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Plagiarism Detection

IJCR is following an instant policy on rejection those received papers with plagiarism rate of more than 20%. So, All of authors and contributors must check their papers before submission to making assurance of following our anti-plagiarism policies.





February 2013

  1. Mujeera Fathima, Aneesh Nair and Florida Tilton

    Understanding traditional medicines better has been the priority for scientists looking for a safer alternative for their synthetic counterparts. In the present study, an attempt was made to understand the anti-cancer potentials of Mukia maderasaptana (Linn) M. Roem. leaf extracts against human colon cancer cell lines Colo320 DM. The plant materials were subjected to sequential cold percolation extraction in Hexane, Chloroform and Methanol solvents. The phytoconstituents were determined using standard procedures. MTT based tetrazolium microculture assay was performed to understand the cytotoxicity of the extracts against the colon cancer cell lines, which showed significant activity. Further, the apoptosis induction potential of the extracts in the cancer cells was determined by CASPASEs quantification assay which showed the upregulation of these enzymes vital to apoptosis. The experiments revealed apoptotic induction in the cells by the extracts.

  2. Rehana Saeed, Summyia Masood, Fahim Uddin and Tahira Bano

    Viscosities and apparent molar volumes of different concentrations of lanthanum chloride from 1x10-2 to 9x10-2 mol dm-3 have been studied in absolute and aqueous ethanol mixtures at temperatures ranging from 303 to 323 K. viscosity and density data were analyzed by using two different relations for the prediction of nature of lanthanum chloride in absolute and aqueous ethanol systems. A and B-coefficients of Jones-Dole equation show ion-ion and ion-solvent interactions respectively. The density data was analyzed in terms of limiting apparent molar volume (vo) and experimental slopes (Sv) obtained from Masson equation has been used to interpret the ion-solvent interaction and ion-ion interaction respectively. On the basis of results evaluated by using the different parameters it was concluded that lanthanum chloride behaves as a structure maker in absolute ethanol and 90 % (v/v) aqueous ethanol, while as the aqueous quantity increases such as 80 to 70 % (v/v) it behaves as structure breaker. Thermodynamic parameters such as energy of activation (E ), free energy change of activation (ΔG*) and entropy change of activation (ΔS*) for viscous flow have been evaluated as a function of concentration, solvent and temperature.

  3. Naorem Chanu Sumedha, Achiraman, S., Rajaganesh, K. and Milton Prabu, S.

    In the present study, the effect of Bamboo seed extract was evaluated in endosulfan treated testes of male wistar rats. Effect of pesticide treatment and pesticide along with bamboo seed extract were studied through serum hormonal analysis (FSH, LH and Testosterone), testicular biochemistry (ascorbic acid), sperm function analysis. Administration of bamboo seed extract in endosulfan treated rat shows the revival of reproductive function by protecting the reproductive organ from endosulfan induced oxidative stress mediated testicular toxicity. The present study also reveals the bamboo seed extract significantly enhancing the male fertility by reversing the endosulfan induced adverse effect on rat testes.

  4. Veerabhadraswamy A. L., and Rajkumar H. G

    Several diseases affect maize plants and one among them is black bundle disease, causal organism of which is yet to be confirmed with conflicting reports appearing in literature. In the present work, an effort was made to record the disease incidence by carry out filed surveys in Southern most district of Karnataka state, India and also to isolate and identify the causal organism. The surface sterilized pith tissue from the infected plants was cultured on PDA medium to identify the organism in the affected vascular tissue. The isolated tissue produce Cephalosporium acremonium which was confirmed based on morphological characters. In addition, Simplicillium sp. and Macrophomina phaseolina were also isolated from the same infected plant material and suspected to have participated in the disease development. In accordance with several reports in literature, Cephalosporium acremonium was tested and confirmed as the causal organism of disease in green house experiments by following the Koch’s postulates. This is in contrast with some earlier reports, wherein the exact symptoms of black bundle disease were reported as barren stalks in corn caused by Fusarium sp. The simplicillium sp. which had morphological similarity with C. acremonium and had an ambiguous taxonomic status in literature was confirmed as a distinct species through PCR based diagnosis.

  5. S. Binukumari and K. Vijayakumar

    The sublethal toxicity of quinalphos on histopathology of tissues such as liver, kidney and gill was investigated in fresh water fish, Labeo rohita exposed to 1/10th of sublethal concentration of the chemical for a period of 7, 14 and 21 days. Though, acute exposure has not resulted in death, it led to many histological variations such as histolysis, lesions, necrosis and vacuolation etc. There are many degenerative changes in the tissues studied suggestive of impairment of normal function when compared to controls.

  6. Sherafin Jancy Vincy, Vincent .S, Prabakaran .M, Chandrasekar. M, John Regulus Gunanithy, Rajalakshmi .R, Bashir Ali Siyad

    Panel testing (PT) slides were prepared by Bleach Ammonium sulphate (BAS) and N-acetyl L- Cysteine (NALC) methods. A total of 150 slides were prepared, 80 slides were stained and two different technologists validated 60 slides. Consistency was found true when compared with standard consistency table for all grades in both methods and M±2SD was within the limits. This study suggests that BAS method is equally good as NALC sputum concentration method.

  7. Kishan Sharma and V.S. Dhakar

    The principal object of this paper is to prove three theorems based on integral representations of the generalized M-series which is introduced recently by Sharma and Jain[8].

  8. Aashiq Ahmad Thoker

    The present study was undertaken to find and compare the adjustment problems of retired working and non-working women on rural and urban background. 200 retired working and non-working women were selected by using purposive cum stratified sampling technique. Old Age adjustment inventory developed by Shamshad Hussain and Jasbir Kour was uses for data collection. The data was subjected to statistical treatment by using Mean, Standard Deviation, and ‘t’ test. It was found that retired working and non-working women differ significantly on adjustment problems. Retired working women seems to have more adjustment problems as compared to non-working women. Further, it was found that locality has significant impact on adjustment problems of retired working and non working women, rural group was found more adjusted than urban group.

  9. Sugali Salamma and Boyina Ravi Prasad Rao

    Croton scabiosus Bedd. (Euphorbiaceae), an endemic tree of southern Andhra Pradesh, India is known to represent a small population and found primarily affected by recurrent fires and secondarily by seed pathology and poor germination in the natural habitat warranting immediate conservation attempts. With an objective to propagate the species in vitro through somatic embryogenesis, an attempt has been made to develop a protocol for callogenesis by using different explants collected from natural population. The explants were cultured on different media (MS, B5, and WPM) containing 2% sucrose, 0.8% agar-agar and different concentrations of plant growth regulators. After sterilization callus induction was tested with leaves, internodes and petioles using 2, 4-D, 2, 4 5-T, DICAMBA and NAA in different concentrations. All the plant growth regulators except NAA are found to induce callus proliferation. The maximum callus proliferation by inter nodes was observed on MS medium supplemented with DICAMBA 0.5 mg/l. This is the first successful attempt to establish consistent callus formation from inter nodal segments of Croton scabiosus and this procedure can be developed as an in vitro regeneration protocol for multiplication of plantlets.

  10. Mohan T., Selvisabhanayakam and V. Mathivanan

    Glucose, glycogen, protein, amino acid and lipid are the major components of the body play an important role in the body construction and energy metabolism. The biochemical estimation were made in the tissues of the fat body, testis, seminal vesicle, vas deferens and male accessory reproductive glands (MARGs). The present study was find out the effect of (phytopesticide) Piperidine on Odontopus varicornis. The insects were exposed to Piperidine for 48h of duration differ significantly, the sub lethal concentration for Piperidine was found to be about 0.15%for 48 hours LD50. The glycogen, protein, lipid content appears to be decreased in the treated insects when compared to the control insects and glucose and amino acid content appears to be increased in the treated insects when compared to the control insects. The values of mean glucose, glycogen, protein, amino acid and lipid content of the fat body, testis, seminal vesicles, vas deferens and MARGs of control and treated insects are compared for significance of difference for which t – values are calculated. The observed t-values are significant at 0.05 level.


  11. Rajendran, R. and Thamilmani, R.

    The Agreement on Agriculture (AoA) under the World Trade Organization came into effect on 1st January 1995. The AoA insists to establish a fair and market oriented system through the process of negotiations of commitments on support and protection through operational rules and disciplines in the areas of market access, domestic support and export subsidies. It was envisaged that progressive reduction in agricultural support and protection over an agreed period of time would result in correcting distortions in world agricultural markets resulting in greater improvement in opportunities for realization of market access for member countries particularly the developing countries. There are many studies on impact of trade liberalization and WTO agreements. They show that the trade volume of India is increasing slowly. At present we are in the position to view seriously the impact of increased Indian foreign trade on three important and closely related areas that are food security, water and environment. Study on the impact of foreign trade on these areas becomes need of the hour on the following grounds: Food security is severely threaten by stagnant food production; shrinking in food production area; slow down in yield of food crops; overall slow down in the growth of agriculture; and, increase in absolute size of population and demand for foodgrains. Per capita water availability is decreasing sharply in the recent years; and, widespread water conflicts occur among water using sectors. Environment becomes another important area which is closely connected with the external trade. Because, every production discharges residual, and thus increased production with the view to export definitely brings pressure on the environment. Thus the study aims to view the size of external agriculture trade in the liberalized era through WTO agreement; to examine the change in direction and pattern the trade; to investigate impact of the trade on food security, water and environment; and to suggest policy measures to ensure the Indian food security, protect water resources and save the environment through trade mechanism. The present paper is carried out in this direction. In order to get clear picture of impact of foreign trade on the above respect, a comparative analysis is done between two periods ie. before the implementation and after implementation trade agreements.

