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October 2013

  1. Sumithra, K., Vibha, C. and Vishwanath, H. L.

    Background: Pre-eclampsia is a common complication of pregnancy constituting major cause of maternal and foetal morbidity and mortality. It develops in 4% - 5% of pregnancies. Altered renal function is an essential component of the patho-physiology of pre-eclampsia, which could lead to acute renal failure. The kidneys play a significant role in the turnover of low molecular weight substances like Urea, Creatinine, Uric acid and Cystatin C. Aims and Objectives: To study serum cystatin C in pre-eclampsia and compare it with serusm Creatinine. To assess whether serum cystatin C is an early and better marker than Creatinine of renal dysfunction in pre-eclampsia. Materials and Methods: A Case - control study comparing 30 pre-eclampticprimigravida inthe third trimester with 30 normotensive primigravida of same gestational age from Vani Vilas Hospital, Bangalore. No history of Hypertension, Diabetes mellitus or Renal disease in cases and controls. Results: Serum Cystatin C was found to be increased in pre-eclamptic patients when compared to controls. Serum Creatinine was within reference range in both cases and controls. Conclusion: Serum Cystatin C is an early and better marker of renal dysfunction in pre-eclampsia compared to serum Creatinine.

  2. Larbi, E., Anim-Okyere, S., Danso, F., Danso, I., Afari, P., Nuertey, B. N. and Asamoah, T. E. O.

    Variable planting density experiment was conducted on oil palm from 1998 to 2007. The study was to evaluate the effects of different plant spacing on growth, development and yield oil palm in Ghana. The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design with five replications. The treatments were composed of four densities 116, 129, 148 and 173 palms per hectare. Growth parameters measured include leaf area, leaf area index, rachis length, frond dry weight and plant height. These parameters were generally not statistically significant (p=0.05). Fresh fruit yield were similar for all treatments until 10YAT where plots with 173 palms per began to produce significantly fewer bunches. For good growth and productivity oil palm should be planted at 8.84m triangular, equivalent of 148 palms/ha in the semi deciduous forest zone of Ghana.

  3. Mathivanan, V., Sangeetha, V., Uma Maheswari, D. and Selvisabhanayakam

    The quality of water is of great importance also for human lives as it is commonly consumed and used by households. Runoff water is the carrier of pollutants on their way from the soil surface to the surface water. The fraction of pollutants deposited at the soil surface that ultimately reaches the surface water depends on the amount of runoff and the distribution between the different runoff components.In the present study,water samples were collected from two different locations of Thamiraparani river, Tirunelveli District, India for Physico-chemical analysis.The collected water samples were performed for the analysis of various parameters such as pH, Total Dissolved Solids, Total Alkalinity, Total Hardness, Chloride and Phosphate were analysed for a period of six months from January 2013 to June 2013. Agricultural runoff containing detergents etc, tend to increase pollution. The maximum values of hardness as observed in winter and minimum in summer. Nitrate values were generally high there was luxurious plant growth and results indicate that all the parameters are beyond the limit and unsuitable for human consumption.Due to increased human population, industrialization, use of fertilizers and man made activity, water is highly polluted with different harmful contaminants. The availability of good quality water is an indispensable feature for preventing diseases and improving quality of life. So,it is necessary to know details about different physico-chemical properties. All the physico-chemical analyses revealed that Station II has been more polluted site. The source of pollution is most probably from the cement factory, textile and tannery industries.

  4. Group Captain Prayosh Suntonvipart

    Due to the stresses of every day life and variable eating habits, constipation is a major complaint in and around big cities in Thailand. Through our research, we have found that skipping meals, routinely consuming fast foods with little nutrients, having insufficient amount of vegetables in daily diet, excess fat and chemical preservatives, artificial coloring, scents, and tastes, all contribute to developing constipation. Also, the combination of a lack of routine for meals and exercise, coupled with emotional and commotional stress contribute not only to constipation but also leads to more serious chronic diseases like, hypertension, diabetes, heart diseases, and cancer. Undoubtedly, these chronic diseases causes premature deaths and burdens societies. The objective of this study is to develop an effective herbal medicine formula base on the Thai Herbal Materia Medica to alleviate and cure constipation.

  5. Ahmad I. Al-Turki, Fahd Al-Romian and Yasser El-Hadidi

    Composting is the suitable way of recycling organic waste for agricultural application and environment protection. In Saudi Arabia, several composting facilities are available and producing high quantity of composts. The aim of this study is to evaluate the physical characteristics of composts manufactured in Saudi Arabia and acquire a comprehensive image of its quality through the comparative with international standards of compost quality such as CCQC and PAS-100. In the present study different locally produced compost were identified and most of the producing factories were visited during the manufacturing of composts. Representative samples of different compost production stage were collected and Physical characteristics were determined, which included moisture content, bulk density, percentage of sand and the size of distribution of the compost particles. Results showed wide variations in all parameters investigated. Results of the study indicated generally that there is a wide variation in the physical characteristics of the types of compost under study. The initial moister contents in composts were generally low, it was less than 60% in most samples and not sufficient for microbial activities for biodegradation in 96% of the 96% of the types of compost and this will impede the decomposition of organic materials. The initial bulk density values ranged from 117 gL-1 to 1110.0 gL-1, while the final apparent bulk density ranged from 340.0 gL-1 to 1000gL-1 and about 45.4 % did not meet the ideal bulk density value. Sand percents in composts were between 3.3 % and 12.5%. This study has confirmed the need for a standard specification for compost manufactured in Saudi Arabia for agricultural use based on international standards for compost and soil characteristics and climatic conditions in Saudi Arabia.

  6. PuneetaDandotiya and Agrawal, O.P.

    Current methods of disposal and management of nutritionally rich food and household waste are not satisfactory. They are source of foul smell, pollution, unhygienic conditions and infectious diseases. A satisfactory method could not come out from earlier studies made on vermicomposting of such waste under tropical climatic conditions. Therefore the present study was taken up. Different ratios of three waste components were used for experiments and the best results were obtained in a ratio of 35 kg of food and kitchen waste, 7 kg of sand-soil mixture and 1 kg of shredded paper (35:7:1), in which 830 % increase in worm population, 157 % increase in biomass and 58 % vermicomposting was observed. It may be concluded from the study that food and household organic waste can be recycled at home level which may have far reaching effects in environmental conservation and sustainable development.

  7. Hemant Samadhiya, Puneeta Dandotiya, Jaya chaturvedi and Agrawal, O.P.

    Vermiwash is the organic fertilizer obtained from units of vermiculture and vermicompost as drainage. It is used both as foliar spray and in the root zone of plant. Our study examines the effect of vermiwash on the growth and development of tomato plant. When vermiwash was sprayed on the tomato plants, it showed a significant growth of plants i.e. length of shoot as well as number of leaves per plant. Vermiwash when mixed with vermicompost increased the shoot length to 19.61±0.18 cm as compared to control 17.92±0.21 cm. when vermiwash was directly sprayed on the plants of tomato the length of shoot was recorded to be 19.72±0.30 cm which was higher as compared to control group17.92±0.21 cm. It can be concluded that the growth of tomato plants showed much positive results when grown in vermicompost. However the results were apparent when the plants were treated with vermiwash. Hence, vermiwash proves to be an effective fertilizer which contributes the growth of plants when sprayed directly as well as mixed with a definite ratio of vermicompost. It was also observed that the plants treated with vermiwash were disease resistant and no any worms like leaf eaters were seen on the leaves and other parts of plants.

  8. Abdul Hussein Moyet Al Faisal and Noor Isam Al Baiyati

    Viruses, also known as oncoviruses, capable of transforming cells into a malignant phenotype. These viruses encode oncogenes that can be inserted into the mammalian genome causing transformation. This study was aimed to detect three types of herpes viruses HHV 4, HHV 6 and HHV 8 sequences in leukemia patients and healthy individuals to evaluate the role of these viruses in leukemia arise, and to determine the best way to detect the virus particles in human sera and blood. The present work were obtained four types of leukemia, Acute Lymphoid Leukemia (ALL), Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML), Chronic Lymphoid Leukemia (CLL) and Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML). The Samples of blood were taken from 75 Iraqi patients newly diagnosed affected with one of the four types of leukemia aged between (2-63) years, and twenty-five healthy control subjects ages between (8-62) year were analysis by molecular genetic methods. During the period from August 2012 till May 2013. The viral DNA extraction from serum by QI Aamp Ultra Sens Virus Kit from Qiageen/Germany was found more suitable and sensitive to detect the present viruses than the genomic DNA extraction from whole blood, further amplified by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). PCR products were analyzed by electrophoresis on 2% agarose gels. The present study detected EBV serologically in serum of patients and controls by the MONO mononucleosis rapid test. The results revealed the molecular way was more effective and sensitive that EBV detect in serology in 2.7% but with molecular methods detect in 19% of samples. These percentage of EBV divided on the four types of leukemia in different numbers, 12% in ALL, 3% in AML, 4% in CLL, where there was no positive samples to HHV-6 and HHV-8.

  9. Gajendra Singh Rajpoot, Rajesh Kumar and Om Prakash Agrawal

    Honey is a natural product, procured from honey bee colonies. Besides high concentration of sugars, it contains other useful nutrients, vitamins, minerals, enzymes and several phyto-nutrients. In many Indian families, first food in the mouth of new borne child is a drop of honey followed by mother’s milk. Therefore honey must be collected, purified and properly stored so that all its properties can be retained for longer period. In the present study, honey samples were collected from the beekeepers of three different locations of Gwalior-Chambal region of Madhya Pradesh and some samples were procured from local market. They were analyzed for colour, pH, moisture, total carbohydrate and hydroxy methyl furfural content. The colour of honey depends on their flora, storage time and storage conditions. The pH of honey samples was recorded to be acidic, but showed much variation in the range of 3 to 6. Moisture content was observed in the range 18.3 % to 23.2 %. Total carbohydrates were observed in the range of 76 to 80%. Honey samples, except for some market samples, were HMF negative. Thus none of the tested samples can be declared impure. However, some market samples appear to be sub standard as they have moisture content higher than 20%, are positive to Fiehe’s test and show high level of HMF content.

  10. Anju Singh and Vijayalakshmi, A.

    An experiment was conducted at Avinashilingam Institute for Home Science and Higher Education for Women, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu (India) for assessing the effect of composted coirpith, composted pressmud and FYM on leghaemoglobin content in nodules of green gram and enzymatic activity (dehydrogenase and urease) of the soil sowned green gram (Vigna radiata L.). There was an increase in leghaemoglobin content from 25 to 45 DAS and its goes down gradually upto 55 DAS .The treatmentT12 (composted coirpith + composted pressmud + farmyard manure) showed increased leghaemoglobin content followed by T9 (composted coirpith + NPK) as compared to the control T1. Soil enzymatic activity dehydrogenase and urease activity increase upto 45 DAS and then declined gradually in 55 and 75 DAS. T12 (composted coirpith + composted pressmud + farmyard manure) treatment shows more dehydrogenase and urease activity followed by T9 (composted coirpith + NPK) against the control (T1). Hence composted coirpith, composted pressmud and farmyard manure increased the leghaemoglobin content of the nodules of green gram and also the enzymatic activity of the treated soil.

  11. Das, Uma and Kar, Devashish

    A comparative study was conducted between two waterbody, Karbala lake and Barambaba pond. In this regard quantitative and qualitative analysis of zooplankton and physico-chemical parameters of water has been done. The study was about six month from January 2013 to July 2013. During this study different types of zooplankton species from different groups were found and physico-chemical parameters such as DO (Dissolved Oxygen), pH, Free CO2, Alkalinity, Water temperature and air temperature were recorded.

  12. Deep Chandra Suyal and Lakshmi Tewari

    Phytase, myo-inositol 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexakisphosphate phosphohydrolases (EC 3.1.3.8) belongs to a sub-class of the family of histidine acid phosphatase that initiate stepwise removal of phosphate from phytate. Facing the problem of phosphorus deficiency in plants and animal feed together with its pollution in areas of intensive livestock production, phytase seems destined to become increasingly important. Hence, for both environmental and economic concerns, phytases and phytase-producing organisms are attracting significant industrial interest. This review provides the information about the applications of the phytase.

  13. Annapoorani, C. A. and Manimegalai, K.

    Salivary gland protein of Culex quinquefasciatus was obtained by Homology modelling technique. Ramachandran plot analysis showed that the portion of residues falling into the most favoured regions was (90.9 %). Predicted and validated structure is useful in structure based drug designing. Three compounds of Capsicum annum L. were selected through literature survey and Molecular docking studies were done using Schrodinger Mastro software. Results showed that out of three ligands taken from pub chem., Homocapsaicin 6442566 had glide score of -1.9 as compared to phytol 5280435 of -1.46. It was also observed that Capsanthin 5281228 had no glide score.

  14. Navodita G. Maurice

    Ladybeetles are very recurrently accessible in the gardens as well as in the agricultural fields. On the basis of their feeding habits they can be categorized differently, for instance, those feeding on aphids are aphidophagous while those preferring to feed on coccids are coccidophagaous and the third category is austerely phytophagous and is deliberated as the pest of nightshades and cucurbits. Development of the larvae of Epilachna vigintioctopuncata Fabricius, universally known as the 28-spotted ladybeetle was studied by feeding them on three food treatments. One group was fed on the leaves of Momordica charantia, other on the flowers of the same plant and the third group was fed on leaves alternated by flowers of bitter gourd. Results specify best survival as well as development among the group fed on leaves followed by food alternation and flowers.

  15. Pragya Singh Pawaiya, Gajendra Singh Rajpoot, M. K. Agrawal and Om Prakash Agrawal

    As a consequence of population explosion, economic development and large scale urbanization, huge quantities of solid and liquid waste materials are produced in India. Their disposal and management are difficult and cumbersome tasks which are associated with serious environmental and health problems. Sewage water and sludge is released in large drainages called nallah from where the sludge is collected and disposed off in agricultural fields, open dumps, along the roadside or railway tracks and poorly designed sanitary land-fills which can pollute surface or ground water causing public health hazards.Nowadays, vermicomposting is attracting much attention as a method of management of organic waste including sludge stabilization worldwide due to its simple technology and lack of need for expensive equipments. This has also been recommended for increasing soil fertility, detoxication, organic farming and sustainable agriculture. In the present study it has been observed that in a mixture of sewage sludge, cattle dung and rice husk vermicomposting earthworms, Eiseniafetida survive, reproduce and the population and biomass of different and suitable mixture.

  16. Das Papia and Kar Devashish

    Diversity of Zooplankton is one of the most important ecological parameters as these are the intermediate link between phytoplankton and fish and plays a key role in cycling of organic materials in an aquatic ecosystem. These are one most important biotic component influencing all the functional aspects of an aquatic ecosystem such as food chains, food web and cycling of matter. The study conducted with an aim to study the zooplankton diversity including physico-chemical parameters. The study was carried out in Ramnagar annua (N 24049´57.3˝, E 92045´23.7˝) which is an oxbow-lake from September 2012 to August 2013 during different seasons. The physico-chemical parameters indicate the prevalence of good quality of water in the wetland. A total of 26 species of zooplankton were found from the study area. The species richness of the group rotifera (44.18%) was highest. A total of 12 species belonging to 7 genera and 6 families were found during the period of investigation. These were followed by cladocerans, which were represented by 6 families comprising 9 species and 9 genera. There were 4 species of copepoda belonging to 2 families and 2 genera. The lowest diversity was exhibited by ostracods being represented by only species belonging to a single family.

