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October 2011

  1. Paramdeep Bagga, Mohammed Salman Khan, Mohammed Haris Siddiqui, Tariq Mahmood and Hefazat Hussain Siddiqui

    A simple and cost effective colorimetric method is described for the determination of prasugrel in pure form and in pharmaceutical formulations. The determination of the drug in pharmaceutical formulations is based on the drugs redox reaction with Folin-Ciocalteu reagent (Phenol reagent). The linearity range for prasugrel of blue chromogen produced at wavelength of detection 725 nm was obtained as 10–50 µg/ml. The linear regression equation obtained by least square regression method, were Y =0.0173.X – 0.1671, where Y is the absorbance and X is the concentration (in µg/ml) of pure drug solution. The absorbance was found to increase linearly with increasing concentration of prasugrel, which is corroborated by the calculated correlation coefficient value of 0.999. The limit of detection and limit of quantification was found to be 1.6145µg/ml & 4.8925 µg/ml respectively. The validity of the described procedure was assessed. Statistical analysis of the result has been carried out revealing high accuracy and good precision. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of prasugrel in pharmaceutical formulations without any interference from common recipients.

  2. Ramesh Chellan, N. Ganeshan, P. Rajendran, and Bimal Charles

    In India, prevalence of HIV/AIDS is relatively high and very little is known in the context of HIV/AIDS related stigma and discrimination. To prevent HIV/AIDS associated stigma and discrimination, it is important to understand the factors related to stigma and discrimination towards People Living with HIV/AIDS (PLHAS) in India. A community based survey of 796 male youth in urban slum aged 18-23 years is conducted in Tamil Nadu. Univariate analyses and multivariate logistic regression analyses are used to determine the perceived stigma and discrimination towards PLHAS and the factors associated with stigma and discrimination. Sixty percent of respondents perceived any one stigma and discrimination towards PLHAS. The respondents perceived that PLHAS as characterless (43.5 percent), they will not continue friendship or relationship with them (41.1 per cent), and they have to be isolated (21.2 percent). Multivariate analysis suggests that below 21 years of male youth, primary and below, those who never involved in sexual activities and misconception related knowledge of HIV/AIDS prevention are significantly more likely to state perceived stigma towards PLHAS. Therefore, all interventions need to address stigma and discrimination as part of their focus and behavior change communication also need to address HIV/AIDS related stigma and discrimination in order to bring change in the behavior among youth slum towards PLHAS.

  3. Maya, S., Usha Narayana Pillai, Rajani, C.V., Leena Chandrasekhar and George Chandy

    A calf with two and a half months of age suffering from anomalous face parts exhibited unilateral features of ‘first branchial arch syndrome' or ‘Treacher Collins syndrome’ with symptoms of deviation of the muzzle to left side, tongue to the left and absence of prominence of cheek on left side left ear displacement and abnormal dentition of right side. Congenital anomalies occur as a result of genetic or environment reasons or due to a combination of both. Although not much was known about the etiology, some cases were thought to be inherited due to autosomal recessive gene, with a higher incidence in farms where in¬breeding was practiced.

  4. S. Maya, Jose John Chungath, K. R. Harshan and N. Ashok

    Onset of myelination in the spinal cord in goat was studied using 52 foetuses. Oligodendrocytes became distinguishable by 40 days. By the third month of gestation, the tracts bordering the ventral median fissure showed clear presence of lipids indicating the onset of myelination. The oligodendrocytes started to curve around axons to form myelin sheath by 142 days showing that the fibre tracts of spinal cord became differentiated towards the end of gestation in goat. This study revealed that the fibre tracts of the spinal cord in goat became myelinated towards the end of gestation, to make the new-born kid well suited to be classified as a ‘mature’ young one.

  5. S. Maya, K. M., Lucy, V. R., Indu, K., Karthiayini and A. Asha

    The study was aimed at observing the normal histological characteristics of gall bladder of Kuttanad ducks (Anas domesticus) using 72 ducks of various ages from day-old to 22 weeks. Gall bladder was a small sac lying on the visceral surface of liver. Its weight increased from 0.03 by day-old to 1.26g by 22 weeks. Thickness of wall increased from 13 μm to 169 μm by this age. Layers of gall bladder from inner to outer were: mucosa, muscularis, perimuscular connective tissue layer and serosa. There was no muscularis mucosa or submucosa. Mucosa consisted of simple, tall, columnar, homogeneous epithelium and lamina propria. Cytoplasm of epithelial cells was weakly acidophilic and at the free edge, appeared to be thickened probably due to the presence of microvilli. Nuclei were large, basal and oval. Lamina propria consisted of a layer of connective tissue with elastic and muscle fibres which was strongly folded into villus-like projections when the gall bladder was contracted and was much thinner with only small folds when the bladder was distended. Beneath lamina propria, the muscularis consisted of interlacing fascicles of smooth muscle fibers and abundant intervening connective tissue, forming a thin irregular and decussating fibromuscular coat. These muscular layers provided numerous spaces between their fibres, which were filled up with reticular, elastic or collagenous fibres and fibroblasts. Smooth muscle was found in longitudinal, transverse and oblique directions. Outer, circular or oblique layer was more constant and gave off strands passing into base of the villi. Longitudinal layer occurred only irregularly, as large bundles of fibres lying at the base of the villi. The perimuscular layer of dense connective tissue contained blood and lymphatic vessels (for abundant water reabsorption from bile) and nerves, and it formed an adventitia (fibrosa) on the surfaces in contact with liver. Other surfaces were covered with a serosa, which was moderately thick and vascular in some areas but thin and avascular in others. It was composed of coarse collagen fibres interspersed with small number of elastic fibres. Gall bladder provides a storage site for bile synthesized in liver and also concentrates it owing to ion-transporting activities of the epithelium lining the lumen. Lipids reaching the duodenum signal the release of polypeptide hormone, cholecystokinin from endocrine cells of mucosa into blood. Cholecystokinin has receptors in wall of gall bladder, which result in contraction of smooth muscle and release of bile via bile duct on to duodenum.

  6. Dr. Nitin Joseph

    Onset of depression is occurring earlier in life today than in past decades. Adolescence being transitional period from childhood to adulthood is a stage of emotional instability resulting from demand for separation and independence. Evidence suggests that early intervention for depression in children can improve long term outcomes. This cross sectional study was done in January 2010 to find out the prevalence of depression among pre university students in Mangalore city. Prevalence of depression was assessed using Beck’s Depression Inventory II. Data was collected using a self-administered questionnaire. Out of 308 participants, depression was seen among 79.2% students. Majority (41.2%) were found to be suffering from moderate followed by mild (26.6%) depression. Prevalence of depression (P=0.027) and severity of depression (P=0.0357) was found to significantly increase with age of the participants. Students of commerce were found to be significantly more depressed than students of science stream (P=0.002). No association of depression with gender of participants or with the type of college they were studying in was observed. There is a need for college students to be educated about depression in order to improve recognition and diagnosis. Also student counselling service offering mental health assistance needs to be established at colleges.

  7. A.O. Sangodele, O.S. Olabode and L.O. Alamu

    Survey was undertaken in four selected Local Government Area in Oyo state Nigeria in June 2010 to investigate weed plant species used for medicinal purposes. More than 70 different weed plant species were encountered in the study area, out of which 34 were found useful for medicinal purposes. Ageratum conyziodes Linn., Bryophyllum pinnnatum (Lam.) Oken, Occimum gratissimum L, Tridax Procumbens Linn, Chromolaena odorata (L) R..M. King & Robinson, Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl.) A. and Morinda lucida Linn. were found to be the most frequently used of the weeds for medicinal purposes by 75% of the respondents. Nine of the 34 medicinal weeds (i.e 26.47%) were used in the study area for curing malaria, while 11.76% were used in curing body rashes. Convulsion and epilepsy were usually treated with 8.82% of the weeds, while 52.95% were used in curing either one or all of the above mentioned ailments. The findings also revealed that the majority (65%) of the weeds were present in all the zones. Most (65%) of the weeds are used in single herb form (by squeezing the fresh leaves to obtain the plant extract for drinking), while 20% of them were used in form of concoction ( i.e mixed with other ingredients). About 10 % were boiled as decoction to drink (Agbo) and 5% of them could be chewed or used as ointment to rub the affected part(s) of the body for fast relief.

  8. Jerrine Joseph, Renjuraj and Sudarsanam Dorairaj

    The software/tool has been developed exclusively for cervical cancer to access the basic information regarding the disease its etiology, signs and symptoms available therapy chemo and radio as well as prevention awareness. One can get a glimpse of the analytical output of the hematological and biochemical attributes which play a pivotal role in the etiology of cervical cancer and its manifestation. It is a comprehensive compilation of the various parameters pooled together to empower cervical cancer researchers. The first version of this ITCC exclusively on oncoinfomatics of cervical cancer was developed using Dreamweaver web designing template which offers a comprehensive solution to visualize, analytical output. The script for which was written in PHP for processing and validation. My SQL is the database used to store the entire information for query retrieval and it is accessed through PHP.

  9. D. Sahu, I. Priyadarshani and B. Rath

    It has been reported earlier that hormones are secreted by cyanobacteria under water logged rice fields, and thus when cyanobacterial populations are abundant in such environment, might be secreting such substance in considerable amounts which possibly ameliorate the toxic effect of the pesticide on these non-target organisms present in the same environment. The present study infers that the exogenous hormone IAA supported growth and chlorophyll-a content of Nostoc sp and Anabaena sp when supplemented at a concentration of 0.01mM /10ml culture to the nitrogen free BG 11 medium though their effect to stimulate growth differ among the two experimental organisms. However,exogenous hormone induced growth increase was only about 12 and 13 per cent more in the test species than the control. The concentration of IAA which supported growth increase of experimental organisms could decrease the toxic effect of mostly the lower concentration of Furadan on the growth, chlorophyll-a content and carotenoid content whereas at higher concentration no such promising result was observed in both the organisms.

  10. S. Ravikumar, M. Syed Ali, V. Saravanan and M.Venkatesan

    Treatment of soil with insecticides to control subterranean termites causes environmental degradation. Seaweed extracts from Kanyakumari coast (South West coast of India) were tested for termicidal activity against Glyptotermes sps. Gracilaria edulis showed maximum LD50 (0.53±0.36) and minimum LT50 (58.65, 45.69, 42.084 and 39.96min) at 0.25, 0.50, 0.75 and 1µ.ml-1 concentrations respectively than the other seaweeds extracts followed by Chaetomorpha indica (0.55±0.7), Chaetomorpha compressa (0.65±0.74) and Amphirova anceps (0.8±0.21) which showed minimum LD50 values. The presence of sugars, terpenoid, alkaloid, protein G.edulis might be the lead termicidal compounds if incorporated in to the paints or as a powder could control the termites.

  11. Rajalakshmi, S., Krishnamoorthy, G. and Sasikala, S.

    The effect of Curculigo orchoides Gaertn rhizome extract was studies in ethanol treated male pubertal rat testes. Total lipids, phospholipids andlysosomal enzyme-acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase and ATPases were compared with ethanol treated and control group rats. The suppressive effect of ethanol on lipid and ATPases were correlated with the altered testicular functions. Administration of Curculigo orchoides with alcohol is capable of quenching the oxidative stress and protects the male reproductive organ from ethanol toxicity.The present also study reveals the bioactive principles of C. orchioidesfound to reverse most of the ethanol induced adverse effect on the organ studied.

