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December 2013

  1. M’Itunga A. M, Kaburu M’Ribu, Kiprono, P. and Sudoi, V.

    A study was conducted to compare gender representation in the smallholder tea post production management in Imenti South District, Kenya, involving three smallholder tea factory companies, 150 public tea buying centers, and a tea growers’ Savings and Credit Cooperative Organization (SACCO). There were a gender significant (p≤0.05) differences in the recruitment of factory directors, senior management staff, technical and skilled staff, and unskilled staff, all to the disadvantage of women. There was no significant (p≤0.05) difference for the factory office staff cadre. Women were underrepresented in all categories of tea buying center committee members. There was no woman chairperson out of the 150 tea buying center chairpersons. Women were also unrepresented in the management committee (Board of Directors) and the senior management categories of the tea growers’ SACCO. Gender balance was however fair in the SACCO when the entire establishment was considered. There were no significant (p≤0.05) differences among the factories. It was concluded that women were disadvantaged and the situation required redress through specific policy interventions.

  2. Lalitha, P. Karikalan, K. and Thirugnanasambantham, K.

    Actinomycetes are wide spread in nature and known for production of bioactive metabolites. Marine source world-wide are considered to be rich for bio-resource and efforts has been taken to identify new bacterial agents from marine environment for human welfare. In this study, we reported isolation of 20 Actinomycetes strains from marine sediments and tested with standard biochemical test and utilization of carbon sugar, to confirm the Actinomycetes character. Among the isolates 17 and 3 were recorded to be gram positive and gram negative respectively. Carbon utilization test revealed that all the isolates utilized dextrose and none of the isolates utilized ducitol. Antagonistic activity of 20 strains revealed that six strains (PS2, PS4, PS9, PS11, PS13 and PS14) are positive and crude ethyl acetate extracts of strains PS4, PS11, and PS14 were showed good antimicrobial activity. The isolate PS14 dominant over other isolates and revealed promising antimicrobial activity.

  3. Agaja, S. A. and Ajisafe, J. I.

    The activity concentration of natural radionuclide’s; 226Ra, 232Th, 40K of surface and ground water samples in coastal communities of Delta State, Nigeria was measured using a well - calibrated gamma – ray spectrometry system with high – purity germanium detector. The mean activity concentration of radionuclides in surface water samples for 226Ra¬¬¬¬, 232Th and 40K are 3.2± 0.2BqL-1, 3.1± 0.4BqL-1 and 12.3± 0.1BqL-1 respectively. For the ground water samples the mean activity concentration for 226Ra, 232Th and 40K are; 2.1±0.2BqL-1, 0.9± 0.2BqL-1 and 4.9± 0.6BqL-1 respectively. The gamma representative index, radium equivalent activity values for the water samples showed that they constitute very low radiological hazard to human and the environment.

  4. Saravanan, N., Moses Inbaraj, R. and Uma, T.

    3-Hydroxy steroid dehydrogenase (3-HSD) is a member of the aldo-keto reductase family. The enzyme is used in the synthesis of neuroactive steroids in steroidogenesis. The 3-HSD catalyzes the conversion of 5-dihydroprogesterone (5-DHP) and 5-dihydrotestosterone (5-DHT) into 3,5-tetrahydroxyprogesterone (3,5-THPROG) and 3,5-tetrahydroxytestosterone (3,5-THT) respectively. The progesterone metabolite of neuroactive steroid, 3,5-THPROG is synthesized in different regions of brain. In the present study, the gene expression of 3-HSD in the brain of Labeo rohita was identified. The gene was observed by PCR amplification with a specific primer. The result showed has formed a basis for future investigations on the regulation and function of these enzymes in the fishes.

  5. Sharmin Vini, S., Asha, A., Viju, N., Sunjaiy Shankar, C. V. and Mary Josephine Punitha, S.

    Molluscs constitute the second largest animal phylum, after Arthropods, in terms of number of species. Molluscs are widely distributed throught the world and have many representatives such as slugs, whelks, clams, mussels, gastropods, oysters, scallops, squids and octopods etc. in marine and estuarine ecosystem. The present study was carried out to screen the antimicrobial activity of haemoplymph of selected gastropod species. The antimicrobial activity of the haemolymph sample was carried out against seven human pathogens namely Bacillus subtilis, E.coli Klebsiella pneumonia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus mutans. The maximum zone of inhibition was observed against Klebsilla pneumonia, Bacillus subtilis, Salmonella typhi (8mm) by the haemolymph collected from Nerita albicilla. The protein content of the haemolymph sample was estimated using Lowry’s method. Variation in protein content of the haemolymph among the gastropod species was observed.

  6. Jamuna, S. and Paulsamy, S.

    The present study was aimed at to investigate the bioactive compounds from the leaf and root extracts of Hypochaeris radicata using GC-MS analysis. 11 compounds from leaf and 9 compounds from root extracts were identified. The major chemical constituents in leaf and root extracts are phytol, acetate (19.22%), hexadecanoic acid, methyl ester (17.37%), 9,12,15-octadecatrienoic acid, methyl ester, (Z,Z,Z)- (16.74%) and phytol (13.60%) and Urs-12-en-3-ol, acetate, (3.beta.) (43.86%) and 1-Benzazirene-1-carboxylic acid, 2,2,5a-trimethyl-1a-(3-oxo-1-butenyl) perhydro-, methyl ester (30.31%). The bioactive compounds in the methanolic leaf and root extracts of the species, H. radicata exhibited the phytochemical importance and hence its therapeutic significance.

  7. Vidhya, V. and Radhakrishnan Nair, C.

    Every year, the increase of human population and the accompanying with the growth of industrialization results in the increase of pollution in aquatic ecosystems. Micronucleus (MN) assay is an ideal monitoring system that uses aquatic organisms to assess the genotoxicity of water in the field and in the laboratory. In the present study, an attempt was made to detect the Micronucleus Test (MNT) of Etroplus suratensis in blood erythrocytes after exposure to pyrethroid insecticide lambda-cyhalothrin. The fishes exposed to lambda-cyhalothrin at different sub-lethal concentrations of LC50 value for a short-term exposure. The blood samples obtained from a puncture to the caudal vein using heparinised syringes from control and pesticide treated fishes at 24, 48, 72 and 96 hrs of exposure. From the result, the formation of micronuclei in blood erythrocytes increased from lower to higher concentrations of lambda-cyhalothrin and also the time of exposure were increased. However, the present study revealed that E. suratensis can be used as a good model to study the genotoxic effects of aquatic pollutants in fish.

  8. Tahreer H. Alnaddawi, Mohammed F. AL-Marjani, Sabaa R. T. AL-tai, AL-Rubaii, B. A. L.

    The Gram-negative bacterium Vibrio cholerae is the etiologic agent of cholera. The ability of V. cholerae to colonize and cause disease in hosts requires production of a number of virulence factors during infection. A total of Forty clinical and environmental V. cholerae isolates have been isolated from different samples in Baghdad .The susceptibility to different antibiotics was evaluated by disk diffusion method and MICs were determined, All environmental isolates were sensitive (100%) to all antibiotics, while the clinical isolates were shown variable behavior against these antibiotics, these shown (90%) to ciprofloxacin, as a highest value and (50%) for amoxicillin as a lowest value, in other hand, these isolates revealeded resistance (100%) to nalidixic acid, ampicillin and Co-trimoxazole. The MICs values were 128-1024 μg/ml for clinical isolates. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) was performed for detection of qnr VC3 gene in Vibrio cholerae isolates, the results showed that qnr VC3 gene didn’t appear in any isolate. The detection of of plasmid DNA by gel electrophoresis showed that some isolates carried more than one plasmid bands; the curing plasmids for isolates were appeared sensitivity against antibiotics that lead us to conclude that gene was carried on plasmid.

  9. Lakpathi, G., Rajkumar, M. and Chandrasekhar, R.

    Pruning of guava cv. Allahabad Safeda under high density planting was done in the third week of June, 2012 with three pruning intensities i.e. leaving 10 cm, 20 cm and 30 cm from base of the shoot and retaining 30, 40 and 50 fruits per tree. Ten centimeter (10 cm) pruning intensity has advanced the vegetative bud appearance, recorded maximum cumulative length of new shoots, maximum fruit diameter at harvest, average fruit weight and fruit yield. Pruning intensity of 30 cm has increased the number of vegetative buds per pruned shoot and number new shoots per pruned shoot along with early harvesting at colour turning stage. Thirty (30) fruit load per tree recorded the minimum number of days taken for harvesting at colour turning stage and maximum average fruit weight at harvest. Maximum fruit yield was noticed with 50 fruit load per tree. Pruning intensity of 30 cm with 30 fruit load has advanced the harvesting at colour turning stage but 10 cm pruning intensity with 30 fruit load per tree has recorded the maximum fruit diameter. However, the quality of fruits in control and other treatments was also at par.

  10. Ndonkeu Mangoumou Ghislaine, Nguefack Julienne, Galani Yamdeu Joseph Hubert, Petchayo Tigang Sandrine and Amvam Zollo Paul Henry

    With the aim of contributing to natural control of plant pathogens, the antifungal activity of 11 extracts from 3 Cameroonian plants namely, Drypetes gossweileri, Eucalyptus tereticornis and Sida acuta was evaluated against Acremonium apii and Colletotrichum dematium, respectively causal agents of brown spot and anthracnose diseases of celery (Apium graveolens L.). The supplemented media technique was used to assess the inhibition of both fungi mycelial growth by essential oils, ethanol,hot water and cold water extracts. The essential oils exhibited the highest antifungal activity at 50 ppm with essential oil from D. gossweileri; and 6000 ppm and 7000 ppm, against C. dematium and A. apii, respectively, with essential oil from E. tereticornis. Ethanol and aqueous extracts displayed a moderate inhibitory activity with the best activity obtained from D. gossweileri ethanol extracts (90.31% and 67.53%, respectively, against A. apii and C. dematium at 10000 ppm). The fungitoxic potential of essential oils was comparative to the synthetic fungicide used as positive control. Phytochemical screening of solvent extracts revealed a diverse composition in secondary metabolites and stronger inhibitory effects were recorded with extracts rich in alkaloids, phenols, anthraquinones and saponines. These findings suggest a promising potential of essential oils and ethanol extracts for botanicals control of celery fungal pathogens.

  11. Thiyagarajan, C., Shanthi, S., Karthikeyan, M. and Thiruneelakandan, G.

    Every Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder, which is characterized by amyloid β peptide deposition in the brain. Amyloid β peptide (Aβ), the major component of amyloid plaques is generated by the sequential processing of a larger protein called the Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP) by β-amyloid cleaving enzyme (BACE-1). Since BACE-1 is an important therapeutic target for AD, we have applied a computer assisted methodology unifying molecular docking studies to identify potent inhibitors against BACE-1 from 9 selective medicinal plants. These 9 selective medicinal plants compounds retrieve from TCM database were docked into the active site of BACE-1. In our present molecular docking studies provided critical information on protein ligand interactions that revealed imminent information on chemical features essential to inhibit BACE-1. There are 16 compounds selected from the selective medicinal plants possess the best scoring function. For further validation induce fit docking studies was performed on 616 compounds which result shows that, from 16 compounds there are five hits compounds have the best binds scores and binding energy compare to native compound from BACE1. Furthermore, these findings strongly suggest that these five lead compounds could serve as building blocks for designing drug like molecules to treat AD.

  12. Inusah I. Y. Baba, Julius Yirzagla and Michael Mawunya

    In recent years, Ghana has been cited in several local Newspapers as the second largest consumer of paste tomato in the world. According to the Ghana National Tomato Producers’ Federation, Ghana imports up to 7,000 metric tons (t) of fresh tomato per month from its neighbors, along with 27,000 t of processed tomato from Europe. It is a common practice for the Ghanaian tomato marketers called “market queens” to travel all the way to neighboring Burkina Faso, usually in March and May, to scout for tomatoes, encountering several hazards on the highways. The collapse of the tomato industry in northern Ghana is associated with a complex of biotic, abiotic and institutional challenges. The event adversely affected the fortunes of thousands of farmers and other stakeholders and their families for whom, tomato then dubbed “red cocaine” production has for several decades constituted a major source of income. The remote causes of the disaster in the tomato industry included a pandemic in all the growing areas in the north of Ghana referred to as “the Tomato Disease Complex” - the result of the adverse influence of excessive build up of soil nematodes and uncontrollable proliferation of fungal, bacterial, viral and other diseases in all the major growing areas in northern Ghana. “The Tomato Disease Complex” in some seasons, culminated into total crop failures for countless farmers, resulting in bankruptcy and several reported cases of attempted suicide. This work reviews the key challenges that have confronted the tomato industry in Ghana over the last three decades and proposes fundamental pathways for the way forward for this industry to develop to its full potential and contribute more significantly to the growth of the economy of Ghana.

  13. Yedukondala Rao, P., Rajendra Prasad, D. and Rukmini Sirisha, I.

    The study recorded 26 stomatopod species belonging to 6 families and 11 genera in the trawl net by-catches at Visakhapatnam, east coast of India during February 2008 to January 2009. The family Squillidae (54.16%) was the dominant among the 6 families recorded. Species-wise composition showed that Oratosquilla anomala (34.34%) and Harpiosquilla harpax (29.80%) were the dominant species followed by Harpiosquilla annandalei (12.10%), Oratosquilla nepa (9.38%), Lophosquilla costata (4.83%) and remaining 21 species scarcely distributed in the trawl net by-catches. The mean values of biochemical constituents reported were protein (13.38%), lipid (3.58%), carbohydrate (0.28%) and ash (1.58%) in H. Harpax. The mean values of protein (13.78%), lipid (3.73%), carbohydrate (0.24%) and ash (1.35%) were reported in O. anomala.

  14. Hala M. Abdelkarem and Lalila M. Faddah

    Several potential health hazards are associated with the wide use of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (e.g., n-TiO2). The primary aim of the current study was to detect the toxic effects of 800 mg/kg 50 nm n-TiO2 on bone metabolism. Comparative studies were conducted to determine whether natural antioxidants, such as idebenone, carnosine and melatonin, could ameliorate the hazardous effects of n-TiO2 on down regulation of bone. The results of this study revealed that n-TiO2 treatment produced bone complications, which were confirmed by alteration of serum tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, inflammatory cytokine) level and bone alkaline phosphatase (B-ALP; bone formation marker), and C-terminal peptide of type I collagen (CTx; bone resorption marker) in treated rats compared with controls. The administration of the previously mentioned antioxidants along with n-TiO2 treatment significantly modulated the alterations in most the inflammatory cytokines and biomarkers. It was concluded that treatment with idebenone, carnosine and melatonin protects against n-TiO2 oxidative stress-induced bone complications.

  15. Naresh Kumar, Sukhvinder Singh Purewal, Kritika Rattan, Ashish Parmar and Amit Kumar

    Water is basic and vital resource on earth. Due to increase in population, industrialization and pollution, water has became polluted. In this study, physico-chemical properties and bacteriological examination of stepwell water from Majhwar region in Distt. Mandi of Himachal Pradesh, India was done. Among the physico-chemical analysis, Total Dissolved Soilds (TDS), Disssolved Oxygen (DO), Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Alkalinity, Hardness, Chloride and pH were checked. Bacteriological analysis was made by multiple tube fermentation test which include: Presumptive coliform test, confirmed coliform test and completed coliform test. All the physico-chemical parameters were compared with WHO standard and it was found that water was potable.

  16. Mulugeta Wakjira

    Relative abundance, feeding habits, length-weight relationships and conditions factors of two fish species from Gilgel Gibe reservoir, Ethiopia, were investigated. Percentage index of relative importance (%IRI) was used to investigate relative abundance of the fish species. Frequency of occurrence and volumetric methods were used in analyzing feeding habits of the fishes. However, an index of preponderance was used to assess relative contribution of prey items to the fish diets. The diet breadth index (BA) values (O. niloticus = 0.40 & L. intermedius = 0.63) suggested an omnivorous feeding habit for both fishes. The Horn’s overlap index (44 %) indicated considerable prey overlap between the two species. The feeding habit of O. niloticus did not vary between seasons. The lines of best fit to the regressions of log transformed Weight-Total length had the equations of a form log W = 2.76 log TL-1.40 (R2 = 0.89) for O. niloticus and log W = 2.24 log TL-0.79 (R2 = 0.59) for L.intermedius. Seasonal variations in ‘b’ and condition factors as well as dependence of the latter on fish size were also investigated. The findings of the present study are of functional value in the proper management and exploitation of the reservoir’s fishery resource.

  17. Vaheeda, K. K. and Uma, K.

    The present investigation deals with the aquatic macrophyte diversity and species composition along the lower reaches of the second longest river of Kerala, the Bharathapuzha River, also known as Nila. 110 plants of aquatic and shore vegetation belonging to three Pteridophyta and 38 Angiosperm families were enumerated. 23% of the vegetation analysed were grasses and sedges and 34% of plants were of medicinal importance. Aquatic and wetland plant communities are bioindicators of environmental quality. In the present study 25% of the plants recorded were exotic and invasive weeds indicating that the river ecosystem is being transgressed.

  18. Waudo N. Stacey, James N. Maraga and Michael K. Koech

    Rural households, especially those in the developing world, rely on fuelwood for provision of energy for cooking and lighting. This study, carried out in Lurambi District, Kakamega County, examined factors influencing fuelwood scarcity among rural households. Data was collected from 200 households using sysematic random sampling technique, with the main tools for data collection being a standardised questionnaire and a Key Informant Interviews checklist. The findings of the study indicated that 95% of the households used fuelwood and that 84% of them experienced fuelwood scarcity. Further, the findings showed that lack of communal collection points and reducing land sizes have contributed to fuelwood scarcity. The study concluded that socio economic and environmental factors have contributed to fuelwood scarcity among rural households in the district.