  17. Thavaprakasam Arundoss, Subramanian Arulkumar, Karumbayiram Senthil Kumar and Krishnamoorthy Vasudevan

    The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) and Ginkgo biloba gold nano particles (GBGNPs) on MPTP induced behavioral change in Parkinson’s disease mouse, investigated through the following behavioral test such as rotarod performance hang test, narrow beam walking, akinesia and catalepsy. The results indicate a significant variation in behavioral patterns of control and experiment groups. G.biloba may be useful for the management of neuropathic pain. When compare to GBE the GBGNPs showed better improvement in all behaviour tests.

  18. Sukumaran, M., Manikandan, S. R., Nathiya, N. and Muthukumaravel, K.

    Histopathological lesion have been studied in the liver of Mystus vittatus under 10, 20 and 30 days of exposure to 10% sub lethal concentration of monocrotophos (96 hr LC50 : 0.025 ppm; 10% SLC-0.0025 ppm). In control cat fish, the liver was comprised of polygonal hepatocytes with centrally placed nucleus. Pesticide induced dilation of blood sinusoids, vacuolization and disintegration of cell boundaries were noticed in the 10 and 20 days of exposed fish. The complete damage of hepatocytes and loss of integrity of cell wall were noticed on 30 day of exposure.

  19. Manikandan, S. R., Sukumaran, M., Nathiya, N. and Muthukumaravel, K.

    Mystus vittatus was exposed (10% sublethal concentration of 96 hr LC50) for a period of 10, 20 and 30 days under laboratory conditions. The kidney of the treated fishes were examined under microscope and noticed significant changes such as enlargement renal tubules hyperplasia, vaculation of the epithelial cells of renal tubules, necrosis and shrinkage of glomeruli. Results suggests that a comparatively low concentration cadmium is enough to elicit pathological changes in Mystus vittatus.

  20. Sujaivelu, T. and Kanaga Sabapathi, K.

    A study was conducted at Krishnagiri District of Tamilnadu state in India which is well known for the production and processing of the mango. Various agricultural information needs of the farmers in processing and producing value added products in mango are analysed and studied. A well structured and pre-tested interview schedule was used to collect data from 300 randomly selected mango growers. The respondents wanted information in the descending order on the aspects like selection of mango varieties, / hybrids, plant protection measures, pruning in crop, manures and fertilizer management, post harvest technology, preparation main field, planting techniques, pretreatment of seedling, weed management, method of propagation, irrigation management, intercropping, recommended growth regulators to prevent flower and fruit drop, harvesting techniques and value addition in mango.

  21. Balaguru, N. and Philominathan, P.

    We wish to report the deposition of MoO3-TiO2 binary thin films employing an unique, low cost and simplified spray pyrolysis technique or perfume atomizer method. The MoO3-TiO2 binary thin films of different concentration in the range of 3-9 at. % were investigated using glass substrates and temperature kept at 4000c. The effect of substrate, concentration and temperature on structural, optical, photoluminescence, morphological and gas sensing properties of the chosen binary films has been reported. Structural analysis, using X-ray diffraction technique, verified the phase of the films and revealed that the films has both amorphous and polycrystalline with tetrahedral structure and scanning electron microscope (SEM) measurement showed surface morphology of films changes with increase in concentration. The optical properties of the films including absorption co-efficient and refractive index were determined from spectroscopy measurements. The photoluminescence measurement of binary films indicates that the films exhibit a bright blue emission at 450 nm.

  22. Chettibi, M., and Abramov, A. A.

    Main idea to prevent the ground contamination by heavy metals is to extract them maximally with minimum consumption of chemical reagents. So, a perfect studying of pulp ionic structure, an adjustment of the sulphuric ores flotation parameters and modelling of minerals selectivity variables, by using thermodynamic method of analysis, the behaviour of lead xanthenes surface state in solution and experimental investigations results, allow obtaining quantitative physico-chemical models of minimum necessary xanthenes concentration of lead sulphide complete flotation. The optimal pH values ensuring a complete flotation of galena are agree with the potential of zero or minimum charge of its surface, and the optimal composition of the collector sorption layer consisting both of chemisorbed xanthenes and physically adsorbed dixanthenes. In additional, it was obtained quantitative models for the necessary xanthenes concentration of lead sulphide complete flotation in the case of different oxidation products of galena surface in pH values from 7,0 up to 12,0. The models derived can be used as the criteria for functional units of automation systems to control and regulate the flotation process in mineral processing plants. All these should conduct to increasing of metals extraction degree with minimum chemical reagents consumption and providing good environmental protection.

  23. Nalini, V. and Girija, R.

    Nearly twenty four acridinedione derivatives are prepared by thermal method using P2O5 / ethanol catalyst. The same compounds are prepared by solvent free green approach involves the exposure of neat reactants to microwave irradiation of three component reaction of dimedone, aromatic aldehydes and amines in a stoichiometric ratio 2:1:1 for few minutes afforded the formation of stable acridinedione derivatives in an excellent yield (80-95%). The structure of all the products has been characterized by IR, 1H, 13C NMR and mass spectral studies. The percentage of yield and purity is compared and found to be excellent in greener method and this method is found to be environmental friendly.

  24. Mbah, G. O., Edeani, N. J., and Onyiah, M. I.

    This paper discusses the effects of process parameters on the biodegradation of cassava peels and cassava root sieviate through the action aspergillus niger. The ability of aspergillus niger to increase the crude protein content and decrease the crude fiber content of the cassava wastes was investigated with time and substrate concentration as process parameters. Face–centered central composite design (FCCCD) of the experiment was applied in the determination of the two-parameter improvements of the nutritive value of the wastes. The experiment was designed in minitab version 16.0 while the analysis of variance (ANOVA) SPSS 16.0 was applied in the analysis of the raw data. The experimental data analysis showed that the crude protein percentage contents of the two wastes significantly increased, from 4.85 to 15.86 and from 1.85 to 9.42 for the cassava peels (CP) and cassava root sieviate CRS) respectively due to the action aspergillus niger. Similarly, crude fiber was decreased from 68.2% to 7.82% and 70.3% to 8.30% for CP and CRS. These remarkable improvements on the nutritive value the cassava wastes were recorded at an optimum time of 10 days and substrate concentration of 0.6g/ml. From the results, it was obvious that Aspergillus niger was able to enrich the protein while decreasing the fibre contents of the cassava wastes significantly (P<0.05). However from the interaction plots and multiple comparison tests, 6 days of biodegradation and 0.2g/ml substrate concentration have the optimum desirable effect.

  25. Mohamed Ibraheem, A. and Mazhar Nazeeb Khan, S. M.

    Perambalur is an administrative district in the state of Tamilnadu, India. It has 4 blocks, of which Veppanthattai block has historical importance and is blessed with good agricultural land. The people are used the groundwater for drinking and agricultural purposes. Groundwater samples of bore wells were collected from different locations in Veppanthattai block in Perambalur district and were analyzed for their physico-chemical characteristics. The study was carried out during post-monsoon season from forty four different villages. The present study was undertaken to characterize the physico-chemical parameters such as pH, Electrical Conductivity (EC), Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), Total Hardness (TH), Total Alkalinity (TA), Calcium Hardness (CH), Magnesium Hardness (MH), Chloride, Sulphate, Nitrate, Iron, Dissolved Oxygen (DO), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and Phosphate. Each parameter was compared with the standard permissible limit as prescribed by World Health Organization (WHO, 2005). The study revealed that groundwater from few stations is not suitable for drinking with respect to total hardness, calcium and magnesium content. Proper maintenance and treatment of water can improve the quality of drinking water and thereby provide a safer life.

  26. Shibini Mol, P. A., Dayala, V. T. and Sujatha C. H.

    The phytoplankton abundance associated with hydrographical parameters at 28 selected stations (April 2012) of Kerala Coast have been discussed. Considerable variations were noticed both in magnitude and compositions in the phytoplankton density. In this investigation, a total 104 species of phytoplankton were identified and represents in different distinct class viz: Bacillariophyceae (78), Dinophyceae (22), Chlorophyceae (3), Cyanophyceae (1), and Dictyophycae (1). Diatom species were more prominent within the stations. However, Coscinodiscus species Asterionella species, Biddulphia species and Pleurosigma species were the common species found in almost all the stations and at station 25, blooming of Asterionella species were noticed. Compared to other stations, station 25 followed a high salinity and high silicate concentration. Nitrite showed a very slight increase whereas ammonia, nitrate and phosphate showed a complete depletion. The Phytoplankton population density depends upon the physico chemical parameters, and their intensity was mostly coupled with the parameters like salinity, pH, silicate and nitrite.

  27. Jafar Ahamed, A., Loganathan, K. and Vijayakumar, P.

    The study was conducted to assess the physico-chemical characteristics of river water and groundwater of Amaravathi River Basin, Karur district, Tamilnadu, India. The collected samples were analyzed for the water quality parameters such as pH, Electrical Conductivity (EC), Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), Dissolved Oxygen (DO), Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), using the procedure outlined in the standard methods prescribed by American Public Health Association (2005). The low level of DO in some sampling spots indicates that the industrial activities consume dissolved oxygen present in the water. Higher BOD values found at few sampling sites indicates that they are severely polluted by the agricultural organic manure wastes and effluents of the industries and City Corporation wastes, respectively. COD varied from 4 to 85 mg/L for surface water and from 4-92 mg/L for groundwater, which indicates organic pollution in water due to percolation of effluents containing soluble organic compounds. Hence it is recommended that careless disposal of the waste should be dispirited and there is need to treat the waste properly before dumped in to the environment.

  28. Sanjenbam Sanjibia Devi, Sharat Singh N. K. and Rajmuhon Singh N.

    The comparative studies of secondary metabolites investigation used in pharmacuetical drug research using qualitative test is being performed on Cucurma caesia and Kaemferia galanga Zingerbaracae family. These medicinal plants are of high economic value due the presence of antioxidant and antimicrobial activity. The samples were extracted using various solvents like methanol, ethanol, ethyl acetate and water (aqueous). Among the various solvent extract methanol gives the highest positive result followed by ethanol, water (aqueous) and ethyl acetate respectively. The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of various compounds like tannins, terpenoids, alkaloids, saponins, cardiac glycosides, amino acids and carbohydrates. The percentage of scavenging of the methanolic extract were almost same at different concentrations, however the total phenolic content of Cucurma caesia and Kaemferia galanga were 121.13 and 144.8 mgGAE/g . For the antimicrobial activities, the test was screened against gram +ve and gram -ve bacteria and fungi by paper disc method. The studies showed the medicinal plants could play a vital role in health and diseases as they contained pharmacologically useful active principle elements.

  29. Paul Rostron and Chaima Belbarak

    Samples of carbon steel were exposed to the atmosphere in Abu Dhabi and corrosion rates measured every month for one year. Various angles of repose from 0° to 45° were selected, as well as a comparison between north facing and south facing. The samples were heavily contaminated with airborne dust, even though they were 15 m above grade. The salt content of the dust was high ~2000 ppm) and is believe responsible for the high corrosion rates observed in a country where there less than 30 mmyr-1 of rain. Comparison between top and bottom surface was also made as well as an investigation of the chloride content of the dust. The study produced a protocol that can be rolled out to the whole of the UAE to produce a corrosion map of the UAE.

  30. Seethalakshmi, A. N., Subramanian, S., and Muthuchelian, K.

    Biomass is the most potential candidate for their quantitative availability. Prosopis juliflora a Mesquite is a shrub or small tree in the Fabaceae family. It is also one of the biomass which is available hundred hectares in India.We developed protocol in order to characterize the physical and chemical properties of P.juliflora as feed stock for energy conversion process. The particle size of the biomaterial was found to be 8nm from X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) technique. The SEM image reveals the particle size with a cluster of needle shaped surface with voids. Proximate and elemental analyses showed that P.juliflora has lower moisture content and high fixed carbon indicates that it is appropriate to meet requirements of thermochemical process. Also, considered as one of the strengths of biomass utilization for energy purposes in terms of contribution to environmental protection, P.julifloracontains very low level of Mg and Ca (0.39% & 2.32% respectively). Higher proportion of carbon and lower proportion of oxygen content in P.juliflora leads to high calorific value 3891Kcal/kg. Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) was performed for the identification of different modes of functional groups present in the biomaterial. From the microhardness measurements, Vickers hardness number (Hv), Stiffness constant (C11) and Yield strength (σv) have been calculated. The electrical behaviour of the biomaterial has been investigated at room temperature. The ac impedance plot indicates a single relaxation process occur at room temperature.

  31. Prakash Kuppuswamy and Peer Mohamed Appa

    The security of bio-metric information is method of identifying a person or verifying the identity of a person based on biological characteristics. In recent years, biometric systems have assumed greater importance for information security systems. It offer reliable security, they themselves have to satisfy high security requirements to ensure authentication. Many public key algorithms such as RSA, DES and Tripple DES are concerning to construct an effective biometric security and encryption system as well. In this paper, we propose new efficient and effective mechanism for confidentiality and authentication for biometric information transmitted by using new block cipher Public key algorithm. It is an equivalent of RSA public key algorithm. It enhances the speed of encryption, decryption and authentication process. We applied this algorithm in digital signature, e-commerce and e-voting system. We bidding here, new algorithm with biometric security.

  32. Visalakshi, S. and Dr. Radha, V.

    Water is one of the natural resources used by all living beings. The quality of water is very important for survival. Water is contaminated knowingly or unknowingly. In developing countries it is estimated around 80% of people are affected by water-borne disease due to water contamination. This paper presents an overview of water resources, water management system and water quality monitoring.

  33. Sheelarani, V. and Shanthi, J.

    Succinic Acid (SA) and L- Alaninum Succinate (LAS) single crystals have been grown by slow evaporation method. The band gap energies of the SA and LAS crystals have been calculated using cut off frequencies observed in the UV-Vis spectrum. The presences of various functional groups in the crystals were identified by FTIR spectrum. The nonlinear optical property of the grown crystal was confirmed by second harmonic generation technique. Dielectric studies were carried out as a function of frequency for three different temperatures. Hardness studies were performed on LAS crystal and Meyer’s index confirmed that the crystal belongs to soft material category.

  34. Vinoth, N., Dr. Krishnan, J. and Malathi, R.

    Monitoring and controlling the hypnosis and arterial pressure during a surgery is really vital since in excess of dosing and below dosing can be hazardous for the patients. Anesthesia drugs have impact on multiple results of an anesthesia patient. Automation of anesthesia is very useful as it will provide more time and flexibility to anesthesiologists to focus on critical issues that may arise during the surgery. Furthermore patient safety and cost reduction. Anesthetics are administered to regulate hypnosis and analgesia, respectively in the patient during the surgery. Most distinctive measures include Bispectral index (BIS), mean arterial pressure (MAP) and in general, BIS and MAP as the indirect measurements of hypnosis and analgesia, respectively. Isoflurane is given as the input to the Pharmocokinetic-pharmacodynamic model (PK-PD), from the model BIS and MAP were taken as output. In this work, a neural network based internal model controller (NN-IMC) is proposed by regulating the level of hypnosis and pressure. Performance of proposed approach is evaluated with conventional Proportional-Integral (PI) controller. Simulation results show that proposed NN-IMC outperforms conventional PI controller.

