagar lake of Nizamabad District, Telangana. The water samples were collected for a period of 2 years (June-2014 to May-2016) to assess the quality of water. The lake water was alkaline throughout the period of investigation. High concentration of dissolved oxygen, carbonates and low concentration of chlorides, bicarbonates, total hardness and organic matter were recorded throughout the period of investigation. Four groups of phytoplankton were recorded. in the lake. Among the four groups Diatoms were dominant and showed rich diversity followed by Chlorophyceae. Low temperature, high dissolved oxygen and silica favored the growth of diatoms. The maximum growth of diatoms was recorded during winter and minimum during summer and rainy season. Temperature, bicarbonates, nitrates, phosphates and organic matter were exhibiting direct relationship with Chlorophyceae.

  177. Arpita Mandal (Nandi)

    Background: Developing countries, specially in India has been constantly facing the problem of Low Birth Weight (LBW) since long. Low birth weight in the Asian countries prevail predominantly because of undernutrition in women prior to and during pregnancy. The second most important factor is also the age of the mother. Even today in many sectors of the Indian society, girls are neglected and deprived of proper nutrition and they are married off at an early age resulting in early motherhood. About 50% of the women in India still suffer from =severe anaemia and we have the highest number of maternal deaths too (Muthayya et al., 2006). Objective: This study has been undertaken in the district of Howrah to find out the prevalence of Low Birth Weight in Howrah, to determine the factors and distribution of Low Birth Weight. Data were collected from Howrah District Hospital. Methods: ANOVA was performed to determine the spatial variation of birth weight. The co-variates that influence Low Birth Weight are: 1. Social variables 2. Economic variables 3. Biological variables. Multiple Regression Logistic models were carried out to determine the influence of the direct and indirect factors. Results: Nearly 24.7% of the new borns have Low Birth Weight. Females were more in number as compared to males low birth weights. Mother’s education, access to information, exposure to TV and newspaper, nuclear family, intake of iron supplements and socio-economic conditions play a significant role in determining birth weight.

  178. Deepanksha Sharma, Shania Javed, Arshilekha, Prachi Saxena, Priyanka Babbar, Divyanshu Shukla, Priyanshi Srivastava Siddharth Vats

    Preservatives, additives are generally used to help stop, edible products from being spoiled and giving desired taste, color, texture and. Like sodium thiosulfates, oxalic acid, sodium benzoate, sodium nitrates, sodium citrate and benzoic acids are a few food additives which find consumption on very large scale. But these all major preservatives have multipurpose use in all forms of liquid and solid packaged food and are also responsible for creating negative health issues. This review deals with the few food preservatives very commonly used in Indian sub-continent and their side effects.

  179. Ajay kr. Singh, Medha Mishra, Mdhu Mati Goel, Riddhi Jaiswal, Chhitij Srivastava, Preeti Agarwal, Shivanjali Raghuvanshi B.K. Ojha

    Introduction: Cell proliferation is an important pre-requisite for the development of a neoplasm. Ki-67 is one of the most important cell proliferation markers. Its expression is correlated with the aggression of various gliomas to differentiated low grade and high grade. Material and methods : This case control study included 140 cases in which 62 cases of low grade glioma (23 Pilocytic Astrocytoma,12 Diffuse Astrocytoma, 13 Ependymoma, 5 Oligodendroglioma, 2 Diffuse Fibrillary Astrocytoma, 2 Gemistocytic Astrocytoma, 2 Myxopapillary Ependymoma, 2 subependymal giant cell Astrocytoma and 1 oligoastrocytoma) and 73 cases of high grade glioma ( 45 Glioblastoma, 9 Anaplastic Astrocytoma, 6 Gliosarcoma, 5 Anaplastic Ependymoma, 4 Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma, 3 Anaplastic oligoastrocytoma and 1 pilocytic Astrocytoma with anaplastic features) along with 5 normal brain specimen as control. Aim: The aim of this study to assess the expression of Ki-67 in various low grade and high grade gliomas and correlate immunohistochemistry status with the histomorphological grading and overall survival rate. Results: Majority of patients having Ki67 score 1 were low grade (68.67%) and rest were high grade while proportion of patients of high grade was higher as compared to low grade having Ki67 score 2 (60.00% vs. 40.00%) and Ki67 score 3 (97.62% vs. 2.38%). Association of Ki67 score and grade of glioma was found to be statistically significant (p<0.001). Conclusion: The conclusion can be made that Ki-67 can be used as a marker of for differentiate high grade and low grade glioma.