  19. Mane P. C., 1Kadam D. D., Chaudhari R. D. and Bhosle A. B.

    Natural water is never pure water but a complex and ever-changing mixture of dissolved inorganic and organic molecules and suspended particles. Trace elements were found in rarer form in surface water. The present study was undertaken to determine the trace elements from Manjara Dam. The total concentrations of manganese and selenium were determined using UV spectroscopic method. The concentration of selected trace elements was evaluated from three sampling sites named S1, S2 and S3. The study was carried out for two years of 2009 – 2010 and 2010 - 2011. The highest amount of manganese was recorded as 0.1866 mg/L and lowest amount as 0.057 mg/L and the highest amount of selenium was recorded as 0.022 mg/L and lowest amount as 0.0092 mg/L. The observed values showed the seasonal variations during the entire study period.

  20. Rajkumar Sign, Raja, K., Gopalakrishnan, A., Kannan, D. and Sakthivel, A.

    The present study is the report on the growth performance of L. vannamei in the bore well and brackish water fed ponds. Crab fencing and antibird netting were done before pumping water to prevent the disease and carries of White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV). The water quality parameters such as temperature, salinity, pH, dissolved oxygen and alkalinity were measured during the entire culture period. The Daily Growth Rate (DGR) was ranged between 0.05 and 0.38 g in the bore will fed pond and in the brackish water fed pond the DGR varied between 0.11 and 0.33 g. the maximum growth 27.33 g attained on 175th days of culture in the bore well fed pond and in the brackish water fed pond the maximum growth 31.44 g reached on 140th days of culture. From the present study it is concluded that the brackish water fed pond is suitable for L. vannamei culture when compare with bore well water fed pond.

  21. Shirurkar Deepavali, D. and Dr. Wahegaonkar Nilima, K.

    Seed-borne fungi are a serious problem during storage in India. Seed infection reduces seed viability, productivity and food value. Maize is one of the most important cereal crops in the world. It has a nutritional value for both animals and humans. Isolation of seed borne mycoflora of maize varieties was studied by using blotter and agar plate methods. During isolation eight fungal species were recovered. Agar plate method yielded highest number of fungi as compared to blotter method. Frequency occurrence of Aspergillus niger and A. flavus was very high in all varieties of maize. Infection percentage was higher in non-surface sterilized seeds as compared to surface sterilized seeds. Germination percentage was same in both surface sterilized and non-surface sterilized seeds.

  22. Abbas Aboud Farhan Al- Dolaymi, Hadi R. Rasheed Al- Taai and Zainab Amer Hatem Altimimi

    Fifteen isolates of Streptococcus pyogenes was isolated and activated from tonsillitis in Muqdadiya city/Iraq. The sensitively of these isolates have been tested against (15) antibiotics. The results showed that highest resistance among Amikacin, Ampicillin and Trimethoprim with percentage 100%, while the lowest resistance was recorded for Penicillin, Imipenem, Chloramphenicol and Vancomycin with 0%. Results of investigation of some virulence factors of S.pyogenes indicate that all isolates produce hemolysin enzyme with 100% and that all isolates surrounded by capsule with percentage 100% and uncapable to producing bacteriocins, while (14) isolates (93.3%) are able to Dnase producer, whereas (13) isolates (86.6%) were Bio film producer, in addition to (11) isolates (73.3%) had the ability to produce cysteine protease enzyme, on other hand (9) isolates (60%) were able to streptokinase production. The results of plasmid content indicate that all isolates contain single large plasmid band. Curing of plasmids was conducted by use of three materials included acridine orange, ethidium bromide and sodium dodecyl sulfate, the acrdine orange showed strongest curing material and the plasmid lost at concentration (256 µg/ml) and plasmid lost at by ethidium bromide with concentration (512 µg/ml), whilst sodium dodecyl sulfate was the weaker material and the plasmid lost at concentration (2000 µg/ml).

  23. Sonal Bhatnagar, Amit K. Gautam, Neeti Dhaka and Reeta Kumari

    Stem cell research has emerged as an innovative scientific tool in the field of science such as biology, drug discovery, regenerative medicine and toxicological studies which allow us to develop novel techniques for restoration and replacement of damaged tissue. Stem cells are unspecialized cells which show the capacity to develop various cell types in the body. These are derived from a variety of sources (embryos, umbilical cord, blood and placentas) and are classified on the basis of their sources, origin and development and plasticity of differentiation. These also aid to the mechanism of disease evolution and thereby assists in the development of safer and effective drugs. Stem cells are known to treat various diseases such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, cancer, Type I diabetes, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, urogenital, ocular and neurodegenerative diseases. Though stem cell has proved its effectiveness for various chronic illnesses, the hurdles lie in the fact that, research involves the destruction of an embryo or foetus which therefore raises sharp ethical and political controversies. These issues need to be discussed along with scientific challenges to ensure that stem cell research is carried out in an ethical manner. This review article provides a new insight in stem cell research which offers great promises for the benefit of science and society.

  24. Houssein Mouawiya

    Background : Detection of Circulating Fetal Trophoblastic Cells (CFTC) by single cell genotyping not only allows to identify fetal cells from maternal blood, but also to characterize their bi-parental genome. Methods : We have tested intact fetal trophoblastes recovered at 4th to 10th Week of Gestation (WG) from blood of 13 women after In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) and transfer of one or several embryos. Large cells isolated from blood were individually microdissected and studied by genetic fingerprinting with a mean number of 3 Short Tandem Repeats (STR) markers, known to be informative by testing paternal and maternal blood DNA. Results : CFTC were found in all mothers starting from the 5th WG. A mean number of 2.5 CFTC per ml of blood was found in all the analyzed samples collected at the different terms of pregnancy. All mothers who received the transfer of two or three embryos, including one who delivered twins and one with vanishing twin (identified by ultrasounds), were found to have CFTC with two or three different bi-parental genotypes, belonging to different embryos derived from the same parents. Conclusion : CFTC is detectable starting from the 5th WG. A “vanishing twin” phenomenon frequently develops after IVF and transfer of multiple embryos, being undetectable by ultrasounds and revealed by genetic CFTC fingerprinting.

  25. Ibrahim M. Nassar, Mohamed A. Abbas, A. Hamdy and Olfat. E. El-azabawy

    Corrosion inhibition of C-steel in HCl solution using CdS and CdS/Polymethylmethacrylate hybrid has studied by weight loss, Tafel polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The results show that CdS acted as a good inhibitor and this inhibition efficiency enhanced by using CdS/ PMMA hybrid. This inhibitory action increases with increasing the inhibitor concentration but decreases with rising the temperature. Polarization curves indicated that both CdS and CdS/PMMA acted as mixed inhibitor. Thermodynamic study revealed that the adsorption of CdS and CdS/PMMA obeys the Langmuir isotherm. The inhibition effect of the investigated inhibitors confirmed by EDX and XRD techniques.

  26. Faize, A., Driouach, A. and Kaabal, A.

    We discuss in this work, the simulation of radar signals GPR, using Reflexw (Sandmeier, 1998) and GprMax (www.gprmax.org/~agianno/GprMax/Download/) software. Note, however, that the operation of these two programs is based on numerical methods including finite difference method (FD) for Reflexw and finite difference time domain (FDTD) for GprMax. The simulations we have performed include the following items: an iron bar, a plastic tube and a plastic water bottle. According to their simulations, these objects will be buried in the garden of the Faculty of Sciences of Granada and studied experimentally, taking direct action by the radar GPR (www.sensoft.ca), which will test the detection efficiency of this unit.

  27. Brijpal Singh, Khan, Z. A. and Siddiquee, A. N.

    Submerged arc welding is widely used in the fabrication of pressure vessels, pipe lines and offshore structures because of its higher metal deposition rate, good strength of the joint and good surface appearance. The properties of the welded joint such as strength, toughness can be improved by controlling the microstructure of the welded joint. The element transfer from the flux has major influence on weld metal composition and weld metal properties. To predict weld metal properties, it is necessary to determine the weld composition, which primarily depends upon wire, flux, parent metal, slag metal reactions, process parameters, dilution and electrochemical reactions. Numerous investigators have attempted to determine, which flux components are of most importance in establishing the final weld chemistry. The weld chemistry is decided by the metallurgical reactions in SAW but to decide the extent of metallurgical reaction in saw is very difficult because of large variations in cycle temperature, reaction time, high heat input. In SAW due to short reaction time during SAW the reaction is not reached to its thermodynamic equilibrium, so the exact prediction of weld metal chemistry is difficult. The purpose of this literature review is to focus on an innovative approach which is needed while deciding weld chemistry. It would be worthwhile if one could develop a frame work to predict the Mn, Si, carbon, oxygen and other elements in the final weld metal, from a given combination of electrode, flux and base metal. The work done so far on Element transfer study is very limited.Much published information is not available about fluxes made by Industry professionals as they do not disclose the composition of the flux for which they claim higher strength and better mechanical properties. This literature review will provide the basis for researchers in the field of SAW.

  28. Allaoui O., Chakir M., El Bardouni T., Boukhal H., Kaddour M., Zoubair M., and El Ouahdani, S.

    The pressure vessel is an important component of the nuclear reactor, the knowledge of the fluence of neutron in this part of the reactor during its operation and their associated effects is a key issue. The calculation method and also the cross section data and their treatment, have an important rule to this problem. For this object the NESDIP benchmark where the neutron transports through typical side-shield of a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) were performed at AEA technology Winfrith, UK (United Kingdom). In this study we have been interpreted this benchmark using the Monte Carlo transport code MCNPX for the aim to contribute a validation of the method of calculation, and analyse the cross sections, for Iron (56Fe) and water (1H and 16O), presented by: ENDF/B-VII.0, JEFF-3.1 and JENDL-4 libraries. The continuous energy cross section libraries were produced by the nuclear data processing system NJOY99. The principal results required from the benchmark analysis are the calculated-to-measured (C/M) dosimetry reaction rates of 103Rh (n,n’)103mRh monitor, at different depth in a water/iron shield reproducing the ex-core radial geometry of a PWR. The calculations of the NESDIP benchmark experiment showed us that calculation method is effective for the protection study of the REP. And generally, the average C/M ratios obtained are reasonably good when the uncertainties of the measurements are taken into account. The MCNPX code are choosing on the main are used routinely for studying radiation shielding analysis and the fact that feature a rich palette of Variance Reduction (VR) techniques, which play a very important role to reduce the computer required to obtain results of sufficient precision. Some of these VR techniques have been used in the frame of this protection study such as the energy cut-offs (CUT card), the Geometry splitting and Russian roulette (IMP card) and the phase space.

  29. Upasana Bora Sinha, Dipak Sinha and Latonglila Jamir

    A mild and improved procedure is reported for the synthesis of cyanamides from the corresponding dithiocarbamic acid salts via a desulfurization strategy using phase transfer reagent ethyltriphenylphosphonium tribromide (ETPPTB) and sodium bicarbonate in water / ethyl acetate biphasic medium. This method is highly appealing because of its one-pot process, convenient operation, environmental friendly, mild reaction conditions and broad substrate scope.

  30. Chandrasekaran, R., Manimannan, G. and Prema, R.

    A multi-level analysis was carried out among people of Kudapakkam Village. This area was chosen as a model to study malaria Knowledge Attitude and Practices (KAP). This area is situated Thiruvallur district of Tamilnadu in India. The aim is to determine awareness factors associated with malaria. Data were collected from secondary sources containing 580 respondents. The data deals with socio demographic characteristics, knowledge of signs and symptoms, usage of Long Lasting Insecticidal Net (LLIN) and adverse measures of malaria. Forty percent of respondents doesn’t know about signs and symptoms of malaria and remaining sixty percentage respondents know the signs and symptoms of malaria. Awareness of malaria, usage of LLIN was significantly associated with family grade of education; Awareness of malaria was not significantly associated with occupation, gender, respondent age, community, occupation of the family. Knowledge, signs and symptoms and usage of LLIN have no association with malaria attacks. In addition, to found the hidden pattern of Knowledge, signs and symptoms and usage of LLIN using two step cluster analysis and cross validate this pattern using discriminant analysis.

  31. Mohamed A. K. Barakat, Yasser M. Moustafa and Mona El Sayed

    Water quality is the critical factor that influence on human health, it is mostly based on the hydrochemical characteristics which reveals the suitability of water for drinking and agriculture. The beach zone of Red Sea in Egypt is considered as one of the most promising areas for development in the Eastern Desert, especially for the agricultural activities. The underground water would be one of the most important resources for such development process. The underground water in the beach zone is of great importance where it is the unique source for drinking and irrigation water. The main target of this study is to evaluate the suitability of underground water for drinking, domestic, industrial and irrigation purposes. Also, this study is to assist and outline how Egypt will safeguard its water resources in the future, both with respect to quantity and quality and how it will use its resources in the best way from a socio-economic and environmental point of view. To assess the water quality, underground water were collected and subjected to analysis for chemical characteristics. The analysis provides information on physico-chemical properties (pH, density, specific gravity, electrical conductivity, resistivity, total dissolved solids, salinity, alkalinity and hardness) as well as major and minor constituents were also determined for nine water wells selected between Quseir and Safaga cities. The results were compared with the standard permissible limits. In general, data analysis indicates that most of the studied shallow wells require treatment before using it as drinking water or as irrigation water. Different sources of pollution were detected as sea infiltration, decay of organic matter, industrial, agriculture and domestic wastewater.

  32. Kavitha, M. Gopinathan, C., Chandramohan, R. and Pandi, P.

    Zinc sulfide thin films have been deposited onto glass substrates by chemical bath deposition. Thin films of ZnS with different thicknesses of 720nm to 1045 nm were calculated from UV parameters. The effect of film thickness on structural and electrical properties was studied. The thermal conductivity of ZnS thin film is 0.88W/K-m. The structural and activation energy studies support this decrease in the resistivity due to improvement in crystallinity of the films which would increase the charge carrier mobility and decrease in defect levels with increase in the thickness of film. Aim of the work is analyzed the particle structure by X-ray Diffraction (XRD), surface morphology Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and optical properties by UV-Visible spectroscopy and thermal conductivity ZnS thin films. The result indicates that the conductivity of the buffer layer is generated the carriers with minimal losses while coupling light to the junction with minimum absorption losses, yields a highly efficient solar cell.

  33. Rajesh Kumar, K. and Dr. Sivakumar, M.

    Madurai is one of the most traditional and prominent cities in Tamilnadu, India. Madurai has the distinction of accommodating a very high number of Arts & Science Colleges offering UG and PG programmes. This study aims in analyzing the Competency Mapping of Under Graduate students in Autonomous Arts & Science Colleges in Madurai. The various competencies needed by these students are Psychological Health, Organisational Skills, Technological Skills, Reading & Writing Skills, Listening and Speaking Skills. The main criterion for deficiency in the expected competencies is lack of awareness. They don’t realize what is needed out of them, and also don’t take essential steps in developing the same. A sample size of 400 students was chosen for this study. The period of the study was two months ranging from September 2013 to October 2013. Suitable results and conclusion has been obtained.

  34. Mudasir Bashir Gugjoo, Mozammel Hoque, Abhishek Chander Saxena, Malik Mohammed Sham Suz Zama and Mohd Iqbal Yatoo

    Pericardial effusion (PE) is an abnormal accumulation of fluid between epicardium and pericardium and may occur due to tumour masses, infectious agents or can be idiopathic in nature. It is more prevalent in large male dog breeds with higher predisposition of Golden retrievers. There are number of modalities that can be useful in diagnosing the pericardial effusion, however, each in one way or other the lack potential for confirmatory diagnosis and thus multiple diagnostic modalities are employed. Radiographic features that are evident in PE include the increase in cardiac silhouette and a Globoid/basket ball appearance of heart. On electrocardiography, decrease in QRS complex voltage and presence of electrical alternans are the usual findings observed. Echocardiography aids in the detection, localization and quantification of pericardial effusion in dogs and is the most sensitive method available for detection of pericardial effusion in dogs. Although, these techniques enable us to diagnose the condition, however, They may not be sufficient enough to arrive at the aetiology of PE. The present review covers the role of radiography, electrocardiography and echocardiography in the diagnosis of pericardial effusion.

  35. Dr. Shanmuganathan, K., Dr. Shamasundar, N. M., Dr. Jyothi, K. C., Dr. Anupama. K. and Dr. Padmavathi, S.

    Introduction: In the present era of developing three dimensional multi-planar imaging techniques used for medical examination and diagnosis, there is a pressing need for an in-depth knowledge of cross-sectional anatomy. The technique of Sheet Plastination invented by Dr Gunther Von Hagens which yields solid transparent sections using synthetic resins is a boon to medical fraternity for learning sectional anatomy. Observation: In JSS Medical College, Mysore, Karnataka, a low cost technique of sheet Plastination was explored, and is being successfully practiced. In this study, Sheet Plastination of cross-sections from upper limb, lower limb, elbow joint and knee joint were prepared and were correlated with corresponding magnetic resonance images and found good overall correlation between plastinated slice & MRI images Conclusion: The technique of Plastination has promising future in all fields of training, research and health education. Low cost, non toxic, odorless and portable plastinated specimens helps in teaching and learning anatomy and is an useful tool for verifying MRI and CT.

