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November 2015

  1. Prabudoss, V.

    The Sugarcane is a known sucrose rich plant in nature requires more amount of nutrient inputs due to long standing period in field.  Phosphorus is a immobile element which also required in more amount by sugarcane. In the present research, to provide ‘p’ and to overcome ‘P’ deficiency an attempt was made by inoculating AM fungi and phosphobacteria and interestingly all the treatments received either single inoculation or combined inoculation of AM fungi and phosphobacteira significantly improved yield of sugarcane compared with uninoculated control.

  2. Sagar Raviraj Shetty, Nitin Jadhav, Mehul Vikani, Murtuza Jhabuawala, Amol Ingule and Priti Kapoor

    Mucoepidermoid tumors of the bronchus are rare tumors. These tumors arise from terminal ducts of proximal tracheobronchial tree. Although mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the salivary gland is relatively common, mucoepidermoid carcinoma arising from the mucous glands of the bronchus is rare. These neoplasms usually exibits slow local growth and rarely metastasize to distant site. Though it is rare in children, it should be thought of when suspecting an intrabronchial mass in children. It usually presents with symptoms of airway obstruction and recurrent respiratory infections. Here we present a 8 year old child who presented with chronic cough, recurrent respiratory infections and occasional hemoptysis since last 3-4 yrs and was repeatedly misdiagnosed for Kochs and Congenital Cystic Adenomatoid Malformation. Post operatively on histopathological examination the diagnosis of mucoepidermoid tumor was made.

  3. Himangshu Mahato, Vaswati Das, Tanima Saha, Swapan Kumar Dutta, Swati Bhattacharyya and Supreeti Biswas

    Objective: Transfluthrin, an inhalational pyrethroid insecticide, commonly used in different kinds of mosquito repellents, (also acts against flying insects & various pests) has toxic potential. This study thus aimed at assessing the histopathological effects of transfluthrin exposure using the rat model. Materials and Methods: Healthy adult male rats, 5 groups of 6 rats each were exposed to transfluthrin 0.88% w/w by inhalation at a rate of 8hours/day, for different durations, through common electronic mosquito repellent machine in a large stainless steel cage maintaining standard conditions. Trachea, lungs, liver, brain and kidney were dissected out at Day 2, 8, 15 and 22 and sent for histopathological examinations. Results: Significant ballooning degeneration in hepatocytes and micro vesicular periportal fatty changes with inflammatory sparse were seen. Desquamative interstitial pneumonia found in lungs with mononuclear cell infiltration and peribroncheolar brown pigmentary deposits. Trachea shows loss of cilia, mucosal ulceration and sub mucosal lymphoid aggregations. Vascular congestion and haemorrhages were found in kidney with gliosis in brain tissue. Conclusion: Transfluthrin have toxicological potential on liver, lung, trachea and kidney even after the use as per the directions given in package inserts. Government should re-evaluate the permissible dose of transfluthrin after consultation with proper authority.

  4. Nilam U. Sathe, Hetal Marfatia, Ratnapriya and Keya shah

    Introduction: Schwanomma are benign tumours of neural crest origin which are slow growing, well encapsulated soft tissue or intrabony mass. It may originate from any of central, peripheral or autonomic nerves that have Schwann cells. Two types are distinguished, central or peripheral. Schwanomma is most commonly found in tongue followed by floor of mouth, palate, gingiva, vestibule and salivary glands. We present a rare case of palatal schwanomma in a young male. Case report: We present a case of 25 year old male patient who presented with history swelling in the roof of the oral cavity since two months. The tumour was solitary with a smooth surface. A fine needle aspiration study was indeterminate. Histopathological study revealed palatal schwanomma. Conclusion: Palatal schwanomma is a rare benign solitary tumour. We are presenting this case since it is a rare case and patient recovered without morbidity. A high index of suspicion is required and possibility of schwanomma should be considered while observing an intraoral swelling. CT scan and fine needle aspiration plays a role in diagnosis of schwannoma. Surgical excision of the lesion was carried out. The definitive diagnosis is confirmed by the histopathological examination

  5. Nilam U. Sathe, Subodh Hosagadde, Hetal Marfatia and Ankur Parikh,

    Sphenochoanal polyp is a rare entity of the paranasal sinuses, which arise from the sphenoid sinus and extend into the nasopharynx. It mimics antrochoanal polyp in symptomatology and hence diagnosis requires radiological guidance. Recurrent sphenochoanal polyp poses further challenge to the ENT surgeon, for the cause of recurrence also has to be cleared. Here we discuss a case of recurrent sphenochoanal polyp in its clinical, radiological, histopathological and surgical aspects. Wigand’s technique of endoscopic sinus surgery can be of benefit to give optimum results as per our experience.

  6. DzengisJasar, Snezhana Smichkoska, Katerina Kubelka-Sabit, VanjaFilipovski and Gordana Petrushevska

    Introduction: Immunohistochemical detection of Human epidermal growth factor (HER-2 / neu) is necessary in the evaluation of breast cancer. According to data in the literature, 10-30% of breast cancers show expression of this marker, which applies as unfavorable prognostic factor. Therefore, it is important in the selection of patients who will benefit from adequate treatment with Herceptin. Aim of this study is to determine the impact of clinical, histopathological and immunohistochemical parameters and NPI- Nottingham prognostic index on the occurrence of relapses in HER-2 / neu positive breast cancer. Material and Methods: In this retrospective study, 174 patients were included. All of the patients were previously treated from primary breast cancer, and were analyzed in histopathological laboratory in Acibadem / Sistina clinical Hospital in the period from June 2007 to June 2010. Beside the analysis of clinical and histopathological parameters as well as the NPI, additional immunohistochemicaltests were evaluated in order to determine the HER-2 / neu status, the Ki67 proliferative index, and the expression of the protein product of the tumor suppressor gene p53. During the follow-up period (42 to 80 months) relapses were observed in 38 patients (21.8%). Results: The age of patients ranged from 28-83 (average 55.48, +10.0) years. Lymphnode metastases were found in 99 (57%) patients. The tumor was poorly differentiated in 70 patients (40%). Immunohistochemical expression of HER-2 / neu was observed in 33 patients (19%) and relapses of the disease were present in 13 of them (40%). In 30 of the 33 HER2 / neu-positive patients (90%), NPI was higher than 3.4. Despite this association, the expression of HER-2 / neu was correlated with tumor diameter, lymph node status, mitotic index, degree of histological differentiation, lymph-vascular invasion, stage of the disease and the expression of p53 protein product and proliferative index Ki67 (p<0.05). Conclusion: The score of theNottingham prognostic index higher than 3.4 which included the tumor size, lymphonodal status and degree of histological differentiation of the tumor, is an excellent parameter in evaluating the course of the disease in the HER-2 / neu positive breast cancers compared to the occurrence of relapses.

  7. Mst. Maleka Pervin

    This article reviews the research on the teachers' attitudes toward inclusion of students with autism in the regular classroom and thereby finds out the teacher-related factors that might impact teacher attitudes toward inclusion of students with autism. Teachers play the vital role as a decision maker in implementing inclusive education for students with autism. Given that research has suggested that the successful implementation of any inclusive policy is largely dependent on teachers being positive about it, a great deal of research has sought to examine teachers' attitudes toward the inclusion and, more recently, the inclusion of students with autism in the regular classroom. A review of four studies revealed that most of the teachers showed positive attitudes toward inclusion of students with autism. However, there was no evidence of acceptance of a total inclusion or 'zero reject' approach to special educational provision. Teachers' attitudes were found to be influenced by teacher-related variables. The methodologies used in the research findings are discussed and recommendations for future research based on alternative methodologies are provided.

  8. Kavitha Shetty, Lawrence Mathias and Mahesh V. Hegde

    Purpose: To investigate the influence of additional strengthening of hip abductor and lateral rotator musculature on pain and function in sedentary people with Patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS). Methods: 120 sedentary patients between 18 and 40 years of age, with a diagnosis of PFPS, were distributed randomly into 3 groups: 40 patients in the knee exercise group, who received a conventional treatment that emphasized stretching and Strengthening of the knee musculature; 40 patients in the knee and hip exercise group, who performed exercises to strengthen the hip abductors and external rotators in addition to the same exercises performed by those in the knee exercise group; and 40 patients who received only stretching and no strengthening. The patients were instructed to maintain their normal daily activities. An 11-point numerical pain rating scale (NPRS) was used to assess pain and the anterior knee pain scale (AKPS) were used to assess function, preintervention and post intervention. Results: After 6 weeks of treatment, the control group, pre and post-test value for AKPS (p<0.001), NPRS (p<0.001) shows a statistical significance and even in the experimental group, pre and post-test value for AKPS (p<0.001), NPRS (p<0.001) shows a statistical significance in pain and function, but comparing both the experimental group, AKPS (p=0.002), LEFS (P<0.001), NPRS (P<0.001) showed better result than a control group. But, when we considered minimal clinically important differences, only the knee and hip exercise group demonstrated Mean improvements in AKPS and pain scores that were large enough to be clinically meaningful. Conclusion: Physiotherapy programs focusing on Knee strengthening exercises supplemented by hip abductor and lateral rotator musculature–strengthening exercises were more effective than knee exercises alone in improving function and reducing pain in sedentary people with PFPS.

  9. Saleh A. Alharbi and Ali S. Alharbi

    Background and Objective: There is no safe single treatment for autoimmune disorders until this writing. This new modality is challenging this notion with safe non toxic method named MAM14 immuno therapy. This new method have been tried on many types of autoimmune disorders in the last 25 years in our lab at Kuwait University Faculty of Medicine. In this article we demonstrate the difference of MAM14 on four out of the 14 autoimmune disorder studied compared to control who received conventional chemotherapy. Patients and Methods: Data accumulated of 1400 patients compared to 1400 controls. For the present article the sample we chose 10 patients treated with MAM14 for each disease studied compared to 10 control patients from the same sickness but treated by conventional immunosuppressant chemotherapy: Cyclosporine, Methotrexate and Tacrolimus. MAM14 immunotherapy In brief is vaccination of patients by allogeneic stressed peripheral blood lymphocytes. Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes isolated from venous whole blood on ficollhypaque centrifugation. Cultured for 24 hours in sterile physiological enriched media. Vaccinated subcutaneously into forearm of patients. Vaccination given every 4 weeks for four visits. 4 autoimmune disorder included in this study namely insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, rheumatoid, multiple sclerosis and Uveitis. Total 40 treated by MAM14 method 10 patients of each disease compared to 10 control patients of the same disorder but on conventional chemotherapy. Prism Graphpad Biostatistical package was used for data analysis. Result: Data accumulated showed significant improvement in signs and symptoms of the present autoimmune disorders studied. Namely insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, Rheumatoid Arthritis, Multiple Sclerosis and Uveitis. Conclusion: MAM14 immunotherapy showed superior improvement and safety on the long run compared to control patients who receive conventional immunosuppressant. Mechanism postulated that culturing cells in vitro cause shedding of antigens ,these antigens direct auto reactive pathogenic T cells shift to regulatory protective T cells in the presence of peripheral stem cells Leading to restoring tolerance and switching off autoimmunity reaction.

  10. Faiz Mohammed

    The stimulant leaf khat (Catha edulis Forsk) has been consumed by people living around the horn of Africa, East Africa and the Middle East. It contains many different compounds but its psychostimulant property is mainly related to cathinone which is similar in structure and pharmacological activity to amphetamine. Cathinone is mainly found in the young leaves and shoots. It is expected that the concentration of cathinone determines the market price of khat. Khat must be picked and collected in the morning and chewed as early as possible till that afternoon to preserve maximum potency. Cathinone is absorbed through the mucous membranes of the mouth and subsequently the lining of the stomach. Importantly, since there are no extensive studies on neurobehavioral effect of khat most of the deductions are speculations based on the effect of amphetamine or its derivatives. More importantly, chronic uses of khat associated with brain problems have not been carefully studied. Similar to psychostimulants, khat ingestion produces several central nervous system effects, including increased motor stimulation, euphoria, a sense of excitement and energy. These effects indicate that khat acts through similar central mechanisms as other stimulants. Most of the pharmacological effects of the active principles are suggested to be mediated by the release of biogenic amines such as norephinephrine, dopamine and serotonin.

  11. Shiraz Awad Elkarim Elsayed Elhag, Nafisa Ahmed Ibrahim and Wafa Ibrahim Elhag

    Co-infection with Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and Mycobacterium tuberculosis the causative agent of Tuberculosis (TB), has been referred to as the “cursed duet” as a result of the attendant morbidity and mortality due to their synergistic actions. This study was carried out to detect Sero prevalence of HIV infection among known tuberculosis patients In Khartoum state –Sudan, and to detect relation between certain factors such as gender, age, residence, occupation, treatment and duration of TB. It was descriptive cross-sectional study conducted from April to June 2015. A total of 89 known Tuberculosis patients who attended hospitals (67 males and 22 females) were enrolled. Serum specimens were tested by ELISA for anti HIV 0, 1, 2. Data were analyzed by chi squared test in SPSS software. sero positive of HIV antibodies 0,1,2 was detected in 2(2.2%) of cases and negative was 87(97.8%).

  12. Vijaya, D., Janakiram, K., Santhya, S. T., Megha, S., Vidyasagar, K. and Shakthi, R.

    Pulmonary tuberculosis is mainly a disease of the respiratory system, caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. According to WHO, one-third of world population have tuberculosis infection. The present study was undertaken to compare ZN satin with fluorescent stains. A total of 500 clinically suspected cases of pulmonary tuberculosis formed the study group. Sputum samples were screened for acid-fast bacilli by ZN stain, Rhodamine-Auramine stain and rapid fluorostain. Out of 500 patients, 9.2%, 10.2% and 10.2% were found positive for acid fast bacilli by ZN, rhodamine-auramine and rapid fluorostain respectively. Compared to ZN staining (9.2%), fluorescent staining methods were found to be more efficient (10.2%), in the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from cases of pulmonary tuberculosis.

  13. M. S. Jayanthy, R. Selvarani, K. Usha, D. Nagarajan, M. Vijjaykanth, C. Sabarigirinathan, K. Vinayagavel, A. Meenakshi and C. Selvamani

    Treatment of class III malocclusion in growing subjects is a challenging part of contemporary orthodontic practice. Many treatment approaches are given in the literature. However successful orthopedic correction through growth modification has decreased the surgical correction of growing class III patients. A case of skeletal class III malocclusion in mixed dentition is presented, which was treated with face mask therapy and maintained with chin cup therapy to restrict the growth of Prognathic mandible and modulate craniofacial growth favorably to attain a good esthetic profile and an appreciable phase I achievement.

  14. Balan, C., Kathiravan, G., and Selvam, S.

    A survey was carried out to study socio-economic status of 60 dog owners in Corporation of Chennai, Tamil Nadu. Multistage random sampling procedure was adopted and relevant data were collected through personal interview with the help of pre-tested interview schedule. The result revealed that the Graduates (46.60 per cent) are more interested in dog rearing followed by Post graduates (16.60 per cent), Professionals (15.00 per cent), persons with Secondary level (13.30 per cent) and primary (8.30 per cent) level of education. The private employees are more interested in dog keeping followed by Students, Businessmen, Others (Retired persons, Job seekers etc.) and Government employees and the percentage among them is 45.00, 21.67, 16.67, 10.00 and 6.67 respectively. It is also found that 68.33 per cent of the dog owners have own individual house followed by rented apartment residents with 16.67 per cent, rented individual at 13.33 per cent and others 1.67 per cent.

  15. Dr. Abhijit Swami and Dr. Sumit Kharat

    The Metabolic syndrome has been known to occur in several chronic infections like HIV. Several studies have documented increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome in HIV patients on antiretroviral therapy. However, sparse data exists about metabolic syndrome in treatment naive HIV patients. We studied the prevalence and components of metabolic syndrome in treatment naive HIV patients. Study protocol: This cross sectional study included 134 HIV patients and controls. Different aspects of metabolic syndrome along with CD4 count was quantified. Results: Incidence of MeTS was significantly higher (34% against 7.5%) in HIV patients as compared to the control group. HIV patients had significantly higher triglycerides (163 (IQR 117-221.25) mg/dl vs 105.5( IQR 87.75 - 141.25)mg/d, lower HDL-C (23.1mg/dl ( IQR 16.8-30.30) mg/dl vs.37.2 ( IQR 31.18-44.62)mg/dl) ,lower waist circumference and BMI as compared to controls (p<0.001) along with higher fasting blood glucose levels. There was no significant difference in the values of blood pressure and uric acid. Higher incidence of metabolic syndrome was seen in HIV patients with CD4 count > 350/µl and WHO stages 1 and 2. Conclusion: MeTS was present in treatment naive HIV patients which is more often seen with CD4 count> 350/ µl and earlier stages of the infection

  16. Dr. Sushama Bhosale

    The Bhagwat Gita offers a valuable literature on Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy. It has a determined focus on removing cognitive distortions from the mind of the Arjuna and remotivating him to fight the battle by the therapist The Krishna. The Krishna as a therapist transformed Arjuna’s distress narrated in Chapter 1 to liberation and renunciation as mentioned in Chapter 18 through a single REBT session of nearly 2-4 hours. The basic premise of REBT is that our thoughts, not external events affects the way we feel. Both REBT and Bhagwat Gita encourage human beings to pursue happiness and eliminate suffering when possible. They have an existential humanistic orientation and stress holism, at the same time both recognize human limitations. Both consider that humans are frail and need to accept human nature for what it is with unconditional acceptance of reality. Although humans are frail, they also possess the potential to improve themselves. REBT and Bhagwat Gita adhere to the idea that humans are self determined and create their own mental health as well as espouse ethical humanism and self actualization. The REBT model of the Bhagwat Gita contains elements of mindfulness, transcendental consciousness which is far more result oriented that contemporary REBT of modern times. Trust, devotion and complete surrender of patients towards the therapist as done by the Arjuna and emphasis on work with renunciation by the Krishna made REBT more effective and efficient in delivering fair results.

  17. Chirag Vaja, Radha Verma, Kiran Gaikwad, Priyesh Halgaonkar and Arpita Mahapatra

    Urachal sinus is one of a spectrum of urachal abnormalities and it most commonly found in children. They are very rarely seen in adults. We report here a case of infected urachal sinus in 18 year old male. Patient was present with bloody umbilical discharge and periumbilical pain. The diagnosis was suspected clinically and conformed with ultrasonography and computed tomography scan. An initial broad spectrum antibiotic therapy followed by compete excision of the sinus and fibrous tract without cuff of bladder has been therefore performed.

  18. Haworth Navine and Jones Linda Katherine

    Background: Part of chiropractic education involves a requirement for clinical education. Traditionally the clinical education for chiropractors has been profession specific, with little inter professional engagement. There exists paucity in the literature on the amount of inter professional clinical engagements in chiropractic programs. Objective: To explore the perception of final year students from an American Chiropractic college regarding their level and understanding of inter professional engagement. Methods: A qualitative exploratory descriptive design was used for this research. Students were invited to participate. Semi structured focus group interviews were conducted with 15 students lasting 60 minutes. Thematic analysis of the transcribed interviews were undertaken. Results: Students expressed a strong desire for inter professional education as a component of their clinical education. Many described a low level of inter professional exposure within their clinical educational experience. Perceived obstacles to inter professional engagement were lack of knowledge about other health professions, exposure to other professions and lack of formal inter professional educational engagement. Conclusion: Despite the evidence in the literature in support of interprofessional education, in practice it was evident from this study that there is need for more work in implementation. Increased exposure within the clinical program, as well as higher levels of interprofessional engagement would further enhance the student understanding and confidence for future engagement.

  19. Dr. Selvarani, R., Dr. Jayanthy, M. S., Dr. Usha, K., Dr. Nagarajan, D., Dr. Viijayakanth, M., Dr. Sabarigirinathan, C., Dr. Vinayagavel, K., Dr. Meenakshi, A. and Mr. Gowri Shankar, A.

    Aesthetics is the word which is derived from the Greek as "perception", which deals with beauty and the beautiful. It may be divided into two dimensions as objective (admirable) and subjective (enjoyable) beauty. Objective beauty implies that the object possesses properties that make it unmistakably praiseworthy. Subjective beauty is value laden, and is related to the tastes of the person contemplating it. Contemporary techniques in orthodontics should lend objective aesthetics to the entire oro-facial complex, involving unity, form, structure, balance, colour, function, and display of the dentition.

  20. Singh, B., Chhetri, M. and Singh, R.

    Introduction: Nurses in hospitals are the key to any health care delivery system. An efficient patient care comes not merely from modern equipment and drugs, but from a group of well-motivated medical, paramedical and skilled personnel. “A Happy Employee is a Productive Employee” who must be satisfied with his/her job. Job satisfaction in nurse should be of great concern to any health organization. Nurses hold the majority of positions in most health care settings and replacement of nursing personnel is costly and time consuming. Nurses’ job satisfaction is an important issue because of its impact on the quality of nursing job. The widespread nursing shortage and nurses’ high turnover has become a global issue which has been a great concern to both the developed and developing countries. Methods: The descriptive cross-sectional study design was carried out among 50 nursing staff of national medical college and teaching hospital by using pretested structured questionnaire. The data obtained were analyzed by using SPSS and MS Excel. Results: This study revealed that 74% of nursing staff were satisfied with their job and while area wise analysis the factors that lead to nursing staff satisfaction were: area of interpersonal relationship, area of physical facilities, area of working conditions, financial incentives and non financial incentives respectively. Hence the nursing staffs were satisfied with most of the areas except organizational function, work and training. Conclusion: Despite of satisfaction, there is further need of training and other motivational component to increase their level of job satisfaction.

  21. Dr. Swati Shinde and Dr. Parathe, P. C.

    Background: Nodular Fascitis is a pseudosarcomatous tumor. It is a reactive process rather than true neoplasm. It is very difficult to diagnose on cytology, hence can be mistaken for other malignant mesencymal tumor. CASE : 14yr female presented with right forearm swelling since 1yr. Clinical diagnosis was Fibroma. USG-guided FNAC done. FNAC and Histopathology section shows pleomorphic, bizarre spindle cells and multinucleated cells. Differential Diagnosis were given on FNAC and Histopathology which was confirmed on Immunohistochemistry as Nodular Fascitis. Though Nodular Fascitis is common in young adult but it’s bizarre finding on histopathology and FNAC should not be mistaken for malignant tumor , hence clinical, radiological and pathological correlation is needed.

  22. Kholoud Abdulaziz Bin Haikel

    The Department of Radiology in King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center is committed to excellence in research, particularly in pioneering new advances in technological innovation. As one of the top Radiology Departments in the world, it is recognized for its strength in physics, engineering, molecular imaging and clinical medicine. The Radiology Department provides clinical services in Diagnostic Radiology, Interventional Radiology, Ultrasound, Vascular Laboratory, Cross Sectional Imaging (CT) scan, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), Nuclear Medicine and Positron Emission Tomography (PET). There are also several cooperative interdepartmental activities with the Department of Surgery, Department of Oncology, Internal Medicine, and Emergency, etc…. This study is enlightened the factors that associated with lack of motivation to conduct clinical research within radiology technologists whether this factors are quantitative or qualitative to improve the research activities within the area and add benefit of our joint clinical projects through participation of faculty from the College of Applied Medical Sciences, School of Medicine and other areas in teaching and learning research activities that enrich the educational experience and create a multidisciplinary collaborative research environment. Special emphasis is placed on the teaching of radiology technologists both during their internship a year rotation in the department which is part of their regular yearly curriculum and also during their career to help improving the experience and maintain the medical and clinical productivities outcomes. The goal of the research initiative in the Department of Radiology is to apply new and innovative technologies to challenging clinical problems, in order to improve patient health, practice quality, and scientific knowledge.

  23. Dr. Harjit Kaur, Dr. Sanjeev Jain, Dr. Radhika Kamboj, and Dr. Gaurav Pandav

    The maturity of a scientific discipline is marked by knowledge of its roots, knowledge of evolution of concepts from ancient times to present and an intelligent look into the future. Newer thoughts have been superimposed on the matrix of older ideas. The important discoveries and decisions of past centuries became the springboard for inventions and advances of the field in coming centuries. So, periodontology in modern era presents the blend of the thoughts from the times periodontal disease was first noticed in history. This review article is intended to compile the various concepts regarding etiology, pathogenesis and treatment of periodontal diseases that changed with time and gave rise to present concepts and also provide a view of future possibilities.

  24. Dr. Simriti, Bias Dev and Dr. Sunanda Raina

    Shoulder and Arm is exposed to trauma and in significant number vascular injury is associated which requires surgical intervention. We had come across the variations in the second and third part of axillary artery in 2 limbs out of 42 limbs dissected. The surgeon should be aware about these variations as to plan the treatment of the smaller diameter arteries require different preparation in terms of technique, suture material and anesthesia time.

  25. Veer Bahadur Singh, Harish Kumar, Subhash Chandra, Babu Lal Meena, Rajesh Bishnoi and Dr Veer Bahadur Singh

    Aims: To measure the Bone Mineral Density (BMD), determine the prevalence of osteoporosis in elderly men and correlate various risk factors with osteoporosis. Material & Methods: Subjects were randomly selected for this study after explaining the detailed objective of the study, informed consent was taken. A total 140 subjects age ≥60 years male were included in this study. Results: The prevalence of osteoporosis in study population was 14.3%. There was negative correlation of BMD with age (p>.05), glycemic status and diabetes mellitus (p<.01). There was positive relation of BMD with BMI (p<.05). Conclusion: There is high prevalence of osteoporosis in elderly male population. Risk factor for osteoporosis includes advancing age, hyperglycemia, low BMI. However among these parametric age, smoking, alcohol and physical activity had insignificant association with BMD.