  12. Ouattara, B., Diédhiou, I., Ndir, K. N., Agbangba, E. C., Cisse, N., Diouf, D., Akpo, E. L. and Zongo, J. D.

    A thorough and extensive germplasm exploration survey was undertaken during 2009 and 2010 to assess the distribution and variability in seed traits of Jatropha curcas L. in Senegal. Nineteen accessions from different agro ecological zones of the country were collected to evaluate variability in seed characters. Trees aged at least 5 years only were considered. Among the seed traits studied, 100 seed weight ranged from 63.68 to 77.83 g and seed length from 17.89 to 19.15 mm. The highest 100 seed weight (77.83 g) was recorded for the accession Jc-16 collected from Mampatim. Accessions from Soudanian zone showed high values of seed traits while low seed traits were recorded in Soudano-Sahelian zone. Variability in seed traits was not linked to geographic location. Old plantations of Jatropha curcas are spread in the central, south and coastal zones of Senegal where the species is well known by the populations. However, the species was least represented above 400 mm isohyet and unfamiliar. No old plantation was observed in extreme north of Senegal.

  13. Otuya W. I., Onyango M. A., Ofafa G. A., Ojera, P. B. and Wachana R. S.

    This study attempts to examine the role of ethical treatment towards customers in enhancing enterprise performance. In this study respondents are the farmers contracted to Mumias sugar company which subcontracts cane transport services to private cane haulage companies. A total of 138 questionnaires were distributed and 100 were returned. To test the conceptual frame work, a structural equation modeling to analyze the data was done. In this regard, frequencies, correlations and binary logistic regression were used to establish the relationship between ethical treatment to customers (farmers) and enterprise performance. Findings revealed that ethical treatment indicators are predictors of enterprise performance among cane transport companies in Mumias sugar belt.

  14. Anyalewechi Daniel Asiegbu

    In this work a preliminary investigation of the average daily solar insolation in Ihite Uboma LGA of Imo State, South East Nigeria, has been made. Method employed the use of the correlation between solar insolation and the solar resistance of a cadmium sulphide photoresistor cell mounted within the locality. Experiment suggests that the location has average daily insolation figure of about 10.0kWhm-2 per day. In comparison with NASA’s report of 2002, the LGA appears to fall within the high radiation zone of the globe and so can support solar projects. This investigation is informative and should attract the attention of both government and non-governmental agencies that are interested in solar energy harvesting for domestic and industrial use as well as the global battle against CO2 emissions.

  15. Nayanashree. G and Thippeswamy. B

    Rubber products are widely used in our daily life these products are mainly made up of Natural rubber (NR) which is obtained from the latex of tree Hevea brasiliensis commonly called Rubber tree. The average composition of the natural rubber latex is 25-30% polyisoprene, 1-1.8% proteins, 1-2% carbohydrates, 0.4-1.1% neutral lipids, 0.5-0.6% polar lipids, 0.4-0.6% inorganic components, 0.4% aminoacids etc., and other 50-70% water. The different rubber products are manufactured by using vulcanized natural rubber. During manufacturing along with vulcanized natural rubber other chemical additives will be added. After usage of these natural rubber products the disposal of these products are the world wide solid waste problem. One of the solution to reduce this problem is to recycle the used waste rubber. But due to the chemical cross linking formed during vulcanization it is not possible to simply melt and reshape the products as in case of polythene. So other alternatives such as microbial degradation of the product should be developed. Microbial degradation is mainly carried out by various microorganisms such as bacteria and fungi. During the present study an attempt was made to isolate rubber degrading microorganisms. Rubber pieces were dumped in the soil for regular interval of time and then plated on the media to isolate the organism. In the isolated organism Verticillium species and Chaetomium species effectively degraded the rubber sample. The present study has showed that, it is possible to use these strains to degrade the rubber.

  16. Swati Sinha Babu and Soumyendra Kishore Datta

    The immense emphasis given to economic growth has shifted in the last two decades to concerns with sustainable development. A development path is considered to be sustainable if it ensures that the stock of overall natural capital remains constant or increases over time. The new advances in the field of accounting theory renewed the importance of ‘greening’ the national income accounts. That is, the depreciation or depletion of natural capital should be included in any aggregate indicators of net national output. This led to the evolution of the concept of Environmentally Adjusted Net National Product (eaNNP) which takes account of an economy’s national product after adjusting for environmental aspects and Adjusted Net Savings (ANS) as a comprehensive measure of a country’s rate of saving after accounting for investments in human capital, depreciation of produced assets, and depletion and degradation of the environment. The objective of this article is to establish the connection between ANS and eaNNP as well as analyse the simultaneity hypothesis across variation in ANS and several other depleted natural resources.

  17. Vinod Kumar, Alok Krishna, Verma R. K. and Singh .P

    This paper presents the results of a study on traditional healthcare practices of local herbal healers known as Vaidya and other knowledgeable people of Jhansi district of Bundelkhand region. Since knowledge of traditional uses of various medicinal plants is limited to mostly traditional herbal healers, it is of extreme importance to compile and document this heritage for coming generations. In the present study, 100 plant species belonging to 43 genera and 50 families are used traditionally for the curing of more than 45 ailments and diseases. Among all the plant species, trees found to be most dominant (45%) followed by herbaceous plants (32%), shrubs (14%) and climbers both annual and perennials (9 %). The highest number of medicinal plants were recorded in four families viz., Caesalpiniaceae (7 species), Papilionaceae and Apocynaceae (6 species), Euphorbiaceae (5 species). The traditional medicinal plants were mostly used to cure dysentery, diarrhea, fever, skin diseases, wounds, rheumatism, piles, and digestive disorders, etc.

  18. Suman PAUL and Kanan CHATTERJEE

    Urbanization and regional development are closely associated. Allocation of higher and lower order facilities and specialization of business influence urban growth which diffuses its benefits to the surrounding countryside. Subsequently, socio-economic development of the region comes into being. The continuous increase of urban size cannot be sustained rather declining growth will certainly set in long run. Optimum level of its growth depends on the capacity of an urban centre to provide required facilities to the people in fair manner. Hierarchical growth of urban centres in association with location of civic amenities induces regional development in hierarchical dimension which is the common problem in developing economy. Subsequently, few of the urban centres are having large number of facilities while others are lacking corresponding to their population size. Formulation of pragmatic planning model is the rescue of wiping out such problems. It is an attempt to analyze the hierarchical growth of urban centres associated with their functional potentiality and diffusion of urban developmental impulses to the surrounding rural part. Further, it proposes a model for developing economy like India to solve the problem of regional variations of development. Besides, it examines the adequacy and inadequacy of facilities in the urban centres and puts forward planning recommendations, so that a balanced regional development would be achieved by not leaving any rural part out of the zone of functional influence of urban centre.

  19. Omulako Eman Jairo and Aleke John Olwete

    Most African countries have put in place policies that ensure delivery and achievement of the time lines for the provision of Education for A (EFA). Decentralization of education services is one of the many reforms put in place by many Governments for effective service delivery to its citizens. This paper thus outlines the implications of Decentralization of Education services on Access, Equity and Quality. The authors highlight the concept of Decentralization and the rationale of Decentralization of Education services. Policies and practices of decentralization of education services with specific reference to Kenya have been surveyed citing their positive effect on Access and Quality. These policies and practices include empowering Boards of Governors, Teacher recruitment, School Inspection Programs, empowerment of School Management Committees, Teacher Management programs, Provision of Teaching and Learning Material programs, Administration and Planning, Funding through Constituency Bursary Fund and Local Authority Transfer Fund. In conclusion the authors outline the potential benefits of decentralization as increased accountability to the citizens resulting in improved efficiency in the use of school resources as well as a better match between services provided and preferences of citizens.

  20. Jatto, N. A. and Gunu, U. I. and Alkali A.

    For policies to solve women problems, their interest, determinant and level of their participation in agriculture have to be understood. This study was conducted in Ilorin, Kwara state, Nigeria, to identify the factors motivating the interest of women in poultry egg farming. A stratified random sampling technique was adopted in selecting 60 registered women poultry egg farmers and 60 registered women non-poultry egg farmers respectively making a total of 120 respondents. Data was collected by administering a structured questionnaire to the sampled women. Analysis was done with binary Logit regression. The result revealed that years of education, number of children, poultry experience, farm size and participation in cooperative are the significant factors that influenced women poultry farmers’ interest in egg production. It was predicted from Logit estimate that the rate at which the significant factors in the model influence women interest in egg production was 50.4%.

