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August 2011

  1. Mani, J., *Sudheer Mohammed, M.M. and Narayanasamy, A.

    Objective: The present investigation aimed to study the secondary metabolite profiling of stem of Indigofera viscosa Lam. Methods: The stem was extracted by successive method using different solvents of varying polarity. The extracts were tested for screening of secondary metabolites, characterization of the compounds were carried out using FTIR. Results& Discussion: Alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, steroids, triterpenoids, glycosides, saponins, gum and mucilages and fixed oils were found in different extracts. Ethanol and water extracts showed significant results with respect of secondary metabolites in screening. Significant level of phenolic content and flavonoid content was observed in quantification assays. Various functional groups such as amine, alcohols, phenols, carboxylic acids, alkynes, etc. were identified through FTIR analysis. conclusion: The results of the present study will be helpful to chemically standardize the plant and it will be useful in tapping the medicinal uses of Indigofera viscosa.

  2. Alagesaboopathi, C.

    The present study describes the antimicrobial activity of the acetone, ethanol and petroleum ether extracts of the leaves, stem and root of Aristolochia bracteolata Lam. using agar diffusion method against human pathogenic bacteria, such as Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae. In the present research, all the extracts were found to be effective against four human bacterial species, E.coli, P.aeruginosa, K.pneumoniae and B.aureus sensitive to all the plant extracts. The study recommends that the extract of the plant parts possesses novel broad spectrum antibacterial properties. The antimicrobial activity of petroleum ether extracts was found to be highest than that of ethanol extracts. However, the root extract showed more inhibitory effect than the stem and leaf extracts. The findings provide support for the use of the plant in traditional medication.

  3. Jiyalal Ram M. Jaiswar, Arvind V. Mandalia, Saily M. Narvekar, Siddhesh H. Karangutkar

    Environmental dynamics with a view of understanding the nutrient fluxes and the factors regulating phytoplankton production, in waters off Bhavnagar, Gulf of Khambhat, were investigated during 1996-2007. The coastal waters of Bhavnagar revealed normal pH (7.97±0.12) and enhanced DO (4.81±1.47 ml/l) level. The fluctuation of salinity (29.7 ± 4.21 ppt) was due to freshwater influx through several rivers. The coastal water of Bhavnagar was characterized with poor concentration of chlorophyll a (0.76±0.34 mg/m3), high phaeophytin (1.24±0.68 mg/m3), poor species diversity of phytoplankton (0.693-1.495, av. 0.749), high SS concentration (1502.58±1038.62 mg/l) and poor irradiance (secchi depth, mean 0.11 cm), with high concentration of NO3--N (32.52 ± 12.37 mmol/l), NO2--N (2.38 ± 4.12 mmol/l), NH4+-N (2.33 ± 4.43 mmol/l) and PO43--P (9.04 ± 10.37 mmol/l). The positive significant correlation between SS and NO3--N (r=0.443, p=0.000), NO2--N (r=0.302, p=0.010) and NH4+-N (r=0.229, p=0.055) indicated that the strong currents churning out the bed sediments and eroding the shoreline and inputs through several rivers draining into the Gulf, were sources of nutrient fluxes and an enhanced concentration in the region. The presence of Thalassiosira gravida and Navicula distans continuously and Cylindrotheca closterium sometime as the major species in the coastal waters of Bhavnagar over the period of 11 years suggested their adaptation to the environmental condition of the region. Thus, the high concentration of suspended solids was the regulating factor for phytoplankton production.

  4. Dibaei, M.H., Boroon, M., Mehdizadeh Koozari, M. and Ghorbani Birgani, M.

    Considering the existence of rice and wheat rotation on 50 thousand hectares of Khuzestan province and the necessity of efficient use of soil, crop year study period (2009-2010) in the city were examined Shoushtar. This research project as chopped blocks in a randomized complete block with three replications was carried out. The first factor in this plan tillage methods that include: T1) moldboard plow disk light (TOF region), T2) disc-style chisel plow, T3) heavy disk Rotator and T4) in two perpendicular heavy disk load time The second factor consists of rice, including high yielding varieties (LD183) and local varieties (Champa), respectively. Results indicated that tillage method and type of significant effect on the number of green plants per square meter, but no tillage methods significant effect on the capacity of a farm is effective. Also, tillage methods on the number and type of soil bulk density, aggregate mean weight diameter, the translation of the soil, grain yield and harvest index had a significant effect. Finally, treatment 4 (two discs of heavy vertical time) with the performance of 5,140 kg per hectare, appropriate size hunk of dirt, with return to 50 percent soil and time is better than other treatments.

  5. Krishna Kattavarapu, Leelanath Tanneeru, Krishnanand Tiwari and Maheshwari K. Mishra

    Cleaning validation is an integral part of current good manufacturing practices in any Biopharmaceutical industry. Drug products usually get contaminate with residue of other drug products or cleaning agents manufactured in the same equipments, if the cleaning procedure is not proper. We studied the cleaning validation of GCSF Injection on three consecutive batches in multi product manufacturing facility. Various acceptance limits for product carryover was calculated based on 0.1 % of therapeutic dose, 10 ppm and 1/1000 Therapeutic daily dose of the drug. The stringent limit of maximum allowable carryover (MACO) of GCSF in other products was found to be 18 µg. The 0.5 M NaOH solution was used as a cleaning agent to clean the equipments and accessories used for bulk manufacturing of GCSF. Rinse and swab samples were collected from the cleaned equipments and accessories and tested for product carryover by sandwitch ELISA. The product carryover of GCSF in subsequent product was determined to be less than 0.1 µg and the level of cleaning agent was less than 10 ppm, thus indicating establishment of effective cleaning procedure for GCSF manufacturing.

  6. Li Wang, Rui Yang and Tian-Yun Wang

    The false-positive PCR DNA fragments are often obtained due to many factors. Whether the DNA fragments were the target need to be identified by some methods, such as electrophoresis, sequencing eta. Here, we describe a simple PCR amplified products indentified method by endonuclease enzyme digestion. The DNA fragments were amplified by PCR method, then digested by endonuclease enzymes that determined by internet Software. If the digested products were consistent with the analysis of Software, they were sequenced further. We used the surviving promoter as instance to illustrate this method.

  7. Baskar, B. and Prabakaran, P

    Conservation of mangrove through improved mangrove nursery technologies using bacterial bio-fertilizers will be appropriate solution for deforestation. Members of the genus Paenibacillus widely reported for its nitrogen fixing character from various environments. In this study we identified a halophilic nitrogen fixing bacterium from Pichavaram mangrove rhizosphere soil of Avicennia marina, which is dominant flora in the forest. The bacterium showed 2017±32.60 nmol ethylene mg protein-1 of nitrogenase activity hence it is highly comparable with all other nitrogen fixers reported in the genus. Further the bacterium characterized by 16S rRNA gene sequence and phenotypic characters. 16S rRNA gene sequence showed 98% similarity with P. xylanexeden and P. amylolyticus whereas 99% similarity with P. pabuli, however phenotypic characters are totally differed from these three species. On the other hand phenotypic characters fairly comparable with nitrogen fixing P. brasilensis but showed only 94% similarity in 16S rRNA gene sequence. Hence the bacterium was named as Paenibacillus sp. BPRIST073. This study indicated the first time in reporting the occurrence of nitrogen fixing Paenibacillus from mangrove rhizosphere.