  12. Sivakami, R.

    Background: Autoimmune disorders are affect our own body cells by destroying organs, tissues and cells, yet the reason is unknown. Since the causative factor for autoimmune disoreder is questionable. The numerous autoimmune disoreders are available, all those are associated with one another by sharing symptoms, diagnosis and treatment. The affected body part also more or less similar. Among these, Rheumatoid arthritis and sjogrens syndrome receives more attention and turns the whole physician’s concentrations to that side. Because the peoples those who have affected by RA are more susceptible to SS and vice versa. The principle behind that the common agent RF is involved in both diseases. In addition to this antiSSA and antiSSB are mostly involved in sjogren’s syndrome. Aim: To predict the common domains of rheumatoid factors (both rheumatoid arthritis and sjogren’s syndrome) and antiSSA, antiSSB using computational tools. Methods: Domains have been predicted for each factor using insilico tools and the sequence positions are displayed with the respective E-value. Results: From these predictions, we have concluded that IGv domain of rheumatoid factor is majorly involved in both rheumatoid arthritis and Sjogren’s syndrome. The prediction of antiSSA and antiSSB shows that vWFA, TROVE, and SPRY are the common domains involved only in sjogren’s syndrome. But IGv, IGc1, and IG are the common domains mainly present in rheumatoid arthritis as well as Sjogren’s syndrome. Conclusions: The people’s those who suffered by rheumatoid arthiritis having more number of chances to get sjogren’s symdrome too. Because the domain IGv is commonly present in the rheumatoid factor of rheumatoid arthiritis and sjogren’s syndrome. Future Directions: By predicting this domain we can detect the malfunction or mutation, and onset of disease occurs, and model them as potential drug targets and propose the development of a common drug to tackle the disorder.

  13. Fakunle P.B., Ajibade A.J., Ehighie L.O., Oyewo O.O. and Adeleke F.O

    Aims: Ethanol and acetaminophen have been separately reported with various effects on the functionality of the kidney but information on the level of impact when simultaneously administered chronically is scanty hence effects of chronic simultaneous administration of ethanol and acetaminophen were investigated. Place and duration of study: This research work was carried out in the Anatomy department of Ladoke Akintola University of Technology,Ogbomoso,Nigeria between 2010 and July 2011. Methodology: Forty adult wistar rats of average weight 200±3.21g, randomly distributed into 4 groups A,B, C and D (n=10 ).The animals were fed with standard mouse chow with water provided ad libitum. Animals in group A were given100mg/Kg.bwt. acetaminophen and 25% ethanol in 2% sucrose solution while group B animals were given 100mg/Kg.bwt. The group C animals received 25% ethanol in 2% sucrose solution and lastly the animals in group D were given only distilled water all for a period of 6 weeks. At the end of administration the animals were sacrificed by cervical dislocation and the wet weight of each kidney specimen was documented. The kidney specimens were fixed in 10% formol saline and then processed for routine histological techniques, sectioned at 6µ and stained with H&E. Results: Significant body weight loss P<0.05 was observed in the treatment groups A and B compared to the control. Distortion of the podocytes as well as pyramidal cells in the proximal and distal convoluted tubules were observed in all the treatment groups although more marked in group A than in group B compared to the normal cells in the controls. Conclusion: This may underline impaired filteration and tubular fluid reabsorbtion properties of the kidney.

  14. Nancy Joy, R., Ramanathan, K., Kalivani, R. and Jeyasree, J.

    The Phytochemical compounds from Phyllanthus emblica to be identified by GCMS technique. It will show the variety of phytochemical compounds. The CDCS protein which is responsible for mycobacterium tuberculosis and it was retrieved from database. The active site of the protein was calculated by PROSITE tool. The CDCS protein which has only one binding site. The lists of drugs treated for mycobacterium tuberculosis to be retrieved from databank. The hydrophobic nature of the list of drugs to be calculated by ALOGPS tool. The receptor CDCS can be docked with the ligand by Hex tool.

  15. Showkat Ahmad Shah, Gh. Nabi, Rajdeep Kudesia

    Protein profiling and RAPD of five accessions (Amar, Azad, MAL-13, NDA-1, and Pusa-9) of Cajanus cajan were investigated to evaluate the genetic diversity. The present protein profile revealed that experimental accession Amar (A1) is very close to the accession Pusa-9(A5) and accessions MAL-13 (A3) and NDA-1(A4) are closer at molecular level as compared to other accessions. . A dendrogram constructed based on UPGMA clustering method revealed two major clusters, cluster -1 and cluster-11 comprising of two accessions each. The accession Azad (A2) occupies a distinct place as revealed in dendrogram .In RAPD similar results were observed .The polymorphism percentage in protein profiling was 90.09% and in RAPD 80% polymorphism was observed.

  16. Paranthaman Karthikeyan, Subramanian Sridhar, Carani Venkatraman Anuradha

    We investigated antihyperlipidemic potential of a traditional siddha polyherbal preparation SUGNIL from a combination of nine Indian medicinal plants. The current study was undertaken to assess the therapeutic effect of this formulation on lipid profile changes in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats with a view of finding out its possible effect on reducing vascular complications associated with diabetes mellitus. Oral administration of the polyherbal extract SUGNIL at a dose of 100mg/kg body weight per day to STZ induced diabetic rats for a period of 45 days resulted in a significant reduction in plasma and tissue (liver and Kidney) cholesterol, triglycerides, phospholipids and free fatty acids. In addition, the decreased plasma levels of high density lipoprotein–cholesterol and increased plasma levels of low density lipoprotein–and very low density lipoprotein–cholesterol in diabetic rats were restored to near normal levels following treatment with the polyherbal extract SUGNIL. Moreover, our preliminary quantitative drug analysis revealed the presence of vitamins (Vit C & Vit E) and phytochemicals (Flavonoids, tannins and phenols) in SUGNIL at various proportions. Therefore, it may be concluded that the presence of various medicinal plants and their active principles possessing single or diverse range of biological activities hold promise in developing polyherbal drug SUGNIL as a preventive measure in treatment of vascular complications associated with lipid abnormalities in diabetes mellitus.

  17. Ighere Dickson, A, Ajiboye, T.O., Edagbo David, E., Borokini Temitope, I., Alowonle Ahmed, A., Michael Clement, Giwa Alexander and Adeyemo Adegboye

    The local medicinal herbs used in combating malaria among the Urhobo people in Delta state, Nigeria were investigated in this study. The Urhobo people have a rich cultural heritage, which is reflected in the well-developed herbal medicine used to combat malaria and some other common ailments. The survey identified the parts of the medicinal plant used as drug, mode of preparation and mode of administration among the Urhobo people in Delta state. It was observed that some of these plants are used alone or in combination with other plants, which are either taken orally or used for bathing. The study revealed that plant leaves were the main part of plants used by the Urhobo people in the treatment of malaria. The other parts of the plant also used included the stem bark, root bark and whole plant. Information on dosages of the herbs administered to patients varies. The survey was conducted by administering a well-structured questionnaire to select natives who were adjudged by the locals to be knowledgeable in the use of local herbs for medicine. We found out that some plants were more frequently used in treating malaria than others; these plants included Azadirachta indica, Carica papaya, Mangifera indica, Cymbopogon citratus and Citrus aurantifolia. The study showed that 33 plants belonging to 25 families were frequently used than other plants by the Urhobo people of Delta state Nigeria in treatment of malaria fever.

  18. P. Neelakandan, S. Ravikumar and A. Purushothaman

    Seasonal variations of bacteria in surrounding environment and Etroplus suratensis were studied. Maximum bacterial counts was recorded during (Feb-May, 2009) in water and sediment samples ( 2.78 x 106 CFU.g-1). Bacterial counts associated with fishes was recorded in healthy and diseased fishes (6.15 x 104 CFU. g-1 ) in station II (Buckingam Channel) and Bacillus sp and Micrococcus sp were predominant in gills and skin in healthy fish and Vibrio sp. were predominant in gills and skin in diseased fish. This comprehensive study could provide an information to findout the etiology of fish health to improve the quality and quantity of the fish for human consumption.

  19. Ikhane, P.R., Omosanya, K.O. and Owoseni F.R.

    The integration of mineralogical and geochemical data of a sedimentary rock can reveal the nature of source regions, the tectonic settings of the sedimentary basins and the paleoclimatic conditions. The aim of this research is to determine the dominant minerals in sandstone sample from part of the Eastern Dahomey Basin in order to infer the origin and its environmental effect. Eight (8) rock samples collected from the study area were subjected to geochemical analysis in order to determine their chemical composition using X ray fluorescence; thin sectioning of the sample were also done for petrographic description of the mineral compositions. Quartz, Iron Oxide and Microcline are the dominant minerals identified from the petrographic studies. Result of the geochemical analysis revealed sixteen (16) elements and oxides which include SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3, CaO, V2O5, ZrO2, SO3, K2O, Br, P2O5, CuO, TiO2, MnO, Rb2O, As2O3, Cr2O3 while Quartz, Iron Oxide, Microcline with some Accessory minerals were dominantly observed under the microscope. The presence of element and oxides such as Br, V2O5, ZrO2, CuO, Rb2O, As2O3 and MnO (especially Br of 12%-27%) suggests the depositional environment to be shallow marine or near marine environment, however abundance of SiO2 and Fe2O3, especially Fe2O3 suggests the incorporation of the sediments into the environment from a metamorphic source. The CIW´ and CIA’ value of the Sandstone samples vary from 69 to 95 (mean ~86, s=9; median ~88), and 58 to 87 (mean ~80, s=12; median ~83) respectively, both implying a high degree of weathering and alteration of the alkali minerals. The parent rock is a metamorphic rock which was recycled and deposited in shallow to near marine environment with Iron Oxide acting as the dominant cementing material.

  20. Appiah, S.T. and Adetunde, I.A.

    This paper modeled the monthly exchange rate between the Ghana Cedi and the US Dollar and forecast future rates using time series analysis. ARIMA model was developed using Box and Jenkins method of Time Series Analysis on the monthly data collected from January, 1994 to December 2010 and validated. The result showed that the predicted rates were consistent with the depreciating trend of the observed series. ARIMA (1,1,1) model was found as the most suitable model with least Normalised Bayesian information Criterion (BIC) of 9.111, Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE) of 0.915, Root Mean Square Error of 93.873 and high value of R- Square of 1.000. Estimation was done by Ljung-Box test, with (Q 18) = 15.146, 16 DF and p-value of 0.514 with no autocorrelation between residuals at different lag times. Finally, a forecast for two-year period from January, 2011 to December, 2012 was calculated which showed a depreciating of the Ghana Cedi against the US Dollar.

  21. Tripathy, A.K.

    Releasing and measurement of green house gases were from vehicles and engines operating on a range of different fuels like diesel, biodiesel, compressed natural gas (CNG). Emission rates of CO2, CH4, and N2O are reported.

  22. Kuppusamy, K. and Meenakshi Devi, M.

    This paper presents an originally encryption system implemented on a structure of hybrid additive programmable cellular automata (HAPCA). As the development of cellular automata (CA) applications is generally an experimental effort, the research implies the exploration through simulation of the huge space of cellular automata local rules and global states. The encryption and decryption modules are identically and the cryptosystem is featured by its large key space and high speed due to cellular automata’s parallel information processing. The method supports both software and hardware implementation. In this paper we present a fully functional software application for the data encryption of yahoo messenger conversations.

  23. Sundrarajan, M., Selvam, S., Rajiv Gandhi, R. and Sujesh, J.

    Marigold and Turmeric were used for the extraction of the natural dye material. Tannic acid, Cow dung, Pomegranate rind and Lemon juice were selected as natural mordant to standardize the dyeing effect of Marigold and Turmeric dyes on silk and knitted cotton fabric. The method appropriate for natural dye dyeing on knitted cotton was found to be premordanting by studying with other methods such as simultaneous and post mordanting method. The colour developed range on dyed materials is evaluated by dye uptake measurement and the improvement of colour strength on fabric using mordants was also examined. Tannic acid and pomegranate increase the colour strength effectively than the other. The dyeuptake values have been found to be good in all dyed samples but some cases produced poor fastness. Marigold with tannic acid and pomegranate rind produced good dye uptake and fastness properties. All the mordanted fabric showed good dye uptake.

  24. Sule, S. and Nwofor Temple

    In this paper, mathematical models were developed using stress strain relations to predict the compressive strength of concrete produced with partial replacement of cement with rice husk ash. The water absorption property was also predicted but based on the assumption that the amount of water absorption in concrete is dependent on the volume fraction of rice hush ash used as partial replacement. Both the compressive strength and water absorption compared favourably with the experimental values and both decreased with increase in rice husk content. The coefficient of correlations were very high for both the compressive strength and water absorption (0.934, 0.946) showing that the proposed model can be used as a tool in the prediction of mechanical properties of concrete produced with replacement of cement with rice husk ash.

