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Plagiarism Detection

IJCR is following an instant policy on rejection those received papers with plagiarism rate of more than 20%. So, All of authors and contributors must check their papers before submission to making assurance of following our anti-plagiarism policies.













December 2012

Two Ocimum species viz., O. sanctum and O. gratissimum were grown under contract organic farming from last five years in twenty nine villages with thirty four growers. In order to study the herbage yield, a technical survey was conducted by CSIR-CIMAP for productivity evaluation and economics of the leaves of Ocimum spp. under rainfed condition of central India. The survey revealed that majority of farmers are medium size growers (2-4 hectare) occupying 79 percent followed by small (1-2 hectare) and marginal (0-1 hectare.) with 16.4 and 3.28 percent respectively.

The present study investigated the effectiveness of assertiveness training and marital communication skills. The moderating effect of length of marriage and the number of children were also examined. The study adopted pre-test-post test control quasi-experimental design with 3 x 2 x 2 factorial multistage sampling technique was used to select 84 participants; representing married couples who were selected from the three local Baptist churches of the Baptist conferences in Lagos. The comprehensive marital satisfaction scale r = 0.98 was the research instruments used.

The antimicrobial activity of Alternanthera tenella Colla leaf extracts were tested against human pathogenic bacteria (two Gram-positive and two Gram-negative) and against three pathogenic fungi (Candida sp) by agar well diffusion method. The solvents were used for extraction are chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol. All the extracts manifested significant bactericidal and fungal activity against all microorganisms tested. The inhibition zone diameters ranged between 6 mm to 24 mm diameter.

Cassia obtusa is locally known as “Nilaavakai”. It is an herbaceous plant belongs to family Leguminosae and Sub family Caesalpinioideae. The plant was collected from 5 different places through recurrent survey. Three DNA extraction protocols were compared for their ability to produce good quality DNA from the frozen leaves of Cassia obtusa. RAPD-PCR analysis involving 10 decamer random primers were used to assess the quantum of genetic variation at genomic level. Out of the ten primers, OPA 13 showed amplification among all the 5 accessions and OPA7 and OPA9 were specific to COB4.

Education is considered an important tool in the relationship between fertility and contraception use. It is believed that with higher education the use of modern contraceptives among women increases, as they are better informed and make responsible choices in fertility. This paper examines the contraceptive use and knowledge in over 6 lakh Indian women, thorough DLHS-3 (2007-08) data. We find that with increasing education, use of contraceptives is positively related. Not only modern, but also traditional methods are practiced more frequently.

The effects of heat transfer on the flow past an exponentially accelerated vertical plate with ramped wall heat flux has been studied. It is found that both the fluid velocity as well as the fluid temperature decrease with an increase in Prandtl number. It is also found that the velocity increases with an increase in either Grashof number or accelerated parameter. Further, it is found that both the fluid velocity as well as the fluid temperature increase when time progresses.

Flood plain is relatively low lying flat, fertile land adjacent to the river, streams, lakes and estuaries/oceans which is preferable location for human habitation. People try to live in this unique ecosystem in accordance with the ecological principles. The low lying areas are normally filled up by water to form several types of water bodies like pond, lake, bills, marshy lands, ox-bow lakes etc. and provide specific ecological inputs to sustain the ecosystem of floodplain.

River water sample was collected at five different locations in Gundaru river, Tirumangalam. Then these samples were tested for pH factor. It showed neutral pH and electrical conductivity. The water sample was also analysed for color, dissolved oxygen and BOD. The examined river water contained chloride, calcium, phosphorus, sulfate, potassium, total solids and nitrogen. The soil samples were collected from five different places near Gundaru river basin. The colony forming units were countable and maximum in first three sites and minimum in the next two sites.

The estimation of soil organic carbon stock along altitudinal gradient was carried out in Kedarnath Wildlife Sanctuary of Garhwal Himalaya in different vegetation types. The moisture content in the soil increased with increasing altitude and the highest moisture was recorded in Betula utilis forest at an elevation of 3550 m amsl followed by Grassland (3050 m), Rhododendron arboreum forest, (2550 m), mixed forest (Quercus and Rhododendron species, 2050 m) and Pinus roxburghii forest (1550 m). The bulk density also followed similar trend as moisture, which increased with increasing altitude.

Medicinal plants have an important role in the discovery of new drugs. They are safe and cheaper alternative medicine than modern medicines. The study has been focused to assess the qualitative phytochemical analysis of Alternanthera tenella and Diptheracanthus prostratus leaves, stem and root. Both plants have most of the phytochemicals. In our present study, the investigated plants have a number of phytochemical glycosides, steroids and alkaloids were higher amount. Quinone, phenols and tannins were moderate amount.

The use of learning materials is an invaluable approach to effective curriculum delivery. Education practitioners have long recognized that Early Childhood Development and Education (ECDE) and indeed any other level of education cannot be effective without the use of learning materials. Teachers Advisory Centres (TACs) were established with the basic function of organizing in-service training for teachers in order to help them implement the curriculum effectively. However, the TACs have been ineffectual in this mission and have drifted away from this central function.

