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Plagiarism Detection

IJCR is following an instant policy on rejection those received papers with plagiarism rate of more than 20%. So, All of authors and contributors must check their papers before submission to making assurance of following our anti-plagiarism policies.





October 2014

  1. Chaitra Shetty and Dr. Bagali, M. M.

    Vivid careers have made revolutionary changes in the education system. Among the lucrative professional courses offered, management education influences the young folk. Growing demands of the industry and need of able leaders has paved way for the growth of Management institutions from the past decade. This has influenced B-schools in delivering quality education to its customers by providing value added services. The validation of success of B-schools is less counted against the examination success rate. The quest for quality amongst the students and expectations of the corporate has emphasized B-schools to deliver key results for its students to remain in the competitive job market. B-schools need to ensure on the quality of education provided to its students with systems and procedures by various continual improvement mechanisms so as to assure on the quality of education provided. Quality can be assured by a well developed Assessment Centre in every B-school. Assessment Centre established in B-schools need to identify and audit the hidden talent, enhance the competency and guide the student towards career as well as life skill. Integrating the mismatch of industry and academia is the need of the hour. This paper tries to develop a framework of Assessment centre towards competency development and skills readiness.

  2. Ibrahim Mu’awiyya Idris

    Hotelling T-square control chart is an extension of univariateshewhart control chart where two or more related quality variables can be monitored simultaneously. Univariateshewhart control chart provides a good approach for monitoring quality variables separately, but most often in industry, some degree of correlation due exist between quality variables and which makes the so-called univariateshewhart chart in-appropriate for monitoring quality in production processes. However, when the quality variables are correlated then the most suitable approach for multivariate process monitoring is the Hotelling T-square control chart. In this research, a multivariate data at the early stage of production consisting of individual observations obtained from Dana Steel Company Ltd katsina is analyzed for quality, and the result of the retrospective analysis shows that at the initial stage of production the data is in statistical control.

  3. Miraji Hossein

    In order to ensure safe and adequate water availability, many communities have engaged in water and wastewater treatment. Some of chemicals used for water treatment are less effective due to high costs and side effects making use of natural coagulants an ideal option. This study was conducted to compare effectiveness of Moringa Oleifera (MO) seeds powder as a natural coagulant with Aluminium sulfate (Alum) as a chemical coagulant. The effectiveness and efficiency of MO against Alum was established by using jar test method before and after groundwater treatment. By using concentrations of MO and Alum ranging between 50 to 200 mg/L, a significant reduction of pH, EC, TDS, turbidity, total hardness, chloride content, total alkalinity and total coliforms was observed while beyond it efficiency was impaired. MO treated samples showed promising quality than Alum solution that significantly lowered the pH of water. The established optimal MO seed powder dose for turbidity treatment was 200 mg/L.

  4. Rajesh Kondareddy, Kalyanjee Barman, Sudhanshu Mishra and Santu Brahma

    In most of the process industries, the processes are highly non-linear and dynamic. Design of Multivariable control system is of great demand in the process industries. Systems with more than one actuating control input and more than one sensor output are considered as multivariable systems or Multi-Input-Multi-Output (MIMO) systems. These systems are one in which interactions are not negligible. This paper describes a multivariable process with the mathematical modeling of a laboratory process, the quadruple conical tank system using which the nonlinearities and uncertainties in industrial process can be analyzed. Here the mathematical modeling is done using the First principle. Here steady state analysis and linearization of the quadruple tank system in both minimum and non minimum phase is obtained (Process Control Modeling, Design, and Simulation by B.Wayne Bequette, Chapter 14; Modern Control Engineering, Fourth Edition by Katsuhiko Ogata; Anna Joseph and Samson Isaac 2013).

  5. Adeleke Omodunbi Ashogbon

    Cocoyam starch (CYS), wheat starch (WS), pigeon pea starch (PPS) and rice starch (RS) were blended in different proportions (70CYS/30WS, 50CYS/50WS, 30CYS/70WS) (CYS/WS) and (70PPS/30RS, 50PPS/50RS, 30PPS/70RS) (PPS/RS) and their physicochemical properties were evaluated and compared. The apparent amylose contents of the CYS/WS blends ranged from 30.99% (50CYS/50WS) to 44.00% (30CYS/70WS) compared with 33.14% (30PPS/70WS) to 42.63% (50PPS/50RS) of the PPS/RS blends. The dispersibility and pH of the CYS/WS blends was additive compared to the non-additive nature of these parameters in the PPS/RS blends of their individual components. The swelling power and water solubility index of the PPS/RS blends were restricted compared to the CYS/WS blends where these parameters were higher than their component starches. The pasting viscosities were non-additive, but the peak time and pasting temperature were additive for both blends (CYS/WS and PPS/RS) of their individual components. The under-utilized 100CYS and 100PPS could be more important industrially by substituting part of it into the more expensive 100WS and 100 (RS). Blending of starches from different botanical sources improves their properties.

  6. Mr. Sagar Wale and Dr. Patil, S. A.

    Traditional wired attendance systems or paper based attendance system a automated wireless fingerprint attendance system based on ZigBee technology is proposed. The system includes independent fingerprint acquisition module and attendance management module in computer. System realizes various functions such as information acquisition of fingerprint, processing, wireless transmission, fingerprint matching, and attendance management. Automatically considering topology of ZigBee network, the system uses wireless local area network. System comprises various wireless fingerprint attendance functions, which could be used for public/private institutes or schools.

  7. Anil Reddy, A., ShashiBhushan, V., SreenivasaRao, Ch., Harinatha Reddy, A.

    The experiment was conducted during Kharif 2012 with cabbage variety varun. Three sprays of Profenophos and bifenthrin were given at head formation stage. The dissipation pattern of Profenophos showed initial deposit of 2.75 mg kg-1 dissipating to below detectable residues in 15 days after third spray when profenophos was sprayed at head formation stage. The dissipation pattern of bifenthrin indicated the initial deposit of 1.21 mg kg-1 dissipated to below detectable level on 7 days after third spray of bifenthrin at head formation stage. The maximum residue limit for Profenphos and bifenthrin are 0.2 and 0.1 mg kg -1 respectively. The waiting period for safe harvest of cabbage heads after three sprays of profenophos and bifenthrin at head formation stage was four and one day respectively.

  8. Abu Teir, M. M., Qawasmeh, R. M., Darwish S. M. and Abu-hadid, M. M.

    The molecular interactions between HSA and Testosterone have been successfully investigated. The absorption, distribution and metabolism of many molecules can be altered based on their affinity to HSA. HSA is often increases the apparent solubility of hydrophobic ligands in plasma and modulate their delivery to cells. In this study, the interaction between Testosterone and HSA has been investigated using UV-VIS absorption spectrophotometry and FT-IR spectroscopy; binding constant and the effects on the protein secondary structure have been confirmed. From UV-VIS absorption spectrophotometry which showed an increase in the absorption intensity with increasing the molecular ratios of testosterone to HSA, it is found that the value of the binding constant of testosterone to HSA, K equals 34.9×102 M-1. FT-IR spectroscopy in the mid infrared region with Fourier self deconvolution, second derivative, difference spectra, peak picking and curve fitting were used to determine the effect of Testosterone on the protein secondary structure in the amides I, II and III regions. From the FTIR absorbance spectra, it is found that the intensity of the absorption bands increased with increasing the molecular ratios of Testosterone, where from the deconvoluted and curve fitted spectra, it is found that the absorbance intensity for α- helices decreases relative to β- sheets; this decrease in intensity is related to the formation of H- bonding in the complex molecules.

  9. Shubha Verma and Kulkarni, V. S.

    The aim of this study was to investigate temperature distribution and thermal stress analysis of isotropic rectangular plate due to convection by dissipation. The convection heat is applied in the form of partial distribution which is represented by Heaviside unit step function. The finite element formulation has been developed to solve governing heat conduction equation which results the rate of heat transfer and temperature distribution within rectangular plate. Also the classical theory of thermo elasticity has been used to develop the finite element formulation for thermo elastic stress analysis. The results of temperature and stress have been computed numerically, illustrated graphically and interpreted technically.

  10. Prakash Kuppuswamy

    One of the recent developments in E-learning is the introduction of wireless technology communications through Internet. Saudi Arabian education system is under stress to provide additional educational opportunities for increasing population and a desire to increase literacy rate. Internet offers a viable and cost effective alternative to formal classroom learning. All most all Saudi e-learning centre providing education with existing network connections through internet. This proposed research using WiMax technology, which maintains a high speed connection to an internet service provider. Also, this paper discusses the benefits and establishment of WiMax connectivity to e-learning centre. WiMAX has emerged as an exciting technology with promises to offer high throughput and improved quality of services, key requirements for video surveillance on public transport.

  11. Dr Rajinder Singh

    Requirement engineering is a science which provides tools and techniques to collect, analyze and implement customer’s requirements.RE processes are considered to be the essential part for the success of any project. A lot of research has been done in the field of requirement engineering and suggested that if RE processes are followed by any software development team leads to higher success rate in terms of on time delivery, quality and development cost. In the stages of Requirement Engineering, Requirement gathering and analysis stage has been given the utmost importance. The objective of this paper is to discuss the various tools and techniques available in Requirement engineering to elicit the requirements from customer so as to increase the success rate of software development.