  180. Lijia Tian, Jiaying Xing, Heyu Zhao Jincai Chang

    Deep neural networks are a focus of artificial intelligence and big data analysis in recent years. The monitor of the converter mouth is essential to the quality of the steel material production while the requirement of the steel material production is increasingly higher in China. The end-point control of converter blowing is the ultimate regulation of the carbon content and temperature. The severity of carbon-oxygen reaction and the temperature of molten steel can be reflected by the converter mouth flame. Operators judge the end of the steel by watching the converter mouth flame, the converter mouth spark and the time of oxygen supply. So, it is very important to offer a quantitative analysis to converter mouth flame characteristics. We quote the deep neural network into the intelligent extraction of the flame characteristics of the furnace mouth and construct a flame color recognition algorithm based on the deepness letter neural network. This paper belongs to the data science problem in the intelligent research of steel production. By observing the converter flame during the steel flame changes, this paper records the data of light intensity and end-point carbon content of each steel making furnace. When this paper then uses the temperature of flame emission spectrum to deduce and the absorption of the molten steel to judge the contents of the carbon during the converter steel blew process, it is more feasible and accurate than watching by operators. At the same time, by using deep learning algorithm, this paper makes the control process get automatic learning ability and achieve intelligent production so that we can provide a basis for solving the problem of predicting the end-point carbon content in molten steel during the blowing process. Keywords: deep neural network, deep learning, carbon content, end point control, spectrum.

  181. Sneha Dabir Dr. Nilima Elkunchwar

    The suicidal behaviour of an individual begins with emotional turmoil, and ideation. During adolescence, and pre-adulthood there is a tendency of emotional instability rather confusion. This tendency would depend on many factors of personality. Another element playing an important role during this phase is Self-Concept (Self-Esteem). Low self-esteem could lead to isolation, negative thoughts, and depression. Conversely, high self-esteem is associated with high tone life, a greater control over emotions, less anxiety and greater capacity to cope with internal and external stress. The students undertaking technical education (Engineering) are at high risk, with increased stress about future. The Research was aimed at studying the Self-Concept and Suicidal Ideation among the Engineering College Students, in the region of Nagpur, India. Sample was selected purposively with, 750 Engineering College students (450 Male and 300 Female) from Engineering College students of 10 Colleges of Nagpur Region. The hypotheses were tested using the ‘t’ test for knowing whether there was any difference in the mean scores of Male and Female students for Self-Concept and Suicidal Ideation separately. The Self-Concept of students was measured using Self-Concept Questionnaire (SCQ) standardized by Sara swat Raj Kumar (1984), and Suicidal Ideation was measured using Suicide Probability Scale (SPS) prepared by John G. Cull and Wayne S. Gill (1989). The outcome of the study revealed that:1. The Self-Concept of Male Engineering College Students is significantly higher as compared to the Female Students (t>0.01). 2. The Suicidal Ideation of female Engineering College students is significantly higher as compared to Male students (t>0.01).