  8. Prabudoss,

    AM fungi is the most abundant kind of mycorrhizae and develops association with most of the plant species in the earth and enhances the growth and development of associated plants through the transport of required nutrients from the non-rhizosphere soil particularly phosphorus. The plants like sugarcane needs association of AM fungi to overcome ‘P’ deficiency due to its long standing periods in the same rhizosphere soil and leads to depletion of ‘P’ in the rhizosphere soil. In the present investigation eight isolates were obtained from eight different locations and identified as five different AM fungal species based on screening studies for acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase, efficiency to colonize sugarcane roots and interaction with sugarcane in the form of mycorrhizal inoculation effect (MIE) and relative mycorrhizal dependency, the Glomus fasciculatum was found to be a best AM fungal species for sugarcane and used in the pot culture studies. In the present research G. fasciculatum with recommended dose of farm yard manure significantly enhanced the plant height, cane girth, root colonization and spore number of sugarcane compared with other organic amendments.

  9. Krishnan, V., Gopi, M. and Natarajan, S.

    Plant Galls are external expression of mysterious interaction between two biological entities namely, the insects and the plants. It is abnormal, uncontrolled, largely independent growth of the host tissues which arise under the influence of an external stimulus. The growth of the host tissues by means of hyperplasy, hypertrophy and hypoplasy. Guru Nanak College is a semi arid dry Scrub Jungle harbours a few curious morphologically diversified plant galls on different plant species with specific plant organs. The present study deals with the enumeration of plant galls in the campus of Guru Nanak College with special reference to morphological, anatomical and biochemical compounds. In our preliminary survey we have find out the Eight different plant galls namely, Ficus bengalensis, Lannea coromandelica, Madhuca longifolia, Mimusops elengi, Morinda pubescens, Pongamia pinnata, Syzygium cumini and Tectona grandis. This paper proves that the new report of plant galls in the campus of Guru Nanak College for the first time.

  10. Dhanabalan, K, Dr. S. Nagarajan and Dr. S. Sakthivel

    The course timetabling problem is a special version of the optimization problem and it is computationally NP-hard. In this paper two methods one using binary weight and another one using normal weight instead of binary weight to teachers have been presented. Genetic algorithm in which selective two point multiple years crossover and mutation cum sequential evaluation (SMCMSE) algorithm is introduced in both the methods and test results have been compared. Both of them are proved to be useful in solving College Department as well as entire Institution Timetabling problem.

  11. Deepak Sharma, Anuj join, Saatvik Atri and Meetu Mathur

    To determine the effect of ‘flare’ spreader size on the fracture resistance of mandibular premolar roots prepared using variable taper rotary files. Crowns of 50 mandibular first premolars having no carious lesions, devoid of any aberrant anatomy were resected 2mm coronal to the cemento-enamel junction. Root canals were prepared in different groups: 1. No canal preparation. 2. Preparation using crown down technique to a size F2 MAF with no obturation performed. 3. Preparation using crown down technique to a size F2 MAF and obturated using lateral condensation; first spreader used being a size 25 flare spreader. 4. Same as 3 except first spreader used being a size 20 flare spreader. 5. Same as 3 except first spreader used being a size 15 flare spreader. All specimens were mounted in addition silicone putty and fractured vertically on a universal testing machine. Fracture load was recorded in kilogram force. Values obtained were analyzed using the ANOVA test. The mean force at fracture for roots obturated using size 15.05 spreaders approached similar values required to fracture uninstrumented samples. But was significantly higher than what was required to fracture samples filled using size 20.05 and size 25.05 spreaders. Spreader size used during lateral condensation of gutta percha may affect the fracture resistance of roots in extracted teeth. Larger size spreaders do decrease the fracture resistance and jeopardize the strength of obturated roots.

  12. Sule, S and Nwaobakata, C.

    In this paper least cost design of a prismatic simple supported singly reinforced rectangular beam with varied spans of 5m, 7m, 9m, 11m and 13m and uniform concentrated load of 100KN based on flexural constraint of the American Concrete Institute (ACI 318/95) is reported. The cost function of the beam was developed based on the unit costs of 1:2:4 concrete mix, formwork, steel and link reinforcements. The unit cost of 1:2:4 concrete mix used was 30,000 per m3 of concrete, 1,000 per m2 of formwork, 300 per kg of steel reinforcement. The unit cost per kg of link reinforcement was assumed to be half the unit cost of steel reinforcement. The design variables were the depth and steel reinforcement ratio. The width of the beam was kept constant as 0.225m. The deign variables were appended to the Lagrangian multiplier which was used an the optimization process and a FORTRAN program was used to facilitate the needed optimal solutions. It was shown among other findings that the depth of the beam decreased as the steel ratio increased but the total cost per unit length reduced showing that it is cheaper to increase the area of steel reinforcement and reduce the depth

  13. Ravikumar, S., Shanthy, S., Kalaiarasi, A., Palaniselvan, G. and Sumaya, M.

    Biodiversity of halophilic phosphate solubilizing bacteria were assessed from root, rhizosphere soil, non-rhizosphere soil and water from Manakkudi mangrove ecosystem of South West Coast of India. Nine phosphobacterial species Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus megaterium, Micrococcus roseus, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Arthrobacter illicis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter aerogenes and Micrococcus luteus were identified. The root samples exhibited higher counts of Phosphate solubilizing bacteria as compared to the rhizosphere soil samples which is influenced by the pH and salinity.

  14. Dorcas J. Serem

    This paper is based on a study to determine Vitamin A, C and riboflavin content of red marrow from Good and Choice grade steers so that the nutritional contribution of marrow to Mechanically Separated Meat (MSM) could be more fully defined. Vitamin A analysis was also performed on ten liver samples from the same steers to more fully define the nutritional status of the animals. Total vitamin A of twelve marrow samples ranged from 9,057-24,727 IU/l00g with a mean of 13,927. Vitamin C values of sixteen marrow samples ranged from 3.05-4.63 mg/l00g with a mean of 3.67. Riboflavin of nine marrow samples ranged from 0.136-0.325 ug/g with a mean of 0.215. Since MSM is a muscle/marrow mixture, marrow’s contribution of vitamin A, C and riboflavin to MSM is insignificant. Therefore, mechanically separated meat would be expected to have about the same vitamin A, C and riboflavin content as lean meat.