  12. Ramesh K. Garg, Sudarsanam, D., Jennifer M. Ambrose and *Praveena, P.

    Adult human bone marrow (BM) is the major source of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) for cell-based therapies. This study focuses to identify, isolate and characterize the mesenchymal stem cells that are believed to be present in BM. In the present study, six samples of human bone-marrow were collected. The key attributes like isolation efficiency, cell yield, colony-forming unit-fibroblast (CFU-F) frequency, phenotypic characteristics, and multi-lineage differentiation capacity were determined for the isolated MSCs from bone marrow specimens. It was observed that the bone marrow possessed a good number of nucleated cells and had a high yield of adherent cells. Moreover, the characteristics of BM-MSC, such as adherent capacity to surface of the T flask, fibroblastic-like morphology, colony forming unit and immunophenotype were observed. Further, when those MSCs were analyzed for their specific marker expression using flowcytometry, they were found to be positive for CD29, CD73, CD90, and CD105 and negative for CD34 and CD45 stem cell markers respectively. Apart from this, it was observed that those MSCs, when induced to differentiate into cardiomyocytes, they successfully differentiated into cardiomyocyte like cells with flat, wide, myotube like structure with sarcomeric organization, which were later confirmed to be cardiomyocytes by qRT-PCR. Thus, this study shows that MSCs were isolated from human bone-marrow and subsequently differentiated into cardiomyocytes with 100% success rate. And hence, this study suggests that human bone marrow is a potential source of mesenchymal stem cells that could be differentiated in to ccardiomyocytes and used for cell based therapies for treating various cardiovascular diseases.

  13. Hari Mohan, Ray, P. and Gakhar, S. K.

    The major capsid protein, VP6 specify the sub-group specificity of Rotavirus and high titre of antibody are generated against VP6 gene. The Viral protein 6 (VP6), encoded by 6th segment of genomic double stranded RNA, is the main target for rotavirus detection both by serological methods and molecular techniques. A reverse transcription – PCR was standardized to amply the complete open reading frame (1194 bp) of human group A rotavirus VP6 gene. The genome segment 6 of local Rotavirus isolates from Haryana region were partially sequenced to analyze the variation within circulating rotaviruses and its epitopes were compared with that of vaccine strains.

  14. Thippeswamy, S., Chandramohan, Y., Madhavilatha, B., Pravalika, K., Zameema Samreen, Bhoomeshwar, K., Vinod, G. and Kalpana, E.

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is one of the most important food crops and a primary source of food for more than half of the world’s population. Rice is rich in carbohydrates and most of the Asian’s consumes rice in polished form. In developing countries of Asia, the prevalence of type II diabetes a major chronic disease is increasing enormously. Recent evidence from epidemiology and clinical studies reports that the adverse health is consequence of foods and diets rich in carbohydrates which are readily and extensively digested. Choice of carbohydrates, particularly those with low glycaemic index (GI) is able to assist in the management or prevention of type II diabetes. GI is a numerical measure of the extent to which carbohydrates in foods affect postprandial blood glucose levels. Strong correlations between amylose content and GI were observed in earlier studies (Fitzgerald et al., 2011), indicating that amylose is the major grain constituent that affects GI. Present investigation is carried out to identify rice genotypes having high amylose content. Amylose content of twenty five rice genotypes (9 Jagtial varieties, 6 pre-released cultures, three mega varieties, one Nellore variety, one private company variety and five hybrid rice parental lines) was estimated by following Juliano method at RRS, RARS, Jagtial during Kharif 2013. Among the all genotypes, four varieties (JGL3844 (25.9%), JGL17004 (25.7%), Swarna (26.6%) and NLR34449 (25.8%)) and one hybrid parental line (CMS23B (28.6%)) were recorded high amylose content. These high amylose lines will be having low GI. This study is helpful for providing information for nutritionists to identify and quantify the impact of low GI rice in blood sugar level and also allow rice consumers to select low GI value rice varieties like JGL3844, JGL17004, Swarna and NLR34449. Growing and labeling of these varieties will help farmers to get more price for their produce.

  15. Premila Chanu, O., Ng. Vishal Singh, Helini Devi, H. and Renuka Devi, N.

    We have come across a number of herbal medicines used by local traditional healers of Manipur. And also the treatments of local healers are effective. But most of the herbal medicines used by the local healers consist of not only a single plant but also of a number of plants so that by the action of any one or the other plant the ailment can be cured blindly. Some of the plants might have some adverse effects on other organs and organ systems of the human body. So it is time for the researchers to track all the elements and compounds in the constituents of the herbal medicines used by the local healers. Plants as we know have a number of defensive mechanisms to protect themselves from their enemies like herbivorous animals and insects. Plants do the defensive mechanisms either by developing defensive structures such as thorns, sticky substances etc. or by secreting poisonous chemicals. So in the present paper the need of investigating the organic and inorganic substances present in different parts of the plants used by the local healers is being discussed.

  16. Didier Paulin SOKOURI, N’Goran Etienne LOUKOU, Chia Valentine YAPI-GNAORE, Brahima SORO and Assanvo Simon-Pierre N’GUETTA

    The survey consisted of collecting information using a questionnaire. Sampling covered 442 farmers of which 42 were sampled in the department of Boundiali, 150 in Ferkessédougou, 58 in Gbon, 52 in Karakoro, 50 in Kasséré, 40 in Korhogo and 50 in Tioro. The study revealed that 99 % farmers are male. Only, 1 % of them have attended school of general education. Agriculture is the main activity in 87 % of cases. Four main types of cattle are owned; N’Dama, Baoulé, zebu, Méré. Méré cattle are in extension in the study area; these cattle are owned by 46.5 % of farmer. In 85 % of cases, respondents practiced crossbreeding mixing local breeds with sahelian zebu cattle. All the farmers estimated that the natural pastures used for animal feed are not good. Moreover, Problems related to feed (34 %), animal driving (11.5 %) conflicts (24 %) and animal diseases (28.5 %) have been underlined by farmers as major constraints they faced in their activities. However, 41 % of respondents felt that the incomes obtained from the sale of live animals are important.

  17. Nessim, M. I., Bassoussi, A. A., Osman, D. I., Khalil H. F. and Ashmawy, A. M.

    The oxidation stability of local base stock in the presence of two prepared Azo-compounds, namely 2-sec-butyl-4-((4-methoxyphenyl)-diazenyl) phenol (I) and 2-sec-butyl-4-((4-nitrophenyl)-diazenyl) phenol (II), was studied. The structures of the prepared compounds were carefully investigated via elemental analysis, I.R., 1H-NMR spectroscopy, and electron ionization mass spectroscopy (EI-MS). The oxidation reaction was tested using the change in total acid number (TAN), viscosity, and infra-red (IR) spectroscopy. The data showed that compound (I) is more efficient than compound (II). The quantum chemical parameters such as highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO), lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) energy levels, energy gap (EHOMO-ELUMO), the dipole moment and charge densities were calculated. The theoretical calculations were in good agreement with experimental results.

  18. Thamacin Arulappan M., John Britto, S. and Sinjumol Thomas

    The trnL-trnF intergenic spacer of cpDNA has been sequenced from Pongamia pinnata. These sequences were used for phylogenetic study to show the variations and relationships found in species Pongamia pinnata in its diversity of distribution. The results give sufficient evidence to the morphological and genetic relationships and variations found in Pongamia pinnata. The study concludes that no single source of information should be used unequivocally to determine phylogenetic relationships among the closely related but highly diversified taxa associated with the genus Pongamia.

  19. Dr. Pritam Singh and Sukhdeep Singh Kang

    This anthropometric study was conducted on inter university male Senior Football players (n=27) of Guru Nanak Dev university, Punjab and junior football players (n=20) of national school games camp held in Jalandhar, having age ranging from 18 to 25 years. Eleven anthropometric parameters were taken with standard instruments and standardized techniques followed by Weiner and Lourie, 1969. The results this study reveals that the senior football players were found heavier for body weight and taller in stature with respect to junior (U-17) football players. The senior football players were examined larger values for sitting height and leg length with respect to junior (U-17) football players. The change in sitting height was found more (5.50cm) and less for leg length (2.26cm). The senior football players were observed larger values for upper arm, fore arm, thigh and calf girth with respect to junior (U-17) football players respectively. The change in all girths was recorded from 4.00 to 7.00cm between both groups. The senior football players were recorded higher values for arm span (10cm) and slightly higher for hand span (0.06cm) with respect to junior (U-17) football players respectively. The senior football players were examined smaller mean value for foot length with respect to junior (U-17) football players. All eleven anthropometric parameters have shown highly significant differences at 1% level between senior and junior (U-17) football players. It was concluded from this study that anthropometric parameters have played significant role for talent identification.

  20. Nyaga, Kenneth Miriti and Okonga, B. M.

    Background: Mobile money has seen a rapid growth with dramatic increase in customer subscriptions. Launched in Kenya in the year 2007, the total subscriptions by the year 2012 reached 18.4 million subscribers according to Communications Commission of Kenya report (2011/2012). Services offered through the mobile money platform presents business transactional opportunities that Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) can adopt since their needs are not always well served by conventional banking system. Objectives: The objectives of this study are; to establish the current awareness amongst SMEs of various mobile money services, the range of mobile money services preferred, how use of mobile money has impacted on business and how they have dealt with challenges resulting from use of mobile money. Methods: A cross-sectional study majorly explorative in nature was conducted in Naivasha Municipality town. A five-Likert scale questionnaire tool was administered. Probability sampling method was used and the sample size was 113 respondents. Results: Total of 113 business owners in Naivasha town were interviewed, most of whom were female respondents (67%). 16% of the businesses surveyed, were partnerships but majority of the businesses were sole proprietorships topping the list at 85%. 99% of the respondents had perfect information on most mobile money transactions. A significant 90% and 73% respectively asserted that mobile money was very important for sending money and receiving money respectively but was less important in other mobile money transactions in relation to business activities in Naivasha town. For those using mobile money services for specific mobile money related business transactions, 95% rated those services as important to the business. Mobile money service transactional cost was rated as expensive, but business owners confirmed that those services positively the contributed to their business growth. There was a positive correlation between SME performance and Efficiency and Reliability with a correlation of 0.435 Conclusions: The study found that mobile money had made a significant contribution to the SME sector since majority of the traders relied on it as opposed to the formal banking sector for their day to day transactions. Secondly, it was evident that all the respondents in this study have deep understanding of how the basic functions of mobile money.