  182. Shangal Mirawdali, Hana Morrissey Patrick Ball

    Academic anxiety is a well-established, significant predictor of academic performance. Students with high levels of anxiety are unable to perform at the best of their ability. The purpose of this study was to determine the extent of academic anxiety and its effects on academic performance and explore if social and family sources of anxiety have effects on academic performance. This was a cross-sectional study design utilising questionnaire based on pre-validated tools was used to determine the extent of academic anxiety and evaluate its effect on students with high and low academic performance. A sample of 132 pharmacy undergraduates from stages 3 and 4 enrolled at the University of Wolverhampton, participated in this project. Academic performance was significantly associated with factors such as test anxiety, academic competence and time management skills. A high proportion of the study population indicated low academic performance due to perceived course load and amount of study material assigned for each examination. A positive relationship was observed between social and family sources of anxiety and academic performance and stressors. This study also demonstrated that demographic variables, such as family history of anxiety and different stages may have positive or negative effect on academic performance. This study revealed the high level of academic anxiety among the MPharm undergraduates study sample and identified some influential sources which need to be addressed to improve students’ experience. It is important to develop strategies to facilitate students coping strategies and skills with academic life in order to improve future performance.

  183. Lenangh Angh, K. Papiya Dutta

    Forest resources represent the richest natural resources in our country. The present study was undertaken in order to understand the variable forest resources that contribute to the people and how they utilize, conserve and preserve the resources available in the district. The research was conducted at different range of Longleng district with the aim to find out the conserve and management of forest resources and how they contribute for the economic development of the region for their livelihood through forest resources and forest product. For the purpose of study 24 respondents were selected by dividing the District into North and South Block and selected 3 villages from North and South area i.e., 6 villages, of this 4 person was selected randomly from each village to represent the entire district. The analysis has been made with a view to address the problem of rural people of Nagaland with special reference to Longleng district of Phom Naga.

  184. Shafiq-ur-Rehman, Junaid Baber, Maheen Bakhtyar, Imam Dad, Anwar Ali Sanjrani

    Image classification has gained vital attention in recent years due to vast applications such as object recognition, face detection, face recognition, and facial expression recognition. Images are represented by robust and distinctive features such as SIFT and BIG-OH which are used for machine learning. The features are learned; specially SIFT which is gold standard, from local patches within the images. These local patches are mostly of the size of 41 x 41 pixels. These patches have shown significant low accuracy when the size of databases increase. In this research, variation of SIFT descriptor is proposed which has shown better accuracy when used on challenging dataset of facial expression recognition. The SIFT descriptor is computed from local patches on multiple scales, the similar approach has shown better performance in Image retrieval based applications. The SIFT obtains 55.6% accuracy on Fer2013 dataset using with bag of visual word model, whereas, the proposed extension obtains 58.3%.

  185. Daouda KONE, Fadaba DANIOKO, David TCHOFFA, Mamadou DANSOKO, Sid Ali ADDOUCHE, Namory CAMARA Abderrahman El MHAMEDI

    Despite the enormous solar potential of African countries, the main concern of autonomous PV systems is still in its poor efficiency. This paper proposes an approach to improve the performance of these autonomous photovoltaic systems subject to “disturbances and observation”. An autonomous PV system model adapted by the MPPT control (Maximum Power Point Tracking) is designed and studied. The system PV generator is the MSX60 module which produces a peak power of 60W, an optimal current of 3.5A and an optimum voltage of 17.1V under standard test conditions (STC). The mathematical equations developed for PV generator performance modeling are based on the current - voltage characteristic of the modules. The complete simulation of this model under Matlab / Simulink software has enabled to find the maximum performance point of the photovoltaic systems according to the different inducers of loss of availability. The simulation results have been validated by experimental data from the National Agency of Biofuels of Mali.

  186. Promi Halder, Mukta, K. N. Mamun, A. A.

    This research focuses on the nonlinear propagation of electron-ion (El) acoustic solitary waves in a degenerate quantum plasma (containing Maxwellian electrons, vortex-like negative ions, cold mobile positive ions, and arbitrarily charged static dust grains) have been theoretically investigated. The Korteweg-de Vries (K-dV) and modified K-dV (mK-dV) equations are derived by adopting the reductive perturbation method. Their stationary solutions are derived and analyzed analytically as well as numerically to study some new basic fea¬tures of the El acoustic solitary structures that are commonly found to exist in degenerate quantum plasma. It is found that the basic properties (viz. amplitude, width, and phase speed, etc.) of the El acoustic waves are significantly modified by the effects of relativistically degenerate electrons and light ions, quantum pressure, number densities of plasma particles, and external magnetic field, etc. The results of this theoretical investigation may be useful for understanding the formation and fea¬tures of the solitary structures in astrophysical compact objects like white dwarfs, neutron stars, active galactic nuclei, pulsars etc. are pinpointed.

