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December 2011

  1. Dr. S. Maragatham

    The development of many alternative building materials as possible will be of immense benefit to minimize the impact on the environment. Earth can be used for construction of walls in many ways. However, there are few undesirable properties such as loss of strength when saturated with water, erosion due to wind or driving rain and poor dimensional stability. Hence a study was conducted to determine the characteristics of stabilized compressed earth blocks (CEB). The new technology focuses on stabilized earth masonry brick development incorporating an industrial by-product material, which is vital for the future of construction. The stabilized earth masonry brick technology relies on the use of an activated industrial by-product (like fly ash) and natural earth. Due to the use of a by-product material in the formulation, it is anticipated that the final pricing of the stabilized earth masonry building brick will be reduced. The added environmental advantage of utilizing industrial by-products available in the country will further improve the sustainability profile of masonry brick production. Properties of compressed stabilized earth blocks like Clay brick water absorption and durability, Clay brick density; Compressive strength and thermal properties versus other walling materials were measured. Based on the results it was found the performance of the stabilized compressed earth blocks was comparable with others in terms of their strength characteristics. Meanwhile the reduction of transportation time, cost and attendant pollution can also make CEB more environmentally friendly than other materials.

  2. Tan Gaik Kuen, Mutasim M. Khaladalla, Arvind Bhatt and Chan Lai Keng

    Kaempferia galanga or also known as cekur is a valuable traditional herb for folk medication. The secondary metabolites of this plant have various pharmaceutical properties such as vasorelaxant and antinociceptive effect. The conventional planting method of this plant is insufficient to fulfill the increasing demand of this plant for the production of secondary metabolites thus in vitro culture technique was used. This project focused on selection of elite cell lines of K. galanga to be used for the production of medicinally important bioactive compounds in large scale by using bioreactors. The callus derived from the root, leaf sheath and rhizome of this plant made up a total of 26 cell lines. These calli were induced and maintained on Murashige and Skoog (1962) medium supplemented with 1.0 mg/L 2, 4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2, 4-D) and 30 g/L sucrose, solidified with 7.7 g/L agar, and subcultured every 21 days for six subculture cycles. From these 26 cell lines, only eight cell lines could be selected as stable lines and categorized into fast, intermediate and slow growing lines based on their Growth Index. Among the explants, leaf sheath gave the most stable and fast growing lines. This is an effective tool for conservation of this important medicinal plant and to make the source of active compounds available throughout the year. The selected cell lines can be used as the material source for future preparation of cell suspension culture of K. galangal.

  3. Manjunatha, B.K. and Amith. R. Rupani

    The present paper describes in vivo and in silico studies on hepatoprotective potency of aqueous and ethanol fruit pulp extracts of Aegle mermelos (Rutaceae). in vivo study was done using CCl4 induced hepatic damage model. Various biochemical parameters like serum total bilirubin, total protein, alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase and alkaline phosphatase activities were studied. Results indicated significant decrease in the levels of serum markers and increase in total protein indicating the recovery of hepatic cells in the animal group treated with test drug. Histological study of ethanol extract treated animals revealed normal hepatic cords without any cellular necrosis and fatty infiltration. Among the two extracts tested, ethanol fruit pulp extract at the dose of 100 mg/ml could afford significant protection against CCl4 induced hepatocellular injury. For in silico studies, lamivudin and tenofovir were used as standard to procure the targets. It was found that Gag-pol polyprotein was a target of paramount importance in the cure of hepatitis. Its structure was retrieved from PDB (ID: 1VRU). Thirty three compounds occurring in Aegle mermelos were studied, out of which only fifteen satisfied Lipenski’s criteria. These fifteen molecules were docked with the PDB ID: 1VRU in Hex docking tool. Alloimperatorin showed the best docking score with the binding energy -224.76 kcal/mol. Furthermore, the active site analysis of PDB ID: 1VRU was done using Q-site finder and the active site sequence was retrieved. Molecular property evaluation of the Alloimperatorin was done using Osiris property explorer which gave a positive drug score. From the present study, it can be concluded that, Aegle mermelos could offer a promising herbal drug for the cure of hepatitis.

  4. Dhanya, N. and Rekha, R.K.

    Early adolescence is a period that is characterized by heightened self consciousness and increased social comparison that compels early adolescents to evaluate their self-identity. Often adolescents set for themselves unattainable goals and this could transform this period into a roller coaster experience. Help from significant others in their lives could assist adolescents to distinguish between their ideal and their real selves. Most theorists believe the quality of parent child relations is closely linked to difference in self-descriptive and self-evaluative behaviour among children and youth. Socio-cultural and parental factors seem to be of paramount importance in determining perceptions of the self in children in the Indian context. Adolescents coming from the families where they were accepted by parents thought of themselves in more favourable terms as compared to the adolescents coming from the families where they were rejected. This study thus was an attempt to compare the Self –concept, Educational and occupational aspirations, general expectation and general performance of adolescents from the community living with their families and those in the orphanages.

  5. Sheikh, G.N., Showkat Ahmad and Rajdeep Kudesia

    Electrophoretic SDS-PAGE and RAPD analysis were performed to established genetic diversity for five accessions (IPL-406, IPL-81,DPL-62, DPL-15, & Sehore-74-3) and to elucidate their genetic relationships. The resulted protein banding pattern showed high level of polymorphism( i.e., 95.6% and could be used to discriminate completely among the five accessions under study. However, the protein profile could be considered as general biochemical finger print of the lentil.During present study the polymorphism was high at protein level. One decamer primer(OPA-17) having sequence CACCGCTTGT was used to estimate genetic diversity in Lens culinaris accessions.Atotal of 43 bands were scored , 39 bands showed polymorphism( 90.6%) and the rest 4 bads showed 9.30% monomorphism during RAPD analysis. Number of bands produced in each accession varied during RAPD and SDS-PAGE analysis .Similarity index reveals maximum similarity between accessions IPL-406(L-1) and DPL-15(L-4) , DPL-15(L-4) and Sehore-74-3(L-5) i.e., 35.71% and 35.29% respectively while distantly related accessions were IPL-81(L-2) and DPL-62(L-3) with similarity index 23.8% when RAPD profile was observed but when protein profile of five accessions of lentil was observed, show highest similarity index value between accessions IPL-406(L-1) and Sehore-74-3(L-5) i.e., 36.6% while distantly related accessions show lowest similarity index were IPL-406(L-1) and DPL-15(L-4) i.e., 15%. Two dendrograms constructed based on Jaccard’s method and UPGMA using oth SDS-PAGE and RAPD profiles. The resulting dendrogram for protein profile revealed two main seperate genetic clusters ; the first comprises the accession IPL-81(L-2), The first cluster was further subdivided into IPL-406 and Sehore-74-3 while second cluster comprises accessions DPL-62 and DPL-15.The dendrogram constructed for RAPD profile revealed main separate genetic clusters ; the first cluster comprises the accession DPL-62, the first cluster was further subdivided IPL-406 and DPL-15 while as second cluster comprises accession IPL-81 and Sehore-74-3.

  6. Varalakshmi Perumal and Malliga Perumal

    Cyanobacteria are prokaryotic, inexpensive to maintain with high growth rates and produce various biologically active substances like proteins, vitamins, carbohydrates, amino acids, polysaccharides and plant growth regulators. Thus they have the unique potential to contribute to productivity in a variety of agricultural and ecological situations. Indole acetic acid (IAA) is a natural auxin which is also synthesized in many species of non seeded plants, many bacteria, fungi and algae. The amino acid tryptophan is commonly regarded as the precursor for the biosynthesis of auxin in plants. In this study, for the first time an attempt was made to confirm the presence of IAA in the extract of Oscillatoria annae using instrumental methods of analysis and a field experiment was also conducted to analyze the efficacy of the extract on the growth of Hibiscus esculentus.

  7. Tuhina Chowdhury, Shaikh Bokhtear Uddin, Dewan Halimuzzaman Quraishi and Nusrat Jahan Mouri

    An ethnobotanical uses of plants were examined at two hilly area of sylhet in Bangladesh. The study identified 26 species belonging 18 families that are being used in traditional health care. The research reveals that the use of these plants was confined mostly less educated and poor people of tea state and they depend on the treatment of native healers. This result also demonstrated that the plants are uses either whole parts or different parts like leaves, stem, bark, root, flower, seed, etc. Plant are used for quick recovery from long time sickness like preventing Asthma, Dirreahae, Dysentery, sexual disease, urinary tract disease. There is a big diversity of indigenous plant of hilly area at sylhet and their traditional medicinal practice by native healers.

  8. Udensi, O., Uyoh, E. A., and Brisibe, E. A

    The problems associated with the indiscriminate disposal of plastic products derived from fossil sources and the need to highlight production of alternatives using plants as factories formed the basis of the current research, which is aimed at evaluating the effect of chemical treatment as a pointer to the need for in planta acetylation of starch that would be useful in the production of biodegradable plastics. Native starches from cassava, sweet potato and maize were acetylated using acetic anhydride at 68 and 89% (w/v), respectively. After acetylation, the degree of substitution (DS) of each starch acetate was evaluated and seen to range between 1.21 and 1.92. Our results equally demonstrated that acetylating the starch enhanced the tensile strength, percentage elongation and thermostability of the bioplastics produced therefrom, which was observed as a function of the DS of the starch acetates and the level of plasticization. Implicit in these results, therefore, is the conclusion that starch acetylation can enhance its qualities for the production of biodegradable plastics.

  9. Edagbo D. E., Ighere D. A., Alowonle A. A. and Clement, M.

    In the whole of Africa and Nigeria in particular, a larger proportion of the forest and plant genetic resources are being depleted at a grossly uncomfortable rate, a consequence of increasing population pressure, agricultural land degradation, urbanization and neglect. It is no gainsaying therefore that in this present dispensation, conservation and sustainable utilization and also proper management of germplasm are pressing priorities the world over. Many conservation methods and techniques exist that could be deployed to safeguard the threatened/endangered population of most of these valuable germplasm. This paper reviews the various techniques inherent in the ex situ and in situ strategies of conservation and also bring to the fore how these techniques could be harnessed in promoting conservation through the various types of genebanks towards ensuring the sustainable use of the accessible germplasm.