  35. Murugesh, T. S., Krishnan, J. and Malathi, R.

    Biological rhythms, like the cardiac rhythm are often generated by large populations of mutually interacting cellular oscillators. The ability of such a population to generate a stable, regulated rhythm depends critically on the nature of interactions among the oscillators, as a network of nonlinear oscillators is intrinsically unstable. Although the entire cardiac system beats in perfect synchronization invivo, intrinsic frequencies of auto rhythmic cells have a significant dispersion. The sinoatrial node is a thin sheet of cardiac muscle fibers composed of several hundred thousand cells, each of which is an electrical oscillator. Studies of cells isolated enzymatically from the sino atrial node indicate that the intrinsic frequency of oscillation for each cell is different. Despite these differences, a coherent oscillatory electrical wave known as the pacemaker potential is generated within the node. This wave is conducted throughout the heart, determining its rate of beating. The pace making cells in the Rabbit heart beat at a wide range of frequencies (80-330 beats per minute) in culture, but within the heart they beat at a common frequency set by the normal sinus rhythm. As a result the synchronization within the heart becomes extremely difficult with such a wide range of intrinsic frequencies. The adjustment of rhythms due to an interaction is the essence of synchronization, the term originating from the Greek words chronos meaning time and syn meaning the same, common. This work attempts to explore the issues in the much desired synchronization within the rabbit heart with a valid electro physiological model of cardiac pacemaker cells in the cardiac system. For the species Rabbit, a matlab code for sinoatrial node cell was developed and the simulated results were validated against the prevailing experimental data. The existence of a free parameter that can influence the intrinsic frequency of the so generated action potential was investigated that resembled Gap Junction conductance in real electrophysiology. The functional role of the gap junctions in effecting the much desired synchronization issues with the aid of variations in the intrinsic frequency of the cell within the cardiac system was elucidated and the results indicated that the intrinsic frequency of the cells varied only for a limited range of adjustment. An external neural input was effected via integrate and fire neuron model that further coaxed the cells to oscillate at varied intrinsic frequencies that ascertained the fact that neural influence is much essential to enhance synchronization. This paper investigates with the aid of the simulation results, that the external neural input can also play a part in influencing the intrinsic frequency of the cardiac cells thereby effecting synchronization.

  36. Bagwan, S., Nagarbawadi, M., Rathod, S. M., Awati, V. V. and Bobade, D. H.

    The synthesis of the doped BaTiO3 was carried out using the solid state synthesis method. The dopants that used were high purity chemicals of more than 99.9% purity. The dopants used were Niobpentoxide (Nb2O5) of Fluka AG and Cobaltous Chloride Hexahydrate (CuCl26H2O) of Himedia Laboratories. Both the chemicals used were AR grade. The dopants were added as wt% of the basic compound BaTiO3. The final compound was in powder form. For characterization of the sample it was convenient to use them in the form of pellets using Hydraulic Pellet Press (KP Sr 734) of Himaya Engineers. The powder was inserted in the central hole by weight measurements, of radius 0.5 cm. The powder was inserted and the top punch pressed on the sample. The pressure applied was two tons for a period of two minutes. The process was repeated for all the doped samples. The pellets formed were of one cm in diameter and 4mm thick. The x-ray pattern for all the doped samples were taken and compared with standard reference file. The inter planar distance (d) was calculated and found to be in agreement with the standard reference values confirming the perovskite structure of the Nb and Co doped BaTiO3. The SEM of the samples was done on JEOL 6360A Analytical Scanning Electron Microscope. The scanning electron image shows distinctly the uniform distribution of the grains. For the various dopant concentrations it is seen that there is change in the grain size. The dielectric properties of the compound sample were measured on HIOKI 3532 LCR HiTester. The instrument provides a wide range of test frequencies from DC and 42 Hz to 5MHz.

  37. Dayala, V. T., Jose Mathew and Sujatha C. H.

    Distribution of Dimethyl Sulphide (DMS) was measured in relation with phytoplankton density in the Cochin estuarine system during the year 2010. A total of 120 species of phytoplankton were identified which represents different distinct classes viz: Bacillariophyceae (65), Chlorophyceae (25), Dinophyceae (21), Cyanophyceae (6), Dictyochophyceae (1), Chrysophyceae (1) and Zygnematophyceae (1). The phytoplankton identification reveals that Cochin estuary is a diatom dominated estuary. The maximum concentration of diatom species was high in pre monsoon season (av.57693 cell/m3) followed by monsoon (av.45073 cell/m3) and post monsoon (av.40320 cell/m3) whereas dinoflagellates range av.14413 cells/m3 (post monsoon), av.7840 cells/m3 (pre monsoon) and av.4593 cells/m3 (monsoon). Hydrographical parameters and nutrient distribution were also measured to ascertain a relationship with phytoplankton. Chlorophyll a, salinity and phosphate exhibit a positive correlation with DMS. The DMS concentration varied from non detectable levels to 19.5 nM in post monsoon, while (0.2 to 1.8 nM) in pre monsoon and (0.2 to 1.1 nM) in monsoon. Elevated levels of DMS were observed in saline stations of the estuary. The data represented above is the first baseline study of DMS in the Cochin Estuarine system.

  38. Ashokkumar, S., Ravi, S. and Kathiravan, V.

    Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) by Coccinia indica leaf extract was extent the biogenic synthesis of metal nanomaterials offers an environmentally benign alternative to the conventional chemical synthesis. Upon contact, rapid reduction of Ag+ ions was observed in <1 min with Ag nanoparticle formation reaching 90% completion in <20 min. Effect of leaves extract concentration on the particle size and shape were investigated from UV–vis spectrum, X-ray Diffraction (XRD), and Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX). The biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles is in the size range of 10-20 nm and is crystallized in face centred cubic symmetry. The possible biochemical mechanism leading to the formation of silver nanoparticles was studied using FT-IR. The synthesized silver nanoparticles may be extremely useful in making biosensor devices as well as for other applications.

  39. Velmurugan, S., Govindaraj, R. and Ravi, S.

    Sunflower oil is widely used in cooking, food processing, cosmetics, pharmaceutical and chemical industries. Plants depend on some metals as micronutrients for human growth. In the present study, Four different sunflower varieties namely CO-4, CO-5, HYCO-2 and TCSH-1 are grown in different trial plots with three treatments viz., control (T1), chemical fertilizer (T2) and organic manure (T3). Trial plots roots are collected field wide using standard procedures. Roots are subjected to ICP-OES analysis and the elemental status (Na, K, Mg, Fe, Cu, Zn and Mn) of the disease roots are estimated and the results are discussed.

  40. Jothibas, M., Manoharan, C., Dhanapandian, S.

    Polycrystalline In2O3 thin films have been deposited on glass substrate by spray pyrolysis technique using indium acetate as a precursor solution. The influence of precursor concentration was studied in the range of 0.025 – 0.15 M with substrate temperature 450 ˚C. The deposited films were characterized by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) with EDS, Atomic Force Microscope (AFM), UV-Visible spectrophotometer and Photoluminescence (PL). The XRD analysis indicated that the films were highly preferential grain orientation along (222) plane with cubic crystal structure. The surface morphology, grain size and roughness of the films were observed by SEM and AFM. The UV-Visible spectroscopy revealed that the films had high transmittance in the visible region above 75% and the optical band gap values were found to be in the range of 3.3 – 3.68 eV. The optical constants such as refractive index (n), and extinction coefficient (k) were evaluated from transmittance data. The photoluminescence (PL) was studied at room temperature with a 325 nm as excitation wavelength.

  41. Walid Ahmed Hamid Eldaif, Najeeb Sulyman Saeed and Alfadhil Al-Obied Omer FRCPath

    Objective: To assess the significance of the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) guidelines in diagnosis of bloody diarrhea. Methods: Four hundred and thirty two children patients with diarrhea attending Khartoum Pediatric Hospital and Omdurman Pediatric Hospital Khartoum Sudan were enrolled into the study during the period of 2005 to 2007. Stool specimens collected were processed by wet preparation and cultured into XLD medium, sorbitol MacConkey medium and Skirrow's medium. The suspected pathogenic colonies were tested for oxidase and urease production then identified by analytical profile index (API 20 E), and agglutination with specific antisera. The results: The sensitivity and specificity of gross blood in faeces as diagnostic tools were 61.4% and 60.1% respectively (P<0.05). RBCs were detected in 112 (25.9%) of specimens with positive culture compared with 305 (70.6%) that revealed negative culture. The sensitivity of presence of RBCs in faeces as diagnostic tools were was high 98.2% while its specificity was very low 3%. The sensitivity and specificity of pus cells in faeces as diagnostic tools were high that represent 99.1% and low 4% respectively. Conclusions: Microscopical examination of stool specimen as simple diagnostic tool was high sensitive and its specificity was moderate.

  42. Amel Abouelfettoh and Elham Al Ateeq

    Stressors facing nursing students has adverse consequences on their academic and professional as well it may lead to attrition from nursing programs, and shortage of nurses. Emotional intelligence (EI) is set of abilities enables a person to generate, recognize, express, understand, and evaluate their own, and others, emotions. The current study aims at determining nursing students’ emotional intelligence and its relationship with students’ perceived stress level and their academic achievement. Descriptive corelational cross-sectional design was used to survey 118 nursing students (63 Stream I and 55 Stream II). Students were moderately stressed, with EI level significantly correlated with their perceived stress score (r = -0.30, p = 0.001) and their GPA (r=.308, P=. 005). Emotional intelligence may contribute to the identification and implementation of appropriate interventions and strategies to help nursing students develop optimal personal and professional personality that enable them to deal effectively with stressors and consequently improve their academic achievement.

  43. Obiechina, G. O., Imogie, O. A. and Ekenedo, G. O.

    The aim of the paper was to investigate the health care seeking behaviours of tuberculosis (TB) patients in Ibadan, South-West, Nigeria. The study was undertaken using a descriptive survey design. A sample of 1222 registered TB patients was drawn from a population of 4073 “in and out” TB patients in selected clinics in parts of Ibadan. Questionnaire was the instrument used to collect data. Data collected were analyzed using percentages. The findings of the study revealed that more than half of the patients delayed in seeking medical attention on notice of signs and symptoms of TB. The patients were engaged in multiple consultation and utilization of health care services in response to their ailment, oscillating between modern health care, traditional and spiritual healing, though adherence to treatment was high among the patients. The paper concluded that there is need for a health education intervention that would address the health care seeking behaviours of TB patients, suspects and susceptible individuals in Ibadan and other parts of the country.

  44. Vikram, S., Saraswathi, G., Sham Sundar, N. M. and Ramakrishna Avadhani

    Introduction: Coronary artery disease is one of the major causes of death in young athletes all over the world, leading to sudden cardiac arrest. Knowledge of the coronary arteries along with its septal branches is very important. Interventional cardiologists treat these conditions by approaching the specific interventricular septal branches of the coronary arteries. Objectives: To study the septal branches of the interventricular septum arising from both the coronary arteries and their variations. Materials and method: This study was conducted on 50 specimens. The lumen of the coronary arteries were injected with cast material and made like thick scaffoldings then dissected under water and the variations were studied. Results: 64% were right dominant, 16% left dominant and 20% co-dominant. The branches to the interventricular septum were maximum in case of co-dominance. Discussion: In Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, the volume of the left ventricle reduces gradually and decreases cardiac output. This condition can be treated by approaching the interventricular septum through the septal branches and causing local necrosis of the septum using alcohol. Conclusion: This study helps the interventional cardiologists to plan the line of treatment in Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and ablate the septum using alcohol.

  45. Amol Gurav, Mondal, D. B., Kumar, M. Monalisa Sahoo, Vijayakumar, H. and Pange, A. D.

    Effect of zinc and selenium alone and in combination was evaluated against carbon tetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity. Rats were divided into 6 groups with group I and II as healthy and diseased control. Group III, IV, V and VI received silymarin, zinc, selenium and zinc + selenium as therapeutic agents respectively. Heapatotoxicity was induced in rats by giving @ 2 ml CCl4 + 2 ml olive oil/kg (1:1; v/v) body weight orally twice a week for 4 weeks. At the end of trial, serum biochemical alterations revealed that levels of ALT, AST and ALP increased significantly in group II as compared to healthy control whereas these levels were significantly reduced in all treatment groups which does not vary statistically from healthy group. Group II showed significant increase in LPO as well as significant decrease in SOD, GSH and Catalase in liver tissue. LPO value of group VI reduced significantly as compared to group IV and V which reveals better antiperoxidation action of zinc and selenium in combination as compared to their actions alone. Therapeutic regimen of group VI reflected best SOD and Catalase activity as compared to group IV and V. Hepatocytes of group IV and V showed mild to moderate degree of fatty changes with mild infiltration of inflammatory cells and revealed score 1-2 by histopathological scoring (HPS). Group VI showed mild degree fatty changes with mild fibrous tissue proliferation between lobules as compared to group IV and V with score of 1. Co-administration of zinc and selenium revealed synergistic hepatoprotective action in rat model.

  46. Harshika Awasthi, Daya Nandan Mani Rajendra Nath and Sadan Kumar

    The present investigation was undertaken to evaluate antihyperglycaemic activity of an aqueous extract of Diabcap (a polyherbal formulation) and to ascertain its role in hepatoprotection in Streptozotocin (STZ) (60mg/kg, ip single dose) induced diabetes in rats as though potentially uncommon yet diabetic hepatopathy may be an apt organ to be targeted in diabetes. The rats were randomly divided in diabetic and non-diabetic groups. Diabcap was administered in two different doses and results were compared with metformin. The diabetic rats showed a marked elevation in fasting blood glucose level, aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, serum bilirubin, serum alkaline phosphatase, serum cholesterol & triglyceride. Administration of Diabcap significantly (p<0.001) reduced the blood glucose level in 300mg/Kg dose of hyperglycaemic rats and showed good results in improving liver function test and reduces the triglyceride and cholesterol level of STZ induced diabetic rats (SIDRs). Histological examination of the liver of normal, diabetic control and drug treated rats were in the same direction with biochemical findings. In vivo toxicity was also performed in albino rats. In the acute oral toxicity each group of rats was orally given a single dose of 2gm/Kg and in sub-acute toxicity rats were administered with 5, 50, 300mg/Kg body weight (BW) of Diabcap once daily for 28 days. This study provides compelling evidence for a holistic approach of Diabcap in amelioration of diabetes linked manifestation or dysregulations. Finally it was concluded that besides acting as an effective antihyperglycaemic agent it can also be used against diabetic hepatopathy.