  21. Vasanthi, N., Saleena L. M. and Anthoni Raj S.

    Silicate solubilising bacteria (SSB) are used as biofertilizer to crops as it solubilises silica and potassium from soil silicate minerals. The investigators use different types of media containing an insoluble silicate mineral of their choice to determine the solubilisation potential of the isolates. However no specific medium is recommended either for isolation or for enumeration and screening. In the present study nutrient agar, Bunt and Rovira medium, Soil extract agar and Glucose agar medium containing 0.25% magnesium trisilicate were compared for their suitability for isolation, enumeration and screening. Soil extract agar medium containing 0.25% magnesium trisilicate is more ideal for enumeration based on the growth and clarity of dissolution zone while for screening the isolates plain glucose medium with 0.25% magnesium trisilicate is ideal as there is rapid solubilisation and clearing larger zone.

  22. Zahoor Pir, Imtiyaz Tali, Mudgal L. K., and Shailendra Sharma

    The Molluscans are helpful in purification of water in their capacity to act as scavengers. The Molluscans play an important role in the assessment of water quality that is they are used as Bio indicators. The rivers are always selected as the sites for drinking purposes. The biodiversity of Narmada River is quite varied, rich and needs regular monitoring and conservation as the river is subjected to various sources of point and non point pollution which are posing threat to these biota. The present investigation was carried out in four sampling stations of Narmada River and various species of class Gastropoda and pelecypoda were recorded through out the sampling period. Some species of Molluscans like Lymnea lives in only highly polluted environment. The species like Thiara and Indoplanorbis live in slightly polluted environment, while the species like Pseudomilleria delyi is highly sensitive to pollution and can survive in pollution free environment. On the presence these Species we can know the water quality of river.

  23. Francis Barasa and Tubey Jelagat

    Participatory development paradigm has increasingly been associated with people and their aspirations to make decisions affecting their own lives. Central to these aspirations is their desire to plan and participate in the identification, planning and management of their needs without outside prescriptions. Community participation in project planning and management is essential in enhancing development at the basic community level, a critical for tool and sustainable development and a foundation for national development. Furthermore, it also promotes equity, legitimises decision-making processes, builds, strengthens self-determination and predisposes a people toward a more democratic behaviour and development. Using secondary data this paper assesses the importance of participatory development by the community in terms of project planning, management and evaluation; it evaluates its potential to achieve better management practices through the achievement of higher project completion rates and better prospects of ownership. The paper argues that participatory development has the propensity of achieving project sustainability and increased utilisation rate of the project by members of the community and sustained ownership. It concludes that national development cannot be achieved without partnership and active participation of other key stakeholders at the community level. Community members are important partners in national development and therefore, participation, ownership and sustainability of the projects has the multiplier effect of enhancing the overall development of the local community and contributing to the country’s national development and economic growth. As Kenya implements the democratic decentralization of people's participation in development and decision-making process as reflected in the spirit of the new constitution, the study becomes even more significant because people will own and sustain the entire chain of development.

  24. Ramachandran, M. Titus Immanuel, Manley Backyavathy, P. and Balwin Nambikkairaj

    Marine sponges are rich sources of novel secondary metabolite and they are potential drug molecule to antitumor and antiprolific drug development. Hyrtios erectus was extracted and purified through different solvent fractions methods. Pure compound was obtained as brownish amorphous powder. The positive test for dragendorff reagent was indicated as alkaloid group. Cytotoxicity was tested on Normal (Vero) cell line non tumor cells, Human Breast cancer cell line (MCF-7) and Human epithelial larynx cancer cell line (Hep-2) using microculture tetrazolium (MTT) assay for anticancer activity. Sponge pure compound was non‐toxic to (Vero) cells but highly cytotoxicity to (53%) MCF-7 cells and low toxic to Hep-2(32%) was recorded at 25μg/ml concentration. Each concentrations express individual results of cells viability with cytotoxicity increase and decrease of their concentration level of pure compound. In this research further investigation require for this sponge purified compound in order to chemical structure elucidations as well as pre clinical study for anticancer activity.

  25. Amina N. AL-Thwani, Ihsan M. AL-Saqur and Balqees F. AL-Shamere

    Polymerase chain reaction was applied for the detection DNA of the pathogenic protozoan Toxoplasma gondii based on 35-fold-repetitive gene (the B1 gene) as a target. Blood from (65) recurrent abortive women who were positive for (ELISA) and (25) apparently healthy pregnant women with no history of abortion as control group, were taken to extract DNA from it and to detect the B1 gene if present. The B1 gene was present and conserved in all T. gondii strains and to detect this gene from purified DNA samples, a two-stage PCR assay (nested PCR) was conducted employing oligonucleotide specific primers. PCR result indicated that 39(60%) recurrent abortive women had positive results while ELISA recovered 65(100%) positive res ult. This outcome revealed a significant difference between patients and control in both methods. PCR technique regarded a very useful method for diagnosis of toxoplasmosis inrecurrent abortive women because positive PCR result appeared to be a helpful indicator of active form of the disease.

  26. LIU Xianzhao and Chaokui Li

    This paper revealed the characteristics of arable-land resources and utilization, the basic process and regional difference of changes in arable-land area and current direction of cultivated land according to the arable-land statistics data during the reform and opening-up over the past 20 years and detailed survey and altered data of land use during the recent five years. Also, the major driving factors and influence mechanism for the changes in the cultivated land area were discussed. The main conclusions were shown below: (1) There was a trend of obvious fluctuant decrease in arable-land area during the past 20 odd years. The changes of arable-land undergone the process from gentle decrease to steep decrease to slow decrease, and there were three peak periods of arable-land loss in 1985 from beginning to end, 1987-1990 and 1991-1993, respectively. (2) The decreased arable-land was mainly converted into land used for industrial and mining, residential area, and all kinds of traffic and orchard. The increase of arable-land mainly came from exploitation and reclamation of non-utilized land and arrangement and reclamation of industrial and mining's land. (3) The economic development, population growth and policy were the dominant macro-driving factors in decrease of cultivated land area in Yantai. The obvious break during the change process of arable-land was related to the national macro-policies background. The rapid decrease of cultivated land area coincided in time with the overheated economic growth resulting from the direct investment in fixed assets. Spatial distribution of the decrease in arable-land matched the differences in speed and scale of economic growth between different regions of Yantai area. Furthermore, the decrease in arable-land because of population increase could not be ignored.

  27. Asokarajan R., Neyvasagam K., and Milton Franklin Benial, A.

    Cobalt ferrite is a well-known hard magnetic material with high coercivity and moderate magnetization. Its nanoparticles at ambient temperature were effectively synthesized via the reproducible solvothermal process. The crystal structure morphology of the sample was determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy(SEM). The X-ray diffraction spectrum shows that the synthesized particle has been spinel structure. The average crystalline size was 32 nm. The SEM observation showed that the CoFe2O4 particle were aggregated in a spherical form and the average particle size was around 35 nm, which is in consistent with the result from XRD according to the Scherrer’s formula. The chemical composition and optical properties of the synthesized cobalt ferrite particles were characterized by FTIR spectrum and UV – Visible absorption.

  28. Teye, G. A., Taame, F., Bonsu, K. O. and Teye, M

    Dawadawa is a fermented seed meal of a tropical tree plant; Parkia biglobosa. It is commonly used in Ghanaian homes as flavour enhancers in varieties of meals. This study was conducted to determine the effects of dawadawa as a spicing agent on sensory characteristics and nutritional qualities of meat products (smoked pork sausage and burgers). Fresh boneless beef and pork were minced separately and were used to formulate burgers and smoked pork sausages, with various levels of dawadawa inclusions. The Control products (Treatment 1(T1) were formulated with a standard flavour enhancer [Adobo at 2g/kg meat], Treatment two (T2) products were formulated with 2g dawadawa and 2g adobo/kg meat, Treatment three (T3) products were formulated with 2g dawadawa/kg meat, while Treatment four (T4) products were formulated with 4g dawadawa/kg meat. All other ingredients were added in equal amounts to the meat and thoroughly mixed. The products were bagged and refrigerated for sensory and chemical analyses at later dates. The use of dawadawa up to 4g/kg meat in the meat products increased the crude protein content significantly (P<0.001) and had no effect (P>0.05) on the sensory characteristics of the products. Dawadawa could be used in meat products up to 4g/kg meat for improved crude protein content.

  29. Smita R. Sorte and Sachin B. Rathod

    Social networking sites are gaining popularity in recent years all around the world. Users of these sites are generally population below 40 years mostly school students, professional students, corporate world etc. Facebook is the most popular social networking site having more than 90 million users. Many studies had showed usefulness of facebook as informal e-learning tool for professional students and faculty, to hold discussion and online interaction with each other. Beside all these benefits, some studies have showed potential hazards of these sites.

  30. Demuyakor B., Boaresa I. K., Awuni J. A., and Chikpah S. K.

    As part of research towards enhancing the value chain of sorghum utilisation in Ghana, a study was conducted in four districts in the Northern and Volta regions of Ghana, to investigate the marketing prospects for commercial sorghum malt. Purposeful sampling technique was employed to select the communities and snowball sampling was used to identify the brewers and maltsters in the communities. Two hundred and fifteen (215) respondents were interviewed and the data obtained was analysed using descriptive statistics with the aid of Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 16. Majority of brewers (95 %) were willing to expand their production level while large proportion (85 %) of brewers were willing to purchase commercial malt. This is an indication that commercial sorghum malt has marketing potential in the study area.