  21. Roberto Campos da Rocha Miranda

    The integration of holistic therapies and human development in personal and professional contexts has been marked as a tendency of this century. This paper seeks to show how applied kinesiology can be used as an adjuvant in human enhancement and targeting processes using Coaching. The descriptive and integrative study of literature is associated with pragmatic perception of therapists as users of techniques. The motivation of the work is the possibility to make the most effective coaching process, causing the client to achieve their goals and disable parallel psychoenergetic emotions and blockages that prevent aligning achieved goals and personal fulfillment. The integration of both techniques, although incipient, shows that it is possible to unlock emotions such as frustration, low self-confidence and other, resulting in people more focused on their goals.

  22. U. Ramesh

    Higher education institutions especially minority educational institutions are charged with formation of human capital through teaching, building knowledge base through research and knowledge development, and dissemination and use of knowledge by interacting with the knowledge users. Higher education is becoming increasing competitive in terms of students, staff and resource. Because of the increasing demand for access to it by the masses, it has shifted the service of elite that it was, to service open to the masses. Quality is an issue that cannot be avoided in education at present and what institutions do to ascertain quality turn out to be most important and effective of all efforts and initiatives. This paper is mainly focused on a SWOC analysis of Sacred Heart College (Autonomous) Tirupattur of Vellore district in Tamil Nadu.

  23. Sujatha P., Baskaran R. and Hajeeranbeevi

    The conversion of rural into urban may not be a one day phenomenon but continuation of actions and operations on value behavior culture, mode of living and economy of the society. There is however a growing feeling that these experiments have not been able the arrest the ever widening supply demand gap for urban land of course and hence, the result may vary from place to place depending upon various factors and hence, the process urbanizations may not be spread evenly throughout world. The land price have been rising in such proportions and to such levels that even as for back as in 1976 the united nations habitat conference identified on sharply rising urban land prices. As the most serious’ of the many problems facing developing countries. The Present study is Land value of Nannilam Town of Thiruvarur District. Study includes the Land use and changing pattern of the Population over the some concentrated years of the Town.

  24. Maria de Lourdes Bacha, Celso Figueiredo Neto, Jorgina Santos and Angela Schaun

    The purpose of this paper was to examine low income classes attitudes towards sustainability. The study was justified by the importance of the theme sustainability, by the growth of the low-income segment and finally due to the shortage of scholarly work focused on low income conscious consumer. After reviewing the literature a quantitative study (survey) was conducted. A convenience sample of 410 individuals was selected considering socio-economic classification, belonging to the classes CD and residents in the city of Sao Paulo. A structured questionnaire was used. Data were analyzed with the use of descriptive statistics. Results indicated that conscious consumption is still low for this segment and there is a gap between the declared intention and the actual behavior towards conscious consumption. Thus both Brazilian enterprises and the government need to invest in educational initiatives.

  25. Tonny Kerley de Alencar Rodrigues, Ana Alice Vilas Boas, Igo Fernandes Ferreira e Silva and Michelle Carolini de Sousa Martins

    With increasing competition in the market consumers have become more demanding about the level of services offered by companies. Thus, organizations have prized by the satisfaction and loyalty of their customers in an attempt to overcome the difficulties that arise. Thus, this article was reported to the following question: how the services offered by the company Refrigás Refrigeration contribute to (dis) satisfaction of the customers? With the aim of analyzing how important is the use of tools of Relationship Marketing, specifically the aftermarket for identifying factors that generate (dis) satisfaction with the level of service provided by this company. The approach used in this study consists of adopting two approaches, qualitative and used overwhelmingly quantitative in one of the issues where we sought to measure the level of customer satisfaction. Interviews were conducted in-depth, using a semi structured interview script containing seven questions, which was applied with 82 customers who have purchased the services provided by the company in the period January to February 2014. It was found that the quality of care in services provided by the company was the largest generator aspect of customer satisfaction, as dissatisfaction was related to lack of return aligned to a communication failure information and the lack of commitment of the company with its customers, thus demonstrating the importance of post-service sale for measuring steady level of customer satisfaction in order to identify shortcomings and correct them.

  26. Aina, Jacob Kola, Olanipekun, Shola Sunday, Olaifa, Jacob Attah and Abdulramon, Abdulgafar Opeyemi

    The study focused on the importance of language proficiency in the learning of science and technology with attention given to the review of research studies on language proficiency and students’ academic performance in science and technology within the context of the debate on the choice of language of instruction in schools. This study employed a descriptive survey type. Pearson Product Moment Correlation Co-efficient and Descriptive Statistics were statistical tools used. Pro-forma was used to collect students’ examination scores of one hundred and ninety-six students in English Language, Yoruba Language, Basic Science, and Basic Introductory Technology in selected Junior Secondary Schools (JSS) in Offa Local Government Area of Kwara State, Nigeria. It was discovered that good language academic footings could be a template for good academic performance in Basic Science and Basic Introductory Technology. Recommendations were put to the fore based on the findings of the research.

  27. Shinju Mahajan and Dr. Nilanjana Bairagi

    Shoes are known to be direct contributing factor for foot ills. Approximately for two third of life of an individual, the feet are housed in footwear. Studies have shown that shoes are a contributing factor to the foot ills like corns and callus. Because footwear and fit are importantly involved in healthy foot growth in children, it is essential to devote special attention to the effects of footwear on foot especially during the early years of life when the feet are soft and moldable. The paper analyses the secondary research on development of feet among toddlers, function of footwear and the importance of shoes for healthy feet development. It also deliberates on different viewpoints of various researchers on bare feet versus shod condition being good for toddlers. The study compares foot size of toddlers to the inner lengths of footwear been worn by a sample of 20 urban Indian toddlers and the effect of wrong footwear on gait of toddlers. Scientific gait experiments using pressure plate scanners of 4 toddlers and video recording of gait of 10 toddlers, in shod and unshod condition, confirm that footwear affects the natural gait of toddlers. The researchers are able to study the impact of footwear on gait of toddlers and argue upon the detrimental effects of footwear.

  28. Ansar Aminii, Mohammad Hassan Najmi and Shabnam Shafieie

    Liberalism as a universal thought, after the collapse of the East Front, gained its former power as a dominant idea on the global market. It is natural that a universal idea influences the local ideas worldwide. This article hypothesizes the impact of liberalism on religious intellectuals after the 1980s, covering the first decade after the Islamic Revolution in Iran, in a case study of the ideas of Abdolkarim Soroush. However, due to the breadth of content on liberalism and religious intellectualism movement which includes many authors and the numerous works of Soroush, in this paper the concept of "freedom" in liberalism is used a way that after presenting the totality of religious intellectualism in Iran, and the totality of the ideas odSoroush, the compatibility of the meaning of freedom in liberalism and his thought is only examined in terms of being right or wrong. Therefore, the research question is to what extent is the concept of freedom in liberalism is in line with the meaning of freedom used by Soroush in his works? In this study, an analytical method is chosen so that case compatibility in research is examined more clearly. The data collection instrument is of documentation-library type.

  29. Anjali Vamburkar and Dr. Neeta Baporikar

    The complexity of the business environment has led to unprecedented importance of strategic planning and execution. Excellent organizations comprehensively measure and achieve outstanding results with respect to the key elements of their policy and strategy. Although formulating a consistent strategy is a difficult task for any management team, making that strategy work – implementing it throughout the organization – is even more difficult. Implementation of strategy calls for a systematic approach. But as observed by Adriana Knápková and Michaela Blahová in their article Effective Strategic Action: From Formulation to Implementation (2011), despite its importance, execution is often handled poorly by many organizations. The simple reason is that execution is extremely difficult. There are formidable roadblocks or hurdles that get in the way of the execution process and seriously injure the implementation of strategy. The research interest therefore is to study about the impediments in process of implementation of strategy with reference to the selected manufacturing companies.

  30. Dhivyalaxmi, S. and Dr. Murugavel, K.

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the influence of different scientific training on physiological variables such as Maximum Oxygen Consumption (Vo2 max) and resting pulse rate of working middle aged women. To achieve the purpose of the study ninety middle aged women were chosen at random from Vethathri Maharishi Trust in Sirumugai. Their age ranged from thirty five to fifty years. They were randomly divided into three equal groups of thirty each; Group I underwent asanas with pranayama practice and group II underwent asanas, pranayama with core training and group III acted as control group. The control group maintained their daily routine activities and no special training was given to them. Training was performed six days per week for 12 weeks. Selected physiological variables such as Maximum Oxygen Consumption (Vo2 max) and resting pulse rate were assessed before and after the 12 weeks of training by astrand nomogram and heart rate monitor respectively. The collected data were statistically analyzed with‘t’ test to find out the significant improvement between pre and post test of each variable. Analysis of co-variance was applied to find out the significant differences, if any among the group. A significant level of p=<0.05 was considered statistically significant for this analysis. Scheffe’s post hoc test was used to find out the paired mean significance difference. The result revealed that the twelve weeks of asanas with pranayama practice and asanas, pranayama with core training significantly improved the vo2 max and reduced the resting pulse rate of middle aged women. Asanas pranayama with core training group significantly produced better results than asanas with pranayama practice.