Heavy metals were determined from waste dumpsites in Gboko metropolis, Benue state, Nigeria. The mean pH values of the soil samples were found to be 7.70 and 7.15 for Gboko North and South respectively. The analysis of heavy metals indicate that samples from Gboko North show mean concentrations (mg/kg) of heavy metals as; Pb (0.966), Ni (0.514), Cd (0.298), Al (0.223), Cr (0.092), As (0.051).

The Medicinal plants provide the raw materials for use in all the indigenous systems of medicine. The demand for medicinal plants is increasing day by day and on the other hand changing global environment is worstly affecting this plant wealth. This reflects the need to study and preserve diversity of medicinal plants. The coverage area of the Western Ghats in relation to geographical area and biodiversity variation is one of the larger and ecologically sensitive areas in the world.

The uptake pattern of copper by a cyanobacterium, Nostoc calcicola in its freely suspended and immobilized form is comprised of adsorption of Cu2+ followed by subsequent metabolism dependent uptake. Immobilized cyanobacterial cells maintained three times more metal profile (300.82 n mol Cu mg-1 protein) over freely suspended cells (96.89 n mol Cu mg-1 protein) at saturated Cu2+ concentration (60µM Cu). Darkness resulted in drastic reduction of Cu2+ uptake (90%) in freely suspended cells and least 10% in immobilized cells.

The education sector in Kenya has gone through significant development processes. The foundation that nurtured its growth was laid down by the early Christian Missionaries who combined the introduction of Christianity among the Africans with education. This early Christianity-educational nexus formed the important milestone for further participation of the church in the development of education in Kenya. Since then, it has continued to contribute significantly in this direction.

Lactobacillus Sp isolated from various milk products (Milk, curd, cheese, butter, paneer, sourdough, ripened lemon, ripened banana) were analyzed and characterized by Cell morphology, biochemical tests, and carbohydrate fermentation test for the production of exopolysaccharides. Lactobacillus Sp were identified and screened on the basis of the molecular weight of its plasmid DNA (> 20 kb). The potentiality of Lactobacillus Sp. in EPS production was assessed. EPS production by Lactobacillus Sp is partially growth associated and about 1.2 gm of EPS/L was synthesized.

Some new order of stopped sum of independent non-negative fuzzy random variables, when the stopping variable is independent of the summands, is investigated. We show that such fuzzy randomly stopped sums preserve the fuzzy stochastic laplace transform order. For the case of laplace transform orders, there is a suitable converse for each of the order presentation results.

Pahuj, a small reservoir has been built on Pahuj river and is located approximately 5 km in the west of Jhansi city. The water in the reservoir is used for irrigation, fish culture, drinking and for other domestic purposes. The present investigation deals with the study of seasonal variations in physico-chemical characteristics of Pahuj reservoir. The study was carried out on monthly basis for the period of one year from August 2008 to July 2009 at four different stations of the reservoir.

This work assess through analysis, the natural radionuclide level and the associated radiological hazards of some selected Portland cement used in Nigeria The natural radionuclide content of Portland Cement widely used in Nigeria were measured using a highly shielded Canberra Na(Tl) detector, a type of gamma-ray spectrometry. A total of 15 samples from 5 batches of the product were analyzed.

Climate change is the most studied concept in the world of research. Various new techniques like Neural Networks, learning Non-linear dynamic sand other sareused to predict climate change. Ozone activity may be major forcing of climate change. In this paper we use Ozone data as an indicat or of climate change and study it strend using Hurst’s exponent method. The Fractal dimensional value of Ozone was calculate edtobe 1.1 foraperiod of365 days. This value of Ozone showsa “persistence” that is the future trendis more and more likely to followan established trend.

These just gory newspaper headlines we avidly read but quickly gloss over. This explains multidimensional aspect of Suicide, a complex, multidimensional phenomenon that has been studied from socio-demographical perspective. This study examine socio-demographic characteristic of these subjects.

Long chain saturated hydrocarbons were isolated from petroleum ether extract of Momordica dioica Roxb. Ex Wild (Cucurbitaceae) fruits. The petroleum ether extract of fruits was subjected to silica gel column chromatography using petroleum ether (100%) as mobile phase. The isolated hydrocarbons fraction was characterized by gas chromatography mass spectroscopy (GCMS), along with IR, 1HNMR and 13CNMR spectroscopic techniques.

A set of 6 cultivars of snake gourd (Trichosanthes anguina) collection was subjected to sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and Random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis (RAPD) analysis. By using SDS-PAGE, total soluble leaf protein was fractionated into 11 bands, which showed heterogeneity among different varieties. Thiruvallur cultivar (TVL) exhibited maximum number of bands (11) and Nagapattinum cultivar (NAP) exhibited least number of 6 bands.

Mining of metals creates a potential source of heavy metal contamination in the environment. Mining activity in Kudremukh area of Western Ghats region is the main source for iron deposits in Bhadra River water. To evaluate water contamination risk increased by heavy metals from mining activities, samples were collected from different areas in different seasons (station I – uncontaminated perennial source of water, Satation II to Station V- contaminated water). The heavy metals like Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Ni, Cd Pb, Hg, Cr, Al were analyzed.