  10. J.K. M’Ndegwa

    The Kesses-Cheptiret road was upgraded mainly to link Moi University and the surrounding rich agricultural region to the outside world. The road is 13 km long and can be divided into two sections. Section one is class D road which links Kesses to Cheptiret and section B is the access road from Moi University to Kesses market. The latter section is generally in a good condition, but the former has 56 % and 44 % respectively; of it classified as poor and completely failed respectively. This section of the road has become a major challenge to the Road Authority in terms of its cost of rehabilitation and maintenance. This paper examines the main factors that have contributed to continued deterioration of section one of this road in spite of past attempts at annual routine and periodic maintenance. A number of data collection methods were used, ranging from the use of topographic maps, climatic and hydrological data and site inspection to in-depth interviews with selected groups of local road users. This paper proposes mitigation measures to be taken to restore the road to its intended condition and hence to improve economic welfare of the surrounding community.

  11. N. Johnson and Dr. E. Ramganesh,

    The importance of teaching problem solving to students has been widely recognized by teachers, administrators, and other educational stakeholders. The advent of computer technology, particularly multimedia learning, has changed the landscape of problem-solving instruction. Computer-based problem simulations, for example, begin to replace the traditional paper and pencil approach with more vivid, interactive approach that provides both auditory and visual information to problem solving. The psychological and cognitive benefits of using multimedia to teach problem solving are palpable: the multimedia motivates students to learn, promotes deep understanding, and engages them in problem solving. The interactive multimedia technology and self-regulation not only enable the students to review their thought processes but also to get them exposed of modern techniques and hence students may be helped regulate their thinking processes and enhance their problem solving in science. Problem solving has been identified as an important aspect of student learning in science and technology and in the development of scientific literacy (National Research Council, 1996).Problem solving is an evergreen topic in science education research. Here students do not get an opportunity to think independently and conceptualize the process involved in problem solving. In fact the present state of teaching problem solving in science by innovative methods like using interactive multimedia in the majority of educational institutions at all levels needs a lot of overhauling. It is in this assumption that the present study aims to find out the effectiveness of an innovative strategy with modern technological tools known as interactive multimedia with a self regulatory strategy in solving physics problems of higher secondary students. This study attempts to empower the Problem solving ability of students in the rural areas through an innovative technique, interactive multimedia with a Self regulatory strategy by the principle of “Reaching the Unreached”. The present study examined the self-regulatory awareness of higher secondary students. The sample of the study consisted of 90 higher secondary school students. Self-regulation of students was measured using Self-regulatory awareness inventory (SAI). Results further indicated male and female students do not differ in their Self-regulatory awareness during their problem solving action in the pre-test, Post-test1 and post-test2. The Self-regulatory awareness of students of science in rural areas in Karaikal district during their problem solving action is comparatively less in the pre-test. Post-test1, Post-test2, mean and SD scores revealed that students of science could improve their Problem solving, ability using Self-regulatory strategies with multimedia learning materials. The orientation on Self-regulatory strategies with multimedia learning materials is effective for solving problem in Physics.

  12. Dr. Shailaja Bhangale

    Maturation describes impulses to growth which supplemented by Education usually and other environmental factors. Environment is a source of Education. Emotional maturity is a process in which the personality is continuously striving for greater sense of emotional health, both intra-psychically and intra-personally. In this study researcher studied emotional maturity of literate and illiterate women with relation to categories of emotional maturity. The emotional maturity scale developed by Dr. Yashvir Singh and Dr. Mahesh Bhargava was used. Literate women were found emotionally mature and illiterate women emotionally unstable. There was significant difference in emotional maturity of literate and illiterate women.

  13. Helmy Zefaan

    At the point, which it becomes more expensive to extend the service life of vehicle than owning and operating a new one, it becomes economic to replace it by a new one, present less operating costs, less out of working periods and more income. However the procedure of replacement vehicles, after determining the optimal economic lifetime, are very useful, where decision makers are facing with complex tradeoffs involving economic, environmental, or policy impacts of fleet management decisions or regulations. This paper reports a scientific concept, for replacing or choosing vehicles. Several widely microbus vehicles run in ministry of health, ambulance sector, Egypt, are used in this study. The results indicated that each vehicle has its own history, so the best time to get rid of one vehicle is not necessarily the best time to get rid of other vehicles of the same age and type. In addition, the decision of replacement is part of a wider problem involving many factors other than depreciation and maintenance costs.

  14. Ali Asghar Nasimi and Sadegh Noroozi

    In this paper first, types of astronomical radio radiations are defined exactly after, trend of producing them and artificial radiations application will be expressed. Then we measure value of receiving flux of radio radiation in sky of Khuzestan state using a telescope at Shahid Chamran university .this measurement has caused to recognize strong radio resources like Cygnusex obtained data have been compared with existence maps such as radio Jadrel bank. The main purpose of this research is recognizing and considering radio radiations resources in sky of Ahwaz in Khuzestan state. For this aim, using radio telescope at Shsahid Chamran university values of receiving flux of some radio resources were obtained, then it was compared with data of radio maps JABRELL bank. As the result of this research differences of the fluxes and positions of the fluxes were appointed in sky.

  15. Dilip. M. Raut, D. T. Mahajan, D. M. Sakharkar, P. S. Bodke, K.V.Pavan, Ravikiran Allada, Girish Deshpande, Durvas Patil and Avinash Patil

    The effects of water and temperature on the polymorphic transition of crystalline mannitol were investigated. Mannitol has different polymorphic forms, and was classified as alpha, beta, and delta form, respectively, by Walter-Le´vy (C.R. Acad. Sc. Paris Ser. C (1968) 267, 1779). The behavior of representative crystalline form was studied using water granulation and temperature induced mechanism. The different powder X-ray diffraction patterns obtained before and after water granulation confirmed that water induced polymorphic transition had occurred. Morphological changes were observed with increase in the specific surface area of the sample from 1.044 to 1.206m2/g, It was also found that decrease the particle size upon water granulation. At the same time temperature induced polymorphic transformation observed using Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), were reported glass transition temperature of Mannitol is determined from inferences. The glass transition temperature denotes the stability of amorphous Mannitol, which is necessary to be stored only below this grass transition temperature else it may easily re-crystallize in to a thermodynamically stable crystalline form. When considering the mechanism of these polymorphic transitions, the results from PXRD, DSC, TGA, BET SSA, PSD and Sorption analysis indicates that water granulation process leads to the polymorphic transformation and increases the specific surface area with decrease in particle size initially, but later it gets agglomerated over a period of time resulting increase in particle size . Where as temperature induces polymorphic transformation from crystalline to amorphous, which needs to be stored below its glass transition temperature.

  16. Naga Subramani, P. C. and Sharmila, V

    The study was intended to find out the Environmental Knowledge of B.Ed. Trainees in Tamil Nadu, India. Environmental Knowledge questionnaire was constructed and validated by the investigator, have been administered to a random sample of 1200 trainees studying in B.Ed. College. The result revealed that Government and Aided B.Ed. College Trainees, Aided and Private B.Ed. College Trainees caused significant difference and Government and Private B.Ed. College Trainees caused no significant difference in respect of their Environmental knowledge.

  17. Prof. Dr. P. K. Srimani, F.N.A.Sc., and Manjula Sanjay Koti

    The medical diagnosis process can be interpreted as a decision making process, during which the physician includes the diagnosis of a new and unknown case from an available set of clinical data and from clinical experience which can be computerized. A method that enhances the performance of a model that is based on Rough set theory for feature selection and classification is proposed. For this purpose, the PIMA dataset is used. The proposed system provides the solution to a feature subset selection problem which is nothing but a task of identifying and analysing an optimal subset from a larger set of features. It is concluded that the method certainly helps in cost reduction associated with the diagnosis.

  18. Martin Babu Panackal, Dr. Tony Daniel and Dr. George Abraham

    The purpose of this investigation was to analyse the sports schools and normal schools students on physical fitness and mental health status at secondary level. Fifty boys and fifty girls students from sports schools (N=100) and fifty boys and fifty girls students from normal schools (N=100) were selected as subjects and their aged ranged from 13 to 15 years. Physical fitness and mental health status were selected as dependant variables in this study. The physical fitness was measured by suing one minute sit ups, sit and reach test, half squat jump test, Harvard step test, standing broad jump, stork stand and shuttle run and mental health status was assessed by using Gireesan and Sanandaraj test. The obtained data were statistically assessed for any significant difference using Karl Pearson’s product moment coefficient of correlation and ‘Z’ test. The result showed that. The results obtained from analysis that mental health of boys in sports schools increases with increases in physical fitness in a moderate level than the boys in normal schools. And also reveals that mental health of girls in sports schools increases with increases in physical fitness in a moderate level than girls in normal schools.

  19. Md. Abu Manju and Soma Chowdhury Biswas

    In longitudinal studies, the Generalized Estimating Equation (GEE) and Maximum Likelihood (ML) methods are commonly used to estimate the parameters of Generalized Linear Mixed Models (GLMM). Power and sample size estimation constitutes an important component for longitudinal study design and planning of modern clinical trials. In this paper, the power of the Wald Test for two different estimation methods of parameters in GLMM was compared. The data employed in this study were diabetes mellitus data with three consecutive follow ups. A pattern was found in which the power values were better under ML approach than GEE approach for the GLMM.

  20. Waiganjo Esther Wangithi and Maina Evelyn Wambui

    Management prioritizes organizational and employee development efforts tied to both the strategic and business planning processes. Although such factors have been effected, there are other factors which need to be put into consideration since most organizations tend to allocate less money to their training merely because they don’t know the criteria to use. This provoked the researchers to conduct a research on the factors determining training budget allocation in commercial banks. The study adopted survey research design and the participants were the managers and departmental supervisors of all the ten commercial banks in Nyeri Municipality. Structured questionnaires were used to collect data which was analyzed using inferential statistics. P-value was be used to test the hypothesis. The variables investigated were; size of the organization, employee entry characteristics, organization policy and cost of investment. These factors were found to have an influence in determining training budget allocation in commercial banks and in addition, from the regression model, these variables were significant in causing variations to the dependent variable, which is, training budget allocation in banks.