  31. Dr. Issam S. Dayoub and Dr. Pedro Arbulu

    Insurance companies are important institutional investors in the credit market; they have played a significant role in the recent financial crisis by which they were substantially affected. Regulations and risk management did not help to control that crisis or nor did they reduce its magnitude. In this paper, we review the insurers’ role in the crisis from the agency theory viewpoint. We point to the presence of information asymmetry and incentive problems as imperfections that the market discipline could not overcome; consequently, they contributed to the failure of the insurance companies. We present the possible implications of the new EU regulations reforms (Solvency II and IFRS) on the performance of insurers: i.e., an increasing volatility and a higher cost of capital in the short term, and new investment strategies and a change in the capital structure in the long term.

  32. Uttam Jakoji Sonkamble

    Socio-economic development is a very important domain in recent lifestyle in India. The majority of the peoples were not receiving pure drinking water and enough food. The water and sanitation condition becoming the worst day by day. The government and Non-Government organizations (NGO) were running number of programs to overcome of the water crisis in Maharashtra, but rapid urbanisation brings along several challenges related to water quality issues and sanitation. However, the lives of poor people were becoming serious concern for government in case of health, education, employment, etc. The aim of present paper is to study the district level status of household amenities in Maharashtra. The secondary data of District Level Household Survey- 3 (DLHS) 2007-08 has been used for the present paper. The study reveals that in Maharashtra only 27.5 percent of the households having pucca houses. Further analysis shows that less than 20 percent of the households having pucca houses in the districts namely Nandurbar, Gadchiroli, Washim, Hingoli and Beed. In case of drinking water state as whole 82 percent of the household having drinking water facility. Only 47 percent of the household having toilet facility in Maharashtra and the district level analysis shows that Gadchiroli 12 percent Beed 16 percent Nandurbar 20 percent of the household having toilet facility. Overall in all the indicators more than ten districts were performing very low -level of excellence. So there is needed to design very strong program and proper implementation policy to improve household amenities in Maharashtra.

  33. Tarun Kumar Halder

    Identity crisis has become one of the most important topics in the politics of north-east India. Every ethnic group is in active mood to preserve their ethno-based identity. Like the other communities, the Koch-Rajbanshis also facing identical problem for centuries. Initially, their efforts to protect own ethnic identity was democratic and peaceful in nature. But now such identical problems become too adverse that some of them indulge in political assertions and violence. Even some of them have gone for underground fighting. Now they started approaching Central government for self dominion and S.T. status. Biswajit Roy, the President of Chilarai Sena, viewed that if the issue of S.T. status is not settled within short time, they will approach Supreme Court for justice.

  34. Ayman Mohamed Zerban

    Accounting researchers in the last three decades have come to realise the importance of viewing accounting in the wider context in which it operates. The aim of the paper is to challenge the change in economic conditions in Egypt as the sole driving force behind the shift from Uniform Accounting System to the introduction of Egyptian Accounting Standards. This study is adopting ideas derived from Michel Foucault in explaining the localized power forces and reveal the discourse that may have contributed to the application of accounting standards in the Egyptian environment. It is going to highlights how the mechanism of the change occurred in part of the changing relation between state and civil society. The accounting profession as expertise revive after they were deprived from their responsibilities. The professional bodies in Egypt are not mature enough as their counterparts in US and UK but we cannot compare them to their counterparts as it is a different context. We should compare their role during the introduction of both systems to get a better view of the change. Accounting as knowledge lost its direct link to the state during the introduction of Egyptian Accounting Standards.

  35. Susindran, P. and Ramesh, N.

    In the present study, aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Curculigo orchioides was investigated for antimicrobial activity. The microorganisms employed were Erwinia amylovora, Klebsiella pneumonia, Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobacter cloacae. The susceptibility of bacterial strains against the two extracts were determined using the disk diffusion method. In the aqueous extract of C. orchioides showed maximum antimicrobial activity against Klebsiella pneumonia (18.49 mm) than other organisms. Proteus mirabilis shows minimum (6.34 mm) inhibitory activity against aqueous extract while Enterobacter cloacae have no inhibitory activity. Likewise, ethanolic extracts of C.orchioides rhizome exhibited maximum inhibitory activity against the all microorganism but differ in zone of inhibition (Klebsiella pneumonia – 27.3 mm) than other organisms. Among the two extracts ethanolic extract has maximum antimicrobial activity against the six microorganisms.

  36. Dr. Yogamoorthi, A. and Jayabharathi

    Field observation on the distributions of a coastal plant Ipomoea pes-caprae along the sandy beach of Puducherry (northern part) revealed that Ipomoea pescaprae was growing profusely only along supra - littoral zone (Plant zone) of the sandy coastal region. An attempt to understand the factors that influenced such restricted distribution along the supra-littoral zone revealed that fine sand with medium grains with low pH and EC along with moisture and organic carbon collectively influenced the distribution. Further, ‘t’ test confirmed the observation that pH, Electrical conductivity of the soil, Organic carbon, soil texture, moisture and nitrogen content of the soil are influencing the distribution of Ipomoea pes caprae significant at 99.9% level along the supra-littoral zone in the sandy beaches.

  37. Mahmoud I. Yagi and Mohammed Elmubarak, A. A.

    This study was conducted at the faculty of Agriculture Omdurman Islamic University .The Rose plant rootstock Rosa canina (bankisia) cuttings were obtained on from Khartoum National Botanical Garden. These cuttings were sown in polyethylene bags on first of November 2004. On the first of February 2005, the bankesia rootstock were budded with a hybrid tea cv. Alec’s Red Rose .sixty four budded rootstocks were selected and placed in the nursery, and were given all appropriate cultural practices as required. This research indicated that application of GA3 at 200pm, BAat 500ppm and the foliar fertilizer Bayfolan at 0,03% was effective in increasing growth parameters in rose cultivars Alecs and sarah. That increase was significant in plant height, number of leaves, number of branches number of buds, number of petal, length of floral stalk, number of flowers and flower diameters.

  38. Prabhanjan Kumar Vata and Eshetu Molla

    Many people suffering with depression may abuse alcohol or other substances. Despite a few of them become dependent on this substances or drugs. Khat is one of the substance which was classified by WHO in 1980’s as a drug of abuse that can produce mild- to- moderate psychological dependence (less than tobacco or alcohol), long-term abuse of khat may cause or worse depression (Nutt D- 2007). However men or women with depression are more likely to suffer from both substance abuse & substance dependence than are other. The current study will examines the prevalence and severity of depression in people chewing Khat by using Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale. This Scale is the most widely used subjective self measure of depression (Zung w- 1965). The present research shows that majority of respondents who are chewing khat are having normal range with no sign of depression, considerable percent of respondents are mildly depressed, and minority percent of respondents are moderately depressed and there are no severely depressed respondents.

  39. Pramod K. Singh, Dixit, R. K., Nath Rajendra, Ahmad M. K., Babu Suresh

    Aims and objective: The present study was aimed to see the effects of omega-3 fatty acid on lead induced general and behavioral profile in wistar rats. Materials and Methods: 32 Male wistar Rats (weight 180±20 g) were acclimatized for 1 week prior to experimental use and after that divided into four groups of 8 rats each. Group 1 served as control, treated with distilled water, p.o., daily for 90 days, Group 2 treated with lead acetate (3mg/kg body weight, p.o., daily for 90 days), Group 3 treated with omega-3 fatty acid (300mg/kg body weight, p.o., daily for 90 days) along with lead acetate (3mg/kg body weight, p.o., daily for 90 days). However, Group 4 treated with Vitamin E (100mg/ kg body weight, p.o., daily for 90 days) as standard drug along with lead acetate (3mg/kg body weight, p.o., daily for 90 days) . A set of five rats randomly selected from each treatment group was observed general and behavioral studies 24 h after the last dose of treatment. A base line body weight, food, water and lead intake was recorded after that general and behavioral studies were performed Statistical analysis: The data was expressed as the mean±S.E. and was analyzed by one way analysis of variance (ANOVA), involving Newman-Keuls test for post-hoc comparisons. The level of significance was accepted at p<0.05. Results: The results of the effect of administration of omega-3 fatty acid on lead induced general and behavioral profile in rats were seen. The body weight was significantly reduced in Pb-exposed group as compared to the other groups. In the experimental period, food intake, water intake and lead intake was significantly decreased in the Pb-exposed group as compared to the control groups and we observed that general and behavioral profile were not significant among the groups. The results obtained were compared with vitamin-E (100mg/kgb.wt.), the standard drug as antioxidant. Conclusion: Our data suggested that omega-3 fatty acid significantly decreased the adverse effects of lead exposure on male wistar rats.

  40. Om Sakthi, T., Mohamed Musthafa, M. and Mohamed Hussain, M.

    Psoriasis is a chronic, non- infectious skin disease affects both sexes. Gandhaga Chunnam (GC) has been employed as a traditional remedy for psoriasis which is a siddha herbo-mineral formulation contains gandhagam (sulphur) in its calcinated form. GC is further evaluated for toxicological effects. Acute and sub acute toxicity studies with GC were carried out on Swiss albinorats. During acute toxicity study there were no any adverse effects found in the general behavior and no mortality at any dose level given(2000 mg/kg/b.wt). In sub acute toxicity study in the dose of(200,400 mg/kg/b.wt) didn’t cause any changes in haematological & bio –chemical parameters like leucocyte count, free fatty acid, plasma and urine, creatinine level. Further histo-pathological examination of vital organs should normal suggesting no morphological disturbances. It can be considered that GC is safe and non-toxic.

