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Prevention of early childhood caries- a review

Author: 
Dr. Savitha Sathyaprasad, Dr. Mercy vinolia, T. and Dr. Krishnamoorthy, S.H.
Subject Area: 
Health Sciences
Abstract: 

The expression “dental caries” is utilized to represent the outcomes, signs, symptoms, and side effects of a localized chemical disintegration of the tooth surface (enamel and dentin) caused by dental plaque and mediated by saliva1. Caries is considered as disease with high incidence among childhood chronic conditions, where it is also well-thought-out to cause harm on both population and individual well- being2,3. When comparing it with other common diseases, dental caries is five times as frequent as asthma and seven times as common as hay fever4. The American Academy of Pediatrics demonstrates that dental and oral infections keep on infecting children and, specifically, very young children. In primary teeth, dental caries is a preventable and reversible disease if treated in early stages, but when left untreated it will lead to pain, bacteremia, alteration in growth and development, premature tooth loss, speech disorder, increase in treatment costs, loss of confidence, and negatively affect successor permanent teeth. The definitions used previously to describe this bacterial disease were related to cause and the improper utilization of nursing bottle. These terms are used interchangeably: “Early childhood tooth decay”, “early childhood caries (ECC)”, “bottle caries”, “nursing caries”, “baby bottle tooth decay”, or “night bottle mouth”5,6. The expression “ECC” was proposed more than 20 years ago during a workshop supported by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) trying to scope the consideration upon the various issues, such as financial, sociopsychological, and behavioral, which contributes to the formation of caries at such initial years, instead of attributing its manifestation solely on feeding bottles7. This article explores the various means of preventive strategies, including anticipatory guidance and future approaches to prevent ECC, interprofessional education and practise also explores the implications of ECC epidemiology for evolving health service delivery and financing approaches

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