  21. Job Gopinath. M and Manley Backyavathy. D

    Chromium is present in trace in all organic matter and seems to be an essential mineral. Chromium plays an important role in the metabolism of carbohydrate and fats. It works with insulin in the metabolism of sugar. It seems to increase the effectiveness of insulin, thereby facilitating the transport of glucose in to the cells and not allowing the blood glucose levels to rise. It helps to take protein where it is needed and also an aid in growth. Chromium has been found beneficial in the prevention and also an aid in growth .Chromium has been found beneficial in the prevention and treatment of high blood pressure. In spite of its uses it also causes severe impairments in animals including man. It is available in excess ie., above the normal level. Hence, in the present study the impact of sub lethal concentration of hexavalent chromium compound (Potassium dichromate) on total carbohydrate ,glycogen and total free sugar was estimated in the tissues such as brain, liver, kidney and muscle of Newzealand white rabbit exposed to 1,5 and 9 months duration was carried out. The results shows the total carbohydrates, total free sugars and glucose increased when compared to the normal rabbit. The glycogen gradually decreased. The results are discussed, the values are statistically significant.

  22. Kachare, S.V.

    Present study deals with native phytotherapy among rural population in Marathwada. Marathwada region comprising seven districts. Aurangabad, Beed, Jalna, Latur, Nanded, Osmanabad and Parbhani forms the part of Vast Deccan plateau of India located 7005-7805 E longitude and 1705’ – 2005’ N longitude. The paper deals with hittherto unknown or less known medicinal uses of species recorded from rural communities of Marathwada. This forms the first ethnobotanical report from the Marathwada. Authors have collected the information about native phyutotherpy from local inhabitants from rural areas through interviews. For this Author visited villages such as Bhagwati, Tuppa, Kinwat, Renapur, Karepura, Anandwadi, Badnapur, Dharmapuri, Khadgaon, Loni, Godala, Kingaon, Sirsala, Kakhandi, Daheli, Parli-Vaijnath etc. The aim of study was to disseminate this knowledge for benefit of poor people, as plants are easily available locally. Though such a valuable knowledge has been preserved and propagated for future generation and its validity should be proved scientifically.

  23. Majeed Hussein Majeed Al-Sarry

    The current study is skillful to detect of the mutations of the H-RAS oncogene in patient of uterine cancer. Thirty specimens of blood and tissue were collected for DNA extraction, H-RAS oncogene amplification and histopathology examination. The results revealed to the present of mutations in H-RAS oncogene represented by homozygous wild type Leu / Leu was 20%, mutant translocation genotype Val / Val was 48%, mutant deletion genotype Val / Leu was 22% and heterozygous genotype Leu / Val was 10%. The histopathological results of this study reveal to many types of uterine cancer. The major types of uterine cancer that appear in this study represented by endometrial adenosquamous carcinoma that associated with endometrial lieomyosarcoma, the other cases were represented as endometrial spheriodal cell carcinoma and as endometrial intra epithelial carcinoma.

  24. Vijay Kumar and Anshu Raj

    The aim of the study was to vasectomize three male wild boars by laparoscopic technique. The animals were anaesthesized with xylazine (2 mg/kg) and ketamine (15mg/kg) intramuscularly. The vas deferens was clearly seen close to the urinary bladder and occlusion of the vas deferens was done by electrocauterization using electrocautery forcep connected to an electrocautery unit. The procedure was completed in 10 to 12 minutes. There were no complications and recovery of the animals were uneventful.

  25. Umasankar Nath

    Social uprising may be defined as violent action against an established government or ruler or to refuse to acknowledge someone or something as having authority. It may also be difined as an attempt to end the authority of a person or body by rebelling or a refusal to continue to obey or conform the authority. Social uprising may be of different types eg. in National, Regional Local. Local uprising is generally a community oriented one. The uprising may be against social-economic exploitation and oppression*. In the mid of 20th century, in Tripura, such an uprising took place among the Reang community which shattered their traditional socio-political and economic structure of the society. To understand the causes of the Reang uprising, one is to study their traditional socio-economic and political structure of the society.

  26. Umasankar Nath

    Swami Vivekananda, the spiritual leader of modern India and rejuvenator of Hinduism has tremendous achievements to his credit during his short span of life of 39 years. Though a monk and a spiritual personality, he was not a reclause but enlivened India’s religion and its national confidence which was at its lowest level after over a hundred years of colonial rule. At a time when Hinduism was criticized by western thinkers as archaic and socially offensive he showed to the Indian themselves and to the west how the idealistic philosophy of Hinduism can be practiced as a socially consistent humanitarian ethics. In all his speeches, writings and preachings he proclaimed the universality, tolerant and humanist philosophy of Advaita Vedanta. His message was basically spiritual and philosophical but it had deep practical social implications.

  27. Sumathi, R. and Krishna Kumar, R.

    Twenty-first century technology has changed the way tools are used to support and enhance learning and instruction. Teaching in today’s classroom is technology driven. To be a successful learner, students need to develop skills in self-directed learning. To transform the students from being passive receivers to active investigators of knowledge, multiple web tools such as wikis, podcast, virtual world tools etc are presented to learners for interaction and exchanging ideas. The educational affordances of blogs offer opportunities for students to become self-directed learners. The term blogging is the use of a blog on the internet, which has undeniable educational benefits that enable dynamic activities, creativity, enriching and innovative tasks and communicative learning. Blogs are widely popular in education, as evidenced by 400 thousand educational blogs hosted by Edublogs. The benefit of the use of blogs in education has certainly made a radical change in the learning community. Thus, this paper discusses on the importance of blogging and how it supports the learning community.

  28. Ashok Kumar, N., Apsara Thilothami, D., Melchi Leebana, D. and Baluswami, M.

    Planktonic algae were collected from eight different temple tanks of Kancheepuram district and studied thoroughly. Taxa belonging to Cyanophyceae, Chlorophyceae, Chrysophyceae, Cryptophyceae, Euglenophyceae and Dinophyceae were examined. A total number of 78 taxa were identified and their descriptions are given, of these 10 belong to the class Cyanophyceae, 42 to Chlorophyceae, one each to Chrysophyceae and Cryptophyceae, 22 to Euglenophyceae and 2 to the Dinophyceae. Of the 78 taxa investigated, a total number of 39 taxa are found to be new reports to Tamil Nadu.

  29. Anand, T., Kalaiselvan, A. and Gokulakrishnan, K.

    Murraya koenigii is a ancient Indian medicinal plant. This native is Indo-China but grown mostly in the tropics for the medicinal and flavourant properties of the leaves. Wound-healing activity of ethanolic extract of M. koenigii was studied by excision and incision wound models in male Albino rats (in vivo). In excision model, compared to the control group, percent concentration of wound was significantly higher in M. koenigii (5% w/w ointment)-treated group. In incision model, tensile strength of the healing tissue after treatment with M. koenigii was found to be significantly higher compared to the control group, indicating better wound-healing activity of the test plant. These results suggest that ethanolic extract of M. koenigii possesses significant wound-healing potential in normal wound.

  30. Thamizh Selvi, K. and Sivakumar, K.

    Cyanobacterial diversity occurring in some local rice fields of Cuddalore District of Tamilnadu, India has been studied. 25 taxa belonging to 10 genera were obtained and characterized are non-heterocystous, unicellular, colonial and filamentous forms. This study is aimed to describe the abundance of cyanobacteria in various rice fields of Vallampadugai and Keerapalayam areas. This paper documented total of 25 species representing 10 genera of 2 families and 2 orders. Highest abundance of cyanobacteria was found in order Nostocales which was represented by 17 species. Morphological features were described for each species systematically. The present study indicates ubiquitous distribution of cyanobacteria in rice fields and could be exploited for biofertilizer in agriculture.

  31. Ghaffari Javad, Abediankenari Saeid, Nasehi Mohammadmehdi

    Thalassemia major (TM( patients present with severe hemolytic anemia and multiple organs impairment. TM have an increased risk for serious infections, due to that a basic defect in the host defense and this may be related to the iron overload, chronic immune-stimulation by repeated blood transfusions, splenectomy and immune deficiency. changing in lymphocyte subsets include a greater number and activity of suppressor T cells (CD-8),reduced proliferative capacity and a number and level of activity of helper T- Cells (CD-4) leading to decreased CD4/CD8 ratio, as well as defective activity of natural killer (NK) cells. High immune globulins were reported and B- lymphocytes were found to be increased, activated with impaired differentiation, impairment of immunoglobulin secretion accompanied by increased levels of IgG, IgM and IgA. Neutrophils and macrophages are associated with defective chemo taxis and phagocytosis.

  32. Ajibade A.J., Fakunle P.B., Olayemi O.T. and Adetogun, A.A.

    Cardiovascular Diseases (CVD) continue to be one of the leading causes of deaths despite recent advancements in the medical therapies. This study assessed the effect of crude aqueous extract of Ocimum gratissimum commonly used for the treatment of diarrhoea, urinary infections, fever and dysentery on heart morphology. Twenty-four Wistar rats of both sexes with average weight of 175g were used. The rats were randomized into four groups each containing 6 rats. Groups B, C and D received the aqueous extract of Ocimum gratissimum orally at doses of 0.7g/kg, 1.4g/kg and 2.8g/kg body weight respectively for 3 consecutive weeks. Group A served as control group which received distilled water only. After the 3 weeks of administration, the rats were sacrificed by cervical dislocation and the hearts were dissection, blood samples were taken for haematological analysis for blood platelet and the organs were fixed in 10% formol saline for histological investigation by light microscopy. Histological observation was normal in control group. Treated sections showed distortions, disaggregation and loss of cellular components. Haematological findings showed significant differences between control and treated groups and revealed that Ocimum gratissimum is capable of invoking an inflammatory response that transits from acute to chronic on persistent administration. The heart weights of the treated rats also increased compared with the control.