  31. Matru Prasad Dash, Prasanna kumar Sahoo, and P.L. Nayak

    The synthesis of polymers based on anthranillic acid( o-amino benzoic acid) ,p-chloroaniline and o-methylaniline by aniline–initiated ammonium peroxydisulfate oxidation method has been attempted. Poly(anthranillic acid),poly(p-chloroaniline ),and poly(orthomethylaniline) thus synthesized were characterized by using infrared spectroscopy(FTIR),1H –nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy(1H-NMR),X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermo gravimetric analysis(TGA). The TGA analysis of the conducting polymers have been followed using a computer analysis method LOTUS PACKAGE, developed by us for assigning the degradation mechanism. The degradation pattern of the polymers has been explained on the basis of kinetic parameters .

  32. Anjalika Maithy Roy, Nirmalaya Banerjee and Sudhendu Mandal

    The large demand and lower yield of bis indole alkaloids (vincristine and vinblastine), which are present in the leaves of catharanthus roseus, promote research effort for the development of superior stocks. The seeds of C. roseus have been treated with different doses of gamma rays and ethyl methane sulfonate alone and in combination with more attention towards increased percentage of bis indole alkaloid production to meet current medical demand. As a result of mutagenic treatment, five morphologically and chemically dissimilar mutants were isolated after critical examination upto M3 generation. These mutants have shown stable agronomic performance in the fields. The scanning electron microscopy of seeds of mutants along with control has revealed extensive variation in seed coat structure. The seed surface have irregular and unevenly arranged elevated area (ridges) and minute depressions of various geometrical shapes (lumina) were present between these elevations. The depressions were decorated with beaded structure.

  33. Julius Gordon Tanui and Paul Webb

    The involvement of the community in sustainable forest management needs to be anchored on sound knowledge and vast understanding of forests, forest resources and their sustainable exploitation mechanisms. Humans encroachment into the Nandi Hills Forests, compounded by urban expansion, unsustainable timber harvesting and agricultural practices have over the years threatened to annihilate this catchment area. The study was undertaken in three districts; Nandi South, Nandi Hills and Nandi North Districts. A mixed methodological approach was used in this study, where concurrent triangulation and nested/embedded designs prevailed. The study reveals that environmental education has been institutionalized in the Nandi County and is yielding sustainable forest management. However, some institutional and capacity gaps do exist. Government agencies, international organizations and community-based organizations have been profiled as the predominant institutions that are involved in building the capacities of the locals through environmental education and forest conservation. Change detection, undertaken by way of GIS and remote sensing, has corroborated the perceptions and undertakings of the locals and institutions on forest management; exemplified by the level of awareness on the state of forest cover, and the ensuing consequences. The study proposes a heuristic for community environmental education centered on institutional arrangements, policy frameworks, formal and informal education approaches, GIS and remote sensing. Integrated community environmental education, epitomized in the heuristic, could be a robust tool for sustainable forest management once it is rolled out.

  34. Lida Mahin Shahin Abad, Varahram Rashidi and Ali Reza Eivazi

    In order to evaluate of six corn genotypes for drought stress tolerance an experiment was conducted under field conditions at Satloo station of agricultural research center of west Azerbaijan province in 2010-11 seasons. A strip plot experiment with the based on complete blocks design was carried out at four replications. Three drought stress levels including control, water held at flowering stage and ear emergence arranged as main plots and six genotypes single crosses of 704, 700, 640, 540, 500, and 260 were at subplots. Results analysis of variance showed that for traits of plant height, leaf area, ear length and diameter, grain per row, grain per ear, wood ear weight, 100-kernel weight, harvest index, total dry matter, grain yield and shoot weight under drought stress, genotypes and interaction between them were significantly differences (p≤0.05). Single crosses of 640 and 704 with 3458 and 3442g/m2 grain yield at well-watered had the highest amounts and single crosses of 500 and 700 with 1430 and 1406g/m2 at drought stress of flowering stage were the lowest values. Indices of STI, GMP, MP, and HAR identified genotypes of 640, 540 with 1917 and 2162g/m2 grain yield as tolerant, and single cross 700 with 1512g/m2 as a sensitive genotype. HAR index had significant positive correlation with grain yield under drought stress (r=0.91**) and it was the best index for identifying drought tolerance genotypes. Principal component analysis showed that two first components explained more than 95% of variations. Also MP and TOL indices with 82% and 77% had the highest coefficients at the first and second components, respectively.

  35. Emmanuel Njungab, René Oum Lissouck, Hyppolyte Ntede Ngah, Régis Pommier, Louis Max Ayina Ohandja, Joseph Noah Ngamveng†

    Green gluing of ayous (triplochiton scleroxylon) and frake (terminalia superba) from Cameroon was investigated. Two room temperature curing glues namely resorcinol-phenol-formaldehyde (RPF) and one component polyurethane (1C-PU) were used. Each wood species was conditioned at various moisture contents and their influence on bond linesshear strength assessed. Block shear specimens for RPF were tested dry (in tropical conditions). Wood glued with 1C-PU was tested dry, cold soaked and vacuum- pressure treated. Delamination rates were measured.Results showed a high wood failure rate and a good ultimate shear strength with RPF when the wood moisture content (MC) is below the saturation point (13- 25% MC). The shear strength of both samples decreased with increasing moisture content. A trend of good compatibility of the two woods (single and mixed) is observed with 1C-PU for high moisture content. Slightly delamination of 2.4% was observed (minimum requirement 10%) and all species specimens developed high shear strength with high wood failure percentage.The 1C-PU appeared to be the most qualified adhesive for tropical green wood.

  36. Sasaka Peter Situma

    This paper examines the role of culture in organizational performance. It is a research carried out using the secondary data done by different researchers. The main objective of the study is to assess the roles culture play in the performance of an organization. The elements of corporate culture were identified as business environment, values, heroes, rites and rituals, cultural network, norms, artifacts and basic assumptions. Similarly, the elements of cultural web were noted as rituals, stories, symbols, power structures, cultural systems and organizational structure. The development and layers of organizational structure were also explored. This paper concludes that culture plays the roles of: an asset aspect of; easing communication, facilitating organizational decision making and facilitating cooperation and productivity; and a liability aspect, when important shared beliefs and values interferes with the needs of the organization and its customers. Thus, if actual behavior matches the required, the more effectively and productively the individuals of the organization accomplish their objectives. However, if the behavioral patterns are inconsistent with the needs, values and skills of organization members, dysfunctional consequences develop leading to poor performance. This paper recommends that management in organizations should aggressively ensure awareness and internalization of the company values to all employees. Management should, similarly, take the lead role in shaping and changing the weak culture into appropriate culture via role modeling and mentoring. In furtherance, culture should be enhanced because it is a key resource.

  37. Mariechel J. Navarro, Kristine Natividad-Tome, Sophia Mercado and Jenny Panopio

    The mass media is the primary source of information on science and technology for the layman. How cartoonists “define” a science concept or issue for instance can contribute significantly to how the public forms an opinion about a topic that is not known or clear. Hence, this study was conducted to determine how cartoonists in Philippine national newspapers “define” crop biotechnology. A sample of cartoons published during 2000-2009 was analyzed as to message, tone, and use of frame and symbols. Complementing this study was a parallel analysis of 75 cartoons that were submitted to BiotechToons, a contest for cartoonists on biotechnology, in 2011. Majority of cartoons in the initial years of biotech reporting were generally negative in tone, preferred the fear appeal, used exaggeration in the absence of concrete products, and unfamiliarity with the concept. They often reflected the articles they accompanied. With the commercialization of a biotech crop in 2003, cartoons were more positive in perspective, highlighting the technology’s benefits. The availability of science-based sources enabled cartoonists to have a broader view of the technology framed to highlight benefits and its impact on farmers and consumers.

  38. Sujith P. Dr. S. Ramachandran and Dr. A. K. Ravishankar

    Background: Migration is found to be an important transmission mode of HIV infection mainly through unsafe sex with Female Sex Workers. Many workers have chances and choices to get FSWs. If sex behaviour is unsafe with FSWs, there will be more likely for HIV risk. Keeping the above in view, an attempt is made to find the relationship between the marital status and Female sex workers contact of male workers in hotels of Chennai and Madurai Districts of Tamil Nadu. Methods: The data base of this study is ICSSR-funded research project on Sexual behaviour and HIV risk among hotel male migrant worker in Tamil Nadu: An assessment. The sample respondents (581) with their marital status have been chosen for this study purpose. Results: The respondents who have ever had sex with Female Sex Workers in last one year prior to this study constitute about 21.3 percent, among them 48.4 percent are married 51.6 are single respondents. Single respondents have more multiple FSW partners than married. Condom used is very less among married respondents than single while the sexual encounter with FSWs. Conclusion: In conclusion, the pattern of migration influences premarital/extramarital sexual behaviour of the migrant labourers and enhances HIV risk chances through unsafe sex in an absence of condom use. In addition to a focus on high risk group, it could also be extended to improve the knowledge and enhance access to services to the general population and rural population. This will put the programme on the right track.