  15. Sarmishtha Chanda, Uma B Dasgupta and Debendranath Guha Mazumder

    Glutathione- S -Transferase (GST) might be involved in the initial reduction of arsenate to arsenite and subsequent oxidative methylation (Sampayo 2000, Zakharyan 2001). Humans with null genotype of GST M1 and T1 have been considered to be a high risk group of people who retain arsenic in their body due to incomplete metabolism of arsenic.In order to elucidate the relationship among clinical severity, urinary excretion of arsenic and genetic polymorphisms of GST M1 and T1, a total of 100 study subjects were recruited from the villages of southern region of WestBengal, India. Specimens of drinking water, blood and urine were collected from each study subjects. Concentration of arsenic in urine and water was determined by atomic absorption spectro photometry-hydride generation system. Multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed to determine the genetic polymorphism of GST M1 and T1. Genetic polymorphism of GSTM1 and T1 were significantly associated (p<0.05) with Clinical severity in higher exposure groups. Persons having null genotype have an increased clinical symptom score than persons with GSTM1 or GST T1 nonnull genotype. Persons with GSTM1 or GST T1 null genotype have decreased total urinary arsenic compare to persons having non null genotype.

  16. Maraga, James Nyanchoka

    Mechanisms that afforestation projects in Nyando River Basin had put in place for sustainability of afforestation activities were explored. Data was collected from 150 respondents who were selected from a sample population of 1,928 households using systematic random sampling technique. Data was collected using a standardized questionnaire, Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) and Key Informant Interviews. Mechanisms key to afforestation sustainability including: community contribution, project management committees, capacity-building, monitoring and evaluation and collaboration/partnership were examined. Data was analyzed using quantitative and qualitative techniques. It was concluded that the afforestation projects had failed to put in place essential mechanisms for sustainability of afforestation activities in Nyando River basin.

  17. Sudha, P., Kavitha, K ., Suganya, P., Reni, A. and Hemaprabha, P.

    Probiotics are defined as “live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host”. The rationale for probiotics is that the body contains miniature ecology of microbes, collectively known as the gut flora. At present it is generally recognized that an optimum ‘balance’ of microbial population in our digestive tract is associated with good nutrition and health. Bermuda grass is abundantly found in our country. Its botanical name is Cynodon dactylon. Bermuda grass juice has wonderful medicinal properties. This herbal juice is rich in vitamin A, fibre, minerals and other nutrients. A study was conducted to incorporate probiotic bacterium into Bermuda grass juice thereby increasing its health benefits and also to increase the shelf life of the juice .The Bermuda grass juice is prepared and additives are added to increase the acceptability and value of the product. The probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus Acidophilus is incorporated into the juice. Various quality attributes like TSS, pH, acidity and sensory evaluation are done. The juice with optimized parameters is packed and thermally processed based on the Ball’s process time calculation. The storage studies are then conducted on the products at ambient conditions and quality attributes are also verified during the storage.

  18. Binukumari, S. and Anbarasi, S.

    Fish cultures are especially at risk to the adverse effects of stress. Blood chemistry and hematological measurements can provide valuable physiological indices that may offer critical feedback on different stressors. Blood samples were collected from the finger lings of Cyprinus carpio after subjected to stressors and parameters such as Hemoglobin, RBC, and WBC and activated neutrophils were estimated for 0,6,24 and 48 hours. Fishes were treated with Stresroak immersion in four concentration ie ,10, 20, 30 and 40mg/l. In all the concentrations, Stressroak can effectively suppresses the stress in relation to hematological parameters. Among the dose tested 20mg/l of stressroak performed better results compared with other and is recommended as an effective dose in fish culture.

  19. Sanjay Agarwal, Ashok Kumar, P. K. Singh and Alka Singh

    Salinity is one of the major abiotic factors which limit the plant growth. The purpose of present investigation is to study the responses of the finger millet genotypes under saline condition at germination and seedling stage. Seeds were sown in Petri-dishes, lined with Whatman filter paper and moistened with 10 ml of saline solutions of different EC levels (viz. 3, 6, 7.2, 10, 12 and 14 dSm-1). The result showed a gradual and significant reduction in % germination at all salinity levels except in cv. Local Hills at 3 EC. Length, fresh and dry weights of root and shoot were also decreased with increase in concentration in saline solutions. Cv. VL-315 registered least reduction (4.7-56.2%) in seedling dry matter whereas cv. Local Hills recorded highest reduction (12.2-71.8%) at all salinity levels. We concluded that cv. VL-315 performed better and proved to be the most promising variety as it had SSI value > 0.8 whereas cv. Local Hills recorded as most sensitive (SSI value < 1.0).

  20. James N. Maraga, Jacob K. Kibwage, Boniface O. Oindo and Dennis O. Oyunge

    Critical analysis of community participation in the various stages of the project cycle of afforestation projects (Identification, Planning, Implementation and Monitoring and Evaluation) was done. Data was collected from 150 respondents who were selected from a sample population of 1,928 households using systematic random sampling technique. Data was collected using a standardized questionnaire, Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) and Key Informant Interviews and analysed using quantitative and qualitative techniques. It was concluded that there was low community participation in the project identification, planning and monitoring and evaluation stages of the afforestation projects. High community participation was only observed in the project implementation stage

  21. Meenakshidevi,

    This paper presents an originally encryption system implemented on a structure of hybrid additive programmable cellular automata (HAPCA). As the development of cellular automata (CA) applications is generally an experimental effort, the research implies the exploration through simulation of the huge space of cellular automata local rules and global states. The encryption and decryption modules are identically and the cryptosystem is featured by its large key space and high speed due to cellular automata’s parallel information processing. The method supports both software and hardware implementation. In this paper we present a fully functional software application for the data encryption of yahoo messenger conversations.

  22. Stanley Kipsang and P.K. Chepkuto

    The struggle for independence in Kenya was won through the experience and struggle against oppression and brutal exploitation of the Kenyan people. The need to overthrow all forms of oppression and exploitation constitutes the emergence of a tradition of struggle for social and political rights. The agenda is far from complete, particularly in the face of the new challenges that have arisen in the wake of uncritical liberalization, naively embraced by the Kenyan system of governance and political leadership. Leaders play a pivotal role in political agenda setting, the distribution of resources and political actions. The contemporary state in Kenya and Africa in general is a remnant of a colonially imposed system. At the time of independence, elites attempted to transform this but only succeeded in entrenching their interests. Political leaders are the primary holders, controllers and distributors of power and resources in a particular institution (i.e. institutional power) and/or territory (i.e. geo-political power). This includes leaders who gained power by ballots and those who gained power by bullets including warlords and vigilante. For us to attain the Kenya and Africa we want, we need a positively assertive, tolerant and firm leadership to address constraints in our socio-political structures, economy and governance systems. Our Kenyan political structures have been poisoned by ethnicity and differences across social classes. For that, we require empathetic leadership since we have failed to use our diversity to enhance our growth and development as a country. We need leadership in which Kenyans develop their unique political institutions which they are sure will work best for our country and concurrently encourage global co-operation. We should strive for issue-based and solution seeking politics; not ethnic politics instituting wars and civil strife which have raged Africa across for decades where countries lucky to survive the aftermath have seen poverty, hunger, diseases, ignorance and political subjection. For our economy to strive we need visionary leadership whereby our policies will eradicate corruption scandals and overdependence on foreign aid, ensure food security, sustain employment, encourage industrialization and critically, conserve the environment.