  33. J. Mary Vimalakumari Kalaiarasi, M. Raja and A. Anitha Joice

    The evaluation of powder extract of Salacia oblanga for hypolipidemic activity, biochemical changes in normal and Aluminium toxicity induced White Albino Wistar Female Rats. In conclusion, exposure to Aluminium has resulted in a decrease in erythrocyte, peripheral erythrocyte count and blood hemoglobin during short term exposure for 7 days. But this seems to be back to normal serum when exposure was continued for a further period of 7 days. The initial effect of decrease in red blood cells count and hemoglobin was found to be counteracted by co – administration of S.oblonga. The fluctuations seen in the Esonophil, Basophil and Lymphocyte count during exposure to S. oblonga seems to be is off on exposure for further period of 7 days. Thus, S.oblonga seems to have a beneficial effect is Aluminium effect in Aluminium induced hypoxia, seen during early phase of exposure to Aluminium.

  34. Tessy Paul P. and R. Sreekumar

    Tessy Paul P. and R. Sreekumar

  35. Maleeka Begum, S.F., Santhana Kumar, J . and Swathi Balakrishnan, V.

    The antioxidant and hepatoprotective effect of Andrographis paniculata on Acetaminophen (Paracetamol) induced hepatotoxicity inalbino rats was investigated. Oral administration Acetaminophen (Paracetamol)of (250mg/kg body wt.) for 8 days resulted in a significant elevation of SGOT, SGPT,ALP and bilirubin and the levels of lipid peroxidation in liver. Acetaminophen (Paracetamol) also caused a significant reduction in the activities of Superoxide dismutase (SOD), Catalase (CAT) and reduced the Glutathione level in liver. Administration of A. Paniculata extract ( 250 mg /kg body weight and 500 mg/kg body weight.) significantly decreased the serum hepatic marker enzymes viz SGOT,SGPT,ALP and level of bilirubin along with the significant decrease in the levels of lipid peroxidation in the liver. In addition the A.paniculata extract significantly increased the activities of SOD, CAT and reduced GSH level in the liver of Acetaminophen (Paracetamol) intoxicated albino rats. Our results demonstrated that the ethanolic extract of A. Paniculata exhibited antioxidant and the hepatoprotective property. The results of the hepatoprotective activity of Andrographis paniculata extract is comparable to that of the commercially available silymarin preparations

  36. Bidhan Chandra Patra

    A three months experimental trial was conducted with variable percentage levels of protein (25, 30, 35, 40, 45 & 50) diet fed to the common Indian catfish, Clarias batrachus to study the satiation time, maximum feed intake in different hours of the day, protein/dietary energy requirement for optimum growth in different size groups, amino acid absorption and quantitative requirement, in vivo protein biosynthesis etc. and finally to calculate the requirement of digestible energy for the production of one gram fish to thousand gram in weight. It was observed that the maximum feed intake recorded with smaller size groups (5.0 g) as compared to 20.0 g and 50.0 g, satiated within one hour and highest appetite was recorded at 18.00 hours of the day. Maximum growth were observed with 45.0% protein (5.0 ± 0.3g) followed by 40% (20.0 ± 2.1 g) and 35% (50.0 ± 3.6 g) in Clarias batrachus, although growth continued till 50% of dietary protein but not significant at the 0.5% level. Maximum weight increase recorded with 1: 14.85 digestible energy / digestible protein ratio. Maximum amino acid absorption takes place in the posterior serosal layer of the intestine. It was also recorded that the same 10 amino acids are essential and their requirement was almost at par with the other fish species, and as in higher vertebrates. However, the importance of cystine and tyrosine for the growth of Clarias batrachus should not be ignored and should be considered as two additional essential amino acids. The protein biosynthesis in vivo is highly correlated with the dietary protein/energy, feed intake and growth performance of fish.

  37. Sabiya Asmat, Anamika Baru, Feroz Din and Manoti Barki

    The present study the perception of parents and Grandparents about schooling of young children in the following areas: Physical infrastructure, Administrative set up, Teaching material, and teaching method were assessed. Analysis of the perception will indicate the generation gap if any between. The study was conducted in leh block with a sample size consisting of 100 parents and 100 grandparents. Random sample technique was used to select the sample. Interview schedule was used to elicit information from the respondents. The results of the study reveals that majority of parents were (literate minimum matriculate) they think that there is a still need to upgrade the education system of children at elementary level. While on the other hand majority of grandparents were illiterate and minimum percent of them attended school during there childhood, they were less aware about the importance of school infrastructure, administrative setup, curricular activities, teaching aid and teaching method and school curriculum in child’s life. All these leads to inability in finding any loopholes in the education system of there grandchildren and feel satisfied with that .However the differences were found in there perception about the schooling of young children which may be due to generation gap.

  38. Baskaran, C. Ratha Bai, V., Sivamani, P. and Thiagarajan, V

    To investigate the antimicrobial activity and phytochemical screening ethanol, methanol, ethyl acetate, acetone, chloroform, petroleum ether, hexane, hot water, and extracts of Corchorus aestuans (Family: Tiliaceae). The aim of the present study was to evaluate the qualitative analysis of phytochemicals and antimicrobial activity of various solvent extracts of Corchorus aestuans against the clinical isolates of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains and fungus by observing the zone of inhibition. The Gram-positive bacteria used in the test were Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus and Micrococcus luteus, and the Gram-negative bacteria were Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae, fungus like Aspergillus niger, Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida kefyr and Cryptococcus neoformans. It was observed that ethanol, methanol, ethyl acetate, acetone, chloroform, petroleum ether, hexane and aqueous extracts showed activity against bacteria and fungus. The Ethyl acetate extract of Corchorus aestuans showed more activity against Micrococcus luteus ,zone of diameter 13±0.15mm and Escherichia coli, zone of diameter 13.07±0.12mm and hot water extract of Corchorus aestuans showed more activity against Candida kefyr, zone of diameter 12.20±0.20mm and Cryptococcus neoformans, zone of diameter 11.17±0.29mm when compared to other solvent extracts. In this study ethyl acetate extract in bacteria and hot water Extract in fungus showed a varying degree of inhibition to the growth of tested organism, than ethanol, methanol and acetone extracts. The results confirmed the presence of antibacterial activity of Corchorus aestuans extract against various human pathogenic bacteria. Presence of phytochemical and antimicrobial activity is confirmed.

  39. Najiah M, Nadirah M and Zahrol MAS

    Five selected herbs, betel vine (Piper betle), betel leaves (Piper sarmentosum roxb), turmeric (Curcuma longa), Indian pennywort (Centella asiatica) and kaffir lime (Citrus hystrix) were examined for their antibacterial properties against Gram positive bacteria namely, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae and Streptococcus aginosus and Gram negative bacteria namely, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio vulnificus, Citrobacter freundii, Escherichia coli, Edwardsiella tarda and Aeromonas hydrophila. Among all herb extracts, only betel vine, turmeric and kaffir lime possessed antibacterial activities against fish pathogenic bacteria. Extracts of betel vine showed highest antibacterial activity in both form of methanol and aqueous extracts. The broadest antibacterial activity was methanol extracts which inhibited almost all bacterial species such as V. parahaemolyticus, E. coli, E. tarda, A. hydrophila, S. aureus and S. aginosus at 200 mg/ml. In determination of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), methanol extracts of piper betle required 1.56 mg/ml to inhibit the growth of both V. parahaemolyticus and A. hydrophila. The effect of temperature on antibacterial activity indicated the herbs tested were heat stable ranging from 37˚C to 105˚C.

  40. Gayathri G, Bindu R Nair and Babu V

    Azima tetracantha Lam., (Salvadoraceae), is widely used in folklore herbal medicine practices in the villages of southern Kerala. The plant is claimed to have anti-inflammatory, antiperiodic, analgesic and wound healing properties. The present study evaluated the antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of A. tetracantha leaves. Methanolic extract showed greater antimicrobial activity than the chloroform extract. The extracts showed both the radical scavenging activity and reducing capability to fight against free radicals. The results from antimicrobial and radical scavenging assays of A.tetracantha leaves showed significant medicinal properties.

  41. J. Mary Vimalakumari Kalaiarasi, M. Raja and J. Ambross Dass

    The study has been designed for the evaluation of powder extract of Salacia Oblanga for hypolipidemic activity, biochemical changes in normal and Aluminium toxicity induced White Albino Wistar Female Rats. Oral administration of Salacia extract and Aluminium chloride for two weeks significantly lowered the serum alkaline Phosphatase, Serum Aspartate aminotransferase, urea, bilirubin and cratinine at 14th day.

  42. Anand, T., Kalaiselvan, A. and Gokulakrishnan, K.

    Murraya koenigii is a spicy ancient Indian medicinal plant native to Indo-China but grown mostly in the tropics for the medicinal and flavourant properties of the leaves. Wound-healing activity of ethanolic extract of M. koenigii was studied by excision and incision wound models in male Albino rats (in vivo). In excision model, compared to the control group, percent concentration of wound was significantly higher in M. koenigii (5% w/w ointment)-treated group. In incision model, tensile strength of the healing tissue after treatment with M. koenigii was found to be significantly higher compared to the control group, indicating better wound-healing activity of the test plant. These results suggest that ethanolic extract of M. koenigii possesses significant wound-healing potential in normal wound.

  43. Gayathri, D. and Visalakshi Rajeswari

    A paperless society is a dream come true. Paper – an essential resource but a paradoxical material -is not considered environment friendly and increase in use has contributed to global deforestation, contamination of water, soil and air. All activity economic or human can come to a halt if this resource become absent in the world. World consumption of paper has gone up 400 per cent in the last forty years for which nearly four billion trees or 35 per cent of the total trees cut around the world have been used by paper industries in all the continents. The most efficient way to conserve any resource is to recover the ‘resources out of waste’. Paper recycling refers to converting waste paper back into usable paper products. India being an agrarian economy, agro wastes (wasted resources) also mount high and contribute their mite to spoil the environment. An attempt was made through a micro level study to utilize both these wasted resources to produce paper – a ‘recovered resource’, which will benefit both the society and environment. Value addition of such ‘recovered resource’ was also tried. This article delineates the procedure adopted and salient findings of the study.