  25. Subbarayan, A.

    This paper presents certain results pertaining to a single server queue with Poisson arrivals and exponential service times. A closed form solution is obtained for the probability that, exactly i arrivals and j services occur over a time interval of length t in a queuing system that is idle at the beginning of the interval. Section 1.1 describes the model. Solution of the model is obtained in Section 1.2. By using Pn(t) , performance measures are obtained in Section 1.3.

  26. Fatemeh Dialameh poor and Mohamad Reza Dayer

    In the enzymology, the palmitoyl – co a hydrolase is said to the enzyme that hydrolase the fatty acid. For this enzyme polmitoyl – coa and water are considered. According to available reports this enzymes are effective in regulating of intracellular concentration of acyl coa, fatty acid and co ezyme. Beside the design and construction of effective inhibitors for disabling of enzyme, the study of interaction of enzyme on the inhibitor by using of computational methods in presenting the acceptance model for performance. In the present study the effectiveness of inhibitors named Ibuprofen, Niacin, FMN. On the palmitoyl – co a hydrolase by codes of 3.1.2.2 and by using of dynamics. Molecular computational were simulated and were studied. Simulation in the condition that was similar to the physiological condition in the aquatic environment the temperature of 37 and the pressure of 1 atmosphere was conducted. Then doing the required parameters molecular dynamic from trajectory and extraction simulation and analyzing of results were done. FMN by reducing of irregular rate of RMSD and increasing of accessible level of solvent, regular structures of alpha and Beta are weakest inhibitor were recognized.

  27. Sukantha T.A., Shubashini K. Sripathi, Ravindran, N.T. and Balashanmugam, P.

    Pithecellobium dulce (Kodukkapuli in Tamil and Vilayati babul in Hindi) is a small to medium-sized spiny tree cultivated throughout the plains of India. Its bark and leaves possess astringent property, and leaves have emollient, abortifacient and antidiabetic properties. The antioxidant and antibacterial potential of the fruit peel Pithecellobium dulce was assessed and the results revealed significant activity in the ethyl acetate, methanolic and aqueous extracts of fruit peel.

  28. Ramesh, M., Rajamannan, B. and Viruthagiri, G.

    This paper presents the results of the measurement of natural radioactivity present in the ceramic whiteware samples collected from the Government ceramic institute, Vridhachalam, Cuddalore District,Tamilnadu. Natural radioactivity in the ceramic whiteware samples in mainly due to 226Ra, 232Th and 40K and their daughter products. In this study, these measurements have been estimated in Gamma-ray spectrometry and their levels for ceramic samples are compared and also the Radium equivalent concentration (Raeq) are calculated and is compared well with the reported values.

  29. Sakthivel, N. and Anbarasan, P.M.

    L-proline hydrate an intriguing organic material for frequency conversion has been grown by slow evaporation solution growth technique at room temperature. Their structural, optical and physicochemical properties were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, Dielectric studies, UV-Vis spectra and SEM. The crystal belongs to orthorhombic system with space group P21 21 21. The material has a wide transparency in the entire visible region. It is found that the cutoff wavelength lies in the UV region. The mechanical response of the crystal has been studied using Vickers micro hardness technique.

  30. Subash, R. and Sathya, S.

    In this paper to find fuzzy modified Newton-Raphson method used for solving non linear equations of the form f(x)=0. The proposed numerical method has capability to solve fuzzy equations as well as algebraic ones. For this purpose with the motivation of avoiding the computation of the derivative of the function f(x), which is involved in fuzzy Newton-Raphson method. Finally, we provide a fuzzy linear interpolation method in solving a non linear equation f(x) =0.

  31. Chumo, J.K., Sharma, T.C. and Ng’etich, W.K.

    This paper examines potential evaporation over the Lake Victoria basin, a region with very few operational meteorological stations hence scarce data. Data stations within the Lake basin provided rainfall and temperature data covering periods of at least twenty years. Five methods of computing Potential Evapotranspiration (PET) (Penman, Hargreaves, Thornwaite, Blaney-Criddle and Pan Evaporation) were studied for their applicability under the same catchment. The homogeneity of rainfall was done using mass curve analysis and the filling of missing data using Markov Model. The averaging of historical data was used to interpolate the missing data. The stated empirical equations were applied to all stations over the 20 year period. C++ Program was developed and used to generate respective PET values using the stated empirical models. Based on the range of difference and average values of both the total absolute differences and the standard deviation, and using the Penman method as the basis of comparison, the Blaney-Criddle method predicted the monthly PET values better and Thornwaite was rated the poorest predictor. This showed that the Blaney-Cridle method could be applied in place of Penman as it predicted closer to Penman where the latter could not work.

  32. Saravanan, R., Shanmugasundaram, P., Subramanian, S., Iyer, Rajesh Gupta and Indu Bhushan

    Methyl Bromide is a volatile organohalide well known for its genotoxic properties. Due to its genotoxic nature, health authorities (regulatory bodies) across the globe require that it be kept well within stringent limits in active pharmaceutical ingredients and finished pharmaceutical products. A variety of techniques like HPLC with derivatization, GC with mass detection and GC with atomic emission detection have been employed in the past as well as is currently in use by researchers across the globe for quantitative determination of Methyl Bromide. Although several methods are available in various literatures it may not be feasible to use those methods due to the requirement of highly sophisticated instruments like Mass Detector or due to high cost of analysis or due to poor reproducibility and cumbersome methodology. A sensitive and accurate direct gas chromatographic method was developed using Electron Capture Detector (ECD). In this method Methyl Bromide was well separated from Isopropyl Bromide. The detection limit and quantitation limit were established at 0.015 and 0.0375 ppm respectively during the successful validation of the method. The proposed method was found to be Precise, Specific, Linear, Rugged and Robust.

  33. Prof. Dr. P.K. Srimani and Sujatha, D.

    This paper deals with the asymptotic analysis of Rotation Bio convection (RBC) in a suspension of phototactic algae. Bioconvection is an interesting pattern-forming phenomenon driven by the swimming activity of various aquatic micro organisms. In fact, bioconvection is a robust phenomenon and is one of the oldest documented collective behavior of independent microorganisms. Further, positive phototaxis consists of motions directed toward the source of illumination and negative phototaxis is, the motion directed away from it. The asymptotic analysis was carried up to the fourth order approximation and the cumulative effect of Taylor number and the other governing parameters on the stability conditions as well as on the different profiles was remarkable. The computed results were presented through graphs and are in excellent agreement with the available results in the limiting case.

  34. Mostafa Bannazadeh

    This paper proposes two online algorithms for estimating stator resistance of an induction motor without using rotor resistance. In this research, we use "air gap power" and "linear regression" methods to estimate resistance of stator in different speeds and torques. These methods are tested using simulation and experimental data from a commercial induction motor. Benefits and defaults of each method will be compared with the other method result. Obtained results of both methods show that estimations of stator resistance in low speeds have been well but air gap method has been presented more accurately rather than linear regression.

  35. Stellah M. Mukekhe, Francis C. Indoshi and John O. Agak

    Teacher talk about terms used in Physics is markedly different from the science talk about the terms, especially in classrooms where English is the language of instruction yet it is a second language to both the teacher and students. Misunderstandings in such classrooms are likely especially if the teacher is not aware of the difficulties between his ways of talking, in relation to how students understand. This paper reports and discusses findings in an investigation on students’ perspectives of teachers’ use of language in defining selected concept in electricity. Questionnaire for students of Physics as well as focused group discussions were used as methods of data collection. Quantitative data was analyzed by use of percentages means and t- statistics, while qualitative data was analyzed by searching through the data for key words and generating categories and themes in relation to the study. Students’ perspectives on teachers’ use of language provide evidence of the general difficulty and confusion students experience with teacher talk in learning of key terms in electricity. The results of this study suggests that teachers should be assisted on how to use simple and clear language more carefully and appropriately when teaching electricity and clarify what students hold concerning the terms in electricity.

  36. Stephen Pamei

    North-eastern part of India has the landscape with potential racial, lingual and ethnic diversity which creates ethnic tension and conflict. The complexity of ethno-demographic relationships and subsequent conflicts in Manipur can however provide a wider theoretical framework explaining a particular pattern of conflict. This study attempts to understand the conflict perspectives exist among the Naga and Kuki community in the state of Manipur, north-eastern part of India. A multi-stage sampling procedure was adopted for selecting the sample (i.e., head of the households) from Naga and Kuki community comprising of 150 respondents from Naga and 72 respondents from Kuki. Interview schedule was administered and focus group discussion and case studies were ascertained to understand the tangible problems and other issues. The data collection and other information pertaining to the study were carried out during July 2009 and September 2009 and SPSS was used for analysis. It was observed that inter land dispute and the traditional enmity between the communities which lead to the conflict. Hence, these communities should take decisions for their future and well-being and they should look at their culture, social practices, social organization and religion etc., of both sympathetically. The past experiences of unwanted tensions should not be repeated and government should develop strategies to overcome this problem and should emphasize on the early achievement of genuine solutions acceptable to all.

  37. Arusei, J. Esther and Serem Nicholas

    The state is the epicentre of politics. It is the stage upon which the “game” of politics is played. The state shapes and controls and where it does not shape or control, it regulates, supervises, authorizes or proscribes political action and behaviour. Thus, politics is understood as the study of the state. The concept of state has been variously defined and from the various definitions, particular traits are evident: the state has several distinct features that distinguish it from all other institutions in society; the state is sovereign; the state has a significant feature of legitimacy; and the state is territorially-defined. Similarly, numerous theories have been propounded in an attempt to understand the origin, nature, power, organization, development and impact of the state. In a nutshell, these theories underline the role of state in four major ways: the state exists to regulate the various conflicting groups that exist in society, in pursuit of supremacy and leverage over others: the state exists to serve the economic interests of the dominant class in society; the state has the role of perpetuating the common good within the society; and lastly the state, through its many institutions, regulates relations between itself; its citizens and other internal as well as external actors, for its own self-preservation. This paper therefore critically examines the theories of the state, forms of state and government, the state in Africa, the state and civil society, and examines the various challenges facing the state in the developing world. The authors argues that the nature of the African state is underpinned by its colonial roots and that corruption, ethnicity and a bloated, ineffective bureaucracy are some of the outstanding characteristics of the African state.

  38. Munoru Pauline and Elijah Gitonga Rintaugu

    In recent years, the practice of yoga has gained widespread popularity within the health and fitness industry. The practice of yoga is said to improve physical fitness and the main objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of a 12 week yoga intervention on shoulder and hip range of motion(ROM) and to compare the strength differences between the left and the right sides of the leg, chest, shoulder muscles before and after its intervention. 21 female subjects (age 34.62±9.866) took part in the study with 12 subjects being the control group and 9 the experimental group. Range of motion measurements and I-RM strengths tests were carried out before and after intervention. There was an overall significant difference found on shoulder flexion, hip flexion and extension and hip abduction (p<0.05). There was an increase in range of motion for these movements, muscular strengths for each side of the leg and chest muscles. Bilateral strengths for each side showed no significant changes (p<0.05). It was concluded that a12 week yoga training practice created improvements in shoulder flexion, hip flexion, hip extension and abduction range of motion.

  39. Elijah G. Rintaugu, Peter, W. Mwangi and Mwisukha Andanje

    This study examined the influence of mass media on socialization into sport of Kenyan secondary school athletes. Parental social economics status was evaluated to assess how it may affect the influence of mass media in socialization into sport of the athletes. Data was collected through direct contact questionnaire from 636(320 males and 316female) athletes purposively selected from 40 secondary school in Kenya. The resulting data was analyzed through student t-test and one way analysis of variance (ANOVA)at 0.05 level of significance. Findings indicated that 240(38.4%) of the athletes had their fathers highest level of education of university and 203(32%) of the athletes had their mothers having secondary school education. Majority (138, 21.69%) of the athletes had their fathers occupation as unskilled activities. Influence of mass media on socialization into sport differed significantly (p<0.05) between male and female athletes. Parental social economic status positively and significantly(p<0.05) affected the influence of mass media in socialization into sport of secondary school athletes .It is recommended that schools and parents need to provide all forms of mass media to the secondary school athletes.