  39. A. Kasthuri, A. Peter Pascal Regis, S Arivoli and V Marim

    The research of the present work was to investigate the removal of Chromium ion from aqueous solution by using Abutilon Indicum (AAAI). Generally, metal ions are used in chemical, textile, paper, printing, leather, plastics and various food industries. The need for the treatment of metal ion contaminated waste water passed out from the industry. In this study, Abutilon Indicum was studied for its potential use as an adsorbent for removal of Chromium ions. The various factors affecting adsorption, such as initial metal ion concentration, contact time, adsorbent dose and effect of temperature, were evaluated. The experimental data were fitted into the pseudo-second order kinetic model. The equilibrium of adsorption was modeled by using the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. The objective of the present work suggests the AAAI may be utilized as a low cost adsorbent for Chromium ions removal from aqueous solution.

  40. Afef Hajaji Nasraoui Aslam Djellouli and Mouhiba Ben Nasri-Ayachi

    The aim of the present study was to compare the antioxidant system of two algae harvested from the Tunisian north costal region. Also we searched a potential resource of new antioxidant compounds, which can be used in health field or for food quality determination. Two Mediterranean, green and vigour algae: Codium bursa (Olivi) C. Agardh and Caulerpa racemosa var. cylindracea (Sonder) Verlaque, Huisman and Boudouresque were chosen for this purpose. The two species belonging to the Ulvaceae, grew in Sidi Raies a coastal region in Tunisia. Activities of antioxidant enzymes [superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (APX)]; carotenoïds as well as chlorophylls (a and b) and protein soluble contents were determined. Our result indicated that there are an important accumulation of carotenoids and chlorophylls; furthermore, the activities of antioxidant enzymes SOD, CAT and APX showed a positive correlation with antioxidant content in the two algae, revealing that they were resistant to the growth medium conditions. But in the other hand, all their antioxidants products and enzymatic activities were higher in Codium bursa than in Caulerpa racemosa means that Codium bursa had higher resistance to the medium thus it could be a good model for culture and production of healthy, useful, such as carotenoids.

  41. Mustafa Shah, G., Ulfat Jan and Mohammad Raashid Wani

    Survey of avian fauna in Dachigam national park, Srinagar, Kashmir was conducted from October 2010 to September 2011. A total of 111 species belonging to 80 genera, 14 orders and 35 families were recorded. Out of these: 74 were resident, 6 were winter visitor, 21 were summer visitor and 10 were local altitudinal migrants. The prominent bird species include wagtails, kingfishers, bulbuls, doves, crows, warblers, chats, thrushes, woodpeckers, flycatchers, tits, magpie, sparrows and buntings. Bird species diversity (Shannon- Weiner Formula) was highest during summer (4.19) followed by spring (4.12). Autumn (3.81) and winter (3.64) seasons witnessed relatively less diversity.

  42. Pavan Kumar, G. V. S. R., Sreeramamurty, B., Sarma, N. V. L. N. and Harsh Vardhan, T.

    The present study is aimed at making a comparative study of the direct spectrophotometric determination of 5-nitroimidazoles such as metronidazole, ornidazole, tinidazole, secnidazole and satranidazole with 0.5% sulphanilamide and 0.3% NEDA. Each of the drug samples was boiled for 90 minutes at a temperature of 90oC followed by the treatment with the reagents 0.5% sulphanilamide and 0.3% NEDA. It exhibited a stable instantaneous reddish purple, colour, which showed maximum absorbance at 540nm. With each of the above mentioned drug samples, the same colour was observed and the maximum absorbance was at 540nm for all. Beer’s law obedience, correlation factor, stability, LOD and LOQ were given below for a comparative study.

  43. Golam Mostafa

    Riverine plains are gifted with regular supply of water and silts inevitable for the sustenance of the existing functioning of the ecosystems. Periodic floods sometimes proved beneficial to those ecosystems which human had long adjustments for production activities. The abandoned courses of river play the role of inundation canals with capacity either to carry water to the low lying wetlands or to hold the excess water for a longer time from which water for irrigation during dry spells could be available. These types of inundation canals were made with human efforts in some places both to control flood, irrigate crop fields and pisciculture. These channels may become dry after complete eutrophication as a result of the degradation of the channels with frequent disruption, extension of cultivable lands, diversions, constructions of culverts, bridges and roads. The district of Hugli in West Bengal is a part of the lower Ganga plain, of which 12 mouzas of Polba-Dadpur and Singur CD Blocks have been selected for micro level study on impacts of degradation of water channels on environment and people. The area had experienced the changes in the status of river channels with decreased water holding capacity, shortages in supply of water on the one hand and siltation of water courses, eutrophication of water bodies, extension of agricultural land, wanton diversion of channels, construction of culverts etc. by narrowing the channels on the other. These activities have brought in effects on the ecology and economy of the area. This paper attempts to investigate the factors and processes of channel diversion, to identify the changes in the physical and social environment and to analyze the impacts of those changes with appropriate methodology and information collect from the field.

  44. Imtiyaz Tali, Zahoor Pir, Anis Siddiqui, Shailendra Sharma

    Ephemeroptera is an important group of insects used in the bioassessment and monitoring of freshwater bodies worldwide because of their relative abundance in a wide variety of substrates and their increasing chances of detecting pollution impacts. In present study limnological studies on various sampling sites of river Narmada were carried out from August 2009 to July 2010 to enumerate the diversity of mayfly fauna. Four sampling sites viz; Punasa dam (Narmada Nagar), Omkareshwar, Khalgat and Koteshwar (Barwani) were sampled quantitatively. During present investigation, 17 species comprising of 6 families were recorded including Baetidae, Ephemerdae, Heptageniidae and Leptophlebiidae.

  45. Ayesha Sulthana, Balasubramanian S., and Latha K. C.

    Stochastic Models have been used to analyze the inflow rate of wastewater to the sewage treatment plant (STP) of Southern Mysore. Based on the daily inflow data of 217 days (November 2011 to June 2012), many possible combinations of the orders ‘p’ and ‘q’ were made with the differencing one (d=1). On the basis of diagnostic check, ARIMA (1, 1, 2) was selected which has a combination of significant R – square value of 0. 899 and a least Normalized Bayesian information Criterion (BIC) value of 1.681. Linear regression model applied to the observed inflow and the predicted values of inflow obtained by the ARIMA model showed positive linear correlation. Forecasted inflow rate was high for 300 days, which infers that the future designs for STP may need modification to accommodate the high inflow and since the series has no seasonal trend, an average inflow may also occur for some days.

  46. Ramachandran S., and Velraj, G.

    In the present study, the molecular structure, vibrational and electronic analyses of 3-(4-fluorobenzoyl) propionic acid (34FBPA, C10H9FO3) were presented using experimental techniques (FT-IR, FT-Raman and UV-VIS) and density functional theory (DFT) employing B3LYP exchange correlation with the 6-31G(d)basis set. FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra were recorded in the regions of 4000–400 cm−1 and 4000–100 cm−1, respectively. The UV–VIS absorption spectra of the compound that dissolved in ethanol and water solution were recorded in the range of 190–400 nm. The lower value in the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and lowest unoccupied orbital (LUMO) energy gap explains the eventual charge transfer interactions taking place within the molecule. The UV-VIS spectral analysis of 34FBPA has been calculated by theoretically in order to understand the electronic transitions of the compound, time-dependent DFT (TD-DFT) calculations on electronic absorption spectra in solvents (water and ethanol) were performed. The calculated frontier orbital energies (FMO), molecular electrostatic potential (MEP), absorption wavelengths (), oscillator strengths (f) and excitation energies (E) for solvent are also illustrated. Thermodynamic properties (heat capacity, entropy and enthalpy) of the title compound at different temperatures were calculated. Finally, the calculation results were compared with measured infrared and Raman spectra of the title compound which show good agreement with the observed spectra.

  47. Vaishali Balajiwale and Dr. Suchita Kochargaonkar

    Adolescence and identity crisis is a much discussed phenomena. In Indian culture adolescents stay at home and with parents till or even after they become adults. It is therefore assumed that home environment plays an important role in the life of an adolescent. The present study attempts to explore the relation between home environment and identity crisis of adolescents if any. In the present study, standardized tests were administered to obtain the scores on self image of students (considered as one of the indicator of identity crisis) and scores on different aspects of home environement. Based on the results of the study, it was observed that home environment of the adolescents does not play any significant role on their identity crisis. They are able to cope well with families and live rather comfortably with them and that does not become a causal factor for identity crisis.

  48. Manohar G. Gavit, Mohd. Shahnawaz, Manisha K. Sangale, Halimabi A. Kureshi and Avinash B. Ade

    Pune city is one of the emerging cities of the Modern India. Three major rivers (Pavana, Mula and Mutha) are flowing through this city. All the domestic sewage, industrial effluents and solid waste find its way to these rivers via channels which affect the quality of flowing water and also creating health problems. In the present study an attempt has been made to assess the flowing water pollution in the Pune city. 14 physicochemical parameters were analyzed. Among the two rivers, Mutha was found highly polluted.