  36. Muhammad, U. K. and Abdulmalik Yakubu

    The phytochemical analysis of a traditional medicinal formulation also called “komi da ruwanka” used in the treatment of diseases was carried out. The screening of the formulations from all the locations revealed the presence of alkaloids, saponins, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, steroids and volatile oils.

  37. Odoh, U. E., Ezugwu, C. O. and Adimegwu, J. U.

    The present study investigates the anti-inflammatory activity of methanolic root extract of Cryptolepis sanguinolenta against paw edema induced by egg albumin and carrageenan in rats. Phytochemical analysis and acute toxicity test (LD50) of the ethanol extract was also carried out. The results obtained show that the methanol root extract of Cryptolepis sanguinolenta has significant (P<0.05) dose-dependent anti-inflammatory activity in the entire model studied. The extract at the doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg showed an inhibition (25.20, 38.21 and 50.41 %) and (43.1, 54.30 and 67.00 %) against acute paw edema-induced by egg albumin and carrageenan respectively at 3 h. The LD50 of the extract was 1265.40 mg/kg. Phytochemical analysis of the extract show that it contains carbohydrates, alkaloids, glycosides, saponins, resins, tannins, proteins, steroids and terpenoids. The present study justifies the use of Cryptolepis sanguinolenta as an anti-inflammatory agent in traditional medicine.

  38. Odoh, U. E., Ezugwu, C.O. and Ezejiofor, M.

    This study was conducted to determine the anti-diabetic effect and safety profile of alkaloids of Acanthus montanus Leaf (AAML). The anti-diabetic study was carried out using alloxan-induced diabetic rats by daily intraperitoneal administration of AAML at doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg for 4 weeks and 8 weeks. The toxicological assessment of AAML was also done by determining the haematological, biochemical and urinary parameters in blood, serum, and urine samples respectively at the end of the tested periods. In the acute toxicity test, mice were administered intraperitoneally with AAML up to 5000 mg/kg. Animals were then observed for behavioural changes; signs of toxicity, and mortality within 24 h. Surviving mice were monitored for 7 days for signs of delayed toxicity. Result of the anti-diabetic study shows significant (P < 0.05) dose-dependent reduction (42.68 %) in blood sugar levels of the hyperglycemic rats when compared with glibenclamide (standard drug). In the acute toxicity test, AAML was practically non-toxic showing no mortality and visible signs of delayed toxicity. The AAML at 4 and 8 weeks elicited significant (P < 0.05) increases in haematological parameters (Hb, PCV, RBC, WBC and differential count), reductions in biochemical parameters (levels of liver enzymes - AST, ALT, and ALP), total cholesterol, triglycerides, urea and creatinine and urinary parameter (pH). Results obtained in this study suggest that the alkaloids of leaf Acanthus montanus leaf is safe when administered intraperitoneally with potential beneficial effects as immunostimulant, hepatoprotective, and hypocholestrolemic agent, when administered over a long period of time.

  39. Mohammad. I. Nader, Luma. Y. Al_douri, and Amer. H. Al-Shammary

    Total (230) isolates of Staphylococci species were isolated from different clinical samples. They were distributed isolates from urine, wound infections and ear swabs. These isolates were diagnosed using different morphological and biochemical test. Out of 100 isolates were Staphylococcus aureus. Disk diffusion method antibiotic susceptibility were used, 13 methicillin resistant S. aureus isolates was identified, It was found that 13(100%) isolates have positive result for mecA gene expressed S.aureus (mecA)in their PCR products. It was concluded that the polymerase chain reaction appears to offer a time saving and accurate method of detection of methicillin-resistant S.aureus. and it can be used to detect a lowlevel of it from different samples without using a selective medium or additional biochemical tests.

  40. Dr. Mahasweta Mallik, Dr. Manish Kumar and Dr. Sujata Mallick

    Pancytopenia is a very common entity among children in today’s scenario. The cause of pancytopenia can be varied from drug induced bone marrow depression to leukaemia. So, the objective of this study is to determine the cause of pancytopenia among children by haematological parameters (complete blood count) and bone marrow aspiration in a tertiary health care centre. Material and method- A retrospective study was done patients below 18 years of age, diagnosed with pancytopenia at Patna Medical College and Hospital between May2010 to October 2012. Result-258 children were found to have suffered from pancytopenia during the study period. Age ranged from 4 and ½ months to 18 years. Out of 258 cases 62.4% were male and 37.6% were female. Generalised weakness and pallor were the most common clinical presentation of pancytopenia in children. Haematological parameter and bone marrow aspiration was diagnostic. Megaloblastic anaemia followed by hypoplastic anaemia were the most common forms.

  41. Dr. Mahasweta Mallik, Dr. Puskar Shyam Chowdhury, Dr. Manish Kumar and Dr. Sujata Mallick MBBS, MD

    The objective of study is to see the trend of oligospermia in urban and rural population in and around Patna Medical College and Hospital (PMCH), Patna. The study was done from December 2006 to January 2013 in PMCH and private laboratory situated near PMCH. The urban population included people residing in Patna and the rural population consisted of people residing in villages around Patna, who had come to PMCH for treatment of infertility.

  42. Dr. Ramesh Kumar, Dr. Aravind S. Raju, Dr. L .Muthusamy, Dr.Mahantesh Chinagudi, Dr. Sunil Kumar and Dr. Priyanka

    The term Temporary anchorage devices presents professional dilemma in the field of orthodontics. Though there are many anchorage devices which are used in the treatment of various malocclusion by orthodontist, Temporary anchorage devices has been recently widely accepted. These devices compose a broad array of implants used to support orthodontic treatment. This article reviews about the various aspects of temporary anchorage devices in the field of orthodontics.

  43. Asmaa Haseeb Hwaid, Abul-Razak SH. Hasan, Abbas A. Al-Duliami and Mohamad F. Al-Marjani

    Background: Studies on the association between H. pylori infection and ABO/Rhesus blood groups have obtained controversial results. Objectives: To determine the association between H. pylori seropositivity among asymptomatic healthy persons and ABO/Rhesus blood groups, as well as certain demographic factors in Diyala province. Subjects and methods: This study was conducted in Diyala province for the period from November / 2010 to August 2011. 90 apparently healthy individuals were included. The age range was (14-43) years. 47 of them were males and 43 were females. ABO and Rh blood groups were determined by a standard hem agglutination test. Then sera were separated and submitted for the detection of anti-H.pylori IgG by enzyme linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA). Data were statistically analyzed. Results: the results showed that the anti-H.pylori IgG seroprevalence was (80%). The seroprevalence rate was significantly higher in female compared to male (86% vs 74.5%, p= 0.001). The highest infection rate was among the age group 24-33 years, with statistically insignificant difference (p= 0.10). The anti-H.pylori seropositivity rate among the A, B, AB, and O blood groups was 76.5%, 75%, 100% and 82.9% respectively (p= 0.5). the anti-H.pylori IgG positivity rate was higher in Rh negative as compared to Rh positive phenotypes (87.5% vs 79.3%,(p= 0.50). the anti-H.pylori IgG positivity rate was significantly higher (p= 0.05 ) among subjects with secondary school level as compared to other educational levels. Conclusion: It can be concluded that ABO and Rh blood groups may partly influence the rate of H.pylori infection, especially in female gender.

  44. Dr. Grrishma, B., Dr. Gaur, G.S., Dr. Velkumary, S., Dr. Gurunandan, U., Dr. Aswini Dutt and Dr. Dinesh, T.

    Reaction time is a simple means of determing the sensorimotor performance of an individual. It has been more widely used as an objective method in experimental procedure in field of data processing. Auditory recognition reaction time is a type of reaction time and it plays a very important role while driving vehicles. Previous studies were mainly on simple and choice reaction time and there are very less studies on recognition reaction time. The aim of our study was to compare the dominant hand recognition reaction time with that of foot. The present study was conducted in department of Physiology, JIPMER, Puducherry on 60 healthy female volunteers. After giving adequate practice, hand and foot recognition auditory reaction time were recorded using Reaction Time Machine (RTM 608, Medcaid, Chandighar). The result showed auditory recognition reaction time was significantly more for foot when compared with hand. This could be because of difference in nerve conduction velocity and movement time of the hand when compared with that of foot.

  45. Dr. Padmini, T., Dr. Vinutha Shankar, M.S., Dr. Nachal Annamalai, Dr. Aswini Dutt and Dr. Harish Karanth

    Heart Rate Variability (HRV) provides non invasive, unobtrusive information about modulation of heart rate by Autonomic Nervous System (ANS). HRV is commonly described by standard deviation of intervals between successive R waves (SDNN) of cardiac cycle. Reduced HRV is indicated by reduced SDNN. Work stress is a common entity in the present day world and a job involving the manning of a traffic signal is one such stressful jobs. ANS is involved in the physiological expression of anxiety and stress. HRV analysis can be used as a tool to analyze the sympathovagal imbalance that might be precipitated due to anxiety. The aim of the study was to estimate HRV in traffic policemen and to study the association between their anxiety scores and HRV. HRV of all participants was recorded for 5 min in supine position in a quiet room. Speilberger’s State Trait Anxiety Inventory questionnaire with scores ranging from 20 to 80 was given to subjects. Anxiety scores were correlated with SDNN using Pearson’s correlation coefficient. There was a negative correlation between SDNN and anxiety level in traffic policemen (r= -0.729, p<0.01). Reduced HRV was seen in subjects with high anxiety score indicating sympathetic dominance.

  46. Omasso So, Kibet Yusuf and Dr. Douglas Musiega

    Though, the opportunities for improvement as a result of procurement automation seem abound, 60% of information technology application in procurement initiatives do not deliver the expected results. One such area greatly affected, in many procurement entities, is customer service. Thus, customer service delivery, in many procurement entities, remains a great challenge. For few, if any, consider procurement as a service function, and emphasize into procurement automation is often focused on the cost efficiency rather than service delivery. This study, therefore, examined the impact of procurement automation on procurement entities’ internal customer service delivery, adopting a case study design with a single-case descriptive approach targeting 43 customers using purposive sampling and thereafter the resultant selected divisions used as study clusters (second-stage cluster sampling). A 30% sample size was selected with descriptive statistics and statistical test: Pearson’s (r) and chi-square being used. The study findings indicate that procurement automation positively impacts the procurement entities’ customer service delivery according to 69.8% of the respondents, and there is a significant relationship (with r values ranging from 0.118 to 0.313) between procurement automation and procurement entities’ customer service delivery. Consequently, procurement automation can be viewed as an enabler of the procurement entities’ internal customer service delivery. Hence, procurement automation initiatives must focus, also, on ensuring procurement entities’ provide a high customer service levels.

  47. Dr. Comfort E. Mbachu and Dr. Joy-Telu Hamilton-Ekeke

    Higher education in Nigeria was established for a definite purpose. The goals which are spelt out in the National Policy on Education are pursued through teaching, research and community service. Learning therefore at the tertiary level of education as explained by Babalola and Jaiyeoba (2008) could be described as being effective if it results in bringing about the expected transformation in the attitudes, skills and knowledge of higher education in students over a period of time. Invariably, the role of the University is not only to train future academics, but also to train technical workers and managers and to upgrade their knowledge when necessary. This means the academics themselves try hard to keep up-date on the most recent advances (which make quick progress around the world) in fundamental and technical knowledge. This could only be achieved through research work. This paper therefore looks into the goals of tertiary education in Nigeria. It as well discusses on the types of research carried out at the tertiary level of education. It discusses the importance of research on the economy. It equally discusses on why higher education in developing countries like Nigeria need research work. The paper concludes with recommendations on how to improve and encourage research work in higher education.

  48. Beatrice Ayorkor Torto and Samuel Kofi Badu-Nyarko

    Students at every stage of their learning need props to help them achieve their learning goals. Part-time students are no exception. Support services are essential for part-time adult students since they often have to combine their learning with work, maintenance of a home and social activities. This study looks at support services available to students at the family, work and institutional levels; likewise peer support, financial support and support from friends. Using descriptive statistics and narrative analytical methods, the study found that there was inadequate support for part-time students at the family, employment and institutional levels. Generally, part-time students are self directed learners but need a few props to enhance learning. Findings of this study also reveal implications for distance learning.

  49. Dinah C. Samikwo

    Biology is a very important subject. It enables one to understand himself/herself and the surrounding environment. The knowledge acquired in Biology is applied in many fields such as medicine, pharmacy, nursing, dentistry and agriculture. Students’ performance in Biology at the Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education (KCSE) has been unsatisfactory over many years. Various reasons have been put forward by scholars to explain the cause of the poor performance. Students on the other hand have their reasons for the cause of the poor performance; hence the purpose of this research study was to investigate the factors that influence academic performance in Biology. The study aimed at finding out the attitudes of students towards Biology and how the attitudes influences their performance in Biology and also to find out the extent to which availability of teaching/learning resources influences performance in Biology. A descriptive survey design was used. Data was collected by use of questionnaires, observation checklists, interviews and document analysis. The sample for the study comprised 215 students drawn from 15 secondary schools in Uasin Gishu West District. The study respondents comprised form three students. Stratified random sampling was used to categorize schools into provincial, district and private. Simple random sampling was then used to select 15 schools from the 51 secondary schools in the district. At school level, the researcher applied simple random sampling technique to select 215 students who filled the questionnaires. The data was analyzed by use of descriptive statistics with the aid of SPSS computer programme. The data collected was coded, tabulated and represented using frequencies, tables and percentages. The study findings showed that, students with positive attitude towards the Biology subject, register better performance in examinations and also the availability of teaching/learning resources in schools impacted positively on students’ achievement in Biology examinations. The author of this paper recommends that: schools should motivate students so as to build on positive attitude towards sciences, so as to able to compete globally in the careers. Schools without teaching/learning resources should not be registered by the ministry of Education and schools should strive to build on good image.

  50. Praveen Rizal and Asokan, R.

    Women empowerment is one major issue of todays. Various International organisations, and governments, are engaged for empowering women, economically, socially, and politically. United Nation World Travel Organisation implemented an action plan for empowering women through tourism. As far as Sikkim state is concern, tourism is one of the main sector in the state and contributing in income and employment to people. In this context, the present study examines the contributions of tourism in women’s empowerment in Sikkim. The study is based on secondary data. A statistical test shows there is difference in participation of male and female work-force in tourism in the state. Out of the total workforce in tourism, only 30 percent of the workforce is female, which it is less than that of the average female workforce of the state (34 percent). Further, there is wide scope for the women’ empowerment through tourism in Sikkim. The steps should be taken by the government, banks, NGO’s, Self-Help Groups, and so on to encourage and facilitate women in tourism related activities.

  51. Mauchumi Hazarika

    Submersed Humanism is a system of views based on respect for the dignity of man, concern for his welfare, his all round development and creation of favorable conditions for social life. The humanism that we have seen in thoughts of contemporary Indian philosophers is different from the western humanism. Western humanism is mostly intellectual, economic and political in nature. But the Indian humanism is primarily Spiritual. The Indian humanism does not take man to be material being but as one with spirit, mind, life and body. It aims at the fulfillment of the aspirations which are physical, vital, mental and spiritual in nature.

  52. Tahir Nazir and Nusrat Samweel

    The present study was undertaken in the undisturbed and disturbed pine and oak forests of Pauri area in the Garhwal region of Uttarakhand, India. The aim of the present study was to assess the physic-chemical properties of these soils. Chemical properties of the soil, i.e., total nitrogen (N), available phosphorus (P), available potassium (K), organic carbon (C), soil organic matter (SOM), pH, C:N ratios, exchangeable Calcium (Ca) and Magnesium (Mg) and micronutrients Iron (Fe), copper (Cu), Zinc (Zn) and Manganese (Mn) were analyzed for different depths viz., 0-10, 10-30, 30-60, 60- 90, 90-120, 120-150cm in both the undisturbed and disturbed forest types. The phosphorus was found higher in the lower horizons of the Quercus leucotrichophora forest, which may be due to the leaching properties of the soils. The available nitrogen was also higher in the undisturbed forests than in the disturbed forests. The soil pH was found higher at both the disturbed sites. Among the two forest covers, the soils under Quercus leucotrichophora showed comparatively higher CEC than the soils under Pine. The higher values of CEC in the soils may be due to availability of higher organic matter and clay content. The content of exchangeable Ca2+ was maximum under Quercus leucotrichophora and minimum under Pinus roxburghii forest types. Among micronutrients, the manganese was found higher under Pinus roxburghii forest cover. Pine needles being rich in Mn content might have accounted for high level of Mn. Zn was found higher under oak forest cover. In case of Pinus roxburghii forest, a significant positive correlation was found between total nitrogen and organic carbon (0.97), available nitrogen and organic carbon (0.94), CEC and organic carbon (0.98) (Table 5). In case of Quercus leucotrichophora forest, a significant positive correlation was found between total nitrogen and available nitrogen (0.93), available phosphorus and total nitrogen (0.98) (Table 6).

  53. Aina, Adebowale Japhet and Orbih, David .E

    Changes in higher education, the new student-centered paradigm and new pedagogy approaches have also created a need for a reconceptualisation of the roles and responsibilities of librarians. Nigerian libraries, like their counterparts elsewhere, is faced with challenges of globalization. Library services now cuts across geographical boundaries. As an integral part of the campus, the academic library will be profoundly affected by changes in the academy itself. The authors of this paper examine the current trends and developments of globalization of higher education and the roles of the librarian to these changes. It also discusses various issues connected with globalization of education specifically, its implications, barriers and benefits for Nigerian libraries and librarians. Finally, the paper makes conclusion and recommendations on how Nigerian libraries can cope with and reap the full benefits of globalization.