  40. Agnes Kurgat and Jacqueline M. Omuya

    In recent years, women and gender issues have become a major area of concern. Seminars, workshops and conference are being held over the world to discuss women issues and women advancement in all spheres of life. Although attitude towards the role of women as homemakers is shifting to being career people, a few women have made their way through the narrow corridors of authority to gradually climb up the management and leadership ladders. Most societies in Kenya have emphasized the role of women as housewife’s, mothers and unskilled laborers. A survey conducted by strategy and statistics (GOK 2001) in Kenya found out that women inclusion in labour market being blurred by great inequalities that exist between men and women in career development and employment opportunities. The survey noted that women have fewer job opportunities than men and are disproportionately found in lower paid and less prestigious occupations. Women in Kenya have minimal chances to advance career wise and only hold a small proportion of management positions, which are rarely in leadership positions. A case study research design was used in the study, where a case of KVDA was chosen from other public institutions in the country. The target population comprised of 678 general employees of KVDA. Questionnaires were used to collect data from a stratified and randomly selected sample size of 200 employees. The data collected was analyzed using qualitative and quantitative statistics and presented in frequency and percentage tables. From the study it was found out that promotion among women is low and also that training for women employees is minimal. The study found that African cultural practices are a great hindrance to the advancement of women career wise. The study recommends that organizations should strive to ensure that career development programs are set in organizations to enhance career development position of women employees.

  41. Sadegh Hajizadeh

    One of these days is that silicone rubber insulators used increasingly in the power industry. So knowing its behavior under different environmental conditions is of interest to industry professionals. The samples of silicone rubber were placed under electrical and thermal stress. To investigate the aging behavior of the insulation in harsh environmental conditions and provide a method to estimate the remaining life took.

  42. Mojtaba Zangeneh

    The upper most layers of the Persian Gulf (PG) as a pert of suface waters, along with the lower atmospheric boundary layer, play a crucial role in the air-sea fluxes of momentum, heat, and mass, thereby providing important boundary conditions for both the atmosphere and the surface waters that control the evolution of weather and climate. The principal internal feature of the thermocline is a series of thin, laminar-flow sheets of high static stability, separated by weakly turbulent layers of only moderate density gradient and a few metres thick. In this paper, the au¬thors present evidence of a clear coupling between thermocline and turbulence in northern part of the PG. Turbulence kinetic energy increasing will be resulted from winter to summer due to thermocline development in northern part of the PG.

  43. Ezzatollah Khodadadi, Mohammad Hassan and Mohsen Nasab

    Rivers are started a sea (related to oceans) which are flooding in towns and inside of countries water and flows on them in rivers rout should be conducted using in develop in for living. Human making various structures in rivers coats such as dam. River wall and mills or bridges on them. Could use river flows progressing in solving some problems interacting water sourses. In Shushtar, an old town in Iran, there are two rivers as two branches of Karun. Karun is divided in two branches, shotteit and Gar-Gar, in Shoushtar making a structure named "Band Mizzan " so, there are several mills, bridges and walls on two sides of the rivers are Shushtar. Those structures are reconstructed and are focused for using in life and tourism. Consideration the important case in construction of those is the purpose of this research.

  44. Kimotho, Lilian Wangui

    The commitment of Kenya’s government to achieve Education For All (EFA) goals, and attain gender equality in education, can be threatened by the gender disparities that characterise the education system in favour of boys. The need for constant interventions to enhance girls’ participation in education towards eradicating the disparities is paramount. This study posits that a formal mentoring program can be a suitable intervention and therefore embarked on developing one. This paper discusses the process followed in the development of the program .It also highlights the components, the design and the conceptualised process of the program.

  45. Gaur, G.S. and Dixit, A.K.

    Vitamin C is one of the most important antioxidants that inhibits lipid peroxidation and improves endothelial function. This study aims to assess the effects of vitamin C supplementation on lipid profiles and as markers of lipid peroxidation among normal humans. A total of 50 healthy individuals were selected, instructed and given the understanding of the purpose of study. The test group comprising 25 individuals were given 500mg Vitamin C tablets one daily for 30 days and control group of 25 individuals were given placebo capsules(Glucose 500mg) one daily for 30 days. Fasting blood samples were collected in the morning for estimation of cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL-C, LDL-C and VLDL-C on first day, second blood samples were taken after thirty days of supplementation and same estimations were carried out. After supplementation with vitamin C, serum vitamin C levels increased significantly in the test group as compared to control group (p<0.05). There was a highly significant decrease in serum cholesterol levels in test group as compared to placebo group (p<0.001). However, decrease in serum LDL-C levels was also significant in test group as compared to placebo group (p<0.02). But there was a insignificant difference in serum levels of total triglyceride, HDL-C and VLDL-C (p>0.05). Conclusion: Supplementation with 500 mg vitamin C decreases cholesterol and LDL-C and improves lipid profiles. But have no statistically significant effect on VLDL-C, HDL-C and triglycerides. The study suggests the need for a prolonged vitamin C supplementation which is also an important constituent of the antioxidant system.

  46. Dr. Anubhuti khare, Puran Gour, Rajesh Nema and Teena Raikwar

    In radar and space communication applications patch antennas have attracted much interest due to their compactness and dual-frequency operation. They are inexpensive to fabricate, light in weight, and can be made conformable with planar and no- planar surfaces. This paper presents the design of a dual-band micro strip patch antenna using IE3D for wireless communication .The antenna is designed as a patch with two slots. The method effectively obtains the geometric parameters for efficient antenna performance. The simple rectangular dual-band micro strip patch antenna is simulated with IE3D and MATLAB and their corresponding result is compared. We analyzed micro strip antenna in IE3D by finite moment of method. The proposed antenna design on different-2 positions of slots in geometry1,geometry2,geometry3 and analyzed result between 1GHz to 15GHz,When the proposed antenna design on a 125 mil RT DUROID 5870 substrates with dielectric constant of 2.33and loss tangent of .0005.

  47. Jitendra Kumar and Amit Pal

    Acute and diffuse contamination of soil and water by heavy metals and metalloids cause wide, environmental and social concern. Among the techniques used to cleanup affected sites, phytoremediation has recently emerged as a new tool which is cost-effective as well as environment-friendly alternative. After a short introduction to the types of plant-based cleanup techniques, this review focuses on metal hyper accumulator plants and their potential use in phytoextraction technology. Phytoextraction using hyper accumulating plants is seen as a promising technique; a lack of understanding of the basic physiological, biochemical, and molecular mechanisms involved in the removal of heavy metal from environment. The discovery of hyper accumulator plants, which contain high levels of heavy metals that would be highly toxic to other plants, prompted the idea of using certain plant species to extract metals from the soil and, in the process, clean up soil for other less tolerant plants. The best-long term strategy for improving phytoextraction is therefore to understand and exploit the biological processes involved in metal acquisition, transport and shoot in plants.

  48. E. C. Igwe, P.C. Ojimelukwe and G.I. Onwuka

    Six production batches (six treatments in each batch) of kindirmo were carried out in this research to study the effects of fermentation times (5h, 12h and 24h), milk type (whole cow milk and cow–soymilk mixture), starter culture type (kindirmo and DVI – Direct Vat Inoculum) and starter culture age (24h and 48h) and volume of inoculum (2% and 3%) on pH, titrable acidity and organoleptic acceptability of kindirmo from whole cow milk and cow–soymilk mixtures. The research design was a 2*3*2*3 with milk type being the main factor while the sub-factors were respectively starter culture type, inoculum volume and fermentation time. Laboratory analyses carried out were pH and titrable acidity while sensory evaluation was a seven-point Hedonic test for taste, colour, sweetness, texture, mouth-feel and general acceptability. There were also ranking tests on the samples. Means, Analyses of Variance (ANOVA) and Duncan Multiple Range Tests were the statistical tools of SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences) used for data analyses. Results showed pH to be 3.70 – 5.70 while titrable acidity was 0.04 – 0.15 both indicating highly fermented to low fermentation. Ranges of scores for sensory parameters were flavour (3.1 – 6.3), colour (3.3 – 6.3), taste (3.1 – 6.1) and sweetness (2.8 – 6.5). Others were texture (2.0 – 6.1), mouth-feel (2.7 – 6.3) and general acceptability (2.9 – 6.5). ANOVA on the entire 36 kindirmo treatments (i.e. all the six batches jointly together) showed that all the processing conditions have significant effects on the titrable acidity, pH and all the sensory attributes of kindirmo (P ≤ 0.05). However, separate ANOVA for each production batch exclusively for each of these factors, showed that significant differences (P ≤ 0.05) occurred among the kindirmo for all the productions (batches) except in 3%-12h production where only pH, titrable acidity, colour, texture and mouth-feel significantly affected kindirmo quality, whereas flavour, taste, sweetness, general acceptability and ranking sensory factors had no significant effect on kindirmo quality (P ≤ 0.05). The highest reduction in pH (3.70) were observed in virtually all kindirmo of 3%-24h production, whereas the least reduction in pH were in kindirmo of treatments CD24 and SD24 for 2%-5h and 12%-5h productions. The titrable acidity values follow the same trend as in pH values. It was also found that 20% substitution of cow milk with soymilk in kindirmo production was quite acceptable by the consumers even by those who have never tasted soymilk in the past. The use of kindirmo as starter culture using the back-slop method is more efficient in fermentation than the use of commercial starter culture. This was most likely due to the fact that inoculation temperature of the starter culture was at room temperature rather than at 42 – 42OC which was the inoculation temperature for commercial starter cultures in yoghurt production. This shows that kindirmo is different from yoghurt and that the LAB present in kindirmo is less thermophilic than the Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus present in yogurt. Also the starter culture ages of between 24h and 48h had no significant difference (P ≥ 0.05) on kindirmo quality, except for leftover kindirmo of previous day’s productions, deliberate effort should not be made at producing starter culture of more than 24h old as at it is economically unwise.

  49. A. Sunil Kumar, A.A. Haleem Khan, C. Rajendra Sagar, P. Ravishankar, A. Venkata Rajashekar

    The physico-chemical parameters of water samples from four locations of Nizamsagar irrigation canal that surrounds the Nizamabad city were comparatively studied. The sampling locations were selected on the basis of their possibility of pollution points. The physico-chemical parameter like, pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), total hardness (TH), calcium (Ca++) magnesium (Mg++), chloride (Cl-), nitrite (NO2-), nitrate (NO3-), carbonates (CO3-), Bicarbonates (HCO3-) and phosphate (PO4-) of water samples was determined. The results were compared with standards prescribed by WHO (1973) and ISI (10500-91). The present study indicates that the location I and III were more polluted. The different parameters values in these two locations were very high compared to the other locations under study.