  47. Dr. Gopal Sharma, Dr. Deepa Das, Dr. Jaya Mukherjee and Dr. Bhagyashri Purandare

    Erosive mucosal lichen planus is a painful and disabling inflammatory skin disease that is highly resistant to topical treatment.Treatment is difficult: topical corticosteroids are usually prescribed first, but antimalarial agents, oral retinoids, systemic corticosteroids, immunosuppressive drugs, and even extracorporeal photo chemotherapy can be necessary in severe cases. There is a need for novel therapies that are effective and produce less morbidity. Lycopene’s role in the management or prevention of oral lichen planus (OLP) has not been investigated. However, as significantly decreased levels of lycopene have been reported in patients with atrophic and erosive OLP, its role in the disease pathology needed further investigation. Further, by virtue of its antioxidant and anticancer properties, it may be useful in the prevention of malignant transformation in the OLP. In this case report, we present a case of 55 yr old Indian female with erosive lichen planus of tongue successfully managed with systemic lycopene.

  48. Deepthy, B. J., Sreejith, K., Jisha, P. and Ravindran, P. C.

    Brucellosis is a re-emerging bacterial zoonoses and a major health concern worldwide; most cases being undiagnosed or misdiagnosed as pyrexia of unknown origin. The occupational source of exposure predisposes the farmers, shepherds, butchers, laboratory workers, veterinarians and slaughterhouse workers to a greater risk of contracting the disease. The present work was thus undertaken to study the risk of exposure to the high risk occupational groups from different parts of Kerala, and also to compare between conventional test like Rose Bengal Plate test (RBPT) and Standard tube agglutination Test (STAT) with Indirect Immuno-sorbent assay (I-ELISA) for the serodiagnosis of human Brucellosis. A total of 240 human serum samples collected from 83 veterinary doctors, 47 livestock inspectors and 110 slaughter house workers were subjected to RBPT, STAT and Indirect Enzyme-Linked Immuno Sorbant Assay. Out of the 240 samples tested, 56 (23.3%), 2(0.83%) and 13 (5.41%) samples were found positive for antibodies to Brucella abortus by RBPT, STAT and I-ELISA respectively. Among Veterinary Doctors (n=83), RBPT tested positive in 17(20.48%) samples while I-ELISA tested positive in 6(7.22%), but STAT did not give any seropositivity. Among livestock inspectors, (n=47) RBPT tested positive in 8(17%). Among Slaughterhouse workers (n=110), RBPT tested positive in 31 (21.18%) while STAT tested positive in 2 (1.81%) and I-ELISA in 7 (6.36%). Seroprevalence was high in veterinary doctors (7.22%) followed by slaughter house workers (6.36%), and the incidence is high among male population and the highest age group of the affected was of 30-40 years (2.37%). The data collected from the study participants revealed that all the identified positive cases were chronic non vegetarians using all kinds of meat products. The positive cases had not underwent any kind of treatments or never attempted any specific diagnosis for brucellosis ever before. The present study suggests that brucellosis is a professional hazard in the veterinary practitioners and slaughterhouse workers. So periodic screening especially among occupationally exposed people must be done. The disease is easily misdiagnosed because of the deceptive nature of the clinical signs and symptoms. The clinicians may miss many cases of Brucellosis because it is not considered a common disease. Elimination of the infection in animals by vaccination to produce Brucella free animals and products will help to prevent transmission of infection.

  49. Saikala, L. and Selvarani, A.

    The work lives of architects in Tamil Nadu are under-studied. The purpose of present study is to address this dearth in the literature in three ways: (i) providing descriptive data related to the work experiences of architects as employees, (ii) incorporating social climate into the theory of work adjustment, a theoretically based model that predicts employees job satisfaction and creative traits of the architects, and (iii) attempting to address methodological limitations raised in this body of literature. Self-report data were collected from architects in Tamil Nadu as employees (n=206), accessing their levels of perceptions of fit, sense of social climate, job satisfaction and creative traits. However, social climate emerged as a moderator, as hypothesized. Implications for practical and research as well as limitations are addressed.

  50. Tuma Ayele, Sheleme Beyene and Abayneh Esayas

    Fruit-based land use systems and their effects on physicochemical properties of soils were assessed in Abaya-Chamo Basin of Gamo Gofa Zone, Southern Ethiopia. The study area lies between6°30’ to 6°38’ N and 37°33’ to 37°37’ E and altitude of 1200 masl. The physiography is characterized by flat plain under forest and cultivation. A survey was carried out using semi-structured techniques. Land use systems including maize, natural forest, monoculture banana field, and mixed banana and mango fields were identified. Twelve composite soil samples were made from120 random samples collected from the four land-use types. Organic Carbon (OC) and Total Nitrogen (TN) in the surface soils of maize field declined by 61 and 59%, respectively, compared to natural forest during the past 30-40 years. Similarly, OC and TN were reduced by 48.5 and 55.5% in banana and 34 and 52% in mixed fruit cropland fields, respectively, when compared to their contents under natural forest. Likewise, the depletion of CEC in the banana and the maize fields were 32 and 13%, respectively, as compared to the CEC in the forest land. Total nitrogen and Available Phosphorous (AP) contents correlated positively and highly significantly (P< 0.01) with OC and Electrical Conductivity (EC). Generally, OC, TN, PBS, exchangeable K, Ca and Mg, available P, Mn and Fe contents decreased in cultivated land-uses, whereas buildup of OC and TN were obtained in forest lands. The available micronutrients especially Fe and Cu were influenced by the difference in landuse management. These soil properties were positively and highly significantly correlated with TN and OC contents. Therefore, management practices that improve soil quality such as the inclusion of leguminous specious should be employed when converting the land to crop production.

  51. Hedia Fourati and Habib Affes

    This paper investigates empirically the association between financial decision and investment decision by considering the entrepreneurial process. We consider two modalities of financing in internal finance and external debts. We follow different steps of entrepreneurial business process in business model, business plan and nascent entrepreneurial firms. The logistic regression demonstrates that in the stage of elaborating the business model, investment decision is associated with financial decision in financial debts. Nevertheless, when considering the stage of preparing the business plan, financial decision in internal funds is associated with investment decision. Nevertheless, at the inception stage, internal funds are negatively associated with investment decision leading to the lack of financial constraints for novice American entrepreneur.

  52. Soheila Panahi, Aida Suraya Md Yunus and Samsilah Roslan

    The aim of this study is to examine whether there are differences in social support dimensions of graduate students in terms of demographic profile. The number of participants was 534 graduate students (155 male and 379 female) randomly selected in one Malaysian university. The age of students ranged from 19 to 45; with mean age of 27.10. Apart from, applying descriptive statistic such as frequency, mean and, the data were statistically tested using a one way analysis of variance (ANOVA), through SPSS, version 19. The finding of this study displayed that there were significant differences in total social support, and its’ dimensions such as family support and friend support across different faculties. The same result found for family among different races. Likewise, there was significant difference only in family support among various age groups. Furthermore, using t-test, significant differences observed across genders. In this regard, significant differences have established in total social support, family and friends. In addition, social support and significant others were significantly different in terms of marital status. However, there were no significant differences in social support of graduate students across different semesters, employment status and family sizes.

  53. Dr. Rajendran, R. and Kasthuri, R.

    Sustaining the productivity of natural resources is most important issue in the 21st century. There is an urgent need for proper distribution, efficient utilization, better management and proper development of natural resources. They are addressed with the view of fulfilling the ever-growing demand for food, fodder and fiber and fuel by both present and future generation. Sustainable Agriculture is a loosely defined term that comprises a range of strategies for addressing many of the problems that affect agriculture world-wide. These problems include the loss of soil productivity by intensive cultivation and allowing soil erosion; pollution of surface and ground water by extensive use of pesticides and fertilizer; diminishing supplies of non-renewable resources by over extraction; diminishing the quality of renewable resources by unmindful waste generation and discharge; increase in global warming by changing crop pattern; and so on. The technological transfer drive of which, one part forms the yielding wonder seeds, the other parts of the process are application of fertilizer and pesticides, improved water supplies, following intensive and extensive cropping, better cultural practices, etc. The environmental cost is outweighing the net development benefits level and thus sustainable development of natural capital starts to move in negative direction. Specific objectives of the study: i) to find out to what extent the farmers of the study area are practicing sustainable paddy cultivation in the Cauvery delta ii) to analyze the factors contributing the present level of sustainable farm practices and iii) to examine the impacts of sustainable practices on the farm income. This study uses both primary and secondary data. Primary data collected from the select households of the study village, who follow sustainable farm practices, after getting ideas from various sources and secondary data are collected from the different government offices at block level and from published and unpublished sources.

  54. Dr. D. Rajasekar and Kosaraju Chandrasekar

    Salivary Shelter is basic necessity of life, ranked behind only to food and clothing in importance. There is strong urge in every individual life, whether rich people or poor people to own a house. House is not a place of dwelling alone it also satisfies an individual`s social and psychological needs. House by itself is not productive asset but investment in housing helps in increasing productivity provision of shelter is thus closely linked with a country`s overall socio – economic development. For the purpose of the study a questionnaire was constructed and survey taken from a finite number of customers as consider them as samples where the total population was infinite in nature. The research design used for the study is descriptive research which will analyze the current market status and consumers. The collected data is analyzed and interpreted with the help of suitable statistical tools and accordingly the findings, suggestions and recommendations are constructed which is consider to be the important part of the project.

  55. Thilagavathi, G., Selvisabhanayakam and Ganesh Prabu, P.

    There are many factors that influence the success of production of silk. In recent years, some antibiotic agents have been used for growth enhancement of silkworm larvae and improvement of silk production. This study regarding the effect of amoxicillin was conducted on the silkworm breed selected for the experiment was popular Indian bivoltine hybrid (CSR2XCSR4). The silkworm larvae were reared up to fifth instar without any treatment. Later the amoxicillin antibiotic solution was diluted by different concentrations (1%, 3% and 5%), each concentration were sprayed on the MR2 Mulberry (Morus sinensis) leaves. It was fed by silkworm larvae, III, IV and V instar. Group “C” larvae received MR2 mulberry leaves sprayed with distilled water, it was served as control. Groups T1, T2 and T3 larvae received 1%, 3% and 5% antibiotic solution sprayed mulberry leaves, respectively. In this groups, the T3 (5% concentration) was significantly increased the larval, pupal and cocoon parameters (length, width and weight) and economic parameters like cocooning percentage, shell weight, shell ratio, silk filament length, and denier of silk filament.

  56. Gabriel Amalan Rabert, Mahalingam Rajasekar, Paramasivam Manivannan, Ramamurthy Somasundaram and Rajaram Panneerselvam

    In the present study, a pot culture experiment was conducted to estimate the ameliorating effect of Triadimefon (TDM), Hexaconazole (HEX) and Propiconazole (PCZ) on drought stress in Capsicum annuum L. plant belongs to solanaceae family. From 30 days after sowing (DAS), the plants were subjected to 3 days interval drought (DID) stress and drought stress with TDM @ 10 mg l-1, HEX @ 10 mg l-1 and PCZ @ 15 mg l-1 and one day interval irrigation was kept as control. The plant samples were collected on 40, 50 and 60 DAS. The plants were separated into root, stem and leaf for estimating the biochemical, antioxidant and antioxidant enzymes. Combined drought stress treatments increased biochemical, antioxidant contents and antioxidant enzymes activities when compared to control. The triazole treatment mitigated the adverse effects of drought stress by increasing the antioxidant potentials and thereby paved the way for overcoming drought stress in C. annuum L.

  57. Janarthanam, B. and Sumathi, E.

    An efficient plant regeneration protocol was developed for Orthosiphon spiralis - an important medicinal plant. Shoot tip explants inoculated on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 1.0 mg l-1 6- Benzyl adenine (BAP) and 0.25 mg l-1 NAA showed better growth response and produced 52.3 ± 2.1 shoots per explant with an average length of 6.43 ± 0.06 cm after 30 days. Rooting of shoots was achieved on growth regulator free half strength MS medium produced 7.3 ± 0.25 cm roots with an average height of 5.4 ± 0.2 cm after 28days. The rooted plantlets were transferred for hardening, 80 per cent of plantlets survived and resumed growth in the mixture of soil, vermiculite and farmyard manure (1:1:1).

  58. Marshal Briewin, Bhrathi Naidu and Mohamed Amin Embi

    This study discusses the evaluation of a learning-to-learn grammar module for English as a Foreign Language (EFL) learner in one of the private institutions of a higher learning. The objective of this study is to evaluate the learning-to-learn grammar module in terms of its usability, suitability and user-friendliness for EFL learners. The sample size consists of 20 EFL learners, studying the Advanced level.The learners were given a set of questionnaires to evaluate the grammar module. They evaluated the grammar module in terms of its usability, suitability and user-friendliness. The learning-to-learn grammar module has received a very good feedback from the learners (M = 3.5 and 3.6). This indicates that the module has met the criteria of the suitability, usability and user-friendliness.

  59. Laila Amar, Ayalkibet Hundesa, Sandra Fresno, Jesús Rodriguez-Manzano, Lahcen Wakrim, Rosina Girones, and Mustapha Lkhider

    A total of 72 samples were collected between 2006 and 2008 in the Mediterranean coast of Morocco (Smir lagoon water= 30, connected seawater =30, sediments=6, mussels = 6). The water samples were concentrated by glass wool method then analyzed for human enterovirus infectious by integrated cell culture-PCR (ICC/RT-PCR) and by qRT-PCR for other enteric viruses. Human adenovirus, polyomavirus JC, Norovirus GII and rotavirus A were detected in 63, 57, 43 and 36% of 30 lagoon samples respectively. For Norovirus GI, in 10 tested samples only 10 % revealed positive. Human adenovirus was detected in 60% while polyomavirus JC and Norovirus GII were detected in 10% of ten seawater samples. All were negative for hepatitis virus E and hepatitis virus A. The infectious enterovirus were detected in 40 and 36% of lagoon and seawater samples respectively and sequencing analyses showed that sequences belong to coxsackievirus B1. Mussels samples were positive for Rotavirus A (83%) and none of Norovirus were detected. Sediments were positive for Rotavirus A (33%) and Norovirus GI/GII (17%). This study revealed a human viral pollution of the environment and suggested Human adenovirus as a suitable viral indicator of human fecal pollution for recreational beaches quality.

  60. Ashok Chittaragi, Raja Naika, Roopashree, A. C. and Chandrashekar, M. B.

    In this study, in vitro antibacterial properties of Scleroderma bermudense extracted using three different solvent systems (Petroleum ether, Chloroform and Methanol) were studied against plant and human pathogens viz., Xanthomonas campestris, Pseudomonas syringae, Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Klebsiella pneumonia, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella parathyphi, Salmonella typhi, Pseudomonas aeroginosa and Escherichia coli by agar well diffusion method. The three organic solvent extracts, showed more effective inhibitory activity against all the tested bacteria. Author conclude, the present results of the study evidence the utilize of the mushrooms in traditional biomedicine for the curing of ailments caused by the microorganisms.