  44. Nassiuma B.K, Kibas P.B, Otuya W.L. Sergon D, L. Mauyo

    Street-based enterprises (SBEs) constitute the lowest ebb in the enterprise continuum in Kenya. This study aimed at examining the factors that influence SBE graduation in the enterprise continuum. The objectives of this study were to examine the factors which motivated the street-based enterprises to assess the performance of SBEs, to examine the factors that contributed to the graduation of SBEs into the micro enterprise sector and to assess the level of satisfaction in the graduation status as compared to the previous status. This study was based on a comparative survey research. Individual elements were selected using simple random sampling and the Sample size determination was based on Saunders et al. method. Data analysis was based on frequencies and Pairwise matrix ranking. The key findings show that SBEs had a major impact on employment generation and provision of goods and services in the two municipalities. The support and regulatory agencies observed that skills development was vital in the graduation. Family relations played a major role at the start-up stage in both municipalities. The pre-requisite to graduation was capital and business management skills development. The other factors that influenced (SBEs), graduation were frustration in SBEs in Eldoret and best alternative to a living while in Nakuru need to control own life, personal fulfillment and to acquire more income. Satisfaction level in graduated status in Eldoret was moderate to low while in Nakuru was moderate to high. SBE graduation should be supported to enhance to support the graduation

  45. Rev. Fr. Dr. Ndikaru Wa Teresia

    In disaster management, the individual and/or the family are a vital unit of observation. Targeting the individual and the family in disaster scenario is seen as an effective way of zeroing in on functional units by which disaster relief and management can be well targeted. The main focus of this is basically in the buildings by which human beings interact. This paper discusses the need for protective actions and subsequent evacuation actions in case of any disaster. In disaster prevention, having and creating an emergency plan is crucial. This paper further discusses the basics of preparing an emergency plan. Additionally, the paper discusses the specific activities done before and after any disaster. In this context, having a disaster supplies kit is considered a very valuable idea.

  46. Rev. Fr. Dr. Ndikaru Wa Teresia

    This paper compares the types and causes of crime between the four slum areas in the City of Nairobi, and also crime victimization within different demographic characteristics of Nairobi’s slum residents. The study was conducted in four major slum areas in the city of Nairobi, namely Kibera, Mukuru, Mathare and Korogocho. The target population for this study was all adults (those aged 18+) living in the four major slums of the City of Nairobi. Secondary data sources from the Kenya National Bureau of Statistics (KNBS), formerly known as Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS), were availed for sampling purposes. A total of 660 respondents were sampled. The Statistical package for Social Science (SPSS) version 12.0 was used for data analysis and presented in descriptive statistics. The study found that most common crimes in the slum areas constituted those that attracted short to medium term punitive measures, according to the law, and over four in ten slum dwellers claimed that they had been victims of crime the previous year. The most effective method of curbing crime was undoubtedly police patrols and community policing initiatives.

  47. Mahua Bhattacharya

    An intensive study has been conducted for last three years since 2009-11, to estimate the Gender in coastal fisheries of West Bengal, India to assess their socio-economic status, literacy, income, health hazards, recreation, sanitation & medical facilities, family size, types of fishermen, child labour, crafts & gears used and total annual landings. Total 0.215 million fishermen of different categories engaged in coastal fisheries of which 51.35% male and 48.65 % are female. And out of 0.215 million fishermen the present study has been conducted on 16254 (Male – 8346, Female- 7908) of which 112 are child labour. Prime fishing season is during October to March every year and produce about 17.6% of total West Bengal production and 6.2% of total annual marine production of India. Four different types of fishermen participated in fishing activities are ‘Laya’((active fishermen – 1080), ‘Saudagar’(people who buy the fish from ‘Layas’ – 396), ‘Aratdar’ (the stockiest – 196) and ‘Shramik’ ( help in sorting, cleaning, drying and subsequently sale the product – 14186). Rate of literacy has been observed to be very frustrating among the fishing families, sex wise literacy percentage recorded as male – 19%, female – 15% and up to 4th standard – 25%, 10th standard – 4% and above – 2% only although average literacy rate in the two coastal districts East Midnapore and South 24-Parganas is about 80.17%. Fisher folk also undertake various subsidiary activities like waged labour in agriculture, construction work, poultry raising etc. for additional income. The income group level assessed through questioner and interrogation are categories in three different levels of Rs. < 10000 (88%), Rs. >10000 (9%) and Rs. > 25000 (3%). As xAB (10.64) is not equal to zero (0), so, income and education in not independent. Child labours are paid only Rs. 40-50 per day, equivalent to one (1) USD. Most of the fishermen, particularly ‘Sramik’(labour group) accompanying the fishing units with or without nets suffering from Asthma, Dysentery, Diarrhea, Gastrointestinal disorder, Malaria, Helminthesis, Typhoid, Scabies etc. as they do not provided proper sanitation, tube well for drinking water, drainage system, medical facilities. Only three community centres are available for recreation. They take loan from ‘moneylenders’ to meet the running expenses when they are away for fishing which is never adequate to meet their domestic requirements and again they compelled to conface further loan from the ‘money lenders’. Majority of the fishermen houses (labour group) are closely constructed and they lived in temporary hut with ‘Hoogla’ thatches. The average family size of the study area are found to consist of 6 -7 members and from this study it is indicated that large numbers of families were unable to provide two major meals to their children thorough out the year while some other lived under debt throughout their life as very large number of fisher folk did not have more than 3 months employment in a year. The result of the correlation analysis clearly reveals that income and family size is positively correlated (r = 0.489) to each other. So, gender, family size and income of a family is the most important index of the socio economic condition of the fishermen.

  48. Priscillah M. Omagwa, Jacqueline M. Omuya, Agnes Kurgat and Dedan ong’anya

    Controlling and managing the quality of products is a primary challenge to managers in all organizations despite their desire to achieve quality and thus why this study seeks to examine the role of employees in implementing Total Quality Management towards improving organization performance. Quality has been the dominant factor in the success of the world markets and that improved quality is a major weapon to restore organizations in the global market place. Relevant literature was reviewed, especially on the different of quality management implementation by employees. The study was based on the quality trilogy theory advanced by J. Juran (1951). The study was a census undertaken at Kenya Seed Company headquarters in Kitale. The target population included all permanent employees at Kenya Seed Company headquarters who were 239 in total. The study used questionnaires as the main method of data collection. The data was later analyzed using both descriptive and inferential statistics. On the basis of the research findings Total Quality Management is a management approach for an organizations center on quality, based on the participation of all its members and aiming at long term success through customer satisfaction and benefits to all members of the organization and to society. It is expected that this study will benefit managers in providing customers with products and services that satisfy their needs and academicians in filling the knowledge gap and lay foundation for further research.

  49. Maiyo Chepchumba Rael, Keren Mburugu and Olive Mugenda

    The purpose of the foregoing study was to investigate on issues related to clothing satisfaction of the pre-adolescents and how they influence their perception of self-worth. This paper discusses how the pre-adolescents acquired and factors considered in the selection of their clothing. The study adopted a survey design and was conducted in six primary schools in Kasarani Division Nairobi Province, using an interview schedule and an essay. A sample of 144 pre-adolescents was selected and both qualitative and quantitative data were collected and analyzed. The majority of the respondents had their clothing mainly bought for by their parents; open-air markets selling second-hand clothes being where most clothes were mainly bought. Most pre-adolescents were mainly involved in their clothing selection. What was accepted by parents and peers were the socio-cultural factors that always influenced pre-adolescent's clothing selection while size and colour were the most influential among the factors related to clothing characteristics. It was recommended that parents should involve their children in clothing selection, school policy makers who deal with school uniforms and designers of children's clothing should always seek the children's opinion when dealing with their designs.

  50. Maiyo Chepchumba Rael, Keren Mburugu and Olive Mugenda

    Self-worth, one of the secondary needs, consists of self-concept and self-esteem. It is during the pre-adolescent period that a child starts defining self, and this determines perception of self-worth. The focus of this paper is on the extent to which the pre-adolescents were satisfied with their clothing and assess their perception of self-worth. The foregoing study was a survey research conducted in six primary schools in Kasarani Division of Nairobi Province, using an interview schedule and essays. A sample of 144 pre-adolescents was selected and both qualitative and quantitative data were collected and analyzed. The majority of the pre-adolescents were satisfied with their clothing and most of them attributed size and colour to clothing satisfaction. Most of them had a high perception of self-worth in relation to their clothing. There was a significant relationship between clothing satisfaction and self-worth, clothing satisfaction and involvement in clothing selection. It was concluded that through symbolic interaction with significant others and peer group members, clothing satisfaction played a significant role in increasing the pre-adolescent's self-worth and, therefore, issues like involvement in clothing selection which affect pre-adolescent's clothing satisfaction should be considered by those involved with pre-adolescents' clothing.

  51. Robert M. Kei

    This paper is based on a study to identify the type of media resources used in instruction and to examine the factors influencing the use of media resources in the School of Public Health at Moi University. Survey research design was employed in order to cover the study population of all the lecturers and students. Therefore, 24 lecturers and 213 students were chosen, making a total of 237 respondents. Convenient sampling technique was used to select key informants. Data were collected using questionnaire, interview schedule and observation checklist. The data collected was coded accordingly and analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS v. 12). The results were presented using descriptive statistics. The findings showed that technological factors, individual factors and organizational factors influenced the use of media resources. Based on these findings, the study recommended that the School formulates sound procedures which would guide the procurement, use, maintenance of Media resources, as well as establish an instructional Media Centre. Further research should also be done before adoption of media resources and on e-learning, plus streaming the Media in the School of Public health.

  52. Festus M Epetimehin

    The Nigerian Insurance Industry is struggling with knowledge loss resulting from employee turnover like other public or private sector organizations. Especially when older hands are retired or downsizing of qualified and trained staff during a period of re-engineering of the organization. Costs of recruiting, of lost productivity and training to replace employees can reach huge amount. Capturing knowledge inside an organization seems to be one of the main purposes of studying knowledge management professional. In the insurance industry, trade secrets, confidential information and valuable ideas are part of the workforce knowledge. Recruiting, selecting, training and managing insurance agents constitute a real challenge for insurance companies all over the world, and a sensitive ethics-related issue is the case of insurance agents leaving the employer, in order to transfer to a competitor insurance company, while trying to take along as many clients as possible from the old employer. This paper looks at how to prevent or minimize the loss of expertise, customer contracts and product knowledge when key employees leave for another company within the industry.