  50. E. C. Igwe, P.C. Ojimelukwe and G.I. Onwuka

    Three production batches (eight treatments in each batch) of kindirmo were carried out in this research to study the effects of fermentation times (5h, 12h and 24h), milk type (whole cow milk and cow–soymilk mixture), starter culture type (kindirmo and DVI – Direct Vat Inoculum) and volume of inoculum (2% and 3%) on pH, titrable acidity and organoleptic acceptability of kindirmo from whole cow milk and cow–soymilk mixtures. The research design was a 2*2*2*3 with milk type being the main factor while the sub-factors were respectively starter culture type, inoculum volume and fermentation time. Titrable acidity, pH and seven-point sensory evaluation Hedonic test for taste, colour, sweetness, texture, mouth-feel and general acceptability were the analyses carried out on the 24 kindirmo treatments. Ranking test was also conducted on the different kindirmo treatments in each production batch. SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences) was used to analyze the means, analyses of variance (ANOVA) and Duncan Multiple Range Tests (DMRT). Results showed pH to be 3.60 – 6.40 while titrable acidity was 0.030 – 0.237 each indicating levels of fermentation. Sensory score ranges were 2.7 of SD2%-5h to 64 of CD3%-24h for flavour, 4.0 – 6.8 of SD2%-24h for colour, 2.9 of SD2%-5h and SK3%-12h to 6.1 of CD3%-5h of taste and for sweetness we have 2.9 of SK3%–12h to 6.1 of CD3%-5h. Texture ranged from 3.0 of SK2%–12h to 6.3 of SD2%-24h and SD3%-24h, mouth-feel from 2.6 of SD2%–5h to 6.3 of SD2%-24h and SD3%-24h, general acceptability from 2.5 of SK3%–5h to 6.4 of CD2%-24h while ranking range from 3.1 of SK2%-24h, SK3%-24h and CK2%-24h to 7.2 CK3%-5h. ANOVA on the entire 24 kindirmo treatments i.e. for all the three batches showed that percentage inoculum volume, starter culture and milk types and fermentation times have significant effects on the titrable acidity, pH and all the sensory attributes of kindirmo (P ≤ 0.05). However, separate ANOVA for each production batch exclusively for each of these factors, showed that significant differences (P ≤ 0.05) occurred among the kindirmo for all the productions (batches). Finally as in the first research of “effects of processing conditions on the quality of kindirmo made from whole cow milk and cow–soymilk mixtures – I”, it was also observed in this second research of “effects of processing conditions on the quality of kindirmo made from whole cow milk and cow–soymilk mixtures – II” that the most acceptable kindirmo treatments were from all treatment factors. They were inoculum volume ratios (2% and 3%), starter culture type (DVI & Kindirmo) and milk type (whole cow milk & cow-soymilk composite) and fermentation times (5h, 12h and 24h). Finally we also conclude that the 2% and 3% inoculum to milk volume ratios used were all acceptable. Also 20% cow milk substitution with soymilk was equally acceptable to the kindirmo consumers.

  51. Osei, R. A., Abagale, F. K. and Nyadzi, E.

    Wastewater irrigation can pose a variety of potential risks, excessive and often imbalanced addition of nutrients to the soil thus affecting crop production. Objective of the study was to reduce the level of chemical contaminants of wastewater used for peri-urban vegetable crop production by poor farmers in the Tamale Metropolis of Northern Ghana. Studied parameters included ammonia (NH3), nitrate (NO3-), nitrite (NO2-) and phosphorus (P) and pH. Experimental setup was horizontal trickle sand filters combined with farm stabilization ponds with the working principle based on filtration theory. Results revealed the level of reduction of ammonia to be statistically significant in the wet season whiles both NO3-, and NO2-, recorded significant level of reduction in the dry season. Seasonal changes coupled with climatic variations were identified as factors which influenced the general response of chemical parameters to treatment. Ammonia levels ranged between 14.6 to 27.0 mg/l with 51.2% reduction level which was far above EPA Ghana recommendation. Levels of NO3- were lower than EPA Ghana standards, ranging from 0.293 to 3.80 mg/l with 49.4% reduction level. NO2- level ranged from 0.073 to 2.07 mg/l with 31% reduction level whiles phosphorus levels which ranged from 1.63 to 1.87 mg/l recorded insignificant reduction level.

  52. Gnanamurthy, S., Dhanavel, D. and Girija, M

    The present study was undertaken in maize Zea mays (L.) var. JKMH-1001. Seeds were treated with different concentration of ethyl methane sulphonate, diethyl sulphate and sodium azide in treated level for 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90 and 100 mM which induced chlorophyll mutation and morphological mutation in maize. Four different types of chlorophyll mutants’ viz., Albino, Viridis, Xantha and Chlorina were identified in the treated population. The morphological mutation consisted of tall, dwarf, early maturity, late maturity, triangular leaf, bold size seed, long ear, short ear and male sterility in all the level. EMS was found to be more effective than DES and SA in producing chlorophyll and viable mutants on M1 and M2 plant basis as well as efficient on lethality and injury bases. While the mutagenic effectiveness and efficiency generally decreased and increased in higher doses of mutagens.

  53. Srinivasan, R., Ganapathy Selvam, G., Gopi, M., Karthikeyan, M., Baskaran, R., Mathivanan, K. and Govindasamy, C.

    The present study was made an attempt to differentiate clonal variation of teak clone samples by using RAPD technique. A total of 10 different primers were used to identify the polymorphic variations between the clones. The results of the phylogenetic tree showed the highest genetic diversity (0.93) between the clones of Kerala and Tamil Nadu teaks and the lowest genetic diversity (0.53) was identified between Thaunakadavu clones of TNT 1 and TNT 2 and the results of the present findings could be further useful for the long term breeding of potential teak plants.

  54. Palani Kumar, S., Sharadhamma, A.S., Swamydoss Daniel, G., and M. Aneez Mohamed

    In the present study the tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon were exposed to three sublethal concentrations of Lead nitrate (1.66, 3.33 and 6.60 mg/L) for a period of 24 hrs,48 hrs,72 hrs,96 hrs respectively. The Gills of the shrimps were then dissected out and processed for light microscopy studies. Exposed shrimps were found to result in several alterations in the histoarchitecture of Gill. The alterations included: necrosis of the epithelial cells of the Gill, hemocytic infiltration in the interlamellar spaces, were observed in the Gills. The results obtained suggest that the Gills of shrimps exposed to sublethal concentrations of Lead nitrate were structurally altered. Such alterations-could affect vital physiological functions, such as absorption, storage and secretion of the Gills, which in turn could ultimately affect the survival and growth of Penaeus monodon.

  55. Olaniyi, O. O, Ogidi, E. G. O, Mbah, E. U and Nya, E. J.

    An experiment was carried out in 2006 and 2007 at the Teaching and Research Farm, University of Agriculture, in two Abeokuta environments to estimate the variability among 18 egusi melon accessions. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design with three replicates. The phenotypic coefficient of variability (PCV) ranged from 2.15 % (days to 50 % flowering) to 51.20 % (pod weight) and 2.18 % (days to 50 % flowering) to 63.65 % (seed yield per plant), respectively in the two environments. Similar trend was observed in the genotypic coefficient of variability. Number of seeds per pod had the highest phenotypic variance (3,347.00 and 4884.42) and the least was pod weight (0.12 and 0.22), respectively in Abeokuta 1 and Abeokuta 2 study environments. Averaged over the two environments, seed yield per plant had the highest genotypic variance (531.60) while pod weight was the lowest (0.16). Number of pods per plant, pod weight per plant, seed weight per pod and seed yield per plant had a combined high heritability and genetic advance, which revealed limited influence of environment on them.

  56. Girma Kebede, Kassaye Tolessa and Adugna Debela

    Salinity effects were evaluated on seed germination rate and percentage of six different tomato (Lycoperscum esculentum Mil.L) varieties nationally released form Melkassa Agricultural Research Center. The seeds were grown in petri dish being subjected to six different levels (0.0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4 and 0.5%) of NaCl concentrations in Jimma University College of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine postharvest laboratory. The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design for all levels of NaCl concentrations with four replications. From the result, increasing NaCl concentration reduced seed germination percentage and rate in all cultivars. At the highest NaCl concentrations, highest germination percentages were observed in Bishola and Miya varieties. In addition, Bishola and Miya reached their final germination percentage earlier than the others indicating optimum performance as compared to the other varieties. It was therefore concluded that Bishola and Miya varieties can tolerate salinity and can successfully be grown in the rift valley areas of the country, Ethiopia. In addition, can be used for further breeding processes.

  57. M. Shakila Banu, P. Sasikala, V. Kavitha, G. Yazhini, Lavanya Rajamani and Aruna Dhanapal

    Rapid identification technologies have led to a better handling of raw materials and finished products in the food industry. Radio frequency identification (RFID) is an alternative technology with a potential to replace traditional universal product code (UPC) barcodes. RFID enables identification of an object from a distance without requiring a line of sight. Traditionally, universal product code (UPC) barcodes have been used to automate and standardize the identification process. Even though the barcodes are less expensive, they require a clear line of sight between the reader and tag. Radio frequency identification (RFID) has been recently used to speed the handling of manufactured goods and materials. The aim of the present paper is to review the technical and scientific state of the art of RFID technology for wireless communications in the Food processing sector. It also examines how the foodservice industry can take advantage of radio frequency identification (RFID) technologies to improve safety and security, reduce operating expenses, meet compliance requirements and improve efficiency.

  58. Habeeb, S. K. M., Sirish Kumar, Sanjayan, K. P., Anuradha, V and Praveena, A.

    In this study, a comparative analysis of select insect mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) representing five insect orders (Diptera, Lepidoptera, Hemiptera, Ephemeroptera and Coleoptera) consisting of 24 different species in an effort to study a common set of genes and to understand the evolution of mitochondrial genome with respect to Cytochrome Oxidase subunit 1 (CO1), 16srRNA and 12srRNA gene sequences was done. To compare the similarity between closely related insect mitochondrial genome sequences, pairwise distance matrix was constructed using the MEGA tool. CO1, 16srRNA and 12srRNA sequences were used to construct a phylogenetic tree to determine the relationship among five insect orders. All the three sequences yielded a tree with branching patterns reflecting the expected pattern as insect species belonging to different orders were put into separate clades with an exception S. graminum & M. destructor being branched together in to a separate group. Based on the sequence similarity, insect species belonging to five different orders in general appear to be closely related. The tRNA species were identical in most species with an exception that two of the twenty four species had an additional tRNA gene. Based on this study we conclude that, although the gene types are very similar across these insect orders, significant differences in GC content perhaps suggest multiple mitochondrial ancestors.

  59. Palani Samy Hari Prasad and N. Ramakrishnan

    The main characteristic of an antioxidant is its ability to trap free radicals and also reduces the risk of chronic diseases. The information on antioxidant properties of various natural sources is still rather scared. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and to compare the antioxidant activity of hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, ethanol and aqueous extracts of Rumex vesicarius L. (Polygonaceae) by DPPH free radical scavenging assay and total antioxidant capacity by Phospomolybdenum method. Preliminary phytochemical screening revealed that the extracts possess flavonoids, phenols, tannins and saponins. The extracts showed significant antioxidant activity, on compared to standard antioxidant in a dose dependent manner. The ethyl acetate extract showed maximum inhibition percent of 94.82, followed by other extracts while hexane extract showed minimum inhibition percent of 76.40 at same concentration of 1000µg/ml. Compared with positive standard Quercitin and vitamin E. The results suggest that the extracts can be a vital source of antioxidant phytochemical.

  60. K. Chairman, A.J.A. Ranjit Singh C. Padmalatha, R. Mariselvam, and R. Jeyasheela,

    Problem Statement: The silkworm requires certain essential sugar, proteins, amino acids, fatty acid, vitamins and micronutrients for its growth and higher production of good quality of silk. The low productivity is mainly due to low mulberry yield and poor quality of leaf mentioned that enrichment of mulberry leaves with supplementary compounds enhances the silk productivity. To evaluate the effect of mulberry leaves supplemented with ground nut powder and black gram powder mixture feeding the silkworm. Approach: The groundnut seed powder and Black gram power in different doses. This groundnut powder and black gram power separately sprayed on the leaves of the mulberry plant before feeding. Feeding started with 3rd instars larvae. Every day supplementation was given two times and for the other 3 times of feeding, mulberry leaves were alone given. Result: The ground nut treatment of (2%) food consumption (531mg/wt/animal/day) food absorption in higher (243mg/wt/animal/day) was observed 2% concentration. Approximate digestibility in higher (45.76) was observed 2% concentration. Efficiency of conversion of ingested food in higher (26.18mg/wt/animal/day)was observed. The results of the present study recommend supplementation of black gram and ground nut with mulberry leaf for feeding Bombyx mori. L. Conclusion: The results of the present investigation indicated that the Ground nut powder, blackgram powder and their mixtures have effect on the economic parameters of the silkworm, B. mori.