  26. Madasamy Balamurugan, Anand Shankar RaoPatil, Baskar Krishnan and Rashmi Vyas

    Caner cervix is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries like India. The pre-neoplastic stages of cancer cervix are Low Grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesion (LSIL) and High Grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesion (HSIL). The major aetiology is high-risk human papilloma virus infection by subtypes like HPV 16,18,33 etc. The human uterine cervical epithelium responds to the sex hormones like oestrogen and progesterone. Many neoplastic and pre-neoplastic conditions of the cervix are known to alter the expression of these receptors. This study aims to evaluate the various degrees of expression of oestrogen and progesterone receptors in epithelial dysplasias of human uterine cervix caused by High Risk Human Papilloma Virus. 80 cases of cervical biopsies were subjected to Polymerase Chain reaction for High Risk Human Papilloma Virus and histological grading. Immunohistochemical staining was done and nuclear positivity for oestrogen and progesterone receptors was assessed, tabulated and statistically analysed. Both receptors showed significant reduction in the expression of ER and PR in increasing grade of epithelial dysplasia and absent in carcinoma. Dysplastic and malignant changes in the epithelia are accompanied by down regulation of the hormone receptors. This might help in the early detection of cervical cancer.

  27. Pimparkar, S., Rao, S. P. and Vyas Arun , S.

    FNAC has outgrown as a diagnostic tool in thyroid swellings. However, the routine parameters are influenced by the prevalence of the disease which is high among hospital based studies. Diagnostic Parameters not influenced by the disease prevalence need to be analysed among local population Aim: To Assess the Diagnostic Parameters of FNAC among visible thyroid swellings Settings and Design: Hospital Based cross sectional study Methods and Materials: Two hundred and thirty specimens from visible thyroid swelling of patients consulting the Medicine, Surgery and ENT departments from January 2012 to July 2014 were analysed. The study was undertaken during the period from January 2012 to July 2014. Clinical grading of thyroid swelling was confirmed and data analysed with EPIINFO version 7. Statistical analysis used: Sensitivity, Specificity, Likelihood Ratio, weighted Likelihood Ratio, Pre and Post Test Probability, Kappa statistics. Results: Of the 230 cases of thyroid lesions, 194 were cases of non-neoplastic lesions and 36 cases of neoplastic lesions on FNAC. The concordance of the diagnosis for neoplastic and non-neoplastic lesions comparing histopathology as gold standard was 65.71% and 89.23% respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, positive likelihood ratio, negative likelihood ratio and diagnostic accuracy for FNAC with respect to neoplastic & non-neoplastic lesions in thyroid in the present study are 40-74.38%, 94.87%, 58.33-72.22%, 10.1943.81%, 0.77-14.28, 0.27-0.63 and 86.50-91.74% respectively. For neoplastic lesions, the weighted likelihood ratio Positive is 2.5689 and weighted likelihood ratio Negative is 0.11. For non-neoplastic lesions, the weighted likelihood ratio Positive is 1.4 and weighted likelihood ratio Negative is 0.11. Conclusions: The weighted LR+ indicates there is 2.6 times more possibility of a neoplastic lesion compared to 0.11 times possibility of a negative result. FNAC being an excellent, rapid diagnostic procedure with high degree of accuracy, and high likelihood ratios, would be of immense benefit among cases with thyroid swelling

  28. Dr Abhijit Ahuja, Dr. Lavina Mirchandani, Dr. Sindhu Kamath and Dr. Jayalakshmi, T.K.

    Non Hodgkins lymphoma presenting as a mediastinal mass with localized invasion into adjoining structures and the chest wall is an extremely rare entity. Recent advances in immunohistochemistry and genetic profiling has helped to sub classify the malignancy type, which improves accuracy in treatment and in predicting prognosis. Diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and its subtype the mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma (MLBCL) have been identified as the most common types of Non Hodgkins lymphoma having mediastinal involvement. However the commonest lymphoma with chest wall involvement is classical Hodgkins lymphoma (cHL). Apart from the histopathological characteristics which differentiate NHL from cHL, immunohistochemistry definitively sub classifies the lymphomas. Our patient was a middle aged man who presented with a chest wall swelling, which was actually an anterior mediastinal mass locally invading adjacent structures and chest wall. Histopathology and immunochemistry wherein the tumour expressed B cell markers such asCD20 and showed weak staining for CD30 confirmed Non Hodgkins Lymphoma, diffuse large B-cell type. The primary treatment of choice for lymphoma with or without chest wall involvement is chemotherapy. CD30 DLBCL may be associated with an overall better prognosis.

  29. B. Naga Srilatha, M. Bharathi, M. Sasidhar and A. Sasikala

    Introduction: Dengue fever is one of the emerging infectious diseases which cause significant morbidity and mortality in children and adults especially in developing countries. According to World Health Organization two fifths of the world population is at risk from dengue disease and every year 50 million dengue virus infections are suspected world over. Aim: To know the serological profile of dengue infection in our area in different age groups. Material and Methods: It is a retrospective study. Serum samples from 563 acute febrile illness cases were subjected for detection of dengue sero markers: NS1, Ig M & Ig G by immuno-chromatographic method (J. Mitra diagnostics Ltd). Results: More than 55% of cases were from the age group of 01 – 20 years. 2.8% of samples from OP cases (285) and 11.5% of samples from IP cases (278) were sero positive. As a total sero positivity of dengue was almost equal in both genders. But NS1 antigen seropositivity was high among females. Out of 39 sero positives, 22 were positive for NS1 antigen (9 in males & 13 in females) followed by 12 for IgM (6 in males & 6 in females), three for both antibodies (3 in males) and two IgG (one in each gender). Conclusions: Seropositivity was more in IP cases. Laboratory diagnosis is important in differentiating primary and secondary infection which helps clinicians to anticipate complications of dengue.

  30. Ayman A Elbadawi, Esam Mohamed Abdul-Raheem, Mohammed H Elhoweris and Ahmed O Almobarak

    Study design and Objective: This was a cross sectional retrospective study aimed to identify frequency and classify lymphadenopathy in adult Sudanese patients investigated by fine needle aspiration cytology. Methods: Fine needle aspirates were obtained from 639 patients having enlarged lymph nodes, stained by Pap stain and assessed under a light microscope. Data and findings were analyzed using SPSS program version 16. Results: From the 639 cases, 361 were benign and 278 were malignant with predominance of metastatic cancer. Conclusion: Lymphadenopathy in Sudanese adults can be easily assessed and classified by using fine needle aspiration, as the case in several other populations.

  31. R. Alagar Samy, N. Murugesan, M. S. Viswanathan and R. Anbzhakan

    The study was aimed at studying the correlation between VENOUS CLINICAL SEVERITY SCORE (VCSS), VENOUS DISABILITY SCORE (VDS) AND VENOUS REFLUX GRADING BY VENOUS DOPPLER in Varicose veins of lower limbs. This study was conducted in the Department of General surgery, ESI-PGIMSR, over a period of 18months. The study group consisted of 75 patients between 24 to 75yrs (mean 44.41 ± 12.967), inclusive of both males (n=70) and females(n=5). They were assessed for severity of varicose veins by documenting a detailed history, clinical examination findings and imaging studies on a pre structured proforma. It was found that majority of the patients were ≤ 60yrs and the right lower limb was predominantly affected in both sexes. Using the VCSS system, 66.7%(n=50) cases had mild disease, 33.3%(n=25) cases had moderate disease and none had severe disease. In the present study, as per the VDS system, majority of the patients (n=71, 94.7%) had grade II disability. And 76%(n=57) of the patients had severe grade of venous reflux i.e. venous reflux duration >1second.A statistically significant correlation was found between clinical manifestations of varicose veins and the degree of reflux in the veins, assessed using the VCSS and VRS system, respectively.

  32. Dr. Mahbooba Rasool, Dr. Iftikhar Hussain, Dr. Sufoora Bilques, Dr. S. M. Salim Khan, Dr. Inaamul Haq and Dr. Iqbal Pandit

    Background: Burden of non communicable diseases is rising at current and has led to epidemic proportions in most of the developing countries like India. There is a growing concern regarding these diseases as they do not have have a specific or single cause which is easily amenable to control activities. But, the multiple factors causing these diseases are lifestyle related which can be easily limited or controlled with simple approaches of promotive and preventive services aimed at population levels. The objectives of the study were to estimate the prevalence of risk factors of major non communicable diseases among adult population (18 years and above) of Kashmir valley and to find out the socio demographic pattern of these risk factors. Methodology: Sample size was derived by the formula n=z2pq/e2. Sample was selected by multistage technique. The questionnaire included three parts, background characteristics of participants, history of diabetes and high blood pressure, body measurements including blood pressure measurement. Data was analysed using appropriate statistical software. Results were expressed in proportions. Results: The percentage of tobacco users was 31.08%, low physical activity in 28.4%,over-weight 30.67% obese 8.50%,diagnosed diabetes mellitus was 1.66%.The percentage of respondents with waist to height ratio of greater than 0.5 was 30.25%.The prevalence of hypertension was 17.50%. Conclusion: This study found a high burden of risk factors of non-communicable diseases with 1 in 4 of the study participants smoking, engaged in low physical activity. 1 in 5 hypertensive, 2 in 5 overweight or obese, 1 in 3 (approximately) having higher waist to height ratio.

  33. Samy A. El-Azeem Saad, Mohamed A. El-Hadi Farag, Mostafa A. Allah El-Sayed and Aml El-Sayed Ali El-Fawal

    Study design: Comparative clinical trail. Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of misoprostol (sublingual versus vaginal) for cervical ripening before hysteroscopy. Patient and Methods: Sixty women who were admitted to Banha University hospital department of obstetrics and gynecology for surgical hysteroscopy. The sixty women were divided into two groups. Group one 30 cases received 400 μg misoprostol (two tablets each tablet 200 μg) under the tongue 6h before hysteroscopy. Group two 30 cases took 400 μg misoprostol (two tablets each tablet 200 μg) administered into the posterior fornix of vagina by investigator 6h before hysteroscopy. The degree of cervical dilatation. The duration of diltation, hysteroscopic and drug complications were recorded for all cases. Results: There were statistically Significant difference between sublingual group and vaginal group as regard cervical dilatation and operative time. cervical width in the sublingual group (6.4+0.9). in vaginal group (5.4+1.3) Operative time in minutes (1.095+0.22) in sublingual group, (2.05+0.150) in vaginal group. No significant difference between sublingual and vaginal group as regard post hysteroscopic complication. Conclusion: Sublingual administration of misoprostol is more effective than the vaginal route for preoperative cervical ripening.

  34. Renu, G., Anice George, Mamatha S Pai, Baby S Nayak, Suneel C Mundkur, Dinesh M Nayak and Shashidhara, Y.N

    Children of all age groups are at high risk for accidents and injuries. The truth is that majority of the injuries happening to children below the age of five happen at home and they are to a maximum level preventable. Physiological characteristics and age appropriate curiosity make them suffer injury. One of the oldest theories which address the behavioral change is Health Belief Model (HBM). In this article the authors are explaining the way they managed to develop an instrument for injury assessment in children with a view to prepare a home safety supervisory program for caregivers. The authors considered HBM as a frame work for this work. This article will act as a guide for future researchers in the preparation of intervention programs keeping theoretical framework as model.

  35. Afroz Khan, Rayees Ahmad Sofi and Asif Amin Vakil

    Introduction: Central serous chorioretinopathy (CSCR) is a common maculopathy mainly affecting young and middle aged adults and occurring more frequently in men than in women. The acute manifestation is serous detachment of the microscopy retina at the posterior pole which is caused by active retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) leakage. 7Although exact pathophysiology of CSC has not been clearly understood the primary abnormality leading to RPE disruption and leakage is thought to be increased choroidal permeability. In addition too corticosteroid use, a number of risk factor for CSCR, such as hypertension,and antipsychotic medication use have been reported. Methods: The data was collected from the medical records of the patients who were admitted with CSC to the ophthalmology department of SMHS Hospital Srinagar, India. The data was collected over a period of one year. The study method was designed in accordance with the tenets of the declaration of Helsinki. Results: During this one year period a total of 45 patients were seen and diagnosed as central serous retinopathy. Most of the patients were males (30) and rest were females (15) with a male to female ratio of 2:1 higher than previous studies. In our patients we could see that there was a significant stress/anxiety in many of our patients. This was confirmed after neuropsychiatric evualuation of all patients who attended the department. Conclusion: The present study found that mean annual incidence of CSR was higher among the males (2:1) than females. Stress was seen in significant number of our patients.

  36. Ali Mohammed, P., Deep Sharma, D. K. Patro, Jagdish Menon, Murali Poduval and Harikrishna, M.

    Introduction: Surgical site infection following orthopedic surgeries is a dreaded complication. So prior knowledge, its identification and stratification of factors of surgical site infection is vital in application of measures to avoid surgical site infection. Materials and Methods: This study was done in JIPMER Pondicherry between January 2013 and August 2014. We aimed at identifying the factors associated with a higher risk for the development of culture positive SSI. We studied 249 patients, who had undergone orthopedic surgical procedure and collected their data according to our proforma and as per our protocol .Out of 29 patients with surgical site infection only 10 patient showed growth of infective organism. At the end of the study various parameters were compared among patients (patients with culture positive SSI vs others). Results: It was found that the duration of closed suction drain and use of implants are risk factors for the development of culture positive surgical infection. Conclusion: The present study shows that, out of various factors evaluated use of implant, increased duration of closed suction drain are important risk factors for the development of culture positive surgical site infection.

  37. Feba Sosa Kurien and Immanuel Jebastine, M.

    It remains unknown whether successful H. Pylori eradication therapy leads to a relief of dyspepsia and subsequent arrest or reducing the acid suppressants use. Aim of the study is to assess H. Pylori eradication therapy and utilization of acid suppressant medications in patients with peptic ulcer disease. The eradication of helicobacter pylori is recommended for patients with peptic ulcer. In the present study out of 280 patients consulted 82 had H. Pylori positive result. Among these 60 patients undergone eradication therapy successfully. This result in the arrest of acid suppressant medication and attain complete cure during the follow up period. The remaining patients are still on maintenance therapy with acid suppressants. This study also finds out whether the use of acid suppressants is inappropriate and is prescribed for justified indication. Around 60% of patients is taking acid suppressant for non justified cases. This will lead to the long term use of medications and increases economic burden to the patients.

  38. Dr. Chirag Gangajalia and Dr. Nalin T. Shah

    Introduction: It is observed that recurrence rate after first spontaneous pneumothorax ranges between 25% and 50%. Among the wide variety of agents that are available for pleurodesis, povidone iodine is now perhaps the most useful agent as it is cheap, easily available, effective and safe. This study was conducted to establish the efficacy and safety of povidone iodine as an agent for pleurodesis in patients with recurrent pleural effusion and pneumothorax. Methods: Total 23 patients with recurrent pleural effusion or pneumothorax received povidone iodine pleurodesis over a period of almost 2 years. Pleurodesis was done via tube thoracostomy technique Results: Out of the 23 patients, 13 had malignant pleural effusion, 9 had recurrent pneumothorax and one had tubercular pleural effusion which was nonresponsive to antitubercular therapy. A complete response with no recurrence during follow-up was obtained in 21(91.30%) patients. All the cases of failure had malignant pleural effusion. 3 (13.04%) patients experienced intense chest pains after the installation of sclerosing agent, but they recovered with immediate symptomatic management. Conclusion: Povidone iodine may be considered as the agent of choice to achieve pleurodesis, as it is inexpensive and easily available and effective.

  39. Dr. Bishnu Choudhury

    Ksharasutra has been described in the ancient text books of Ayurveda (Indian traditional medical system) as medicated caustic thread, a Para-surgical measures for the treatment of all those conditions which demand gradual excision of overgrown soft tissue. This condition includes haemorrhoids, polyps, papillae and also the non-healing chronic sinuses (i.e. Fistula-in-Ano) and ulcer where debridement is an essential factor to permit a healthy healing pattern. Ksharasutra is prepared by coating in cotton thread with Kshara (Alkali) made from whole plant of Achyranthus aspera L. and with the powder of rhizome of Curcuma longa L., with the sticky latex of Euphorbia nerifolia L.

  40. James E TOBIH, Stephen Oluwatosin ADEBOLA and Muritala JIMOH

     

    Background: Head and neck tumors are uncommon but are not as rare as early studies suggest. Recent studies have indicated a higher incidence. Objective: To document the pattern and trend of head and neck tumors diagnosed at Ladoke Akintola University of Technology Teaching Hospital, Osogbo, South-West Nigeria in an eight year period (2005 – 2012). Methods: The medical records of patients with head and neck tumors over an 8-year period (2005-2012) were analyzed. Results: Of the one hundred and ninety seven (197) cases reviewed, 92 were males and 105 were females. 135 cases (68.5%) were benign while 62 cases (31.5%) were malignant. The neck was found to be the commonest site for head and neck tumors accounting for 52 cases (26.4%) followed by sinonasal 48 cases (24.4%), salivary gland 30 cases (15.2%). Others are Oral cavity tumors and laryngeal tumors 24 cases (12.2%) respectively. Of the 62 malignant tumors, 37 were male while 25 were female with a male to female ratio of 1.5:1. The sinonasal area was the most common site for malignancy (30.2%) followed by the larynx (17.5%), the oropharynx (16.1%), the nasopharynx (9.7%) and salivary glands (9.7 %). The others are thyroid (6.5%), mouth (4.8%) and esophagus (4.8%). Conclusion: The study shows that goiter is the most common benign tumor while sinonasal cancer formed the most common group of head and neck malignancy while laryngeal and pharyngeal malignancy are the 2nd and 3rd most common in South-western Nigeria.

  41. James E TOBIH, Stephen Oluwatosin ADEBOLA and Muritala JIMOH

     

    Background: Head and neck tumors are uncommon but are not as rare as early studies suggest. Recent studies have indicated a higher incidence. Objective: To document the pattern and trend of head and neck tumors diagnosed at Ladoke Akintola University of Technology Teaching Hospital, Osogbo, South-West Nigeria in an eight year period (2005 – 2012). Methods: The medical records of patients with head and neck tumors over an 8-year period (2005-2012) were analyzed. Results: Of the one hundred and ninety seven (197) cases reviewed, 92 were males and 105 were females. 135 cases (68.5%) were benign while 62 cases (31.5%) were malignant. The neck was found to be the commonest site for head and neck tumors accounting for 52 cases (26.4%) followed by sinonasal 48 cases (24.4%), salivary gland 30 cases (15.2%). Others are Oral cavity tumors and laryngeal tumors 24 cases (12.2%) respectively. Of the 62 malignant tumors, 37 were male while 25 were female with a male to female ratio of 1.5:1. The sinonasal area was the most common site for malignancy (30.2%) followed by the larynx (17.5%), the oropharynx (16.1%), the nasopharynx (9.7%) and salivary glands (9.7 %). The others are thyroid (6.5%), mouth (4.8%) and esophagus (4.8%). Conclusion: The study shows that goiter is the most common benign tumor while sinonasal cancer formed the most common group of head and neck malignancy while laryngeal and pharyngeal malignancy are the 2nd and 3rd most common in South-western Nigeria.

  42. Dr. Ning Tang, P.H. and Colin MacDougall

    A Multicultural Lifestyle Change Questionnaire that included English, French and Chinese versions which was developed by Ning Tang was pilot-tested in 98 English, French and Chinese speaking immigrants in two adjacent cities (Ottawa and Gatineau) of Canada. The participants were recruited by a purposive sampling and answered the questions in the questionnaire with self-reporting. The pilot-testing results exhibited that the questionnaire had higher validity (face validity, content validity, criterion-related validity and construct validity) and reliability (test-retest reliability). After being revised appropriately, the questionnaire could be used in multicultural lifestyle changes surveys in full population and more wide use.

  43. Sajad Ul Islam Mir, Abdul Khaliq, Hilal Ahmad Dar, Aadil Ashraf, Dr. Khalid Mohiuddin, Sajad Ahmad Tak and Javed Ahmed Khan

    Background & Objective: The femoral artery has been the usual route of access for Coronary Angiography. In recent past some trials have suggested that radial artery as a route of access for Coronary Angiography reduces local vascular complications & bleeding as compared to femoral route. We present our study aimed to assess the two routes viz. a viz. complications & feasibility. Methods: Our study is of prospective comparative design, conducted in SMHS Hospital Srinagar, a tertiary care institute, associated hospital of Government Medical College Srinagar. A total of 400 patients were enrolled; 240 patients for radial and 160 patients for femoral approaches for Coronary Angiography. Patients fulfilling the inclusion and exclusion criteria were included in the tudy. Results: In our study we found that the access time was more with the radial compared to femoral approach (5.763+_3.101 min vs 3.11+_1.16 min, p <0.001). The total procedure time was also more in radial than femoral approach group (30.03+_6.728 vs 28.26+_10.637 min, p _0.06). Similarly the total fluoroscopic time was more in radial compared to femoral group (6.39+_2.89 vs 6.02+_1.53 min, p _ 0.09). The radial access had a strong trend towards more ontrast volume use as compared to femoral access (54.58+_25.919 ml & 52.06+_18.053 ml, p _0.252). The post procedure complications were more common in the femoral compared to radial group. The common complications were puncture site ecchymosis (p<0.05), thrombophelibitis (p<0.05), local site hematoma (p <0.001) & access site bleeding (p<0.05). Patient comfort was higher in the radial (4.2±0.6) than in the femoral group (4.1± 0.7) (p_0.03)). The patients who would undergo CAG via radial group would spend 3.85±2.6 hours in the hospital whereas the femoral group would need 7.15±2.2 hours hospitalization (p_0.001). Interpretation & Conclusion: The radial approach for Diagnostic Coronary Angiography is more favourable than femoral approach. However, the same needs longer learning curve, has increased access failure and crossover.

  44. Dr. Santanu P Mallik and Dr. Sawant, V. G.

    Introduction: Cervicogenic headache is a syndrome characterized by chronic hemicranial pain that is referred to the head from either bony structures or soft tissues of the neck. Since 1980, it was believed that there was an involvement of the cervical facet joints in the neck pain and Cervicogenic headache due to trauma (whiplash injury) or arthritic changes. Lateral atlanto-axial joints pathology can also be the cause for cervicogenic headache. Case report: A 30 year old car mechanic, having chronic headache affecting the left upper part of the neck, had an h/o car accident after which the pain started. When conservative treatments as well as cervical facet joint injection failed to give satisfactory pain relief, a diagnostic lateral atlanto-axial joint block on the affected side was a great help to the patient. Conclusion: Headache is a complex phenomenon. Proper history, examination and investigation is required to come to the diagnosis. In refractory cases cervical spine should be assessed properly. Diagnostic blocks are very useful to rule out the causes. Thorough anatomical knowledge is very important for every clinician.

  45. Anindita Banik and Shantanu Arya

    Introduction: Childhood dysphonia requires precise assessments, based on the subjective and objective assessments; to quantify the functional, physical and emotional domains along with acoustical aspects. Aims: This study aims to check acoustic voice parameters of children aged between 5 and 12 years along with the impact on subjective domains. Methods: 30 normal school going children were divided into 3 groups (n=10 in each) which were mild, moderate and severe handicap including males and females. Subjective using pVHI and objective using MDVP assessments were done for each group. Results and Discussion: Differences were observed in the groups i.e mild, moderate and severe handicap along with variations in the acoustic voice parameters in each group. Conclusions: Distinct vocal profile and differences in the domains if functional, physical and emotional aspects of males and females is evident with significant differences among various parameters between and within ages and genders.

  46. Dr. Sarvesha Bhondwe, Dr. Rupali Balpande, Dr. Vishal Mahajan and Dr. Rohit Doot

    Orofacial pain can present with pain of odontogenic and nonododntogenic origin. It arises from facial area, tempero-mandibular joint, ear, pharynx and larynx. The dilemma the clinician faces is the correct diagnosis of these pains. Many times misdiagnosis of orofacial pain resulting in multiple endodontic procedures or even worse that still extraction recommended with no resolution of symptoms. Knowledge of the various nonodontogenic pains will ultimately prevent misdiagnosis and delivery of incorrect treatment. So this critical review emphasizes on multidisciplinary approach which highlight the importance of correct diagnosis and treatment planning.

  47. Venkidesh Krishnamoorthy and Geo Senil. K.

    Traumatic injuries at the cervicothoracic junction are relatively a rare event compared with injury to other areas of the cervical spine. The transition from the mobile cervical to the rigid thoracic spine makes the cervicothoracic junction unstable. Due to relative rarity of these injuries, the ideal surgical management has not been clearly defined. There is debate over whether the vast majority of these injuries can be treated with a posterior only approach or if anterior or combined approaches have clearly defined roles for these injuries. This paper reviews our experience in surgical cases of cervicothoracic junction instabilities, clinical findings, instrumentation applied and outcome.