  23. Elijah Gitonga Rintaugu and Jacob S. Nteere

    Participation in sports and games dates to antiquity and not a single theory or explanation can account for why humans continue to engage in sports. It is particularly important to understand why youths participate in sport as this may influence the formation of future lifestyle and inform the design of appropriate sport and recreation programmes to meet their interests and needs. This study undertaken to evaluate the factors, which influence college athletes’ intention to participate in sports. It was hypothesized that college athletes participate in sport because of the need to excel in competition. Data were collected with questionnaires from 61 students randomly selected from a teacher training college in Kenya. Data were analysed through Kruskal-Wallis test of independent samples and hypothesis tested at p≤0.01 level of significance. Findings revealed significant differences in the motivational orientations of men and women engaged in different sports. It is recommended that educational institutions should diversify their sports development strategies and promote greater participation in recreational sports.

  24. A Case Study of District Hamirpur

    In the context of the National policy of the Government of India of Empowering women to make them economically independent and self reliant on equal footing along with their counterparts, the paper examines the pattern of credit flow to the most weaker category of women in India referred as scheduled caste women.

  25. Godwin Chigozie Okpara

    This study investigated the relationship between the stock market returns and volatility in Nigerian stock market using the EGARCH – in–mean framework. To carry out this investigation, end of the month stock price data were sourced from the Nigerian stock Exchange Fact Book. The result reveals that the forecast of variance cannot be used to predict expected returns in the Nigerian stock market. The Nigerian stock market is volatile implying that there exists a high level of risk in stock trading. The market demonstrates a greater probability of large decreases in market portfolio returns than increases. The result however, indicates a low persistence of volatility clustering suggesting that increase in volatility is not likely to remain high over several periods. Thus, investors in this market are not rewarded for their exposure to risk. The study also reveals that there exists a leverage asymmetric effect in the Nigerian stock market during the period of study. That is an unexpected drop in price (bad news) increases predictable volatility more than unexpected increase in price (good news) of similar magnitude.

  26. Ramesh Chellan, Bimal Charles, Ganeshan Nanjan and Rajendran Periyathambi

    In India, prevalence of HIV/AIDS is relatively high and very little is known in the context of HIV/AIDS related stigma and discrimination. To prevent HIV/AIDS associated stigma and discrimination, it is important to understand the factors related to stigma and discrimination towards People Living with HIV/AIDS (PLHAS) in India. A community based survey of 796 male youth in urban slum aged 18-23 years is conducted in Tamil Nadu. Univariate analyses and multivariate logistic regression analyses are used to determine the perceived stigma and discrimination towards PLHAS and the factors associated with stigma and discrimination. Sixty percent of respondents perceived any one stigma and discrimination towards PLHAS. The respondents perceived that PLHAS as characterless (43.5 percent), they will not continue friendship or relationship with them (41.1 per cent), and they have to be isolated (21.2 percent). Multivariate analysis suggests that below 21 years of male youth, primary and below, those who never involved in sexual activities and misconception related knowledge of HIV/AIDS prevention are significantly more likely to state perceived stigma towards PLHAS. Therefore, all interventions need to address stigma and discrimination as part of their focus and behavior change communication also need to address HIV/AIDS related stigma and discrimination in order to bring change in the behavior among youth slum towards PLHAS.

  27. Dr. Dalwinder Singh, Simerjeet Kaur and Gaurav Dureja

    The purpose of present investigation was to examine the Self-Perception between Sportspersons and Non-Sportspersons. The investigators had randomly selected two hundred [N=200] male and female subjects. Out of which one hundred [n=100] Sportspersons (n=50 male and n=50 female) and one hundred [n=100] Non-Sportspersons (n=50 male and n=50 female) who were studying in various affiliated colleges of Panjab University and Panjab University campus, Chandigarh. Sportspersons were those who had participated in Inter-college and Inter-university sports competitions and non-sportspersons were those subjects who did not participate in any sports competitions. The age of the subject was ranged between 18 to 26 years. Self-Perception questionnaire developed by K.G. Agarwal, 1999 was administered to collect the required data. ‘t’-test was applied to determine the significance of difference and direction of difference in mean scores of each variable between Sportspersons and Non-Sportspersons. The results on the sub-variable ‘Self-Regard’ between male sportspersons and male non-sportspersons were found insignificant. However, the results with regard to sub-variable ‘Self-Acceptance’ and Self-Perception (total) were found highly significant between male sportspersons and male non-sportspersons. The results with regard to the female sportspersons and female non-sportspersons on the sub-variable ‘Self-Regard’ were found highly significant. However, the results with regard to the female sportspersons and female non-sportspersons on the sub-variable ‘Self-Acceptance’ and the variable Self-Perception (total) were found insignificant. The result with regard to the male sportspersons and female sportspersons on the sub-variable ‘Self-Acceptance’ was found insignificant whereas highly significant results were found on the sub-variable ‘Self-Regard’ and Self-Perception (total). The results with regard to male non-sportspersons and female non-sportspersons on the sub-variables ‘Self-Regard’, Self-Acceptance’ and Self-Perception (total) were found statistically insignificant.

  28. Jahangeer A. Baba, P. Ishfaq Akbar and Nisar H. Bhat

    Climate change will affect on vegetation directly because of increased CO2 concentration and green house gases and indirectly through stratospheric ozone layer depletion. Increased CO2 level could increase photosynthesis and water use efficiency. However high temperature and green house gases will modify rainfall, evaporation, runoff and soil moisture storage and will adversely affect growth and productivity. The increased amount of ultraviolet (UV) radiation due to depletion of stratospheric ozone layer will exert its deleterious effect on growth and productivity by destruction of chlorophyll and reducing photosynthetic rate.

  29. Kyalo Benjamin Wambua and Dr. Nyaga Jonah Kindiki

    The purpose of this study was to forecast secondary schools enrolment in the year 2012 and the number of teachers who would be required to teach the forecasted students. The study was based in Nandi North and South Districts in the Rift Valley Province, Kenya. The survey design employed by the study was the descriptive survey. Purposive sampling technique was employed in choosing the sample size for the study. The sample for the study was the Education Officers in charge of Statistics and the Teachers Service Commission Unit representatives at the District Education Offices. Staff in the records section at the Central Bureau of Statistics also participated in the study. The study was based on the Manpower Requirement Approach. Data for the study was collected by use of questionnaire, interview schedule and document analysis. Questionnaire and interview schedule were used to obtain information on teachers, students and secondary schools from the District Education Offices. Data on population of children who were between 1 to 4 years in 1999 was obtained from the Central Bureau of Statistics through document analysis. The findings indicated that the number of students expected to be in secondary schools in the year 2012 in Nandi North and South districts would be 30,080 and the number of teachers who would be required to teach them, based on the student-teacher ratio of 25:1, would be 1,203. In light of the findings of this study, it was recommended that the Teachers Service Commission should provide a solution to the anticipated shortage of 78 teachers by employing more teachers and distributing them to schools. It was also recommended that the government should enact a law to make the Free Primary School Education compulsory.