  61. Abhimanyu Singh, Jamshed Zaidi, Shree Ganesh,Vivek Singh Chauhan and Manisha Mehrotra

    The biomedical wastes generated from various hospitals in he Jhansi city are going to inversely impacts on environment and potentially alarming the spreading of hazardous infections due to indiscriminate and unscientific management posses serious threats to human health. Hospitals have no mention of worker’s safety, training, operation and monitoring activities. The rag pickers and waste workers are often worst affected, because unknowingly or unwittingly, they rummage through all kinds of poisonous material by trying to salvage items which they can self for reuse. At the same time, this kind of illegal and unethical reuse can be extremely dangerous and even fatal. Diseases like cholera, plague, tuberculosis, hepatitis; AIDS, diphtheria etc occur in either epidemic or even endemic form poses grave public health risks. Author has attempt of critically review and effective current biomedical waste management practices followed by some selected Jhansi’s hospital with regrets to the chain of environmental and health risks.

  62. Anitha, K., Geetha, K. and Ramanathan, K.

    This study provides the detailed investigation of phytochemical extracted from Andrographis paniculata using GC-MS and drug designing. We are going to concentrate in docking studies and Protein GSK3ß, which is responsible for chikungunya. Based on docking studies, we can able to calculate the docking scores. The lists of drugs which are treated for chikungunya to be retrieved from drug bank. Based on Lipinski’s rule, the absorption capacity of the drug going to be identified. Among those collected drugs, the Dimethylglycine and Nelfinavir have good absorption Capacity.

  63. P. Eswaran

    In the present paper optical absorption characterizations of RbBr0.95 Cl0.05 mixed crystals doped with Tl+ (0.02mol %) were grown under vacuum by slow cooling from its melt. The changes in the absorption spectra of mixed crystals are due to some complex Tl+ centers. Photostimulated Luminescence observed in gamma rays irradiated crystals resembled their respective PL emissions indicating that PSL in them is due to Tl+ ions.

  64. Sakineh Akbari Nia and Mehdi Delphi

    Sound wave similar to other mechanical waves needs an environment to propagate. Speed of sound wave is about 331.4 (m/s) in air and this value is between 4.5 to 5 times the above value for seawater. Speed of sound in salt sea water depends on temperature, salinity and pressure. Sound propagation in seawater has many applications such as preparing photos of bottom topography, hydrography and appointing the water properties in sea (temperature, salinity, and so on ) etc. It has applications in fisheries, marine mapping, navy force, shipping and other researches and marine activities too. Propagation of sound pulses and signals and variations of sound speed in salt sea water follow the acoustical wave equation. In this paper, mechanical mechanism of sound propagation underwater in Pacific Ocean.

  65. Srimani, P.K. and Udaya Rani, S

    E-government is a modern way that government department provides services for the public. The level of e-government development is an important standard for a national informationization, e-government can improve government management efficiency, so it is very important that how to improve the public service by the public’s need to e-government’s development. This model applied data mining technique in e-government construction. Firstly investigates the populace opinion, then process the collected data by SPSS cross tab and correlation analysis, find the immanent rule of people real need, then can provide the better support for government decision, government department also provides the better services for public and achieves humanist truly.

  66. I. A. Adetunde and T. A. O Oladejo

    In this paper, we present a report of an investigation on the effect of geomagnetic storm on F2 layer of equatorial ionosphere. Of particular interest is the impact on the peak electron density, NmF2 and the corresponding height, hmF2. The main focus is on the storms of March 12-15 and September 18-21, 1989; and those of March 6-9 and September 24-28, 1994. These were years of high and low solar activities respectively. The investigation was carried out by analyzing and Dst data mainly from the equatorial station of Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. The former, , yielded NmF2 and hmF2, while the latter, Dst gave the strength of the storms. The station has geographic latitude , longitude , and magnetic dip (geomagnetic coordinates; , ). However, in order to gain greater understanding of the impacts we expanded the investigation, for comparative purposes, to include similar data captured (i) at: the same the station on solar quite days before and after the storm events; (ii) at some non-equatorial stations, and (iii) at other equatorial station outside the Africa zone namely: Maui with geographic latitude longitude (geomagnetic coordinates; , ) and Canberra on geographic latitude , longitude (geomagnetic coordinates; , ). The investigation revealed that: (i) geomagnetic storm caused increase in NmF2 during daytime, and caused decrease in NmF2 during nighttimes; (ii) the storm effects are greater in March equinox than in September equinox for both periods of high and low solar activities, (iii) geomagnetic storms generally caused decreases in hmF2 at Canberra station (mid-latitude region) during both high and low solar activities; while increases in peak height were observed at Maui station (equatorial region]) during both solar activities.

  67. Srimani, P.K. and Rajasekharaiah K.M.

    In Multi-dimensional Data Model [MDDM], a Data Warehouse uses a data model that was based on a multi-dimensional data model. This model was also known as a data cube which allows data to be modeled and viewed in multiple dimensions. Dimensions are the different perspective for an entity that an Organization was interested in. In this study, the design implementation and improvisation of MDDM for the case study of Super Market was considered.

  68. Subramani, J. and Balamurali, S.

    In this paper, an alternate method is suggested to put up the posters, which achieve more improvements in reaching the people. The efficiency of the proposed method of arrangement compared to Bhatt and Jaiswal method has been assessed in terms of reach and frequency. Further we have also presented the values of reach and frequency for these two methods for various values of m and p, where m is the number of posters and p is the probability of seeing the poster.

  69. K. Kavitha, S. Sumayaa, S. Ravikumar and Z. Tajunisha

    Pregnant women have been widely recognized as a vulnerable group from health point of view. They need more food than normal person for the proper nourishment of the growing fetus. A total of hundred pregnant women who were in their third trimester were selected for the study. The samples were selected from hospitals like Government Hospital, Kanagamani clinic, Fathima chinnathurai clinic, Abdulla clinic and Ravi Rajendran clinic which have facility for maternal and child care. Information regarding socioeconomic background, anthropometric measurements, clinical Assessment, food consumption pattern was collected. Among the selected samples only 18% were illiterates, rest were literates. All the 100 selected samples preferred allopathic type of medication for treating the discomforts the clinical examination revealed that eighty percent of the sample had healthy appearance and rest 20% had unhealthy appearance. Majority (60%) had normal eyes, 35% of the sample had slight discolourations in their eyes, and only 5% had severe discolouration. It might be due to the poor intake of diet deficient in Vitamine A, protein, fat and energy. The hemoglobin level in blood of majority of the samples was below normal. Based upon the analysis the study finally emphasizes that the pregnant women are poorly nourished and their nutritional status is also very poor.

  70. Adebiyi Marion, O. and Akinboni Oluwafunmilayo, A.

    Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITS) is an act of impacting knowledge while computer teaches or acts as the tutors which is a supplement to human teachers. The ability to teach each student based on their individual abilities a major advantage posed by ITS and that is why it is being embraced in this work. This work describes the design of an Intelligent Tutoring System that was tagged Scholastic tutor (St*), which has the individual learning and collaborative problem-solving modules. The individual tutoring module was designed to provide appropriate lessons to individuals based on his/her background knowledge level, interest, and learning style and assimilation rate prior to using the tutoring system. A software agent is used to monitor and process these parameters, arrange the learning topic, and exercises, for each individual. The collaborative problem-based tutoring module was designed to present tutorial problems and provides facilities to assist learners with some useful information and advice for problem solving. This is because the present lecturing methodology which is the conventional teaching methodology provides an interactive classroom setting that promotes the open exchange of ideas and allows for the lecturer to communicate directly with the students but has a great disadvantage of not teaching all the students according to their own learning rate and pace. The intelligent tutor solves this problem by providing individualised learning for each student where they can learn according to their own pace and learning abilities it will provide remedy and advice when learners encounter difficulties during learning session. The classical model of ITS architecture has four main modules; domain model, student model, tutoring model and the user interface model.

  71. Renu Nekkanti and G.L. Aruna Kumari

    An important challenge in distributed systems is the adoption of suitable and efficient algorithms for coordinator election. The main role of an elected coordinator is to manage the use of a shared resource in an optimal manner. Among all the algorithms the Bully and Ring algorithms have gained more popularity for coordinator election. Leader election is an important problem in distributed computing systems. In this problem, when the leader is crashed, other nodes must elect another leader. Garcia-Molina’s Bully Algorithm is a classic solution to cope with this problem. If the leader crash, the alternative takes, care of the leader's responsibilities. Our results revealed that often, after a leader crash, leader alternative elect as a leader and continue to work. In already existing Election algorithm (also known as Bully Algorithm) proposed by Hector Garcia-Monila (1982). In my paper I proposed about what happens if the crashed leader recovers

  72. Naveen Rathor, M.P Thapliyal, Vijay Kumar Gupta and Ajay Gupta

    The key asset of any software organization is knowledge, because the whole process of software development is very much knowledge intensive. Knowledge is dynamic and evolves with technology, organizational culture and the changing needs of organization’s software development practices. One way to capture organization’s knowledge and make it available to all their team members is to induce the concepts of knowledge management systems within the organization. Here in this paper we frame our research by discussing the importance of knowledge management and we also present a knowledge environs to deal with knowledge management in software industry for the production of better products that can meet all the qualities measures & market requirements.

  73. Tripathy, A.K.

    An attempt has been made on the study of the atmospheric Electrical Conductivity and radon Concentration on the Coastal Belt of South Orissa particular to Ganjam District. Meteorological parameters such as temperature, pressure, humidity, wind speed, mixing height & Sea breeze effect etc plays an important role for the relationship between radon con¬centrations, ion pairs production & Electrical conductivity. It was found that an increased trend in radon concentration and electrical conductivity were found during night time than day time. It happens due to increasing of the atmospheric ionization rate of radioactivity sources.

  74. Mojtaba Zangeneh

    Water as air is an essential need of human and all creations on the earth. Industrial revolution, economical development and population growth also increase of water consumption is in a disappointed situation with regards to water supply. Some countries and Iran are in a bad situation in this aspect, annual rain in Iran is much less than mean value of the world and deserts cover much ands in our country. Therefore we should use all facilities and ways to solve drought problems. In this paper including an annual research results, the subject will be studied using new sciences such as nanotechnology in different dimensions.

  75. Edgar Ouko Otumba and Fredrick Onyango

    Matrix population models, which are as a result of studies by Bernadelli (1941), Leslie (1945,1948), and Lewis (1942), have provided a good basis on which to analyse population dynamics, using the algebraic theory of matrices, with populations divided into age-classes. Of particular importance is how the stable population structure looks like and this is found by a computation of the dominant eigenvalue of the Leslie matrix, whose eigenvector describes the stable age structure. In this paper, an analysis of how changes in the Leslie matrix entries affect population growth is considered. In particular, we investigate how changes in fertility rates and transition probabilities at different stages affect population growth. We compare the population parameters so as to determine which one among them would impact more on the population growth factor.

  76. Srimani, P. K. and Ramesh Hegde

    Recognition of facial expression was studied in this paper using several properties associated with the face it self. Actually, as the facial expression changes, the curvatures developed on the face and the dimensions of the objects such as eyebrows, lips and the area of the mouth change. Naturally there exist changes in the intensity of the pixels corresponding to these objects. Therefore it was found that the natural eye could distinguish these sharp changes and understand the facial expressions accordingly. The percentage changes were computed with regard to certain parameters related to different expressions associated with the face and that of the neutral face of the same person. The experimental results predicted a definite change in every trail. These results can also be used as a tool to design intelligent systems which recognizes different objects in the given environment. The results are found to be of immense scientific interest.

  77. Qamruzzaman, M. Z. A. Rafiquee and A. Nasar

    The kinetics of the reduction of colloidal MnO2 by acephate has been studied in an aqueous and different micellar media, viz., CTAB, SDS and TX-100. The reactions follow first order kinetics with respect to colloidal MnO2 in both the aqueous and micellar media. It has been observed that the rate of reduction of colloidal MnO2 by acephate increases and decreases in the presence of TX-100 (non-ionic) and SDS (anionic), respectively. However, the rate of reduction has been observed to increase up to certain concentration of cationic CTAB and beyond which it starts to decrease. The reaction rates have been discussed in the light of the different activation parameters and a mechanism for the oxidative degradation of acephate has been proposed

  78. Mojtaba Zangeneh

    Water as the most important and vital need of human and all of creations on the earth plays an unexpected role in live. Water resources are effective in economical progress in countries; why some industries, factories and companies require to use water to produce their outputs. Water is used to motivate many machines, cool engines and protect productions. Water resources like rivers and seas are essential since influencing on live. We should establish instruments and use methods to reach availability and improvement the resources. The around spaces about water resources like floodplains and lands near them are influenced directly and indirectly by water resources and affecting on environment without any damage will be studied and at least, an improves and useful pattern of water resources management would be presented.