  53. Nageshwar Prasad and Smt. Tanusree Ghosh

    The main objective of the present paper is to get a vivid idea about the methods and techniques of the previous work related to ‘Impact of Changes in Landuse on Environment in Southwest Birbhum Distrct, West Bengal’ on international, national and regional level. Finally based on previous literature research gaps have been identified and an attempt has been taken to fill up the voids. The present work has been divided into three parts. The first part tries to analyze the conceptual aspect by explaining the term environment, landuse/land cover, changing landuse/land cover,and environmental impact. The second part deals with previous literature and the concluding part identifies the research gaps and provides probable solutions to fill up the voids.

  54. Ogenga Paul Akumu,, Achoka Judith and Maiyo Julias

    The purpose of this study was to establish the impact of violent conflict on secondary school students’ wastage in Mt Elgon District. It was guided by the production function model. The study adopted ex-post facto research design and its universe included 4873 secondary school students, 206 teachers, 28 B.OG Chairmen, 28 PTA Chairmen and 1 DEO, totaling to 5136 people. Stratified random sampling and purposive sampling techniques were employed to pick a sample of 358 respondents drawn from 15 out of the 28 secondary schools in the district. Various instruments: questionnaires, interview schedules, and document analysis schedules were used to collect data. Quantitative data were analyzed descriptively and inferentially while thematic approach was used to analyze qualitative data. The findings were merged for presentation. The study established that violent conflict adversely impacted on secondary school students’ wastage which was manifested by very high nature and increasing trends of grade dropout rates, grade repeater rates, cohort wastage rates, and very low completer rates between the years 2005 and 2008. It emerged that Kopsiro Division which was the epicenter of violent conflict was the worst hit. It is recommended that the Government and other development partners should offer more sponsorship opportunities to surviving students from families impoverished by violent conflict in the district who risk dropping out of school. Most importantly, the government and community leaders should resolve the land dispute in Mt. Elgon District once and for all in order to avoid perennial disruptions to educational development of the people of Mt. Elgon District.

  55. B.H. Satyanarayana

    Most of the multicultural nations are federal by polity and character though there are cultural linguistic and customatic differences. Generally the mono culture in the people of a particular territory leads to the emergence of federal character. it is not just the diversities which ensures federal character, but in spite of socio cultural differences the groups are whole heartedly unified for a Nobel collective purpose. We find two under-currents namely a force to keep the society united and to keep the society informed about the diversity. Thus, a federal nation needs to balance unity and diversity on a oscillating slippery plane. Here a national government that consists of regional government need to be co-ordinated for smooth run. The interdependence between national and regional governments facilitates fully empowered central ruling setup. Federal government is defined and discussed from the back drop of centralizing and non-centralizing forces. Whether it is classical or contemporary type, the federal concept revolves around division of power between national and regional governments. Federalism specifies three important issues like perfect demarcation of powers, need of autonomy for both central and regional government, co-ordination between central and regional government. In spite of perfect and non-over-lapping division of powers, national concern and maintenance of uniform standards automatically makes the national government a dominant force naturally. Federal government is a pre-requisite to achieve socio-economic development which necessitates planned and well co-ordinated interventions. Hence, third world countries have pragmatically different shades of federal government. The concept of welfare state made it obligatory for national government to ensure balanced regional development and maintenance of uniform standards simultaneously. This in turn necessitates sufficient and judicious legislative and financial powers to direct and monitor regional governments. Strong federalism constituted by dominant empowered national government and autonomous regional governments. The classical federalism is the route of many third world countries that are federal in character. From the analysis it is crystal clear that, the two tier government system and judicious autonomy of these two governments are the essential characteristics of any federal government. A careful management of autonomy of regional government and the realization of interdependence between national and regional government by both is the main essence of classical federalism.

  56. Prof. Shawki Abouel-Seoud, Dr. Mohamed Elmorsy and Prof. Ahmed Saad

    Since the focus in the traditional design calculations for wind turbines apply mainly on the rotor loads and the dynamic behavior of the overall wind turbine, the drive train and in particular gearbox in the wind turbine gives a great concern. However, the aim of the present work is to establish a laboratory apparatus to be used for measuring the wind turbine gearbox dynamic performance using a lab-scaled wind turbine gearbox. The exact details of the drive-train to be tested and analyzed are presented. Instruments were chosen and installed to capture data about vibration responses, and changes to their conditions. The influence of changing speed and load on the gearbox dynamic performance is considered. Accelerometers to make continuous measurements are installed over the casing of the main shaft bearing. Loads are simulated by using hydraulic disc brake, while the output is simulated by an electric with inverter. The test data will be analyzed and correlated to look for any gearbox component dynamic performance, non-linear, or is suspect under a wide range of input conditions. The results indicate that the laboratory apparatus and experimental methodology capability established in this work could be utilized for evaluating the vibration performance of the wind turbine planetary gearbox. Moreover, the state of the gearbox either in healthy or faulty condition could be identified accurately.

  57. Prof. Shawki Abouel-seoud, Dr. Ibrahim Lotfy and Dr. Mohamed Elmorsy

    Planetary gears are effective power transmission elements in wind turbine where high torque to weight ratios, large speed increase in compact volumes, co-axial shaft arrangements, high reliability and superior efficiency are required. The present work examines the complex dynamic behavior of planetary gearbox gear carrier using finite element models. The finite element model (FEM) is developed from a unique finite element-contact analysis solver specialized for gear dynamics. The natural frequencies are the most important parameter in the design of planet gears carrier for dynamic loading conditions, so that the modal analysis had been utilized to determine the natural frequencies of the planet gears carrier system. The simulated results show that the planet gears are taking responsibility of the instability depending on the mode thus unfitting the different approaches to planet gears carrier dynamic and enabling the most appropriate component to be targeted dynamic behavior control. The natural frequencies and of the wind turbine gearbox planetary gear carrier are classified as rotational and translational or out-of-phase modes. A confirmation was made with the experimental results taken from a lab-scale wind turbine gearbox and found to be good. The gained information can be used for diagnosis and prognosis planet gears carrier.

  58. Balachandar, D., Rutharvel Murthy, K., Muruganandam, R., Sumathi, M., Sundararaj, P. and Kumaraswamy, K.

    The present study was aimed to find out the land use / land cover categories of Karur District. The total area of the District is 2,896 sq.km. The District located in the central part of Tamil Nadu. The study has made use of satellite imagery to identify the land use/land cover status of the study area during 2008. The image has been classified using ERDAS image processing software by employing supervised classification techniques. The District has been classified into five land use categories such as built-upland, agricultural land, forest, waste lands and water bodies on the basis of NRSA classifications. Among all classes, agriculture land is predominant in the study area, which has about 2,595.25 sq.km (89.63%), other waste lands occupies around 20.33 sq.km (4.15%), forest lands covers 98.88 sq.km (3.41%), water bodies possess 70.34 sq.km (2.43%) and built-upland covers 10.77 sq.km (0.37%) respectively.

  59. Farshid Hemmati

    The harmonic excitation is taken imperfect, i.e., with a random phase modulation due to Gaussian white noise, accounting for both chaotic and stochastic behavior. Simulated turbulence is represented using the potential theory line vortex approach. Simulations are conducted for long range propagation, 1000km, containing internal wave fields with added deterministic effects and are compared to those fields with non-deterministic properties. These results show that long range acoustic propagation has a very strong dependence on the intensity of deterministic fluctuations. Numerical analysis for short range propagation, 10km, was constructed for sound passage through the following perturbation scenarios: simulated turbulence, an internal wave field, and a field of internal waves and simulated turbulence combined.

  60. Festus M Epetimehin

    Agricultural production faces myriad of risks. Nevertheless, two major risks are of concern to the agricultural sector- price risk caused by potential volatility in prices and production risk resulting from uncertainty about the levels of production that primary producers can achieve from their current activities. It is likely that these major risks will increase in the future – price risk due to liberalization of trade and production risk caused by the effect s of climate change. Agricultural risks not only affect farmers, they also affect the whole agribusiness value chain. Each of the participants along the supply chain, from the Government, Financial Institutions, suppliers of inputs, the distributor, the trader, the processor and the end consumers, are subject to these risks. Agricultural investments unfortunately are among the most risky economic ventures one can embark upon, the absolute dependence on unpredictable weather conditions, like storm, flood, drought and other natural hazards make income from crop products and agricultural products like livestock poultry and dairies to be very unstable. Agricultural Insurance policies serve as securities for banks as indemnification for financial losses suffered by farmers and those in the agricultural value chain resulting from damages to their products, and also provides funds for servicing such loans. This paper is concerned exclusively with the role of agricultural insurance in the agribusiness and in the development of the economy. It gives an introduction and a review of the agricultural sector that led to the agricultural insurance decree in 1993. The paper describes the various products available under the agricultural insurance while a section was devoted to analyzing the economic impact of agriculture Insurance on the economy, then conclusion and recommendations.

  61. Yasodharan Suresh, D. Balachandar, K. Rutharvel Murthy, R. Muruganandam and K. Kumaraswamy

    The present study aims to find out the land use/land cover features of Tambaram Suburban region of Chennai, Tamil Nadu. The total area of the region is 75.25 sq.km. The study has made use of high resolution IRS LISS IV pan merged satellite imagery for identifying the land use/land cover classes. ERDAS and ArcGIS software were used to demarcate the land use/land cover features of Tambaram Suburban region. Remote sensing and GIS provide consistent and accurate base line information than many of the conventional surveys employed for such a task. The land use and land cover analysis on Tambaram Suburban region has been attempted based on thematic mapping of the area consisting of built-up land, agriculture land, water bodies, forest and waste land using the satellite image. The research concludes that there is a rapid expansion of built-up area. Land use and land cover information, when used along with information on other natural resources, like water, soil, hydro-geomorphology, etc. will help in the optimal land use planning at the macro and micro level.