  30. Thomas D. Oling'a

    This article focuses on the impact of mindset on the implementation of Performance-Based Reward System (PBRS) in secondary schools in Botswana. In order to understand the impact of mindset on the implementation of PBRS, the results of the study involving a sample of 200 teachers and ancillary staff selected from the ten secondary schools in Kgatleng district in Botswana were analysed and presented. The data was analyzed using statistical methods with the help of the SPSS statistical computer software. Indicative results showed that a high number of teachers and ancillary staff had never had their performance evaluated and for those who had, there was no consistency. The leadership style in almost all schools was still hierarchical and members of staff were not fully involved in decision-making. Further, bureaucracy slowed down the decision-making process; hence the implementation of PBRS is dawdled too. Occasionally, leaders feared to reprimand their followers and tolerate unsatisfactory performance in order to appear in “good books”. The current teachers’ and ancillary staff’s negative mindset about PBRS has impacted negatively on the implementation of the system in secondary schools in Botswana and there is a general resistance to PBRS.

  31. Kakade P.S. and Deokule, S. S.

    Investigation of 10 commercial honeys from India was analyzed for quality according to the Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) and Agricultural Marketing Adviser to the Government of India (AGMARK). Moisture content, total reducing sugars (TRS), sucrose, fructose-glucose ratio (FGR), acidity, Fiehe’s test, hydroxymethyl furfural (HMF) content, total pollen counts (TPC) and absorbance of honey samples were examined. The aim of the present work was to analyze the physical and chemical quality of some Indian honeys and find out whether they meet national standards of honey specifications. It was observed that two honeys were suspicious with respect to their quality as these honeys failed to meet the standards for TRS, sucrose, FGR, HMF and absorbance. Two honeys were genuine and were in accordance with the Indian standards, whereas six honeys showed increased level of HMF due to ageing or increased moisture content or possibly due to adulteration with external additives. The study recommends Indian honey manufacturers to preserve honey quality not only by following the Standards, but by taking care and precautions for mishandling, improper storage conditions and temperature factors which are responsible for the loss of genuineness of honey and poor quality. Also the study suggests consuming commercial honey within 18 months following its packing.

  32. Dr.P.Nazni and D. Karuna Thara

    Beetroot peel contained higher antioxidant compounds thus promising a more intense utilization of the peels in food and nutraceuticals. The betalains and phenolics found in beetroot peel. Osmotic dehydration is used as a pretreatment for many processes which is used to improve nutritional, sensorial and functional properties of food without changing its integrity. Hence, the study was undertaken with the objective, to optimize the osmotic dehydration of beetroot peel using Response Surface Methodology (RSM) and analyze the beetroot peel waste for its chemical composition .The physical characteristics such as (rehydration ratio, water absorption capacity, oil absorption capacity, and bulk density) and nutrient content were analyzed. The independent process variables for osmotic dehydration process, temperature (25 - 450c), processing time (30 -150 minutes), salt Concentration (5-25% ) and Solution to sample to ratio (5:1 - 25:1 w/w).The osmotic dehydration process was optimized for water loss, weight reduction and solute gain. The optimum conditions were found to be for salt solution: Temperature (300c), Processing Time (60 min), Salt concentration (10%) and Solution to sample ratio (10:1) and for salt solution. At this optimum point, V1 got maximum water loss, weight reduction and minimum solute gain were found to be respectively. Further, peel powder can be used to incorporate in food products.

  33. Pitchai Daisy, Periyasamy Vijayalakshmi and Kandasamy Saipriya

    Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is a common gram-positive pathogen, which predominates as a global cause of bacterial infections. S. aureus uses the saeRS- two component system to control the expression of many virulence factors. SaeR the response regulator is one of the potent virulence factor that can cause many bacterial infections. So far the structure of saeR is not predicted. In this paper molecular modeling techniques were done using MODELLER 9v8 software to construct the 3 dimensional structure of SaeR protein with the help of a template which have the sequence identity more than30%. Structural characterization of this protein is important in rational drug design. The stereo chemical quality of the best model is validated by PROCHECK server and the Q site finder is used for locating, delineating and measuring concave surface regions on three-dimensional structure of the protein. Our results provide a framework for understanding the structure and the possible binding sites of saeR protein for drug targeting and the results were found to be reliable.

  34. Kachare S.V

    Present study deals with common diseases treated with the help of herbal formulations, used by rural peoples in Marathwada. Marathwada region comprising of seven districts viz. Aurangabad, Beed, Jalna, Latur, Nanded, Osmanabad and Parbhani forms the part of the vast Deccan plateau of India and its located at 70o 5’-78o 5’ E longitude and 17o 5’-20o 5’ N longitude. Authors have collected the traditional knowledge from villages through interviews. For this author visited the villages such as Daheli, Bhagwati, Tuppa, Mahur, Kinwat, Nanded, Renapur, Saradgaon, Parli-Vaijnath, Ambajogai. The aim of study was to disseminate this knowledge for benefit of poor people. Though such valuable knowledge has been preserved and propagated for future and its validity should be proved scientifically.

  35. Govinda Rao Duddukuri, D. Easwar Rao, D.S.V.G.K. Kaladhar, Y. Nagendra Sastry, K. Kamalakara Rao and K. Krishna Chaitanya, Ch. Sireesha

    The aqueous extract of floral parts of Shorea robusta (Dipterocarpaceae) was prepared with cold water maceration. Well diffusion method was employed to determine the effect of antibacterial potential against Gram positive bacteria viz. Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis and Gram negative bacteria viz. Klebsiella pneumoniae and Serratia marcescens. Aqueous extract of the plant has showed significant inhibitory activity on different bacterial species tested against penicillin as standard antibacterial agent. Furthermore, the preliminary phytochemical analysis revealed that the aqueous extract found to possess tannins, flavanoids, cardiac glycosides and steroids, which may involve in showing antibacterial activity .

  36. Arun, N, Dr. P. Subramanian and S. Boobathy

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of methanolic extract of Diacure a Polyherbal Formulation for antihyperlipidemic effects in Streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Its effect was compared with that of glibenclamide, a reference antidiabetic drug. White albino male rats were administered With Diacure a Polyherbal Formulation (100mg /kg body wt) orally for 30 days. At the end of 30 days, the serum lipid metabolites such as total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL, LDL, free fatty acid, phospholipids and lipid peroxides were determined.In order to determine the HDL, LDL, fatty acid, Phospho lipid and lipase content in liver were estimated in control, Streptozotocin, extract treated and glibenclamide treated rats. Oral administration of Diacure a Polyherbal Formulation for 30 days resulted in significant reduction in blood glucose level, lipid profiles of serum and liver of plant treated rats where compared with untreated diabetic rats. The effects produced by the extract were comparable to that of glibenclamide. In conclusion the Diacure a Polyherbal Formulation showed significant antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidaemic effect in Streptozotocin, induced diabetic rats.