  41. Dr. Manal Abdalla Sayed Ahmed Gaheen, Dr. Ahmed Mohamed Atef Donia and Prof. Dr. Sayed Fetouh Rakha

    Peppermint oil and hypertonic sugar solution has antifungal effect against candida pecies. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of vaginal suppositories composed of peppermint oil and sugar at fixed ratio of 1: 2 respectively on signs and symptoms of Vulvo-vaginal Candidiasis (VVC) among pregnant women. The subjects and methods of this study included a convenience sample of 60 pregnant women attending Ante-natal clinics, Tanta University, 30 were study group and 30 were control group. Three tools were used for data collection: Structured interview sheet, Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and Clinical diagnosis sheet. Results: The present study revealed that there was significant improvement regarding the symptoms and clinical signs of the present VVC and the total mean score of pain intensity in group I, compared to that in group II . Using peppermint oil and sucrose at a fixed ratio of 1: 2 and at concentration of 5 % and 10 % respectively was found to be effective anti- candidiasis. At minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), cell growth was completely terminated and clear zones of inhibition were observed on agar plates. This study concluded and recommended that vaginal suppositories composed of peppermint oil and sugar is an effective antifungal agent which can be used for treatment of vulvo-vaginal candidasis during pregnancy without causing side effects. Further studies are needed to support the present study results regarding the effectiveness of the study suppositories on the other types of vaginal infection

  42. Deepika David

    Adolescence is a period from childhood to adulthood and is characterized by a spurt in physical, endocrinal, emotional and mental growth, with a change from complete dependence to relative independence. The period of adolescence for a girl is a period of physical and psychological preparation for safe motherhood. As the direct reproducers of future generations, the health of adolescent girls influences not only their own health, but also the health of the future population. Almost a quarter of India’s population comprises of girls below 20 years. One of the major physiological changes that takes place in adolescent girls is the onset of menarche which is often associated with problems of irregular menstruation, excessive bleeding and dysmenorrhea. Of these dysmenorrhea is one of the common problems experienced by many adolescent girls. Therefore, a descriptive study to assess the knowledge regarding home remedies to relieve dysmenorrhea among adolescent girls in selected schools of Ludhiana Punjab was undertaken with the objectives: (1) To assess the knowledge regarding home remedies to relieve dysmenorrhea among adolescent girls (2) To identify the relationship of knowledge of adolescent girls with selected variables e.g. age, class, religion, area of residence, age at menarche, duration of menstrual cycle, duration of menstrual period, education of parents, flow of menstruation and sources of information. A non-experimental, descriptive study was conducted in two selected schools of Ludhiana, Punjab. The study sample consisted of total 60 adolescent girls from the selected schools. Data was collected by self structured questionnaire and analyzed by inferential statistics and presented through tables and figures. Findings revealed that maximum (83.3%) adolescent girls had average knowledge followed by (10%) good and (6.67%) had least below average score. Variables i.e. age, class, area of residence, age at menarche, duration of menstrual cycle and duration of menstrual period were found to be non-significant and variables i.e. religion, education of parents, flow of menstruation and source of information were found to be significant.

  43. Abdelhaleem, A. A., Homeda, H.E., Hershan, A. A., Makeen, A. M. and Alsanosy, R.M.

    Background: in the recent years, there is emergence and dissemination of E. coli strains resistance to broad-spectrum of antimicrobial agents. Resistance in bacteria is largely due to the genetic exchange of resistance genes, and this exchange are due to genes called integrons. Objectives: the aim of this study were to assess the presence of class 1 integrons in drug resistance E. coli in the study area, and to analyze the association between the gene and MDR in bacteria. Methods: One hundred and eighty of E. coli isolates from different clinical samples , 72 from wounds, 62 from urine, 35 from stool, and 11 from blood, were included in this study, isolates were collected and selected from Jazan general hospital laboratories, Jazan K.S.A. The susceptibility testing was performed by disk diffusion method. Class 1 integrons was detected by PCR. Results: Class 1 integrons was detected in 98 out of 180 of isolates with frequency 54.4%, while the frequency of negative class 1 integrons was 45.6%. MDR was found in 77%, and the association between the presence of an integrons and multidrug resistance was significant (p<0.05), with frequency 98.9%. Integron 1 gene was present among different isolates sample sources, with majority in isolates from urine sample. Conclusion: most of resistant E. coli are carrying class 1 integrons, which were of crucial importance for the occurrence and transmission of multidrug resistance, and the proportions of drug resistance in class 1 intigron positive strains were higher than in those not carrying integrons.

  44. Umesh, Dr. Nagesh, L. and Dr. Sangeeta Chavan

    Background: The roles of physicians in oral healthcare delivery are very important due to the unequal distribution of the low oral health manpower as well as the lack of awareness of patients concerning the treatment of oral health problems by dentists Material and Method: The present study was undertaken to assess knowledge, attitude and practice of dental awareness among medical practitioners in Davangere, Karnataka, India. The present study is Cross-sectional survey conducted among the medical practitioner. India. 250 medical practitioners from 4 different zones (75 from each zone) were randomly selected for the present study. The data pertaining to their knowledge, attitude and practice about oral health was gathered using a self administered questionnaire. The data was analyzed using descriptive statistics Results: Majority of the medical doctors were aware that there existed a relation between oral health and general health and were not aware that, Caries is infectious and transmissible from mother to child. Screening and referral by healthcare professionals may benefit their patients by improving access to dental care. Therefore, there is a need to educate doctors about oral health and general health.

  45. Dr. Indrani Bhattacharyya, Dr. Mandira Chakraborty, Dr. Sangeeta Das Ghosh, Dr. T. Ramamurthy, Dr. Dipankar Paul and Md Samidul Hoque

    We report a food-borne outbreak of diarrhoeal illness caused by Vibrio parahaemolyticus associated with consumption of Hindu Puja offerings, a completely vegetarian food. In the month of August 2014, stool samples from five hospitalised patients, was sent to us at Calcutta School Of Tropical Medicine, Kolkata in Cary-Blair transport media from CMOH office of District Hospital, Nandigram, Paschim Midnapore, West Bengal for Bacteriological examination. All the five cases were hospitalised with chief complaint of acute onset of pain abdomen, loose motion and vomiting, associated with fever, developing 24 hours after consumption of Puja offerings. Among 5 samples, 4 were positive for Vibrio parahemolyticus. All the 4 samples showed Kanagawa phenomenon in Wagatsuma agar. Of the 4 positive samples, 3 strains were 04:K8 serovar and 1 was O10:K60. An exhaustive study on serotyping Vibrio parahaemolyticus in the article, “A pulsed-field gel electrophoresis typing scheme for Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolates from fifteen countries” by Hin-chung Wong and his co-authors mention many serotypes but O10:K60 has not been found by them. Hence this is a new serotype causing diarrhoea. All strains were PCR positive for tdh but were negative for trh gene.

  46. Mrs. Priya Gangadharan

    Introduction: This study aimed to explore the academic stress among undergraduate healthcare professional students in India, before and after implementing specific Coping strategies. Academic stress plays an important role in mental health. It is essential that stress intervention programs be designed to address stress among college students. Materials and Methods: One group pre-test post-test, research design was used in the study. This quasi-experimental study was performed in 106 undergraduate healthcare students. A modified version of “College student’s stressful event checklist” (Holmes and Rahe 1967) is used to assess the academic stress and social readjustment scale was validated by research experts. Results: There was a significant decline in the stress level among 31% of students, after implementing various coping measures. A positive relationship was found between the medium of instruction and Academic stress. There is significant relationship between pre-test and post-test academic stress scores (p<0.001). Conclusion: Specific coping measures like breathing and relaxation exercises certainly help students to overcome various types of stresses that influence the academic program and improve their self-coping.

  47. Dr. Padhmavathi, J. and Dr. Mohamed Musthafa, M.

    Background: Rheumatoid arthritis is an auto immune disorder associated with chronic inflammatory, destructive, and deforming symmetrical Polyarthritis associated with symmetrical involvement of joints. Aim: The present study evaluates anti-arthritic efficacy of herbo-mineral formulation pooneeru diravagam (PD) in animal models. Materials and Methods: The anti-arthritic activity of Pooneeru diravagam (in doses of 0.2 ml/kg and 0.4 ml/kg of body wt.) Was evaluated using the Freund's complete adjuvant in to the sub plantar region of the left hind paw. Prednisolone (10mg/kg, p.o) were used as standard drug and administered as CMC suspension by oral route. This study includes examination of the paws thickness measurement, paw volume, paw withdrawal latency and Histopathological analysis. Negative control animal receives saline 1ml on day of immunization with adjuvant. The drug treatments were administered from the day of adjuvant injection (0 day), 30 minutes before adjuvant injection and continued till 14th day. Disease severity was evaluated by the measurement of hind paw volumes on day 0, 1, 4, 7, 10 and 14th day. The joint diameters of left hind paw were measured using a Vernier caliper on the above mentioned testing days after induction of arthritis. Results: The marked reduction of the arthritis score by Pooneeru Diravagam as observed in our study indicates a possible immuno modulatory effect. Significant (p<0.05) decrease in mean paw edema level of treated group compare to control. Significantly inhibit the progression of the arthritis in animal models. Conclusion: The present study reveals that the Pooneeru diravagam (PD) is a promising drug in the treatment of Rheumatoid arthritis.