Objective: Marginal gap formation around composite resin restorations is responsible for fluid penetration, marginal discoloration, and eventually clinical failure of the restoration. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a range of contemporary adhesive systems to determine the marginal gap width developed at the resin-tooth interface in Class V cavity margins with a Confocal Laser Scanning Microscope. Materials and Method: Thirty-six caries-free freshly extracted premolar teeth were selected and class V buccal cavities were prepared.

In a market Where advertising plays a vital role in coordinating consumer purchasing behavior it becomes pertinent for companies to induct all possible measures in the customer through an effective advertising campaign theory and practice proves that the use of superstars in advertising generates lot of publicity and attention the billions of dollars spent per year on celebrity endorsement contracts show that celebrities like Liz Hurley Britney spears and tiger woods’ play an important role for the advertising industry Sachin Tendulkar and Ricky panting for example have signed contracts wor

The dielectric and ferroelectric behaviour of BaTiO3 is compressed in pellet form has been studied using capacity measuring unit. Its dielectric constant temperature dependence above the Curie point (T>TC) in ferroelectric crystal and it must be obey curie Weiss law its Curie temperature is 1250C. BaTiO3 is third group of ferroelectric viz. the so called oxygen octahedron group. Its chemical formula is ABO3 where A is di or monovalent metal and B is tetra or pentavalent metal. In cooling cycle its derivative constant approximately follow same changes as in heating cycle.

River floods play an important role in keeping the vitality of the adjacent wetlands. In Lower Ajoy Basin, embankments have been constructed to prevent the flood and thereby to avoid the flood damages. It has put a barrier for water and materials exchanges in between the river and the wetlands as it prevents the frequent river spill on the floodplain. As a result the wetlands are losing their characters and suffering from the scarcity of water. In the present study, emphasis has been given to find out the relationship between embankment and recession of Barul beel (wetland).

Scheduled Tribes (STs), the socially and educationally disadvantaged groups are one of the most exploited and deprived sections of the population in Indian. Tribal women are deprived of education which is the integral part of life. The Indian Tribal family organisation makes discrimination between the sexes regarding education and empowerment. Needless to say, that exclusion from fruits of development has adversely affected the quality of life of the tribal people. And Tribal children are no exception.

The present study was to perform a scientometric analysis of all Alagappa University research publication. A total of 922 publications were published by the Alagappa university faculty in during 1999-2012 which received 17090 citations. The average number of publications per year was 65.85. It states that globally 0.27 percents of articles were from single authors, followed by 99.73% authors by multi authors. 0.0026 percent of collaborative authors’ articles published during the study periods.

Child education in slum areas affected a lot due to poor socio-economic condition. Low literacy rate, many drop outs indicate that children have to face a lot of problems in their education. Due to large sizes of the family and low monthly income parents can’t afford education to their all children. In the study area most of the families (53.33%) earn between Rs. 2500 – 5000 per month. Thus it becomes difficult to afford education for all children if there are more than two school going children’s in a family.

Love is not only about joy and happiness but also about pain and disappointments. Love has been compared with disease and considered a pathological addiction, disorder, and obsession. Especially in medicine, researchers have been intrigued by this kind of morbid love. Similarly, psychoanalytical and psychodynamic emotion research has been dominating. However, socio-constructive and psychological behavioral approaches on how people experience love have been minimal. What kinds of difficulties do people associate with love at the level of behavior?

A simple, sensitive, inexpensive, reliable and quantitative method has been developed for the determination of thioacetamide using sodium nitroprusside (SNP) as a spectroscopic probe. This method indicates that the sodium nitroprusside can react with the thioacetamide to form a colored product in the light reaction. Sodium nitroprusside is a photolabile complex and it undergoes photochemical ligand exchange reactions rapidly.

To study the response of grain yield of wheat and seed production of wild mustard and wild oat to application of different nitrogen levels and inter and intraspecific competition a field experiment was conducted at Islamic Azad University of Ahvaz-Iran. The results indicated that increasing nitrogen level increased the competitive ability of wild mustard and wild oat as result of this loss in grain yield of wheat was increased. The results showed that reduction of grain yield in single weed species competition of wild mustard and wild oat was less than mixed weed densities.

Aim: To determine the prevalence of hepatitis B and hepatitis c co-infection in patients who are seropositive for HIV infection from tertiary care hospital. Materials and methods: All the HIV positive serum samples were collected from Department of Microbiology during the period of one year from October 2011 to October 2012 in our tertiary care teaching hospital. These samples were confirmed as HIV positive by 3 tests which include enzyme immuo assay, tridot and comb AIDS by the ICTC.

It is known that, the pesticide usages in agriculture have lead to increase in food production world wide. Due to agricultural managerial practices the anuran amphibians are much affected. In the present study, an attempt has been made on genotoxic effect carbaryl on Limnonectes keralensis in paddy fields of Central Western Ghats, where continuous application of pesticides is being practiced. Frog L. keralensis is a common inhabitant of such agro ecosystem. Carbaryl is a carbamate pesticide was used to test their genotoxic effect on Limnonectes keralensis.