  37. Ladipo, M.K, Doherty, V.F, Akinfemi, A, and Okeme, S.D

    A 76 days study was carried out to evaluate the growth performance and nutrient utilization of African catfish fed diets containing Rumen Epithelial scraping meal (RESmeal). Four isonitrogeneous diets containing 32.04%, 32.15%, 32.32%, 32.38% crude protein were formulated. Fishmeal was partially replaced with RESmeal. Diet A being the control contain 100%, diet B has 25% replacement, diet C has 50% replacement and diet D with 75% replacement. The result obtained in this study, showed an excellent growth performances and status of experimental fish. The standard growth rate (SGR) was between 1.82–2.41; food conversion ratio (FCR) was from the range of 2.62 to 3.16; protein efficiency ratio (PER) was at 1.83 to 2.86. The hepatosomatic index (HSI) and condition factor (Cf) were between the range of 2.29 to 2.42 and 1.04 to 1.16 respectively. Fish survival was from the range of 32-48%. The apparent crude protein digestibility of diet D (81.46%) containing highest RESmeal dietary inclusion level, decrease significantly compared to other diets which are 85.00%, 86.67%, 86.05% respectively.

  38. Ramesh, M., Geetha Kumari, K., Sudhakar, G. and Lakshmi Kalpana, V.

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) or sickle cell anemia (SCA) is an autosomal recessive genetic blood disorder, characterized by red blood cells that assume an abnormal, rigid, sickle shape. Dermatoglyphics, the patterns of ridges on the skin of the fingertips, palms, and soles are mostly related with inheritance. These patterns may represent the genetic make up of an individual and therefore their predisposition to certain diseases. Thus the purpose of this research is to find out the characteristic dermatoglyphic patterns in sickle cell anemia which could be useful in early diagnosis of the disease. Methods The study was conducted on 59 (34 male and 25 female) sickle cell subjects and was compared with the data from 60 (30 male and 30 female) healthy controls. Qualitative parameters observed were percentage frequency of finger print patterns (loops, whorls and arches), patterns of interdigital area and flexion creases. Statistical analysis was done using chi square test and estimation of Odds ratio (OR) was done to quantify the magnitude of association. Results In sickle cell group, the ulnar loops and whorls were more frequent whereas the arches were less frequent. No radial loop pattern was observed in female sickle cell patients. Results indicated that A-B, B-C and C-D ridge count in male and female patients has decreased comparatively to control group, but the reduction is not significant. The total finger ridge count (TFRC) was significantly increased in male patients and was decreased in female patients when compared with controls respectively. Regarding the unusual palmar flexion creases, there was significant increase in the Sydney and simian creases in both males and females of sickle cell. Interpretation & conclusions To conclude with, the results of the present study, most of them were in agreement with the literature in the field. With the available data, although other parameters were not statistically significant, the current work emphasizes that high frequency of TFRC in males and high frequency of Sydney creases in females were seen as reliable indicators helpful in scientific screening of sickle cell patients.

  39. Santosh. Pokalwar, Krishna.Kattavarapu, Krishnanand Tiwari, Sunil N. Shebannavar, Maheshwari K. Mishra and Anand V. Manwar

    In mammalian cell culture, modified polystyrene (PS), polyethylene terephthalate (PET) discs are being used for adhesion of cells during packed bed fermentation. These discs are expensive, not easily available and non biodegradable. Hence, in the present study, bacterial cellulose (BC) membrane produced by Gluconacetobacter intermedius was tested as an alternative adherent surface material for anchorage dependent mammalian cell culture. The recombinant CHO cells were adhered poorly to native BC. However, charge modification of the BC carried out using 3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyl trimethyl ammonium chloride, supports CHO cell adherence, survival and proliferation. The production of recombinant erythropoietin from CHO cells adhered to modified BC was comparable to that of commercially available synthetic membranes. These results suggest potential of bacterial cellulose as an economical alternative to synthetic polymer substrate for adherent cell cultures.

  40. Prof.Dr. P.K. Srimani and Smt. Parvati N Angadi

    Breast cancer is one of the leading causes of mortality among women, and the early diagnosis is of significant clinical importance. To perform classification of medical data, the neural network was trained and tested with breast cancer database by using feed forward neural network multilayer perceptron model and back propogation learning algorithm with Levenberg Marquardt learning and variable learning rate. The performance of the network was evaluated and the experimental results showed that by applying this neural network model, stable and accurate results could be achieved. The results obtained by using the neural network model predicted a higher degree of accuracy when compared with the existing results.

  41. Prabir Kumar Manna, Debasis De , Debidas Ghosh

    Present study was conducted on the rural females with the objective to assess their diet pattern, nutrient intake, nutrient deficiency, energy deficiency levels followed by recommendations for nutritional improvement. A household survey was conducted by questionnaire method on 400 rural poor families of Phansidewa block under Darjeeling district of West Bengal state to measure the various attributes related to the dietary intake. The average nutrient intake of the females is much less than the Recommended Dietary Allowances. The energy deficiency is highest in non-pregnant group. Females having serious levels of deficits in protein, calcium, iron, carotene and riboflavin consumption. Rural females are worse sufferers of protein, energy, mineral and vitamin deficiencies.

  42. Dr. M. Amirthaveni and V.Priya

    Diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases represent an enormous, medical, social and economic burden to the public. Many genetic and lifestyle factors are involved in the etiology of these diseases. Hence, the present study was undertaken with an objective to select and study the background information and nutritional status of hyperlipidemic diabetics, elicit details on medical history and to study the impact of ash gourd and curry leaves on the blood glucose and lipid profile. A group of 200 diabetics were selected initially. Salad was prepared by using 100gm of ash gourd and one gram of curry leaves (10 curry leaves) and five grams of skimmed milk powder (made into curd) and pepper and salt are added for taste. This salad was freshly prepared every day and distributed personally to the selected hyperlipidemic diabetics in experimental group (N=20) as mid morning for a period of three months (90 days) to find out the effect of supplementation of ash gourd and curry leaves. Supplementation of ash gourd and curry leaves had significant hypoglycemic and hypolidemic effect and it had reduced the blood glucose level (both fasting and post prandial), within the period of three months.

  43. Dibaei, M.H., Mehdizadeh Koozari, M., Ghorbani Birgani, M. and Meisam Boroun

    Considering the existence of rice and wheat rotation on 50 thousand hectares of Khuzestan province and the necessity of efficient use of soil, crop year study period (1389-1388) in the city were examined Shoushtar. This research project as chopped blocks in a randomized complete block with three replications was carried out. The first factor in this plan tillage methods that include: T1) moldboard plow disk light (TOF region), T2) disc-style chisel plow, T3) heavy disk Rotator and T4) in two perpendicular heavy disk load time The second factor consists of rice, including high yielding varieties (LD183) and local varieties (Champa), respectively. Results indicated that tillage method and type of significant effect on the number of green plants per square meter, but no tillage methods significant effect on the capacity of a farm is effective. Also, tillage methods on the number and type of soil bulk density, aggregate mean weight diameter, the translation of the soil, grain yield and harvest index had a significant effect. Finally, treatment 4 (two discs of heavy vertical time) with the performance of 5,140 kg per hectare, appropriate size hunk of dirt, with return to 50 percent soil and time is better than other treatments.