  62. Yasodharan Suresh, D. Balachandar, K. Rutharvel Murthy, R. Muruganandam and K. Kumaraswamy

    The present study aims to find out the land use/land cover change detection between the year 1998 and 2008 in St. Thomas Mount Block of Kancheepuram District, Tamil Nadu. The total area of the Block is 243 sq.km. The study has made use of IRS LISS III and high resolution IRS LISS IV pan merged satellite imageries for the year 1998 and 2008 to identify the land use/land cover categories in St. Thomas Mount Block. ERDAS image processing and ArcGIS software were used to demarcate the land use/land cover divisions in St. Thomas Mount Block. Remote Sensing and GIS provide consistent and accurate base line information than many of the conventional surveys employed for such tasks. The land use and land cover analysis has been attempted based on thematic features of the area consisting of built-up land, agriculture land, water bodies, forest and waste land. The research concludes that there is a rapid expansion of built-up area; a perceptible change in transportation network especially on metalled and unmetalled road; and decrease of agricultural area from the year 1998 to 2008. Land use and land cover information, when used along with information on other natural resources, like water, soil, hydro-geomorphology, etc. will help in the optimal land use planning at the macro and micro level.

  63. Robert M. Kei

    This paper discusses the challenges facing the use of media resources in instruction in the School of Public Health at Moi University. The foregoing study used survey research design to cover the study population of all the lecturers and students. Therefore, 24 lecturers and 213 students were chosen, making a total of 237 respondents. Convenient sampling technique was used to select key informants. Data were collected using questionnaire, interview schedule and observation checklist. The data collected was coded accordingly and analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS v. 12). The results were presented using descriptive statistics. The findings of the study were that lack of skills and literacy on media resources; high cost of media resources, and media resources not considering students with special needs were the main challenges which influenced use of media resources. Based on these findings, the study recommended that lecturers should be trained on the use of media resources Further research should also be done before adoption of media resources and on e-learning, plus streaming the Media in the School of Public health.

  64. Nawekulo Brendah Uluma

    In rural areas, women face major challenges which hinder their utilization of and deprives them the enjoyment that comes with Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs). This paper explores the factors that determine women’s utilization of the ICTs in Mumias Division. The foregoing study was based on the assumption that ICT utilization by women brings about development. The purpose of the study was to establish the socio-economic factors that determine women’s utilization of ICTs. A survey approach was adopted. The sample was made up of 120 respondents systematically sampled from the 600 households neighbouring the market centres of each location. The instrument used for data collection was a structured questionnaire. The data collected was subjected to inferential and descriptive statistics analysis. The findings showed that there is a significant relationship between the women’s level of education and computer utilization and economic status of women and cultural values with the utilization of ICTs. The study, therefore, recommended to the policy makers that they should introduce computer learning in primary schools to introduce the skills early. It would be important too to sensitize men on the importance of modern technology to their women counterparts in development.

  65. Eusabia Bosibori Ondieki

    This paper focuses on nutrition knowledge and its impact on consumer behaviour of tertiary students living and studying in Nairobi, Kenya. This survey was carried out in Nairobi, Kenya to find out the impact of nutrition knowledge on the consumption behaviour of tertiary students living and studying there. Consumer behaviour, with regard to nutrition knowledge, has been made a bit easier by people targeting seasonal foods while they are still cheap and easily available. The data collection tool was a self-administered questionnaire. The study involved 395 participants. The data was analysed using SPSS for descriptive statistics, including frequencies, cross-tabulations and correlations. The results showed that the students had some basic nutrition knowledge of food and they used their knowledge when buying food for consumption. The results showed that many of the students do not mind spending money on a balanced meal. The amount of pocket money per term was the main determinant of what food they purchased and whether they bought ready-made food or prepared it. Recommendations were made for the food industry to address the factors influencing food purchase and consumption when strategising on how to attract new and maintain old customers from the student body.

  66. Kavitha Murugesan, S.

    Text Mining is an important step of Knowledge Discovery process. It is used to extract hidden information from not-structured or semi-structured data. This aspect is fundamental because most of the Web information is semi-structured due to the nested structure of HTML code, is linked and is redundant. Web Text Mining helps whole knowledge mining process in mining, extraction and integration of useful data, information and knowledge from Web page contents. Web Text Mining process able to discover knowledge in a distributed and heterogeneous multi-organization environment. The Web Text Mining process is based on flexible architecture and is implemented by four steps able to examine web content and to extract useful hidden information through mining techniques. Our Web Text Mining prototype starts from the recovery of Web job offers in which, through a Text Mining process, useful information for fast classification of the same are drawn out, these information are, essentially, job offer place and skills.

  67. Shakila Banu, M., Christy Arokia Trinita, B., Nithya, T. and Saranya C.R

    Osmotic dehydration is a water removal technique, which is applied to fruits and vegetables, to reduce the content of the moisture, while increasing soluble solid content. The treated product has to be further processed by other drying techniques to obtain a shelf stable product. The osmotic dehydration technique not only enables the storage of the vegetables for a longer period, but also preserves flavor, nutritional characteristics and prevents microbial spoilage. Apart from this, problems of marketing, handling and transport becomes much simpler and all the horticultural produce could be made available throughout the year. A study was conducted on osmotic dehydration of drumstick which was treated in a osmotic solution of sodium chloride and citric acid followed by three methods of drying viz., sun drying, tray drying and vacuum drying. The quality of the product was determined by evaluating the physico–chemical characteristics such as color, texture, taste, flavor, ascorbic acid, calcium content and overall acceptability of drumsticks. The organoleptic analysis of the dehydrated drumstick showed that the best sample was that blanched in solution of 3% calcium chloride at 60°C for 2 minutes and sulphited to 3000 ppm with potassium metabisulphite and followed by osmotic treatment and drying in vacuum drier at 5mm Hg for 6 hours.

  68. Ukpaka, C.P.

    This paper focuses on the mechanisms using algorithm of Runge-Kutta method in monitoring and predicting the microbial entrained oil recovery (MEOR) in Nigeria Delta Oil wells. The microorganisms isolated and identified was cultured as well inoculated into the oil bioreactor set up to examine the degradation of the heaver hydrocarbon, which leads to the production of lighter hydrocarbon considering properties of the enzymes involved in the biodegradation of the heavier hydrocarbon leading to formation of lighter hydrocarbon in the oil, it is suggested that the process build up the pressure of the reservoir in most circumstances. The dynamic models developed in this paper were simulated to study the behaviour of the system. The algorithm of Runge-Kutta method was applied in solving the numerical integral expression obtained from the dynamic models developed. The functional parameters that influence the process were evaluated and a series of test has been carried out in which petroleum hydrocarbon was used as the testing component. All test results revealed that microorganisms are capable of reactivity the oil wells, suggestion that the mechanism of the MEOR process is basically, a simple combination of biodegradation parameters and factors that influence biodegradation process.

  69. Sekar, S., R. Muthukrishnan, R. and Subbulakshmi, S.

    In this article numerical investigation of an interesting heat flow problem is discussed using Rayleigh Ritz, single-term Walsh series (STWS) method and Runge-Kutta (RK) method based on various means. The results (approximate solutions) obtained very accurate using the above said methods are compared with the exact solution of that problem. It is found that the solution obtained using RKCeM (Runge-Kutta Centroidal Mean) is closer to the exact solution of the heat flow problem. The high accuracy and the wide applicability of RKCeM approach will be demonstrated with numerical example. Solution graphs for discrete exact solutions are presented in a graphical form to show the efficiency of the RKCeM. The results obtained show that RKCeM is more useful for solving the heat flow problem and the solution can be obtained for any length of time.

  70. Ukpaka, C.P.

    This study assessed the rate of production of lighter hydrocarbon, pressure build up, isolation and identification of the different species of microorganisms capable of degradating the heavier hydrocarbon in the reservoir. The analysis was performed using a pilot batch reactor set up in the Department of Chemical/Petrochemical Engineering Laboratory, Rivers State University of science and Technology, Port Harcourt. Mathematical model was developed in terms of effect of velocity, depth and porosity on microbial activity in bio-batch reactor and the significant of the functional parameters were examined in this paper. The functional parameters that governance the dynamic characteristics of oil well was examined as well as saturation coefficient, product generation and consumption of substrate. The concentration of the heavier hydrocarbon decreases with increase in the lighter hydrocarbon, water, microbial population and pressure build up in the reservoir. This paper demonstrated the useful of microorganism in improving dead oil well using the necessary conditions that will favour the microbial activities in a reservoir.

  71. Maheswari, J. and Sankar, K.

    A baseline study involving analyses of surface and bore well water samples from the vaippar river basin was carried out in order to assess their suitability for drinking domestic and agricultural purposes. The data obtained are used to determine important quality parameters and ratio’s. High TDS found in groundwater of gneissic and granitic aquifers. Based on the salinity and sodium hazard for irrigation quality, C2S1, C3S1, C3S2 and C4S1 are quality classes found not suitable for even salt tolerant crops in the study area. The quality parameters of the groundwater samples has been matched with ISI standards (1991).

  72. Maheswari, J. and Sankar, K.

    Hydro geochemical studies are of great importance in hydro geological investigation of ground water. Ground water samples from several wells in parts of Virthnagar District have been collected and chemically analyzed. The suitability of ground water for domestic industrial and irrigation demands have been discussed in this paper in terms of Handa’s classification, chloroalkalinity indices, potential soil salinity, permeability index, sodium adsorption rations, PH, EC, TDS, Major Iron concentration and by the mechanism controlling the ground water chemistry. The data were used to complete chemical parameters as no-corbonate hardness, sodium absorportion ratio, percentage of sodium residual sodium carbonate, magnesium ratio, corrosivity ratio, choro alkaline indices and permeability index found to be based on evaluation of the chemical parameters quality of water is fit for drinking, industrial and agricultural users, except in a few isolated locations. According to Gibb’s diagram most of the samples falls under rock dominance. Wilcox’s diagram indicates that less than 60 percent of samples fall in excellent to good and good to permissible types. According to the USSL classification of water quality of the samples belong to CS-S1,C5-S2,C5-S3 and C5-S4 classes water are also found in the area are which not suitable for irrigation.