Image Fusion is a process of combining the relevant information from a set of images into a single image, where the resultant fused image will be more informative and complete than any of the input images. The Proposed image fusion technique includes following steps: first, discrete wavelet transform is applied to obtain the wavelet coefficients of the source images.

The present study was carried out to investigate the seasonal variations of moisture, ash protein, lipid and fatty acid (per cent) of muscle and liver of adult male and female Labeo rohita. For this purpose seasonally ten live specimen of both sex ranged in total length 34.5 to 42.5 cm. and weight 950gm to 1200gm were considered during study period (2008 to 2010). The amount of protein, lipid and fatty acid level increase during spring whereas moisture content of muscle and hepatic organ increases during summer and rainy season.

Anemia rotundifolia, a rare fern species was studied to determine that can explants of gametophyte be used to multiply the plants (gametophytes and sporophytes) and also to understand the reproductive barriers. Explants were sown on Parker’s & Thompson’s culture media. Study demonstrated that explants produced secondary regenerates which matured into cordate gametophytes and bear only archegonia. These regenerates gave rise numerous tertiary gametophytes that bear female and male gametes intermixed showing monoecious sexuality.

Stem cells are unspecialized cells that have the ability to differentiate into other cells and the ability to self-regenerate. Stem cells are of two types: Embryonic stem cells (ESC) and Adult stem cells (ASC). Stem cell research begins early 1900’s when European researchers realized that the various types of blood cells e.g. White blood cells, red blood cells and platelets all came from Stem cells. Till today various developments have been made in field of stem cell research. John B.

This paper describes a theory of surface waves propagating in a non-homogeneous, isotropic, viscoelastic solid medium of nth order including time rate of strain. The theory of generalized surface waves has been employed to investigate particular cases of Rayleigh wave, Love wave and Stoneley wave. When viscous field is neglected, the wave velocity equation of this generalized type of surface waves is in complete agreement with the corresponding classical results.

It was known that cadmium (Cd) toxicity evoked protective reactions that could induce cell death. But the question arises was the effect of nitrogen regime on Cd plant responses. To got more explications, we examined the effects of Cd in NH4+-fed tomato plants treated continuously or transitory by 25µM of CdSO4. Reduction of glutamine synthetase (GS) activity by Cd disappeared progressively after transfer of Cd-stressed tomato to control medium.

Total 25 fungal species were isolated from fresh and market root samples of drug Clerodendrum phlomoides Linn. Out of these 18 fungi were associated with fresh samples and 13 fungi were isolated from market samples which 6 fungal species appeared in both samples. In the fresh samples, F. solani and in market samples A. niger recorded in high percentage incidence and they were the dominant fungi. Root samples were stored under different 30, 50, 75, 96 and 100 % relative humidity and different incubation days 15, 30, 45 and 60 days.

A study was designed to investigate the combined effects of neem and pawpaw leaves supplementation on performance and carcass characteristics of broiler chickens from 14–56 days of age. 360 one day-old unsexed Arbor acre broiler chickens were randomly allotted to the following diets T1 (0% leaf meal), T2 (0.5% NLM), T3 (2% PLM), T4 (0.5% NLM+PLM), T5 (1% NLM+PLM) and T6 (2% NLM+PLM).

A total of 300 fourteen day old arbor acre broilers were randomly divided into 4 treatments and replicated 5 times under completely randomized design to make 75 birds per treatment and 15 birds per replicate. Neem leaf meal (NLM) and pawpaw leaf meal (PLM) were prepared by air drying for 10 days. The birds were assigned to different treatment diets supplemented with the leaf meals and prepared as follows; T1 (0% NLM+PLM), T2 (0.5% NLM+PLM), T3 (1% NLM+PLM) and T4 (2% NLM+PLM).

A fungus was always found to be associated with the necrotic patches of the corals in the Gulf of Mannar Biosphere Reserve. It was nonsporulating under both natural and culture conditions. Hyphae of the fungus were septate, highly melanised and presented cottony appearance in the colony. Lethal potency of the acidified ethanol extract of this fungus was tested by the mouse bioassay method and the LD50 is determined as 75mg per mouse.

Web applications are increasing at an enormous speed and its users are increasing at exponential speed. The evolutionary changes in technology have made it possible to capture the users’ essence and interactions with web applications through web server log file. This is a study on web log mining application Web log files store data related to the use of a web site. Analyzing these data in details is therefore this more complicated task for improving the user browsing experience.

α- amylases are most important industrial enzyme and hold maximum market share of enzyme sales having lots of potential application in food processing industries such as sugar, baking, brewing and many starch based industries. The α- amylases hydrolyse α-1,4-glycosidic linkages in starch and related substrates. The conventional Submerged Fermentation method of α- amylase production is being replaced by Solid State Fermentation during recent years due to manifold advantages over Submerged Fermentation such as use cheap substrate, higher yield, avoids substrate inhibition etc.

Building Universities focusing on discovery and accessing the primary source of Available knowledge has been a demand for human community developments progress. The Universities expansion is not just preparing human sources, but also stabilizing the base to achieve, learn and applying new technology which leads to open new job opportunity for new generation needs.