  79. Rahul Kumar and Mahesh Pal

    Low Carbon Technologies (LCTs), have an important role to play in reducing emissions of carbon dioxide and to move towards a low carbon energy economy. Developing countries like India and China need to plan for an early development and deployment of LCTs for meeting emission targets and for sustenance of increasing energy demand. The migration of global energy systems to low carbon pathways therefore depends upon successful technical, environmental and cost effective deployments of LCTs for grid interactive power generation. Low Carbon Technologies, identified globally as means of energy production in a renewable manner, reducing carbon emissions and a mean to support carbon capture and storage are classified as - clean coal technologies, carbon capture and sequestration technologies and renewable energy technologies. This paper investigates and analyzes the techno-economic and environmental feasibility of low carbon energy technologies for grid interactive power generation for India in the future. Inclusion and Exclusion matrix indicate that nuclear energy, wind energy (onshore and offshore) and solar thermal energy has the potential to become main source of power for India in the years to come with decreasing reserves of coal and gas and favorable policy environment.

  80. Vinayagamoorthy, R. and Anthony Xavior, M.

    The paper comments on the potential for a new approach that combines the technologies to produce small machine tools for performing macro machining operations on large components. The paper also described micro fabrication systems, such as the micro-factory, and concluded that ‘many benefits will come from applying systematic approach to micro-engineering’; with the achievement of complete process integration. In the field of manufacturing, these machines offer more flexible solutions with the ability to work on different parts of a large structure. Some examples of these machines with applications in the aircraft, marine and power generation industries are discussed, along with some other specialist machine designs which can offer more flexible machining capabilities from the survey; a new micro turning system is realized on the basis of experience with previous prototype equipment. In this new system, a new point tool is applied to a micro turning at an elevated rotation speed. Through the measurement of cutting force under various cutting conditions, the possibility of reduction of reacting forces to a low level without deflection of the micro work was identified. The current efforts in mechanical micro-machining research and applications are surveyed and suggestions are given in the areas that should be examined and researched to the improvement of the process.

  81. Vinayagamoorthy, R. and Anthony Xavior, M.

    The current efforts in mechanical micro-machining research and applications, especially for micro- turning operations, are surveyed and presented. Micromachining deals with creation of precise work pieces with dimensions in the range of a few nanometers to few millimeters by removing material using cutting tools with defined geometry. The motivation for micro-mechanical cutting comes from the translation of macro-machining domain knowledge to the micro-domain. There are lots of challenges and limitations to micro-machining and simple scaling cannot be used to model micro-machining operations. This review paper starts by reviewing the theory of micro machining, introduces the advantages associated with micro machining and elaborates some of the mathematical models available in the literature for prediction / optimization of various parameters in micromachining process. The available results that relate surface generation, cutting forces, tool wear and other issues in micro- machining are reviewed. Also the developments and future requirements in the field of micro manufacturing are considered.

  82. Vishal Gulati and Puneet Katyal

    This work proposes a representation scheme that uses CAD as a design tool for generating two-dimensional decorative patterns. The proposed scheme is hierarchical and represented as a tree with nodes corresponding to different shapes of pattern. In this work, decorative patterns are viewed as a set of shapes created at three hierarchical levels which are labeled as: Primitive, Motif, and Compound-motif. This CAD paradigm helps the designers/artists to manipulate a set of fundamental shapes (primitive, motif and compound-motif) by transformation rules and to arrange them into some definite order for generating a decorative pattern.

  83. Mehdi Delphi

    Flood as an unsteady gradually varied flow has special importance in river engineering. Because with knowing the exact range of water level variations in a certain location of river, we can make better decisions for decrease harmful effects of water on major structures and also prevent of their unreasonable services. Muskingum Cunge is one of the widely employed methods for flood routing that direct calibration of this method based on previous flood events is not required and the routing parameters are determined according to physical characteristics and hydraulic conditions of the stream. In this study we have compared the results of Muskingum Cunge as a simplified hydraulic method and MIKE11 model for Flood Routing in the reach between Mollasani to Ahwaz stations located at desired region of the mentioned river. The results of this study demonstrated successful performance of the simplified routing methods and showed that in situations where the availability of intensive data required by hydrodynamic model are limited, relying on such simplified method would provide satisfactory results. Based on comparison among the results of the employed method with that of the hydrodynamic one, the most suitable method for the studied condition is determined.

  84. Mehdi Delphi

    Persian Gulf, as an important biological aquatic basin in Middle East, joints via Hormoz Strait to Oman Sea and Indian Ocean. Tide, wind, precipitation, solar radiation and evaporation are main phenomena regarding the oscillation trend of water quality variation in mentioned basin. Moreover, the flow entrance from Arvand River to Persian Gulf influences aforesaid phenomenon, extensively. This research bases on Mt. Mitchell statistics collected in NOAA research vessel observation through the Persian Gulf, Strait of Hormoz and Gulf of Oman. Investigating the variation of shallow water conditions in aforesaid aquatic basin; we analyzed the regional observations and measurements in comparison with the output of a numerical model which has been developed based on Navier Stokes partial differential equations. The results argue that baroclinicity and stratification of fluid column are two important events occur and change in Persian Gulf seasonally. Based on our obtained results, we are convinced about creation and existence of more baroclinicity and turbulence in north-eastern coasts of this aquatic basin in comparison with deeper parts; and this event originates from effects of internal flow from Arvand River, related bed stresses and situation and direction of wind sources. Also the results showed, by applying north-western wind in winter to summer transition period, the fresher inflow can penetrate much further into the Gulf and lack of wind induced mixing and solar radiation that lead to the thermocline formation and its development from winter to summer.

  85. Selvam, V. and Abdul Nazar, N.

    Purpose: Earth, Sky, Water and air are the essential factors of life. Form the Vedic period importance has been given to the nature. Saints preach that rivers are our sisters and earth is our mother. In other words, natural factors are important in our day to day life. In this era man has moved towards instant things. He wants to enjoy every comfort in his life at any cost. Lavish consumption of previous environmental resources by man, either due greed of the developed to countries or for need by the poorer people of developing countries, caused a large-scale quality deterioration of environment. This thing has created a lot of environmental problems like global warming, ozone layer depletion, climate changes etc. It is universally accepted that if the present trend of environmental imbalance continues unchecked, it will lead to annihilation of all living beings from this planet. Not only in India, but in other countries too, efforts have been made to deal with some environmental problems. To get rid of environmental problems it is necessary that countries of the world should amend their environment and related policies. The education system should also be upgraded. But without awareness and involvement of people, at grass root level, the environmental problems cannot be solved successfully. The present study was undertaken to find out the environmental awareness and responsibility among University students in Vellore, Tamil Nadu and India. Design/methodology/approach: Primary data using convenient sampling through questionnaire and interview method and secondary data from wide range of literature through journals have been utilized. The statistical technique of percentage analysis and ANNOVA is used to determine the variables, which determine their behaviour towards environmental awareness and responsibilities among University students. Findings: The ANNOVA indicates that five variables viz., are you using environmental friendly products (0.037), prevention of water and pollution (0.049), being aware of environmental issues (0.043), ecological concern (0.023) and aware of environmental education, responsibility and laws (0.000) have significant relationship with degree programme of the respondents. Originality/ Value: A study on an analysis of environmental awareness and responsibilities among University students is the original work of the author.

  86. Nwankwoala, H.O

    The water supply and sanitation in Nigeria has come under increasing focus since independence, but particularly during the last 20 years when the country participated in the global efforts and initiatives aimed at addressing the problem of low access to safe water and sanitary means of excreta disposal. In Nigeria, the inadequacy of safe water and sanitation services is manifested in the prevalence of water and sanitation related diseases. For example, diarrhea, which results from poor sanitary/hygiene habits and consumption of water of poor quality, is the second main cause of infant mortality, after malaria, and the third main cause of under-five mortality. There is therefore, no doubt that the drive for poverty reduction in Nigeria recognizes water supply and sanitation as an important component. This is so because water supply and sanitation cuts across and affects several sectors of the economy, including agriculture, rural infrastructure development, education, industrial development and indeed all the sectors of development that require the use of water and the management of sanitation for the benefit and welfare of human beings. Many entities are involved in rural water supply and sanitation. These institutions employ their own implementation strategies and involve individual communities to varying degrees. Because of the inadequacy of the approach adopted by these organization and agencies, expected service delivery has proceeded inconsistently and therefore could not be achieved. Sadly enough, despite the robust initiatives and funding of the sector (both internal and external), the sector has suffered from poor coordination, lack of clear policy direction, lack of focus in terms of goals and objectives which resulted in the nation’s inability to achieve full coverage of the rural population with safe water and improved sanitation services. This paper therefore considers the water supply and sanitation situation in the country and the challenges facing the sector. Furthermore, the paper calls for institutional reforms and review of policy targets, define key elements for the development of action and investment plans as well as provide some guidelines in order to minimize duplication and maximize effectiveness. The paper also suggested strategies and viable framework/agenda for sustainable water supply and sanitation delivery towards achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs).

  87. Dr. S. Ramalinga Choodambigai

    Dairy farming occupies a notable place in the agricultural economy of India and milk and milk products are the second largest contributor to Gross National Product (GNP) and income from dairy farming contributes nearly a third of the rural household’s gross income. Tamil Nadu is one of the leading milk producing state in the country, the other states being Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Punjab, Rajasthan, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh and Haryana. Paradoxically, however, the milk production in Tamil Nadu is witnessing a declining trend in recent years due to low productivity of the milch animals, which have been attributed to poor genetic status, non-availability of proper nutrition, poor quality of management and so forth. The rural producers are not only ignorant of the qualitative aspects of the enterprises but even unmindful of the production capabilities of their animals. The knowledge of the economics of milk production in the rural areas would be of immense help for planning for improving of dairy animals and in formulating policies for improving the profitability of the enterprise. The present study is, therefore an attempt to measure the relative importance of socio-economic characteristics in discriminating low profit from high profit dairy units. The study was based on primary data which was compiled by administering a pretested interview schedule to 150 randomly selected dairy owners residing in Mayilampatty village in Coimbatore District. The questionnaire adopted helped the researcher to collect information on social economic and many other related variables of dairy farming. The collected materials and data were organized arranged and tabulated and suitable tools were applied to arrive at results. The data collected relate to the period January to December of 2010. To fulfil the objective of the steady the tool Discriminant Analysis was applied on the collected data.

  88. Dr. S. Ramalinga Choodambigai

    The study was carried out for the period 1982-1983 to 1999-2000 using the variables like income tax revenue, peak marginal tax rate, GDP at factor cost and GDP at current market price along with time, with and without adjusting for the changes in prices over a period of time. To adjust for price changes the data on Income tax revenue and GDP at factor cost were deflated by using the GDP deflator which was obtained by dividing the gross domestic product at current prices by gross domestic product at constant prices in terms of base year prices (1993-94). The secondary time series data on the variables selected were obtained from Income Tax Office, Coimbatore district; Economic Survey (various issues) published by Ministry of Finance and Economic and Political Weekly (various issues) published by A Sameeksha Trust Publication. Required and relevant tools were applied and results arrived at.