  73. Dr Indiran Govender

    South Africa has a high rate of unemployment and Adult illiteracy. There is a trend towards adult education to enable citizens to earn a living and become valuable citizens to the country. There are many Adult Basic Education and Training facilities. The further education training colleges are also set up to improve the vocational skills of these adults who need skills training in order to get work or better employment. The approach in these facilities should be based on the principles of Progressive education. Children in preparing for their adult life also will benefit from the scientific teaching of the progressive approach. This paper focuses on explaining what Progressive education is and a critical review of its strengths and weakness. It is proposed as an important method of adult education in South Africa.

  74. Festus M Epetimehin

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the teachers’ attitude to implement inclusive education in Kenyan public primary schools with specific reference to Kajiado central district. This study was based on the systems theory. The study adopted ex post facto research design. The study targeted teachers in the 82 public primary schools in Kajiado Central district. Stratified sampling was employed to divide the district into five strata’s according to the number of zones in the district. The strata were: Kajiado, Enkorika, Elang’ata Wuas, Bissel and Namanga zones. 30% of the targeted schools were sampled. The main respondents in each school were the head teacher, deputy head teacher and four other teachers. Simple random sampling and purposive sampling were used to selec n t 150 respondents. The study used questionnaires and interview schedules to collect data. Data was analyzed descriptively using SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences). Frequencies and percentages were used in interpreting the findings. It was found that teachers have a positive attitude towards the implementation of inclusive education in primary schools. Lack of facilities such as teaching aids and lack of trained teachers pose a big challenge to the implementation of inclusive education. The government and other stakeholders are expected to act on the findings of this study so as to streamline the implementation of inclusive education in public primary schools in Kenya.

  75. Kaberia Isaac Kubai

    In the African context, marriage is regarded as an important rite of passage which every normal person must perform during his life time to keep the continuity of the kinship in the social structure (Mbiti J, 1973: 210). This means that it holds a very central place in the African life. Marriage concerns the society where its negativity or positivity affects the whole order of law and society; hence it should be kept intact. Despite all these expectations, the tragic fact is that divorce is commonplace in our contemporary MCK church and society. Divorce today has touched the lives of many individuals than ever before. Sadly enough, the dramatic rise in divorce rates in the recent years has affected the MCK Christian community including the clergy, hence becoming a challenging issue to the Contemporary MCK church and society. Church members are filing for divorce (even after having very expensive weddings) within one year of marriage where the clergy who are believed to be able to offer guidance to the problem are also victims. The inclusion of the clergy as victims has made the situation more difficult because it has eroded the moral authority which the clergy should command on the challenge.

  76. David Tuikong K. Serem

    This paper is based on a study to investigate, compare and contrast the perceptions of the role of the high school principalship as identified by school board presidents, school superintendents and high school principals in two different school settings; traditional and outcome-based environments. The study involved the North Central Member High Schools in Wyoming. Two different sets of instruments were utilized: one reflecting the role of the principalship in the traditional school environment, and the other reflecting the principalship role in the outcome-based school environment. The study argued that in order for the high school principal to provide his school with effective leadership and a complete learning atmosphere for students, it is important for the school board members, school superintendents and the principals to agree on the roles that the principal is expected to perform. The study revealed that the size of the school and the principals’ experience did not influence the way in which they understood their role. Furthermore, superintendents and high school principals in the Wyoming North Central Accredited High Schools appear to highly favour an outcome-based role for the principal.

  77. A.K. Pathak, M.M. Singh and V. Kumar,

    Attending sustainability in waste management require an option that employs environmental friendliness. The generation of municipal solid waste is increasing year by year and there are many options for handing and disposing of these wastes. Composting is the natural biological process in which degradable part of waste is transformed to a stable material with excellent characteristics for application on soils. Thus it requires a pretreatment such as removal of big fractions and other contaminants that could affect the composting process and final quality of compost. Such type of technique must be effective efficient and less costly Agricultural application of composted Municipal Solid Waste, as nutrient source for plants and as soil conditioner, is the most cost effective option of MSW management. Municipal solid waste (MSW) compost is increasingly used in agriculture as a soil conditioner but also as a fertilizer. Proponents of this practice consider it an important recycling tool since MSW would otherwise be land filled and critics are concerned with its often elevated metal concentrations. In this review, we show the state of art about the composting of Municipal solid waste (viz. Kitchen waste) and its application in agriculture.

  78. Irene Moraa Moseti

    Content management has been reported to pose challenges to institutions of higher learning due to inadequate infrastructure, poor content organisation and management, lack of preservation plans and poor e-content security. This paper is based on a study that examined the types of content generated at Moi University; the strategies for their management and levels of user satisfaction with the strategies. The paper is informed by the OCLC Collections Grid and the Conway Digital Landscape Model. Adopting a mixed method research design, data was collected from a sample of 4 schools at Moi University from which 40% of lecturers, administrators and ICT staff were purposively selected. Key policy makers were interviewed while creators and users of digital content completed questionnaires. The paper concludes that Moi University has implemented information systems but the digital content is ineffectively managed. Therefore there is need to enhance and facilitate the use of this content among users by implementing effective content management strategies. The paper recommends that: the university increases the numbers of computing resources and internet access points in departments, and holds workshops to increase awareness on content management.

  79. Mitrajit Chatterjee and Nageshwar Prasad

    The main objective of the present paper is to identify and fill up the voids in terms of concepts and methods of research work on ‘Riverine Morphology and Socio-economic Environment in the southern part of Nadia District in West Bengal, India’. This work will make suggestion relating to the research work to be conducted by research scholars on almost similar type of problems and methods. For achieving the target, the authors have reviewed the previous literature thoroughly. The literature survey has been attempted on almost all the main aspects of the research topic. The previous works related to Riverine morphology, land use, land use model, socio-economic environment, regional development disparity etc. have enriched the present study.

  80. Dr Lucy Wanjiru Musyoka

    This paper discusses the factors that influence the choice of health care provider for malaria illness based on a study of Mwea Irrigation Scheme. The descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in four-phases that utilized both qualitative and quantitative techniques for data collection and analysis. Among the individuals utilizing government health facility during the health facility based exit interviews, 39.7% and 45.2% cited the cost of service and perceived quality respectively as the factors considered when choosing the facility. The study findings reported that non-medical factors are significant when choices to utilize formal health services are considered. Medical cost, perceived quality of care, distance and geographical location were all-important when choices to utilize health services delivery facilities were made, the study findings emphasize the importance of improving the quality of care in all health care options. It is also important to monitor quality control on the standards in all health facilities. The study recommended an urgent need to improve patient-provider interaction, and perceived quality of care to positively influence the decision-making dynamics.

  81. Irene Moraa Moseti

    This paper is based on a study that investigated the use of ICTs by women in public universities in Kenya with a focus on Moi University. It discusses the ICT resources available in Moi University, the level of development and use by the general university population and the extent to which women use them. The study adopted survey design and focused on the staff, both teaching and non-teaching, and students. Out of 2,200 participants, 160 respondents were randomly sampled for the study. Data collection was by face-to-face interviews and questionnaires. The data obtained was analysed using descriptive and inferential statistical techniques. It was found that various ICT resources existed in the University and most of the women in the University have access to these resources despite various challenges. However, it was found that women, especially the younger generation are proactive towards ICT. The study recommended to the University authorities to provide training opportunities for women to better equip them in the use of ICT resources; more ICT resources be availed to increase opportunities for use by women while also designing and implementing complementary institutional changes to facilitate women’s access to and use of ICT resources.

  82. Waiganjo Esther Wangithi and Mukulu Elegwa

    Most organizations today are undergoing some structural, operational, and business strategic changes with the aim of improving their performance. The organization’s competitive strategy may include mergers and acquisitions, downsizing to increase efficiency, internal operations, or the acquisition of automated production technology. These strategic decisions determine the demand for skills and human resource. Incompetent and unbalanced: resourcing, training, development, reward, and appraisal methods have led to poor performance. The aim of this study was to establish the efficiency of recruitment and selection methods and the types of rewards used to motivate staff. This study was a descriptive research, a case study of Kenya Tea Development Agency (KTDA).It employed instrument triangulation consisting of questionnaires, interviews, and observation. The findings of this study indicated that an effective recruitment and selection, training and development as well as reward and appraisal strategy contributes to improved organizational performance. The study recommended that KTDA should improve its overall operational efficiency by applying appropriate cost effective technology. This organization should also have a clearly defined and articulated corporate strategy, and improve in its risk management. KTDA should focus on external marketing and value addition so that it can compete globally.

  83. Sivakumaren, K.S., Swaminathan, S., Jeyaprakash, B. and Karthikeyan, G.

    The study examines the current research areas in Library and Information Science among Research Scholars who are currently pursuing M.Phil and Ph.D programmes under fulltime and part-time schemes in various Universities/Colleges in Tamil Nadu. A structured questionnaire was designed and distributed among Research Scholars to collect the data for the research. It is found that the majority of respondents are doing research on “Bibliometrics/ Scientometrics/ Webometrics, followed by “Electronic Resources/Digital Libraries” and “User Studies/ Information Literacy”. It is further found that little attention was given for the areas such as “Library Management” and “Public Libraries”. It is observed that majority of respondents are doing Ph.D programme under part-time scheme. The study recommended that LIS Research Scholars should prefer to carry out research on “Information and Communication Technologies” (ICT) in order to create awareness and also to implement ICT in libraries.

  84. Farshid Hemmati and Mahta Yazdi Nezhad

    Water erosion is a phenomenon causes piers to be destructed. Effect of water erosion on structural stability of piers in Khouzestan Sate, Iran is the main purpose of this research. Happening flood and existence of flood plain in this area causes to study the case study subject. The mathematical methods to study about stability changes rather than water erosion are valuable to be considered by applied and useful result obtained to be applicable to prevent destructing rate critically. The Izard-Bravley and Chitale methods have the least errors rather than reality. We reach to the conclusion that, the best methods of determining the depth of scour khouzestan state bridges was Izard-Bravley and Chitale. The end off, reconciling the methods show in this research %8.8 and %2.41 the better than original methods.

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