Shore line soil samples were collected from twelve different coastal areas of Tamil Nadu and tested by dilution plating technique on Starch casein and Kuster’s agar medium to assess the actinomycetes diversity. Physico chemical characteristics of the soil such as pH, temperature, electrical conductivity, salinity, total dissolved solids, moisture content, water holding capacity, carbon, nitrogen, hydrogen and sulfur content were analyzed to find out the impact on actinomycetes population. A total number of 376 actinomycetes were recorded from all the shoreline soil samples.

Jatropha curcas is a drought resistant multipurpose small shrub/tree with significant economic importance because of its several potential agricultural, industrial and medicinal uses. The study was conducted to provide quantitative data on the physical and chemical properties of seeds and kernels of Jatropha curcas grown locally in four different agro-climatic areas of Ghana (1. Nyankpala, Northern Region, 2. Dambai, Volta Region, 3. WA, Upper West Region, 4. Techiman, Brong Ahafo Region), that differ in agro-climatic conditions.

Hydrocarbon bioavailability is a relevant parameter for bioremediation technologies, especially in old contaminated sites. The aim of this work was to apply electrobioremediation (EKB) of sediments with two types of contaminant; in one case, it was an old hydrocarbon contaminant adsorbed by the sediment particle and in the second case, it was a laboratory added contaminant, which included phenanthrene and hexadecane.

Pyrethroids are synthetic forms of pyrethrins and that differ in chemical structure and symptoms of exposure. Some pyrethroids are known to be endocrine destructive, and impair reproductive competence. They are used as pesticides in the cultivation of crops and vegetables. Investigations were carried out to determine the residual levels of pyrethriods and the types used in the cultivation of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) at the Libga irrigation site in Ghana. Pepper samples were randomly taken from farmers in Libga to determine pyrethroids level using the US-EPA method 3510.

The study was intended at optimizing the basic formulation and processing conditions for the preparation of chicken meat noodle with rice flour. Lean chicken meat in percent of 0 (control), 30, 40 and 50 percent were used in formulations. Noodle were evaluated for physico-chemical and sensory properties. Results showed that noodles containing 50 percent chicken meat was optimum for formulation of extended chicken meat noodles.

The present study was carried out to get an idea about the bacterial load (density and diversity) and to identify and isolate the bacteria from the soils of Yusmarg forest. A series of dilutions were made from soil samples, from the dilutions, 0.1ml inoculum was poured onto Nutrient agar(NA )and incubated at 28±2oC for 24 hours to study the growth of Bacteria.Comparative analysis of different types of colonies found at the four sites during the study indicates that the bacterial load was dominant in the month of November.

The major objective of the present study is to incorporate a hydrophilic drug methotraxate within biodegradable polymer; poly (lactic acid) for the formulation of nanoparticles by solvent displacement technique. Three organic solvents such as Tetrahydrofuran (THF), Methanol and acetone were used in different ratios with water and all of them were characterized with respect to particle size and entrapment efficiency.

Objective: Standardization of herbal formulations in terms of quality and composition of raw materials are important to ensure quality and optimum levels of active principles. HPTLC has recently emerged as a preferred analytical tool for fingerprints and quantification of marker compounds. An Ayurvedic veterinary formulation used as effective appetite enhancer, in the animals suffering from anorexia, off-feed & ulcers. It contains Zanthoxylum alatum DC, Piper longum Linn, Piper nigrum Linn, Ferula narthex Bioss, Cuminum cyminum Linn, Carum copticum Linn, Zingiber officinale Roscoe.

In this study different process parameters were optimized for the preparation and cooking of RTC product from soft and hard wheat grains. During the experiment it was found that the medium size grits (2-1.5mm) of soft and hard wheat grains cooked separately with each 2.5 times of water (v/v) for 30 and 20 min, respectively resulted in complete gelatinization of starch and presented a food similar to cooked rice. The sensory evaluation of cooked soft and hard wheat samples recorded as high score values of 8.5 and 8.3, respectively.

An investigation was conducted into host-parasite interaction between the trees of Citrus sinensis and their parasitic associate, the African Mistletoe, Tapinanthus bangwensis on how much of the products of metabolic processes and structural components of the host are affected by the relationship. The rate of parasitism was observed to vary with differences in age and location and as well as by the peculiar nature of susceptible hosts.

The present study was carried out to determine and compare the pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of Doxorubicin Hydrochloride (Doxorubicin) delivered as solution or through Chitosan Nanoparticles after intravenous (i.v.) injection. Doxorubicin loaded Chitosan nanoparticles were prepared by ionic gelation method (IGM). Plasma, tissue distribution profiles were quantified in an animal model of cancer and were compared to treatment with IGNP (ionic gelation method nanoparticles) to treatment with drug solution (DS).

Potato is a vegetatively propagated crop and ranks fourth in production after wheat, rice and corn. Potato is a host to many fungal and viral diseases. More than three dozen plant viruses, a viroid and phytoplasmas can infect potato crop. Viruses known to infect potato in India include PVX, PVS, PVA, PVM, PVY, Potato leaf roll virus (PLRV), Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (ToLCNDV), Potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd) and Groundnut bud necrosis virus (GBNV. PVX, PVS, PVA, PVM and PVY occur commonly.