  48. Indu Singh and Deepesh Kumar

    Purpose: To study the factors affecting specular microscopic changes in corneal endothelium in relation to cataract surgery. Material and Methods: Four hundred fifty seven patients were included in this study, the patients who underwent cataract surgery. The patients were examined before surgery & after 6 weeks of surgery on follow up visits. Corneal endothelial examination was done with non-contact Specular Microscope (TopconSP- 2000P) after detailed ocular examination. Result: ACS increased in all three types of surgery. Maximum increase in ACS was seen in ACIOL patients (131.5± 222.6μ m2) least increase in ACS was seen in patients undergoing ECCE (67.4 ± 141.2μ m2). Conclusion: In absence of significant corneal changes the visual recovery after cataract surgery was satisfactory.

  49. Atana Uket Ewa, Callistus A Enyuma, Anthonia A Ikpeme, Emmanuel B Adams and Jacintha Okoi-Obuli

    Acute Chest Syndrome (ACS) is a potential life threatening complication of Sickle Cell disease (SCD) characterized by the presence of new pulmonary infiltrates with respiratory findings in a patient with SCD. It is the second commonest cause of hospital admission in SCD, next to vasoocclusive crises and accounts for 25% of mortalities. The aetiology is unknown but infection and infarction play major roles. Common presenting features include fever, cough, wheezing, chest pain and pleural effusion. An abnormal Chest X-ray is generally required to confirm the diagnosis. The X-ray changes were previously thought to be caused mainly by infection but recent reports have suggested that pulmonary infarction due to local sickling and emboli may be more likely. Treatment includes intravenous antibiotics using a third generation cephalosporin and a macrolide or quinolone, blood transfusion, hydration and analgesics. NSAIDs may worsen ACS due to vasoconstriction and bronchospasm, corticosteroids are controversial, bronchodilators may be useful, Nitric oxide (NO) has been found to be beneficial and bronchoscopy is not routinely done. Because ACS is common in children and yet often underdiagnosed, all paediatric SCD patients who present with fever should be evaluated with a chest radiograph and daily fluid intake should not exceed 1,500mls/m2/day. The aim of this report is to add to the understanding of ACS in this region and also to sensitize physicians to the spectrum of clinical presentation of ACS so as to improve diagnosis and treatment and hence prevent morbidity and mortality.

  50. Dr. Lateef Wani, Dr. Bilal Musharaf Banday, Dr. Aadil Ashraf, Dr. Farzana Bashir Ashai and Ruby Reshi

    The present study was carried out in the postgraduate department of Pathology at Government Medical College, Srinagar, India, to study the histopathological pattern of thyroid lesions reported a tertiary care hospital in Kashmir retrospectively for a period of three years. During this study, 165 thyroidectomy specimens were analyzed. Their corresponding slides were retrieved and reviewed. Out of these, 37 cases were non-neoplastic and 128 were neoplastic. Among neoplastic cases 40 cases were benign, 87 cases were malignant and one case was diagnosed as having a well differentiated tumor of uncertain malignant potential. Peak incidence was in the third decade of life with female predominance. Among the malignant tumors, the highest incidence was that of papillary carcinoma of thyroid (83.90%), followed by follicular and medullary carcinoma (6.89% each). Colloid goitre (12.72%) was the most frequent entity in the benign category. The remarkable observation of this study was that the neoplastic lesions predominated over non-neoplastic lesions and among neoplastic lesions malignant cases outnumbered benign ones which is in contrast to most of the previous studies from other parts of the globe.

  51. Dr. Saloni Avinav, Dr. Anita Das and Dr. Sonali Sharma

    Sturge Weber Syndrome is a sporadic neurocutaneous disease characterized by facial port-wine stain, ocular abnormalities (glaucoma and choroidal hemangioma) and leptomeningeal angioma. Port-wine stain and abnormal findings like soft tissue calcification or bony changes in skull radiographs, mental retardation, ocular involvement and hemiplegia. Oral manifestations of the disease may vary considerably and changes in morphology and histology of gingiva, periodontium and pulp have been reported. However the most common feature is a gingival hemangiomatous lesion usually restricted to ipsilateral maxilla, mandible, floor of mouth, lips, cheeks, palate and tongue.

  52. Dr. Saloni Avinav, Dr. Anita Das and Dr. Sonali Sharma

    Sturge Weber Syndrome is a sporadic neurocutaneous disease characterized by facial port-wine stain, ocular abnormalities (glaucoma and choroidal hemangioma) and leptomeningeal angioma. Port-wine stain and abnormal findings like soft tissue calcification or bony changes in skull radiographs, mental retardation, ocular involvement and hemiplegia. Oral manifestations of the disease may vary considerably and changes in morphology and histology of gingiva, periodontium and pulp have been reported. However the most common feature is a gingival hemangiomatous lesion usually restricted to ipsilateral maxilla, mandible, floor of mouth, lips, cheeks, palate and tongue.

  53. Ra’fat I. Farah

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare in vitro the effectiveness of one-step self-etching adhesive and two glutaraldehyde-containing desensitizers in reducing dentin permeability in extracted human premolar teeth prepared for full-coverage restorations using a dye penetration test. Materials and Methods: Thirty -six intact human premolars were prepared in a standardized manner for full coverage restorations. The exposed coronal dentin was completely covered by nail varnish except for a finish line and a ring area of 2mm coronal dentin. Afterward the specimens were randomized into 4 groups(n=9) according to dentin treatment: group 1, non-treatment samples; group 2, dentin treated with Gluma®; group 3, treated with Systemp®;Group 4, treated with Tetric® N-Bond Self-Etch. After treatment, they were placed in freshly prepared 2% aqueous methylene blue dye for 12 hours and then sectioned in the buccolingual and mesiodistal direction to assess the dye penetration under a stereomicroscope. Dye penetration was recorded according to the ratio of the maximum linear dye penetration length in millimeters to the total dentin thickness. The results were statistically analyzed using one way ANOVA. The Tukey's post hoc test was used to compute multiple pairwise comparisons that identified differences among groups at p<0.05. Results: All dentin treatment agents significantly reduced dentinal permeability versus control. There were significant differences in permeability among dentin treatment agents (p<0.001). The self-etching adhesive group showed the lowest permeability—this was statistically different from both desensitizers. There were no significant differences in permeability among desensitizers (p=0.98). Conclusions: Within the limitations of this study, the dentin treatments revealed different sealing abilities. The one step self-etch adhesive Tetric®N-Bond Self-Etch exhibited the most favorable dentin sealing properties against dye penetration versus both glutaraldehyde-containing desensitizers Gluma® and Systemp®.

  54. Dr. Godbole Veerendra Vishwas, Dr. Halikar Swapnagandha Sudhir and Dr. Chaudhari Saurabh Prabhakar

    Background: In recent years, the success ratio in cataract surgery has significantly increased as a result of advances in surgical methods and equipment1-2.It is known that cataract surgery alters the ocular biomechanical properties. The aim of this study is to compare the central corneal thickness and IOP pre-op and post-op phacoemulsification cataract surgery. Methods: We included 50 patients in our study with cataract above 50 years of age. The phacoemulsification cataract surgery was performed by same surgeon with the identical material in all study subjects. Central corneal thickness, corrected IOP is measured in all the study subjects prior to surgery, on post-op day1, post-op day 7 and post-op day 30. Statistical analysis was done in measurements. Result: There were 60% males and 40% females in study group. We found the mean CCT prior to surgery was 546.8±34.7µ, that increased to 645.0±165.3 µ on post-op day 1, changed to 597.1±98.5µ post-op day 7, decreased to 551.4±44.7µ post-op day 30. The mean corrected IOP prior to surgery was 17.0±2.9 mmHg, changed to 17.8±4.2 mmHg on post-op day 1, changed to 17.2±2.0 mmHg on post-op day 7, decreased to 15.4±1.9 mmHg on post-op day 30. Conclusion: Central corneal thickness increases immediately after phacoemulsification cataract surgery, tends to normal over 30 days. Corrected IOP is a reliable parameter in post-operative period. Corrected IOP decreases after phacoemulsification cataract surgery.

  55. Dr. Aamir Nadeem, Dr. Girija Nair. Dr. Abhay Uppe, Dr. Aparna Iyer and Dr. Jayalakshmi T.K

    Pneumomediastinum and bilateral pneumothorax are rare complications of miliary tuberculosis. In this case report, a 14-year-old girl with sputum positive miliary tuberculosis complicated by pneumomediastinum and bilateral pneumothorax, is presented and relevant literature is discussed.

  56. Sara, A. M., Barri, M. E., Salwar, M. E., Samia, H. A., Hamid, I. I. and Hala, E. A.

    The current trial was performed to investigate the influence of sunflower seeds on the oxidative status of laying hens. Fifty (Hisex) bird, 20 week old, were obtained from Animal Production Research Center (kuku), were divided into two groups (n=25) for each one. The control group (A) was under control diet based on corn, maintains the (NRC, 1994) requirements for laying hens, the experimental group, supplemented by 10% sunflower seeds added to the diet. The trial run for eight weeks, blood samples were collected once per month (week 4 and 8), in EDTA coated vials, immediately placed into iced-container, centrifuged at 3000rpm/20 min, samples were separated in aliquot, and stored at -20ºC and -80ºC until analysis. Plasma analysis for enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants, revealed no significant different level of uric acid, malondialdehyde (MDA) and vitamin C, between the control group and the treated one, while catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), vitamin E, and vitamin A, levels were significantly enhanced by the addition of 10% sunflower seeds.

  57. Ochola, W. Adede and George Ogendi

    Tobacco production involve curing process which results to continued harvest of indigenous vegetation leading to depletion of forests resources and loss of biodiversity, which have long term negative effects on food security and livelihood of the communities living in the Lake Victoria basin. The continued use of unsustainable practices contributes towards increased environmental degradation leading to increased levels of pollution, fertilization and siltation of Lake Victoria and surrounding water bodies. This study looked at the economic value and environmental benefits of using bagasse-briquettes as an alternative source of energy to the tobacco growing communities. The objective of this study was to find out the economic gains and vegetation cover saved as a result of using bagasse-briquettes as alternative source of energy to cure tobacco. This was achieved by interviewing farmers exposed to briquettes made from bagasse (a sugarcane byproduct) as an alternative source of energy to cure tobacco, to determine the cost and quantity of briquettes, split wood and non-split wood used; source of the materials and their usability. The study then; compared the calorific value of bagasse-briquettes with bagasse pith briquette, bagasse-briquettes with binders, saw dust briquettes, saw dust, county council waste briquettes, coffee husks briquettes, split wood (eucalyptus), and non-split wood (indigenous flora); compared the cost of bagasse-briquette and an equivalent quantity of split wood and non-split wood; conducted a profit margin analysis to determine the cost of using bagasse-briquettes compared to split wood and non-split wood as a source of energy to cure tobacco; quantified woody vegetation cover saved in-terms of hectares by using bagasse-briquettes. A bomb calorimeter was used to find the calorific value of all the materials used as sources of energy. A survey methodology was used to find out the source, cost and quantity fuel materials used to cure one kilogram of tobacco leaves. A cross cut analysis was used to determine woody vegetation cover of different places within the tobacco growing areas in the Lake Victoria basin in-terms of tons per hectares. The woody vegetation cover and quantity of leaves cured using bagasse-briquettes was used to calculate the woody vegetation cover saved in different localities. The study found out that; calorific value of bagasse-briquette was significantly lower than the other sources of energy. However, the quantity of bagasse-briquettes used to cure one kilogram of tobacco leaves was significantly lower than split wood and non-split wood; the cost of one kilogram of bagasse-briquette was lower than an equivalent quantity of split wood and non-split wood, resulting into a reduced cost of curing one kilogram of tobacco leaves hence a higher profit margin to the farmers; tobacco curing is contributing to depletion of woody vegetation cover and loss of biodiversity. The use of bagasse-briquette to cure tobacco was economically and environmentally profitable as opposed to use of wood fuel. The information from this study is of significance to environment practitioners, farmers to improve their profits, policy makers and tobacco processing companies and stakeholders.

  58. Abdul Ghani, Imran Khan, Imran Khalid, Abd-Ur-Rehman and Samrah Afzal Awan

    The present study was carried out in order to investigate the impact of municipal waste water of Sargodha city on physio-chemical attributes and mineral status of two selected vegetables Yellow Mustard & Radish. Field surveys were carried out. Three experimental sites i.e. Silanwali road, Chak 85 and Faisalabad road were selected in Sargodha during this survey. Water, soil and vegetable samples were collected from these sites. The collected samples were processed following standard procedures and were analyzed for Copper, Chromium, Lead, Cadmium, Nickel, Zinc, Cobalt, Arsenic, Manganese, Iron, Magnesium and Molybdenum. The survey data showed significant variations in heavy metals concentrations of different water, soil and vegetable samples.

  59. Fekadu Gemechu and Girmaye Benti

    As maize is the second most widely grown cereal crop in Ethiopia, effective protection is needed against storage insect pests including grain moth, Sitotroga cereallela. In an effort to develop a non-synthetic pesticide control approach, a study was conducted to determine the best dose of two cooking oils, Ethiopian mustard (Brassica carinata) and cotton (Gossypium hirsutum), to control S. cereallela under laboratory conditions. The oils were applied at the rate of 0.2 to 0.5 ml per 250 g of grain and compared with untreated control and malathion super dust as standard check. The study was laid-out in completely randomized design (CRD) with three replications for each treatment. The efficacy of the oils was assessed on the basis of total insect mortality, median lethal time (LT50), moth progeny emergence, seed hole’s number, weight loss and germination rate. The results showed that the oils caused 50 to 100% mortality at the different concentrations used. Both oils, G. hirsutmn and B. carinata had LT50 of 2.6 and 1.8 days, respectively when applied at the concentration of 0.2 ml. At concentration of 0.5 ml, both oils caused zero moth progeny emergence, minimum seed damage, zero grain weight loss and 88.3 to 95.5% seed germination rate which were similar to those of malathion (Diethyl succinate) and significantly different from those of the untreated control. The tests demonstrated that the two oils are effective in stored maize grain and can be used as the components of grain moth protectant in an integrated pest management option.

  60. Subhashini, V. and Swamy, A.V. V. S.

    Heavy metal pollution causes potential ecological risk. Phytoremediation technology is cost effective and ecologically friendly in which plant utilizes its natural abilities to restore environment. Phytoremediation is a diverse collection of plant-based technologies that use either naturally occurring, or genetically engineered plants to clean contaminated environments. Plant selection is most important for determining the success or failure of the phytoremediation project. In the present study Catharanthus roseus and Ruellia tuberosa plant species was used for phytoremediation of Lead, Nickel, Zinc, Cadmium and Chromium contaminated soils. C. roseus was a shrub species belongs to Apocynaceae family and R. tuberosa was an herb species belongs to Acanthaceae family. The experiments were conducted using known metal solutions. The aqueous solutions were administered for 60 days to the experimental plants. The metal total accumulation in the plant (leaf, stem and root) was calculated. Bioconcentration factor (BCF) and Translocation factor (TF) was also calculated. Based on the results C. roseus highly accumulated all the five metals. R. tuberosa highly accumulated Pb, Zn and Cr. C. roseus species w as recommended for phytoremediation of Pb, Ni, Zn, Cd and Cr contaminated soils. R. tuberosa was recommended for phytoremediation of Pb, Zn and Cr contaminated soils. Finally it was concluded that these two species was good accumulators of metals.

  61. Doha M. Beltagy, Wafaa M. Ibrahim, Nasser M. Hosny, Ahmed I Abdou

    Paraquat (PQ) is used as herbicide. The present study was designed to investigate the potential protective effects of sodium butyrate (SB) against the toxic effects induced by PQ. The experiment was carried out on 50 male albino rats divided into five groups. Some parameters were assessed. The results revealed that PQ induces significant increase in malondialdehyde levels, serum 8-OHdG and nuclear histone deacetylase (HDACs) activity. Cytoplasmic GSH concentration and catalse activity were decreased in a significant way. Serum and tissue TAC remained unchanged. SB administration in both co-treated and post-treated rats reversed the oxidative damage induced by PQ as documented by the significant decrease in serum, tissue malondialdehyde and serum 8-OHdG. Nuclear GSH, HDACs and CAT activity were elevated in co-treated and post-treated groups. In conclusion, sodium butyrate is able to rescue the redox machinery and control the intracellular ROS balance thus switching off oxidative damage induced by PQ.

  62. John Dzikunoo, Firibu, K. Saalia, George, S. Ayernor, Otilia A. Adzinyo and Helen M. Dah

    Gluten and wheat flour are two important food ingredients used to influence texture of vegetable sausages. The effect of gluten and wheat flour on the textural properties of vegetable sausages was studied using response surface methodology (RSM). Vegetable sausages were prepared from soy proteins (tofu), heat-modified soy flour, gluten, wheat flour, water, xanthan gum and vegetable oil. Using different levels of gluten and wheat flour various vegetable sausages were obtained. Overlaid contour plots of textural indices were analyzed. Water absorption capacity of the ingredients (heat-modified soy flour and wheat flour) was studied. The effects of gluten and wheat flour on hardness, fracturability, springiness and chewiness were measured. The main results showed that heat-modified soy flour absorbed water more than thrice its weight as compared to wheat flour which absorbed water almost twice its weight. The RSM analysis showed that gluten and wheat flour significantly influenced the hardness, fracturability, springiness and chewiness of the vegetable sausages. Based on the overlaid contour plots, an optimum concentration of gluten (10.3%) and wheat flour (3.2%) was measured. It can therefore be concluded that the concentrations of gluten and wheat flour in vegetable sausages are very important in achieving the right texture of vegetable sausages.

  63. Durand VISSOH, Armand Bienvenu GBANGBOCHE and Espéran PADONOU

    In order to diversify milk production, which still comes from cows only, in Benin, dairy goats from Alpine race are being adapted in a private farm located in Allada since 2005. The study had examined not only the level of the goats’ milk production, but also the cheese productivity associated with it. Thus, dairy and cheese productions had been recorded for 73 days (j25 to j97). These data had been extrapolated for the whole lactation period, with Puillet dairy mechanistic model prediction. The average daily production was 1.28±0.03kg, with a peak of 1.49±0.39 kg which had occurred at 41 ± 16 days of lactation. Lactation rank had significantly influenced the milk production with a peak in row 3. The cheese yield is 1 kg of cheese for 5.3liter of milk. Résumé: Dans le but de diversifier la production laitière encore exclusivement bovine au Bénin, des chèvres laitières de race alpine sont en adaptation dans une exploitation privée de la région du plateau d’Allada depuis 2005. L’étude a évalué leur dynamique de production et le rendement fromager. Les productions laitières et fromagères ont ainsi été enregistrées sur 73 jours (j25 à j97) et estimées pour l’ensemble de la lactation par le modèle mécaniste de prédiction laitière de Puillet. La production moyenne journalière est de 1,28±0,03kg, avec le pic de 1,49±0,39 kg intervenu à 41±16 jours de lactation. Le rang de lactation a significativement influencé la production de lait avec un pic au rang 3. Le rendement fromager est de 5,3l de lait pour 1 kg de fromage.

  64. ChitraJayapalan and AninditaGhosh

    Stalked barnacles of the genus Octolasmis Gray 1825 (Poecilasmatidae) are sessile invertebrates frequently found attached to decapods mainly in the branchial chambers of crabs. The main factors that determine the settlement and the distribution of stalked barnacles are water flow, which affects food availability, ventilation and removal of metabolites. Octolasmiscor was found attached on the external mouthparts, carapace margins and gill chambers of the crabs. This observation of Octolasmiscor attached to Scylla serrata is the first time record from the diamond harbour of West Bengal.

  65. Ayofe M Hammed, Albert O Amosu, Adekunle F Awe and Folashade F Gbadamosi

    Investigation into the effects of Moringa oleifera leaf extract on bacteria (Aeromonas hydrophila) infected adult African mud cat fish (Clarias gariepinus) was conducted using twenty infected adults Clarias gariepinus and treated with M. oleifera leaf extract at concentrations of 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% respectively. Blood samples were collected (pre-inoculation, post-inoculation and after treatment) from fish in replicate and analyzed for haematological parameters vis-à-vis RBC (Red blood cell), WBC (White blood cell), PCV (Packed cell volume), MCH (mean corpuscular haemoglobin), MCHC (mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration), MCV (mean corpuscular volume), Hb (haemoglobin), L (lymphocyte) and N (Neutrophil). It was observed that upon inoculation with A. hydrophila, all the haematological indices deviated to an abnormal range due to the inhibitory effects of the bacteria on the fishes. Results indicated no significant differences (P<0.05) among the parameters except white blood cell which shows significant difference at 50% treatment with Moringa oleifera extract. Infected fish responded to treatment better at 50% concentration Moringa oleifera leaf extract.

  66. Shobharani, P. and Latha, A.

    The Kole lands a unique wetland ecosystem of Kerala, is located 0.5-1.0m below mean sea level. An experiment was conducted in the College of Horticulture, Vellanikkara, Kerala to study the influence of secondary and micronutrients viz. calcium, magnesium and boron on nutrient uptake and yield of rice in Kole lands. Six treatments including the soil test based nutrient application, package of practices recommendation (POPR) of Kerala Agricultural University for rice, combinations of the POPR with magnesium, calcium silicate, boron and absolute control were applied in the crop in a randomized block design with three replications. Higher uptake of nutrients especially primary and micronutrients were noticed by boron and calcium silicate application and lower uptake of Fe and Mn, thereby resulted in higher grain yields of 7.67 t ha-1 and 7.18 t ha-1 respectively indicating and straw yield was higher by application of magnesium. Correlation analysis revealed that total uptake of boron, calcium and magnesium had positive and significant correlation with yield whereas negative correlation existed between Fe uptake and yield.

  67. Ninawe, A. S

    Marine biotechnologyis likely to play a major role in the commercial production of bio-active molecules and pharmaceuticals. The global market for products from marine biotechnology is forecast to reach over US$ 4.8 billion by 2020 and therefore marine bio-resources offer a lot of scope for the health and well-being of aquaculture production in the country through marine bio-business. In India, the developments in the field of aquaculture have been put forth by governmental initiations like DBT programme. Hence, in this article, those developments have been dealt briefly to create awareness among the public.

  68. La’ah, Mohammed Tanimu Badamasi and Abdulrazak Ado

    Naturally physical environment largelly determines which plant lives in a particular climate, plants growing in different ecological conditions; consequently they are referred to as xerophytes, hydrophytes, and epiphytes etc. Thus, shows certain adaptive features which enables them to survive under such conditions, these are phylogenetic characters. In the course of time, plants were able to cope with a range of conditions through the physiological, morphological and behavioral abilities they possessed. The anatomy and morphological comparative study of leaves of Pinus caribaea Morelet, Cycas revoluta Thunb. and Nerium oleander (L) were conducted through fixation process were the leaves are fixed in FAA (formalin acetic acid). After fixation, pieces of leaves were dehydrated in varying concentrations of alcohol i.e 30%, 50%, 70%, 95% and absolute alcohol for 2 hours each. After dehydration, the leaves were then infiltrated with paraffin wax. The inner surfaces of the watch glasses were smear with 10% glycerine to allow the solidified blocks of paraffin wax slip out of the watch glass easily. Molten wax was poured into the glasses and warm forceps were used to orient the impregnated leaves at their cutting angles. The paraffin wax blocks with the leaves were trimmed in equal sizes, so as to obtain straight ribbon during sectioning. The ribbons obtained were mounted on slides smeared with egg albumen. The slides were dewaxed in two changes of xylene for 5 minutes each. The slides were then treated in series of alcohol starting from absolute alcohol two changes, 95%, 70%, 50% and 30% alcohol for 2minutes each. The specimens were stained in safranin for 20minutes and in fast green for 5minutes. The sections of each material were observed under light microscope, to study the following parameters: Cuticle, Epidermis, Sclerenchyma and The location and number of stomata. In each case, the thickness was studied with the help of already calibrated microscope. In addition, the location and numbers of stomata were also studied. In conclusion, location actually affects the anatomical features of the leaf but it depends on what ecological zone the plant is found and the climatic diversity experienced by the plant

  69. James K. Mutegi, Julia N. Ameru, Daniel N. Mugendi, James B. Kung’u and Antony K. Njue

    An on farm study was conducted to determine farmers’ experiences, perceptions and adoption of agroforestry soil conservation technologies in central highlands of Kenya. There were clear indications from earlier studies that appropriate implementation of agroforestry strategies especially on sloping agricultural terrain could reduce soil erosion by over 50%, boost soil fertility and increase crop yields. The concern was finding out what would drive farmers to either adopt or fail to adopt such promising technologies. This study was carried out during implementation of field measurements of impacts of agroforestry contour hedges on the farmer fields in Tharaka Nithi County, in Kenya. It was done through two survey campaigns and a farmer evaluation of effectiveness of established agroforestry soil conservation hedges. Ninety nine percent (99%) of both trial and non-trial farmers confirmed their knowledge of occurrence and effect of soil erosion especially on the sloping agricultural terrains. Their perceptions of characteristic of the best agroforestry species for soil conservation were: species that yield high quality fodder, improves crop production, enhances soil fertility and control erosion simultaneously. Farmers’ perceptions of importance of agroforestry soil conservation hedges varied significantly (P<0.01) with field day attendance and training, land size and average slope of land. A number of variables significantly explained the adoption pattern of agroforestry soil conservation hedges at between 0.1 and 6% level. They were farmers contact with extension agents, education, farm income, livestock ownership, land size, membership to group or cooperative, gender and age. The coefficients for land size, age and access to off-farm income were negative implying an inverse relation between these variables and adoption. We conclude that farmers are likely to adopt technologies that provide multiple benefits. Better policy support for agricultural advisory services, quality inputs, land tenure and innovative financing are necessary for boosting adoption of effective soil and water management technologies.