  48. Nahed Ahmed Morsi, Hossam El-Din Fathalla Elsawy, Aml Ibrahim Sabra and Souzan Abd Elmenem Abd Elghafar Harfush

    Impaired quality of life is a grave, pervasive, and one of the most serious problems in the community care of patients with schizophrenia. Psycho educational programs that provide patient’s with information about the illness, it’s course and medical regimen, various coping strategies, problem solving and ways to minimize the patient’s chance of relapse may help patients to enhance their quality of life. Aim: the study aimed to assess the impact of psycho educational program on the quality of life of patients with schizophrenia. Design: this study followed a quasi-experimental design. Setting: it was carried out at ''Tanta Mental Health Hospital''. Subjects: the subjects of the study consisted of 50 patients with schizophrenia. They were selected according to specific criteria. Tools: two tools were used to collect data for the study: questionnaire sheet concerning knowledge about schizophrenia and life satisfaction and enjoyment scale. Each patient was interviewed individually using the study tools as pre-test. The educational program was implemented on small group basis. Each subgroup encompassed 5-8 patients and attending a total of 15 sessions. These sessions were scheduled as 3 sessions per week for duration of about 5 weeks. Each session was last for about an hour. Results: the main results revealed that a significant improvement in the patient's knowledge and quality of life after the application of a psycho educational program. Recommendation: the study recommended that, patients and their families should be continuously and regularly submitted to psycho educational program that involved knowledge about disease, medication, side effects and it's management, relapse prevention, and learning social skills

  49. Dr. Sumeet David, Dr. Garg G. R. and Dr. Nitin Malhotra

    A 35 year old man was admitted to the emergency department with a fast ventricular rate atrial fibrillation after an electrical shock. Successful pharmacological cardioversion was achieved after 16 hours of amiodarone infusion and patient was discharged on oral cardorone. Serum cardiac specific markers were all within normal limits. Acute onset atrial fibrillation after electrical injury is discussed.

  50. Mrs. Balqis Victor

    Infertility is a serious problem in the world today. It is problem because of psychological and physical suffering that it causes, and it is also a problem because of economic consequences it has, both for these infertile couples who seek medical help and for society as a whole. Infertility is worldwide problem; however it should be possible to make great strides toward solving some aspects of this problem in the coming year (Sciarra 1994). “For most people, diagnosis and treatment is a traumatic process”. Once labelled infertile, an individual who has until then considered herself healthy is abruptly stigmatized with ‘Patient –status’ (Houghton 1987). Investigations and treatment of infertility may trigger iatrogenic illness (Spallone 1990). Life revolves around treatment plans and attention focuses on what one has failed to accomplish. This leads to loss of self-esteem, health, close relationships and even hope. Some people loss sexual potency or interest in sexual intercourse (Mahlsted, 1985; Woollet 1985) emphasizes that coming to terms with childlessness can be a long and difficult process. She also emphasizes the reasserting control in life, developing a positive identity and reasserting life goals and priorities. Grieving is an important part of the healing process. Emphasis is given to infertile couples as being in a crisis situation that places tremendous stress on patient either individually or as a couple. They reviewed the pattern of emotional response to infertility as surprise, grief, anger, isolation, denial and acceptance. They felt that counselling might be helpful in any of these areas but particularly in acceptance which may take long time to obtain (Rosenfeld and Michell 1979). During the initial counselling, it is important to explain to both the partners, in a simple language, the process of reproduction with help of chart and models and explain that it is possible to find faulty functions in both partners, and often overlapping causes exist, hence the need to evaluate and treat both the partners, concurrently (Padubidri and Daftry Shirish 2004). Many people will achieve this with relative ease. It is estimated one in six couples experience fertility problems and seek medical help. This represents a large number of people experiencing major life crisis, yet it remains the highly stigmatized and isolating condition affecting the relationship between the couple with their families and friends and it is likely to alter radically the view they have of themselves in society (Houghton 1987). Therefore an exploratory study to assess the coping pattren among infertile women in selected hospitals of Ludhiana Punjab was undertaken with the objectives: To assess the coping pattern in infertile women and to find out the relationship of coping pattern with selected variables such as age, education of women, education of husband, occupation of women, occupation of husband, type of family, place of residence, religion, family income, duration of marriage. A non-experimental, exploratory study was conducted in infertility clinics of selected hospitals Ludhiana, Punjab. The study sample consisted of total 100 infertile women. Data was analyzed by inferential statistics and presented through tables and figures.

  51. Saeed Shakeri, Leila Malekmakan, Amin Afrasiabi, Maryam Yazdani, Aria Shakeri and Arash Shakeri

    Introduction: The most common cause of male infertility is varicocele that is treatable. Clinical examination of scrotum is the main technique diagnosing for it, which is subject to great inter and intra-observer variation. We tried to evaluate intra-observer variation of physical examination in diagnosing of varicocele. Methods: This study was performed among 113 men who had varicoceles and were reexamined and graded by an urologist. Data were analyzed by SPSS and p-value less than 0.05 were considered significant. Results: The mean age of patients was 33.4 years. In initial physical examination; in 91(80.53%) of patients, varicocele was in left side and in 22(19.46%) of patients had bilateral varicocele. In second examination, changes in grade of varicocele were seen in 19 of 113 patients (16.81%). In 10 patients (52.63%), the grade was decreased and in 9 patients (47.36 %) the grade increased. Conclusion: Uniformity of physical examination methods in varicocele diagnosing is needed to reduce intra- observer variation.

  52. Mohamad Reza Heidari, Somayeh Bagheri and Saeed Mohammadi

    Phosphor is considered among the major pollutants in water environments. Phosphor contamination in surface water and groundwater resources originates mainly from the excessive use of fertilizers and uncontrolled land discharges of untreated wastewater. Discharge of it into the environment causes very health impact. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficiency of Fenton’s advanced oxidation process (H2O2/Fe+2) in phosphor removal from aqueous solutions. This is an experimental study which is carried out in laboratory scale. In this study, effect of the important operational variables including pH, Fe+2 dosage, H2O2 dosage, initial phosphor concentration and contact time were evaluated on the phosphate removal from Aqueous Solution by Fenton has been investigated. The results showed that this method has the ability to remove phosphor from aqueous solutions to less than standard level WHO (≤1 mg/l). pH, ratio H2O2/Fe+2 and contact time have direct effect and initial phosphor concentration has reverse effect of phosphor removal. The results showed that the Fenton process, can reach respectively 97% phosphor removal. So that optimum condition of the phosphor removal is in the ratio H2O2 / Fe2+ dosage= 2200 /1000 mg/l, contact time of 60 min, pH=3.5 in initial phosphor concentration in 100 mg/L. Statistical test showed that the mean concentration in the before and after doing all process variables, there were significant differences (P≤0.05). As the results showed, the efficient removal of phosphate using Fenton process is desirable in the water treatment and pollution control.

  53. Priyam Vandana and Jyotsna Kiran Peter

    Biosurfactants are amphiphilic compounds produced by microorganisms as secondary metabolite. Biosurfactants are microbially produced surface active agents and occur in nature as chemical entities such as glycolipids, phospholipids and lipopeptides. These molecules have attracted considerable scientific attention due to lower toxicity, higher biodegradability. The present study deals with the production and partial purification and characterization of a biosurfactant by Pseudomonas fluorescens. The properties of biosurfactant that was separated by acetone precipitation. The identification of the ability of pseudomonas fluorescens to produce biosurfactants and evaluation their antimicrobial potential are the aim of this work.

  54. Ibrahim M S Shnawa and Ahmed J Alserhan

    The present work was aimed at developing an animal model for the delineation of the immune features of the Salmonella typhi associated cryglobulinemia. The elected immune system was the rabbit. The test stimulant was S.typhi O antigen and the specific immune priming protocols were: Two systemic, one mucosal multisite, and one combined systemic-mucosal routs. The attitude was being through the demonstration for the effects of the time duration after the end of priming protocols. S.typhi O antigen can stimulate cryoglobulin responses using systemic, mucosal as well as combined systemic-mucosal routs. As the time duration post to the ends of priming protocols proceeds from 15 to 30 then to 45 days cryoglobulin response increased in terms of concentration, specific cryoglobulin antibody activity for typhoid O antigen as well as the shared human rheumatoid factor antibody acticvity. Bio meteric evaluation for the differences between the different tested priming protocols were non significant. However, such evaluation were significant when were done to the differences, between the time durations between 15,30 and45 days as well as 45 and 15, 30 and 15 and controls. Finally the major immune features of the typhoid lapin cryoglobulin were, cryoprotein, precipitable at 4C, dissolvable at 37C, reprecipitable at 4C and having specific antibody and shared autoantibody activity.

  55. Nisha, M. K. and Padmaja, C.K.

    Pectinase producing microorganisms were isolated from fruit waste disposable area soil samples of Pazhamuthir Nilayam, Coimbatore, Tamilnadu and screened in modified Czapek- Dox media with citrus pectin as sole carbon source. Among the isolates, only four fungal strains showed hydrolyzing zone of pectinolytic activity. Since Paecilomyces variotii showed maximum clearance zone of 36 mm (out of colony diameter of 57 mm), it was selected as acandidate for the study. The optimum conditions of pectinase production was carried out by growing Paecilomyces variotii in different fruit waste substrate at varying pH (4, 45, 5, 5.5, 6, 6.5, 7, 7.5 and 8) and temperatures (30C, 35C, 40C, 45C and 50C). The results of the investigation revealed that maximum pectinase production of 9.05 U mg-1protein and of 9.03 U mg-1protein respectively were observed in 3% banana peel as substrateat both extracellular and intracellular level. A significantly pectinase activity of 6.19 Umg-1 protein was observed at an optimum pH of 6.5, and at a temperature of 40C (4.73 Umg-1 protein) at an intracellular level on the 7th day of incubation.