There is growing concern that anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions are contributing to global climate change. Therefore, it is critical to develop technologies to mitigate this problem. The high capture cost and energy consumption would be a major barrier for implementing CO2 capture mitigation methods. Alternative technologies may offer improvement. This paper reviews several separation technologies applicable to CO2 capture from flue gas, and discusses improvement opportunities and research needs.

Dementia is a syndrome usually occurs Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and related due to disease in brain. Alzheimer’s disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder associated with impairment of thinking, learning, orientation, judgment and memory function. The various Nootropic drugs and herbal ayurvedic plants prescribed to enhance learning and memory function in dementia. The present study is therefore focused on discussing herbal ayurvedic medicinal plants (Bacopa monnieri, Evolvulus alsinoides and Tinospora cordifolia) for enhance learning and memory.

The influence of Ni doping on the Photoluminescence properties of ZnO thin films grown by SILAR method are discussed in detail. The diffraction XRD patterns revealed good crystalline quality without any appreciable changes from pure ZnO films and are genuinely polycrystalline with a hexagonal wurtzite structure. The observed ‘d’ spacing values are in good agreement with the standard values of ZnO. X-ray diffraction results provide the evidence that Ni is incorporated into the ZnO lattice at Zn site.

English translations of the Qura'an show that translators are blind to the subtle differences that Qura'anic connective particles can make within their respective contexts. A thorough understanding of the functions that such particles trigger is so crucial for rendering, not only the Qur'anic terminology accurately, but also grasping the true message conveyed.

What constrains investments in girls’ schooling? The answer lies in a deeper understanding of the apparent returns - who gains from education in what ways, and who bears the costs, both economic and social. From the families’ perspective, the costs of educating girls are likely to be higher and the benefits are more tenuous than the boys. This discrepancy is greater and matter more in poor households of rural India where educating girls may seem a less attractive investment than boys.

The reporting of crime is very important especially for effective policing. Several studies have shown that there are three factors that affect reporting practices of the victims. One’s decision is determine by either individual, incident or environment factors. The present study sought to test influence of these factors in crime reporting using seven types of agricultural crimes. A survey was conducted to a randomly selected 200 farming households in Uasin Gishu District in Kenya. Logistic regression analyses were done to test the influence of all factors.

The compression test was carried out in accordance with IS 456-2000; on nano Al2O3 blended concrete & plain concrete. Al2O3 nanoparticles with the average diameter of 15 nm were used with four different contents of 0. 5%, 1.0%, 1.5% and 2.0% by weight. The tests were carried out on M20 grade of plain cement concrete and nano Al2O3 Blended concrete. The results revealed that the compressive strength of some of the samples is improved.

Breast cancer is one of the most important causes of increased women death rate in the world. Mammography is the most efficient approach for the early identification of breast diseases. The major objective of mammography is to identify small, non-palpable cancers during its premature stage. On the other hand, mammograms are extremely complicated to interpret being the fact that the pathological transformations of the breast are slight and their visibility is very poor with low contrast and noise.

Nicotiana tabaccum var. souffi seedlings were grown under different cadmium (Cd) concentrations (0, 10, 20, 50 and 100 μM) in a hydroponic system during 7 d. Plant growth, micronutrient, chlorophyll and carotenoid concentrations, as well as δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALA-D; E.C. and acid phosphatase (AP; E.C. activities were then analysed. Cadmium concentration in both shoots and roots increased with increasing external Cd levels. Metal concentration was on average7-fold greater in root than in shoot tissues. Root length was unaffected by Cd treatments.

The research was conducted to evaluate the nutritional and antinutritional composition of defatted whole seeds and kernels of Jatropha curcas obtained from four different agro-climatic areas of Ghana with the aim of identifying an alternative source of plant protein that can be developed to supplement soyabean meal/fish meal. Jatropha curcas seeds were obtained from four different agro-climatic areas of Ghana: (1. Nyankpala, Northern Region, 2. Dambai, Volta Region, 3. WA, Upper West Region, 4. Techiman, Brong Ahafo Region).

Introduction: Encephalitis refers to inflammation of Parenchymal brain tissue. Acute encephalitis begins abruptly (hours to days) whereas chronic encephalitis is insidious in onset, occurring over weeks to months.1 Objective: To document etiological, clinical and laboratory features in cases of Encephalitis in general and Japanese encephalitis in particular. Methods: Fifty Indian children below 15 years of age, with encephalitic features were investigated. They were treated in Bapuji Child Health Institute and Chigateri Government Hospital, Davangere.

Soy beans are naturally high in a group of compound known as isoflavonic phytoestrogens or isoflavones and thus help protect our body from diseases like diabetes. The objective of supplementing soy protein isolate containing high levels of isoflavones to a group of Type II diabetic subjects is to study the impact of soy isoflavones in the management of diabetes mellitus. A standardised beverage with 25g of isoflavone rich soy protein isolate mixed with water and milk was assessed for its acceptability using a nine point hedonic scale.

Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) also known as Kala-azar (Hindi: kala means black, azar means sickness, also known as Assam fever, Dumdum fever, Sikari disease, Burdwan fever, Shahib's disease and tropical splenomegaly). This disease is endemic and widely spread in 88 countries, including India. Because of its importance, was selected by WHO out of six most precarious diseases. Due to diversity of epidemiological situations, no single diagnosis treatment, or control will be suitable for all.

The principle of diversification tells us that “spreading an investment across many assets will eliminate some of the risks but not all of the risks. Bank as a body corporate involves in diversification by investing in stocks of various companies across different sectors, industries, nationally, regionally and even internationally in order to reduce exposure to risks.

Field experiments were conducted at Experimental Farm, Department of Agronomy, Annamalai University to study the effect of sulphur and micronutrients (Zinc and Boron) on growth, yield attributes and quality if Cotton. The experiments consisted of fifteen treatments and replicated thrice. The test crop was cotton cv. LRA 5166. The results revealed that, addition of 45 kg S + 10 kg Zn + 1.0 kg B ha-1 (T15) recorded the maximum growth, yield and quality parameters.

This paper argues that human, financial and social capital impact substantially on the performance of small firms in manufacturing and service type of businesses. The methodology adopted involvedusinga fivelikert scale measure to assign values to the impact of human, financial and social capital variables on a sample of 20 firms (12 manufacturing and 8 servicing), and then applying the Kruskal-Wallis analysis test to determine whether there is significant difference in the level of the impact of the three independent variables on the dependent variable (firm performance).

The interesting Chlorophycean epiphytic algae Trentepohlia forming mostly yellow to bright orange or red-brown coloured covering on tree barks, rocks, walls etc. The features of the order Trentepohliales have been investigated in details from several decades and it has taken a great interest to the scientists for its form and diversity. However, the information available for this group in India is relatively limited and insufficient.

The present study reports on the results of salinity stress induced by NaCl, which resulted in the physiological and biochemical changes during seedling development of lentil plants. Plants were subjected to various levels of salt stress of 0.1, 0.2 and 0.5 M, NaCl respectively. Salinity stress markedly affected the physiological and biochemical parameters. The effect of NaCl salinity on germination, seedling growth (root-shoot length) seedling survival, total chlorophyll, and proline content of lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.) were investigated.

Today, electricity is a vital part of functioning as a society. Thermal power plant produces electricity and furthermore it produces secondary products in the form of different types of ash. The difference between a secondary product and waste is that the secondary product is generally both usable and not dangerous to people and the environment. Important however, is that technical and environmental properties of the secondary products are evaluated to the specific application.

The influence of Ni doping on the structural, optical and morphological properties of ZnO thin films grown by SILAR method are discussed in detail. The diffraction XRD patterns reveal good crystalline quality without any appreciable changes from pure ZnO films and are genuinely polycrystalline with a hexagonal wurtzite structure. The observed ‘d’ spacing values are in good agreement with the standard values of ZnO. X-ray diffraction results provide the evidence that Ni is incorporated into the ZnO lattice at Zn site.

Tissue culture was used to preserve interesting agronomic traits present in old cultivars of different Prunus spp., maintained in collection at Fruit Trees Research Centre in Rome. Assessment of somaclonal variation and fingerprinting of varieties, using RAPD and SSR analysis, were performed on one-year old plants of Prunus persica (L. Batsch), Prunus armeniaca (L.) and Prunus domestica (L.), in comparison to the mother plant, in vivo maintained.

Present study is an attempt to determine the correlation between teachers’ job satisfaction and educational attainment of higher secondary school students in various school organizational climates. By adopting the principle of stratified proportionate random sampling technique, Eight Hundred and Twenty Three higher secondary school teachers and Seven Hundred Fourty higher secondary students were selected from various higher secondary schools of Durg district of Chhattisgarh.

This study examines the causal relationship of selected bank financial ratios on lending to small and medium Enterprise (SMEs) in Nigeria. The data used for this study were gathered from Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) statistical Bulletin for a period of 27 years (1983 – 2010). Granger causality and OLS were applied to a set of differenced bank financial ratios and it was found that a critical gap in bank intermediation still exists in the lending to SME sector in Nigeria.

This study examined the effect of bank credit to the private sector on economic growth in Nigeria using data on Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and bank credit to private sector (BCPS). Inflation and interest rates were included in the study as control variables. All data were obtained from Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) statistical bulletin and span across 1981 to 2010. Data stationarity were ensured using the Augmented Dickey Fuller (ADF) statistic, while the OLS were applied to ascertain the impact of bank credit to the private sector on economic growth.

Present study is an attempt to understand role of metabolic hormones (insulin and thyroxine) in the induction of germinal vesicle break down (GVBD) in frog (Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis) oocytes using an in vitro system. Oocytes isolated manually from the ovaries of gravid females were exposed to various concentrations (n = 30) of insulin and thyroxine after equilibrating in culture medium for 16 hours. Oocytes exposed to culture medium alone served as controls.