  70. Basnet, R., Thapa, D., Timalsina, H. P. and Sharma, S. R.

    Wheat, the third major staple crop of Nepal has been suffered from many diseases. Various diseases are the major limiting factors of considerable wheat production; one of them is rust. There are three types of rust in wheat, leaf rust, stripe rust and stem rust (Black rust). However, the major biotic constrains are yellow rust in hills and leaf rust in plains of Nepal. Severity of leaf rust gradually increasing year after year in hills of Nepal also. In order to identify the high yielder, rusts resistant wheat genotypes for mid hills of Nepal, an experiment was carried out at Agricultural Research Station, Dailekh during 2014-2015. It was designed in Randomized complete block design (RCBD), composed of twenty wheat genotypes with three replications. Each plot was made eight rows of three meter long. Manually harvested middle six rows leaving one row both side as a boarder. Rust scoring was done thrice in seven days interval. Average coefficient of infection (ACI) was calculated. The highest ACI was 63.3 followed by 57.5 of genotypes WK 1481 and WK 2214 respectively for stripe rust. Similarly, the highest ACI was found 52.33, 18.33 and 18.33 in genotype WK 2437, WK 2381 and WK 2214 respectively for leaf rust. The grain yield was found highest (5549 kgha-1) in genotype WK 2278.

  71. Elamathi and Mohamed Tariq, N. P. M

    Isolate Pseudomoans fluoresces for studying the multiple antagonistic activity. The five different rhizosphere soil samples were collected and inoculated into selective media and their morphology was observed. Human skin swabs were collected for the isolation of five different pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus, Bacillus subtilis, Salmonella, Clostridium. The morphology characteristic of human skin pathogens causing microorganisms identified by performing Gram’s staining, capsule staining, motility test. The biochemical characteristics of five bacterial human pathogens causing micro organisms were studied. Pseudomonas fluorescens skin infections caused by various pathogens can be prevented.

  72. Joshi A.R. and Deokule S.S

    Plants have formed the basis of sophisticated traditional medicine systems that have been in existence for thousands of years. Ephedra foliata Boiss. Ex. C.A. Mey is a xerophytic plant and grow sunder adverse soil and climatic conditions such as highlight intensity and high temperature. Total 5 PGRs (Plant Growth regulators) viz. IAA (indole-3-acetic acid), NAA (1-napthaleneacetic acid), 2,4D (2,4-Dichlorophenoxyaceticacid), Kinetin and BAP (6 Benzyl aminopurine) were used. NAA was found to be effective for callus yield than IAA and 2,4D when used alone whereas Kinetin was proved to be more effective in comparison with BAP and callus induction increased when NAA was used as an auxin along with kin as cytokinin.

  73. Suriyavathana, M. and Vidhya, M.

    Alkaloids, from the natural sources are commonly used in medicine for their medicinal properties; agriculture in the form of pesticides based on their toxicity. They are present in natural sources, or biologically synthesized from amino acids. Alkaloid, quinoline; are extensively used for various purposes as preparation of dyes, production of specialty chemicals, and has derivatives which are used as therapeutic candidates. Quinoline derivatives are identified from an indigenous plant variety Toddalia aculeata obtained from Kolli hills, in central Tamil Nadu, Namakkal district of India. Using the compounds extracted from source, quinoline derivatives are obtained. Structural variations present and binding, are studied based on interaction with protein target. Comparison is done among commonly used anti-inflammatory, antibiotic drugs. The result was found to be comparable thermodynamically, based on the overall stability and intermolecular interactions, in complexes.

  74. Mahdi Bavar, Serrollah Galeshi and Afshin Soltani

    An experiment was conducted on research farm in Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources during the crop year of 2005-2006to study the effects of planting date and density on yield and yield components of hulless barley. An experiment was carried out as factorial by using the randomized complete block design with four replications. The examined factors were included three levels of planting date in 27 NoV, 23DeC, 2Feb and density was at three levels of 200, 300 and 400 plants per square meter. The results showed that the effect of planting date on yield and yield components was significant and the number of spike per square meters and the number of grain in spike and the weight of thousand grain decreased through the delay in planting, and the number of spike per square meters increased through adding the density, ut the number of grains in spike and the weight of thousand grains decreased. Also, the yield decreased through reducing the density and delaying in planting.

  75. Ubaidullah, Faisal Hafez, Zeeshan Hassan Jaffrey, Touqir Husnain, Awais Shakoor Hamza-Bin-Riazand Alam Sher

    Citrus psylla (Diaphorinacitri) is sap sucking bug that is belonging to family Psyllidae and having the order is Hemiptera. It has become one of the potential pests of citrus orchards in Pakistan. Its nymph sucks the cell sap and produce honeydew, while on the other hand adults are carrier of greening disease in citrus plant. Data was collected from 10 plants selected randomly from an acre field. Nymph population was scouted on twig basis from the four sides of plants. Adult population was scouted by sweeping the Arial net across the four geographical sides of the plant. Minimum and maximum temperature of a day was found negatively correlated but highly significant to the nymph population of citrus psylla .Relative humidity of evening and morning of a day is also significant. Maximum and minimum temperature of a day was found to be highly significant and relative humidity of evening and morning was found to be negatively correlated but highly significant to the adult population. Rainfall was found to be insignificant for both Adult and Nymph population.

  76. Ha Duy Truong and Chong Ho Wang

    This study was examined effects of difference composition on seedling quality and growth of tomato plant as well as concomitant evaluated the influences of mixture of medium composition with rice husk ask and coconut fiber. The result showed that biomass allocation, including shoot weight and root volume was affected by medium composition on seedling stage. In addition, a mixture of cattle manures composted with rice hush ash and coconut fiber under the rate 1:1:1 by volume respectively, gave the highest value of germination rate, plant height, leaf number, and plant biomass and it was found to provide optimum conditions for seedling performance of tomato plant.

  77. Suganya, V. and Asheeba, S. T

    The goal of the present study was to isolate and characterize astaxanthin from Portunus sanguinolentus (Three Spotted Crab), Callinectes sapidus (Blue Crab) and Paralithodes brevipes (Spiny King Crab) using the three different types of solvent mixture such as Hexane: Isopropanol, DMSO: Acetone and acetone. The biochemical composition present in the shells of three crab varieties were evaluated and subjected to the isolation of astaxanthin. The moisture content of three crab varieties ranged between 72.58 ± 0.58 % to 87.67 ± 0.38 % which was higher than other biochemical compositions such as ash, lipid and protein. The yield of astaxanthin from Portunus sanguinolentus (Three Spotted Crab), Callinectes sapidus (Blue Crab) and Paralithodes brevipes (Spiny King Crab) using Hexane: Isopropanol was 31.23± 0.53µg/g, 48.41± 0.28µg/g and 20.15± 0.18µg/g. The yield of astaxanthin using DMSO: Acetone was found to be 29.01±10µg/g, 39.98 ± 0.43 µg/g and 18.06± 0.23µg/g and yield of astaxanthin using Acetone was found to be 19.24± 0.46µg/g, 30.05 ± 0.32µg/g and 12.13 ± 0.16 µg/g. The highest yield was obtained using Hexane: Isopropanol hence, the isolated compound was confirmed to be astaxanthin by TLC. The Rf values in the range of 0.33 to 0.73 was obtained by TLC which confirmed that the isolated extract contains astaxanthin and its esters which is compared with standard astaxanthin. Further, the standard astaxanthin and isolated astaxanthin were subjected to FT-IR, NMR, HPLC and GC-MS for determining the functional groups and predicting the structural conformation. The peak was obtained in FT-IR, NMR, HPLC and GC-MS analysis for isolated astaxanthin and standard astaxanthin which shows the presence of their functional groups. The resultssuggest that astaxanthin isolated from the shells waste of three crab varieties can be used as natural pigments in various field.

  78. Debosree Ghosh and Pratap Parida

    The capital city of India, New Delhi has been recognized as the most polluted city in the world. World Health Organization (WHO) has reported this as per their findings in 2014. Bandyopadhyay et al., 2014. It is indeed an alarming issue for the health of our future generations in India. We are aware of the ill effects of environmental pollutants and toxicants on health status of human as well as other living organisms and the environment (Ghosh and Parida 2015). The most vulnerable to the toxic effects of the pollutants are children and old people. Some significant measures should be taken and some strict laws should be made to prevent environmental pollutions in the major cities of India. Deadly diseases like cancer and asthma etc. are increasing in Indian population. Pollution is indeed responsible for such increasing incidences of diseases.

  79. Ashok Ku. Khatua, Prafulla Ch. Rout and Bijaya N. Naik

    Lead poisoning was studied in a mining area of odisha. The study area taken is in between the radius of 5km. from the mining site. Males of different age groups living in different distances are considered for observation. The PbB level increases with increase in age up to 55years and slight decrease in PbB level ins seen in the people aged above 56. The EP level also increases with increase in age and distance from the mining site. The level of EP increases beyond normal above PbB level 10µg/100ml. A considerable increase in EP level is seen in PbB level>30µg/100ml. In most of the cases the co-relastion co-efficient r value is above 0.5 with P<0.05. Increase in PbB level increases EP level which shows lead interferes significantly with the formation of haem from protoporphyrin in blood, thus clearly indicates its toxic effects.

  80. Arpita Dey, Debapriya Sarkar and Sudip Barat

    Botia lohachata or “Y- loach”, an endangered and vulnerable fish, has both ornamental and edible value. Schistosomiasis or snail fever, a serious disease affecting human, domestic animals and wild animals is naturally controlled by the “Y-loach” in eating the freshwater snail and therefore plays a significant role in controlling the disease. The aim of the present study was, therefore, to breed this ornamental fish in captivity, study the embryonic development and conserve the fish in its natural habitat. The fecundity of females ranged from 3,731 to 23,120. The fish spawns in flowing water system at night. Embryonic and post embryonic development was recorded for 45 days. Each fish was given a dose of 0.025ml of WOVA-FH, a synthetic hormone, for induced breeding. The fertilized eggs measuring 0.9-1mm in diameter were observed to be demersal, nonadhesive and optically transparent. The average fertilization rate was found to be 95.98 %.The average Gonado-Somatic Index of female Botia lohachata was 24.46 and male 3.2. The embryos hatched after 14.30 h of fertilization from the chorion and measured 2.5 mm in total length. Correlation studies between total length, body weight, gonad weight, gonad length, fecundity and GSI were found to be significant (p≤0.01). The present work thus contributed to cover the deficient information for embryonic development of Botia lohachata. The embryonic development and captive breeding of this fish can play a great role in the conservation and its habitat protection.

  81. Citation: Selvakumar, P. and P. Murugasen

    Black gill disease in Litopenaeus vannamei was studied during 2014 in the grow-out ponds of Tamilnadu. The disease was characterized by black coloration and destruction of gills due to which lamellae became atrophic and necrosis. In severe cases, the disease led to chronic mortality of shrimps during the culture. The fungal stain Aspergillus sp. was isolated from the diseased gill. The prevalence of infection reached upto 80 % on 95th days. The b value of the diseased shrimps was slightly lower than normal one. The present study clearly shows that the poor water quality management caused the black gill disease and the stocking density also one of the factors which trigger the black gill disease in L. vannamei grow-out ponds.

  82. Abhilash Kumar, V., Balachiranjeevi, C. H., Bhaskar Naik, S., Rambabu, R., Rekha, G., Pranathi, K., Hajira, S. K., Anila, M., Mahadevaswamy, H. K., Harika, G., Hariprasad, A.S., Madhav, M. S., Laha, G. S., Prasad, M. S. and Sundaram, R. M.

    RPHR-1005 is a stable, elite restorer line of rice possessing highly desirable medium-slender grain type and is the male parent of the popular public bred hybrid DRRH-3. However, both RPHR-1005 and DRRH-3 are highly susceptible to major diseases like bacterial blight (BB) and blast. As genes conferring effective resistance are available against both BB and blast along with availability of gene-specific markers, the present study was carried out to introgress a major BB resistance gene, Xa21 and a major blast resistance gene, Pi2 into the genetic background of RPHR-1005 through marker-assisted backcross breeding. RPBio Patho-1, a breeding line in the genetic background of the popular variety, Samba Mahsuri and possessing Xa21 and Pi2 served as the donor. Marker-assisted backcross breeding strategy was deployed for targeted introgression of the two resistance genes into RPHR-1005. This involved two rounds of backcrossing and at each backcross generation, foreground selection was carried out using PCR based molecular markers specific for Xa21 (i.e. pTA248) and Pi2 (i.e. AP5659-5) along with the markers specific for the major fertility restorer genes, Rf3 (i.e. DRRM-RF3-10) and Rf4 (i.e. DRCG-RF4-14) and background selection was done using a set of 61 parental polymorphic SSR markers spread across the rice genome. At BC2F2, a single plant possessing all the targeted genes along with maximum recurrent parent genome recovery (~ 93.4%; plant # RP-9-27-79-179) was selected and advanced through selfing and pedigree-based selection for morphological traits. AT BC2F4, three lines, viz., RP-9-27-79-179-74-9, RP-9-27-79-179-74-79 and RP-9-27-79-179-74-105, possessing high level of resistance against BB and blast along with complete fertility restoration and all the elite features of RPHR-1005 were identified.

  83. Tecklah Usai, Cuthbert Zvidzai and Trust Mushawarima

    Gastro oesophageal reflux disease GERD has a global impact on health and it impairs the quality of life of a substantial proportion of the world’s population. This study focuses on assessing the dietary regimen, medication and placebo on relieving gastroesophageal symptoms caused by excessive production of gastric acids in the body. It is also caused by the backward flow or regurgitation of stomach contents passing up into the oesophagus. Obesity and overweight are risk factors of heartburn and oesophageal erosions. Body Mass Index (BMI) of participants were determined. Helicobacter pylori test were done in all 15 patients since H.pylori causes some of the symptoms of heartburn. Questionnaires were used to gather information on diet and GERD symptoms of participants. Physical observations on lifestyle of participants were made. The consent forms were signed by all participants for ethical considerations at United Bulawayo Hospitals in Zimbabwe. The participants were divided into 3 groups, (group 1 on strict diet and timed exercise, group 2 on medication and diet, group 3 on placebo and diet). The nutrient content of a strict diet was analysed, food test established the amount of nutrients (vitamins, mineral elements, proteins, fats and carbohydrates) in breakfast, lunch and supper. This study established that the nutrients in a strict diet were provided in adequate amounts. The nutrient -nutrient interaction was also recognised. A one way ANOVA was used to analyse the significance of the regimen.

  84. Daud Chandra Baro and Dr. DandadharSharma

    The river Sonkosh or Sankosh enters India at Jamduar (89°51/39.4// E and 26°43/59.8// N) of Kokrajhar district of Assam streaming from the snow fed upstream of Bhutan. It extends up to the Feshimari-Jaldhuaghat (89°47/26//E and 26°22/39// N) of West Bengal state. From the confluence point with another river called Raidak, It is known as Gangadhar river which flows through Dhubri district of Assam and joins with the Brahmaputra River. It has overlapping fishery resources of both warm and cold water nature, providing favourable conditions for many endemic fish species of Eastern Himalayan range. The spatial and temporal distribution of threatened freshwater fishes of Indian region that is enlisted by National Bureau of Fish Genetic Resources (NBFGR, 2010) was investigated at four sampling stations along the stretch of the river from April, 2014 to March, 2015. From the study, the conservation status of 11 fishes were recorded as endangered (EN) and 19 were vulnerable (VU) out of 30 numbers different fish species which are categorically in the status of threatened fresh water fishes of Indian region as described by NBFGR, Lucknow, India. Crossocheilus latius was recorded highest 10.62 % of relative abundances (RA) and less than 1% of RA was recorded for Channa barca, Ompok pabo, Sisor rhabdophorus, Tor tor, Bagarius bagarius, Ctenops nobilis, danio dangila, Eutropiichthys vacha and Ompok pabda. Their conservation status was also studied as comparison of CAMP, 98 and IUCN, 2014. We assessed diverse habitat characteristics in certain study sites of the river and are the natural breeding grounds of these threatened fish species. But due to installation Hydro-electrical power project in upstream of the river in Bhutan, the chance of changing its flow regimes, substrates, depth, sedimentation and any other unknown biophysical and biochemical alteration may leads to more threats to its endemic species. So the present information will serve as comparative hydro-biological assessment in future. It will also help in understanding the threat level and sustainability of threatened fishes. The river is important as it has the distribution of many endemic fish species of Eastern Himalayan region. So we recommend for protection and conservation of the Sankosh river and its fishery resources on priority basis. The study provides baseline scientific data which may be helpful in formulating new policies for conservation and sustainable development of lotic freshwater fishery resources of the region.

  85. Ravikumar, V. and Vijayakumar, R

    The objective of the present study was aimed to evaluate the distribution and phenotypic identification of pathogenic Vibrio alginolyticus and other Vibrio sp. Total halophilic and Vibrio sp were isolated from marine water and sediment samples of Chennai East Coast Region [ECR]collected from Thiruvanmyur to Mahabaliburam by standard spread plate method. Each suspected colonies were identified by physio-chemical properties and pure strain were subjected to phenotypic identification as described in the literatures, finally the 16S rRNA sequence of the isolate was deposited in the GenBank database under accession number JN863235.Quantitative distribution of total halophilic and total vibrio counts of water and sediment samples were varied from 68 x 103 to 22x103cfu ml-1 and 13 x 103 to 8 x 103cfu ml-1, 87x103to28x103cfu g-1 and 21 x 103 to 9 x 103cfu ml-1 respectively. Qualitatively 23Vibriosp were isolated from both water and sediment samples. Of them Vibrio alginolyticus was the predominant species hence it was confirmed by phenotypic analysis. Vibrio alginolyticus is an opportunistic pathogen; our analysis showed that these results are very important for assessing risk of infection after bathing tourists especially at Thiruvanmyur, Kovelam and Mahabaliburam.

  86. Hayat K. Odaa

    Protected agriculture is considered from the modern agricultural techniques that help increase production and fill the food gap, it provides crops in non off-season traditional, reduce losses resulting from the change in climatic conditions, Production early seedlings for exposed planting, produce good quality crops, reduce allocated area to cultivation the same crop compared with the exposed agriculture, and rationalization of irrigation water consumption. Because the style of protected cultivation of vegetable crops, including cucumber began receiving acceptance from farmers and increasingly support from the agricultural institutions in Iraq , so such style of agricultural production need to an economic evaluation .The aim of this study is to identify: costs of cucumber Production in protected agriculture, economics of cucumber Production in protected agriculture, and factors affecting the revenues of protected agriculture for cucumber. The study was conducted on a sample of (20) from owners of greenhouses in three regions : Al Talieah, AL Qasim and western Hamzah. The results showed that the average number of greenhouses (3.6 house), labor wages costs is the highest among the costs of production (36.8%), the average profit of the farms surveyed (24333 thousand dinars) it's good profit, compared with average costs (11990 thousand dinars), the farms protected class (5-6) house is the best in terms of economic criteria especially coefficient of profitability, return on costs and net profits.

  87. Indrama Thingujam, Richa Tandon, Ojit Singh Keithellakpam, Gunapati Oinam, Avijeet Singh Oinam,

    Cyanobacterium Chlorogloeopsis fritschii Mitra 1950 displayed irregular rounded and elongated cell packets during in-situ germination and controlled culture conditions. The strain was investigated for acetylene reduction activity and also assessed for lipid profiling and fatty acid composition by Nile red method followed GC-FID using Supelco standard. Investigation expressed high and considerable amount of acetylene reduction activity i.e., 4.47 and 11.27 nmole C2H4/µg of Chl-a/hr during 15th and 30th days growth phase respectively. Investigated organism also rigorously worked out for the production and release of pigments, total soluble proteins, total sugar and ammonia excretion during mid and last phase of growth cycle. The 16S rRNA sequences was compared with the retrieved cultures from NCBI GenBank database. Phylogenetic analysis was largely consistent which was obtained from 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Phylogenetic trees was constructed by neighbour joining and the findings indicate that the genus Chlorogloeopsis fritschii with accession number KJ562182.1 was distantly related to the genus Nostochopsis and Fischerella.

  88. Nidhi Rawat and Uma Melkania

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the changes in growth and yield in wheat (Triticum aestivum) crop when grown under elevated CO2. Different chambers were used: ambient CO2 chamber and elevated CO2 chamber. Crop was grown from seedling to maturity inside the chamber under ambient CO2 and elevated (future) CO2 (500 ± 50 ppm). Crop resulted in greater biomass compared to ambient CO2. The high concentration of CO2 resulted into increase shoot length, root length and number of tillers in terms of their size and weight. Exposure to elevated CO2 cause significant increase in economic yield of wheat per plant. In this study we examine the effect of present and future CO2 concentration on the growth, biomass and yield of wheat crop.

  89. Alka Nassar, Liza Jacob and Romilly Margaret Mendez

    The present work aimed at analyzing the pollution extent of Eloor, an important industrial hub of Kerala. The study targeted at analyzing the impact of industrial pollutants on the physicochemical soil properties and the plant diversity of the site. The site selected for the purpose was Pathalam Bund zone of Eloor. The chemical analysis revealed that the pH of the polluted sample was alkaline while it was neutral in case of control sample. The polluted soil sample carried more chemical load like sulphate, chloride, phosphate, magnesium, calcium. The percentage of organic matter was found to be less in polluted sample. The plant community study proved that the plant diversity of the polluted zone was evidently lesser than the control.

  90. Anju Chauhan and Ashok Kumar

    Salinity stress is one of the most serious problem in arid and semi-arid region of the world, which limits the growth and productivity of crop plants. Its harmful effects can be minimized by application of various chemicals mainly phytohormones i.e.-auxins, cytokinins, brassinosteroids, GA3 etc. Gibberellic acids are plant growth regulators that are also known to induce various physiological responses in plants. Gibberellic acid interacts with other hormones to regulate various metabolic processes in the plant. Application of these hormones increases the nutrient uptake, dry weight, plant height, leaf area and yield of wheat under saline condition. The alleviating effect of gibberellic acid has been shown to be through increasing the water status of the seedling and partially by sustaining protein and RNA level. In this review article, the alleviating effects of GA3 on-germination and seedling growth, leaf area, photosynthesis, chlorophyll contents, mineral nutrition, proline content under salt stress were reviewed.

  91. Ch. Pallavi., Joseph, B., Aariff Khan, M. A. and Hemalatha, S

    Finger millet was grown under three year old Melia azedarach in red sandy loam soil with different management options viz., application of FYM @ 10 t ha-1, 100% RDF (40:20:20 NPK kg ha-1) alone, and in conjunction with 75% RD N with 25% N through FYM, Vermicompost, Poultry manure; also with biofertilizers @ 5 kg ha-1Azospirillum and PSB along with finger millet alone as sole cropping with 100% RDF. Maximum yield, NPK content, nutrient uptake, OC and available NPK of finger millet in agri-silvi system was observed with sole crop without trees on par 100% RDF and 75% RD N + 25% N through poultry manure which was significantly superior over 75% RD N + 25% N through vermicompost > 75% RD N + Azospirillum + PSB > 75% RD N + Azospirillum >75% RD N + PSB > 75%N + 25% N through FYM. The highest grain (2681 kg ha-1) and straw yield (5063 kg ha-1) resulted with sole crop on par with 75% RD N + 25% N poultry manure (2405 and 4733 kg ha-1) and 100% RDF (2393 and 4745 kg ha-1). The lowest grain (1583 kg ha-1) and straw yield (3402 kg ha-1) was found with control FYM @ 10 t ha-1i.e., farmers practice. The NPK content in grain at harvest was found significant with integrated use of 75% RD N + 25% N through poultry manure (1.31, 0.264, 0.47%) and 100% RDF (1.28, 0.257, 0.47%) on par with sole crop (1.32, 0.265, 0.43%). In case of OC content slight built up (0.88%) was found with conjoint use of 75% RD N and 25% N through poultry manure closely followed by 100% RDF (0.87%) and on par sole crop (0.92%). Regarding available nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium were increased significantly in 75% RD N + 25% N through poultry manure (291.8, 39.0, 355.3 kg ha-1) and 100% RDF (283.9, 38.7, 354.8 kg ha-1) on par sole crop (317.0, 37.8, 366.1 kg ha-1) compared to control (213.3, 27.9, 322.6 kg ha-1).

  92. Mulu Debela Ofolsha and Dr. J. Paul Mansingh

    Ethiopia, as compared to the rest of the world, is a region most grounded in poverty due to periodic drought and extreme variable environment making agriculture a risky economic activity. As a consequence, agricultural production has been deteriorating over time, and forces rural people in the region to look for alternative employment option other than agriculture. Ethiopian rural female-headed households (FHH) are not exceptional to this scenario. Therefore a study was conducted on livelihood diversification strategies choice of female-headed households in Ambo district, Central highland of Oromia region, Ethiopia. The study was carried out in five Kebeles with 104 households to characterize livelihood options being practiced by FHHs and to examine the constraints that hinder FHHs participation in different livelihood options. Multi-stage sampling procedure was employed. Structured interview schedule and check list were employed to gather the data. The study used descriptive statistics, like mean, percentage and multinomial logit regression model for data analysis. The study has concluded that diverse livelihood options were available and thus, FHHs pursued diverse range of activities that draw on their labor and time. However, the participation levels varied within FHHs. The variation was mainly in terms of the activity they diversify into and conditions under which diversifications are made. Generally, FHHs participated in low-return and high risk and last resort activities. The study concluded that livelihood diversification strategies choice of FHHs was determined by a number of factors. Hence, it is recommended that the livelihood of FHHs needs to be recognized and policy intervention should concentrate on improving access to assets within the aim of expanding livelihood options rather than assuming households as spatial homogenous and individual engaged in one type of activity only.