  49. Febina Bernice Sharon S., Priscilla Sweetlin G., Sasikala S., Anbumani V., Subathra R.

    Due to wide industrial use, chromium and copper are considered as serious environmental pollutants. Hexavalent chromium is one of the heavy metal and it was found to cause variety of clinical problems like asthma, pneumonitis, bronchogenic carcinoma, skin allergies and so on. Cu toxicity also causes problems like abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, headache, diarrhoea, respiratory difficulties, anaemia, gastrointestinal bleeding, kidney failure and death. Plants are becoming more efficient producers of food, fiber and medicines. Apart from these conventional uses, biotechnology unlocks the doors to unique uses of plants that are gaining greater acceptance and attention from the people and the scientific community. These are called ‘‘value-added’’ uses include phytoremediation and hence the objective of the present study is to explore the full potential of plant tissue culture techniques to study the metal tolerance in whole plant in culture. The model plant system used in this study is a cultivated variety of mustard, groundnut and the metal that had been used is Chromium and Copper in six different concentrations.

  50. Tawba Kalai, Abdellileh Chaoui, Khalil Khamassi, Jaime A., Teixeira da Silva, M’barek Ben Naceur, Houda Gouia, and Leila Bettaieb Ben-Kaab

    To assess Cd and Cu phytotoxicity, experiments focusing on germination of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. var. ‘Manel’) seeds were germinated for two days in a solution containing CdCl2 (25, 50 and 100 µM) or CuSO4 (100, 300 and 500 µM) . The growth of radicles and shoots decreased while the water content in stressed seeds remained near control values. A decline in α-amylase, acid phosphatase and alkaline phosphatase activities was also observed in endosperms while β-amylase activity was only slightly modified by heavy-metal treatments. However, Cd and Cu increased lipid peroxydation, enhanced soluble protein and sugar content even at the lowest dose and induced a significant accumulation of proline essentially in radicles. These results suggest that the inhibition of seed germination after exposure to Cd or Cu is not the consequence of reduced water uptake by seed tissues but may be due to a failure in reserve mobilization from the endosperm.

  51. Sanya Emile A., Ahouannou Clément, Chaffa Gédéon and Soumanou M. Mohamed

    The promotion of groundnut sector in Benin required not only the usual seeds oil extraction, but also high-priced exploitation of rejected seeds cake. This residue entered manufacture of patties locally called kluiklui particularly prized by populations. Those fritters/patties were obtained at the end of frying of defatted dough of crushed seeds. The mastery of qualitative characteristics and industrial parameters for manufacturing groundnut patties ought to expand consumption range at regional and international levels generating more incomes throughout increasing foreign exchanges. This paper dealt with exploration and determination of patties physical and mechanical characteristics linked to crunchy descriptors and induced effects of adding crude maize flour to defatted groundnut cake. Obtained results showed that, incorporating maize flour at reasonable percentages 5 to 10% (mass basis) rose in patties crunchy quality improvement. However, recorded high value of remnant moisture 8.74-13.55% (dry basis) disclosed that the fried-patties required further drying. Moreover, the low break strength of maize mixed patties well confirmed their crusty behavior compared with those ensuing from pure defatted cake. Combining the previous two properties obviously indicated that actual conditions of patties production were unfavorable neither to a sustainable conservation nor to handling and transport.

  52. Sajad H. Wani, Asif amin, Shahnawaz N. Sofi, Taseem A. Mokhdomi, 1Shoiab Bukhari, Qazi Parvaiz Hassan and Raies A. Qadri

    A simple HPLC-UV-DAD method was developed for rapid identification and quantitation of tectorigenin in five species of genus Iris viz Iris crocea, Iris ensata, Iris germanica, Iris kashmeriana and Iris spuria growing wild in Kashmir valley. The analysis was performed by using Chromolith RP-18e analytical column (5 μm; 4.6 mm × 100 mm) at isocratic elution of methanol and water (30:70, v/v) with diode array detection at 265nm. The calibration curve showed good linearity (r2 > 0.998) within test ranges and recoveries were 98.2 to 101.2%. The optimized method was successfully applied for the analysis of tectorigenin in 12 samples of five species of Iris collected from different eco-geographical zones. The tectorigenin content in investigated samples was greatly variant ranging from 1.08% to 8.84% with a maximum in Iris germanica collected from Gulmarg region of Kashmir valley. The method established in this paper is simple and reliable and could easily be used for the qualitative analysis of tectorigenin in Iris species. Furthermore, to evaluate anti-cancer properties, different concentrations of tectorigenin were tested against colon cancer cell line, Caco-2 using MTT cell proliferation assay. The results showed a prominent growth inhibition in a concentration dependent manner with maximum inhibition at a concentration of 100µM.

  53. Rachna Bhateria and Rajesh Dhankhar

    The present study utilizes two indigenous bacterial strains Salmonella sp. S1 and S2 for biotransformation of Cr(VI) into Cr(III). The interactive effect of three crucial operating parameters via pH, temperature and initial Cr(VI) ion concentration were studied. The experiments were designed using Box-Behnken matrix and Response surface methodology. For the construction of quadratic model, total seventeen experiments were conducted for the two bacterial strains. The coefficient of determination (R2) value 0.9452 and 0.9483, model F- value 13.39 and 14.26 and its low P-value (F < 0.0012 and F < 0.0010) in Salmonella sp. S1 and S2 respectively confirmed the fitness of response surface quadratic model. The regression equation coefficients were calculated and the data fitted to second order polynomial equation in both Salmonella sp. S1 and S2.

  54. Karuppasamy A., Mathivanan V. and Selvisabhanayakam

    Shrimp culture in ponds has been one of the major sources of livelihoods for the fish farmers whereas shrimp disease is the most serious problem that the farmers have been facing. Although shrimp farming has been quite successful and the technology has continually improved, it has caused some environmental damage such as eutrophication, sedimentation in coastal area, chemical bioaccumulation in waterborne and deleterious pond bottom soil. In the present study fluctuation of pH ratio was between 7.9 and 8.8 in the early morning, while fluctuation of pH value was between 8.0 and 8.4 in the station 1 and 7.5 to 8.2 in the station 2. In station 1 DO values fluctuated varied between 5.5 mg/l and 3.5 mg/l in the morning and between 5.5 mg/l to 6.5 mg/l in the evening and in the station 2 DO values vary from 2.7 to 5.5 in the morning and 5.0 to 7.0 mg/l in the evening. The high survival rate was recorded in station 2 (70%) and the low survival was recorded in station 1 (70%). Maximum production was station 1 and 2 was 31grm, 37grms respectively. The highest microbial load recorded in the station 1 was 150 and station 2 was 80. The present study confirming that, if we maintain the microbial population and water quality parameters in proper way, definitely famers can achieve their production and profit.

  55. Mothilal Yuvaraja P., Ramanujam N., Prasad P. and Vignesh A.

    Foraminifera unicellular protozoan whose high level taxonomical studies are based on shell mineralogy can be categorized into four groups as taxa with organic shell, agglutinated taxa, calcareous perforate taxa and calcareous imperforate and habituating in marine environments such as coral reef and mangrove. For the present study benthic foraminifer fauna has been collected in the Van veen grab sampler in the Sosistris Bay and North Bay of Port Blair India. These reef dwelling foraminifera host algal symbionts have substantial promise as indicators of coral reef vitality because physiological analogies between coral and foraminifera require similar environmental conditions. To study the Shell abnormalities such as stunted foraminifera shells, abnormal wall structures and shell deformation, mineralogical projection, micro borings, pitted surface, calcification anomalies, dissolution and shell deformation in foraminifera the light microscopic SEM and EDAX studies are carried out. The basic finding of the study reveals that shell abnormalities are common in foraminifers’ species. More than three morphological anomalous found in the peneroplis genus .The high frequency of morphological anomalies of foraminifera indicates that the abnormities are associated with induction of heavy metals such as Zn, Fe, Pb and Zn into crystalline frame work of foraminifera shell. Heavy metal contamination of the environmental conditions including geochemical habitat or human influence. Pervasiveness of such features indicates that these foraminifera and its impact in marine environment. The main pollutants are chemical like heavy metals, organic sewage, nutrients, and hydrocarbons and physical like thermal, and oil.

  56. Vikas Sharma, Swastika Banthia

    Nanobiotechnology is emerging day by day in the today’s technology. Here we are giving the different synthesis procedures of silver nanoparticles and the results of their characterization. All the particles obtained shows nearly similar characteristics. Plant mediated , Algae mediated and fungal mediated are the three different souces taken here. Finally applications of these nanoparticles are mentioned. These nanoparticles are quite impressive and have wide bandwidth of applications.

  57. Bentina Alawari Mathias

    The biological basis for women’s insecurity is their relative physical weakness and their major role as the gender responsible for the survival of the human race. These make them incapable of self defense in the face of stronger sex. This paper examined the role of women in National Security. It utilized secondary data from books, journals, write-ups by International Organizations to buttress the fact that women have always played significant roles in national security despite hindrances by culture and religion. Finally, the paper tries to outline the unique roles of women in national security which encompasses food security, economic security and political security and recommended the creation of a Ministry of Peace and Conflict Resolution which will be headed by a woman in order to reduce insecurity in the nation.