  54. Ahmad Al-Turki, Yasser El-Hadidy and Fahad Al-Romian

    Chemical properties of twenty five composts produced in Saudi Arabia were investigated in order to evaluate their quality compared to local and international standards of compost quality. Generally results showed large variations between most chemical properties of composts under the study. Electrical conductivity (EC) Ec of final composts ranged from 0.6 dSm-1 to 25.4 dSm-1 and 92% of studied composts exceeded the upper limit of accepted EC set by CCQC and PAS-100. Most pH values tended to be alkaline and % were higher than 7.5. Ammonium contents were more than 500 mgkg-1 (the maximum limit set by CCQC) in 40% of final products of compost, which may inhibit seed germination. Organic matter percentages were less than 25% (CCQC minimum limit) in 7% of composts and less than 40% (GCST minimum limit) in 76% of composts. Most C/N ratios (92%) of composts were less than 20% and complied with CCQC, GSCT standards. Nitrification index of 13 composts (52%) was above 3 and they are considered immature composts according to CCQC standards. Significant differences were shown between means of some chemical characteristics of all types of composts. Heavy metal contents of composts were below the upper limit set by CCQC and GCST with exception of Ni and Cd, which exceeded the allowable limit in 65% of and 79% respectively. In general, results showed that most local compost facilities are unable to produce a mature composts product. The high variability between chemical properties of composts confirmed the need for establishing quality assurance procedures to be applied by suitable mechanisms to produce mature compost and protect public health and the environment.

  55. S. El Ouahdani, H. Boukhal, E. Chakir, T. El Bardouni, Y. Boulaich, T. Elkhoukhi, M. Azahra1, O. Allaoui, M. Kaddour and K. Benaalilou

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the temperature effect on the infinite multiplication factor of light water moderated UO2 lattices KRITZ: 2-1 and KRITZ: 2-13, and UO2-PuO2 lattice KRITZ: 2-19 of the Sweden KRITZ reactor. To quantify the contribution of each component of the infinite multiplication factor to the temperature coefficient, calculations were performed for the three configurations of KRITZ benchmark at two temperatures: room temperature 20°C and an elevated temperature 245°C, using MCNPX which is a continuous energy Monte Carlo reference code for the calculations of neutron transport. Nuclear data needed for this work were processed by means of the NJOY99 system and the most recent libraries JENDL-4, JENDL-3.3, JEFF-3.1, ENDF/B-VII, and ENDF/B-VII.1. The performed studies on the temperature coefficient have shown an agreement between our calculations and those obtained from the final report published by the OECD in 2005 (NEA, 2005).

  56. Adam Adey, S., Benabid, M., Abba, H., Droussi, M. and Khattabi, A.

    Morocco was equipped, since 2009, of a new development strategy and competitiveness of the halieutic sector. The development of this sector will make it possible to improve the means of existence by the means of the increase of the incomes, employment and the wellness. The development of the aquacultural sector will contribute in addition to the food safety and the socio-economic development of Morocco. The station of fish farming of concerning Deroua HCEFLCD is part of the one of the stations which can play a lever for the development of this sector by the whole of the scientific studies conducted to its level. The follow-up of the physico-chemical parameters during the period of reproduction of a nonnative species Morocco (Oreochromis nilotica) introduced by Egypt in 2004 shows that during the various phases of breeding as well parents whom larvas show that the physico-chemical parameters raised throughout the experience seem to suit perfectly to Oreochromis niloticus because all the registered values is meanwhile optimal of the species. These results can establish a database for the development of the aquacultural sector of this species.

  57. Meenakshi Nandal and Rajni hooda

    Sustainable agriculture is vitally important in today’s world because it offers the potential to meet our future agricultural needs, something that conventional agriculture will not be able to do. Soil microorganisms with beneficial activity on plant growth and health represent an attractive alternative to conventional agricultural practice. Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) are naturally occurring soil bacteria that aggressively colonize plant roots and benefit plants by providing growth promotion. PGPR are associated with plant roots and augment plant productivity and immunity; however, recent work by several groups shows that PGPR also elicit so-called ‘induced systemic tolerance’ to salt and drought. PGPR might also increase nutrient uptake from soils, thus reducing the need for fertilizers and preventing the accumulation of nitrates and phosphates in agricultural soils. Scientific researches involve multidisciplinary approaches to understand adaptation of PGPR, effects on plant physiology and growth, induced systemic resistance, biocontrol of plant pathogens, bio fertilization, and potential green alternative for plant productivity, viability of co inoculating, plant microorganism interactions, and mechanisms of root colonization.

  58. Adeola, R. G.

    Soil fertility decline is a major constraint to increased agricultural productivity. However, the majority of the smallholders could not afford the cost of applying inorganic fertilizers to mitigate a soil fertility decline at recommended rates due to high costs. Hence, the need to supplement inorganic fertilizers with other sources of plant nutrients that is sustainable and environmentally friendly. Three hundred and fifty-six respondents (356) were sampled in Oyo state for the study. A systematic random sampling technique was used in selecting the respondents. Data were obtained with the use of structured interview schedule and analysed using both descriptive statistics and Tobit regression. Results showed that factors such as age (P < 0.01), cropping pattern (P <0.05), educational level (P <0.01), availability of legume seeds (P <0.01), farm size (P <0.05), farming experience (P <0.05) significantly influenced the adoption of green manure for soil fertility management. Stakeholders should reach out to the farmers in order to sensitize them on the potentials of green manure technology. Researchers should look into the possibility of making seeds available for the interested farmers to ensure the sustainability of using green manure for soil fertility management.

  59. Alphonse Adite and Emile D. Fiogbe

    African rivers and floodplain lakes harbor a high fish biodiversity and support important multi-species fisheries that provide sustainable revenues and protein sources for grassroots. The present study assessed the fish biodiversity and community structure of the lower Mono of Benin and Togo in order to improve fish resource conservation and management. Fish samplings have been accomplished on the main channel and tributaries at four locations from May to December 2011. A total of 53 fish species belonging to 41 genera and 29 families were inventoried during the study period. Among the fish taxon, the most speciose family was Cichlidae with 9 species. Numerically, five families Cichlidae, Cyprinotontidae, Clariidae, Claroteidae, and Eleotridae dominated the fish assemblage and accounted together for 87.04%. The Shannon-Weaver index of species diversity (H’) ranged between 1.9 and 3.83 and higher values were recorded in the main channel and in the main tributary. Most dominant fish species showed an unimodal size distribution and higher condition factors were recorded for larger species such as Protopterus annectens (K=50.10), Clarias gariepinnus (K=17.31) and Clarias agboyiensis (K=2.63). Length-weight regression equations showed allometric and isometric growth patterns among dominant species. The lower Mono support an intense multi-species fisheries practiced by more than 13,000 professional fishermen capturing annually about 1,416 tons of fish. The lower Mono is under major ecological threats which greatly affect the fish biodiversity and the fisheries. An integrated community –based approach of ecosystem management is required to restore and to sustainably exploit this ecotonal habitat.

  60. Mounguengui Steeve, Atteke Christiane, Saha Tchinda Jean-Bosco, Ndikontar Maurice Kor, Dumarçay Stephane and Gerardin Philippe

    The white-rot fungus Hexagonia apiaria isolated in wood parks in Gabon showed a high capacity to degrade synthetic dyes used in the textile industry. The results of this study show that this fungus has an optimum growth temperature between 30°C and 40°C. Optimum physicochemical parameters of discoloration on solid culture media are 35°C and 0.3g/L. On solid culture medium, the fungus produces different enzymes (cellulase, laccase, phenoloxidase, and peroxidases) in the presence of different substrates. At the concentration of 0.3g/L after 6 days, the discoloration rates are of 0.83, 0.76 and 0.78 (cm/day) respectively for Orange G, Reactive blue 4 and Congo red. The study reveals the opportunity of using this yet poorly known fungus for discoloration of synthetic dyes.

  61. Munkhjargal Bayarlkhagva, Odbayar Tumendemberel and Bayarlkhagva Damdin

    Korean field mouse (Apodemus peninsulae) are widely distributed throughout Northeastern Asia comprisingmany regions in many countries, including Russia, Japan, Korean Peninsulae, Mongolia and China. We analyzed mitochrondrial cytochrome b gene (1143 bp) of the Apodemus peninsulae and 11 specimens were collected from Bogd Khan Strictly Protected Area in Mongolia. We identified two different haplotypes from five new sequences. The genetic distance for Mongolian first haplotype was 0-1.8% while second haplotype depicts relatively high genetic distance (1.1-2.6%). This molecular genetic analysis demonstrates that A.peninsulae from the populations in regions of Russia such as Zabaikal, Khabarovsk, and Sakhalin are close to population in Mongolia in terms of the first haplotype. However the second haplotype from Mongolia is similar with the populations of Korea and China and form clade with strong maximium likelihood (86%) bootstrap support. As a result, we assume that there might be two different subspecies in Bogd Khan Strictly Protected Area of Mongolia.

  62. Rachna Bhateria and Snehlata

    Environmental pollution with toxic heavy metals is spreading throughout the world along with industrial progress. Copper, chromium, cadmium and nickel are few of the known heavy metals. Elevated level of heavy metals not only decrease soil microbial activity and crop production but also threatens human health through the food chain. Rhizoremediation is emerging as a potential cost effective solution for the remediation of heavy metal-contaminated soils in opposition to the conventional chemical and physical remediation technologies that are generally too costly and often harmful to soil characteristics. Rhizosphere plays a significant role in phytoremediation of heavy metals contaminated soil in which microbial population are known to affect heavy metal mobility and availability to the plant through release of chelating agents, acidification, phosphate solubilization and redox changes. This paper reviews the important beneficial plant-microbe interaction that promote plant health and development. Role of rhizospheric bacteria that may promote plant growth by producing siderophore, synthesizing phytohormones and enzymes has also been discussed. The role of transgenic plants, genetically engineered microbes and tolerance of plants to heavy metals in stress environment for enhancing phytoremediation is also explained.

  63. Neha Joshi, Omvati Verma, Sunita T. Pandey, Rashmi Sharma and Srivastava, R. C.

    Seeds of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) were exposed to static magnetic fields of different strength from 100-250 mT in steps of 50 mT for different duration from 1-4 hour in steps of 1 hour. Exposure to static magnetic field significantly increased shoot length, root length, germination index, germination rate, seedling dry weight, seedling vigour index and dehydrogenase enzyme activity of wheat seed over control whereas difference in seed germination was non-significant. Seed coat membrane integrity was significantly improved by magnetic field over control seeds. Different exposure duration did not significantly influence seed germination and seedling vigour of the seeds.

  64. Gnanasekaran, J. and Padmavathi, S.

    The present investigation was undertaken in order to know the effect of pre-sowing seed invigoration treatments on seed quality and seed yield in cotton genotype LRA 5166. The experiment was conducted in experimental farm, Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University during summer and winter seasons of the year 2010-12. The different pre-sowing invigoration seed treatments showed differential response for all the seed quality attributes, growth and yield parameters. Among the treatments, seed treated with 500 ppm GA3 (T3) recorded significantly higher field emergence percentage (92.33%), lesser days to first flower (35.33) and maximum seed cotton yield (154.27) when compared to winter season. The season had significantly effect on all the seed quality parameters studied for cotton.

  65. Sanjenbam Sanjibia Devi, Tombisana, R. K. and Rajmuhon Singh, N.

    The Phytopathogenic fungi Rhizoctonia solani and Sclrotium oryzae were isolated from the diseased rice plants. Nine fungicides and three biological controls were evaluated against the phytopathogenic fungi. Among nine fungicides screened eight fungicides were found to be 100% inhibition to both the test fungi, except the fungicide copper oxychloride could not inhibit the growth of the pathogenic fungi. However, the fungi could not produce Sclerotia at all. Among the bioagents, T. hamatum and T. harzianum could be completely overgrown R. solani. While all the biocontrol agents could grow 75% over S. oryzae T. viride could not inhibit completely the sclerotial production of R. solani. However S. oryzae failed to produce sclerotia in all the three biocontrol agents treated plates. Hence here is a scope to integrate bio agents for eco- friendly management instead of chemicals of stem rot and sheath blight disease of rice.

  66. Prakash Sahaya Leon, J. and Muthulingam M.

    A large number of pesticides are commonly used to control various agricultural pests; however, their toxicological impact also extends to non-target species like fish. Fish is good indicator of aquatic contamination because its biochemical stress responses are quite similar to those found in mammals.The aim of the present study is to assess the glycogen content in brain and muscle of the fish Channa striatus exposed to sublethal concentrations of endosulfan 1/10th (high), 1/15th (medium) and 1/20th (low) of the 96 hour LC50 values for the period of 7, 14 and 21 days. The fish exposed to endosulfan showed a decrease the glycogen level for 7, 14 and 21 days in brain and muscle. However, no information is on record concerning the three different sublethal concentration of endosulfan on the glycogen contents of fish. The objective of the present work was to observe the effect of endosulfan on glycogen levels in brain and muscle of freshwater fish, Channa striatus.

  67. Amzad Basha Kolar and Ghouse Basha, M.

    The survey was carried out randomly to get information and documentation of medicinal plants of Pachamalai hills, a part of Eastern Ghats, Tamil Nadu, during 2006-2007. A total of 190 medicinal plant species with 158 genera belonging to 67 families (87.6% dicotyledons, 10.7% monocotyledons and 1.5% Gymnsperms) were recorded. Out of this 190 medicinal plants twenty three most important plants widely used for treatment of a variety of diseases by the local tribes are listed along with their botanical name, family name, vernacular name, mode of propagation, parts used, medicinal uses with current status.

  68. Pawan Kumar Sharma and Sushil Kumar Saini

    The purpose of this work is to study a laminar free convection flow of viscous incompressible fluid through a saturated porous medium bounded by an infinite vertical permeable plate in the presence of cosinusoidally fluctuating temperature and concentration. Assuming constant suction at the porous plate, the approximate solution for velocity, temperature and concentration are obtained analytically using regular perturbation techniques. The effects of governing parameters on flow characteristic are discussed graphically.

  69. Kattimani, V. R., Venkatesha, B. M. and Anand, S.

    Cost of biodiesel can be reduced if produced from high free fatty acid non edible oils such as neem oil, jatropha etc. In the present study, two stage transesterification processes has been used to convert high free fatty acid neem oil into neem oil methyl ester. In this stage, experiments have conducted by varying methanol quantity (5, 10 and 15 % v / v of oil and reaction time (45 min, 60 min and 75 min) by keeping acid catalyst concentration (H2SO4, 1 % v / v) and reaction temperature (550C to 600C) constant. FFA level of neem oil has reduced to 0.8% by acid esterification at the optimized molar ratio of 3 (methanol quantity of 15 % v / v of oil) and reaction time (60 minutes). In the second stage, different concentration of methanol (20% to 45%, by vol), NaOH (0.3% to1.5%, by wt), reaction temperature (300C to 550C) and reaction time (60 min to 120 min) were selected in order to optimize the neem oil methyl ester yield. Maximum yield (85.50%) has obtained at optimum amount of methanol (35%), catalyst NaOH concentration (0.3%), temperature (550C) and reaction time (90 minutes).

  70. Manjunatha Rao, L. and Dr. Rama Krishna, S.

    The real need of e-Governance structure in the area of Indian Administrative services are yet to be seen as there are various dynamics in the Indian scenario. Although previous studies have focused on evolution of various models, but majority of the model are based on small scale scenario of application. The current paper thereby exhibits a novel e-governance architecture which is purely designed considering the conventional structure of e-governance where the proposed solution of architecture is formulated with all the 4 layers of the e-governance structure considering both quality of service as well as security aspects in the design patterns. The evolution of this novel idea is subjected to real time case studies considering the unique identification (UID) in Indian Administrative services, where the results are verified considering i) defect averting, ii) defect minimization, iii) maximized efficiency, iv) software reliability, v) architecture flexibility, and vi) risk management

  71. Imane HASSANAIN, Khouloud LAKRARI, Kaoutar ELLOUZI, Imane ELLOUZI, Said KITANE, and Mohamed ALAOUI El BELGHITI

    In this paper, we have studied the effect of temperature on dynamic viscosity of three vegetable oils: argan oil, colza oil and sunflower oil. The effect of temperature on viscosity is fitted with the Arrhenius-type relationship. A plot of Logarithm of viscosity versus 1/T was built for each sample, we have deduced from these curves, the activation energy Ea and the infinite-temperature viscosity (η) for each oil, the correlation constants for the best fit are presented.

  72. Balaguru, M. and Senthil Kumar, G. R.

    A detailed hydrogeochemical study was carried out in Lekkur sub basin which is part of Vellar basin. Groundwater is the major source of water supply for agricultural and domestic uses. The agricultural and urbanization activities have made a lot of impact on groundwater quality of the study area. In order to understand the groundwater quality variations in the sub basin area, twenty groundwater samples were collected from dug wells and hand pumps during pre-monsoon season. These water samples were analysed for major cations and anions. The water analysis data were processed using a computer program HYCH. In this program, numerical steps are adopted for the hydrochemical facies classification using the criteria of Handa, Piper, Stuyfzand and USSL schemes. The results show that according to Stuyfzand classification, 50 % of water samples are oligohaline to fresh type. Based on USSL classification, 40 % of water samples fall in good to moderate (C2S1 and C3S1) categories and the rest of the samples exhibit poor quality. This shows serious problems for domestic and agricultural uses during pre-monsoon period.