  93. Sezgi ARMAN and Sema İŞİSAĞ ÜÇÜNCÜ

    In this study, histogical, histochemical and morphometric features of ovaries from adult zebrafish (D. rerio) were invastigated by light microscopy. In zebrafish which has asynchronous ovary, oocyte development was observed in four main stages as primary growth stage (PGS), cortical alveolar stage (CAS), vitellogenic stage (VS) and mature oocyte stage (MOS). We analyzed presence and distribution of glycoconjugates in the different structures of the developing oocytes (cortical alveoli, yolk granules, ooplasm and zona radiata) by staining the cross sections with periodic acid Schiff’s (PAS), KOH-PAS, toluidin blue (TB), alcian blue (AB) and aldehyde fuchsin (AF). Cortical alveoli, yolk granules, ooplasm and zona radiata showed glycoconjugates with glycogen and/or oxidable dioles and sialic acid residues (PAS+ and KOH/PAS +). Only zona radiata stained weakly with AF and it showed low acid sulphate glycoprotein content. AB staining was negative to all parts. Measurements showed that oocytes in PGS ranged from 26-143 µm, in CAS 145-400 µm, in VS 326-617 µm and in MOS 341-764 µm in size.

  94. Manoj Kumar Rajput, Praveen Gautam, Anurag Singh, Mohit Sharma, Akanksha, Reba Chhabra and Surinder Singh

    This is the first report on identification of plasma material for development of indigenous HBV standard for nucleic acid techniques. The HBsAg positive plasma bag was collected from National Capital Region. The hepatitis B virus in the plasma was quantitated by using four different lots of two different assays. The mean viral load determined was 5.59 log10 IU/ml. The plasma material was found to have genotype-D of the HBV. The nucleotide sequence was submitted under accession no. LK995378.

  95. Jemma Hermelin Jesy Diaz, Thilaga, R.D. and Sr. Shibana, C.

    Antimicrobial activity of the methanol extracts from the internal shell of L. duvauceli and S. pharaonis were tested against eight pathogenic bacteria namely Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Aeromonoas hydrophila, Streptococcus pyogenes, Vibrio fischeri, Klebsiella pneumonia, Escherichia coli and one fungal strain Candida albicans by well diffusion method. The methanol extracts of Loligo duvauceli was found to be effective against Streptococcus pyogenes, Klebsiella pneumonia, Aeromonoas hydrophila, Vibrio fischeri, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans. The cuttle bone extract showed maximum antibacterial activity (19mm) against Aeromonoas hydrophila and Escherichia coli and a minimum activity of 15mm was recorded against Streptococcus pyogenes. The results suggested that the antimicrobial activity was higher in the bone extract of S.pharaonis than L. duvauceli. A correct understanding and utilization may lead to use this waste material as a valuable pharmaceutical agent and can control pathogenic bacteria which cause dreadful human diseases.

  96. Ramprasad Panda, Manoj Ku Das and Peetabas Nayudu

    The primary productivity of the river Rushikulya in the district of Ganjam, Odisha has been assessed from January to December during 2013 and 2014 at three different study stations. The lowest (0.19 gcm-2day-1) and (0.21 gcm-2day-1)while the highest 1.79 and 1.76 gcm-2day-1 values of NPP were recorded during August and April of 2013 and 2014 respectively. This is comparable to the production of riverine ecosystem in the tropics. However the rate of primary production is adversely affected by environmental pollutants.

  97. Amita Yadav, Manila Yadav, Sandeep Kumar and Jaya Prakash Yadav

    The study aimed at comparing antibacterial potential of 3 polar and 3 non-polar organic solvent extracts of Acacia nilotica leaves against 9 reference bacterial strains and time kill kinetic study of ethyl acetate extract against S. typhi. Antibacterial activity was assessed against 9 standard bacterial reference strains viz. Shigella flexneri ATCC 12022, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 259323, Proteus mirabilis ATCC 43071, Salmonella typhi ATCC 13311, Serratia marcescens ATCC 27137, Klebsiella pneumonia ATCC 700603, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853 by Agar well diffusion method at a concentration of 50mg/ml. MIC was calculated by modified 96 well microtitre plate assay. Time kill kinetic study against S. typhi was performed at ½ x MIC, MIC and 2 x MIC concentrations. Polar solvent extracts were more active against all test strains. Ethyl acetate extract was most active. Maximum activity was against S. typhi with a zone of inhibition of 25 mm. MIC values ranged from 0.39 mg/ml to 12.5 mg/ml for different test strains. Maximum reduction in CFU/ml was achieved at 8 hour of incubation at MIC and 2 x MIC concentrations. So we can conclude that A. nilotica leaves can be a potent source of new antibacterial agents for therapeutic applications.

  98. Prabhakar, B. S., Kumar, M., Nandini, N and Vijay Kumar, M.

    Urban parks are significant in various ways. Apart from their recreational, health and fitness values, they contribute to the ecology of urban areas by maintaining the biological diversity of human interfered areas. They act as critical habitat spaces for urban wild life. Their role in sequestering carbon dioxide and acting as sinks for pollutants is well understood. The current paper is an effort to understand the species composition and carbon sequestering potential of a park in Bengaluru. The study reveals that the ratio of native and exotic species in the park is 51.82: 48.18 and its carbon sequestration potential was estimated to be 54,540.1 tonnes.

  99. Safiya Tazeen, Kulkarni, R. S. and Murali Jadesh

    Applications of synthetic pesticides is one of the methods used to increase agriculture production, due to their long term persistence, slow degradability and toxicity affects other organisms.. Present study was carried out to investigate the effect of profenofos on the haematology of the fish Notopterus notopterus. Fishes were exposed at sub lethal concentration of profenofos, thereafter blood was assayed for selected haematological parameters. Reduction in the number of RBC, Hb, and WBC indicating anemia. Whereas increased activity of blood sugar, blood urea, total cholesterol, serum triglyceride, alkaline phosphate, SGPT, SGOT indicated hepatic tissue damage. Decrease in serum uric acid and serum potassium indicates changes in ionic regulations.

  100. Mahesh Kumar, M.K. and M.K. Mahesh

    The present studies were carried out on the diversity of phytoplankton in relation to physico- chemical parameter from July 2012 to June 2013 in chikkakere, Periyapatna, Mysore, Karnataka. The water samples were analyzed to physical and chemical parameters by following the standard methods of APHA (2005) and Trivedi and Goel (1984). The quantitative analysis of phytoplankton was done by Lackey’s drop method modified by saxena (1987). Total 29 species were recorded which are belonging to Bacillariophyceae, Chlorophyceae, Cyanophyceae, Euglenophyceae and Desmidiaceae. Diversity indices have been discussed by using PASTA Software Program. The diversity indices includes Shannon and Weiner index, Berger and Parker index, Simpson index, Margalef’s index and Pielous index which determines status of the water body. The statistical program Pearson’s correlation matrix has been discussed by using SPSS 20.0 Software program. The Pearson’s correlation matrix explained Total Hardness is directly correlated with calcium, chloride and total alkalinity. The higher values of nitrate and phosphate observed in the month of May which leads in formation blooms in the lake. Microcystis aeruginosa blooms are dominant and occurred throughout year in the lake.

  101. Charu Mehra Kamal, Arun Kumar, Pankaj Kumar Sharma, Sanjeev Kumar Sharma, Brij Bhushan, Rajeev Kumar, Mohit Sharma and Reba Chhabra

    In order to ensure the quality of diagnostic kits for safeguarding public health in the country the evaluation of immunodiagnostic kits is done with in-house reference plasma panels. In this context, the maintenance of plasma samples stored frozen is extremely important. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the stability of plasma samples positive for anti-HIV antibodies stored over a decade. In this study, the 104 stored anti-HIV antibody positive samples were tested by ELISA methodology and the E-ratios were compared with the earlier recorded E-Ratios to check if there was any significant decrease in the values. The results were statistically analysed by paired t-test methodology and no significant difference was found in the E-ratios. Hence, the anti- HIV positive plasma samples stored at -200C were stable for as long as twelve years by ELISA methodology.

  102. Sasikala, M., Murugan V. and Jothi Narendiran, N

    The objective of this study is to assess the response of Oreochromis mossambicus to cadmium by determination of 96 hours LC50 value and behavioural response from exposure to different cadmium concentration. In this study conducted for 30 days enzymatic response of antioxidant defense system under heavy metal cadmium exposure was studied in the brain tissue. A decline in activity of superoxide dismutase and catalase was observed while an increase was in the activity of glutathione peroxidase was evaluated. It is proved to have minimal adaptive response in relation to cadmium exposure in polluted aquatic environment.

  103. Omar Bashir Ahmed

    The traditional uropathogens are changing many of their features, particularly because of antimicrobial resistance. The present study aimed to provide etiology and antibiotics sensitivity about UTI among patients attending Khartoum Hospitals. The study was carried out using 332 urinary bacterial isolates collected from different hospitals in Khartoum State. All isolates were identified and tested for their antimicrobial resistance to various antibiotics in vitro by the Kirby-Baur disk diffusion method. High rate of UTIs was caused by E. coli (47.3%) followed by S. saprophyticus (28.6%) while less rate was caused by Enterobacter spp (1%). E. coli was mostly isolated from female patients (102 out of 157) and from age group 11- 49 years old (80 out of 157). The maximum sensitivity was seen for piperacillin/tazobactum (91.8%) followed by imipenem (90.7%) and norofloxacin (86%). The maximum resistance was seen against tetracycyline (61.7%) followed by nitrofrontoin (54.2%) and azithromycin (36.1%). In conclusion, E. coli was the main UTI pathogen in Sudan followed by S. saprophyticus with an increasing incidence rate of S. aureus. Piperacillin/ tazobactum was the most active drug for UTIs treatment. Regular monitoring of antimicrobial drugs resistance is necessary to improve the guidelines for empirical antibiotic therapy.

  104. Jamal-Oddin, Durga Rani, CH.V., Swathi, G., Anuradha, C.H., Vanisri, S., Sheshu Madhav, M., Sundaram, R. M., Arun Prem Kumar, N., Krishnam Raju, S., Bhuvaneswari, V., Rajan, C. P. D., Patibandla, A.K ., Jagadeeswar, R., Cheralu, C. and Satyanarayana, P. V

    Rice blast, caused by Magnaporthe oryzae, causes yield loss associated with injuries on leaves and necks. Broad spectrum introgression of blast resistance genes Pi-54 and Pi1 from the donor parent NLR145 (Swarnamukhi) into cold tolerant rice variety Tellahamsa (C10754) was carried out using marker assisted selection. The target genes were detected through the blast gene specific molecular marker Pi-54 MAS for gene Pi54 and molecular marker RM224 which is closely linked to gene Pi1 in F1, BC1F1, BC2F1 and BC2F2 generations. In BC2F3, forty five progenies were analyzed through phenotypic assays with different blast pathogens at two blast hot spot regions west Godavari and Nellore. Four BC2F3 progenies possessing two blast resistance genes in homozygous condition (Pi54Pi54 Pi1Pi1) showed blast resistance along with Tellahamsa characteristics were advanced for multi location tests. This work demonstrates the successful application of molecular markers for targeted introgression of major blast genes Pi-54 and Pi1 in to a cold tolerant rice variety, Tellahamsa.

  105. Pooja A. Patil and Dr. Shubhangi B. Patil

    This paper presents novel technique for recognizing faces. From the last two decades, face recognition is playing an important and vital role especially in the field of commercial, banking, social and law enforcement area. It is an interesting application of pattern recognition and hence received significant attention. The complete process of face recognition covers in three stages, face detection, feature extraction and recognition. Various techniques are then needed for these three stages. Also these techniques vary from various other surrounding factors such as face orientation, expression, lighting and background. The Self-Organizing Map (SOM) Neural Network has been used for training of database and simulation of FR system. In this paper the feature extraction methods discrete wavelet transform (DWT), discrete cosine transform (DCT) simulated in MATLAB are explained.

  106. Effiong, E. E., Orga, A. C., Ibe, E. C. and Ekeke, I. C.

    This paper presents a two-dimensional gas pipeline model in cylindrical coordinates. The flow is assumed compressible and adiabatic. A modification in the energy equation of the compressible Navier-Stokes is made. First, a substantial derivative of the equation of state for an ideal gas (where pressure is the dependent variable) is obtained. A substitution for the substantial derivative of pressure in the energy equation is then made. This eliminates any derivative of pressure in the energy equation. This paper is a precursor to a second paper in which the computer simulation of the model will be presented and analysed.

  107. Jyothilekshmi S.

    The hepatoprotective activity of water extract of Ficus benghalensis (Family Moraceae) bark was studied against ethanol (3g/kg, 20% w/v p.o. once daily for 28 days) induced liver damage in rats. Ethanol produced significant changes in various liver parameters. It increased the biochemical parameters like AST, ALT, ALP, total bilirubin and decreased the levels of albumin and total protein along with changes in histological parameters (damage to hepatocytes). Treatment with water extract of Ficus benghalensis bark (at a dose of 400mg/kg, p.o. daily for 28 days) significantly prevented the biochemical and histological changes induced by ethanol, indicating the recovery of hepatic cells. The activity of extract was also comparable to that of silymarin, a standard hepatoprotective drug. These results demonstrate that the water extract of Ficus benghalensis bark is found to have significant beneficial effect on ethanol induced hepatotoxicity in Wistar rats in reference to liver function tests performed.

  108. Kayalvizhi, R. and Sankar, K.

    Water is a vital resource for human survival. In the present study, the physicochemical characteristics of groundwater of Alangudy, Aranthangi, Gandharvakkottai and Karambakkudi Taluks, Pudukkottai District, Tamilnadu, India. In the study area were assessed for its suitability for drinking and irrigation purposes. A total of 100 water samples were collected from tube wells from different parts of study area area. In order to assess the ground water quality, the water samples were analyzed for different physicochemical properties, e.g., pH, electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids (TDS), calcium, magnesium, total harness (TH), sodium, potassium, carbonate, bicarbonate, chloride, and sulphate concentrations. The results were compared with the standards prescribed by World Health Organization (WHO) and Bureau of Indian Standard (BIS). All the physiochemical parameters were found to be in the prescribed permissible limit. The chemical composition of the ground water is controlled by rock water interaction with sandstone, clay and Archaean to Proterozoic deposits. The chemical quality was evaluated for drinking use following the guidelines of WHO. The water quality index indicated that most of the sampling locations come under good category indicating the suitability of water for human use. Due to the industrialization and agricultural disposal some of the sampling locations became unfit

  109. Girish M. Wandhare, S. N. Gujar and V. M. Thakare

    Deep Packet Inspection (DPI) is more widely used in all applications or services such as Intrusion Detection System (IDS), which used with or within a network. DPI investigates all data present in the packet as it goes through an inspection to determine the transported application and protocol. Deep packet inspection mostly uses regular expression matching as a main operator. Regular expressions (RegExes) are used to represent complex string patterns flexibly in many applications varying from network intrusion detection and prevention systems (NIDPSs). Regular expressions represent complex string pattern as signatures of attack in DPI. It analyze whether a packet’s payload similar to any of a set of predefined regular expressions. There are various techniques implemented in DPI for deep packet inspection for regular expression. We survey on these DPI techniques for further improvement in detection of regular expression in this paper. We implement technique to block regexp packet such as DOS attack and SQL injection attack. In the result we found that it is possible to reduce RegExp transaction memory required to detection in network intrusion detection. We implement this technique with possible use of DPI techniques in the ad-hoc wireless network

  110. Shukla, P. H., Patel, Y. S. and Acharya, M. R.

    Air pollution became a real problem with industrial revolution. Today over two billion pounds of pollutants are released to the atmosphere each year. This paper focuses on different bio-technologies, which can be used to reduce the emissions of volatile organic compounds to the atmosphere from chemical process industries. The term volatile refers to the tendency of a compound to evaporate. By definition VOCs are emitted from a myriad of chemical industrial processes. As a consequence of the 1990 clean air act amendments more and more industries are being required to reduce their voc emissions. The control of emissions of VOCs has been a very prominent environmental issue. In the 1990s and will continue into the 21st century. There are different techniques are available to remove the VOCs from the air stream which is generated during various chemical process. Focus of this paper is on the various biological application for the removal of the VOCs from the air emission of process industries. This paper covers the most effective biological activities bio filtration, bio trickling filter and bio scrubber. Main emphasis has been given to their background, selection criteria, process description, its advantages as well as its limitations.

  111. Mohan, B. S., Rashmi, N. and Mahesh, K.

    Analyzing for the utilization of real power or useful power by the load at Sardhar Vallabhai Patel Block (SVPB). When load is energized either on alternating current (AC) or direct current (DC) supply, comparing loads real and imaginary power consumed when they are AC or DC load. The electrical characteristics of load are maintained constant for both supplies. For light load, its luminous is maintained at 2400 luminous seconded by fan’s speed between 500 to 800 rpm. The total light and fan load at SVPB is tabulated. Theoretical calculations are made to calculate the active, reactive, apparent power and power factor in ac system without compensation and with compensation. Total Power in dc system is tabulated to compare the total real or useful power consumed in both systems for same load characteristics. The result shows that power consumed, when system operating with ac 1.4582 time for the same load characteristics over dc system. DC system consumes only 68.88% of ac power after power factor correction. The calculated results are verified over Matlab environment.

  112. Mahdi Mahjour

    That optical fibers and carbon Nanotubes, today, have vital portion in industry and technology and increasing need for these two fields is clearly visible, is an axiom. In this paper has been tried by expressing some functional similarities between optical fibers and carbon Nanotubes (CNTs), bridge to communicate these two areas to be mapped. Finally, referring to this point that some performed research show optical fibers can be future generation of accelerator; the communication bridge from carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) has been extended. It is worth mentioning that in this review is only to express the idea and no theoretical and expriemental work has not been carried out.

  113. El Kady, G. M., El-Bassousy, A. A., Elsayed M. Elnaggar and Walid Bin Shrrada Ibrahim

    The aim of this work is to recover and characterize oil from Bottom Tank Oily Sludge from Brega oil refinery in Libya. The benefits would be two-folds, firstly to reduce the environmental impact of oily sludge and secondly to improve oil utilization efficiency as the sludge has a high content of valuable hydrocarbons. Oily sludge and recovered oil were characterized and key parameters were measured including water content, light and heavy hydrocarbon content, solid content ash and salt content, carbon residue, density, specific gravity, API (American Petroleum Institute) gravity, viscosity, SARA analysis and gas chromatography. Four different types of solvent were used to recover oil from solid and semi-solid sludge. The effect of various parameters namely shaking time, Temperature and solvent volume upon oil recovery were investigated. Within the range of the studied operating conditions herein, the maximum oil recovery obtained varied from 82.5 – 86.6% depending upon the amount of oil within the sludge and the solvent efficiency used for extraction. A detailed study of the kinetics of solvent extraction based on oil recovery was carried out

  114. Yamini Patel, Maulik Acharya and Shukla Purvi

    Many aqueous waste products cannot be destroyed by biological treatment and several industrial waste water containing highly toxic substances are difficult to dispose off. New processes have to be developed for the treatment of such effluents. Super critical water oxidation (SCWO) is one of such newly developed process, in which toxic organic chemicals present in waste water or sludge can be completely destroyed or converted into less harmful products. SCWO is operating at pressure and temperature above critical data for water (Pc=22.1 MPa & Tc = 374 0C). Under these conditions the fluid has a density between that of water vapor and liquid at standard conditions, and exhibits high gas-like diffusion rates along with high liquid-like collision rates. In addition, solubility behavior is reversed. The reversed solubility also causes salts to precipitate out of solution, meaning they can be treated using conventional methods for solid-waste residuals. These review papers provide a brief overview of chemistry, operational characterisics and information about different reactors of SCWO technique.

  115. Sangeeta Narwal and Daljit Kaur

    This paper includes matching of fingerprint images based on the minutiae and bifurcation points. Euclidean distance algorithm helps in recognition of input images depends upon the threshold value. Euclidean distance calculated between the feature vectors. A Gabor filter used to differentiate the extracts features of fingerprint images. Gabor feature of wavelet transform method helps in detecting minutiae and bifurcation points which help in finding the match of input fingerprint image.

  116. Louis AugustinDiaga DIOUF, Gora MBAYE, Augustin NDIAYE, Papa Mady, S.Y., Alphonse Rodrigue DJIBOUNE, Mamadou SOUMBOUNDOU, Inah Elisabeth NDIAYE, Nicolas ANTON, Thierry VANDAMME and Mounibé DIARRA

    In this study it was performed multiple emulsions of water in oil in water (W1/O/W2) containing insulin. The aim was to isolate the insulin molecule in emulsions of this type for optimal protection against digestive degradation. These emulsions were made in two steps, a first step of formulating a water-in-oil emulsion wherein the oil phase consists of peanut oil, not frequently used and tested in these types of emulsions, and a second one of multiple emulsion formulation. In the methodology, parameters such as the hydrophilic / lipophilic balance, the type of surfactant, the amount of thickening in the internal and / or external phase, the proportions of different fractions introduced, the speed and stirring time, were varied. The control of all these parameters allowed to produce emulsions that have superior long-term stability to one month. Stability tests in varying pH environments simulating those in the stomach and small intestine have also given satisfactory results. It plan later to continue the stability studies of this emulsions by further in vitro studies, but also by in vivo studies in diabetic rats.

  117. BASHAGALUKE BIGABWA Janvier, MASIMANE MWASHI Jules, NSHOBOLE MIGABO Nicole, KABAKABA BUSHIRU Christian, WALANGULULU MASSAMBA Jean

    Land degradation is a crucial constraint of crop production across the world, especially for the developing countries with low income to invest in good and profitable cropping technologies. Different engagements have been taken by the head of different African states to improve the use of inorganic fertilizers, as a key factor of crop production improvement, but with few successes. The Abuja commitment has been adopted but now it is expiring with few results. In South Kivu from the East of DR Congo, different organizations have tried to disseminate the use of these inputs but the end users are still unpowered. In Ruzizi plain, Phosphorus limits highly crop production. This study was focused on different Phosphorus fertilizers with specific moments of application to improve maize production. The trials have been installed in a split plot design, with the rate of 60 Kgha-1of P205 from three P-fertilizers sources: DAP, TSP, NPK. All the fertilizers were applied two and one week before the planting date and at the planting date. Results revealed that application before planting date gave good yield and plant growth compared to the application at the planting day, as it is done commonly by the few farmers using these inorganic fertilizers. The NPK and the DAP gave good yield (3, 9 tha-1 and 3, 8 tha-1 respectively) compared to the TSP (2, 8 t ha-1). Therefore, it is very important to reduce loses of the nutrients by applying phosphorus some days before plating.

  118. Payal F Sumara

    Cleaner production (CP), conceived as the vital tool to increase productivity as well as achieve sustainable Development, is now being accepted worldwide as an approach to overcome the draw back of the End-of-Pipe (EOP) treatment and also to tap the potential of the minimizing the wastage, increasing profitability of the units and protecting the environment. With reference to above there appears to be good scope for studying “Cleaner Production Options” in Industrial Distillery Sector. Cleaner Production implementation will be a catalyst in achieving company’s target of quality, health & safety and competitiveness. Introduction outlines briefly what is Cleaner Production, Definition of Cleaner Production, Basic Requirements of Cleaner Production, The benefits of Cleaner Production, Cleaner Production Techniques. In this paper one case study is involved which is “key-point” of this paper. This contains Manufacturing Process of Alcohol, Flowsheet of manufacturing of Alcohol, Cleaner Production Option with cost benefit analysis. Process manufacturing Flowsheet gives us better idea to understand the process in depth. In the last point conclusion and Recommendations are been presented. It has been concluded that there exists a very good scope for implementing “Cleaner Production and Cleaner Technology” in any “Alcohol Manufacturing Unit”

  119. Pavleen Singh Bali, Shuvam Gupta, Harivansh, K., Ankur Siwach, Raghav, A. K., Bhuvnesh Wadhwa and Gaurav Puri

    Currently, there are significant challenges faced by the farming industry, which are a reduction in the available labour workforce, and a more 'corporate' style of farming. So such factors demand an increase in farming efficiency and productivity. In this regard, Autonomous Agriculture is seen as an effective tool for bringing together the areas of robotics, embedded systems and precision agriculture (PA) which not only deals with issues of agronomy but also provides better technology like “On-farm sensing and control” to actuate autonomous farm machinery for better farm management. It is a system-of-systems architecture, or unified framework, where a vital building block is the existence of two data sets used as links, or communication, between the various sub-systems. These data sets include a precision farming data set (PFDS) containing spatially precise navigation data (like how healthy is crop, map yield, moisture data, temperature, humidity etc.) for all autonomous machinery, and a precision agriculture data set (PADS), which is a continually evolving entity consisting more of agronomy data in relation to the crop for better sustenance, productivity and yield of the crop.