  56. Dumitrita Florea, Narcisa Galeş and Ciprian Ungureanu

    The international law represents a radiation of the states of the international society, states that are situated in a permanent interdependence, just because of the relationships which are created between them. The existence of a distinct branch of law- the environmental law-is also imposed by the relatively unitary nature of the social action regarding the protection of the natural factors or those created through human activities of the environment. Given the characteristics of the object which is subject to the regulation being represented by the relationships between man, by the society and his environment respectively, the environmental law has a ”horizontal” nature, within the meaning that it covers different classical legal branches: the private, public and international law represents a law of interactions, tending to enter all the sectors of the legal system in order to introduce eco-friendly dimension. The legal approach and the solving of the environmental protection was made up not so long ago in the traditional forms of the international regulations. Usually, the path to regulating was and still remains the state ”of conflict” between states in the form of the state’s right to use exclusively its territory and to authorise the activities which could cause damage to the environment of other states, especially those neighbouring, in the accordance with the law of each state to respect its territory and the environment, being protected from any external damage. Cetainly, more than in any other area, regarding the environment there is a viable principle, according to which ” to prevent is more effective than to repair”. There were recorded notable advancements, in this regard, especially at the level of the customary principles, in the form of the prenotification of the state exposed to possible damages of its environmental, the consultation, the application of the national, international and communitary legislation without discrimination in all the activities, which might be detrimental, irrespective of the place where the consequences are produced, the equal access of the residents and nonresidets to the procedures for such activities, the quick notification of the foreign state of any sudden event, which can affect the basic environment.

  57. Juan P. Agudera, Jr.

    The study influenced of cultural practices on leaf blight disease (Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae) severity and yield of PSBRc72H was conducted to identify combinations of different cultural practices that will gave conditions unfavorable to bacterial leaf blight disease and its’ influence on the agronomic characteristics and yield of PSBRc72H. The experiment was laid out in strip – split plot arranged in Randomized Complete block Design (RCBD) replicated three times The analyses showed the following findings: 1. The applications of controlled irrigation practices such as applied once a week, saturated and intermittent, any of the four NPK rates (80-60-120, 100-60-120, 80-80-140 and 100-80-140) and planting at 20 x 30 and 30 x 30 cm gave conditions unfavorable to bacterial leaf blight disease. 2. The applications of controlled irrigation practices such as applied once a week, saturated and intermittent and any of the four NPK rates (80-60-120, 100-60-120, 80-80-140 and 100-80-140) did not affect the following agronomic characteristics: number of tillers at 30 and 60 DAT, unproductive and productive tillers and the number of days to heading. However, plant heights became taller when irrigated continuously. The number of tillers at 30 and 60 DAT and unproductive tillers were lesser, the plant height and number of days to heading were shorter when planted at a closer distance (20 x 20 cm) and more tillers at 30 and 60 DAT and unproductive tillers, taller plant height and longer number of days to heading when planted at a wider distance (20 x 30 and 30 x 30 cm). On the other hand, yield was higher if applied with continuous irrigation and planted at 20 x 20 and 20 x 30 cm than applied with a controlled irrigation such as intermittent, saturated and once a week and planted at wider distance (30 x 30 cm). Applications of any of the four NPK rates (80-60-120, 100-60-120, 80-80-140 and 100-80-140) did not affect the yield.

  58. Dr. Angsuman Chanda

    Till date most acceptable method of estimation of dissolved oxygen in water sample is Winklar’s method (APHA-2005). The method of calculation of data is followed by the formula V1x N x E x 1000/ V4 (V2- V3/V2). Where, V1= Quantity of the sample water. V1 = Quantity of sodium thiosulphate used in titration. N = Normality of sodium thiosulphate (N/80). V4 = Quantity of sample taken for titration. V3 = Quantity of alkaline iodite and manganese sulphate. E = Equivalent weight of O2. This formula can not explain a clear picture related to the chemical reaction takes place within the reagents used in this methodology. Therefore, an attempt has been made towards chemical deduction of data, available during estimation.

  59. Eswar, A., Ramamoorthy, K., Mohanraj, M., Gokulakrishnan, S. and Sankar, G.

    Antibacterial activity was evaluated on crude extracts of marine bivalves, namely Anadara granosa, Placenta placenta and Pinctada fucata were collected from Vellar estuary, Parangipettai, Tamilnadu, India. The antibacterial activity was carried out against 10 pathogens. The human pathogen S. aureus showed 6 mm. against crude methanol extract of A. granosa and 5mm in Escherichia coli, Vibrio cholorae and Vibrio parahaemolyticus against methanol crude extract of P. placenta. In P. fucata 8 mm. was observed an against Streptococcus pyogens. In shrimp lethality test, the maximum mortalities were observed 80% against 500µg/ml of the crude extract of A. granosa and 0% mortality was observed against 100µg/ml concentration of P. fucata. The results strongly suggest that, the mollusk extracts can be used an antimicrobial agents and further studies.

  60. Fakhra Amin, Aabgeena Naeem and Bilqees Bano

    The term Cystatin (Thiol Proteinaseinhibitor) refers to proteins that specifically inhibit the activity of papain like lysosomal cysteine proteinases. They serve a protective function and regulate the activities of endogenous proteinases, which if not regulated may cause uncontrolled proteolysis and damage to cells and tissues. They are non covalent tight binding proteins which are widely distributed in animals, plants and microorganisms. Dopamine abbreviated as "DA” is an amino acid neurotransmitter; it is a chemical substance which is able to transmit a nerve message across a synapse. It is obtained through the normal diet and also synthesized in the brain. The enzyme monoamine Oxidase helps in maintaining the level of dopamine, an increase or decrease in dopamine level leads to schizophrenia and Parkinson’s disease respectively. Cystatin interacts with dopamine decreasing the level of dopamine in the brain and this might be a factor in Parkinson’s disease. In the present study when (1µM) of cystatin was treated with increasing concentration of dopamine , it showed decrease in fluorescence intensity with 20 nM of blue shift which is indicative of binding and changes in native structure of protein upon complexation. Binding investigation in this work, gives significant information about the conformational changes in cystatin due to interaction with dopamine; such studies may be used as a tool for drug designing and it might shed some light on the mechanism of action of dopamine as well as its side effect.

  61. Bharathi, K., Subhashini, Pon., Raja, S., Ranith, R., Vanitha, K., and Thangaradjou, T.

    Seagrasses are one of the predominant groups of marine flora that grows in tidal and subtidal region of the shallow coastal environment. Spatial variability of seagrass distribution, biomass, canopy height, productivity and environmental parameters were recorded at 24 stations all along the Tamilnadu coast during 2011 and 2012. Thirteen seagrass species of six genera were recorded, among which H. ovalis was found to be distributed all along the coast of Tamilnadu, and C. serrulata was found densely populated in the shallow coastal regions of Palk Bay and Gulf of Mannar (GOM). H. beccarii is the rare species found only in Vellar estuary of Parangipettai. Biomass (36.2 gfr.wt.m-2 - 1218 gfr.wt.m-2), productivity (0.01 g C m-2 d-1 - 4.34 g C m-2 d-1) and canopy height (0.28cm -107.73 cm) of seagrass species varied among all species of seagrasses. Correlation coefficient indicate that the local environmental parameters, particularly inorganic phosphate and total phosphorus are two important nutrients and sediment texture play a prominent role in influencing seagrass biomass, productivity and canopy height by enhancing the growth of seagrasses. Hence the present study suggests continuous monitoring of ecological and biological variables in time and space is highly required for managing the resources efficiently.

  62. Habiba Bano, Preeti Singh and Bhatt, D. K.

    Endosulfan, an organochlorine pesticide had been in global use as a part of pest management strategy. Its exposure has resulted in multifaceted damage to various organs including brain. Hence, there is an urgent need to seek out certain herbal, biochemical and pharmaceutical formulations with an innate potential to curb toxicities induced by endosulfan. In the present study, an effort has been made to elucidate the protective effects of antioxidants viz., trans- resveratrol, alpha- lipoic acid and vitamin E against endosulfan induced neurotoxicity in olfactory lobe of the brain of Swiss albino mice on the basis of altered histochemical localization of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), butyrylcholinesterase (BChE). The experimental protocol constituted of ten batches, consisting of six mice each. First group served as the control where mice were administered only vehicle (olive oil). The second group were administered only endosulfan (2.45 mg/kg body weight/day for 15 days) while the third, fifth, seventh and ninth experimental groups were administered only resveratrol (5 mg/kg body weight/day for 15 days), alpha- lipoic acid (20 mg/kg body weight day for 15 days), only vitamin E (50 mg/kg body weight/day for 15 days) solitary and in combination. The fourth, sixth, eighth and tenth experimental groups were administered antioxidants in solitary and combination form one hour prior to endosulfan administration. As compared to the control group, it was observed that exposure of endosulfan at a dose of 2.45 mg/kg body weight/day distinctly altered the distribution pattern of acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase neurotransmitter enzymes, thereby delineating its toxic effects on the mice brain. The only antioxidants treated groups i.e. group III, V, VII and VIII, showed an enzymatic distribution profile similar to that of control group. In other antioxidant plus endosulfan treated groups i.e. group IV,VI,VII,X it was observed that endosulfan induced AChE, BChE inhibition in different layers of olfactory lobe involved in mapping of odour and receiving information from axons of olfactory receptor nucleus were ameliorated and brought back to normal. Hence, this study clearly delineates toxic effects of endosulfan on the olfactory lobe of mice which were ameliorated on administration of antioxidants.