  61. Ibrahim, T. Akogun

    It is observed that people do develop their properties without a thorough consideration of the interrelationship that exists between the location and property values. Considerable importance is attached in the modern world to the concept of property location as it influences the use and value of properties. The theme of this project is to X-ray the influence of location on property values and business development in Nigeria using Ilorin metropolis as a case study. Primary data was gathered from three major neighbourhoods within the metropolis by physical observation of property and infrastructural developments, and questionnaires administered on estate surveyors in real estate practice to collect data on property rents. Data collected were analysed and presented mainly by descriptive methods. The project discovered variation in rental values from different places and then examines the causes of the variation and effects on properties and business development in the areas. Business development has concentrated and is growing more intensively in neighbourhoods with highest level of accessibility. This has led to skyrocketed rents on the properties in the areas which may eventually give rise to gentrification whereby important but less financially rewarding businesses are forced to relocate elsewhere. The study consequently recommends that the government should provide infrastructures in the less developed areas to encourage people move into the area rather than over-crowding one part of the city.

  62. Sanjeev Kumar Garg and Daya S. Singh

    Extrusion cooking is a popular means of preparing snack foods and ready-to-eat breakfast cereals using starch-based raw materials. Snacks contribute an important part of many consumers in daily nutrient and calories intake. A ready to eat extruded food was developed using brabender single screw laboratory extruder by incorporation of defatted soy flour with rice flour. The effect of moisture content (12 to 24 per cent (w.b.), defatted soy flour in the blend ratio (10 to 26 per cent) and die head temperature (160 to 2000C) were studied on the textural quality such as crispness, hardness and cutting strength of the extruded snacks. It was observed that at the lower value of moisture content (15 per cent) of feed and defatted soy flour to rice flour blend ratio (14:86) the crispness of snacks was highest. The crispness decreased up to 1850C die head temperature beyond 1850C temperature the crispness increased. Similarly the crispness of the product gradually decreased by increasing or decreasing defatted soy flour to rice flour ratio blending ratio beyond 14:86. The lowest hardness was obtained nearly at 14:86 defatted soy flour to rice flour blend ratio and 15 per cent moisture content of feed as the value of moisture content of feed increased the value of hardness also increased. The minimum cutting strength was observed at 1700C die head temperature. Further it was observed that the maximum value of crispness lies nearly higher side of die head temperature and lowest hardness and cutting strength was obtained at lowest value of moisture content i.e. 15 per cent and 14:86 blend ratio.

  63. Sawant, V. B., Sonani V. V., Raskar, S. S. and Patil, P. A.

    Eighteen treatment combinations consisting of three levels of nitrogen (25, 50 and 75 kg ha-1), three levels of phosphorus (12.5, 25 and 37.5 kg ha-1) and two levels of sulphur (0 and 20 kg ha-1) were tested in factorial randomized block design with three replications. A significant increase in growth and yield attributes viz; plant height, number of branches/plant, length of capsule, number of seeds/capsule and test weight was obtained with increase in nitrogen levels from 25 to 50 kg N/ha., phosphorus levels from 12.5 to 37.5 kg/ha, Sulphur levels from 0 to 20 kg ha-1

  64. Sawant V. B., Sonani V. V., Raskar S. S. and Patil, P. A.

    Present study has been undertaken in summer Sesamum 2010 at Pulse Research Station, Anand Agricultural University, Model Farm, Vadodara, Gujarat to find out the effect of different NPK levels on yield and quality. The seed and stalk yields were significantly get influenced by nitrogen and sulphur applications while steady increase has been recorded due to phosphorus levels. Oil content in Sesamum has been observed to be increased with increasing levels of nitrogen and sulphur but there was no any significant effect due to Phosphorus.

  65. Jai Prakash Singh, Satish Kumar Singh and Chitra Kalaichelvan

    Most people consume soft drink for refreshment and quenching thirst. There are many types of soft drinks available in market whose common ingredients are normal water or carbonated water, sweetener, flavoring agents, caffeine, coloring agent and preservative. Since these soft drinks have very low nutritional density and younger generations are addicted to these soft drinks, hence in this investigation we have developed a soft drink with Nannari and lemon as main ingredient. Total seven variants were formulated by using Nannari, lemon, glucose and flavoring agents like vanilla or chocolate. All the variants were subjected for the sensory analysis subsequently obtained data was analyzed by SPSS software version 12. Results of sensory analysis revealed that SET3 and SET6 are the two best formulated soft drink. Formulated soft drinks approved by panelist member were subjected for the nutrient analysis in which protein, Vitamin C and few mineral content such as Na, K and Ca were analyzed. Both the variant SET3 and SET6 approved by panelist member were vanilla flavored but SET6 contained double the concentration of Nannari compaitive to SET3.

  66. Panda, S. P., Mardaraj, P., Subudhi, H. N. and Sahu, A. K.

    Devi estuary lying between 86o 04’ - 86o 20’ E longitude and 19o 45’- 19o 57’ N latitude harbours a moderately rich and diverse flora of mangroves. But in the past the species diversity was remarkably high as indicated by Ravishankar et al. (2004). 15 exclusive mangrove species (true mangroves) have been reported from this mangrove chunk of Odisha prior to the recent survey. In course of time there is tangible shrinkage of habitat as well as population of mangroves. Some species have already been wiped out, a few are on the verge of extinction and many species have shown very restricted distribution putting them in threatened/ vulnerable/ rare category (Nayar and Sastry, 1987). The depletion of the species is mainly due to severe biotic pressure coupled with other coastal dynamic changes and ecological changes. Mangrove forests are composed of several species having great economic potentialities, which inspire the people to exploit the mangrove forests in an unplanned manner to meet their needs. This causes depletion of species. So, immediate conservation of the mangrove forests are need of the hour. Realising this, the Government of India now emphasizes over the conservation of mangrove vegetation in all the states, where it is present. This aims at the interventions, such as restoration, rehabilitation and conservation of the unique and priceless estuarine ecosystems of the coastal regions. Due to the incessant efforts of the Forest Departments of Odisha in general and Mangrove Forest Division (WL), Rajnagar, Kendrapara in particular under the Integrated Coastal Zone Management Project the rate of depletion has significantly decreased in the Mahanadi delta and Bhitarkanika National Park through large scale mangrove plantations. If these measures will be implemented in the Devi estuary then the depletion of the mangroves can be checked to a large extent. Taking these facts and the un-exploredness of the mangrove flora into account, this communication emphasizes on the floristic composition and conservation of the mangroves.

  67. Jyoti Sharma, Meenakshi Yadav, Gaurav Kumar, Maneesh Gupta, Jayanand and Rai, D.V.

    An evaluation of nitrogen in soil can have a profound impact on nutrient availability as well as physical and chemical properties of soil. Although chemicals in the form of pesticide and fertilizers may have undesirable impact on the quality of plants as well as micro-organism but the effect of nitrogen concentration is poorly known of Fusarium oxysporum. The objective of present study was to explore the effect of nitrogen concentration in soil of medicinal plants (Azadirachta indica) on soil borne in vitro Fusarium oxysporum. The present work was performed under the Soil sample which was taken to a depth of 20 cm at different sites of Azadirachta indica. Snell & Snell methodology was used for determination of Nitrogen concentration. Result has showed the concentration of nitrogen present was 0.34mg per gram soil sample. We conclude that soil of Azadirachta indica contain low nitrogen concentration which directly related to the growth of Fusarium oxysporum. Higher nitrogen concentration favours profuse proliferation in case of Fusarium oxysporum.

  68. Dr. Mukesh Kumar Napit

    The present study has been planned to observe the effects of different salinity on the ultimobranchial gland in an eryhaline teleost fish Tilapia (O.mossambicus). Cytophysiological studies along with some biochemical observation. Therefore it is planned to study the effect of increased salinity concentration at different time of year specially in calcium regulatory organs. Very little data is available (shukla, 1993 and singh, 1997) on this physiological aspect of catfish in our Country. It is interesting to study the effects of increased salinity at different phases of its reproductive cycle i.e., during pre-spawning, spawning and post-spawning periods specially on calcium regulatory organs. Since not much work is available on this aspects it was planned to explore this line with an eryhaline teleost fish Tilapia. Due to its easy availability and also tenacity, the eryhaline fish Tilapia, was selected. Work on eryhaline is almost rare in this animal with exposure to external stress. This fish was procured during the different periods of the year and a stock was maintained for a continuous supply of these animals.

  69. Anjan Kumar Sinha and Mishra, P. K.

    An investigation was conducted to determine the agro-morphic characterization and relationship between 20 landraces of rice cultivars of Bankura District of West Bengal. Characterization for 20 qualitative and 13 quantitative morphological characters with 82 agro-morphic descriptors was carried out. Most traits were polymorphic except coleoptiles colour, present of leaf collar, shape of ligule and present of secondary branching in panicle. For Cluster analysis of qualitative traits the cultivars were grouped into five clusters based on similarity coefficient of Jaccard. Pearson correlation matrix, Principal Component Analysis (Pearson –n type), the un-weighted variable pair group method of the average linkage cluster analysis (UPGMA-Person) were used to analyzed quantitative data. This analysis enabled assessment of major characters of landraces variety which have a great impact to the diversity of landraces. Using UPGMA four cluster groups were obtained from 13 quantitative agro-morphological characters. The first three principal components explained about 79.05% of the total variation among the 13 characters. The results of PCA suggested that characters such as leaf length and width ratio, plant height, grain width, decorticated grain width, 50% flowering and maturity time were the principal discriminatory characteristics of landraces of rice variety. Germplasm consist of these characters are better choice for hybridization program. The present study indicated that morphological traits were useful for preliminary evaluation for crop improvement program and can be used for assessing genetic diversity among morphologically distinguishable rice landraces.

  70. Rout, P. C. and Naik, B. N.

    Clarias batrachus, Linn. a common Indian cat fish was treated with various sub acute concentrations of Lead acetate for three days and seven days. A third set carried chronic exposure to 15 ppm lead acetate for 105 days. Different blood parameters studied included total RBC and total WBC counts, gm % of haemoglobin, % cytotoxicity, haematocrait, mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH). Differential count of WBCs were also done for the respective groups. Lead accumulation in the blood was estimated by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). A Co-relation Co-efficient (‘r’) between lead content of blood and Mean values of these parameters was worked out. The r –values are found to be highly significant.

  71. Sunil Kumar, M., Haranath Reddy, K. and Charitha Devi, M.

    White rot fungi is commonly known as wood decaying fungi which grows on moist wood and digests converts it to rot. Rice straw degradation by white rot fungi has potential to increase the digestibility of animal feed and its nutritional value for the production of lignolytic enzymes. Twenty white rot fungal isolates were obtained from wood samples. These fungal isolates were subjected to qualitative screening tests for lignolytic activity on solid media containing several polymeric dyes like poly R-478, Tannic acid, Azure-B, Remazol brilliant blue R. Out of twenty isolates four isolates with appreciable enzyme activity were selected based on the dye decolourisation property. The optimized conditions resulted in high lignin modified enzymes (LME) production with the 745 Uml-1 of Laccase, 265 Uml-1 of MnPase and 142 Uml-1 of Peroxidase within 12 days of incubation, at the pH - 6.5 and 35˚C of temperature. Purification studies were conducted by ammonium sulphate precipitation followed by SDS PAGE analysis in which the molecular weight was determined as 45 kD, 57 kD then HPLC analysis reveals peak at 19 mins at specific wavelength of A280. The present findings revealed the the strain LMCD-2 is an efficient organism for lignolytic enzyme production.

  72. Oladeebo, J. O. and Oyetunde, O. T.

    The general objective of the study was to examine the relationship between plot size and technical efficiency in cassava production in Oyo State of Nigeria. Specifically, the study estimated technical efficiency of cassava farmers; determined the most productive resource in cassava production as well as determined the nature of return to cassava production. Data obtained from 120 representative cassava farmers were analyzed by the use of Stochastic Frontier Production Function technique. Results obtained showed that labour was the most significant productive resource in cassava production. Results further showed that plot size had negative relationship with technical efficiency. Level of education and amount of credit obtained were the significant factors of cassava farmers’ technical efficiencies. The value of 0.8024 obtained for returns to scale showed that cassava farmers were operating in the rational zone of production surface. The study suggested that cassava farmers should reduce their cassava plot size to a manageable size; more credit should be made available to cassava farmers while most of the educated farmers should pay more attention to the operations on their farms in order to reduce their level of technical inefficiency.

  73. Gayathri, V., Prabha Sherlina, F. and Anju Singh

    Manures enrich the soil and nutrients used by crops. The word “Manure” most often refers to any kind of fertilizers. The benefit of using green manure by organic farmers (and other farmers) is that, it adds organic matter to the soil by releasing important plant nutrients, including nitrogen and helps to increase crop yield. Thus, the use of manures that supply nutrients to the soil is needed for plant growth. An experiment was conducted to study the influence of chemical fertilizers (DAP and superphosphate) and leaf extracts (Ocimum basilicum and Lantana camara) singly and in combination on the germination, growth and yield parameters of black gram (Vigna mungo L.). The effect of chemical fertilizer and leaf extracts on the seed germination of black gram was recorded and higher germination percentage was noticed in T5 (Ocimum basilicum and Lantana camara). The yield parameters also increased when combination of chemical fretilizers and herbal extracts were used.

  74. Zuraida, A. R., Mohd Shukri, M. A., Noraishah, M., Fatin Liyana Izzati, K., Ayu Nazreena, O., Razali, M., Erny Sabrina, M. N. and Zamri, Z.

    Root cultures were initiated from stem, petiole and leaf explants of Pelargonium radula. Stem segments, the explants most amenable to adventitious root induction, developed well when cultured on half strength solid MS (Murashige & Skoog) medium containing 15 g/L sucrose. To enhance the induction and proliferation of adventitious roots, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) or α-napthalenacetic acid (NAA) were added to the culture medium. Supplementation with 0.5 mg/L NAA gave the highest incidence of root initiation (97.7%) and the highest number of roots (8.1 roots/explant). Root cultures were subsequently established in continuously agitated liquid medium. Up to 17 g/flask fresh weight of roots were obtained in full strength liquid MS medium containing 0.5 mg/L NAA, with the cultures maintained in either light or darkness.

  75. Laiphrakpam Linthoingambi, Ajit Kumar Das, Singh P. K. and Ghosh S. K.

    Orchidaceae family constitute the second largest family in the flowering plants and they came under the order Asparageles of the family Monocots. In India, there are about 645 tribes and mostly they settle in remote/forest areas. They depend on indigenous system of medicine for treating disesase. The present paper deals with the medicinal use of orchid by various tribes in India. The investigation brought the therapeutic potentials of 88 orchid species belonging to 45 genus for the treatment of different disease and ailments like curing scorpion and snake bites, leucoderma, eczema, tumor, diahorrhea, earache, sexually transmitted diseases, dysentery, paralysis, acidity, cholera, wounds and sores, chest pains, arthritis, syphilis, pregnancy, bone fractures, spermatorrhea, muscular pains, asthma, menstrual disorder etc. by the different types of tribes in India.