  120. Aradhana Sharma and Gauri Shanker Sao

    In this paper, we establish the generalization of T-contractive type of mappings on Banach space. In (Huang and Zhang, 2007) Huang and Zhang generalized the concept of metric spaces, replacing the set of real numbers by an ordered Banach space.

  121. Mohamed Ibrahim Elzagheid

    Synthesis of 4’-thionucleosides and their analogs (2’-Modified 4’-thionucleosides, 6-Azapyrimidine-2’-deoxy-4’-thionucleosides, 4’-Ethynyl-2’-deoxy-4’-thionucleosides, 5-Substituted 2’-Deoxy-2’-fluoro-4’-thionucleosides)has been discussed briefly in this review. Hydrolytic stability of purine and cytosine 2’-deoxy-4’-thionucleosidesand 2’-deoxy-4’-thiouridines and their 5-substituted analogs in aqueous acidic solutions was also elaborated. This study shows that cytosine and purine 2’-deoxy-4’-thionucleosides are more stable toward acidic hydrolysis than their unmodified counterparts. The reactivity ration ranges from 40 to 70 with purine thionucleosides and about 7 with cytosine thionucleosides. No other nucleosidic products or intermediates have been accumulating during the hydrolysis and the above mentioned thionucleosides. The N-glycosidic linkages of the 2’-deoxy-4’-thiouridines and their 5-substituted analogs are also more than one order of magnitude more stable toward acidic hydrolysis than are those of their native counterparts. A series of 4’thionucleosides has been evaluated for antitumor and antiviral activities.

  122. Shukla Purvi, H., Patel. Yamini, S. and Acharya Maulik, R.

    The global oil crisis in last decade has created energy and power crisis is forcing the people to look for energy efficient alternatives. Cleaner technology is the anticipate and prevent philosophy by way up gradation in order to improve the efficient use of natural resources and the energy sources within the industry. This paper represents one Dye Manufacturing Unit A at Vatva, Ahmedabad (Gujarat) India, in which one cleaner production tool, technology modification is applied for the efficient use of the boiler spare steam for the production of the ice. This paper will review the basic behind the ice manufacturing process by ammonia absorption system by the use of the spare steam from the boiler. This paper mainly offers the economic analysis for the said unit. It is beneficial for the unit A to set up their own ice plant by using their own energy source. The proposed modification will economically beneficial to the said unit.

  123. Beaulah Angelin, K. and Sayee Kannan, R.

    Phenol-Formaldehyde resin (PFR) grafted Nano-Fe2O3 (nFe2O3) was fabricated for Bi(III), Hg(II) and Cd(II) removal using a novel polycondensation method. The present materials were carefully examined by FT-IR spectra (FT-IR), Scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy-dispersive microanalysis (EDX), and thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA). PFR-nFe2O3 showed excellent uptake effects for Bi(III), Hg(II) and Cd(II) removal with a pseudo-second order model. The Freundlich models well described the equilibrium isotherm than the Langmuir model. Thermodynamic parameters showed that adsorptions were feasible, spontaneous and endothermic. These suggested that both electrostatic adsorption and chemisorptions were involved. The results indicated that PFR-nFe2O3 could well be used as a high performance sorbent for the heavy metal ions removal from aqueous solution with a list of Bi(III), Hg(II) & Cd(II) ions.

  124. Mohamed Dafaalla, Ihab Abdalrahman, Zulfa Omer, Sahar Mohammed, khalid Ahmed, Yasamin abdu, Mohamed Mahadi, Moayad Othman, Tarig Mabrouk, Sara Elnour, Amgad Elmadani

    Background We aimed to assess satisfaction determinants in public and private outpatient clinics. Methods We did a cross sectional survey in Soba university hospital outpatient clinic in October 2015. We included all adult patients and companions came to outpatient clinic. We assessed demographic data and patient satisfaction towards private and public hospitals outpatient clinic experience. We used the Patient Satisfaction Questionnaire (PSQ-18) to assess patient satisfaction. We recruited 400 participants randomly and took verbal consent. Results Around 58% were females and 42% were males with mean age of 34 years. Around 40% of participants have below average satisfaction towards communication in both public and private clinics, yet, the overall satisfaction was average. Furthermore, only around 20% of participants were dissatisfied with accessibility to both private and public clinics. In contrast, Almost 60% in public and 75% in private clinics were dissatisfied about time spent with doctor. Moreover, time spent with doctor was the most dissatisfactory aspect in both public and private clinics (mean was 1.98 and 2.21 respectively). The technical quality satisfaction was similar (mean=3.42). Patients and companions in public clinics were more content about general satisfaction, finance, and communication compared to experience in private clinics (P values were 0.022, 0.00, and 0.035 respectively), while the reverse is correct for interpersonal manner and time spent with doctor (P<0.001). Rural residents were satisfied more with accessibility of public clinics rather than private ones (P=0.015). Conclusion Time spent with doctor is the major concern, whereas having insurance appears to improve satisfaction significantly.

  125. Princy Singh and Rahul Dubey

    This paper presents a new denoising based multi-level filtering technique algorithm for image restoration. It is designed to eliminate the errors or quality degradation in image by the means of multi filtering techniques. This work uses Pseudo Inverse Filter and Wiener Filter techniques of filtering. With the help of this hybrid method, proposed work denoises the image and improve the quality of the image. Digital image processing has been and will continue tohave an important role to extremely varied applications. Proposed work is implemented in .NET. Results show very much clearly about the restoration of degraded image.

  126. Mohammed Zouhairi, Hamza Bali, Ouafae El Ghadraoui, Taje dine Lamcharfi and Abdelhalim Elbasset

    The classical solid state method was developed to prepare solid-solution x PFN + (1-x) PMN, shows a good homogenization of the starting products. The powder was heat treated at 300°C and then calcined at 850°C. The products were characterized by XRD, microstructure of the samples was analyzed with scanning electron microscope (SEM), and dielectric measurements were performed using an impedance analyser (LCR, HP 4284 A) in the frequency range from 100 Hz to 2 MHz.

  127. Dr. Archana Ghatule and Dr. Arjun P. Ghatule

    Information Technology is an era which has changed the life of human being in all respect. The profession in IT-Industry differs from other professions. At one side it gives high salary, good status, and opportunity to work in abroad but at other side, with basic, computerized reporting systems mostly in place, IT-Professionals are being relied upon to produce, with often demanding deadlines, innovative computer applications which enhance the competitive position. These diverse characteristics of IT-Profession may lead IT-Professional to high stress and these professionals suffer the problem of depression and anxiety. The paper focuses on depression and anxiety problems among IT-Professionals. It also studies, verious side effects of these depression and anxiety problems are more among male and female. Data collected from 535 IT-Professionals is being studied for this research.

  128. Ruma Dutta and Amitava Jana

    Association Rule Mining has been the area of interest for many researchers for a long time and continues to be the same. It is one of the important tasks of data mining. It aims at discovering relationships among various items in the database. There are several algorithms of which Apriori is the classical and most famous algorithm. But in classical Apriori algorithm human intervention is required for the threshold values of support and confidence. To solve this problem, an automated Apriori algorithm is proposed in this paper, where correlation coefficient of the items has been considered. This paper also presents a comparison between original Apriori Algorithm and our automated Apriori Algorithm through experiments

  129. Santosh S. Patil

    In this paper, our aim is to come up with a platform which will help in reducing the time and cost for retrieving the information. Here we describe the implementation of the dashboard to achieve the same using SharePoint Technology. Dashboard is a site presenting the most significant information on a single page. Provide interactive summary of a management report, Consolidates, Aggregates, and Arranges Measurements in a visual representation on a single screen and acts as a one stop reference. The design of the Dashboard comprises of many web-parts and it is chosen to support and represent appropriate product activities. Through this we can get information from various sources and build dashboard which is useful for organizations across GEO’s. Automation is done in such a way that the Dashboard contains the updated/current information always.

  130. Viktor Koryagin and Oksana Blavt

    In the present work we study the issues of the test control in physical education. Nowadays, one of the problems facing the researchers in the field of physical education is the need for the fundamental restructuring of the test control system in the direction of modernization, introduction of innovative approaches and modern technologies of its organization. And this study deals with the problem of creating a unified level control system for the physical fitness of the persons engaged in physical training One of the promising directions to improve the testing system is the development and practical implementation of new, highly effective means, methods, technologies for the integrated control and management of this process.

  131. Shaarawy, H. H., Nabila H. Hussien, Abdel Kader, E., El – Araby, R. and Hawash, S. I.

    The formation of nanoemulsions water – in – diesel using nonionic surfactant, nonionic emulsifier and different water content from 14 to 40% (v/v) was investigated. The effect of water content on the emulsion stability was studied. The efficiency of the formed water- in- diesel was studied by measuring open burning time, calorific value, viscosity and mean droplet sizes using atomic transmission microscope (ATM). It was found that the optimum water content was 30% at which longer burning time is obtained and the mean sizes of the formed droplets between 20 and 27 nm depending on the water content. Measuring the viscosity it was 8 cP while its calorific value was 35.9 KJ/kg while ignition time was 15.5 minutes with flame length 15 cm.

  132. Shama, P.S. and Santosh S. Patil

    We live in on-demand, on-command Digital universe with data prolifering by Institutions, Individuals and Machines at a very high rate. This data is categorized as "Big Data" due to its sheer Volume, Variety, Velocity and Veracity. Most of this data is unstructured, quasi structured or semi structured and it is heterogeneous in nature. The volume and the heterogeneity of data with the speed it is generated, makes it difficult for the present computing infrastructure to manage Big Data. Traditional data management, warehousing and analysis systems fall short of tools to analyze this data. Due to its specific nature of Big Data, it is stored in distributed file system architectures. Hadoop and HDFS by Apache is widely used for storing and managing Big Data. Analyzing Big Data is a challenging task as it involves large distributed file systems which should be fault tolerant, flexible and scalable. Map Reduce is widely been used for the efficient analysis of Big Data. Traditional DBMS techniques like Joins and Indexing and other techniques like graph search is used for classification and clustering of Big Data. These techniques are being adopted to be used in Map Reduce. In this research paper the authors suggest various methods for catering to the problems in hand through Map Reduce framework over Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS). Map Reduce is a Minimization technique which makes use of file indexing with mapping, sorting, shuffling and finally reducing. Map Reduce techniques have been studied at in this paper which is implemented for Big Data analysis using HDFS.

  133. Kouame Joseph Arthur Kouame, Fuxing Jiang Yu Feng and Sitao Zhu

    According to the general research, approximately 35% of the national territory is rich in gold. The vast mineral potential in Ivory Coast (Cote d’Ivoire) could increase the mining sector's contribution to the national GDP in the future years beyond 5%.The political unrest due to the rebellion in 2002 and the post electoral crisis from December 2010 to April 2011 has been a brake on development of all economic activities in Ivory Coast, especially in the mining sector. Nowadays the government of Ivory Coast has begun to take an interest in the mining sector in order to diversify its economy since it had been all along based on agriculture. Although several mineral deposits remain undeveloped and unexploited, some mineral deposits such as Angovia, Tongon, ity, Bonikro .etc. have been detected and put into development. This paper is focused on some problems which the British mining company (Amara mining) in Angovia gold mines may face in 2017 due to the presence of thousands of artisanal miners across country.

  134. Asha, P.S., and Jayamma Francis

    Plant extract mediated bio reduction method can be used as an alternative to traditional chemical methods for the production of metal oxide nanomaterials. The present study, aimed to develop a rapid, eco-friendly method for the synthesis of ZnO NPs using Azolla leaf extract by microwave irradiation. The formation of nanocrystals was confirmed by employing standard characterisation studies such as UV-Vis spectroscopy, Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and X-ray diffraction method (XRD). The antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of bio synthesized nanoparticles were evaluated & compared with chemically synthesised ZnO NPs for bio medical applications. Green synthesised ZnO NPs showed better antibacterial & antioxidant activity than chemically synthesised ZnO NPs.

  135. Selvaraju, R., Oumabady Alias Cannane, N., Renukadevi, K. B. and Meenambigai, K

    A study has been carried out to explore the Physico-chemical characteristics of mine water pumped out from coal mine located at Neyveli, South India. Water samples, from five different sites through a canal were collected and analyzed for physico-chemical parameters, like; pH value, electrical conductivity, total hardness, total alkalinity, total dissolved solids, chlorides and sulphates. Results were compared with water standards and discussed.

  136. Ikeagwuani, Chijioke Christopher, Nwoji Ugochukwu Clifford and Ekwuilo Kingsley Ikechukwu

    The need to stabilize expansive soils such as black cotton soil in order to mitigate the inherent deleterious property of swelling and shrinking cannot be fully overemphasized. For the soil to be effectively utilized as subgrade it has to be stabilized and more importantly at a relatively cheap cost. So to attempt stabilizing the black cotton soil, this research uses palm kernel shell ash and lime to study the potential of stabilizing with the locally available material. For this investigation, 0, 4, 12, 16 and 20% of palm kernel shell ash was added by weight of the black cotton soil while keeping the lime percentage at 4% for all mix ratios. Experimental tests conducted in this research includes: Atterberg’s limits, specific gravity, differential free swell, compaction and California bearing ratio (CBR). The result obtained after the experiment showed that there was a marginal improvement in the value obtained for the CBR value while there was a significant dropped in the maximum dry density obtained from the result of the compaction test carried out.

  137. Patil Nitin Yashwant and Dr. Warkhedkar, R.M.

    In the current progressively evolving environment, learning administration addresses the discriminating issue of hierarchical reception, survival and ability. As learning administration speak to hierarchical procedures that look for mix of information and data handling abilities of data and correspondence and inventive and creative limit of people. As information is quickly turning into the most vital resource of association, assembling is no more special case. The capacity to oversee and misuse learning will be the fundamental wellspring of upper hand for the assembling business without bounds. In that part, learning administration will enhance creation administration and keep away from or minimize misfortunes and shortcoming that more often than not originate from poor execution and in addition build the focused level of the organization and its capacity to make due in the worldwide commercial center. This examination paper is concerned with the change of creation administration hypothesis, in the assembling setting, through the utilization of some center standards. The centers standards researched are the decrease of process duration, diminishment of variability, increment in straightforwardness, and incorporate of persistent change with the procedure. The basic reason hidden these standards is the idea of stream, where creation is seen as made out of holding up, transporting, assessing, and change (handling) exercises. Likewise contend for more than essentially assembling information to be used and oversaw as inferred and express learning.

  138. R. P. Patel,

    In this paper, we present hiss-triggered chorus emissions recorded at Indian Antarctic Station, Maitri (geomagnetic latitude = 700 46/ S, longitude = 110 50/ E, L = 4.5) during 3 February 2001. The recorded data has been analyzed we find that the wave intensity of chorus events are usually a function of frequency and also it varies from event to event. Chorus emissions are supposed to be triggered by the non-linear process involving whistler mode wave and energetic electrons. The energy of resonating electrons and its variation with wave frequency, pitch angle and L-value along with temporal evolution of emitted wave frequency have been evaluated. The results are used to explain the observed dynamic spectrum of hiss- triggered chorus emissions.

  139. Shifa S. Ibrahim, Lavanya Krishnagiri Balan, Rajeswari Thivya Dhanabalan, Bhuvaneswari M Ganesan and Sakthi Sankari Shanmuganathan

    Background and objective: Hirschsprung’s disease is a disease that occurs in a newborn child with an incidence of one in 5000 live births with a male predominance. In our setup for the diagnosis of Hirshcsprung’s disease, haematoxylin and eosin staining in a formalin fixed tissue was routinely practiced. As a novel diagnostic procedure, rapid on table acetylcholine esterase stain was tried. It is a diagnostic accuracy test done with the following objectives: 1.To perform acetylcholine esterase and rapid hematoxylin and eosin staining in the frozen section of rectal biopsy as a part of intra operative consultation. 2 To correlate routine formalin fixed, hematoxylin and eosin staining results with rapid methods. 3. Feasibility of these procedures in our setup. Method: All infants who had not passed meconium since birth and who had symptoms of intestinal obstruction were screened by pediatric surgeons. As a part of intra-operative consultation, both frozen section and formalin fixation were done in the received specimen. In the frozen section, acetylcholine esterase staining and rapid haematoxylin and eosin staining was done. In the formalin fixed specimen routine haematoxylin and eosin was done. Results: All the three stains- acetylcholine esterase, rapid hematoxylin and eosin and hematoxylin and eosin in a formalin fixed specimens gave equal results. When rapid methods were compared with the routine formalin fixed specimen haematoxylin and eosin staining method the turnaround time was very much reduced. By rapid staining, intra-operative consultation facilitated single stage Duhamel pull- through. Repeat surgery was avoided as both the diagnosis and the level of colon having ganglion cells were assessed simultaneously. As a result, hospital stay was reduced. Conclusion: In this diagnostic study done on twenty cases of suspected Hirschsprung’s disease, the diagnostic efficacy of rapid methods correlated with that of the routinely processed tissue sections stained with haematoxylin and eosin. The turnsaround time for the rapid tests were less. This facilitated on table diagnosis, reduced the need for repeat surgery, improved the outcome of surgery and, there by reduced the duration of hospital stay.

  140. Kelly Mua kingsly, Samuel F. Johnson-Rokosu and Rasaq Alabi Olanrewaju

    Recent terrorists activities in Lake Chad basin (comprises of countries such as Nigeria, Niger, Chad and Cameroon) have adversely affected the socio political and economic situation in the region. The study involves assessing the historical background and charatersitics of Boko Haram terrorist group and investigating the sources of funding Boko Haram terrorist group and effect on socio political and economic activities. The research approach to this study entails a literature review that is carried out to identify the knowledge gap in previous studies, to obtain background information to the research topic, to identify tested methods, techniques and research designs for uncovering the answer to the research questions, as well as to obtain an understanding of the conceptual principles that have a bearing on the study. Combination of historical research design and survey research technique was used in this study. This research study uses non-parametric (Chi-square test and descriptive statistics) to analyzed and test the study population. Findings revealed that the menace of Boko Haram terrorists group is as a result of availability of several sources of funds to finance its activities, if these sources are cut off or contained, the menace will drastically reduce. Also, the study found that the sources of terrorism financing and its availability to the Boko Haram terrorist group activities have effect on socio political/ economic development in the region. The authors are of opinion that regional government and international communities should consider some of the grievances of the sect in proferring solution to the menace of bombing and attack Boko Haram.

  141. Gayatri Oleti

    Migration has become an integral part for the growth and development of the global economy. According to the UN, Migration from rural to urban areas has played a key role in the social and economic development of a country. Migration can have many implications on the individual as well as their families (http://migratingoutofpoverty.dfid.gov.uk/files/file.php?name=wp2-impact-...).

  142. Eba Teresa Garoma and Dr. Ashenafi Belay Adugna

    This study was designed to investigate sense relations of lexemes in Macha Dialect of the Oromo Language through the application of linguistic knowledge. It was set to identify the different horizontal and vertical sense relations in the dialect and to describe them systematically. Qualitative method was used to achieve the objectives of the study, and text analysis was employed in the discussions of the findings. The sense relations predominantly used in the dialect are antonymy, synonymy, hyponymy, homonymy, polysemy, member-collection, meronymy, portion-mass and metonymy. Some of these relations are further categorized into parcels of smaller sense relations.

  143. Elona Hysa

    In this study it made an in-depth analysis of the role of wage as an important instrument of management policy to increase welfare in Albania. Specifying a model of linear regression simple two independent variables to determine the relationship that exists between real average wage per employee in the public and private sectors where the employment rate and GDP per capita, is another contribution of this study. The main finding of this study is that the Gross Domestic Product per capita is significantly positive impact on the average monthly wage per employee. The size of the increase in GDP per capita has a positive effect on increasing the average real wage per employee in the public and private sector. The effect of increasing the level of employment at the national level has a positive effect but not too high in real average wage growth per employee. Results of regression economic sense in the two dependent variables measured during the study period statistically significant result and it shows that there is a link between the dependent variable and independent variables.

  144. Dr. Nuray Gökçek Karaca and Dr. Erol Karaca

    The aim of this study is to determine the socio-economic and professional conditions of Turkish migrant workers from Giresun in the United States. To that general aim, this study investigated the social origin and family structure, quality of life, features related to working life, working conditions, social and political participation, thoughts about living in the United States and expectations of future of these migrant workers. The research was carried out with 92 Turkish migrant workers from Giresun, working in Connecticut; Bridgeport, New Haven and Danbury. The data were collected by using a questionnaire composed of 79 closed and open-ended questions developed by the researcher based on a literature review. This questionnaire consists of items related to the social, professional and economic conditions of these migrant workers. Data which were collected by a questionnaire towards migrant workers were analyzed with descriptive statistics by using the statistical package SPSS. The findings of the study revealed that The vast majority of Turkish migrant workers from Giresun in the U.S. are young and economically active male. These workers in the U.S. can be seperated into three groups such as those whose both enterance to and working in the U.S. are legal, those whose enterance to the U.S. is legal but working there is illegal, and those whose neither enterance to nor working in the U.S. is legal. Turkish migrant workers from Giresun have migrated to the U.S. because of the ‘push factors” in Turkey and the ‘pull factors’ in the U.S. The push factors in Turkey are economic reasons such as unemployment or not having job opportunities, low income and poverty. The pull factors in the U.S. can be grouped as economic and non-economic reasons such as better job and training opportunities, higher wages, family reunion and better future. Along with these reasons, the immigration policies that the U.S. follows also cause Turkish migrant workers from Giresun to prefer the U.S. Due to being clandestine and incompetency of language, a great proportion of these migrant workers are engaged in jobs unrelated to their profession and training, they are usually paid below the minimum wage, and they have longer working hours compared to the U.S. labour. A great proportion of these workers, including the legal workforce usually lack social protection and benefits such a health, medical and employment security. In addition all of the examined Turkish migrant workers from Giresun remain out of interest of American and Turkish trade unions, and politics. They are also faced with unemployment though not for a long period.

  145. Sachin Coothoopermal and Dr. Hemant Chittoo

    This paper attempts to highlight the historical development of Competition Laws with a view to gain insight into the underlying reasons that have led to development in the field as an important requirement for a competitive business environment in some developed and developing countries. The origin and goals of implementing major legislations during different periods of time in countries having well known established Competition Laws are discussed to give a picture of their importance and the reasons behind their implementation. What seems to encourage is that whilst the objectives of implementation diverge in many countries, the main objectives of competition laws however remains the maintenance of an efficient and effective competitive system with the aim to reduce anti-competitive behaviour and improve consumer welfare.

  146. Magwa Simuforosa and Ngara Rosemary

    The education of children with special needs has become a worldwide phenomenon. Inclusive education is an approach that focuses on the idea that all children should have equal learning. Removing barriers to participation in the learning of all learners is at the core of inclusive education. This study set to explore the challenges that interfere with the successful implementation of inclusive education. The qualitative case study deemed fit to be used in the study. The population consisted of teachers and school heads undertaking a Bachelor of Education Degree Education Psychology at Great Zimbabwe University. The sample consisted of 35 teachers and 5 school heads. The study established that effective implementation of inclusive education is hampered by inadequate training of teachers on special needs education, lack of resources like equipment, negative attitudes and lack of specific policies on inclusion. The study recommends that government should come up with stringent measures to ensure policies are implemented.

  147. Dr. Pawan Kumar Sharma

    The study of settlement is of the essence to human geography because the appearance and structure of settlement in any particular region reflects man’s relationship with the environment, grown up over a long period of time. By studying the housing characteristics, size and types of settlement we can see something of the history of man’s explorations and humanizing with the environment. Settlement reflects not only man’s response to his environment but also the religious and social traditions of his society. In geography; settlement studies hold a significance place because settlements are viewed as a basic expression of relationship between man and environment. Settlements are specific features in different regional perspective. This study identifies the dimensions of rural settlements in Jaisalmer district in reference to the rural settlement size, form, regional association, their types and distribution. The objective of the present study is to analysis the micro-level appraisal of spatial dimensions of rural settlement and highlights the spatial organization of the rural settlement with reference to physiographic regions of the district.

  148. B. P. Mahesh Chandra Guru, V. Shanmugam, Somanna and M. Dileep Kumar

    Reservation is indeed the process of setting aside a certain percentage of seats vacancies in educational institutions, government institutions and legislative institutions for the members of weaker sections in a pluralistic society like India. At the national level, the reservation policy originated in the form of Montague-Chelmsford Reform (1919). In 1925 the British Government decided to earmark certain quota in Government jobs for minority communities. The Indian Government implemented reservation policy in 1950. The Supreme Court has favored the combi¬nation of social and economic criteria for extending the benefit of reservation to the weaker sections of India. There is a reservation of 15 per cent for the, scheduled castes and 7.5 per cent for the scheduled tribes in the matter of admission in all the educational institutions. The reservation of 12½ per cent for scheduled castes and 5 per cent for scheduled tribes continued after the coming into force of the Constitution of India. Reservations have also been provided in posts filled by promotion. The benefit of reservation in various posts and services under the Central or State Government has not been derived uniformly by all the SC/ST communities. Articles 330, 332 and 334 provide for reservation of seats for scheduled castes and scheduled tribes in the Lok Sabha and the State Assemblies for a period of ten years after the commencement of the Constitution of India.