  63. Faisal M. AL-Tahir

    Tow Field experiments was conducted at two locations (AL-Muthanna and Thi-Qar province). The first experiment to evaluate the performance of nine promising genotypes of durum wheat (D1, D2, D3, D4, D5, D6, D7, D8, D9) and the local genotype (Behooth 7) called (D10). The second experiment to evaluate the performance of seven promising genotypes of soft wheat (W1, W2, W3, W4, W5, W6, W7) and compare them with three local ge notypes (Abu Ghraib, Furat and IBA 99). Randomized complete block design with three replications was used in this experiments. The result of first experiment showed that D7 and D5 gave the highest plant height, in addition D7 gave the highest leaf area, spike number /m2 and dry weight/ m2. D10 genotype gave the highest tiller number/ plant and grain numbers/ spike. While D4 gave the highest 100 grain. D3, D4 and D6 gave highest grain yield compare to anther promising genotypes and local cultivar (Behooth 7). in AL-Muthanna location which reached 4.04, 4.05 and 4.04 ton/ h respectively, while D2, D3, D4, D5, D6 and D8 gave highest grain yield compare to anther promising genotypes and local cultivar (Behooth 7) in Thi-Qar location which reached 4.03, 4.05, 403, 4.06, 4.03 and 4.00 ton/ h respectively. The result of second experiment showed that W4 genotype recorded highest grain yield compare to anther promising genotypes and local cultivars (Abu Ghraib, Furat and Ipa 99) for both Al-Muthanna and Thi-Qar locations in which reached (7.39 and 7.55 ton/ h) for two locations respectively, while the results showed that the superiority of Furat cultivar giving the highest height plant, spike length and number of spikes / m2. Thi-Qar location gave the highest averages for plant height, number of spikes/ m2, weight of 100 tablets and dry weight/ m2. Moreover, genotypes in Thi-Qar location gave the highest averages for trails than AL-Muthanna location for tow experiments (durum and soft wheat).

  64. Surekha Anil Kalkar

    In order to determine the effect of air pollution on protein content of pollen, two species of Cassia viz. C. siamia L. and C. fistula L were studie from industrial area of Nagpur (MIDC, Hingna). Civil lines area was considered as control area. Pollen proteins were extracted, and analyzed by SDS PAGE method. Total protein content of pollen extracts was measured by method of Lowry et. al. (1951). Our investigations revealed noticeable differences in protein contents. According to observations more bands for protein were obtained for samples from control area as compared to samples from polluted area. Variations in protein contents were correlated with industrial pollution.

  65. Negi, G. C. S. and Dhyani, P. P.

    Land degradation is a global problem caused by a variety of factors and processes. It is estimated that about 2 billion ha area in the world is under various forms of land degradation and another about 5-7 million ha of arable land of the world is lost annually due to land degradation. In India, the land degradation has been estimated ranging from 53 to 188 Mha. In the western Himalayan region land degradation is a major issue which is assigned to both natural and anthropogenic causes. In this region restoration of wastelands pose a serious challenge to fulfill community needs as well as to improve ecosystem services such as provisioning of timber, fuelwood, leaf manure, non-timber forest products as well as recovery of ecosystem biodiversity, soil conservation, watershed protection, carbon sequestration and other ecological benefits. This paper recommends a set of MPTs such as Alnus nepalensis, Albizia lebbek, Dalbergia sissoo, Morus alba, Bauhinia retusa, Quercus leucotrichophora, Q. glauca, Melia azedarach etc. for provisioning of a range of ecosystem goods and services and restoration of wastelands in the western Himalaya.

  66. Suman Rao Vihari, Shainda Laeeq, Ritu Pradhan and Istafa Husain Khan

    Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) is one of the most common infectious disease ranking next to upper respiratory tract infection is the cause of morbidity and mortality in human. They are mostly caused by bacteria. 50-80% women experience UTI at least once or twice in their lives. Enteric pathogens (e.g. E.coli.) are most commonly responsible, it is well established that for UTI, but Klebsiella sp., Enterobacter sp. and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus sp. are also responsible grams positive organisms including Enterococcus sp. Staphylococci and Streptococci have also been found to cause severe infections in human being. Therefore, studying and identifying bacterial pathogens causing UTI through biochemical test is the highest priorty.

  67. Prabha, K., Senthil Kumar, S. and Kasthuri, M.

    The present study was carried out that preliminary phytochemical analysis and antibacterial activity was carried out in Strychnos nux-vomica against four selected pathogenic bacteria by disc diffusion method. The preliminary phytocompound such as carbohydrate, tannin and phenolic compounds, flavonoids and phytosterol shows the presence of chloroform, ethyl acetate and ethanol leaf extract of Strychnos nux-vomica. Where as in phytosterol compound is absent in chloroform leaf extract. In antibacterial activity, Ethanol leaf extract exhibit higher activity in Salmonella typhi when compared to Chloroform and Ethyl acetate leaf extract against Escherichia coli. In this Endeavour, traditional herbal medicines must perforce grant the benefits of modern science and technology to serve further global needs. The drugs derived from herbs may have the possibility of their use in medicine because of their good antibacterial activity.

  68. Pavan Kumar Agrawal, Shruti Agrawal, Rishi Kundan and Manoj Bhatt

    At a molecular level, plants are rather leaky. They are perpetually sloughing off cells, leaking moisture, nutrients, carbohydrates and other compounds. Because the plant roots provide food, shelter and energy, areas of very high biological diversity are found directly on roots and the areas next to them. This area is collectively called the rhizosphere. The role of rhizobia, mycorrhizae, biological control organisms, and the whole of the soil food web in maintaining soil quality for crop production have been reported by various researchers. However, rhizobia and mycorrhizae are just a small portion of the total biodiversity in the soil. Although our knowledge has increased, we remain woefully ignorant about soil biology. There is a group of soil bacteria known as plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are naturally occurring soil bacteria that aggressively colonize plant roots and benefit plants by providing growth promotion. Inoculations of crop plants with certain strains of PGPR at an early stage of development improve biomass production through direct effects on root and shoot growth. Inoculation of agricultural crops with PGPR may result in multiple effects on early-season plant growth, as seen in the enhancement of seedling germination, plant vigor, plant height, shoot weight, and nutrient content of shoot tissues. PGPR are reported to influence the growth, yield and nutrient uptake by an array of mechanisms. There has been much research interest in PGPR and there is now an increasing number of PGPR being commercialized for various crops. Several reviews have discussed specific aspects of growth promotion by PGPR. In this review, we have discussed various bacteria which act as PGPR, mechanisms and the desirable properties exhibited by them.

  69. Nancy Shophiya, J. and Sahayaraj, K.

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to find out the impact of the prey, Periallia ricini third instars stage and deprivation period on the feeding behavior and predatory rate of life stages was evaluated against an economically important lepidopteran pest, P. ricini (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae) under laboratory conditions. Third, fourth, fifth (nymphal instars) and adult (male and female) at 1st, 2ndand 3rd day under laboratory conditions. Results revealed that the third, fourth and fifth instars predator Eocantheona furcellata consumed 2.8, 5.8 and 7.3 preys and completed the stadia period in 3.9, 5.4 and 6.2 days and hence this predator could be used for the biological control agent of P. ricini. However, more studies are necessary to recommend this predator as a biological control agent.

  70. Anugu Anil Reddy, Shashi Vemuri, Ch. Sreenivasa Rao and Harinatha Reddy, A.

    An experiment was conducted in cabbage utilizing the insecticides profenophos 50 EC (1000g a.i.ha-1) and bifenthrin 10 EC (100 g a.i.ha-1) by spraying on cabbage at head initiation stage followed by another spray after 10 days and the samples were collected at. 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 days after last spray and analyzed. The initial deposits of 0.99 mg kg-1 profenophos recorded at 2 hours after last spray dissipated to 0.16 mg kg-1 by 5 days and below determination level (BDL) by 10th day. By removing outer top three layers the initial deposits of 0.08 mg kg-1 profenophos recorded at 2 hours after last spray dissipated to below determination level (BDL) by 5th day. The initial deposits of 2.24 mg kg-1 of bifenthrin recorded at 2 hours after last spray dissipated to 0.82 mg kg-1 by 5 days after last spay and below determination level (BDL) by 10th day. By removing outer top three layers the initial deposits of 1.66 mg kg-1 of bifenthrin recorded at 2 hours after last spray dissipated to below determination level (BDL) by 5th day.

  71. Dr. Sathiyamurthy, K., Dr. Mahesh S. Patil and Dr. Mrutyunjay.Mirje

    Fine needle aspiration cytology has become an accepted and cost effective procedure for rapid diagnosis of thyroid lesions. This procedure was firmly established as an important test for the evaluation of thyroid disease and an effective test for the preoperative diagnosis thyroid nodule (Gharib et al., 1993). Objectives: 1) To study the cytological features in the thyroid lesions 2) To correlate the cytological and histopathological observation, wherever possible. Materials and Methods: During the prospective study, 110 fine needle aspiration of thyroid was performed during a period of two years in department of pathology, Navodaya Medical College, Raichur. Cytological diagnoses were classified diagnostically, and histological and cytological correlations were determined. Results: Out of the 110 patients studied, 100 cases were of non neoplastic thyroid lesions, 10 were neoplastic. Among non neoplastic lesions, nodular goitre (69%) and Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (19.09%) and between neoplastic follicular (5.45%) and papillary carcinoma (2.84%) were the most common. In histopathological examination of non neoplastic category out of 5 cases 1 were diagnosed as follicular adenomas which were diagnosed as nodular goitre by FNAC. In neoplastic category 4 showed follicular adenoma and 2 cases as nodular goitre out of 6 which was diagnosed as follicular neoplasm in FNAC. Papillary carcinoma (3 cases) and medullary carcinoma (1 case) were diagnosed same as FNAC results. Interpretation and Conclusion: By comparing the results of FNAC and histopathology, FNAC is considered as invaluable and minimally invasive, simple, cost effective, easily repeated procedure for thyroid lesions.





Rosane Cavalcante Fragoso, Brasil


Chief Scientific Officer and Head of a Research Group

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Luai Farhan Zghair
Hasan Ali Abed Al-Zu’bi
Fredrick OJIJA
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Faraz Ahmed Farooqi
Saudi Arabia
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