Threatening half of the world’s population Malaria still remains a serious public health problem in the developing world. Parasites of the genus Plasmodium cause the disease by degrading human hemoglobin as a source of amino acids for their growth and maturation. Plasmepsin II, an aspartic protease from the human intra erythrocytic parasite Plasmodium falciparum, is involved in degradation of the host cell haemoglobin within the acidic food vacuole of the parasite. Plasmepsin-II has become an attractive target for combating malaria through research regarding its importance in the P.

The development of reliable, environmentally benign processes for the synthesis of nanoscale materials is an important feature of nanotechnology. Metal nanostructures have usual physiochemical properties and biological actions compared to their bulk parent materials. Gold (Au) and Silver (Ag) nanoparticles have a range of interesting properties which emphasize the electrical ones, optical, catalytic, applications in biomedicine.

Aplastic anemia (AA) including Fanconi is a unique disease shows genetic compatibility between gene and environment. The role of MTHFR C677T gene polymorphism and chromosomal break points in aplastic anemia (Fanconi) has not been documented earlier in Indian literature but chromosomal fragility and MTHFR polymorphism modulate folate metabolism leads to increase “risk” of malignancy.

Characterization of Copper tolerant (Cur) strain of Nostoc calcicola Breb revealed its ability to grow at 70μM Cu being 60μM Cu is saturating concentration for sensitive (Cus) strain. The overall pattern indicated the acquisition of metal tolerance in the former. In Cu uptake comparisons, the Cur strain showed only 26% less cellular metal buildup (72.15 n mol Cu mg-1 protein) at 60 min compared to Cus (96.89 n mol Cu mg-1 protein).

To combat lifestyle diseases a balanced diet and healthy regime including exercise is the need of the hour. An interview schedule was formulated to elicit information on socio economic status and dietary pattern of the cardio vascular patients. Three different combinations of fibre rich mix were formulated, combination C1 consisting of whole wheat flour, defatted soy flour, green gram dal and lotus stem, combination C2 consisting of wheat flour, defatted soy flour, horse gram, and agathi leaves, combinationC3 consisting of whole wheat flour, defatted soy, black gram and curry leaves.

Aperture synthesis enables a high azimuth resolution from a physically small array. The technique has been highly successful in radio astronomy, satellite and aircraft borne radar. However the use of this technique has been limited to sonar because of difficulties of maintaining a stable track under water and problems of under-sampling of the aperture arising from the relatively slow velocity of acoustic waves. This paper describes the application of the synthetic aperture technique to sonar, highlighting some of these difficulties and possible means of overcoming them.

India is the second largest producer of Fruits after China, with a production of 44.04 million tones. Only minimum percent is processed and remaining goes as waste. Hence the present investigation was undertaken to study the anti nutritional components of fruit wastes and incorporate into recipes and testing their acceptability. Commonly consumed fruits like grapes, mango, pomegranate and watermelon peels and seed were selected and their anti nutritional factors were analysed.

Colletotrichum sublineolum is the most destructive sorghum disease in Kenya. This pathogen is genetically and morphologically diverse. It evolves continuously into new strains to overcome resistance. Various traits exhibited by newly bred varieties also have great bearing on the level of disease resistance. Therefore, the study aimed at determining how commonly desired traits influence resistance to sorghum anthracnose.

Progress and pollution go together. The economic growth is essential to combat poverty and deprivation but has exerted considerable pressure on the environmental sustainability. With industrialization, energy consumption has increased, prosperity resulted in building more settlement and using more vehicles, all this deteriorated the environmental quality. The crisis before the world and more particularly before developing nation like India is how to achieve target of economic growth without damaging environment. India’s contribution to protection of environments debate is immense.

The aim of this paper is to introduce πgb-quotient maps, πgb*-quotient map via πgb-closed sets.Further, several characterizations and properties are obtained.





Rosane Cavalcante Fragoso, Brasil


Chief Scientific Officer and Head of a Research Group

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Luai Farhan Zghair
Hasan Ali Abed Al-Zu’bi
Fredrick OJIJA
Firuza M. Tursunkhodjaeva
Faraz Ahmed Farooqi
Saudi Arabia
Eric Randy Reyes Politud
Elsadig Gasoom FadelAlla Elbashir
Eapen, Asha Sarah
United State
Dr.Arun Kumar A
Dr. Zafar Iqbal
Dr. Ruchika Khanna
Dr. Recep TAS
Dr. Rasha Ali Eldeeb
Dr. Pralhad Kanhaiyalal Rahangdale
Dr. Nicolas Padilla- Raygoza
Dr. Mustafa Y. G. Younis
Dr. Muhammad shoaib Ahmedani
Saudi Arabia
United State
Dr. Lim Gee Nee
Dr. Jatinder Pal Singh Chawla
Dr. Devendra kumar Gupta
Dr. Ali Seidi
Dr. Achmad Choerudin
Dr Ashok Kumar Verma
Thi Mong Diep NGUYEN
Dr. Muhammad Akram
Dr. Imran Azad
Dr. Meenakshi Malik
Aseel Hadi Hamzah
Anam Bhatti
Md. Amir Hossain
Mirzadi Gohari