  73. Thamarai Selvi, J., Suganya S. and Subbulakshmi, R.

    A heterogeneous precipitates have been used as ion carriers for the preparation of strontium (II) selective membrane sensor. The electrodes give near–Nernstian responses in linear concentration range of 1M to 1x10-5M with detection limits of the order of 10-5M . The stable potentiometric signals are obtained within a short time period of 15 seconds and stable upto 3 month. The effect of pH, and the effect of medium have been studied found to give a better response. Selectively coefficient values were evaluated using fixed interference method. The sensor was used for the determination of strontium ion in some real samples.

  74. Barathan, S. and Gobinath, B.

    Rice straw ash and wood ash were admixtured at various weight percentages with cement and its effect on hydration was explored in this report. The ash particles under 75 micron size were mixed together at four different percentages and added to cement as a partial replacement and the samples were hydrated for various time periods from 1 hour to 4 weeks. The samples were analyzed with FTIR, XRD and SEM techniques to characterize the hydration kinetics and to understand the changes occurring in mineral compounds during their modification into hydrated mineral compounds. The results were compared with the compressive strength measurements in the light of available literature. The result obtained reveal a definite possibility of RSA and WA reuse.

  75. Mary Shanthi Rani, M.

    The growing popularity of iris based biometric system has motivated rigorous research in iris image compression techniques, considering the need for effective storage and transmission of iris images. In this paper, a new method has been proposed for compressing iris images using a hybrid of two robust clustering methods for generating a codebook thereby achieving compression. Experimental results show that the proposed method outperforms similar compression methods by producing good quality images at high compression rate.

  76. Latifa. ANGA, Abdellah. FAOUZI Nadia. FARIAT, Laila. BENABBES, Hasna AMDIOUNI, Amina. IDRISSI, Mohamed. HASSAR, Rachida. CADI and Jalal. NOURLIL

    Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 emerged in Mexico and United States and spread throughout the world over a short period of time. The aim of this study was to investigate the demographic, clinical manifestations and epidemiologic characteristics of influenza H1N1pdm09 associated to confirmed influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 in Casablanca. From 07 May, 2009 to 17 May 2010, 1347 nasopharyngeal swab from patients with clinical evidence of influenza-like illness (ILI) were tested for pandemic A(H1N1)pdm09 virus, using One-Step Real-Time RT-PCR. Demographic data, symptoms, exposure and co-morbidity conditions were documented. Of 1347 nasopharyngeal swab 489 (36.3%) were positive and 858 (63.7%) were negative. The Maximum positive cases were found in the age group of 15-44 yr, (46.4%) followed by 5-14 yr (32.3%) and the low positive cases was found in the age group > 65 yr(1.7%). Fever (82.4%), Cough (80.2%), Sore throat (47%), Headache (44.6%), Rhinitis (46.4%) and Myalgia (28.6%), were the most commonly reported symptoms in the A(H1N1)pdm09 positive group, but gastrointestinal symptoms, including vomiting and diarrhea, were not commonly reported (9.2%), (4.7%) respectively. The prevalence of Influenza A(H1N1 is high in the younger population. Continuous monitoring is essential for evaluation and surveillance to be prepared for and able to control future influenza activities.

  77. Bensoltana Djemaia and Asselah Boualem

    The school learning requires initially, a visual strategy in the process of information treatment. However, the elements that make up writing are seldom consistent with the reader’s optimal visual capabilities, which may interfere with vision or causing in the long run 'an vision problem'. The study consists in solving experimentally "the constraints that may arise by Arabic typography (orientation 'right to left). We assume that the quality of language comprehension is enhanced when the writing is best perceived in terms of graphics]. Thanks to the photoelectric method, eye movement recording was carried out on the sample of 160 pupils attending the second primary level. Four different tasks (body, spacing, space, justification) were applied to childrensubdivided into groups. The results demonstrate: the impact of typographical aspects of readability and the strong correlation existing between: ″changes in ocular parameters and typographic patterns″ during reading. They also detect optimal elements enabling efficient reading. Furthermore, they point to a ″progress in values according to school level and age. We consequently, suggest that the experiences object of the eye movement recording through the reading process: can constitute diagnostic to any attempt of standardization of "physical or semantic aspect" of the text that willimprove educational performance

  78. Mohanad Altayeb Mohamed Ahmed, Leena Babiker Mirghani and Elshazali Widaa Ali

    The aim of this was to investigate the association between P53 exon 4 codon 72 genotypes and acute and chronic lymphoid leukaemias. A total of 77 subjects were enrolled in this study, 32 with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, 15 with chronic lymphocytic leukemia and 30 healthy individuals as a control group. Genomic DNA was extracted from patients’ blood samples by salting out method, and analyzed for determination of P53 exon 4 codon 72 genotypes using-allele specific polymerase chain reaction (AS-PCR). The results showed that, the genotype Arg/Pro was the most frequent (75%) in patients with ALL, followed by the genotype Arg/Arg (19%), and Pro/Pro (6%). Also in patients with CLL the genotype Arg/Pro was the most prevalent (67%), followed by Arg/Arg (27%), and Pro/Pro (6%). In healthy control the Arg/Arg genotype was the most frequent genotype (80%), followed by Arg/Pro (17%), and Pro/Pro (3%). There was a significant association between the Arg/Pro genotype and both ALL (OR: 4.5, CI: 1.97-10.27, P .value: 0.000) and CLL (OR: 4.0, CI: 1.7-9.6, P.value:0.001). In conclusion, Arg/Pro genotype might confer increased risk for development of ALL and CLL.

  79. Umamaheswari, S. Vimala Sargunan, A., Niraimadhi, S., Parameswari, N., Thangavel, M. and Arvind Prasanth, D.

    In the past few decades, the incidence of superficial fungal infections has been increasing in the tropical countries like India. This study was carried out to evaluate the presence of non-dermatophytic moulds (NDMs) as emerging opportunistic agents of superficial mycosis from patients presenting at a dermatology clinic. A total of 163 skin, nail and hair samples were collected during a period of May 2012 to January 2013. The samples were divided into two parts, one for direct microscopy and another for culture on Saboraud's Dextrose Agar (SDA). The isolated fungi were identified based on the macroscopic and microscopic features. The culture positivity was found to be 122 (74.8%) cases. Among the culture positive cases, dermatophytes accounted for 73 (59.8%) cases. The isolation rate of non-dermatophytic moulds was found to be 40.2% in 49 cases. The dermatophytes are usually reported as the major cause of these infections. However, the emergence of Non-dermatophytic Moulds (NDMs) as opportunistic agents of superficial mycosis should also be considered in evaluating the culture negative cases for dermatophytes as well as those cases ending up in treatment failure after empirical treatment for dermatophytic infections.

  80. Harikrishnan, S., Narayanankutty, K., Binoj Chacko, Anitha, P. and Jalaludeen, A.

    An experiment was conducted in the Department of Poultry Science, College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Mannuthy, Kerala Veterinary and Animal Sciences University to evaluate the hatchability of various sanitizing agents for hatching eggs of Kuttand duck (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus) eggs. A total of 2400 hatching eggs over a period of six weeks was collected for the study. Each treatment consisted of 600 eggs with 100 eggs per replicate. The selected eggs were randomly allotted to the various cleaning methods (dry cleaning, luke warm water wash, glutaraldehyde wash and sodium hypochlorite wash) and were examined for the effect of these treatments on hatchability. The findings of the present study revealed that the the highest hatchability percentage was recorded in eggs washed with sodium hypochlorite (T4) followed by dry cleaning (T1), glutaraldehyde (T3) and luke warm water wash (T2). Statistical analysis of data recorded no significant difference among treatments.

  81. Dr. Uthira, L., Karthika, P. and Rajeswari, R.

    Objectives: Identification of osteopenia and osteoporosis in young female adults and to assess the effect of intervention programme. Materials and Methods: Target population was young female adults (N=500) taken from five private ladies hostels located at urban area of North Coimbatore, Tamilnadu, India. The Bone mineral density were measured and classified as either normal or osteopenia / osteoporosis. Out of 500 assessed, 193 were osteopenic and 51 were osteoporotic from which 50 subjects were selected at random for the further study. A schedule was formulated to collect details on socio demographic profile, diet and lifestyle pattern. Assessment of nutritional status through anthropometry, bio chemical estimation and clinical examination was done. Nutrition education was given to subjects (n=50) who fell below desirable level of bone mass. Due to practical difficulties after four months of regular follow up post assessment of BMD by QUS was carried out in only in twenty subjects and impact was found out. Results and Discussion: The mean height of the subjects varies from 150.93±6.40 cm to 152.32±5.92 cm lower than the standard value suggested by NCHS (2008). The mean weight of the subjects ranged from 50.78±7.71 kg to 52.40±7.77 against the standard value of 54.4 kg. Based on weight 5.45%, 13.8% and 77.4% of the subjects were obese, overweight and normal respectively when compared with standard value. Though biochemical parameters were normal a deficit in the intake of nutrients namely energy, protein, calcium and iron were seen. They are physically inactive with inadequate sunlight exposure. The intervention for four months helped to improve the bone mass.

  82. Dr. Meril Ann Soman, Dr. Ramakrishna Avadhani, Dr. Meera Jacob and Dr. Rani Nallathamby

    A fingerprint is an impression left by the friction ridges of a human finger. Fingerprint patterns are unique in each individual. Since the beginning of twentieth century, fingerprint detection and analysis are being commonly used. It has become an important part of forensic investigation in crime scene. Therefore, it has got a great application in the court of law. Out of many blood grouping systems available, ABO and Rh systems are the most important and are considered for the present study. Aim of this study is to correlate the fingerprint patterns with gender and blood group of individuals. This prospective study was carried out in a time period of 2 months among 300 medical students (150 male and150 female) of Yenepoya Medical College, Mangalore. The fingerprint patterns are classified under loops, whorls and arches. Results show that loops are the most commonly found pattern followed by whorls and arches. Loops are predominant in females whereas whorls and arches are seen more in males. Highest frequency of loops was seen in O positive blood group.

  83. Dr. Qudusia Sultana, Dr. M. H. Shariff and Dr. Ramakrishna Avadhani

    Variations in the morphology of sacrum are commonly reported in literature. The present case report describes a rare case of completely non–canalized sacrum or spina bifida occulta with complete midline gap in the posterior aspect of the canal, observed during regular osteology classes for the first year medical students of Yenepoya medical college, Mangalore. These anatomical variations are of clinical significance to orthopaedicians and anaesthetists as this may lead to failure in sophisticated clinical procedures like trans-pedicular screw fixation and caudal epidural block and may injure the neural structures of the canal.

  84. Mohan, P., Senthilkumar, S., Alagumuthu, G. and Sheik Saleem

    Accurate patient positioning and monitoring play a vital role in radiotherapy to achieve maximum tumour control and minimal normal tissue complications. The main aim of the present investigation was to fabricate indigenously micro-switch controlled circuit based Automatic Patient’s Movement Monitoring Device (APMMD) used with the radiotherapy machine that immediately halts the teletherapy treatment if patient moves claiming accurate field treatment. This device prevents unnecessary radiation exposure to a patient's normal tissue in situations where immobilization devices are not utilized. The APMMD consists of two micro switches, two LED’s, two buzzers and two AA batteries and two sensor devices. Patients were placed in between the two sensor devices which are near the treatment area. The movable rod of the sensor should touch the patient’s body on both sides. If the patient moves left lateral side, the left inner rod moves inward to the outer rod, and the micro switch is activated, so that the alarm is activated and the LED goes to OFF position automatically. Furthermore, the treatment halts automatically and repositioning of the patient is necessary to continue the treatment. This equipment is utilized for observing the movement of 130 patients with different types of cancer. Our preliminary clinical results indicate that 77 patients were moved from their position during the treatment, whereas the rest received the radiation without movements. This low cost electronic compact device and alarm system can detect patient movements with a sensitivity of about 0.5cm.

  85. Md. Humayun Kabir

    Rohingya refugee women are originally hailed from Myanmar. They are living in Bangladesh without any citizenship - as both status and practice, so they are not entitled to get any rights from or have obligations towards the country. Due to their different race, colour, ethnicity, gender and religion Myanmar does not recognize them as citizens, rather they were tortured by the state authority based on these different grounds. After migration to Bangladesh, they are still victims of various deprivations and violence. In this research, their deprivations and victimizations have been shown from intersectional perspectives.

  86. Isha Kaushik

    Trading as an activity was at its zenith during the Mughal period in India. The role of Geography was exceptionally crucial in the foundation of a trading town. How propitious geographical factors helped in the growth and development of a trading town in that period is the foremost focus of this paper. Assortments of factors were responsible for the growth of trade during that period. Among them geographical factors also played a key role. If a town was having a centripetal location, was near to a water body or had fertile soil or had a rich hinterland then it was considered apt for becoming a trading centre. Technology was not that advance as it is today so it becomes interesting to know how trading towns were affected by geographical factors.

  87. Hundekar, P. S., Khadi, P. B. and Yadav, V. S

    The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between self concept and peer social status. The participants were 300 children (equal percentage of girls and boys). The Self concept scale (Ahluwalia, 2003) was used to measure the self concept. A sociometry technique measuring the social status through peer nomination, and an 5-item scale for peer description were administered to children in year 10, 11 and year 12. Children were categorized into rejected and accepted social status. Findings supported the hypothesis that, different social status was related to different levels of self concept. The acceptee group stood out with the highest percentage of self concept and the rejectee group had the lowest value on total self concept.

  88. Pradipta Dubey and Dr. Subhrangsu Santra

    The Weaving community of Shantipur of Nadia district of West Bengal performing the activities as a means of livelihood since long back. Earlier the weaving had potentiality to meet all basic demands of the families involved in the activity. But at present only the weaving alone as an activity failed to provide minimum livelihood support among the weaver. In this paper we have tried to represent the involvement of the community and the past and present status of the weaving as an economic activity.

  89. Nguyen Cong Thanh, Jin, L. S. and Nguyen Cong Nhat

    The aim of this study was to have a clearer and better understanding of the existing contexts of forest management, especially traditional management practices of the “Thai” in the highlands. We have also explored the potential in sustainable community- based forest management, attempting to understand how the “Thai” reproduced and transformed their traditional management to persists through this period of transformation and to provide the necessary information based on a case study to improve the legal framework for developing community- based forest management. This study was conducted in Khe Ran Village, Bong Khe Commune, Con Cuong District, Nghe An Province, Viet Nam. The set of activities involved in community based forest management were, Perception on Property Relations and Participation of Villagers in Community Forest Management and The “Thai’s” livelihood as coping strategies. Documentary research; semi-structured interview; key informant and focus group discussion; participant and non-participant observation; discourse analysis; participatory rural appraisal and data analysis methods was used to collect the information.

  90. Dr. Ravi Dalawai

    Dowry is a good custom and practice for those who can afford it. But for the poor, it is a curse. The government has enacted many laws to check its misuse. Officially speaking, no parent or family can demand dowry. But still it continues to cast its baneful grip on society

  91. Haripriya Ramesh, B.

    In this paper provides a procedure for designing the three stage chain sampling plan of type ChSP (0, 1, 2) indexed through minimum angle method. A Table and methods are given for the construction of plans indexed by minimum angle method.

  92. Ahmad Mousa Al-Dawaideh and Abdulhade I. Haimour

    The purpose of the study was to find out what special education teachers know about Asperger’s syndrome. In addition, this study attempted to find out if there any significant differences in special education teachers' knowledge about Asperger Syndrome depending on teachers'(gender, education level, teaching experience, and level of professional development) variables. A total of 171 special education teachers from various segregated and inclusive schools in (Riyadh, Al-Baha, Jeddah, and Al-Dammam) in Saudi Arabia were asked to complete the Knowledge of Asperger- revised Scale - revised (KASP-Revised) to determine their level of knowledge about Asperger Syndrome. An analysis of the collected data, using descriptive statistics and analysis of variance, indicated that special education teachers have relatively moderate level of knowledge about Asperger Syndrome. The results also indicated that; female special education teachers, teachers with Master’s degree or above, teachers with (>10) years of experience, and finally, teachers who had a previous professional development, had higher level of knowledge about Asperger Syndrome in comparison with other special education teachers groups.

  93. Sushma, M., Ramesh, M., Geethakumari, K., Laxmipathi, T. and Sudhakar, G.

    Introduction: One of the most frequently occurring macro vascular complications is cardiovascular disease (CVD). It is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in many countries worldwide and is estimated that it will be the single largest cause of disease burden globally by the year 2020. Diabetes mellitus (DM) is found to be the major risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). As compared with individuals without diabetes, CVD is 2–4 times more common in people with diabetes and is associated with a higher mortality. Objective: The main objective of the present study is to observe the association of CVD with type 2 diabetes and genetic markers such as plasma proteins namely, Haptoglobin [HP], Group specific component [GC], Transferrin [TF], Albumin [ALB] and Caeruloplasmin [CP] systems. Materials and Methods: In the present study, fifty cases presenting cardio vascular disease with type 2 diabetes mellitus and fifty cases of age and sex matched healthy controls were included. Plasma samples were typed using PAGE electrophoresis. The statistical significance of differences between patients and controls were tested. Analysis of the data was carried out using Epi Info 5 software. Relative risk was calculated by the random-effects method. Results: The study was observed that in the case of CVD with diabetes type 2 patients were showing significant association for HP (χ2:6.2864; d.f.= 2;0.05>p>0.02) and GC (χ2:10.0150; d.f.= 2; 0.01> p> 0.001) systems. Risk estimates showed a significant association of HP 2-2 and GC 2-1 phenotypes with CVD-type 2 diabetes mellitus individuals (RR = 2.23). The result shows an increased risk of 100% and more, indicating that individuals with these phenotypes were two times more likely to get the disease when compared with the other phenotypes of the HP and GC systems.