  58. Dr. Sunil Kumar Jena, Dr. Kanhu Charan Purohit, and Dr. Akshaya Kumar Misra

    Cigarette smoking is associated with development and progression of numerous chronic diseases worldwide. In India smoking is a common habit in both rural and urban areas. Cigarette smoking is associated with alterations in inflammatory markers among smokers and it causes various effects on body including blood. It is well recognized that smoking is one of the most important factors contributing to the evolution of atherosclerosis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The aim of this study was the smoking habits and its effect on blood parameters like Total Leukocyte Count, Differential Leukocyte Count, Total Red Blood Cell Count, Hemoglobin concentration and Packed Cell Volume. In this study 50 adult healthy male smokers and 50 adult healthy male non-smokers aged 30 to 60 year were taken from locality of Burla town, Sambalpur, Odisha. The smoker and nonsmoker groups were identified by self implemented questionnaire which was filled by the subjects . TLC, TRBC, Hb, PCV, Eosinophils, Lymphocytes were increased and Neutrophils and Monocytes were decreased in light smoker and heavy smoker in comparison to nonsmoker.

  59. Dr. Anil Kumar Jha

    Most of India’s people, and most of its poor, still live in rural India. The burden of disease and its effects are disproportionately seen in the poor, with a clear ingredient in illness and mortality. There is a crisis in rural heath scenario in India and Bihar. There is widely prevalent myth that people in rural areas have small health problems which can be addressed by a minimally staffed and equipped heath centre. This paper completely debunks this illusion. People have a bewildering diversity of problems from HIV disease, advanced tuberculosis to severe malaria, uncontrolled diabetes with a low body weight and a badly infected wound to cancer of the cervix, a B.P. of 240/140 diagnosed for the first time in life. Delayed healthcare seeking because of difficulties of physical access, dissatisfaction with non-functioning or poorly functioning public health facilities, irrational care by an unqualified practitioner have further compounded the rural health scenario. The most disturbing and alarming observation is the Casteism factor impacting the government’s rural health programs in Bihar. This paper analyzes how rural people appreciate, complain and experience health, environment and their hygiene. The study was carried out in villages of remote border district of Madhubani in Bihar with prime objectives to assess and observe the heath status and family history of the people by Survey research method. Information and data were collected by personal interview during random visits to the village with the assistance and guidance of a qualified medical practitioner.

  60. Arif Ahmad Shah and Harshit Kumar

    The study was carried out In Phagwara Tehsil of Punjab to determine various physical and chemical parameters from Industrial effluents. The industrial effluents are thrown into the river Kali baien through Gandanala. Midstream samples were collected for analysis from phagwara to Khera. The samples were analyzed for temperature, E.C, Turbidity, PH, total hardness, Dissolved Oxygen, COD and Alkalinity. Temperature was recorded to ± 0.10C accuracy, immediately after collecting the samples. The temperature varies from 6oc to 38oc during December to May. The variation in temperature was mainly related with temperature of atmosphere and weather condition. E.C was measured by digital conductivity meter which varied from 0.807 (mhos/cm) to 1.748 (mhos/cm). The higher value of E.C indicates a larger quantity of dissolved mineral salts thereby making it sour and unsuitable for use. The turbidity values of sample varied from 38.3 NTU to 58.4 NTU. The higher value of turbidity indicates the presence of suspended particles. The PH ranged from 7.1 to 7.9. The organic pollution was mild as indicated by D.O (6.4 – 7.7 mg/l) and BOD (5.3 – 6.5 mg/l). But the highest value of COD ranged between 27.0 mg/l to as high as 40.7mg/l indicates industrial pollution. Total hardness values varied from 178 to 229 mg/l that makes the water unsuitable for domestic uses. The total solids determined ranged between 335 to 445 mg/l. It increases turbidity and electrical conductivity. Alkalinity values ranged from 167 to 217 mg/l. The higher values are due to discharge of industrial effluents upstream.

  61. Thangadurai, R., Ravimycin, T. and Lenin, M.

    In the present investigation, 140 species of phytoplankton belonging to 4 classes, viz., Cyanophyceae, Chlorophyceae, Bacillariophyceae and Euglenophyceae were recorded. They belonged to 46 genera and 11 orders. Among the phytoplankton population, Bacillariophyceae constituted 40%, followed by Chlorophyceae (30%), Cyanophyceae (20%) and Euglenophyceae (10%). The Bacillariophyceae was the dominant group of the phytoplankton population in all the stations followed by Chlorophyceae, Cyanophyceae and Euglenophyceae. The main reason for the high Bacillariophyceae population (40%) was rich nutrient and high temperature found in the tank. A total of 19 species belonging to 14 genera (Oscillatoria, Anabaena, Ankistrodesmus, Chlorella, Pediastrum, Scnedesmus, Tetraedron, Gomphonema, Navicula, Nitzschia, Synedra, Euglena, Phacus and Coelastrum) were recorded in all the stations. The maximum species was recorded in S-3 and S-4 due to the pollution status in this station.

  62. Mamta Mehra

    Sustaining agriculture and food security in the face of serious and widespread problems of resource degradation and more ominous climate change related issues has emerged as a major challenge of the present century. In the past most interventions to enhance agriculture have aimed at improving crop yields through the supply of seed improved cultivation and inputs and little consideration has been given to sustainable resource use management. A small study was conducted in the Mewat district of Haryana, India with an objective to examine is as to what extent the past agricultural development efforts and technological interventions has benefitted the region considering the associated impact which these interventions entailed on the state of natural resources. The study has clearly indicated that past agricultural development has significantly impacted natural resource base of the region specifically groundwater and the soils of the region. Thus it has been observed that declining availability and quality of ground water resource, widespread problem of soil degradation, lack of fodder and feed resource for the livestock, and fuel for household would appear the key entry points where the activities of different agencies must complement to yield sustainable gains in livelihood opportunities.

  63. Shivaji B. Bole, Nargund L. V. G, Shantharam U, and Vedamurthy, A. B.

    Series of 5-amino-N-(substituted phenyl)-1-(substituted)-3-[(3-chloro-4-fluorophenyl) amino]-1H-pyrazole-4-carboxamide. Were synthesized from N-(3-chloro-4-fluorophenyl)-2-cyanoa 3, 3 Bis methyl sulfonyl acrylamide using various hydrazines. All the synthesized compounds were characterized by physical data (M.P. & TLC) and spectral Data (IR & 1H NMR). The synthesized compounds were screened for in vitro anti-inflammatory activity by using Diclofenac sodium as standard of concentration (100µg/0.1mL). And in vitro antioxidant activity (300µg/mL). A few of the compounds gave promising results.

  64. Mothilal Yuvaraja, P. and Ramanujam N.

    Foraminifer a single shelled protozoan whose high level taxonomical studies are based on shell mineralogy can be categorized into four groups as taxa with organic shell, agglutinated taxa, calcareous perforate taxa and calcareous imperforate and habituating in marine and mangrove environments. For the present study benthic foraminifer fauna has been collected in the Van veen grab sampler in the Sosistris Bay, North Bay, Aberdeen jetty, Chidyatapu, and Wandoor of Port Blair India. To study the Shell abnormalities such as stunted foraminifera shells, abnormal wall structures and shell deformation, mineralogical projection, micro borings, pitted surface, calcification anomalies, dissolution and shell deformation in foraminifera the light microscopic SEM and EDAX studies are carried out. The basic finding of the study reveals that shell abnormalities are common in foraminifers’ species.

  65. Fozia Bashir, Nayyar Azim M., Nafisa Akhter and Gousia Muzaffar

    The aphid B.brassicae is a key pest of various cruciferous crops like cabbage, cauliflower, kale and other such Brassica species. The objective of the present work was to evaluate the effect of texture/morphology of two cruciferous crops viz. cauliflower and turnip on the biology of B.brassicae under natural conditions of temperature and humidity. The mean developmental period, reproductive period, adult longevity and total longevity so recorded were subjected to t-test. The developmental period on turnip was recorded as (9.91 days) and on cauliflower as (8.75 days). The reproductive period on cauliflower and turnip was recorded 18.8 and 4.29 days respectively. Similarly the adult longevity on cauliflower was recorded as (20.98 days) and on turnip as (6.17 days). The total longevity on cauliflower and turnip was recorded as 28.92 and14.88 days respectively. The results revealed significant differences in the biological parameters of B.brassicae on cauliflower and turnip. The differences in the biological parameters in cauliflower and turnip can be attributed to differences in nutritional quality, physiology and morphological structure of the host plants.

  66. P. Guha

    Perishability, nature of different variety of tea urges proper and timely marketing for minimizing the loss in producer’s side and maximizing the benefit in consumer’s side. Over the century, auction has served as a better price discovery mechanisms as well as media for marketing of bulk tea shrouded with transparency. However, significant change has emerged in the auction system in recent years when compared with the earlier century. The period of India’s economic reform has brought changes in marketing of tea through GTAC but such changes has been less successful in revival of its performance in terms of price and quantity of tea sold their compared with earlier decade.

  67. Quenum C. Alphonse, Kossou C. Toussaint, Assoudo Abdoulaye, Ahouannou Clément, Sanya Emile A., Mezrhab Ahmed, and Feidt Michel

    This article is devoted to modeling the mechanism of fouling in heat exchangers plates unsteady. The used simulation is based on the monitoring of the evolution of the ice at the changing phase (solidification) in water flowing in a rectangular section pipe, externally cooled. Cooling is done so that the heat exchange coefficient is uniform between coolant in a turbulent flow and the wall. The problem, numerically solved by finite difference method, provided results that allowed the exploration of the effects of the most relevant parameters such as the coefficient overheated liquid, Biotand Reynolds numbers, the axial position, the cooling mode and temperature, the evolution of the ice layer simulating the deposit of dirt.