  149. Oriwo Sophia Atieno

    The study sought to investigate the use of written tests in examining the speaking skill in English language in secondary schools in Kenya. Based on the study, this paper presents and discusses findings on the nature of distribution of score patterns in the written and oral production test of the speaking skill in English language in secondary schools. The study was formulated and interpreted with reference to Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) approach whose tenets the Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education (KCSE) generally and the teaching and testing of the speaking skill specifically are intended to conform to. The study used correlation research design, which enabled the researcher to find out the scores attained from a written and an oral test of five sub-skills of the speaking skill and consequently assess the validity of written tests in examining the speaking competence of secondary school learners of English language. Purposive, stratified and simple random sampling procedures were used to select the twelve schools and 360 Form Four students who participated in the study. The research instruments used were two speaking achievement tests – one written and the other oral. Descriptive statistics such as mean, mode and standard deviation were used to compare the variables under study. The independent variable was speaking competence while the dependent variables were the speaking sub-skills tested. These were rendition of an oral narrative, word stress, intonation, contrastive stress and conversation. The study found out that students attained higher scores in the written test and that there was a high positive correlation between the scores of the two tests. These findings should guide the testing of the speaking skill. They should be significant to the Ministry of Education, Kenya National Examinations Council and teachers of English.

  150. Dr. S. Ranjith Kumar

    Venture capital will play an important role and significant impact of small and medium Enterprises (SME). New technology based venture with cutting edge research and technology. This paper deals about whether a truly global market for venture capital and private equity is emerging or whether the current situation of segmented national market is likely to endure. Here also discussed about categories, stages and process in the Venture Capital funding. It is documented in such a very rapid growth in venture capital fund raising and investment over the past decade in United States, Canada, Israel and India. Here it discussed about the US venture capital investment in India, and its growth. And followed by the advantages and disadvantages of the Venture Capital funding. Nonetheless, we must conclude that the major national markets will remain effectively segmented and suggest that venture capital will continue to be much more important in Common Law than in Civil Law countries for the foreseeable future.

  151. Aládésanmí Omobolá Agnes Ph.D

    Metaphysics, a way or a branch in philosophy studies the basic constituents of the world by investigating into the nature of the fundamental related to the ultimate nature of reality and the human knowledge. One basic feature of metaphysics is that it requires into what there is in the world. It is the philosophy concerning the nature of existence, truth and knowledge. It has the totality of being and existence, that is, the nature and structure of reality in its all embracing and general aspects. In this paper, the relevance of metaphysics in Yorùbá is delved into in the novel Orílawe Àdìgún written by Afolábí Olábímtán to bring out the Yorùbá view about the world and its existence. It is also to establish the Yorùbá metaphysical thoughts and beliefs in charms as expressed in the novel

  152. Aládésanmí Omobolá Agnes and Dr. Falana Titi Christianah

    The issue of women terrorism has been in existence for a long period of time. In the recent time, women enmancitipation is in place to put women in their rightful position. In this paper, we will examine the problems faced by the girl-child right from birth until she strifes to fulfil her destiny as a woman as it is expressed in the novel tittled “Odún Á Yako” written by Níkèé Adésànyà. This will help us to pinpoint the probems a girl-child faces in the society. The work will be based on feminist theory. The work will also show that women manumission is the only way a girl-child can attain her freedom in the society. The issue of gender disparity is a well known phenomenon in the society to the extent that writers are not silent on it which brought about the novel “Odún Á Yako”. Therefore, this paper proposes that the girl-child should not be seen as surbodinate to men, and they should be given the same opportunity with the boy child to realise their dreams and to fulfil their destiny.

  153. Dr. Gnanadevan, R., Dr. Selvaraj, A. and Mr. Sivakumar, G

    The aim of the study is find out the relationship between socio economic status and social, emotional and behaviour problem of students studying in Adi-Dravidar welfare schools, for which the survey method has been adapted. Random sampling technique has been used for the present study for the selection of sample. The sample of the study includes the adolescent students studying in Adi- Dravidar Welfare School in Cuddalore District of Tamilnadu, India. The social, emotional and behaviour problem scale standardised by R. Gnanadevan et al. (2015) and socio economic status tool standardized by Kuppuswamy (1913) have been used for collecting data from the sample. The present study indicates that there is a significant and negative relationship found between socio economic status and all the dimensions of social, emotional and behaviour problem of students studying in Adi-dravidar welfare schools. Proper efforts can be made for the desired care, treatment and progress of the children with social, emotional and behaviour problems through collaborated approach involving effective behavioural and educational intervention.

  154. Tadele Melaku Challa and J. Paul Mansingh,

    Urban agriculture contributes to food security and food safety in two ways: first, it increases the amount of food available to people living in cities, and, second, it allows fresh vegetables and fruits and meat products to be made available to urban consumers. This study was attempted to investigate the factors affecting the implementation of UA at household level and the economic benefits it has in Holeta Town. From Holeta administrative town, two kebeles which have large number of households Goro Qerensa and Burqa Harbu were purposively selected. From each sampled kebeles, 30 households were selected purposively. Thus the study was conducted on 60 households (i.e. 36 males and 24 females). To gather the required information for the study, structured and pretested interview schedule was used. The collected data were analyzed using descriptive statistics (Percentage and Mean). The analysis disclosed that 68 per cent of the people lived in the town had enough land for producing different urban farm products for their consumption. However, only 23 per cent of the households had different vegetable productions, 7 per cent of the households had dairy production and 5 per cent of the households had poultry production for their family consumption and out of this, only 10 per cent of them supplied for the local market and they got an income of Birr one thousand to ten thousands per year. Out of the people lived in the town, 70 per cent spent Birr 250 – 500 (15 - 25% of their monthly income) for buying different vegetables, fruits, poultry and dairy productions for their family consumption. Around 63 per cent of the households did not believe that UA is improving the livelihood of people living in and around cities and they were not ready to implement it. So these indicates that households lived in the study town did not use UA not due to lack of enough land in their garden, but due to lack of awareness and knowledge about benefits of UA. Most of the households agreed that there were no defined policies which are converted to practice about the implementation of UA and the government & nongovernment bodies did not give them the awareness. Thus, some of the factors affecting the implementation of UA were having low attitude toward UA, lack of knowledge and awareness about the implementation and benefits UA, lack of defined policies which are converted to practice, lack of technologies about UA and so on. Based on the findings, the following recommendation was made: Environmental health education and awareness through dissemination of good practices in urban agriculture to farmers to enable them to generate both environmental and socioeconomic benefits have to be organized.

  155. Mohd. Maroof Khan and Dr. Usmani, H. U.

    Groundwater quality in Chhindwara block has been studied with special reference to the presence of fluoride. Fluoride, above the guideline value of WHO, has been found in groundwater of the study area. This high fluoride concentration shows some type of correlation with other ionic constituents present in the ground water. The fluoride contents have positive correlation with Na+, K+ and depth of source, and negative correlation with Mg+2, Ca+2, total alkalinity and total hardness. Fluoride does not show any type of correlation with Cl-, NO3-, and SO42-. A few of the samples showed high nitrate contents. The sources of fluoride and nitrate are suspected to be minerals from the Precambrian granite, which forms the basement of the Chhindwara block and also outcrops at several places.

  156. Vinotha, R. and Dr. Radhakrishnan, S.

    The term Quality of Work Life (QWL) was probably coined originally at first international conference of QWL at Arden House in 1972 (Davis and Cherns, 1975). From a business perspective, quality of work life (QWL) is important since there is evidence demonstrating that the nature of the work environment is related to satisfaction of employees and work related behaviors (Greenhaus et al., 1987). As QWL is a multifaceted concept it differs from individual to individual. This study aims to reveal the perceptional differences on QWL that existing between urban and rural workers. 100 respondents (50 from each sectoe) were selected by convinience sampling technique. Data were collected with the use of well structured interview schedule. The overall reliability co-efficient of the instrument is r=0.862 Cronbach Alpha while Pearson Correlation was 0.924(p<0.001> showing that the instrument was reliable. The results revealed that there is a significant perceptional difference in the QWL factors namely worker dignity, superior's attitude towards fellowmen, working hours and quality time for family care.

  157. Jayagandhi, T. and Dr. Suganthi, M.

    The study has been conducted on a sample of 80 students to examine the level of cognitive self-management. The sample of the students has been taken of those students who are studying in second year D.T.Ed. Teacher trainees in District Institute of Education and Training, Madurai district. The random sampling technique was used in this study. The data were analyzed statistically by using mean, standard deviation and ‘t’ test. The study revealed that there is no significant difference in the mean scores of cognitive self-management with respect to gender, age, marital status, staying, mother’s educational qualification, parent’s annual income and newspaper reading. And also the study revealed that there is significant difference in the mean scores of cognitive self-management with respect to father’s educational qualification and locality.

  158. Sule Sani Ahmed, Imaji Zekeri Ojonumiache Sule, Emeritus and Dr. Ranjit Singh a/l Darshan Singh

    The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the role of Nigeria as a Hegemon in maintaining peace and stability in the West African Sub-Region and its current reversal while confronting the Boko Haram (BH) insurgents. Due to the scarcity of basic essentials of live such as food, health, education, and shelter in the West African Sub-Region, comes the inadequacies that led to the growth of impoverished, uneducated, unemployed, hunger-stricken and restive populations all over the Sub-Region. The effect of the above scenario is the prevalence of conflict between ethnic nationalities leading to instability in some countries of the region and threat to their National Security. Nigeria, as one of the sixteen states of the sub-region was worried about the rising conflict in the region due to its effect on the people in the areas of peace and stability. So, as a hegemon in the region due to its strong economic and human resources as well as its military power through the formation of Economic Community of West Africa (ECOWAS), it was able to assist in many ways to bring about peace and stability in the region. But very unfortunate for Nigeria, the reverse has become the case as it has been confronted with the menace of Boko Haram insurgency with its aim of compelling Nigeria to fully implement the Sharia system of governance and consequently Posen serious threat to its national security with activities which include killing, abduction and destruction of both private and public properties with the Nigerian military that assisted other West African countries in peacekeeping been unable to contain the deadly insurgent group and instead seeking for assistance from the neighboring countries in its fight against BH. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the role played by Nigeria in peacekeeping in the West African Sub-Region and why the reversal for the country despite its strong army that assisted other West African countries. The method adopted was that of qualitative where documentary data such as journal, texts and news papers were evaluated and analyzed. The finding shows that while Nigeria was able to use its military and economic might to assist in bringing peace and stability to some conflict riding counties in the region, it has been unable with the same military to combat the Boko Haram insurgency, instead, it is now seeking for the assistance of the neighboring countries and Western countries to come to its assistance in combating the Boko Haram.

  159. Suwandi and Arung Lamba

    The aims of this research are; (1) long term purposes: to improve the food security for Papuan farmers, and reduce the economic gap between Papuan and the migrants population, since the socio-economic jealousy has been happening. (2) For the short term purposes areanalyzing the differences between the consumption behavior of Papuan and the migrant farmers. The analysis method used is quantitative analysis. The results shows that there is the difference between the consumption behavior of Papuan farmersand migrant farmers in fulfilling the needs of food consumption. Papuan farmers’ share of expenditure is 61.52%, while the migrant farmers’ is 45.68%. When the income increased by 100%, the spending behavior of Papuan farmers decreased by 57.3%, and 33.7% decreased for the migrants. There is the difference of consumption behavior between the local farmers and the migrant farmers in fulfilling the needs of non-food consumption. The share of expenditure for local farmers only 38.48%, while migrant farmers is 54.32%. If the household income increased by 100%, the spending behavior of local farmers increased by 58.3%, and 29.2% decreased for the migrant farmers.

  160. Nuralam and Suwandi

    The aim of this study was to understand and analyze the significance of the influence of The Fiscal Decentralization and Papua Special Autonomy against Direct expenditure of district / city governments in Papua. Results of analysis and hypothesis testing, concluding that the Fiscal Decentralization effects, fiscal decentralization is intended to finance the implementation of the tasks of government, public services and regional development. In the structure regionl expenditure, the direct budget includes (1) personnel expenditure (temporary honor); (2) goods and services expenditures; and (3) capital expenditure. Thus, large-small fiscal decentralization will directly influence significantly to direct expenditure of district / city governments. The influence of fiscal decentralization of funds from the central government to direct expenditure of district / city significantly, on the one hand implies that fiscal decentralization policy tends to improve further fiscal dependence on government expenditure of district / city towards decentralization of central funds. In other words, direct expenditure by the district / city government is still relying on the reception of funds transfers from the central government. But on the other hand, the effects of fiscal decentralization of funds towards direct expenditure significantly implies that local governments have been able to manage fiscal decentralization funds for the purpose of increasing investment pemerintah. One of component in direct expenditures are capital expenditures that are necessary in the process of accelerating developments of district. Increased expenditure on capital goods as a result of an increase in funding for fiscal decentralization, is expected to enlarge in the district

  161. Dhanya, M. and Jeevanand, E.S

    The reliability of a system is the probability that when operating under stated environmental conditions, the system will perform its intended function adequately. We consider the strength of the system X and the stress Y as random variables. The component fails at the instant that the stress applied to it exceeds the strength and the component will function satisfactorily whenever X>Y. The quasi-likelihood function was introduced by Wedderburn (1974), to be used for estimating the unknown parameters in generalized linear models. In Quasi-Bayesian Estimation to construct a posterior distribution the likelihood function could be replaced with the natural exponential of the quasi-likelihood function. This method reduces to the usual Bayesian estimation if the quasi-likelihood and the log-likelihood function are identical. In this paper, we obtain Quasi Bayesian estimates for the stress –strength reliability for the power function distribution. We illustrate the performance of the estimators using a simulation study.

  162. Tadele Melaku Challa and Dr. A. Mahendran,

    The study examined the gender difference and its impact on agricultural productivity in Sheko district of Bench Maji zone, located at 573 km south west of Addis Ababa, the capital of the country. The specific objectives were to assess the extent to which the agricultural production system is gender oriented; to examine access and control over productive resources; and to estimate men’s and women’s productivity in agriculture. Cross-sectional data collected from a total of 150 respondents were used in this study whereby 75 were female headed and 75 were male headed households. The data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS). Descriptive statistics such as frequency, mean, percentage, t-test and chi-square were used to summarize and compare the information between the two groups. Moreover, Cobb-Douglas (CD) production function was used to estimate the productivity difference in agriculture between male and female headed households. Results of the study showed that male headed household s (MHH) own more of productive resources such as land, livestock, labour and other agricultural inputs as compared to female headed households (FHH). Moreover, the estimate of CD production function shows that livestock, herbicide use, land size and male labour were statistically significant for MHH while livestock, land size, herbicides use and female labour were significant variables for FHH. The comparison of the marginal value product (MVP) with the factor cost showed that MHH could increase productivity using more herbicides and male labour while FHH could do so by using more herbicides, male and female labour. The agricultural productivity difference between MHH and FHH was about 66.76% in the study area. However, if FHH had equal access to the inputs as MHH, gross value of the output would be higher by 21.39% for FHH. This may suggest that FHH would be more productive than MHH if they had equal access to inputs as MHH. Based on the results obtained, the following policy implication can be drawn: accessing FHH to inputs that increase the productivity of agriculture such as herbicides, livestock and male labour; increasing the productivity of land; and introducing technologies that reduce the time and energy of women.

  163. Sri SukantaSaha

    The present study is an effort to explore how the formal-informal rivalry of any industry is owing to form an “industrial district” within the frame of an informal localization. To analyze why and how economic organization of any particular industrial economy is framed with spatial dispersion and coherence of informal industrial activity within any region,the study is confined to depict how contraction of formal sector production of any industry is able to inherit a rival and growing informal industrial localization which is sufficient to influence employment, output and growth of the entire regional economy. What is crucial here is that the industry does not exhibit significant formal-informal linkages in both product and labour market processes as several other informal industries convey, rather the contraction of the formal sector of the industry inherits faster expansion of the informal industrial localization within the regional economy over time. The study is confined to informal localization with agglomeration ofproduction units a specific spatial industrialcluster in West Bengal, namelythe Belgharia Bag Producing Industryin the district of North 24 Paraganasoperating with about 3,000 small and medium informal production units incorporating near about 15,000 employment and more than 300 sales outlets, as per our primary survey conveys. The site has been selected not on the basis of its size or its significant position to the industrial map in West Bengal but due to its specificity to fulfill the basic objectiveof our study. This is why the study is not confined to focus on the concentration of other important spatial clustersin West Bengal as my earlier studies convey. Rather, the present study is confined to detect an unexplored site of informal industrial economy in West Bengal to show how a small spatial cluster of informal enterprises is becoming able to influence output, growth and employment of the regional economy through its faster expansionand growth despite horizontal contraction of formal industrial production. The uneven distribution of concentratedinformal production units across space and time is incorporated in the study in references to micro-level field studies conductedon the basis of purposive sampling.The consideration is strongly based upon literature supportderived from classical and new economic geography school in the field of Location Economics, Regional Economics and Urban Economics.

  164. Anna Lungbila, P

    Women have been subjugated in various ways in the patriarchal dominated society. The patriarchal hierarchy systems are not willing to accept women coming into the mainstream in decision making. Maram tribal women are also denied their basic rights under the guiseof customary law and tradition. The Patriarchal hegemony strongly inculcates the mind of the society leaving the women in the Periphery. However, they have more privileges than other Naga tribal women. This paper study the customary law and practices that governs and curb the rights of the Maram Naga tribal women in Manipur, their drawbacks, social life, beliefs, customs and traditions. Traditional Customary practices never allowed the women to live a life of her own. It dominates her to live only as a mother, daughter, sister, and a wife, a childbearer, a household manager and a water carrier. A women’s life is preconceived even before she is born.

  165. Manju Prava Das

    While the constitution of India aims to create an equitable and equal environment for those who were denied their rightful place in the previous government and social structure, this includes protection of women from harassment in various spheres. In the unorganized sector where women are more vulnerable, there is the need to take a different approach rather than a traditional questionnaire approach or the so called survey approach. The vulnerability of the women is very high because they are in severe financial difficulties, needing work for survival and it is so intense that fighting for one’s right for dignity, has least importance. The study shows a different approach to collect and analyze the data. The approach was to give emphasis to create trustworthiness and commitment by the researcher. It took sustained requests, going to them number of times in spite of their refusal to entertain any request, talking to women workers those having some control over others and convincing them about the confidentiality of the data. The approach emphasized personal level discussions, highlighted as inter-personal information interchange. The study analyses the behavior which indicates the presence of sexual harassment.

  166. Fikadu Abdise and Dr. Paul Mansingh, J.

    In many developing and developed countries, program managers and policy makers who constantly dealing with poverty related interventions have to make best decisions from a wide range of program and policy options. Information for making such decisions must be based on sound data-based analysis. In order to make such analysis, there is a need to undertake empirical studies. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to assess the rural household poverty status. The district under study has 37 Kebeles and 5 Kebeles were selected using simple random sampling. From the sampled Kebeles, using probability proportional to size sampling method 140 households were selected. Both primary and secondary data were collected for the study. The primary data were collected from households through structured interview schedule. The secondary data were collected on agro climatic conditions, social services, availability of production and marketing facilities and population statistics. The t-test and χ2 - test were employed to test continuous and discrete variables respectively. Cost of Basic Need (CBN)) approach was followed to set the poverty line in the district. The Foster-Greer-Thorbecke (FGT) measure was employed to compute head count index (P0), poverty gap index (P1) and poverty severity index (P2). Accordingly, the food poverty line was found to be 1817.88 Birr per adult equivalent per annum which represents 81.21 per cent of the total share of the poor and the total poverty line was 2244 Birr. Poverty incidence, depth and severity of the district were found to be 38.5, 11.88 and 5.5 percent respectively. With regard to consumption expenditure, the maximum and minimum household expenditure per adult equivalent per annum represents 6081 and 985.58 Birr respectively with an overall average expenditure of Birr 2650 in the study area. The mean expenditure of the poor households was 1413.83 Birr while it was 3015.63 Birr for the non-poor households. Abbreviations: CBN- Cost of Basic Need, CBR- Crude Birth Rate, FGT- Foster-Greer-Thorbecke, WHO-World Health Organization.

  167. Govinda Pangging, Aosanen, Ao. and Anup Kumar Das

    Species diversity and community structure of tropical wet evergreen forest of Singphan Wildlife Sanctuary was studied in three disturbance regime i.e., highly disturbed (HD), moderately disturbed (MD) and undisturbed (UD). A total of 185 species representing 159 genera belonging to 86 families were recorded. The species richness (trees, herbs and shrubs) was found to be highest (59 species) in UD followed by MD and HD. The total basal area was recorded highest (131.5 m2 ha-1) in UD followed by HD and MD. The stand density of the woody species was found highest (408 individuals ha-1) in HD followed by UD and MD. Tree density was recorded highest (1,726 individual ha-1) in UD followed by HD and MD. The basal area contribution of the forest was maximum (131.5 m2ha-1) in UD stand followed by HD (119.6 m2ha-1) and lowest in MD (67.9 m2ha-1).The Shanon Weiner diversity Index of trees was found highest (3.24) in MD followed by UD and HD. Thus the study revealed that the species diversity (trees, saplings and seedlings) in the wildlife Sanctuary decreases with increased in the intensity of disturbances.

  168. Nitish Nayyar

    E-commerce is widely considered the buying and selling of products over the internet, but any transaction that is completed solely through electronic measures can be considered e-commerce. E-commerce is subdivided into three categories: business to business or B2B, business to consumer or B2C and consumer to consumer or C2C also called electronic commerce. M-commerce is a term that is used to refer to the growing practice of conducting financial and promotional activities with the use of a wireless handheld device. The term m-commerce is short for mobile commerce, and recognizes that the transactions may be conducted using cell phones, personal digital assistants and other hand held devices that have operate with Internet access. E-commerce Security is a part of the Information Security framework and is specifically applied to the components that affect e-commerce that include Computer Security, Data security and other wider realms of the Information Security framework. E-commerce security has its own particular nuances and is one of the highest visible security components that affect the end user through their daily payment interaction with business. The purpose of this research paper is to identify factors affecting the adoption of M-commerce. The significant growth of M-commerce application is remarkable in India. More and more consumer is transferring to M- commerce to achieve better and fast transaction into market. M-commerce is emerging level in India. The astounding rate growth in mobile penetration in India, higher mobile technology and networking is coming day by day. Now a mobile phone is not only use for text SMS or phone call but also be used for many other activities like browsing of net chatting or other virtual activities. This paper’s theoretical contribution is to explain how’s M-commerce is developing in India and to identify clear contexts and assistant mechanism.

  169. Premakumar, K. and Vinothkanna, S

    The present paper analyse the spatio-temporal variations in different type of land use in Palakkad District, Kerala. Agriculture is the main activity and 89% of the district population is rural in nature. The utilization of land for different purposes in the district indicates the relationship between the existing environmental condition and human society. The data on general land use for the period 2001 and 2011 were collected and processed by using simple statistical techniques and the results are cartographically mapped and interpreted. The analysis of the land use in the district revealed that land use is mainly controlled and determined by the topography nature of the surface and socio-economic setup of the district. The introduction of irrigation schemes, new developmental activities and expansion of the existing urban centres caused the major changes in the land use of forest, cultivable waste, fallow lands and area under cultivation in the district.

  170. Yong-kil Lee

    The purpose of this research is to recognize how Korean political environment affects the activity of environmental NGO. Thus, this study analyzed the relationship between Korean successive government and environmental NGO. This research focused environmental NGO as a main sector in Korean civil movement. This study analyzed Korean Federation for Environmental Movement as a delegate of environmental movement group. The research method of this paper was basically established based on new institutionalist perspective. The relationship between government and environmental NGO was independent relationship at Kim Young-sam Government period. The relationship between government and environmental NGO was cooperative relationship at Kim Dae-joong Government period. And the relationship between government and environmental NGO was cooperative relationship at Roh Moo-hyun Government period. Comparable mutual recognition between government and Korean Federation for Environmental Movement was formed at Roh Moo-hyun Government period. This phenomenon is because the relationship type between government and Korean Federation for Environmental Movement at the former Kim Dae-jung Government period lasted. In terms of historical institutionalism, the sustainability of relationship type is due to the characteristics of path dependency and stability which institutions related to environment contain. Finally, the relationship between government and environmental NGO was dominant relationship at Lee Myung-bak Administration period.

  171. Dr. Ramanjaneyalu, N., Prakash Agasanahalli and Yashvi Mehta

    Increased competition, highly educated consumers, and increase in standard of living are forcing many businesses to review their customer service strategy. Public sector banks are sharpening their products and services while reasserting their strengths to cater to younger, savvier customers. The Foreign banks and private banks have already incorporated the concept of Service Marketing in their working. There is enough evidence that demonstrates the strategic benefits of quality in contributing to market share and return on investment. In view of the above mentioned facts, an analysis of service quality perceptions from customer’s point of view may be sound and interesting at this juncture. Such an analysis will provide banks, a quantitative estimate of their services being perceived with intricate details such as whether banks are meeting the expectations of the customers or not. The test instrument called SERVQUAL was used to measure the service quality of banking services of one of the premier public Ltd. bank. It is found that the bank provides good services to its customers but with marginal negative service quality gap score minus 0.55. Customers’ expectation as well as perception was very high with average score around 6 on 7 point scale. Though the bank provides good services there is lot of scope for innovation and improvement in delivering quality service.