  94. Syed Maqbool Geelani, Bhat, S. J. A., Syed Hanifa Geelani, Sham Sul Haq, Naseer Ahmad Mir, Gazala Qazi, and Shahid Wani

    Mining is the extraction of valuable minerals or geological materials from the earth, usually from an ore body, vein or coal seam. Materials recovered by mining include bauxite, coal, copper, gold, silver, diamonds, iron, precious metals, lead, limestone, magnesite, nickel, phosphate, oil, shale, rock salt, tin, uranium and molbedium. Any material that cannot be grown from agricultural processes, or created artificially in a laboratory or factory, is usually mined. Mining in a widersense comprises extraction of any non renewable resource eg, petroleum, natural gas. Mineral resources are vital for the economic growth and development of the country. Minerals worth Rs. 73945 crore were produced in India in 2004-05. Opencast mining operations to result the minerals like limestone, bauxite, iron-, chromite, copper- ores and coal are getting more emphasis because of obvious reasons but are associated with various environmental concerns. One of the major environmental challenges is to handle and manage the huge volumes of overburden generated in the opencast mines. This paper presents the assessment of environmental impacts of overburden such as visual (aesthetics, landscape), soil erosion, ecological disruption, air and water pollution, safety, risk and health etc. Economic valuation aspects of environmental impacts of overburden are also briefly described in his paper.

  95. Ramana, D. B. V., Saxena M. J., Ravikanth, K., Thakur, A. and Maini, S.

    Antibody titre is an indicator of immune response of animal against vaccination. An experimental trial was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of a polyherbal immunomodulatory, antistressor, adaptogenic and rejuvenator product Restobal (supplied by M/S Ayurvet Ltd. Baddi, HP, India) in potentiating post vaccinal immune response against Blue tongue vaccination in Deccani lambs and sheeps. In the experiment twelve (142 days old) lambs were divided into two groups. Group C1: untreated control and group T1: treated with Restobal @ 10ml BID for 5 days pre and 5 days post vaccination and twelve (408 days old) adult sheeps were divided into two groups. Group C2: untreated control and group T2: Restobal @ 20ml BID for 5 days pre and 5 days post vaccination. The immune response potentiating efficacy of the product was assessed in terms of serum antibody titre against blue tongue virus. In addition the serum biochemical profile was also done. At the end of 28 days post vaccination, significantly high antibody titre was observed in treated groups as compared to control groups in both the trials. The results of the present experiment indicate the immune response potentiating effects of the Restobal in lambs and adult sheeps.

  96. Arun prasath, V., Kumar, T., and Saravanamuthu, R.

    Cryptococcosis is an acute, subacute or chronic fungal disease caused by an encapsulated yeast Cryptococcus neoformans. It is the second most common fungal infection after candidiasis in HIV infected individuals and it is consider as the potentially most serious infections. Commercial antibiotics especially chloramphenicol was more effective in controlling C. neoformans. A wide variety of plants can be screened which are potentially antimicrobial. Morphological and cultural characteristics of C. neoformans Sanf. were studied. Morphology of the organism was studied by direct observation under the microscope by using wet mount and negative staining techniques. The cultural characteristics of the organism were studied in Sabouraud’s dextrose agar and broth under the influence of different carbon sources. The influence of some commercial antibiotics and plant extracts were assessed for their antimycotic activities. The identity of the fungus was confirmed by nigrosin staining and biochemical tests. Effect of some physico-chemical factors such as temperature, pH, salinity, sugar (dextrose) and peptone on the growth of C. neoformans was studied and the optimum requirements for its growth have been determined. Antibiotic activities of some commercially available 11 antibiotics were assayed against C. neoformans and chloramphenical alone inhibited the growth of the test organism. The presences of antimicrobial properties in 129 plant extracts were also tested against C. neoformans. Among the plant extracts tested Coleus forskohlii and Pedalium murex (leaf) was more effective than other plant extracts tested.

  97. Rita Nongmaithem and Ajit Kr. Das

    An ethnobotanical programme was conducted in tribal inhabited areas of Manipur state of North-eastern India with an aim to document the indigenous knowledge of Maring community of the state. Since, the community is mostly located in hilly areas they depend heavily on plant based medicines for curing their diseases. In this study, a total of 101 plant species belonging to 50 families were collected which is used by the tribal community in curing their ailments. The study also revealed the use of some 29 new uses of plants, though earlier mentioned in other works for curing different ailments. A detailed clinical study of some promising plant will bring light in discovering new novel drugs.

  98. Raman Bala and Laura J. S.

    Micropropagation technique is a powerful tool of biotechnology which can be used in crop improvement and meets the demand for availability of uniform clones in large numbers for economically important crops. Simmondsia chinensis (Link.) Schneider is an oil-yielding, eco-friendly plant of the family Simmondsiaceae. The seed contains a unique liquid-wax about 50-60%of their dry weight which is used in pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, lubricant industries and treatment for skin cancer and wound healing properties. Propagation of S. chinensis is through seeds, seedlings, stem cutting, grafting and micro propagation technique. Problems in direct seed cultivation in field due to male biased population which have male to female ratio is 5:1. Vegetative propagation via. cutting, grafting have limitation due to seasonal process and difficulty of rooting in S. chinensis. Hence, successful regeneration of plants by micropropagation technique offers excellent opportunities for the improvement of S. chinensis and protocols providing regeneration and multiplication from various vegetative parts of the plants have been tested with varying degree of success. In this review article we have assimilated the recent literature pertaining to the new developments in the field of micropropagation of S. chinensis using different explants such as shoot tip, nodal segment, leaf, immature zygotic embryos, micropropagated shoots for rooting and the effect of various additives on S. chinensis.

  99. Sowmya, S. and Lakshmidevi, N.

    The present study analyses the qualitative phytochemical constituents of different solvent extracts of selected medicinal plants Boerhaavia diffusa Linn (root), Terminalia bellerica Linn (fruit) and Tribulus terrestris Linn (fruit). The extracts of the selected medicinal plants were prepared by using five different types of solvents using Soxhlet apparatus. The qualitative analysis of phytochemicals comprises carbohydrates, proteins, aminoacids, tannins, glycosides, alkaloids, triterpenes and flavonoids. Among the phytochemical constituents, flavonoids and triterpenes were present in all the plant extracts compared to others phytoconstituents. The study revealed that the selected medicinal plants contained various bioactive compounds and thus suggests their use in the treatment of various ailments.

  100. Alebel Wubet, Anbessa Dabassa, Shiferaw Demissie

    Milk is a food that inherently favors the microbial growth. There are many sources of contamination of milk including the cows itself, the environment water, milking processes and equipments. The varied routes for the introduction of pathogens into milk preclude the production of milk that can be guaranteed to be safe for human consumption. The objective of this study was to evaluate the microbiological safety and to detect mastitis in milk that sold in Jimma town, south western Ethiopia. A total of 90 samples were collected form some randomly selected restaurants in the town. Standard methods were used for the enumeration of aerobic mesophillic bacteria, coliforms, aerobic bacterial spores, lactic acid bacteria, yeast and molds. Isolation and identification of the most important mastitis bacterial pathogens (Staphylococcus aurous and Streptococcus agalactiae) were also done. The data was analyzed by using SPSS version 15 and presented by using tables and graphs. The result of the study showed that the mean microbial counts were dominated by aerobic mesophilic bacteria (7.5±0.8), lactic acid bacteria (6.6±0.6), coliforms (5.9±0.4), yeasts (5.1± 0.5) aerobic bacterial spores (4.2±0.4) and moulds (3.7±0.6). On the other hand, two most important mastitis pathogens were isolated and identified. Generally the microbial safety of milk sold in Jimma town was poor and it calls for special attention especially those concerned bodies inhabit in the town.

  101. Hossein Azarpira, Pejman Behdarvand, Kondiram N. Dhumal and Azad Younesi

    Municipal sewage sludge is the by-product of wastewater treatment plants, generated in huge quantity, causing health hazards for plants, animals and human beings. It shows presence of trace elements and their salts along with heavy metals at toxic level. The goal of present study was to reduce the high concentrations of phytotoxic trace elements and harmful soluble salts from sewage sludge, making it suitable for agricultural use as fertilizer and protection of the environment by vermiremediation technology. The experimental setup was factorial arrangement with randomized complete block design having three replications. The experiment was conducted during 2012-13 at Department of Environmental Science, University of Pune, India. For vermiremediation, Eisenia foetida and Eudrilus eugeniae were procured from regional research institutes, Pune and bulking materials (Cow Dung-CD, Sheep Manure-SM and Garden Soil-GS) were obtained from authentic local sources. The findings indicated that the high concentrations of Mg+2 and Na+ as well as NO3-2, PO4-2 and SO4-2 were brought to the minimum level at final stage of vermiremediation in all the treatments. Significant reduction (50-80 %) in trace elements and soluble salts was observed in the treatments SM and SG in presences of E. eugeniae. It can be concluded that for safe disposal of sewage sludge and its eco-friendly management bioremediation using above mentioned best treatments can be recommended.

  102. Ravi Mahalakshmi, Palanisami Eganathan and Ajay Kumar Parida

    An in vitro propagation protocol was developed for large scale production of Jatropha curcas. Uninodal explants in Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium containing 1.33 M Benzyl Aminopurine (BA) and 0.29 M Gibberellic Acid (GA3) was achieved shoot induction. In vitro shoots in MS medium combination of 7.36 M Indole Butyric Acid (IBA) and 9.29 M Kinetin (KN) was obtained multiple shoots. In vitro raised shoots were rooted in half strength MS medium supplemented with 1.34 M Naphthalene Acetic Acid (NAA). Survival percentage of rooted plantlets was recorded in the growth chamber (92.2) and mist chamber (85.4).

  103. Yalo Nicaise, Alle Christian and Descloitres Marc

    The study was realized with the aim of showing the variation of the freshwater lens morphology in a unconfined coastal aquifer on a site of 360.000m2 between the Atlantic Ocean and the coastal lagoon. For this study 115Time Domain Electromagnetism (TDEM) soundings were realized in rainy season and in dry season. For two various seasons, the static levels and the electric conductivities of waters in 17 wells were measured. A porosity of 34 % of the aquifer was determined using Archie’s law. That has allowed determining the limit of resistivity value of ground containing freshwater lens. At each season 12 TDEM resistivity maps and 7 TDEM vertical sections are been built for mapping the extent of freshwater lens. The obtained results show that under the pressure of sea water intrusion the freshwater lens moves towards the lagoon in dry season. The consequence of this movement is that few wells inside the freshwater lens in rainy season are found outside the freshwater lens in dry season and are thus contaminated. This TDEM study for monitoring the variation of freshwater lens morphology between rainy and dry season can contribute to the choice of wells with sustainability sanitation.

  104. Ravichandran, M., Balamurugan, J. and Nithiya, P. T.

    Economic development entails environmental cost. Striking a balance between the two is a wise theoretical solution. Real world situations are more complex and displacement of human habitats as an offshoot of development process is a case in point. In India, starting from Narmada Valley Project to the recent POSCO exemplified the vulnerability of the oustees and their deplorable life sustenance. Building large dams, mining, clearing forest set the primary objectives of promoting economic growth. Externalities caused by such activities result in degradation of environmental resources and loss of human habitats as well. While such large scale ventures appear essential to ensure progressive development and employment opportunity, the over exploitation of natural resources and the attendant pollution can never be ruled out; besides the affected people are marginalized and stakeholders form the voiceless majority. In this milieu, discussion of the following real stories may unfold the ground reality in India. The Narmada Valley project is still alive and controversies are unresolved yet. Narmada River is the bone of contention between the Government of Gujarat and Narmada Bachao Andolan (NBA) an NGO. The Government claimed that the project would be beneficial in terms of irrigation hydropower (electricity), flood control, drinking water, increased storage capacity on the one hand, and the NGO resisted by indicating the dis-benefits; submergence of land as much as 37690 hectares in Gujarat, Maharastra, and Madyapradesh. There were displacement of 45000 families at full reservoir level, depletion of forests, water logging, problems of earth quakes, and political disputes. NBA, an NGO under Medha Patkar, has been opposing tooth and nail the project for its large scale displacement of people. Right from 1990-91 it highlighted the plight of the oustees and forced the World Bank to withdraw from the project. Gujarat Govt. claims 35000 families have been rehabilitated. NBA challenges it. Pohang Iron and Steel Company, Korea, (POSCO). The project envisages a steel plant, power plant and port. It also requires construction of 300 kms of railway track for transport of ore from mines to factory through forest area. POSCO project, worth US $ 12 billion, covered 1620 hectare of which 1440 hectare is forest land in the State of Odisha. Additional 2469 hectares of hilly area in Khandadhar were to be brought under mining. According to Government the project will displace only 466 families, about 2,500 people who will be adequately compensated. But the forest area is the livelihood for more than 10,000 to 15,000 people Compensation of Rs. 28.75 lakhs per hectare of acquired land is being offered. Betel farming provides Rs. 10- 17.5 lakhs per hectare per year. The compensation will be equal to 2-3 years of revenue. POSCO cannot employ locals as they are not skilled labors. POSCO may be development but will be development that takes the livelihood of the people for whom the project is meant for. It is a tussle between land based economic growth as against industrial growth. Social Justice propounded by Rawls needs to be invoked in this context. Policy makers understand their ‘Original Position’ and need to enter in into ‘Veil of ignorance’ to frame rules of forming a fair society towards achieving social justice.

  105. Ramkumar Lodhi, Kush Kushwah and Rao, R. J.

    Dihaila Lake is an irrigation Lake constructed in Karera Bustard Sanctuary Mahya Pradesh India with a water spread area of 420 ha at\ FRL receiving water from a huge catchment area of about 446 sq. km. The Lake has been identified under National Wetland Conservation program by Ministry of Environment and Forests (Govt. of India). The Lake supports a rich biodiversity including fishes, birds, reptiles and Mammals. This Lake supports the fish biodiversity include some importance fish species from conservation point of view. A large number of water birds visit the reservoir during winter season. Both these features make the Lake a biodiversity hotspot and need a systematic conservation strategy. The most positive aspect of the Lake is its catchment area which is predominantly forested and most of it is covered under Karera Bustard Sanctuary notified under Wildlife Protection Act 1972 of Govt. of India. Similarly, the migratory birds also visit the reservoir during winter season. The present paper deals with various types of habitats available in the Lake and its surrounding area. The mosaic of habitats makes it a unique avifaunal refuge. Protected catchment area is also a supportive feature for the conservation of bird species. The paper discusses in detail the aquatic habitats available in the Lake, their biological features (presence of macrophytes and benthos), habitat utilization patterns of birds and conservation aspects.

  106. Kar Sulata and Kar Devashish

    Zooplankton are known as good bio-indicator of changes in water quality because it is strongly affected by any changes in physical and chemical conditions of water as well as the surrounding environmental condition. Zooplankton diversity and physico-chemical parameters of an oxbow lake, Madhura anua was studied for a period of one year from September 2012 to August 2013. During the study period a total of 26 species belonging to 4 groups of Zooplankton were recorded of which rotifera was represented by highest number of 16 species, Cladocera by 7 species, copepoda by 2 species and ostracoda by only 1 species showing lowest percentage of presence. Zooplankton community when correlated with physico-chemical parameters indicated that Dissolved Oxygen and free Carbon Dioxide are significantly inversely correlated (p < 0.01) with the occurrence of zooplankton.

  107. Veeranjaneyulu, K., Dora, K. C. and Koteswar, B.

    Shrimp waste, extraction of protein hydrolysate active compounds from the waste and using them as useful marketable products is a smart solution here which would minimize the pollution problem and at the same time maximize the profits of the processors. Although part of the waste which mainly consists of exoskeleton and cephalothorax is traditionally used for chitin/chitosan preparation, feed manufacture and manure, and a major portion remains unused or underutilized. Only 65% of the shrimp is edible. The remainder is discarded as inedible waste (Cephalothorax and exoskeleton) over the years; techniques have been developed for the exploitation and recovery of these byproducts in valuable biopolymers. About 35-45% by weight of shrimp raw material is discarded. This can generate an unpalatable high salt content product. Enzymatic hydrolysis of proteins is an attractive means of producing better functional and nutritional properties in food proteins generated from by-product The current trend of changing food preference / habit is giving importance to the food industry highlighting the need like protein designing, food engineering and tailor made proteins. In fish processing sector, highly prized fish proteins include mainly the shrimp waste proteins.

  108. Mohmad Ishaq Bhat, Prabakaran, S. and Prakash, V. K.

    The study was aimed at understanding the effect of mixed leaf litter (Polyalthia longifolia and Samanea saman) vermicompost on the growth and productivity of Vigna mungo plant. The vermicompost of leaf litter was used with Vigna mungo plants under field conditions. The different treatments affected the seed germination of the test crop significantly. Plant height, number of leaves per plant, number of days for flowering, number of fruits per plant, fruit length and 100 seed weight were significantly greater in the leaf litter vermicompost treated Vigna mungo plants as compared to control and no disease incidence was observed in the fruits of vermicompost treated Vigna mungo plants. The study revealed that vermicompost amendments affected Vigna mungo plants differently and we recommend that the safe and soil enriching plant leaf litter vermicompost should be used by farmers while the cultivation of Vigna mungo plants and synthetic fertilizers should be avoided instead to decrease the soil pollution by these synthetic fertilizers.