  76. Shahzad Bashir, Shazia Anwer Bukhari, Sajjad ur Rehman, Sadia Javed and Waqass M, Bhutta

    Hyper-immune serum was developed in three groups of rabbits. Bacillus thuringiensis (CEMB no. 30023 strain no. PR 17.2) was used to produce delta endotoxin, the product of Cry1 Ac gene which was used as antigen. Toxoid was prepared having 0 (control), 0.5 and 1.0 mg of delta endotoxin which was injected in rabbits which produced the hyper-immune serum. These antibodies were further used to detect the expression of CryI AC gene. Agarose gel precipitation test was done against standard antigen and antiserum, as well as against antiserum and delta endotoxin from the Bt plants. All the Agarose gel precipitation tests, showed positive results which indicated that antibodies were successfully developed and expressed in rabbits against delta endotoxin derived from B. thuringiensis.

  77. Debjani Nath

    During their transit through the epididymis, spermatozoa undergo many biochemical modifications necessary to acquire flagellar motility and fertilizing ability. These modifications, collectively called sperm maturation, are well orchestrated along the epididymis. Sperm maturation requires the interaction of spermatozoa with proteins that are synthesized and secreted in a region-specific manner by principle cells of the epididymal epithelium and depend on highly regionalized gene expression patterns. But the regulatory processes that establish the discrete epididymal microenvironments remain yet largely unknown. Based on clinical observations, the role of the epididymis in human sperm maturation has been questioned but results obtained using animal models can be extrapolated to human with caution

  78. Suresh, K. K. and Anamiya Baby

    In this paper, a table and procedure are given for finding the three stage Chain Sampling plan ChSP (0,1,2) with repetitive deferred sampling plan involving minimum sum of producer’s and consumer’s risks for specified Acceptable Quality Level and Limiting Quality Level.

  79. K. K. Suresh and M. Kavithamani

    Under acceptance sampling producer’s risk and consumer’s risk has become increasingly common in maintaining quality products especially in industries. In this paper a skip lot sampling plan of type (SkSP-V) with Multiple Deferred State Sampling plan MDS (0,1) as reference plan has been studied. Producer’s risk and Consumer’s risk has been minimized by minimizing the tangent angle passing though (AQL, 1-α) and (LQL, β). Designing methodologies are provided to illustrate the solution procedures. This paper provides computational analysis that leads to variety of managerial insights. This method seems to be versatile and can be even adopted to the elementary production process, where the stipulated quality level is advisable to fix at a later stage and provides less producer risk and consumer risk.

  80. Muthukrishnan, R. and Mahesh, K.

    All classical statistical methods rely explicitly or implicitly on parametric models based on number of assumptions. The most widely used assumption is that the observed data have normal distribution. This assumption about the structural and the stochastic parts of the model have been present in statistics for two centuries, and have been the framework for all the classical methods. Classical methods perform well if the data obeys the assumptions. Now-a-days data collected and stored at enormous speed (GB/TB/hr) and pressure to provide better customized service for an edge. The data does not follow the so-called assumptions then the result using classical methods get affected. In this context traditional techniques are infeasible due to enormity of data, high dimensionality of data and heterogeneous of data. The robust methods can be seen as extensions to the classical ones which can cope with deviations from the stochastic assumptions. Classification and data reduction techniques play an important role while handling large data. A reliable and precise classification aspect is essential in analyzing multivariate data. This paper presents the evaluation aspects such as apparent error rate of various classical and robust discriminant methods on a simulation study using R package.

  81. Gaurav Harish Yadav, Rahul Kumar Jain, Mayank Kapoor and Raman Nateriya

    The Intense competition and pressure from customers to reduce prices has forced many companies to reduce their costs to survive. The cost must be reduced earlier in the product life cycle, particularly while the product is in the planning and design stages. But in this case study we have found stages after launch of product in the market to reduce the price. Few more factors which influence the cost of products and are determined by various cost allocation methods. Cost Allocation method is the process used to assign costs to production or services. When assigning costs to production and/ or service activities it is important to know whether the cost is a direct or an indirect cost. This will let the management of the concern know how to deal with the particular cost. The treatment of direct costs will be different from the treatment of indirect costs or overheads. Direct costs such as direct material, direct labor are used to make specific product or service. The term cost tracing is used to describe what happens when it is possible to assign a cost directly to a specific product or service. An example of this would be the wood. It is possible to calculate how much wood was used to make a desk or a chair. But, indirect costs or overheads benefit several products or services and cannot be traced directly to a specific product or service. An example of this would be the wood glue that is used to manufacture the tables, chairs and desks. It is hard to say exactly how much glue was used in making tables, chairs and desks. So, another method of allocating such costs to products that used the glue must be found. Such methods are referred to as cost allocation methods. These methods are used when it is not possible to say exactly how much of a particular resource has been used to make a particular product or service. Since it has been acknowledged that the cause of a product should be taken into consideration while planning and strategy that is before actuating the production. In this research paper we have studied how to reduce cost of a product after production, and factors taken into picture for the cost reduction. When an organization launches a product in the market, it starts reflecting the demand and position of a product in competition. And also for an effective cost of a product after a particular time it is necessary to forecast the demand of the product in the market by various forecasting techniques. Forecasting leads to compute the amount of production to be done so that, organization buy adequate amount of raw materials which reduces the cost of storing and maintaining. Similarly as the virtual demand is a computed organization start with the production and delimit it according to the demand which helps in reducing the cost of inventory and which further leads to reduce the cost of the product. Reduced cost in the market may increase the demand of the particular product which makes out maximum profit. Since we have focused the right time to make out a survey in the market and to analysis the demand and accordingly start the production and delimit various factors to abate the price of a product.

  82. Esekhaigbe Edwin, C.Israel-Cookey, E. N Ekaka-a, Anetor Osemenkhian, Alex Musa and Ebhohimen Fidelis

    The effect of radiation absorption on the onset of instability of a rotating fluid layer driven by convection is investigated when the fluid is heated from below in a porous medium taking into consideration viscous effect. The Boussinesq approximation is used for the radiative absorption in the energy equation. Using the linearised stability theory and normal mode analysis, the criteria for the onset of instability via stationary convection is obtained for the case of two free boundaries. Analytical expressions have been found for the onset of stationary and oscillatory instabilities and for the oscillatory frequency, which depend on the rate of radiation absorption. The critical wave number and the oscillatory frequency also depend strongly on this quantity. Graphs have been drawn and the results discussed with their help. The oscillatory thermal Rayleigh number for various values of of T,kc, and B are shown in Table 1.

  83. Viruthagiri, G., Praveen, P., Shanmugam, N. and Mugundan, S.

    Sol–gel method was employed in the preparation of pure and Iron (Fe- 4%, 8%, 12% & 16%) doped TiO2 nanoparticles. The prepared Fe3+–TiO2 nanoparticles were investigated by means of X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) and UV-VIS-diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS). The mono-anatase structure in the composite nanomaterials is indicated by XRD analysis. The Fe doped TiO2 powders could apparently shift the UV-absorption band towards the higher energy region, and there was an optimal 8%Fe content in association with the larger band gap energy.

  84. Mimouna M. Abutalib and Osiris W. Guirguis

    Thin transparent films of poly (vinyl alcohol)/hydroxypropyl cellulose (PVA/HPC) (100/0, 96/4, 92/8, 88/12, 84/16 and 0/100 wt/wt%) blends were prepared by using solution-cast technique. In the present study, the temperature-dependent (in the range 295-390 K) dielectric dispersion was used to probe the molecular mobility of the amorphous phase of the blend systems near the glass transition temperature (Tg). The dielectric properties on certain chosen blends (100/0, 92/8 and 88/12 wt/wt%) before and after irradiation with different fast neutron fluencies within the range from 105 to 108 n/cm2 were investigated. The results noticed that all the samples face to changes in the values of the dielectric permittivity (ε'), dielectric loss tangent (tan δ) and a.c. electrical conductivity (σac). The data also indicated that the measurable changes in the glass transition temperature (Tg) may be due to the fact that the position of Tg is strongly dependent on the molecular weight, purity and water content of the sample. These changes may be attributed to degradation process and/or to cross-linking process either by the presence of HPC with different concentrations or by irradiation with different fast neutron fluencies or both of them. This suggests that, the observed dispersion and the correlated barrier hopping mechanism depend on composition and temperature of blend matrix.

  85. Sherab Tenzin and Pattarasinee Bhattarakosol

    Twenty first century education has focused on student centered learning toward the “whole child”, the “whole person” education system. Currently, Bhutanese lives in an era of dramatic technological revolution. Educators can use technology as a support system to help students achieve proficiency in 21st century skills. This study investigates the perception of ICT by Bhutanese academic staff and also it’s integration into classroom teaching. The result should provide guidance to the policy and curriculum designers of school and teacher training colleges for designing technology integrated teaching/learning system. A self report survey amongst 466 randomly chosen teachers around the country revealed that teachers are willing to learn, and integrate technology into their teaching.

  86. Revathi Sundaravadivel, Saraswathi Uthamaramasamy and Sudarmani Gayathri, N.

    To investigate the anti tumor potential of 50% hydro ethanolic extract of Caeselpinia sappan (EECS) on Ehrlich ascites carcinoma in mice. The anti tumor potential was carried out both by in vitro (MTT assay in Hep G 2 cell line) and in vivo methods. The cytotoxic effect (Ic 50 value) on Hep G 2 cell line and Vero cell line was found to be 1.25mg/ml and 2.50mg/ml. Various hematological parameters (RBC, WBC, Hb and PCV) and marker enzymes (Cathepsin-D, β-D-glucuronidase, Acid phosphatase, 5’-nucleotidase and lactate dehydrogenase) were analyzed. The extract was administered at the dose of 400mg/kg of body weight and with the 5-FU (20 mg/kg.ip) as the standard drug. Tumor was induced in mice by intraperitoneal injection of EAC cells (1x106cells/mouse). Significant changes were observed in biochemical parameters of ascitic carcinoma mice when compared to C.Sappan treated mice. The anti tumor potential activity was mainly due to the presence of poly phenolics and flavonoids present in the plant extract. Thus, the present study confirms the anti tumor potential of the ethanolic extract of C.Sappan.

  87. Patil, S. K., Wari, M. N. and Inamdar, S. R.

    The rotational dynamics of a polar laser dye coumarin 519 has been studied in alcohols by both steady state and time-resolved fluorescence depolarization technique at room temperature. Rotational correlation times of the probe were found to vary linearly as function of viscosity of the solvents. Results are analyzed by employing the Stokes-Einstein-Debye (SED) hydrodynamic theory to estimate the mechanical friction with slip and stick boundary conditions.

  88. Rajamannan, B., Mugundan, S., Viruthagiri, G., Shanmugam, N. and Praveen, P.

    Silver doped (4%, 8%, 12% and 16%) TiO2 nanoparticles have been prepared by sol–gel method at room temperature. In this present study, we used titanium tetra isopropoxide and 2–propanol as a common starting materials and found that the final product was in anatase phase. The samples of pure anatase were calcined at 500°C for 5 h. The X-ray powder diffraction study reveals that all the prepared samples have pure anatase phase of tetragonal system. The functional groups of the samples were identified by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The diffused reflectance UV–Vis-DRS spectra indicated that the Ag doped TiO2 samples exhibit higher blue shifts compared with the undoped TiO2 nanoparticle. The photoluminescence studies showed that emission Peaks are shifted to lower wavelength regions. The morphological structures and elements present in the samples were determined by using techniques viz., scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive x-ray analysis (EDX).

  89. Fatemeh Bitajian, Fatemeh Fallah, Majid Ayatollahi, Raheleh Sadat Sajadi Nia

    High incidence of food listeriosis, especially listeriosis resulted from consumption of diary products has been reported to be as the second lethal cause resulted from food contamination after salmonella. Due to the importance of rapid diagnosis and treatment of this bacterium, there is a need to provide suitable culture medium for listeria growth and separating it from contaminated food products. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of applying a natural substance ;propolis (bee glue); in order to make a selective culture medium for separating listeria.Crude samples of propolis collected from 3 different regions were diluted in 30 ml of 70% ethanol. After performing the Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and finding the effective concentration of propolis for listeria monocytogenes to grow and preparation of different dilutions, propolis was added to 170 plates containing 4 various media including Muller Hinton Broth, Blood Agar, Muller Hinton Agar and Brain Heart Infusion Agar and different strains of bacteria were cultured. All bacterial strains growth including: E.coli, Shigella flexeneri, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus auricularis, Shigella sounei, Pseudomonas aeroginosa, Salmonella typhi murium, Enterobacter aeroginosa and Staphylococcus aureus was inhibited except for listeria monocytogenes. The effect of propolis for separating listeria monocytogenes was proved as the main effective substance in the new media.

  90. Chollom, S. C., Emerhirhi, F. T., Akwaowo, E. E., Ogbaji, J. U., Fyaktu, E. J., Ohemu, T. L., Idoko, M. A., Ujah, A. Onovoh, E. and Okwori A. E. J.

    We investigated local chicken at sale points for antibodies against Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) in some live bird markets in Plateau State, Nigeria. Our aim was to determine the degree of endemicity of NDV in the target population and to evaluate the attendant epidemiological implication. A total of 300 samples were collected from two markets. Standard method for Haemagglutination Inhibition (HI) test was adopted for screening the samples. Results showed that 245 (81.5%) of the samples tested positive for the agent. The distribution of antibodies (log2) showed that 4 samples (1.5%) had a titre of 1, 8 samples (2.5%) had a titre of 2, 15 samples (5.1%) had a titre of 3, 28 samples (9.3%) had a titre of 4, 42 samples (13.8%) had a titre of 5, while 42 samples (14.2%) had a titre of 6, 48 samples (16%) had a titre of 7 which was the second most frequently encountered titre, 57 samples (19%) had a titre of 8, which was the most frequently encountered titre 35 samples (11.7%) had a titre of 9, while the highest titre obtained was 10, in (6.8%) samples. Overall HI (log2) in all samples collected ranged from1-10. The highest positive sample was observed in Bukuru with 124 (82%) positive while for Jos 120 (80%) was positive. The result obtained was subjected to statistical analysis using statistical package for social science (SPSS version 16) for statistical difference at 95% confidence interval and there was no significant difference in the percentage of the two sites.

  91. Mohammed Nafi and Waleed Eldaif

    Background: Glycopeptides such as vancomycin are frequently the antibiotics of choice for the treatment of infections caused by methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus. For the last 10 years incidence of vancomycin intermediate S. aureus and vancomycin resistant S. aureus has been increasing in various parts of the world Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of vancomycin intermediate S. aureus and vancomycin resistant S. aureus and their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern among hospital and community acquired Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates. Methods: This is a cross sectional study. Staphylococcus aureus strains were isolated and identified from patients suffering from skin and wound infections using conventional microbiology techniques. Methicillin resistant strains were investigated by detection of mecA gene using PCR. Strains were also tested for antimicrobial resistance using disc diffusion technique and vancomycin resistance using E test. Results: Out of 223 S. aureus strains 35.3% were found to be methicillin resistant. 37.2% out of 78 MRSA strains were community acquired; while 62.8% out of 78 MRSA strains were hospital acquired. Out of 78 MRSA strains 9% were found to be vancomycin resistant and 28.2% of strains of MRSA have shown to be vancomycin intermediate strains.