  44. Wilson K. Kiptala, Richard B. O. Okero and John Kipruto

    Educators all over the world are concerned about the decline in discipline by students as it is critical to the attainment of positive school outcomes. It is in view of this concern that a study to investigate the impact of discipline and authority on student’s perception in Taita Taveta County was envisioned. A descriptive survey design was adopted in the study. The study samples were drawn from randomly selected secondary schools. The sample size comprised of 200 Form Three students, 40 teachers, 5 deputy head teachers. Questionnaires and interview schedules were developed, pilot tested for validity and questionnaires distributed to teachers and students for data collection. The deputy head teachers were interviewed to elicit information on their use of discipline and authority. The value of correlation г was found to be -0.948, which was less than the critical value of 0.6319; an indication that the students in Taita-Taveta County had a negative attitude towards discipline and authority. It was concluded that the perception of students towards discipline and authority was a function of the various ways in which discipline and authority was dispensed plus lack of proper guidance and rationale. It was recommended that teachers’ should be fair while disciplining, avoid name calling or labeling, show unconditional acceptance after punishment, be good models and evaluate students from both home and school backgrounds.

  45. Henry N. Wanjala

    This paper focuses on attitude towards Music and achievement in primary school. The author attempted to establish the existence of the relationship between pupils' attitude towards music and achievement in their end of year music assessment. It is based on a study that sought to: identify pupils' most prevalent attitudes towards Music; establish whether pupils' attitudes towards Music were related to their achievement, and the extent to which the attitudes were correlated to achievement. Pupils' most prevalent positive attitudes were centred on the teachers’ methodology or the approach they adopted in their teaching. Negative attitudes touched on the teachers’ self-concept as well as their attitudes towards their efforts to learn music. Teachers’ inability to play music instruments was also an issue that created negative attitude basically because of lack of adequate exposure. This paper concluded that pupils were generally sensitive to the impression the Music teacher held on their efforts towards music. Majority of the pupils were positively inclined towards Music. Findings showed that there is a positive correlation between pupils' attitude towards music and their achievement. The author recommends further research to establish existence and influence of other variables that contribute to music instruction and learning.

  46. A. Velayudhan

    The Purpose of the present paper is to find out the effectiveness of a Leadership Development Intervention in improving Leadership Skills among students. Three hundred and forty three students at P.S.G. College of Arts and Science, Coimbatore, India formed the sample for the present investigation. A Single group Pre-test, Post-test and Follow-up quasi-experimental design was used. All the students received the Leadership Development Intervention voluntarily and were assessed at Pre and Post-test and Follow-up periods. The Intervention was delivered in 40 sessions, included Training and Lecture Methods. Effective skill based techniques were used for the students enhancement of Leadership Skills. The Leadership Style Questionnaire developed by Marshall Sashkin and Morris (1987) measuring 6 Dimensions of leadership style such as Management of Attention, Management of Meaning, Management of Trust, Management of Feelings, Management of Risk and Management of Self was used before, after and Follow-up of the intervention. Repeated Measures ANOVA was used to differentiate the difference between the Pre, Post, and Follow- up phases. The Results indicates a significant difference in three times of assessment of Leadership Skill in the Management of Attention, Management of Meaning, Time Management, Management of Risk and Management of Self. Study results indicated the usefulness of a Leadership Development Intervention among students.

  47. Wamasebu B. K., Chepngetich E. S. and Nasongo B. M.

    The concept of inadequate political accountability and transparency, coupled with ineptitude leadership and bad governance remain a major challenge in many nation states in Sub-Saharan Africa as elections have proved to be a great litmus test. Election processes have since been widely condemned as not free and fair; falling below international standards in Afghanistan (2009), Togo (2005), Uganda (2006), Nigeria (2007), Kenya (2007), Zimbabwe (2008), Ethiopia (2005, 2010) and Sudan (2010). All these resulted in election irregularities leading to public protests which in turn degenerated into unprecedented violence the military intervention of which often led to civilian injuries, deaths, massive displacements and destruction of property. The paper explores the dangers of Election Irregularities and malpractices and their subsequent effects on socio-political and economic development in sub-Saharan Africa coinciding with weak institutions in Governance structures including weak election laws that hardly effect punishment on election offenders; corruption in the court corridors; delayed justice in delivering competent judgment on election petitions; the unwillingness to end impunity by state security and judicial political mandarins, and the questionable independence of Electoral bodies to execute their core mandates. Furthermore, Contemporary dictators, not leaving anything to chance, have marshalled parliamentary support and made constitutional amendments to change term limits to limitless terms: Uganda (2005), Senegal (2008) and Niger (2009). The paper concludes by underscoring how the 2007 Kenya’s post-election violence affected economic growth from 7% to 1.6% due to violent conflict following the bungled presidential elections. The paper gives recommendations and the way forward on good governance on Electioneering processes in Africa.

  48. Ezekiel Mbitha Mwenzwa

    The UN Millennium Goal (MDG) 7 aims to ensure environmental sustainability, with some of its targets being halving the proportion of people without access to safe water and reversing loss of environmental resources by 2015. Although challenges exist for developing countries like Kenya in this endeavor including climate change, financial scarcity and impropriety, impressive progress is feasible with workable checks in natural resource exploitation. For example, actively engaging all stakeholders in implementing UN Agenda 21 is important in this regard. Indeed, the need for its decisive implementation has become more urgent now than ever before owing to climate change that has seen once perennial rivers becoming seasonal. In turn, this has led to significant water scarcity and drought, taxing animal and crop husbandry, with adverse health and socio-economic consequences in most of Sub-Saharan Africa. In addition, human activities including wood and sand harvesting, quarrying, charcoal burning, forest cultivation, casual use of pesticides and other chemicals have not only increased water scarcity, but also appreciably polluted it. It is on the basis of this backdrop that a study was carried out to determine the level of stakeholder engagement, governance challenges and lessons learned in initiating a water dam project in Taita District, Kenya. The study employed qualitative methods of data collection including desk research, key informant interviews, focus group discussions, photography, direct observation and life history accounts. This paper presents the findings of the study which include marked stakeholder de-participation and missing governance plan and thereafter suggest their deliberate reversal through strategic decision-making, governance and sustainable use of water in rural Kenya.

  49. Limo K, Samson and Moses Popoi

    The study sought to establish the effects of liberalization on performance of the dairy cooperatives in Western Province of Kenya. It sought to find out if there were any dairy cooperatives that collapsed due to liberalization, registered drop in its membership, or reduced milk volumes handled. Primary data was obtained from dairy cooperative officials, KDB and MOCDM officers. All the 27 dairy cooperatives in Western province, Kenya formed the population to provide data for this research. To collect data, questionnaires were administered at the sampled dairy cooperative societies’ officials and an interview schedule for the KDB and MOCDM officers. The instruments were administered face to face. The study was limited to dairy cooperative societies in Western Province of Kenya for the period between 1992 and 2008. The instruments were given to three experts from University of Nairobi for validation. A pilot study was also carried out in Moi’s Bridge dairy cooperative in Rift Valley province. The researcher employed statistical methods such as percentages, measures of central tendency, measures of dispersion or variability – variance, standards deviation and split-half technique were used to determine reliability of the instruments. All dairy cooperatives operating in Western Province were selected to ensure high degree of representation of population characteristics. Non- probability sampling was used to select the three officials of the cooperatives (chairperson, manager, secretary), the KDB official and District Cooperative officers in the area where the dairy cooperatives fall. The relevant statistical methods such as percentages, measures of central tendency- mean, median and measures of dispersion or variability – variance, standards deviation were used to analyze data. The data was presented in both descriptive and quantitative forms using percentages, frequency distribution tables and graphs. The research findings indicated that liberalization had adverse effects on dairy cooperatives in Western Province, Kenya and have not been able to recover to the levels reached before onset of liberalization. Between the years 1992 and 2008, all the sampled cooperatives indicated that at one time the cooperative had ceased operating, registered drop in milk volumes, membership and turnover. There was also gender imbalance in the managements of cooperatives with dominance of male above the age of 56 years. Based on the findings of the study it was recommended that the government departments and relevant stakeholders play a more active role in capacity building of dairy cooperatives and enforcement of regulations. The cooperatives also required financial assistance to acquire means for transporting milk from farms and also to the market and further assistance to revive the stalled coolers and purchase equipment. The research also identified areas that still required further research, these included studies to examine other factors that could have led to decline of dairy cooperatives after 1992, role of stakeholders in the dairy cooperatives and the rate of adoption of various technologies by the cooperatives.