  68. Ranjan, R., Patil, V. N., Joshi. A. R., Kamble, S. R., Chaudhary, V. R. and Deokule, S. S.

    Tridax procumbens Linn. is an important medicinal plant known as ‘akdandi’ used as an It is used as an antidiabetic, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory. The species is also well known in ayurvedic medicine for wound healing (R.Nia et al.).. The species is also well known in ayurvedic medicine for liver disorder. The present paper reveals the botanical standardization on the stem of T. procumbens. The pharmacognostic studies includes the phytochemistry, histochemistry, microscopic, macroscopic evaluation, percentage extractives, ash and acid insoluble ash, fluorescence analysis and estimation of polyphenol. The phytochemical and histochemical test includes starch, proteins, saponins, alkaloids, glycosides, sugar and flavonoid.





  69. Uniyal, A. K., Bhat, R. A., Wani, R. S. and Dar, M. A.

    Allelopathic effect of 3-agroforestry tree spp (Salix alba L., Juglans regia L., and Populus ciliata Wall. ex Royle) on germination and seedling growth of 4-crops (Zea mays L., Phaseolus radiata L. Hepper, Cicer arietinum L. and Brassica nigra (L) Koch) was evaluated The aqueous extracts < 5 % concentration of Populus ciliata, stimulated the germination and seedling growth of some crops (Brassica nigra and Zea mays), but > 5% concentration caused inhibition. Salix alba and Juglans regia aqueous extracts significantly inhibited the germination and seedling growth growth of only Cicer arietinum. All test crops were affected at high concentrations of aqueous extracts, while lower concentration of leaf and bark extracts/mulch (Populus ciliata) stimulated the growth of Brassica nigra and Zea mays. The suitability of trees for agroforestry based on laboratory and field trials followed the order: Populus ciliata > Juglans regia > Salix alba and the order of agriculture field crops preference is: Brassica nigra > Zea mays > Phaseolus radiatus > Cicer arietinum.

  70. Anu. S, Deepashree G. H. Math, Shruthi .S, Vandana Singh, Shivaji Bole, Sam Balu, and Vedamurthy, A. B.

    Fruit extract of Piper longum (Pipericeae) are used in India for reducing oxidative stress and also for its anti-bacterial activity. The objective of this study is to investigate the phytochemical constituents. Phytochemical screening of Piper longum fruit powder in different organic solvent revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids. Antioxidant activities were evaluated by using In-vitro antioxidant assay models like phospho-molybdenum and reducing power assay. Anti-bacterial activity was evaluated using streptomycin as a standard against E.coli ATCC (LB M1655) to find MIC value of crude extract. The ethanolic extract showed maximum anti-bacterial activity. The percentage of antioxidant activity by phospho-molybdenum assay was in the order acetone>ethanol> water> petroleum ether. The results obtained in this study showed that the fruits of Piper longum have antioxidative and anti-bacterial properties which provide a basis for the traditional use of the plant. The maximum values of both antioxidative and anti-bacterial activity and was found to be 300 µg/mL (acetone extract) and 200 µg/mL (ethanol extract) respectively.

  71. Vinoth S. Ravindran and S. Rajesh

    Punnakayal is a mangrove ecosystem located in the south east coast of India where Thamirabarani River joins the Arabian Sea. Mangroves especially Avicennia sp. are abundant and domestic waste, fish waste, human and animal excreta are disposed in this region. The present investigation was carried out to find out the changes in physicochemical including heavy-metal concentration in the Punnakayal estuary of Tuticorin coast. Among the various parameters, salinity and electrical conductivity are low; turbidity was high during monsoon due to the river run off. Nutrients and heavy metal are found to be well within limits of nominal coastal ecosystems.

  72. Thanabalan P., Suresh T., Jayalakshmi, S. and Madhavan, N.

    This study involves comparison and validation of Top Of Atmosphere (TOA) radiance of OCEANSAT-2,OCM sensor derived from 6S radiative transfer model with insitu TOA. The 6S is to derive total radiance (Lt), by applying suitable atmospheric corrections, to remove the errors occurs due to gaseous absorption and molecular & aerosols scattering effects suggested by (T.Suresh, 2006). The in-situ measurements were taken coastal water off Goa, (15° 25 N and 73° 43 E). The in-situ instrument called hyperspectral Radiometer is used to measure the geophysical parameters which proves an significant improvement for comparison with derived OCM2 ocean color data products, (e.g., pigments, suspended sediments, CDOM, chlorophyll etc). The TOA radiances for all bands determined using 6S are found to be well correlated with the TOA radiances extracted from the L1B_GAC data of OCM2 are described in the following graphs. The total radiance (Lt) derived from OCM-2 is found to be under estimated and overestimated for particular spectral bands. Such small differences are in the first two wavelength bands, especially 412 nm and 443nm, occur quite often and are reasonable, are shown in the perspective graphs. Statistics analysis of Coefficient of Determination (R2) and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) provides numerical analysis, perform a graphical criteria such as an indication on the non-linear behavior of the fit. The RMSE value obtained from the sampling points are 17.96, 11.10, and 9.20 respectively. Similarly a R2 value obtained from the sampling points are 0.883, 0.875, and 0.849 respectively. Thus TOA is made for comparison and validate for chlorophyll estimation. Due to the small number of data points the significance of the comparison with the in-situ data is limited. Nevertheless, the validation of OCM2 data is clearly positive. Thus the data analyses in this study provide an important baseline for optical information of the coastal waters off the Goa.

  73. Deivanayagam, C. Rajasekar, S. Asokan, S. and Suganthy, K.

    The present study was planned to compare the histopathological and residual effects of the lufenuron on the liver and kidney of albino mice. Administration of dosage 0.8 unit to albino mice with one-tenth of their median lethal dose for three months (day by day), the toxicants were withdrawn for 60 days to allow recovery from toxicity. The histopatholoical investigation indicated that the dose caused venous congestion in the liver, focal necrosis of hepatocyates in the portal and periportal areas. Many of the hepatocytes are pale-stained and a few exhibit early vacuolation. Also, several cells show histological features of necrosis. Kidney exhibited inflammatory cell infiltration, congestion and hypercellularity of the glomeruli. The HPLC examination indicated residual effect in liver and kidney. This study showed that lufenuron caused histopathological effects in liver and kidney tissues even after the recovery period. The histopathological changes are due to residual effects of lufenuron in liver and kidney.

  74. Deivanayagam, C. Rajasekar, S. Asokan, S. and Suganthy, K.

    This work aims to disclosing the capability of the well known insecticide Match N-[2,5-dichloro-4-(1,1,2,3,3,3,-hexafluoro-propoxy)-(phenyl)amino]carbonyl]-2,6-difluorobenzamide (CA)that is widely used for controlling certain fruit and leaf caterpillars in inducing. The results also showed that Match has a capability to interfere with spindle fibers of mice spermatid cells, since a significant number of polyploid cells were obtained. Analysis of electrophoretic pattern of proteins indicated that Match was positive in causing changes in proteins specifically in high molecular protein patterns compared with the negative control group.

  75. Martin C. Njoroge, Ruth W. Ndung’u and Moses Gatambuki Gathigia


    This paper focuses on the application of crossword puzzles in the teaching of vocabulary in English a Second Language (ESL) classrooms. A pretest was used to measure the learners’ previous knowledge of English vocabulary in a Form 2 class. The pre- test was marked and recorded. A comprehension passage was composed by the researchers and read by both the control and experimental classes. While the control class was exposed to the Traditional Lexical Pedagogy in the teaching of vocabulary, the experimental cohort was exposed to a crossword puzzle. A post-test was administered at the end of the study to measure whether there was a significant difference in scores between the experimental and control groups. The scores were tabulated and analyzed quantitatively using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences and emerging patterns discussed.  Levene's Test for Equality of Variances was then employed. The general finding is that the use of crossword puzzles in the teaching of English a Second Language is an effective strategy of vocabulary instruction. The study concludes that the use of crossword puzzles is of pedagogical significance as it helps learners enlarge vocabulary and deepen their mastery of the English lexis.


  76. Babulal Sasmal and Amal Kumar. Mondal

    Pistia stratiotes L. var. cuneata Engl. is an aquatic, floating, stemless, stoloniferous and huge herb found growing in different parts of the tropical as well as subtropical regions of India. It has immense diverse economic potentialities. Phyto-sociologically it is very much related with six constant associates like Ipomoea aquatica, Eichhornia crassipes, Lemna perpusilla, Enhydra fluctuans, Typha elephantina, Marsilea quadrifolia and 31 other plants like Alternanthera sessilis, Cyperus rotandus, Monochoria hastata, etc. which are known as flexible associates. Maximum association was noted with Lemna and Eichhornia and minimum with Alisma and Nymphaea during our present studies. Relative Density (RD), Relative Frequency (RF) as well as Importance Value Index (IVI) of the said species are also discussed in this paper.





Rosane Cavalcante Fragoso, Brasil


Chief Scientific Officer and Head of a Research Group

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