  92. Sanjay Yadav, Sreska Shrestha Pradip Hamal and Nazrul Islam

    Gestational diabetes mellitus is the most common metabolic complication of pregnancy, and causes fetal mortality and morbidity. The prevalence of gestational diabetes is increasing all over the world. Worldwide prevalence is estimated to be between 2.8% (in Washington DC, USA) and 22% (in Sardinia, Italy). In our study, oral glucose tolerance test was done after fasting plasma glucose in 2336 pregnant women of different age groups (15-25, 26-35 and 36-45 years). Out of 2336 subjects, 112 patients (4.8%) were selectively diagnosed as gestational diabetes mellitus and another 112 subjects were included as normal subjects in this study. The values of fasting and 1 hour post glucose load in all three maternal age groups were 102.10±4.63, 106.37±7.06, 110.8±8.9 and 205.07±3.19, 205.60±4.06, 226.1±5.23 respectively, which were significantly higher with that of normal subjects (p=0.000). Results of our study indicates that rate of gestational diabetes mellitus has an increasing notion in Nepalese women. The main factor responsible for this increasing trend of gestational diabetes in Nepalese women may be due to the modern trend of either delay marriage or early marriage.

  93. Dr. Haveri Sameer, M. and Dr. Maheswarappa, D.

    Background and Objectives: Fractures of Humeral shaft account for approximately 3% to 5% of all fractures. Most will heal with appropriate conservative care, although a small but consistent number will require surgery for optimal outcome. The aim of this study is to assess the results of humeral shaft fractures with dynamic compression plate (DCP). Methodology: This is a prospective study of 35 cases of fracture shaft of humerus admitted to Bapuji Hospital and C.G Hospital attached to J.J.M Medical College, Davangere,between october 2005 to september 2007. Cases were taken according to inclusion and exclusion criteria. Results: In our series of 35 cases there were 31 males and 4 females, with average age of 42.5 yrs. 26(74%) cases were admitted due to road traffic accident and with slight predominance of left side. Out of 35 cases, 4(11%) were proximal third, 28(80%) were middle third and 3 (9%) were distal third. Transverse or short oblique fractures were most common i.e., 18(51%) patients. 11(31%) cases were having associated injuries. The fractures united in 33(94%) patients with 2(6%) cases going for non-union due to deep infection in one, in other case may be due to immediate weight bearing activity done by the patient. There was one (3%) case of delayed union which united after 6 months. Good or full range of mobility of shoulder and elbow joints was present in 32 (91%) patients with 3(9%) patients having stiffness of shoulder and elbow joint. Conclusion: Internal fixation of the humerus with DCP achieves higher union rates and comparable better results as compared to other modes of treatment.

  94. Alanazi, Mohammed Ratoubi

    Cultural relativism is based on a facile observation that what is considered to be morally right at one time and place (or in one culture) may or may not be considered to be morally right in another. For example, it is morally permissible in Saudi Arabia to have more than one wife up to four wives, and in Indian it is morally permissible that wives to be burned alive along with their dead husbands on a funeral pyre; however, none of these examples (in Saudi Arabia and/or India) are morally permissible in Australia. A major question that must be asked when considering the use of cultural relativism in the study of morality is, how widely do cultures actually vary? This article has elaborated on a number of points regarding cultural relativism. First, it is fundamentally destructive to the idea of shared morality because the only determination that can be made from a culturally relativist standpoint is that an act is personally immoral, rather than a statement of comparison of wider culture. Furthermore, it demonstrated that the basis of cultural relativism – that the moral norms and values of cultures vary widely – is often overstated and thus that the use of moral relativism in the analysis of morality is not actually as useful as it may be. Finally, it showed that cultural relativism can often be twisted in order to preclude moral judgment of acts that are clearly wrong, based on the assertion that these acts are traditional within the culture that they are taking place in.

  95. Vagh, A. A., Hadiya, K., Ravikanth, K. and Thakur, A.

    Pregnancy rate is a key determinant of farm productivity and profitability. A High pregnancy rates in animals depend on a rapid return of normal reproductive function after calving. A study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of maternal care formula AV/MCC/18 (supplied by M/S Ayurvet Limited, Baddi, H.P., India) on successful conception, optimum fetomaternal nourishment and improving milk yield and milk fat%. Twenty four (n=24) post-parturient buffaloes recently parturated and yet to come in estrus were selected for present study. The animals were divided into four equal groups of six (n=6) animals. Group I was untreated control. Group II, III and IV animals were supplemented AV/MCC/18@20gm/animal/day for 2, 3 and 4 months respectively immediately after first A.I. /N.S. The number of services required for successful conception was significantly (P<0.05) low in Group IV (1.33) followed by group III (1.50), group II (1.67) and highest in control group I (1.83). Overall conception rate was significantly high in Group IV followed by group III, group II and lowest in control group I. All the AV/MCC/18 supplemented animals had 100% normal parturition while dystokia and retention of placenta was noticed in 16.67% animals in control Group. Overall milk yield (L/day) during treatment and after 15 days post treatment was highest in group IV followed by group III, II and lowest in control group. Similarly overall fat % during treatment and after 15 days post treatment was highest in group III followed by group IV, control and lowest in group II. Overall results of trial suggest that supplementation of herbal maternal care product (AV/MCC/18) has resulted in better reproductive efficiency and productive potential in terms of milk yield and fat percentage in buffaloes during early to mid lactation period in this trial.

  96. Veeramani Malathi, Kasthuri Revathi, Samuel Masilamoni Ronald and Arunachalam Sundaram

    The cell- cell adhesion molecule E-cadherin is a potent invasion suppressor molecule. In human cancers, partial or complete loss of E-cadherin expression correlates with malignancy .Inactivating mutations have been identified for the E-cadherin gene (CDH1) in diffuse gastric cancers and lobular cancer of the breast. Hence in the present study we tried to study the occurrence of tumour specific mutations in exon 4-5, exon7, exon 8, exon 9 and exon 16 of E-cadherin gene in sporadic ductal carcinoma of the Breast. About 50 breast cancer patients were involved in the study. In exon 4-5 we observed 3 mutations ,one deletion mutation and 2 insertion mutation; in exon 7 we observed two deletion mutation; In exon 8 and exon 9 one deletion mutation was observed. In exon 16 one insertion mutation was observed. These mutations are suggestive of loss of growth control and tumour suppressive role of E-cadherin.

  97. Sachin Digambar Audarya, Kundan Kumar Chaubey, Saurabh Gupta, Naveen Kumar, Danveer Singh Yadav, Daljeet Chhabra, Rakesh Sharda, Umesh Kumar Garg and Shoor Vir Singh

    In this study, serum and fecal samples collected from 14 dairy animals (11 cattle and 3 buffaloes) of an organized dairy farm located at Mhow, Indore, Madhya Pradesh were screened by ELISA and acid fast staining, respectively for the presence of MAP infection. Majority of cattle (80.0%) including a suspected buffalo were positive by Indigenous ELISA kit and 36.6% bovines were found positive for MAP by acid fast staining. Study revealed that Bovine Johne’s disease was major health problem (by clinical and laboratory examination) in the dairy herd located at Mhow, Madhya Pradesh and need attention to control the disease.

  98. Surendra Kumar Pandey

    Homicide followed by suicide (Dyadic death) is a severe form of interpersonal violence, in the present study the perpetrator was male who served poison mixed in cold drink to his children and spouse and consumed poison himself to end their lives. In the present study as per police inquiry (inquest report) the cause behind the Dyadic death was financial insecurity where the father and two daughters died but mother and her son survived in the incidence, the reason was that the daughters obeyed the father and they drank the cold drink served to them without questioning. But son and his mother taken drink in less amount as the taste was unusual and they survived. These Dyadic deaths are less common as compared to suicide and homicide alone as per several studies. Here we present a case of homicide followed by suicide between family members by consuming poison.

  99. Surendra Kumar Pandey

    A retrospective mortuary based study was conducted on deceased of fatal road traffic accidents to analyze different epidemiological data. In the present mechanical era road traffic accidents are increasing day by day at an alarming rate and accounts for majority of deaths in young age group as they are in the most active phase of life. A post mortem examination study of road traffic accidents was carried out over one year retrospectively in the Department of Forensic Medicine, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi for the year 2008.Out of total 1798 medico-legal autopsy conducted during the study period, 554 cases (30.81%) were of road traffic accidents. In the present study it showed male preponderance (87.55%), commonest age group affected was between 21-40 years which involved 267(53.25%) cases. Maximum mortality was either at the spot or on the way to the hospital was in 255(46.03%) cases. Head injuries were outnumbered with 344 (62.10%) cases than involvement of other vital organs. Hindus outnumbered Muslims. We found maximum deaths recorded in the month of April and lowest in the month of September i.e.10.11% & 5.96% respectively and if we took it as season wise it is reported max in winter (35.20%) followed by summer (33.21%).

  100. Junaid Kousar, Sajad Hamid, Syed Gazala Nazki, Abrar Bashir, Shabir Dangroo and Shahnawaz

    The effect of Iodine deficiency disorders includes goitre and brain damage. Goiter is prevalent worldwide and in India; it is also widely prevalent Aim: According to the World Health Organisation, a total goiter rate of more than 5% in school children (6-12) should signal the presence of public health problem. As such no study estimating IDD prevalence at all India level is available, So, the present study was undertaken & is a Cross- Sectional Study conducted in department of Community Medicine, SKIMS Medical College, Srinagar between June 2012 to July 2012. The study was conducted to find out the magnitude of goiter in the age group of 6-12 years in district Ladakh & to propose recommendations for the said problem. Subject and Methods: 2699 subjects were screened. Two-stage cluster sampling was used to select the study sample. In the first stage, thirty clusters were selected based on probability proportionate to the size of the target population in different zones. A sample of 90 children (45 boys & 45 Girls) of age group of 6-12 years from the school and out of school/household of selected village/ward was selected. The number of children per cluster was based on the estimated prevalence of 30% with 95% confidence interval. Results: 30% children had G1 goiter and 1.9% children had G2 goiter. Prevalence varied with sex and age. The prevalence of G1 in boys was higher (34.9%) than girls (25.1%) & prevalence of G2 goiter was 1.8% in boys and 2% in girls. Total goiter rate calculated by summing prevalence of G1 and G2 was 36.7%, in males which is more as compared to females (27.1%). Conclusion: The results of the present study have indicated that iodine deficiency continues to be a health problem. So, monitoring of iodine content of salt for at distributor level & at consumer should be done.

  101. Chanchal Shrivastav, Suman Sharma, Suman Jain and Rohita Sharma

    Child vision is essential for successful learning. This paper is focused on 1000 young school children, aged 8 – 16 years (class 4th – 10th). Convenient random sampling was adopted to select the schools in Jodhpur district in Rajasthan. Vision screening was done by a questionnaire comprised of two blocks, wherein block 1 belongs to identification that is name, age, class and sex of child. Block 2 comprised of relevant history and eye examination which included determination of visual acuity and retinoscopy. Result of this study shows that 10.2% of the students were found to have refractive errors. The distribution of refractive errors names: Myopia, Hypermetropia and Astigmatism were 56.9%, 13.7% and 29.4% respectively. This study also indicates that the percentage of ammetropic students increases accordingly as the level of education increases. The data’s of present study concluded that visual impairment due to refractive errors in school children is large enough to be a public health problem.

  102. Mohan, P., Senthilkumar, S., and Sheik Saleem

    Telecobalt radiotherapy machines have become an integral part for treatment of cancer in developing countries. Head scatter factor (Sc) is very essential for beam modelling in treatment planning system for accurate dose delivery in radiotherapy. The magnitude of Sc depends on design and materials of source head of telecobalt machines. Mini-phantoms were fabricated indigenously using water equivalent material polymethyl methaacrylate (PMMA) for Sc measurement as per ESTRO recommendation. It is a simple and reliable tool for Sc measurements. The effect of variation of Sc values for change in field sizes, interchange of collimator jaws and introduction of wedges for three different telecobalt machines of same manufacturer were measured. The collimator exchange effect and the effect of wedges on Sc are within the acceptable limit. Our measurements indicate that the variation of Sc for different telecobalt machines has some uncertainty and for clinical usage Sc data should be measured for each telecobalt machines separately.

  103. Chandrasekaran Arcot Ravindran, Razia Bano and Jameera Begam Akbar John

    Plants are natural sources consists of many natural derived products. In ancient times the herbals are taken in raw to cure much disease, the development of science and technology investigates that there are some active compounds which plays the major role in curing the disease. Various plant and its parts such as leaf, stem, fruit and roots contains the different types of active substances against the inhibition dreadful diseases. In this current study Laurus nobilis.L parts were extracted using the suitable solvent and studied for the various types of microbial assay and anti oxidant activity. The stem and fruit extracts shows no inhibition activity where as the leaf extract shows the bioactivity against the Pseudomonas sp, Escherichia coli and no effect on Vibrio cholera and fungi. The bay leaf extract shows 60.57% activity in xanthine oxidase assay,for DDPH assay 5 mg/ ml s 77.59% activity, cupric shows the 60.83% activity in 5 mg/ ml and Beta Carotene Assay as 69.25% respectively.

  104. Audarya, S. D., Deshmukh, V. V., Gujar, M. B. and Bhonsle, A. V.

    Bluetongue is an arthropod borne viral disease of ruminants. Bluetongue virus was isolated from clinically affected sheep of Marathwada region in Maharashtra. In initial studies inoculation of the isolate in chicken egg embryo by yolk sac route revealed characteristic cherry red discoloration and death of the chicken embryo. The isolate was adapted on BHK-21 cell line. The bluetongue virus isolate gave characteristic cytopathic effect (CPE) consisting of rounding of cells and cell detachment from 24 hours post inoculation. Further to confirm the bluetongue virus isolate by molecular characterization, the viral RNA was extracted and purified. The extracted RNA was subjected to electrophoresis in 1 % agarose gel. A total of 10 characteristic bands were observed upon electrophoresis thereby confirming the isolate. The results warrant continuous surveillance of sheep in Marathwada region of Maharashtra.

  105. G. Henry James

    This paper determines the role of entrepreneurship in poverty alleviation. The focus gears towards reducing vulnerability among the poor members of SHGs microfinance and the venture towards income generation. The study indicates the sustainability measures as well as the feasibility aspect in order to become successful in implementing micro-enterprises. The SHGs Bank Linkage model is considered as an effective tool in providing financial resources to the poor. Today entrepreneurship is the call of the time so that it will help develop the community and create more employment and better opportunities.