  89. Kunal Chakraborty, Indrani Mukherjee and Sandipan Ghosh

    Rivers play a vital role in the life of human beings as they supply drinking water, irrigation water and provide cheap means of transport. Due to these advantages, prosperous civilizations, big market centres as well as small settlement sites have developed along the riverbanks since historical past. In accordance with past and modern trend evolution of Barddhaman town (West Bengal), the rivers and streams had changed their surface expression in relation to recurrent floods. Historical development and changing growth centres of Barddhaman town are to be found very much related with the shifting courses of rivers (e.g. Damodar, Banka, Balluka, Sapjala etc.) and their temporal degradation. Though the glimpses of some rivers are demolished by urbanization within the Municipality area (except Banka), some patches of wetlands, ponds and ‘Nalas’ (literally, surface drains) are carrying out the former existences of sinuous linearity of those rivers. This article is an integrated draft to focus on the present existence of rivers, role of rivers, in settlement growth its successive decays and associated problems in the course of temporal expansion and development of human civilization.

  90. Obiamaka P. Egbo, Josaphat U. J. Onwumere and Godwin Chigozie Okpara

    The main aim of this study is to establish if there is a causal relationship between Foriegn Direct Investment (FDI) and economic growth in Nigeria. This study used annual time series variables computed from natural logarithms of gross domestic product (GDP) at current prices, net inflow of FDI, inflation rate and exchange rates, covering a period of 27years that span from 1981 to 2007. The study utilized the Ordinary Least Square, Unit root test to test for stationarity of the time series and Granger causality test to establish the causal relationship between the variables. The stationarity test (unit root) showed that the included variables, gross domestic product (GDP), foreign direct investment (FDI), exchange rate (EXRATE) and inflation rate (INFRATE) were non-stationary at their level and first difference with 2 lags. They were thus integrated of order one, I(1). The Granger causality test was adopted and it showed that a causality relationship ran from FDIs to GDP and not from GDP to FDIs. The findings showed that there is a positive relationship between FDI and GDP which implies that FDI stimulates economic growth in Nigeria. It is imperative, therefore, that the enabling environment should always be provided in Nigeria in order to attract more foreign investment and further stimulate the country’s economic growth.

  91. Denis Thaddeus Ofoyuru and Lawrence Too-Okema

    The issue of student discipline is a pervasive and constant challenge. Secondary schools in Gulu District have also suffered alarming deterioration in student discipline in the past decade. This study aimed at establishing relationship between school ownership and strategies of managing student discipline in Gulu District with specific objectives of identifying strategies used in managing student discipline. Cross-sectional parallel sample survey design was used in the study with both qualitative and quantitative orientation. Target population consisted of headteachers, teachers and students with 377 respondents sampled. Questionnaire survey and key informants interview were used as techniques; interview guide and questionnaires as research instruments for data collection respectively. Data were analysed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). Frequencies and percentages were used. The results showed that strategies of managing student discipline in secondary schools in Gulu district included rewards, punishment, communication, and counselling. The researchers concluded that strategies of managing student discipline in secondary schools in Gulu District include rewards, punishment, communication and counselling and both faith-based and non faith-based schools in Gulu district use similar strategies of managing student discipline. Recommendations were made that policies on discipline management be streamlined, implementers should balance all the strategies and researchers should delve further into each strategy of managing student discipline.

  92. Agnes Kurgat

    Performance Appraisal is conducted for the purpose of obtaining information to enable management make personnel decisions, such as to identify training needs, promotions, transfers salary increment and motivation. The purpose of this study is to evaluate effectiveness of performance appraisals in organizations. To realize these the study sought including the objectives and importance attached to Appraisal by management. The study adopted a cases study research design. The total population of six hundred out of which a sample of 30% was drawn using simple random sampling. Data was collected from simple structured questions and supplemented by review of relevant documents. The data was presented through descriptive statistics such as frequencies and percentages. Findings indicated employees were not fully involved in appraisal process, Appraisal process was not utilized as per organization objectives of appraisal feedback from process was not effectively communicated. The findings indicated hat management and employees did not find performance appraisal system appropriate and effective. The study recommended that for performance appraisal to be effective all employees must be involved in process feedback should be given to employees.

  93. Josephat, U. J. Onwumere, Imo G. Ibe and Godwin Chigozie Okpara

    Present and potential investors need information for their investment decisions, which include the value creating potential of relevant firms. This information helps the investor to estimate the value of the firm which in turn aids the process of investment decision making. At the same time, management of the relevant firm pay serious attention to the composition of the firm’s financial structure as failure to achieve an optimal financial structure may lead to insolvency and financial distress. These can ultimately lead to bankruptcy. It was against this background that this paper examined the impact of debt finance on the value of Nigerian firms adopting a bankruptcy model. The study relied on historic accounting data obtained from the financial statements and accounts of 28 quoted firms on the Nigeria Stock Exchange and covered the period 2004 – 2008. A bankruptcy model, the Multiple Discriminant Analysis (MDA) was used and a benchmark Z-score of 2.675 was established in classifying firms as either having enhanced value or not. The results revealed that while twenty firms had value created as a result of external funds in their financial mix; eight firms did not create value under the same condition. Therefore, the use of debt finance enhances the value of firms. These should be encouraged for firms in developing countries in order that they will meaningfully contribute to their economic growth and development.

  94. Charles Too, Magero Makokha, Vincent Mutai and Kefa Chepkwony

    This paper is based on a study to establish public secondary schools head teachers’ perceptions towards implementation of performance contracts in Bureti, Kericho and Bomet districts in Kenya. The study sought to establish these perceptions based on: financial, human resource management, physical facilities and academic indicators of performances contract in schools. Quantifiable measurements were used to determine these indicators. Stratified random sampling was used to select 60% of the public schools in every district to participate. The study was based on Cole (1993) Job Improvement Plan Model, which emphasizes on setting standards in specific key result areas and specifying results for all managers at the operating level of the institution. Questionnaires in Likert type of scale were used to collect data and descriptive statistics were used to analyse the data. The results showed that head teachers did not reject implementation of performance contracts in totality. However, there were areas they were not comfortable being used as indicators in the performance contracting exercise. Therefore, it was recommended that the Ministry of Education should sensitize head teachers on the meaning, scope and importance of performance contracting exercise. Furthermore, initial piloting of performance contracting in a few schools before implementation should be done.

  95. Amandeep Singh, Vishaw Gaurav and Manju

    The purpose of the study was to compare the selected physiological variables among the university level female players of individual and team sports. For this purpose, sixty female players (individual sports: 30 and team sports: 30) of 18-25 years age were randomly selected from different colleges affiliated to Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar, Punjab, India. The subjects volunteered to participate in the study. The age of each subject was considered from the date of birth as recorded in the respective institute. The height, weight, heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressures of the subjects was measured by using respective techniques and equipments. The between-group differences were assessed by using an independent samples t-test. The level of p≤0.05 was considered significant. An independent samples t-test revealed that team sports players had significantly higher resting heart rate (p<0.05) than individual sports players. No statistically significant difference was observed in body mass index, systolic and diastolic blood pressure among the players of the two groups.

  96. Hadayat Rashidi

    The quranic symbolism is the use of quran from the symbols and signs that show and instruct us the religious facts because where ever that the words cannot say the facts, symbols are the best. The quranic symbolism is a very specific beauty, Gnostics out of the eminent states of the religion. And it is also a bout the other world and faith to metaphysics or resurrection or Gnosticism.The symbol should be considered as a part of human thought and early attempt of human in the direction of intellectual transition compartment of his spirit .the existing symbols in very cultural domain are the keys to understanding philosophical problems and mystic religious problems related to the domain which help us highly to analyze the content of the existing context of the culture. In symbolism cognition the problem of culture is much more important than literate .human soul is definitely more developed than the symbols based on the amount of its evolution. more dynamic and is capable of taking more benefit .in dealing with the symbols, we must not look for limited and experimental concept. we must consider fundamental feature related to it, that is to say going beyond oneself , which is the characteristic of transcontalism of the symbol, because the symbol manifests itself clearly ,but also accompanies itself some sort of attempt to provide meanings and spectra to carry along its addressee beyond inward. Consequently the symbol direction is inward from multiply to unity and contains a developed spectrum of concepts.

  97. Catherine J. Kiprop and Ronald K. Chepkilot

    Background In Kenya, as elsewhere in the world, corporal punishment has been banned as a disciplinary mechanism in schools. The perception exists that this has resulted in an increase in misconduct and indiscipline among secondary school learners. It should, however, be acknowledged that there is a variety of other factors that also impact on the status of discipline in schools and that this increase in misconduct might not have been caused solely or mainly by the banning of the cane. Purpose The purpose of this investigation was to identify such factors and their influence on secondary school discipline in Kenyan secondary schools. Design and methods This is a position paper that unpacks these factors within the Kenyan context. The concept of discipline is presented through some of its definitions and its aim, the recent manifestation of indiscipline in Kenyan schools is described, factors that impact on discipline are presented and the effects of indiscipline are briefly indicated. Conclusions Finally, some recommendations are made on the way forward towards improving discipline in Kenyan schools. These recommendations would also be of value in other contexts where corporal punishment is no longer allowed.

  98. CJ Kiprop and RK Chepkilot

    The use of corporal punishment to enforce discipline in schools, has been banned in many countries world-wide, impacting significantly on school discipline. This study focuses on the disciplinary situation in secondary schools in Kenya. It presents some understandings of the concept of discipline, reviews the status of school discipline in Kenya and describes some existing disciplinary strategies and models from the literature. From this literature review, a model of disciplinary strategies is developed, which is hence tested empirically. The empirical test resulted in amendments to the theoretical model, which is then presented as an integrated model of disciplinary strategies. This integrated model is likely to assist principals and teachers in Kenya to manage and curb indiscipline among learners, by suggesting alternative ways of dealing with errant learners and supporting teachers to create an environment conducive to learning. Further research is required to determine the relevance of the model to primary schools and to schools in other countries.

  99. ShanmugaSundari, R. and Manickam Mahendran

    The structure determination of Ferromagnetic Shape Memory Alloy Ni2MnGa is a major challenge. This paper reports the investigation of the structure and properties of Ni2MnGa Heusler alloy from the theoretical point of view using ab-initio and density-functional calculations through Gaussian.

  100. Yasodharan Suresh, D. Balachandar, K. Rutharvel Murthy, R. Muruganandam and K. Kumaraswamy

    The present study aims to find out the land use/land cover features of Tambaram Suburban region of Chennai, Tamil Nadu. The total area of the region is 75.25 sq.km. The study has made use of high resolution IRS LISS IV pan merged satellite imagery for identifying the land use/land cover classes. ERDAS and ArcGIS software were used to demarcate the land use/land cover features of Tambaram Suburban region. Remote sensing and GIS provide consistent and accurate base line information than many of the conventional surveys employed for such a task. The land use and land cover analysis on Tambaram Suburban region has been attempted based on thematic mapping of the area consisting of built-up land, agriculture land, water bodies, forest and waste land using the satellite image. The research concludes that there is a rapid expansion of built-up area. Land use and land cover information, when used along with information on other natural resources, like water, soil, hydro-geomorphology, etc. will help in the optimal land use planning at the macro and micro level.

  101. Yasodharan Suresh, D. Balachandar, K. Rutharvel Murthy, R. Muruganandam and K. Kumaraswamy

    The present study aims to find out the land use/land cover change detection between the year 1998 and 2008 in St. Thomas Mount Block of Kancheepuram District, Tamil Nadu. The total area of the Block is 243 sq.km. The study has made use of IRS LISS III and high resolution IRS LISS IV pan merged satellite imageries for the years 1998 and 2008 to identify the land use/land cover categories in St. Thomas Mount Block. ERDAS image processing and ArcGIS software were used to demarcate the land use/land cover divisions in St. Thomas Mount Block. Remote Sensing and GIS provide consistent and accurate base line information than many of the conventional surveys employed for such tasks. The land use and land cover analysis has been attempted based on thematic features of the area consisting of built-up land, agriculture land, water bodies, forest and waste land. The research concludes that there is a rapid expansion of built-up area; a perceptible change in transportation network especially on metalled and unmetalled road; and decrease of agricultural area from the year 1998 to 2008. Land use and land cover information, when used along with information on other natural resources, like water, soil, hydro-geomorphology, etc. will help in the optimal land use planning at the macro and micro level.

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