  109. Surya Kumari, T. S. A., Dr. Ranganathan, S., Kumaran, P. and Sasi Teja. G

    Versatility, abundance and environmental friendliness have made solar energy one of the most promising renewable sources of energy. Solar energy is converted into Electrical Energy by using solar cells and can be used to drive various appliances. This paper reports generation of uninterrupted power by utilizing simultaneously both the wind and solar energy using a gyroscopic wind turbine coupled solar panels. A gyroscopic wind turbine is designed which can generate about 12V.Solar panels can generate about 6V. By combining these two constant power of 4.3W can be obtained.

  110. Nath T. N.

    Tea is the most popular beverage in the world and contains several essential nutrients, which are beneficial for human health. Tea leaves also contains heavy metals which are harmful for human health. In this study, the concentration of heavy metals in tea cultivated soil and tea leaf were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). The concentration of Cd, Cr, Ni and Pb in all the soil samples ranged from 1.28-2.58, 48.26-78.42, 43.12-65.28 and 22.74-49.85 mg/kg respectively. The concentration of heavy metals in leaves samples were ranged from 2.02-2.67, 60.28-84.34, 56.18-79.20 and 30.96-50.12 mg/kg respectively. The concentration of heavy metals in the tea soil and tea leaves can be arranged in the following order, with regards to their total contents: Cr > Ni > Pb > Cd. The concentration of heavy metals in tea leaf is slightly higher than the tea cultivated soil. The concentration of heavy metals are within the tolerable level.

  111. EL Bakkali, J., El Bardouni, T., Kaddour, M., Zoubair, M., El Ouahdani, S. and Boukhal, H.

    The goal of this study is to evaluate the impact of using a Quasi-Monte-Carlo (QMC) generator on calculations of beam data, delivered by a 12 MV Saturne 43 LINAC photon beam. In this work, the Geant4.9.4.p04 is used to construct our Geant4-based application for Saturne 43 LINAC simulation. Both beam data calculations for two kinds of random generators (MC and QMC) have been compared to the measured ones using gamma index comparison tool. As known, that the least known parameters in a MC simulation of the treatment head, are often the properties of the initial electron beam. In previous study where a MC generator has been employed, we have found that the appropriate mean energy, sigma and its full width at half maximum were 11.5 MeV, 0.4 MeV and 1.177 mm with accuracy within 1.5%/ 1mm. Our results show that, both simulations share approximately the same value of CPU time, and its results have statistical uncertainly less than unity. The recent study emphasizes the electron beam configuration obtained from a MC generator and the accuracy of calculated beam data in a homogeneous water phantom has been improved to 1.31%/ 1mm.

  112. Kaddour, M., El Bardouni, T., Boulaich, Y., EL Bakkali, J., EL Ouahdani S., Allaoui O., El Bakkari, B., El Younoussi, C., Azahra, M., Boukhal, H., Chakir, E.

    The main objective of this study is to estimate nuclear data uncertainties on the effective multiplication factor (Keff) related to elastic, inelastic, capture and fission cross sections and the correlations between them. Different rapid and thermal cases of the different IHECSBE benchmarks have been studied by using nuclear data evaluation JENDL4 to calculate the sensitivity vectors for 235U and 238U isotopes and four cases used to validate our sensitivity vectors. These sensitivity vectors are calculated by using the adjoint-weighted perturbation method based on the Kpert card of the Monte Carlo code MCNP6. Thus, the uncertainties induced by nuclear data have been calculated by combining the sensitivity vectors with the covariance matrices that are generated by the ERRORJ module of the recently updated of the nuclear data processing system NJOY99. In this study, we found the four cross sections (elastic, inelastic, capture and fission) of the 235U and their covariance matrices Lack the adjustement especially in the rapid energies. Against, the cross sections and covariance matrices of the 238U not lack the adjustement especially in the thermal energies.

  113. Okafor, F. O., Uwa, S. A. and Obeta, I. N.

    The economic and strength implications of concretes made from virgin and recycled waste concrete aggregate in fresh concrete production was examined using concrete mixes of different water cement ratios. The properties investigated were the physical properties and compressive strengths of both concretes and the results of compressive strength showed that the strength of concrete made from recycled aggregate were lower than that made from virgin aggregate but a more important observation was that the rates of gain in strength of concrete made from recycled aggregate approached that of concrete made from virgin aggregate when the free water cement ratio increased from 0.4, 0.45 up to 0.5. But as the water cement ratio increased from 0.55, 0.6 up to 0.65, the difference between the strengths of concrete made from both types of aggregates increased continually with curing age. An economic analysis showed that where a compressive strength in excess of 25N/mm2 is not needed, the use of recycled aggregate is more economical as Three Thousand Six Hundred Naira can be saved per cubic meter of concrete. Finally, very good fits were obtained for water cement ratios of 0.45, 0.5 and 0.65 using a least square optimization of Scheffe’s 2nd degree polynomial.

  114. Harshala Parab, Niyoti Shenoy, Sanjukta A. Kumar, Sangita D. Kumar and A. V. R. Reddy

    Coir pith a natural, lignocellulosic, low-cost, agricultural by-product has been evaluated as a sorbent to remove strontium from aqueous solutions. Sorption studies were performed in a batch mode by varying the experimental parameters such as solution pH, initial metal ion concentration and contact time. The extent of strontium sorption was found to increase with increase in initial metal ion concentration and contact time. The optimum sorption of Sr(II) on coir pith was achieved in the pH range of 5-8. Kinetic studies showed that the strontium sorption process was rapid and followed pseudo second-order kinetics. Equilibrium data were evaluated using Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms. Maximum sorption capacity of coir pith for Sr(II) was found to be 87.16 mgg-1 in the studied concentration range. Repeated sorption-desorption cycles were performed to examine the reusability and metal recovery efficiency of the biosorbent. Sr(II) could be desorbed almost completely from the spent coir pith using HCl or EDTA solutions within 1h. Quantitative removal of strontium was obtained from spiked ground water samples. The studies revealed that, coir pith is a promising biosorbent for Sr(II) removal from aqueous solutions owing to its low cost and high uptake capacity.

  115. Zainab. J. Mohammed, Abbas. H. Al-Khafagy and Abid Allah. M. Ali

    A new series of transition metal complexes of Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II) and Cd(II), have been prepared from the azo-schiff base ligand (L) formed by coupling reaction of 1-(4-Aminophenyl)ethlidene-3-nitroaniline diazonium chloride with 4,5-diphenyl imidazole. The structural features have been arrived from their elemental analyses, magnetic susceptibility, molar conductivity, IR and UV-Vis spectral studies. The data show that the complexes have composition of [M(L)2Cl2] type M= Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II) and Cd(II). The magnetic susceptibility and UV-Vis spectral data of the complexes suggest octahedral geometry around all the central metal ions. The invitro antibacterial activities of the synthesized compounds have been tested against the gram positive and gram negative bacteria,s. The activity data show that the metal complexes higher antibacterial activity than the free ligand.

  116. Ezhil Pavai, R. and Thirumal, C.

    Glasses with composition 60B2O3–(40–x)MnO2–xNa2O (where x = 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 mol. %) have been prepared using the melt quench technique. The structural analysis of glasses is carried out by X-ray diffraction, density, IR spectroscopy and thermal analysis measurements. The XRD profiles confirmed their glassy nature and FTIR spectra indicate that inclusion of modifier oxide produces BO3 and BO4 structural units by breaking the boroxol B3O6 ring. The glass transition temperature (Tg), crystallization temperature (Tc) and melting temperature (Tm) of the glasses decreases with increases of Na2O content in the system. Scanning electron microscopy study was also carried out with a view to throwing more light on their morphology aspects.

  117. Palanisamy Saritha, Seshathri Barathan and Ganesan Sivakumar

    A semi organic non-linear optical crystal Urea Thiourea Sodium Sulphate (UTNS) has been grown by slow evaporation method at room temperature. The grown crystal was characterized by the presence of powder XRD technique. The presences of various functional groups of the crystal were identified by FT-IR analysis. Optical transmission property of the material was established by UV-Vis spectrum. Thermal studies (TG/DTA) confirm that the stability of the crystal is around at 230 °C. Surface Morphology of the grown crystal of UTNS was carried out by SEM.

  118. Odoh, U. E. and Ezugwu, C. O.

    The roots of Acanthus montanus were extracted with methanol and the extract successively extracted with n-hexane, petroleum ether, ethylacetate, diethylether and chloroform to investigate the anti-diabetic activity based on ethnomedicinal lead. Through a pilot study the ethylacetate fraction (EAF) was studied against alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Preliminary phytochemical analysis and acute toxicity studies were carried out in mice intraperitoneally. An attempt was made to resolve the EAF into its components using thin layer chromatography (TLC). Result of the anti-diabetic study shows significant dose-dependent reduction (P <0.05) in blood sugar levels of both normoglycemic and hyperglycemic rats. When doses of 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg of the EAF were administered intraperitoneally to alloxan-induced diabetic rats, significant decrease in blood sugar level occurred (21.91, 38.12 and 49.20 % respectively) compared to the sugar lowering effect of glibenclamide (51.78 %). In normal rats, EAF (100, 200 and 300 mg/kg) exhibited a significant reduction of the blood sugar level of 19.20, 27.80 and 40.74 % respectively, while glibenclamide caused a 49.94 % reduction. Phytochemical tests showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides, steroids, saponins, tannins and terpenoids. Acute toxicity test carried out in mice using Lorke’s methods showed that the extract was safe, since no death was recorded at a dose of 5000 mg/kg. The study shows that the extract of the EAF of Acanthus montanus possessed a significant and dose-dependent hypoglycemic activity in normoglycemic and alloxan-induced diabetic rats and provides a pharmacological basis for the use of Acanthus montanus root in folk medicine in management of diabetes. Among the chromatographic solvent systems tested, chloroform: ethylacetate (6:4) gave the best resolution of the EAF giving the highest number of spots. The result of the chromatographic studies can be a guide for further studies to isolate and characterize the active principle(s) responsible for this activity.

  119. Odoh, U. E. and Okoro, E. C.

    The quantitative phytochemical analysis, proximate composition and level of some nutrients of Beta vulgaris (Beet root) were studied using standard analytical method. Result of the quantitative phytochemical analysis indicates the presence of alkaloids (128.889), steroids (16.4), glycosides (0.652), flavonoids (6.417), terpeniods (115.5), saponins (3.789), and acidity level (5.227) all in mg/100g. Proximate composition analysis of Beta vulgaris (Beet root) indicates that it contains 1.35, 0.3, 1.9, 2.56, 87.4 and 1.4 % of protein, fats and oils, dietary fibre, total fibre, moisture, and ash value respectively, β-carotene (11.64 mg/100g) and energy (42 kcal). The elemental analysis also indicates the presence of the following minerals: iron, magnesium, copper, sodium, potassium, manganese, calcium and zinc in these ratio 0.76, 18.60, 0.08, 73.60, 31.20, 0.86, 13.80 and 0.29mg/100g respectively. Vitamins found were vitamin A (2.6μg/100g), vitamin K (3.2μg/100g), vitamin C, vitamin E, vitamin B3, vitamin B6, vitamin B2, vitamin B, panthotenic acid and cholesterol (4.36, 0.18, 0.35, 0.03, 90.053, 0.034, 0.151 and 0.04 mg/100g respaectively). This result reveals that the root contain appreciable amounts of nutrients that justifies its use in treatment of different ailments.

  120. Adediran Olufemi Sola, Okpara Ihunanya Chinyere and Jimoh Ahmed Kayode

    Background: The metabolic syndrome which was hitherto taught to be a disease of the western world is now becoming more prevalent in developing countries. Of paramount importance is its association with cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. This study seeks to determine the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in an urban and rural area of Nigeria and its association with some socio-demographic factors. Method: In a cross-sectional community based study, by a stratified random sampling method, 229 subjects were selected aged 18 – 78 years. The diagnosis of the metabolic syndrome was based on the revised third National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III definition. Results: The overall prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 8.0%. It was more prevalent in the urban area than rural area with rates of 7.5% versus 0.5% (χ2 = 17.417, p <0.001). It was also more prevalent in females than males with rates of 6.1% versus 1.9% (χ2 = 6.367, p = 0.012). Metabolic syndrome was more prevalent in the older age group than in the younger age group with rates of 6.1% versus 1.9% (χ2 = 4.998, p = 0.025). Conclusion: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome is significantly associated with urbanization, female sex and older age.

  121. Rishi Pal, Teotia, A. K. and Vinti Dhankar

    Poisons like pesticides and insecticides are commonly encountered in suicidal/homicidal cases in India and abroad. Out of the large number of pesticides used for criminal activities Organophosphorous (OP) group of insecticides are largely reported in forensic toxicology cases. Qualitative and the quantitative analysis of the forensic toxicology samples are very important for the medico-legal cases to provide justice to the victims. In the present study we analyzed some of the quinolfos, chlorpyrifos & malathion insecticides in spiked biological tissues. For the qualitative analysis screening by colour/spot test & TLC was performed by using different solvent systems. Further quantitative analysis was done by using HPTLC-densitometer for the confirmatory results.

  122. Srinivas, S. and Aparna, V.

    Three dimensional quantitative structure activity relationship (3D-QSAR) models were developed for anilino pyrimidine and anilino quinazoline derivatives to inhibit the glycogen synthase kinase (GSK-3β) and EGFR tyrosine kinase respectively. The selective glycogen synthase kinase is an important for improved therapeutic profile of gsk3β inhibitors over tyrosine kinase. For this purpose we developed atom based 3D-QSAR for 60 selected compounds. The model showed satisfactory statistical significance; (Regression (r2) with 0.9738 and Regression coefficient of variation (r2cv) with 0.6172). These results were found to be more informative in pinpointing the structural basis for the observed quantitative differences of kinase inhibition. The result of the best QSAR model was further compared with structure based investigation using docking studies with the x-ray crystal structure of gsk3β and tyrosine kinase domines. The results helped to understand the nature of substituent’s at 21 and31 positions on aniline ring. Therefore these results will be useful for providing new guidelines for the design of novel inhibitors.

  123. Samuel H. Nyarko

    Although childhood mortality rates have been steadily declining in Ghana over the last two decades, the rate of decline has been very slow and uneven. This study compares the determinants of childhood mortality in Ghana for 2003 and 2008. Secondary data from the 2003 and 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health Surveys were used for the study. Bivariate analysis and binary logistic regression were used to examine the relationship between socio-demographic, household/environmental, and biomedical characteristics of mothers and childhood mortality for both survey years. The results show that childhood mortality had a significant relationship with parity, household size, and duration of breastfeeding for both survey years; and that mothers with higher parity; mothers from small size households and mothers who never breast fed were significantly likely to experience childhood mortality compared to their counterparts, for both 2003 and 2008. Furthermore, work status and mosquito bed net use significantly influenced childhood mortality for 2003 while religion and type of birth significantly influenced childhood mortality for 2008. Some socio-demographic, household/environmental as well as biomedical factors actually influenced childhood mortality for both survey periods.

  124. Ramesha, K. T., Srinivas Somashekar and Shankarappa, M.

    Background: Congenital muscular torticollis is a postural deformity resulting from unilateral shortening and fibrosis of the sternocleidomastoid muscle .Early diagnosis helps in achieving good results with conservative treatment. Delayed treatment of this condition results in suboptimal correction of torticollis & persistence of associated secondary deformities. Aims: The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of surgery in patients presenting late for the treatment. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted from august 2011 to July 2013. 10 patients were included in the study. Data was collected in terms of age, sex, clinical presentation, additional deformities, range of neck movements pre& post operatively, history of previous treatment attempts, findings at operation and surgical procedures. All the patients underwent bipolar release of torticollis as described by ferkel. Results: The mean age of the patients who were operated for CMT (6 females, 4 males) was 13.9 years (range: 7 yrs to 30 yrs).6 pts had rt side torticollis & 4 pts had lt side torticollis. mean follow up period was 1 year . All pts were diagnosed to have this deformity in early childhood. The most common complaints at presentation were restriction of neck motion, head tilt & fascial asymmetry. 1 pt had h/o previous surgical release & remaining pts did not undergo any treatment previously. All pts had shortening of sternomastoid muscle with thickening of both origin & insertion of the muscle. Significant improvement in neck movements & tilting of the head were noted after the surgical release. No significant complications were noted with the surgical procedure. Conclusion: surgical release of CMT in neglected cases improves the quality of life by improving neck motion & resolving the head tilt & it is a relatively complication free method.

  125. Dr. Reyaz Ahmad Mir, Dr. Munaza Shafi, Dr. Prabhati Gupta, Dr. Mirza Umair Yousuf and Dr. Arif Daing

    Halitosis or bad breath is an oral health condition characterized by unpleasant odors emanating consistently from the oral cavity. For the majority of patients with halitosis, it causes embarrassment and affects their social communication and life. Moreover, halitosis can be indicative of underlying diseases. In general, intraoral conditions, like poor dental hygiene, periodontitis or tongue coating are considered to be the most important cause (85%) for halitosis. In addition, ear-nose-throat-associated (10%) or gastrointestinal/endocrinological (5%) disorders may contribute to the problem. Even though majority of oral malodor is of oral origin, there are multiple other systemic causes that have to be addressed while we diagnose and treat this condition. Therefore, dentists/ periodontists are the first-line professionals to be confronted with this problem. Proteolytic activity by microorganisms residing on the tongue and teeth results in foul-smelling compounds, and is the most common cause of oral malodor. The mouth air of chronic malodor sufferers is tainted with compounds such as hydrogen sulphide, methyl mercaptan and organic acids, which produce a stream of foul air that is gravely offensive to the people in their vicinity Management may include simple measures such as scaling and planing, good oral hygiene, tongue cleaning, and mouth rinsing.