  187. Dr. Sonyabapu Shewale Dr. Shyam D Ganvir

    Background: Stroke is one of the most dominant causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide and poses a major global healthcare challenge. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), stroke can be defined as: “Rapidly developing clinical signs of focal (or global) disturbance of cerebral function, lasting more than 24 hours or leading to death with no apparent cause other than that of vascular origin”(1) Every day activity are basic physical activity necessary to live such as walking , personal care and transfer .individuals carrying hemiplegia or hemiparesis may present several disability that make difficulty in every day activity therefore it was necessary a complementary evaluation to verify and quantify these activities and to follow up functional status of these patients(2) Aims: To study the Correlation of functional independence measure scale and fatigue severity scale in hemiplegic patients Objectives 1. To find out the fatigue severity in hemiplegic patients. 2. To find out the functional independence measure in hemiplegic patients. 3. To find out correlation between fatigue severity and functional independence measure in hemiplegic patient. Procedure: The ethical clearance was obtained from IEC of PDVVPF’s COPT for study. After ethical clearance, all subjects were informed regarding the procedure of fulfilling the questioner, written consent was obtained from participants, procedure will be explained and questionnaire will be filled by participants. Data analysis: All the data was analyzed using the statistical SPSS 10.0 for window means and standard deviations were calculated and correlation respectively .were analyzed using Pearson’s correlation test Result: not significant Thus Pearson correlation test shows statistically not co-relate between functional independence scale and fatigue severity scale Conclusion: Result of the present study suggest that functional independence measure scale and fatigue severity scale are statistically not co-related.

  188. Vismitha, A.S. Mr. Sandeep, K.V.

    The design and implementation of a mobile data service which gives parallel multi-path transmission over multiple cellular networks to achieve significant performances like maximum throughput and baseline estimation. In previous systems, in the application layer or transport layer is used a network assisted architecture for multi-homed (NAMH) cellular access is proposed. In another system, routers and base stations provides necessary multihoming functionality which includes identification of a bifurcation router and dynamic splitting of the data stream. In the proposed work, using the multipath TCP(MPTCP) and dynamic routing with the increased topology will simulated and compared the results with the existing systems using NS3 simulator.

  189. Gayathri, S., S. Jesurani, Ashok K. John Peter, A.

    M-type hexagonal ferrites with chemical composition Ba0.5Sr0.5Fe12-2xNbxZnxO19(X=0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.25, 0.5 mol %) have been synthesized by sol-gel method using D- glucose as fuel. In the present work, Barium, Strontium, Iron, Zinc nitrate, Niobium chloride are used raw materials and D-glucose was used as fuel. The prepared samples were calcined at 8000C and 9500C. TGA/DTA curve shows there is no weight loss above 8500C which confirmed the formation of barium strontium hexaferrite. FTIR spectra exhibit the band in the range of 453– 495cm-1 which revealed the presence of hexagonal ferrite. The phase formations were investigated by X-ray diffraction. X-ray powder analysis confirmed the formation of hexagonal magnetoplumbite structure. The average particle size of the sample is in the range of 31- 48 nm. SEM micrographs showed the powder is well crystallized and the particles are hexagonal structure with needle shape and platelet form. EDAX analysis showed the evidence for the presence of Ba, Sr, Fe, Nb and Zn. The VSM measurement revealed that the doping of Nb-Zn ions caused the change in the magnetic properties such as coercivity, saturation magnetization and remanence magnetization. The improving saturation magnetization and remanence magnetization and reducing coercivity were favorable for high density perpendicular magnetic recording applications.

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