  106. Mahesh Chandra Guru, B. P., Sanjeevaraja, N. and Raghavendra, R.

    The concept of corporate communication has been widened to include the cultivation of mutually beneficial relationships between the organization and various stakeholders who matter most from the point of view of business management. The present study evaluates the corporate communication system, process and practices of leading public and private undertakings with special reference to Karnataka State. The crucial importance of corporate communication becomes highly relevant in the present times since the world moves towards globalization of communication and economy. A synthesis of the available literature suggest that corporate communication scenario of Karnataka State suffers from certain limitations. The present study approached the problem through a systematic survey method, which is popular in Mass Communication and Journalism and other branches of Social Science. The implications of the findings of the study on the system, process and practices of corporate communication in leading corporate houses of Karnataka State namely – Bharat Earth Movers Limited, Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited, MphasiS and Biocon sensitize the various stakeholders corporate communication for better practice and performance. The investigation reveals that it is imperative to formulate a corporate communication policy in the new millennium since modern corporate houses are required to race against the time and rise to the occasion in reaching out to various stakeholders. The policy makers of public and private corporate houses are also required to expand and develop corporate communication system by involving the visionaries and missionaries in the field concerned. A separate training division would facilitate constant development of human resources in the corporate communication department of the select corporate houses. The corporate communicators should also be encouraged to gain the benefit of specialization in various branches of corporate communication management in modern society. The corporate communication activities need management support and active involvement of various branches of organizational management. The study emphasizes that inter-departmental coordination would enrich the status of corporate communication in select corporate houses. The modern corporate houses should also formulate a set of sound ethical considerations and practices in order to prevent unlawful and unhealthy corporate communication practices. The corporate communicators also required proper training and orientation in the art of image building and demonstrating the socially beneficial programmes of the corporate houses through adequate communication campaigns. The practice of corporate communication demands integrated approaches in general and application of multimedia in particular. The future agenda for corporate communication management in select corporate houses must deal with the process of corporate social responsibility and adoption of sound ethical practices. The corporate communication services have to be rendered with due respect to professional ethics and corporate social responsibility.

  107. Sumnima and Dr. K. Jayashankar Reddy

    Cerebral Palsy as known as the Little’s disease is a collective term used to identify a group of non contagious and non progressive neuromotor conditions. According to the intensity of the disorder and the various symptoms Cerebral Palsy is divided into four categories: Spastic cerebral palsy, this type is further divided into three types depending upon the severity of the spasticity-(Hemiplegia, Diplegia and Quadriplegia), Dyskinetic, Ataxic and mixed. Cognition is the ability to perform high level brain functions which involves organization, planning, problem solving, focusing-maintaining and shifting of attention when necessary, understanding and using of language etc. These high level functioning are met in everyday life situations and any impairment or damage in the areas of the brain leads to the loss of these functioning Cognitive impairment is not the primary effect of Cerebral Palsy and may or may not accompany Cerebral palsy although research and Studies have shown that cognitive impairment is said to exist in two thirds of the reported cases, out of which one third of children with cerebral palsy are severely or moderately impaired, while the rest have mild impairment. Cerebral palsy in non progressive disorder but the effects can be held at bay with the help of various aids like surgery, counseling, therapies, medical helps etc, cognitive exercises like Cogmed are also available now to maintain and develop one’s cognitive level. This article aims to do a comprehensive review of the cognitive deficits of cerebral palsy and the researches made to understand the topic.

  108. Nitin Pachundkar, Poonam Kamble, Prajakta Patil and Pradip Gagare

    Present investigation was carried out on chickpea, Cicer arientum Linnaeus by using Neem Seed Kernel Extract (NSKE) suspension compared with control plot against the incidence of gram pod borer, Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner) at Bhojdari village of Sangamner, Ahmednagar district (Maharashtra) during Rabi season, 2012-13. The results indicates that Neem Seed Kernel Extract (5%) effectively reduce the H. Armigera larval population as compared with control plot when used in regular three sprays. H. armigera has been observed to be a major pest in village and requires more attention to get rid of its infestation. Gram pod borer has been also categorized as a national pest in India.

  109. Arif Hasan

    In the present scenario Private labels (PLs) are growing globally due to many factors and it makes unfavourable impact on National brand market share. Certainly retailers do not open factories for production rather than searching for dedicated suppliers or national branded manufacturers for production of their required items as they are not in actual production. This study examined why national brand manufacturers produce private labels. We analyzed various influencing factors & opportunities of national brand manufacturers about their decision with reference to produce private labels. This investigation was undertaken by using semi-structured interviews with private label suppliers and retail consultants. The findings, which reflect observed practice, are interpreted through theoretical propositions related to earlier studies, managerial implications are provided. The results may help managers to identify key variables that affect the profitability of producing private labels. It will also enhance the present situation of this subject area and serve as the basis for further studies.

  110. Onodugo, V. A., Ugbam O. C., Imo G. Ibe and Ogosi Chinedu

    The Nigerian banking sector has had a checkered transition and evolutionary trajectory. The sector has turned full cycle with several booms and bursts, distresses and regroupings experienced. Consequently, not a few studies have been undertaken to provide explanation to this phenomenon and to provide solutions. This study joins the plethora of other investigations seeking to explain factors that impact on the performance of Nigerian banks. Specifically, it investigated how organizational structure influenced the performance of Nigerian banks. The descriptive survey method of research was used for this study and responses were gathered from five hundred and forty-three respondents (543) comprising managerial and non-managerial staff of Commercial banks in South East Nigeria. Results revealed that structure has significant positive effect on the enhancement of performance of Commercial Banks in South East Nigeria. We thus recommend greater specialization among banks in Nigeria. This will further boost performance and subsequently enhances the growth of the Nigerian economy.

  111. Arnety Nangila Makokha, Gerishom Wafula Manase, Abraham A. Malenya, Douglas Musiega, Shem Juma Michael Okumu Ojungu and Philemon Bureti

    Developing countries (DCs) have been encouraged to reform their public expenditure management systems and have increasingly embarked on major projects to computerize their government operations. Universities are under pressure to deliver ever-higher quality services in their financial management for accountability purposes. They are implementing Financial Management Systems (FMS). The purpose of this study was to examine how top management commitment and support affects implementation of Financial Management Systems in MMUST. The objective was to find out how top management commitment and participation affected the implementation of FMS. The research design used was descriptive survey. The target population was 115 staff drawn from five functional areas. The study sample consisted of 60 members. Each stratum had 12 members selected randomly. Research instruments were questionnaires and interview schedules. Both qualitative and quantitative data were collected and analysed using correlation and descriptive statistics. The study revealed that top management’s effective communication, commitment and participatory decision making account for 95%. Male participated in systems implementation more than female.

  112. Okoro, Kingsley Nwannennaya and Osunwokeh, Clement, I.

    Gender issues have become a critical concern of all humanity today. The case is that women are marginalized, more especially in Africa. Thus part of African underdevelopment is attributed to this discrimination. The major factor that makes the study of gender problems in Africa complex is that African traditional society, particularly, the Igbo society of Eastern Nigeria, anchor their development, social organizations and political structure on the their religion(s). So their religious belief defines and controls all social arrangements. However, the picture of women marginalization in Igbo society seems to be representing the Igbo society of the modern era rather than the Igbo of the pre-colonial period. This paper therefore contends that the assumption that women in the Igbo traditional society were sidelined into the private sphere is tinged with historical bias. Thus through sociological and historical survey, this paper discovers that women have been in the frontline of social development in the Igbo traditional society. It notes also that most positions of power are not inherited rather they are acquired through achievements. Therefore, both men and women have open space to compete for such positions. It observes that there are two major means of entering into societal leadership in Igbo society, these are technically called the:-‘Invited’ and ‘Invented’ spaces. In the invited space, anybody who attains a level of achievements through industry or special ability is invited to the cult of elders, which is the leadership class and many women attained such positions in the traditional society. In like manner, the women form the endogenous social group, which becomes indispensible pressure group in Igbo political setting, influencing all decisions and actions. This paper therefore concludes that the Igbo people of eastern Nigeria have been gender sensitive in their social arrangements and this influenced their development before the colonial era.

  113. Nguyen Hoai Nam, Nguyen Cong Thanh and Nguyen Cong Nhat

    This study used compared statistical methods for analyzing income and consumption status of 175 households with migrant workers in the total of 325 ones in Thanh Hoa, Nghe An, Ha Tinh province in the North Central region. The paper focuses to clarify the source of the households’ income with migrant workers, analyze the contribution rate of exogenous sources, especially from the money that members of migrant workers sent which get how percentage of household income. From that, to make policy recommendations to contribute social and economic sustainable development in general and North Central rural areas in particular.

  114. Rakesh Yadav

    "The balance between work and an individual's life is significant in modern society because the concept suggests that the person has some form of control over his or her existence. At the beginning persons were satisfied with work and time duration at work life. While today these two basic things have lead to development of stress at every hierarchical level. Person has totally ignored time for Physical and Mental fitness in work life. The work life does include giving time for family but in very less consideration. The usual hours of entertainment are now utilized for extra duty. Thus the normal employee is not knowing where he is spending his hour of recreation and entertainment. The work pressure leads to stress and ultimately work life imbalance. The health hazards, stress and social problems are riding on a bomb shell of modern life. The tug of war between the employers and employees for high pay packages and multi million business profit figures is detriment to healthy society and environment. Some constructive steps by researchers, Government & companies be taken for drawing the line

  115. Abdulhade I. Haimour and Yahia F. Obaidat

    The purpose of this study was to find out school Teachers’ attitudes toward inclusion of students with Autism. In addition, this study attempted to find out if there any significant differences in school Teachers’ attitudes with respect to Teachers’ (gender, position, education level, teaching experience, and contact with students with Autism) variables.391 general and special education teachers from various inclusive schools within the Jeddah in Saudi Arabia completed study instrument (Attitudes toward Inclusion of Student with Autism Scale) to determine their attitudes toward inclusion of students with Autism. An analysis of the collected data, using descriptive statistics and analysis of variance, indicated that the "Overall" school Teachers’ attitudes toward inclusion of students with Autism were slightly positive. The results also indicated significant differences in the Teachers’ attitudes depending on Teachers’ (position, education level, teaching experience, and contact with students with Autism), favoring special education teachers, more advanced level of education, less teaching experience, and those with previous contact with students with Autism.

  116. Abdulhade I. Haimour and Yahia F. Obaidat

    The purpose of this study was to find out school Teachers’ attitudes toward inclusion of students with Autism. In addition, this study attempted to find out if there any significant differences in school Teachers’ attitudes with respect to Teachers’ (gender, position, education level, teaching experience, and contact with students with Autism) variables.391 general and special education teachers from various inclusive schools within the Jeddah in Saudi Arabia completed study instrument (Attitudes toward Inclusion of Student with Autism Scale) to determine their attitudes toward inclusion of students with Autism. An analysis of the collected data, using descriptive statistics and analysis of variance, indicated that the "Overall" school Teachers’ attitudes toward inclusion of students with Autism were slightly positive. The results also indicated significant differences in the Teachers’ attitudes depending on Teachers’ (position, education level, teaching experience, and contact with students with Autism), favoring special education teachers, more advanced level of education, less teaching experience, and those with previous contact with students with Autism.

  117. Richard Chepkwony

    Kenya’s beach tourism has been facing setbacks occasioned by a number of harassment against tourists by beach boys. The main objective of this study was therefore to assess the magnitude and effects of tourist harassment in Mombasa, Kenya from perspectives of tourists. During the survey, systematic random sampling procedure was used to select a total of 224 respondents. Data was collected using a structured questionnaire and subjected to descriptive and inferential test analysis using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). Results indicated that whereas harassment was high in Mombasa, this did not significantly affect tourists’ repeat visits. This study concludes that although harassment exists in Mombasa, its negative or positive effects and magnitude is purely based on the perception of tourists. Therefore, there is need to streamline and ensure orderly operations on the beach by the key players in the tourism sector in order to minimize the problem of tourists harassment.

  118. Sudhakar, G., Sreenivas, M. and Ruth Sunitha, B.

    The Study on EMPLOYEE HANDBOOK basically was aimed at studying the implementation of Employee Handbook in HUSYS (HR Function Management Company) and the strengths & Weakness in the HR Department’s functioning in the organization and come up with suggestions for the further improvement. HUSYS was chosen for the study as the company has very good reputation. The Study was taken up through an opinion survey of the employees working in the organization. The researcher has analyzed the policies and drawn certain inference and the opinion of the employees, which will be very much useful in the future formulation and implementation of the policies for the organization. The study mainly covered the broader areas of Introduction of the organization, Definition of the Employee status followed in an organization viz., HR policies, Standards of the Conduct, Wages and Salaries, Benefits and Services, Employee Communication, Grievance Handling recruitment policy, training and development policy, promotional policy, transfer policy, welfare programmer, environmental policy, quality policy and motivational measures. The response of the respondents was interesting and a mixed one. They appreciated the positive things and at the same time were very critical about some aspects which were not beneficial and had no impact on the functioning of the unit. These things were discussed in detail in the next chapters.

  119. Tamene Adugna Demissie, Fokke Saathoff, Yilma Seleshi and Gebissa, A.

    The characteristics of hydro-meteorological changes in the Gilgel Gibe River Basin were analyzed based on the recorded data collected for a period greater than 25 years at 5 weather stations for rainfall, 3 stations for maximum and minimum temperature and 2 hydrological stations for streamflow. A non parametric trend test for monthly data shows an increasing trend for rainfall and temperature. The monthly streamflow recorded at 2 gauging stations has also indicated an increasing trend. The impact of climate change on the streamflow for the future period of the 2011 – 2040 was also assessed by using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) hydrological model using downscaled precipitation and temperature data obtained from ECHAM5 and HadCM3 model projections. The increase in streamflow of the past records can be partly explained by the climate change. The impact of climate change in the future period of 2011 – 2040 will slightly increase the streamflow of Gilgel Gibe 1 River.

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EDITORIAL BOARD

Luai Farhan Zghair
Iraq
Hasan Ali Abed Al-Zu’bi
Jordanian
Fredrick OJIJA
Tanzanian
Firuza M. Tursunkhodjaeva
Uzbekistan
Faraz Ahmed Farooqi
Saudi Arabia
Eric Randy Reyes Politud
Philippines
Elsadig Gasoom FadelAlla Elbashir
Sudan
Eapen, Asha Sarah
United State
Dr.Arun Kumar A
India
Dr. Zafar Iqbal
Pakistan
Dr. SHAHERA S.PATEL
India
Dr. Ruchika Khanna
India
Dr. Recep TAS
Turkey
Dr. Rasha Ali Eldeeb
Egypt
Dr. Pralhad Kanhaiyalal Rahangdale
India
DR. PATRICK D. CERNA
Philippines
Dr. Nicolas Padilla- Raygoza
Mexico
Dr. Mustafa Y. G. Younis
Libiya
Dr. Muhammad shoaib Ahmedani
Saudi Arabia
DR. MUHAMMAD ISMAIL MOHMAND
United State
DR. MAHESH SHIVAJI CHAVAN
India
DR. M. ARUNA
India
Dr. Lim Gee Nee
Malaysia
Dr. Jatinder Pal Singh Chawla
India
DR. IRAM BOKHARI
Pakistan
Dr. FARHAT NAZ RAHMAN
Pakistan
Dr. Devendra kumar Gupta
India
Dr. ASHWANI KUMAR DUBEY
India
Dr. Ali Seidi
Iran
Dr. Achmad Choerudin
Indonesia
Dr Ashok Kumar Verma
India
Thi Mong Diep NGUYEN
France
Dr. Muhammad Akram
Pakistan
Dr. Imran Azad
Oman
Dr. Meenakshi Malik
India
Aseel Hadi Hamzah
Iraq
Anam Bhatti
Malaysia
Md. Amir Hossain
Bangladesh
Ahmet İPEKÇİ
Turkey
Mirzadi Gohari
Iran