  126. Venkatesh G. Kamath, Radhakrishna Shetty K., Muhammed Asif and Ramakrishna Avadhani

    Hundred axillary dissections were conducted by the first author over four years. A muscular slip was observed during such a routine axillary dissection in a cadaver extending from the lower border of Latissimus dorsi muscle to the trilaminar tendinous insertion of pectoralis major muscle. The arch was identified as the “Axillary arch of Langer”. This attribute’s its incidence to 1% in south Indian population. The paramount importance of the arch to the surgeons operating in the axilla has been discussed. The article aims at describing the various reported muscular variations in the axilla, their embryological basis and surgical significance as their knowledge is vital due to their relevance in hyper abduction syndromes, post mastectomy breast reconstruction using latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flaps, lymphoedema, differential diagnosis of axillary swellings and thoracic outlet syndrome.

  127. Takon Samuel Manyo (Ph.D) and Ugwu James Ike

    Working capital management plays a significant role in better performance of manufacturing firms. Decisions relating to working capital involve managing relationship between a firm’s short-term assets and liabilities to ensure a firm is able to continue its operations, and have sufficient cash flows to satisfy both maturing short-term debts and upcoming operational expenses at minimal costs, increasing corporate profitability. This study investigates the effects of Accounts Receivable on Return on Assets of selected Nigerian firms for the period 2000-2009. Data generated was used to run both cross sectional and time series regression. The results showed that Accounts Receivable had a significant negative relationship with Return on Assets which measured profitability. This implies that decrease in debt collection from debtors often leads to increase in profitability and managers can create value for shareholders by means of decreasing receivables and inventory. Size and Growth, used as control variables, showed a positive relationship with profitability also.

  128. Dr. Shamim Ahmad shah

    The study of tourist’s perception on service quality is a critical strategy for success and survival in today’s competitive environment (Fynes and Voss, 2001). This study assesses the recreational experiences of tourists and aims to discuss the sustainable tourist development of cold desert of Ladakh region. The region as a whole is a climatic desert, which has imposed severe check on the proper growth of economic activity, even agriculture has not flourished fully. Despite of that tourism is opening new vistas fort the region, the total number of the tourists visited in the year 1985 was 18911 which increased to 77800 in the year 2001. The study was conducted with the help of the questionnaires that included different variable measuring the demographic profile, occupational distribution, purpose of visit, and mode of transportation to arrive the destination, level of satisfaction and perception of the tourists towards the environmental condition of the Ladakh. The result shows that about 80% of the tourists visiting the Ladakh are in the economically active age-group and majority of them are from the developed courtiers of the west Europe which is a good sign for the future tourism of the area. The study also focused on the attitude of the host population towards the tourism and it was found 96% of the tourists were of the opinion that host population was supportive for the development of the tourism industry. On basis of this empirical data, some recommendations are made for the sustainable tourism development of the region.

  129. Roberto Díez Pisonero

    The Spanish airport management model has undergone profound changes in recent years as a result of the deregulation process that took place at the end of the last century. One of the major impacts resulting from air transport liberalization has been the emergence and consolidation of Low Cost Airlines (LCA) which are able to provide better rates at very affordable prices thanks to its business model. The strong growth in recent years, embodied in the increasing number of passengers, companies, routes and frequencies, has been become a phenomenon of huge importance and impact, described by many authors as a "revolution" of the airline industry. In this situation, the model has started a policy of change (either by extending existing airports, or by new establishments) to take advantage of the potentials that these infrastructures may offer in places where they are settled. The novelty lies in the new management model, which began in the new Spanish airports, that introduces private initiatives and in an effort to compete with the centralized monopoly involved AENA (Spanish Airports and Air Navigation) in the management and regulation of Spanish airports. In this paper, two main objectives are focused on from a geographical and inclusive perspective. First, analyzing risks, interests and conflicts generated around these new private airports among different actors involved in the construction and design of them (social, political, economic or territorial actors). Second, assessing the major gaps and weaknesses from governments that enable the implementation of such projects. In this sense, some questions are wondered: Why invest in private airports? Are they really necessary? Do they contribute truly to territorial development? Or, conversely, are they merely speculative operations carried out under a time of economic boom?

  130. Ehikwe Andrew Egede

    The measurement of cost and efficiency in physical distribution has been a subject of serious debate in marketing literature, particularly the concern for high costs and the need for improvements on the methods and processes of operations. What to be measured and how these are measured remain difficult in physical distribution tasks or functions. A survey design was used, and the population of study was some selected manufacturing firms in south east Nigeria, that are directly involved with finished goods distribution. Data collection was by questionnaire and interview. The data presentation was by simple percentages. The findings were that costs and efficiency in physical distribution were never really measured, appropriated as percentages of stock value and also by estimation. Physical distribution costs is a priority that must be fully established, the methods used properly documented and measures taken to control the costs.

  131. Samuel H. Nyarko, Elijah K. Aidoo, David Essaw and James A. Peprah

    Globally, literatures abound on the impact of microfinance interventions on beneficiaries. This study sought to assess the impact of microfinance interventions on market women in the Sekondi-Tarkoradi Metropolis in the Western Region of Ghana. Using a descriptive survey design, purposive and snowball sampling techniques were used to select 317 respondents for the study. Data were collected using questionnaire. The Statistical Product for Service Solutions (SPSS version 17) was used to process the data into frequencies and tables for discussion. The study established that microfinance loans had a positive impact on the microenterprises and households of market women as well as on the personal well-being of the market women in the Metropolis. Thus, the majority of the women were able to expand their microenterprises, increase their household expenditure and improve their well-being. In a nutshell, microfinance loans had improved the lives of more market women in the Sekondi-Tarkoradi Metropolis to a large extent. Consequently, it is important that microfinance institutions expedite the loan acquisition process for market women in Metropolis in order to make loan access easier and faster.

  132. Jain, V. K.

    Organizational effectiveness means how effectively an organization is achieving the goals, it intends to achieve. It is ordinarily used to refer goal attainment. In any organization, people and resources contribute significantly towards its effectiveness. In fact, they make their impact in attaining organizational goals. Keeping in view the role of organizational effectiveness in the determining goal achievement, the present study has been undertaken. A number of criteria have been used for measuring organizational effectiveness including Productivity, Efficiency, profitability, growth, goal consensus, commitment to organization, ethical values, quality of goods and services, morale of the employees, absenteeism and turnover, pay, supervision, job satisfaction, participation in decision making, stability etc. The study seeks to explore the variables contributing to organizational effectiveness and the existence of relationship among them. Primary data used in the study has been collected on the basis of questionnaire. The questionnaire is administered on the selected employees of ABC Laboratories Ltd. The analysis has been made by applying statistical tools. The study is of great significance to the organization and the researchers as it highlights the variables affecting organizational effectiveness.

  133. Rittah Kasowe

    An assessment of effects of gender on affective organizational commitment of teachers in Zimbabwe. In Zimbabwe there has been an outcry on poor performance of students at all levels. It has been noted that yearly students’ O level percentage pass rate has declined up to 19.5 % in 2011 to 18.4% in 2012. This has raised concern amongst the stakeholders. Previously low performance has been attributed to inadequacy of resources and poor remuneration. In 2009 the Ministry of Education Art Sports and Culture introduced incentives to lure the teachers so that they help the majority of people in the country until the employer had adequate funds to cushion teachers’ salaries. In 2010 -2011 primary schools were given books and sports kits by the UNICEF under the ETF programme and secondary schools in 2012. However this has not made a positive impact on pupil performance. Most of the blame has been put on teachers’ affective commitment to their work. Considering that the majority of teachers are females, the main question is whether gender is related to affective organizational commitment of teachers’ performance in Zimbabwe? Employee affective commitment is important because high levels of it leads to several favorable organizational outcomes. This is a descriptive survey where data will be collected from stratified random sampled teachers using qu estionnaires and interviews.

  134. Gilbert Uwonda and Geoffrey Bedijo

    Although Commercial Forestry Policy and supportive laws exist for the development of commercial forestry, which together with other socio-economic activities like agriculture contribute to the quality of socio-economic welfare, the population in Northern Uganda has remained largely poor. This study aimed at examining the factors that affect implementation of the current Commercial Forestry Policy in Northern Uganda. A Cross-sectional survey design, with a target population of 127 participants was used in this study. Data were analyzed by measuring the frequencies of occurrence of sets of response. The findings revealed that, inadequate public awareness creation, lack of seeds/planting stocks and funds, were among the major challenges affecting implementation of the current Commercial Forestry Policy in Northern Uganda. The study recommended that continuous awareness creation be conducted, financial and physical incentives be provided to the public and researchers should explore further into other strategies for effective implementation of Forestry Policy, among others.

  135. Foad Rahmani and Chiman Hosseini

    Modernity and its consequences are the factors that have caused in contemporary period, the designing principle compatible with climate like many of traditional architectural principle are trampled. Proper design of buildings and urban structure based on its surrounding climate is a contemporary topic. And this principle, that is, consistent with the climate was established as the basis for the formation of local architecture in many parts of the world. Iranian traditional architecture in the mountainous areas have a strong background and fruitful aspects of sustainability, so that it can utilize the best form of natural surroundings and facilities in order to provide comfort and protect itself from climatic factors. In this paper we have tried to study the architecture in mountainous areas of west and northwest of Iran by climate approach, and by using the past experiments and getting assistance of traditional architecture values which are compatible with modern concepts in constructing contemporary buildings better than before in the architecture field, and according to the principles of sustainable architecture, we utilize the proposed strategies for designing of buildings in cold and dry climates by using the principles which were observed in the past and the needs of buildings in this climate. To do this, the technique of documentary study for collecting data and descriptive-analytical method for analysis of data were used.

  136. Abhik Dasgupta and Sanat Kumar Guchhait

    The mosaic of demographic surface experiences a continuous change over time, if the area is frequented by constant influx of population from outside. The Sundarbans of India is such a region, wherein influx population in different periods settled down, especially in the 20th century. After the independence of India, drastically reduced rate of mortality and slightly reduced birth rate have instigated booming of population of the region. The influx population from the west and East Pakistan added an extra momentum to the population growth due to partition of India in 1947. All these events are continuously modified demographic surface of the region and so likely have widened the gap of demographic relief. The present investigation has been made to unfold nature and dynamics of population growth of the Indian Sundarbans and at the same time it aims to find out the tremendous growth zones of the region.

  137. Issiako Bio Nigan, Brigitte Affidéhomé Tonon, Polycarpe Gouthon, Sylver J. Houngbédji, Jean-Marie Falola, Raïmath Y. T Bio Nigan.

    This prospective study has been undertaken to determine the extent of the hydro-electrolytic changes during the Benin University Games (BUG) among student basketball players of the National Institute of Youth, Physical Education and Sport. Body weight, the Urine Specific Gravity (USG), drunk water, the electrolytes (Na+, K+, Na/K ratio) of 10 student players (26.5 ± 5.8 years; 181.4 ± 8.3 cm; 75.0 ± 11.3 kg) have been measured before and at the end of the first, second, and fourth matches played for five days before 10: 00 a.m. The weight loss was around 1.8% for the first two matches and 2.2% for the fourth. Before the first match, six players were dehydrated (USG > 1.020) and at the end of the fourth one, they were seven. Urinary Na+ decreased up to 42.8% at the end of the fourth match, as well as urinary K+ whose value was four times lower at the end of the fourth match than that of the first. The weight loss was important in these student basketball players during their matches played outdoors in the morning. Since they were in majority dehydrated prior to the competition, they may benefit from a counsel program on hydration strategies during recovery, in order to reduce the risk of dehydration.

  138. Paula Kleber Tchiegang Nana, Jean-Marie Falola, Issiako Bio Nigan, Polycarpe Gouthon, Kocou Basile Nouatin, Barnabé Akplogan, Eudia Koussihouèdé and Brigitte Affidéhomé Tonon

    The use of training sessions which combine with strength exercises and sprints (CO training sessions) to improve the Repeated Sprint Ability (RSA) requires that athletes manage well recovery times. This study aimed therefore at measuring the decrease in performance at jump tests, induced by a CO training session and estimating the level of restoration reached after 48 hour-recovery period. Seventeen students playing basketball (20.8 ± 3.7 years) took part in this study carried out using a 2 x 5 experimental design, with a control training session made up of traditional basketball exercises (TR), and after seven days, came a CO. The Squat Jump (SJ), counter movement jump using arms or not (CMJ and CMJA), Reactivity Jump (RJ) were carried out before, at the end, six hours, 24 hours and 48 hours after each session. The CO session induced the decrease in performance by 12.7%, 12.3%, 6.7% and 22.9% (p < 0.05), respectively for SJ, CMJ, CMJA and RJ, without a complete recovery of the muscular capacities after the 48 hour-resting period. After the TR session, the modifications in jump performances recorded were all non-significant (p > 0.05). A CO training session caused a decrease in the performance of jump tests, like that induced by a strength training complex session. After a 24 hour-resting, the Reactivity Index (RI) was closed to the initial value, but 48 hours after, the restoration of the other muscular parameters was incomplete in the studied basketball players.

  139. Dr. R. Krishnakumar and L. Vijayakumar

    Financial inclusion or inclusive financing is the delivery of financial services at affordable costs to sections of disadvantaged and low-income segments of society, in contrast to financial exclusion where those services are not available or affordable. An estimated 2.5 billion working-age adults globally have no access to the types of formal financial services delivered by regulated financial institutions. The study aims to find out about the penetration of banking services in Ariyankuppam, Kalapet, and Veerampatnam village in Pondicherry region. Also the study examines the measures taken by the banks for improving the financial inclusion. For this convenience sampling is used and samples of 150 respondents are taken for the survey. Chi-square test is applied to find out the relationship between demographic factors and the financial inclusion product. The study revealed that there is significant relationship between the demographic factors and the financial inclusion product

  140. Paul Albert, A. and Dr. Thilagavathy, T.

    In this study, an attempt has been made to study the relationship between different dimensions of pro-social behaviour and stress perception of higher secondary students. The pro-social and antisocial behaviour scale was constructed and validated by the investigator has been used for this study to measure the pro-social behaviour of higher secondary students. Stress perception scale was constructed and validated by Lydia Eric. The pro-social and antisocial behaviour scale includes four dimensions of pro-social behaviour namely, donating, helping, sharing and comfort behaviour. The tool has been administered to a random sample of 836 higher secondary students studying in Cuddalore district of Tamil Nadu. The survey method has been followed for the present study. The result of the study reveals that there is significantly moderate correlation and negative relationship between stress perception and different dimensions of pro-social behaviour such as donating beaviour, helping and total pro-social behaviour. Also it shows that there is significantly low correlation and negative relationship between stress perception and dimensions of pro-social behaviour such as sharing and comfort behaviour.

  141. Ikhfan Haris

    Quality assurance is nowadays becoming a central theme in higher education. Like in other developing countries, in Indonesia quality assurance in higher education is one of the main concerns of the government. Since 1994 the Government of Indonesia has established the National Accreditation Board for Higher Education (Badan Akreditasi Nasional Perguruan Tinggi: BAN-PT), which has main task and responsibility to evaluate the quality of study programs of state and private universities in Indonesia and to a certain extent, reflects external quality assurance process.This paper presents the information regarding the result of assessment on the implementation of internal quality assurance at higher education in Indonesia. The paper also presents some of the experiences of State University of Gorontalo (Universitas Negeri Gorontalo-UNG) in Developing and Implementing of academic quality assurance system. Finally, this paper tries giving recommendations for developing of the quality assurance from organization of the external evaluation towards institutional (internal) systems, in order to build the quality culture in higher education in Indonesia. .

  142. MD. Riyazuddin Khan

    This paper deals with the deep historical reason for the Israel and Palestinian conflict. In this backyard numerous wars have been fought in this region between the Arabs and Israeli forces and is still continuing with varying intensity and severity to each other. Today in the era of cyber and digital warfare sympathizers of both the groups are threat to global security through terrorist activities. The Israeli and Arabs have their logical argument to support their fight against each other. Important secret treaty and declarations has further enflamed this conflict. This issue is very severe today and vulnerable for peace in this region of Middle East. Today both the Israeli and Palestinian are fighting for their existence and will keep doing till their end unless peace is attained with mutual acceptance and recognisation in the region

  143. Isha Kaushik

    This paper entitled with GIS based decision support system and data base for contribution towards sustainability of future earth related to Geopolitics of oil in the world. With the help of GIS we are analysis or mapping the over exploited area of oil resources, oil sites of the world, oil pollution, oil spill and marine environment, geopolitics over oil resources, political instability etc. These types of maps will help to us for the planning or the sustainable use of these resources and we predict a better future for the earth. This study provides us the global view of oil geopolitics and its impact on our environment.GIS plays a very important role for the identification of those sites which are more exploited or vulnerable and it’s also very helpful for the sustainable conservation of our present oil resources in the world. This study is also deals with the oil production, consumption and reserves in the world and we also describes how the GIS plays a very important role for the oil sustainability in the world.

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