  50. Masoud Husseinipour TayyebiI and Mohammad Talebzadeh

    Considering the advent of modern and advanced weaponry and the significance of the needed time for applying these weapons when the country is invaded by enemies, we were committed ourselves to conduct a research military project for automation of 106mm cannon. It must be noted that there were some discrepancies in the conventional cannons for chambering and shooting for which the improving solutions have been investigated in this research so as to take advantage of this crucial defensive weapon in potential wars threatening our nation. This research is intended to automate a weapon called “106mm cannon”. So long as this weapon is manufactured, a large deal of time -currently devoted to chambering (bullet-loading), cartridge-extraction and shooting- will be saved, and all the procedures will be done automatically and more precisely requiring less operators.

  51. Onunkwo-A, A., Uzoije, A. P and Onyekuru, S.O

    It was projected that the population of Enugu area will grow at approximately 300% by the year 2020. The information is further strengthened by the projected 3,237,298 population figure of the area. This implies that there is the expectation of overpopulation of the area in future. Unemployment and lowering of people’s standard of living are always associated with over population. It therefore, becomes necessary to map out areas on a sustainable basis and most suitable for the sighting of industries to employ the teeming population. Land capability index mapping using Geographic Information System (GIS) principles was used for this study. The study was undertaken using Arc View 3.2a academic, Excel statistical soft-ware and auto card software of GIS. A total of 12 land use determinants were selected as thematic data layers and basic factors influencing the choice of industrial land use. Soil characteristics and geology were integrated into the thematic maps to facilitate the weighting of the basic determinants. The thematic layers were weighted on a scale of 0%-100% and 0-2 inclusive, using the criteria obtained from field work and laboratory investigation. The thematic layers were subjected to overlay using arc view soft ware overlay model builder. The operation yielded a layer of preferred industrial land use options in a map form. 3 areas of varying suitabilities (Area 7,8 and 9) resulted from this operation. Area 7 occupies 10% of the study area suitable for industrial land use options; area 8 occupies 70% and has low suitability for industrial land use while area 9 occupies 20% of the land unit unsuitable for industrial land use.

  52. Mahesh Kumar, K.S. Kasana, Sudhir Kumar and Om Prakash

    The present experimental study is concerned with the heat transfer during nucleate pool boiling of milk in a stainless steel pot under closed conditions. Reported are the results of the effect of the different heat rate of inputs varying from 240 to 360 watts on the heat transfer coefficient under pool boiling. The evaporated water condensed at the inner surface of the condensing cover was collected as fresh water. To quantify the effect of rate of heat input on the convective heat transfer coefficient, the Rohsenow correlation was applied with the constants from the experiments. The convective heat transfer coefficients were estimated in the range of 160.51 to 374.52 W/m2 oC for the given heat inputs. The nucleate boiling heat flux was predicted to vary exponentially with the excess temperature of the stainless steel pot surface above the saturation temperature of the milk. The experimental errors in terms of percent uncertainty were also evaluated.

  53. Mahesh Kumar, K.S. Kasana, Sudhir Kumar and Om Prakash

    In this research paper, the convective heat transfer coefficients of khoa were investigated in an open sun and greenhouse drying for natural as well as forced convection modes. The khoa was dried in open sun conditions and in the roof type even span greenhouse with a floor area of 1.2×0.8 m2 in natural and forced convection mode at atmospheric pressure till there is almost no variation in its mass. The experimental data were used to determine the values of the constants in the well known Nusselt expression by simple linear regression analysis and, consequently the convective heat transfer coefficients were evaluated. The convective heat transfer coefficient under forced convection greenhouse drying was found to be higher than the other modes. The convective heat transfer coefficient could be expressed exponentially as a function of the drying time interval. To test the consistency of the models developed for khoa drying, correlation coefficient, and various statistical parameters were also determined. The experimental error in terms of percent uncertainty was also evaluated.

  54. Adesina, O.O and Aremu, D.R

    Grid is a computing and data management infrastructure whose goal is to provide electronic underpinning for a global society in business, government, research, science and entertainment. Being a distributed system, grid is complex due to the heterogeneous nature of the underlying software and hardware resources forming it. The heterogeneous nature of grid will hinder interoperation of grid applications. In this paper, we present a framework for integrating grid applications in spite of its distributed and heterogeneous nature. To realize this, we perform extensive review of similar implementation solutions for managing and integrating heterogeneous distributed applications. Similarly, we have developed a model for integrating heterogeneous grid applications. Moreover, we discussed the implementation strategy for the model designed. Finally, we summarized this paper and stated future thoughts to realize a fully operational grid computing environment.

  55. Hellen Sang, Anne C. Maiyo and Mary Kerich

    This paper advocates for the involvement civil society organizations in community initiatives for civic awareness and reconstructing ethnic harmony. It mainly explores the potential role of the civil society as a facilitator in closing the national-local gap in National reconciliation efforts. Much emphasis is placed on the civil societies’ ability – in conjunction with community leadership and institutions – to operationalize a community-interst approach to reconciliation, which is both location and situation specific. The issue is whether, a co-operation between the civil society and the local human and institutional capacities of the host community is an alternative to the wider national approach to ethnic reconciliation. This article also highlights possible successful initiatives at the local level while drawing comparative perspectives from around the world.

  56. Keya Ghosh, Soumyajit Maiti, Debidas Ghosh and Shyamapada Paul

    The present study was undertaken to determine the level of thinness using body mass index (BMI) among school going adolescent (11-16 years) of peri-urban area of West Bengal. Height and weight measurements were taken from 385 subjects (207 boys and 178 girls). BMI was computed by standard formula. Age and sex specific cut-off values of BMI were used to identify thinness. The overall (age-combined) mean BMI among boys and girls were 16.16 and 16.41 respectively. There were no significant sex differences in mean BMI at any age. The overall (age-combined) prevalence of thinness among boys and girls were 60.3 % and 64.0%, respectively. The result of the present study clearly indicates that the nutritional status of these adolescents was serious. Therefore, sustained efforts are needed to ameliorate the nutritional status of this age group.

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