  172. Ramesh, S., Sudhakar, P. and Elankavi, S.

    A field experiment was conducted during July to October, 2015 under deep clay soil at the Experimental farm, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University to study effect of foliar nutrition on growth and yield of maize. The experiment was conducted in randomized block design and replicated thrice. The experiment comprised of ten treatments viz., control (water spray), liquid organic supplements Jeevamrutha, Beejamrutha, Vermiwash at 3 and 5% concentration applied 3 times on 20, 40 and 60 DAS. The results of the experiment showed that foliar spray of 5 % Jeevamrutha on 20, 40 and 60 DAS significantly recorded higher growth, yield attributes and yields of maize viz., plant height, leaf area index (LAI), dry matter production (DMP), cob length and cob diameter, number of grains cob-1, test weight, grain and stover yield. Significantly lowest values for growth attributes, yield attributes, grain and stover yields of maize were recorded under control. Based on the above, it could be concluded that, foliar spray of 5% jeevamrutha on 20, 40 and 60 DAS would help to increase productivity and profitability of maizeunder Cauvery delta region of Tamil Nadu.

  173. Zeine Abosse, Mirkuzie Woldie, Shimeles Ololo

    Background: Maternal mortality is relatively high in Ethiopia with more than one in five deaths to women aged 15-49 years. This is mainly attributed to pregnancy and pregnancy related causes. Postnatal care utilization is extremely low in Ethiopia with more than nine in ten mothers received no postnatal care at all while only 5% received postnatal care within the critical first two days after the delivery. Therefore, the objective of this study was to identify the magnitude and determinants of postnatal care services utilization in Hadiya Zone, Southern Ethiopia. Methods: A community based cross sectional quantitative study was conducted in Hadiya Zone of Southern Ethiopia during January and February 2009. A multi stage sampling technique was used to select the study participants from one urban and five rural kebeles. A total sample size of 710 was determined using single population proportion formula. The data was analyzed using SPSS version 16 statistical software. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine association between dependent and independent variables using both crude and adjusted odds ratio with 95% confidence interval. Result: More than seven in ten mothers received no postnatal care at all and only 22.7% received postnatal care within the critical first two days after delivery. Antenatal care attendance, place of delivery, and distance from the facility were major predictors of postnatal care service utilization. Besides, cultural belief, maternal workload, not knowing about postnatal care, and being apparently healthy were major reasons reported for not attending postnatal care. There is no marked variation of postnatal care utilization within the first two days of birth by the age of the mothers. Conclusion: Postnatal care uptake was low and predicted by reasonably modifiable factors such as antenatal care visit, place of delivery and physical accessibility of the health facilities. Therefore, improvement in the uptake of postnatal care could be expected provided that measures targeted at raising antenatal care visit and institutional delivery is introduced timely.

  174. Dr. Sridevi, D. and Dr. Radhai Sri, S

    A study on the health and nutritional status of 300 women aged between 20-60year were selected by random sampling method from cotton textile industries. Of the total, 150 women working in different sections of ginning factory and 150 women employed in different sections of spinning factory were covered for the study Nutritional status was assessed by calculating BMI (Body Mass Index) about 19 and 15 per cent of the respective groups were under low weight category (18.5 to 20).Fifteen per cent of ginners had BMI between 17 to 18.5 with mild degree of malnutrition when compared to spinning (4 per cent). In case of clinical status the iron deficiency is most likely to be a contributing factor and moderate to severe degree of anaemia was noticed among 47 to 59 per cent of women.

  175. Reetu Sharma, Premila Webster and Sanghita Bhattacharyya,

    Background: Community Health Workers (CHWs) form a vital link between community and the health system. In India, this role is played by Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHAs)-village level female workers. Studies indicate that CHWs, if selected in consultation with community and in a transparent way, can lead to better acceptability of CHWs in community, better performance of CHWs and expected outcomes of the programme. Aim: This study looks at the selection process of the ASH As and its effects on the working relationship with her co- workers. Methods: The study was done in 16 villages from two administrative blocks of Udaipur district of Rajasthan. Study area was selected using multistage purposive sampling. It is based on 48 in-depth interviews with ASHA’s co-workers and the health system representatives. Data was collected using interview guides and manually analysed following an inductive approach. Results: The study showed non-consultative selection of ASHAs. It showed favoritism rather than competency based selection of ASHAs. Such selection not only affected ASHA’s attitude, behavior and work performance but also caused strained relationships and unhealthy work environment between ASHAs and her co-workers. Study participants suggested strict adherence to ASHA’s selection criteria by a joint village level committee that has representation of all stakeholders associated with ASHA's work. Conclusion: Unbiased, competency based, consultative selection of ASHA is essential to promote her good performance as well as create enabling work environment to jointly address community health issues.

  176. Sobhy M. Aly, Mohamed A. Eid, Osama A. Khaled and Mostafa S. Ali,

    Tablet computer games widely increased among children. The impact of this technology on children should be studied. The purpose of this study was to investigate wrist and neck extensors muscle activity in children during tablet playing and to investigate playing effect on pain threshold in shoulder region. Thirty right-handed healthy children (15 boys and 15 girls) with age ranged 5-7 years participated in this study. Electromyography data were collected from cervical erector spinae, upper trapezius, and right wrist extensors. Pressure pain threshold over trapezius muscles were measured. Data was collected during two gaming sessions, 10 and 20 minutes. Mixed design MANOVA was conducted to investigate the effect of playing duration and gender on muscle activity and the effect of playing, playing duration, and gender on pain threshold. Results revealed that muscle activity significantly increased with increasing playing duration for boys and girls (p >. 0.001). Pressure pain threshold was significantly decreased after playing in both playing duration, and significantly decreased with increasing playing duration for boys and girls (p >. 0.001). In conclusion, Tablet computer playing is associated with increased neck and wrist muscle activity and with decreased pain threshold. Playing duration is a critical factor in determining effects of playing.

  177. Ruslan Majid, Peribadi, Tanzil, Sarpin and La Janu

    This study aimed to describe the survival strategies of migrant citizens in their new social environment different from their respective areas. This study used a qualitative approach cored on aspects of ethnographic methods. The unit of analysis in this study is a migrant population of people living in the region of Southeast Sulawesi Government Konawe. Data collection efforts in the field using observation, interviews and Focus Group Discussion (FGD) on the existence of a migrant population of people with a variety of Problems. The results show the social reality of migrants in regulating social life shows the pattern of social relations between members of transmigration community with local residents as well as with other migrant communities, is more dominant in the social relationship communicative, indivisible, interdependent, harmonious and associative. Although behind the phenomenon that also includes the seeds of social relations dissociation, dis integral and miscommunication in the form of competition, the various factors that cause a small portion migrants society continue to leave the social environment of his new, and most now they have had great success building a foundation of social and economic life gradually people leave his native village with the goal of building a future orientation. These results are expected to be considered as a policy to prevent conflicts horizontal and vertically between resettlement and local communities.

  178. Ujjal Bhakat, Chinmay Biswas and Saikat Sau

    Aneurysmal bone cysts are rare benign bone tumours that were first described by Jaffe and Lichtenstein in 1942. They account for 1% of all biopsied primary bone tumours and appear as rapidly growing destructive lesions that expand the cortices. ABC can exist either as a primary bone lesion (70%) or as a secondary lesion when a preexisting osseous lesion can be identified (30%). A 4 years old male child present with a progressive swelling over proximal part of right arm for last 10 months. For last 3 months it rapidly increased in size, accosiated with throbbing pain. X ray shows Expansible lytic lesion, loculated appearance, cortical break and metaphysical lesion over proximal humerus. Histopathology report shows ANEURYSMAL BONE CYST. Exicision of whole mass with free fibular graft done under general anesthesia. Union at both ends of the fibular graft and over head hand movement possible at 8 month follow up. Complete re-modelling and reappearing of epiphysis with acceptable range of movement of upper limb seen after one year six month follow up.

  179. Ohaeri Beatrice and Ingwu Justin Agorye

    The incidence of prostate cancer is on the rise with the increase occurring more rapidly in developing countries which constitute a serious public health concern. Prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in men and ranked second as the cause of cancer related deaths. The objective of the study is to determine the awareness and screening practices for prostate cancer among older men attending outpatient clinics in selected hospitals in Cross River State, Nigeria. A cross sectional descriptive study, involving 50 participants purposively selected from three general hospitals in the three senatorial districts in Cross River State was used in this pilot study. The respondents were selected utilising inclusion criteria. Data collected through structured questionnaire was analysed using descriptive statistics and presented in tables comprising frequency and percentage. Result reveals 17(34%) have heard of prostate cancer; 4(23.5%) have carry out screening test to detect prostate cancer. Majority 3(75%) of those that carry out the screening tests conducted prostrate serum antigen test while 1(25%) did digital rectal examination. The result of the regression analysis shows that there is strong positive relationship between respondents level of knowledge and the utilization of prostate cancer test (r=.656). It was recommended that health promotion campaigns that emphasize prostate cancer screenings should be organized regularly.

  180. Dr. Sunil Kumar Rawat, Dr. Neha Sharma and Dr. Rohit Kumar Jajodiya

    It is very usual to come across a case of acute abdomen with peritonitis in day to day surgical practice. Most often the cause of peritonitis is a hollow viscus perforation. Here we are reporting a case of patient coming to casuality with acute abdomen and peritonitis. X ray abdomen and ultrasongraphy was consistent with the diagnosis of perforation peritonitis and it was so on exploration, but the site of perforation was upper part of rectum without any pathology that is spontaneous rectal perforation which was very unusual in surgical practice.

  181. Merenu, I. A., Uwakwe, K. A., Diwe, K. C., Duru, C. B., Chineke, H. N., Emereole, C. O. and Duru C. O.

    Background: Objective: This is a study to determine the knowledge and practice of Standard Precaution among Health care providers in primary and secondary health care facilities in Imo State. With the occurrence of new and re-emerging infectious diseases in the world today especially in the West African sub-region; such as Ebola Viral Disease, Lassa Fever, etcetera; It becomes imperative to examine the knowledge and practice of health care providers of preventive measures established by the World Health Organization, for the prevention of hospital acquired infections. These diseases become nosocomial infections when standard precautionary procedures are not followed. Methodology: A Cross-sectional descriptive study using semi-structured, structured and interviewer administered questionnaires; conducted among 404 health-care providers in different secondary and primary health-care facilities across the three geopolitical zones of Imo state. Result: Of the 404 respondents, 195(48.3%) were Nurses, 78(19.3%) were Doctors, 93(23%) were laboratory scientists, 38 (9.4%) were laboratory attendants. Of the respondents, 200(49.5%) got their information from textbooks/Journal. 21(5.14%) from someone, 112 (27.7%) from seminar/symposium, 31(7.6%) from Television, 17(4.2%) from Radio. Those who were knowledgeable about the use of gowns/ aprons and gloves among the Health care providers were 273 (67.7%), adequate hand-washing 318 (78.8%), wearing of surgical mask 207 (51.4%), use of goggles107 (26.6%), face shield109 (27%). On knowledge of the route of transmission of blood-borne pathogens: through improper use of sharp objects, those who knew were 269(66.7%). Total number of Health care providers that practiced Standard Precautions always were 300(74.3%). On the immunization status of health care providers: 313 (77.7%) had been immunized or had been vaccinated with BCG vaccine and hepatitis B vaccine. Conclusion: In view of the importance of standard precaution in the prevention of nosocomial infection, its knowledge and practice should be optimal in all health facilities. The teaching of Standard Precaution for health care practitioners cannot be left to the media; it must be a major part of the training curriculum of health care providers. The situation in Imo State is sub-optimal and needs to be upgraded for the safety of the healthcare practitioners and their patients.

  182. Pious Missier, S. and Anto, M.

    In this paper, we introduce the concepts of g ̂^*s-continuity and g ̂^*s-irresoluteness mappings and their characterizations.

  183. Banerjee Krishna Priya, Shekhawat Nitesh Kanwar, Lamba Indira and Sarita

    This study is to compare the low dose with standard Pritchard's regime for controlling convulsion in patients of eclampsia. In this hospital based prospective study, cases presenting with classical features of eclampsia (beyond 20 weeks of pregnancy and upto 7 days postpartum) and meeting inclusion criteria's were included as per confounding of both the groups i.e. Group-A and Group-B. 25 cases were given low dose Magnesium Sulphate (Study Group; Group-A) and 25 cases were given standard dose regimen (Control Group; Group-B) after informed and written consent. In our study after statistical analysis we concluded that Magnesium Sulphate is required for controlling the convulsions of eclampsia but low dose regime is very simple to administer and easy to monitor and is as effective as Pritchard's regime with minimal possible side effects and better perinatal outcome.

  184. Ujwala P. Gawali and Daulatabad, V.

    Obesity is an increasing global problem. It has important implications, as it is associated with various life threatening diseases and metabolic disorders. Scientists at the Tel Aviv University have confirmed the long-held notion that sedentary lifestyle leads to obesity. Researchers said that the more time people spend sitting, the more fat they accumulate in the lower half of their bodies, or backside. According to the latest survey conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, more than 35 percent of American adults and 17 percent of American children are considered obese. Obesity causes diabetes, heart disease, stroke, and certain types of cancer, placing a huge burden on health care systems and the economy. The medical condition is usually treated through a combination of diet, nutrition, exercise, and other techniques. The present study was initiated to estimate and compare the body composition of sedentary and nonsedentary working women. Most of the body composition studies are in males. Very few studies have been taken in female sedentary working women. We intended to study body composition parameters in sedentary working women and compare these parameters in women having nonsedentary life-style. Objective was to to calculate Body mass index [BMI], Body fat percentage and Waist-hip ratio [WHR] and to caregorise subjects according to classification and compare between groups. Body composition of sedentary working women (30) compared with nonsedentary working women (30). Obesity is an important indicator of health since it is significantly linked to morbidity and mortality. Our study clearly shows that prevalence of obesity is high in sedentary working women. Working women having sedentary life style need to undertake regular 30 minutes of moderate to vigours running, swimming, bicycling or 60 minutes of brisk walking exercise, to reduce or to prevent obesity and thereby preventing complications of obesity.

  185. Vishnurahav, R. B. UshaNarayana Pillai, Alex, P. C., Ajithkumar, S. and Lusy sabu

    Diagnosis of canine babesiosis, caused by Babesiagibsoni is difficult, especially in dogs with chronic infection or carrier. A Semi-nested Polymerase Chain Reaction assay was developed and standardized by using three oligonucleotide primers targeting the hypervariable region of18SrRNA gene. The specific primers amplified theB. gibsoniDNA, while no nonspecific amplification was detected with DNA from non-infected dogs as well as from dogs infected with other species. All the samples were tested by blood smear examination as well as semi-nested PCR assay. Semi-nested PCR assay was found to be more sensitive than blood smear examination in diagnosis and molecular confirmation of Babesiagibsoni. Out of 273 suspected blood samples, collected from dogs presented to the Teaching Veterinary Clinical complex, Mannuthy, Kerala, India and 34 were confirmed for B.gibsoniby semi-nested PCR.Sequencing of 183bp PCR product revealed that the amplified product was from a region of 18SrRNA gene. The sequence obtained when analysed using BLAST revealed 100 per cent homology with query coverage of 100 per cent with the published B. gibsoni (Asia genotype) gene sequence.

  186. Liji, K., Rebecca Abraham, Beena Kumari, and Prajisha, B

    The levels of serum urea and creatinine were determined in 134 pregnant women and 44 non pregnant controls. There was a significant (p=0.0094) decrease in urea levels between the pregnant (15.4± 4.3 mg/dl) and the nonpregnant group (17.3±3.2mg/dl) and a highly significant (p<0.0001) decrease in creatinine levels between the pregnant (0.66±0.11mg/dl) and nonpregnant controls (0.76±0.09mg/dl). The pregnant women were categorized into 4 groups (0-12w), (13-24w), (25-36w)and (37-40w) as per their weeks of gestation and the levels of urea and creatinine in these groups were analyzed. There was no significant change in urea levels at 0-12 weeks as compared to the controls .At 13-24 weeks there was a significant increase(p<0.0001) followed by a significant decrease from 25-40 weeks(p<0.0001). The serum creatinine levels decreased significantly across different periods of gestation.(p<0.0001). There were 56 uniparous and 78 multiparous women. There was no significant decrease in urea and creatinine levels with increasing parity or age or with decreasing hemoglobin levels. The progressive decrease in creatinine levels across the different periods of gestation can be attributed to increased glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and reduced clearance. However the changes in urea cannot be explained by increased GFR alone. Other factors like higher salvage of urea or increased N2 accretion by the mother may contribute to these variations. This study has also enabled us to establish a reference range for urea and creatinine in pregnancy.

  187. Dr. Bolde, S.A., Dr. Madane, R.B., Dr. Mahajan, K.C., Dr. Jindal, S.O. and Dr. Pandit, G.A.

    Multilocular peritoneal inclusion cysts (MPICs) are neoplasm composed of multiple small cysts filled with serous fluid. It is well defined but rare entity, predominantly in women of reproductive age group. MPICs are cysts of peritoneum or postoperative peritoneal cysts, benign cystic mesothelioma, inflammatory cyst. They have been referred to as multilocular peritoneal inclusion cysts (MPICs). Herewith we are reporting two cases of MPICs, both were belonged to reproductive age group and clinically manifested by lower abdominal pain with palpable mass. So clinically diagnosed as complex ovarian cysts. Final diagnosis as MPICs is made on histopathological examination

  188. Kratee Sharma, Ellora Madan, Manvi Agarwal and Zaby Fatima

    Periodontal regeneration is the ultimate goal of periodontal therapy. For this purpose, numerous modalities have been advocated including, the modification of the root surface that is biomodification procedures in order to detoxify, decontaminate, and demineralise the root surface. Tetracycline has been well known as a broad spectrum antibiotic, although its effect as a root conditioning agent is yet to be explored. Hence, to explore the same, EBSCO HOST was searched for entries since 1966 – 2014, which included:- Journal of Periodontology, Annals of Periodontology, Periodontology 2000, Journal of Clinical Periodontology, International Journal of Periodontics and Restorative dentistry, Journal of Indian Society of Periodontology and Journal of Periodontal Research. A total of 11 studies were reviewed, out of these 11 studies, only, 4 reported evidence of regeneration for tetracycline. It was found that the role of tetracycline as a root biomodifying agent in regeneration is still controversial and questionable.

  189. Subhra Nivedita and Dr. Pratap Rath

    The contemporary world which is supposed to be a world of triumph is also a world of anxiety or stress. Right from the time of birth till the last breath drawn, an individual is consistently visible to innumerable stressful condition. Hence, it is not astonishing that such subject has been intensifying with the advancement of the current era, which has been called the age of stress and depression. Depression can also interfere with normal functioning and frequently causes difficulties with work, social and domestic adjustment. Study suggests that stress and depression are major psychological issues found among tribal population (Husain et al., 2007). In connection to this, the present study focuses the examination of depression and stress level among tribal people of Dhenkanal district of Odisha. In addition to this, the present investigator examines the impact of counseling towards the experience of depression and stress level. According to pre- and post-design and objectives of research, analysis including t-test was performed with the sample of 97 tribal population. Simple random sampling technique was adopted. For measuring depression and stress, the present researcher used Beck’s Depression Inventory (BDI) and DASS 21 stress scale. Both scales were checked their psychometric properties through internal consistencies (chronbach’s alphas) and construct validity (confirmatory factor analyses, CFA). The result reported that both depression and stress level found significantly among tribal population and also established the significant differences on pre- and post-depression and stress level among tribal populations of Odisha. This work has been concluded with implications for policy mechanisms, limitations and future research directions.

  190. Susan John and Vetriselvi

    Background and objective: The purpose of the study was to compare the efficacy of normal saline with heparinized saline flushing on patency of peripheral intravenous catheters among hospitalized children. Material and Methods: The research design used in this study was randomized double blind clinical trial. Population of the study comprised of all the children in the age group 2 months to 1 year who were admitted and received intravenous medications in the Paediatric medical ward of JIPMER. 100 samples were selected and assigned to normal saline group (50 samples) and heparinized saline group (50 samples) by simple randomization technique using computer generated random numbers sealed in opaque envelops. Data Collection was done overa period of two months. After obtaining the formal permission from the institution and written informed parental consent, children were allocated to two groups by using simple randomization technique to receive either normal saline or heparinized saline flushing. The respective flush solutions were administered to the patients through the IV catheter after giving intravenous medications. The main outcome of the study was total duration of patency of the IV catheter and phlebitis grades. Results: There was no significant difference between the normal saline and heparinized saline groups in terms of total duration of patency and phlebitis grades of peripheral intravenous catheters. The duration of patency of peripheral intravenous catheters is influenced by the age of the children and frequency of medication administration in the normal saline group. Conclusion: As no difference in patency could be established, use of normal saline as a flush solution is preferable to heparinized saline in peripheral IV catheters in children.

  191. Dr. Krishna Kumar, M.

    Triple rule out (TRO)-Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) angiography denominates an ECG-gated protocol that allows for the depiction of the pulmonary arteries, thoracic aorta, and coronary arteries within a single examination in patients with heart rate of upto 80 beats per minute. TRO MDCT Angiography is most appropriate for the patient who is judged to be at low to intermediate risk for acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and whose symptoms may also be attributed to acute aortic syndrome (AAS) or acute pulmonary embolism (PE). In this study we evaluated Noninvasive 256 slice MDCT Triple rule out angiography in fifty patients, in the diagnosis of different causes of acute chest pain.

  192. Trpathi Prasad, A., Mehra, D., and Kumar, A,

    Introduction: Diabetes Mellitus is a categorized as a disease with multi-system complications. Congestive heart failure is one of the last resorts of cardiovascular complications, and is featured by the presence of diabetic cardiomyopathy, indicated by diastolic left ventricular dysfunction, which is easily assessed clinically and with echocardiography. Objective: To study the prevalence of LV diastolic dysfunction in asymptomatic patients diagnosed as diabetes mellitus. Method: The study was carried out on 100 diabetics and compared with 100 age and sex matched controls. In all the patients, complete history, general examination and relevant investigations was done to find out the prevalence of diastolic dysfunction in patients of diabetes mellitus. Results: The prevalence of diastolic dysfunction, defined by echocardiograph criteria was observed in 53% of total subjects. E/A was a sensitive index of diastolic LV dysfunction. Left ventricular hypertrophy, as indicated by an increased LV mass, was an early marker of diabetic cardiomyopathy. Conclusion: Echocardiography is a sensitive method to investigate the diastolic dysfunction. There is a high prevalence of diastolic dysfunction in diabetes, which is an early marker of diabetic cardiomyopathy.

  193. Hammad Khalifeh Hammad Aldal'in

    The potential of Okra and Rosselle for phytoremediation of Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn was investigated. A pot experiment using three types of soil with different properties and concentration of examined metals was conducted. The pots were filed with 3 kg of garden soil. The plants were grown for a period of 40 days. The results showed that Okra and Rosselle are hyperaccumulators for Fe, where the highest translocation factor values were 312 and 119 respectively. The high content of organic matter in polluted soil increased the growth parameters of both crops, however, crops performed better as metal extractors in the moderately polluted soil.

  194. Merenu I.A., Uwakwe K.A., Duru C.B., Diwe K.C. and Emereole, C.O

    Background: Malnourished children have lower resistance to infections; they are more likely to die from childhood ailments like diarrhoeal diseases and respiratory infections; and for those who survive, frequent illness sap their nutritional status, locking them into a vicious cycle of recurring sickness, faltering growth and diminished learning ability. Objective: To assess the prevalence, pattern and co-morbidities of malnutrition among under-five children in rural and urban communities of Owerri Capital Territory, Imo State. Methods: A descriptive cross sectional study conducted among under-five children in Owerri from January 2008 to December 2012. A multistage sampling technique was employed to select three hospitals each from urban and rural areas, and the total number of eligible under-five children that attended the child welfare clinics constituted the sample population. The registers were used to trace the case notes and data was extracted using a pretested pro-forma. The study population of 693 comprised of 386 children from the urban and 307from the rural communities respectively. Results: The prevalence of malnutrition was 25.3%, though 26.7% in the urban against 23.5% in the rural participants. Majority of the malnourished 117(66.9%) were from the 0-12 month age bracket. Overall, the observed malnutrition states were underweight (60.6%), overweight (26.9%) and marasmus (12.6%). Comparatively, underweight was significantly more in the rural malnourished (72.2%) than in the urban (52.4%) ( 2 = 6.95, P = 0.01, OR = 0.43, CI = 0.22-0.81), whereas, overweight was significantly more in the urban malnourished (34%) than in the rural (16.7%) ( 2 = 6.47, P = 0.02, OR = 2.57, CI = 1.23-5.40). Marasmus though did not differ significantly. Malaria (40%), pneumonia (20.6%) and diarrhoea (18.9%) were the commonest co-morbidities among the malnourished study population. Among the urban malnourished, however, malaria (38.8%) and pneumonia (26.2%) were the two most prevalent diagnosis at presentation, whereas for the rural, malaria (41.7%) and diarrhoea (25%) were the two most prevalent co-morbidities. Conclusions and recommendations: Malnutrition is still prevalent among the under-five in Owerri. The most vulnerable group was the 0-12months, which calls for greater attention to exclusive breast feeding and weaning with nutrient and energy dense foods, as these are essential to reduce malnutrition in this group. Underweight being more prevalent in the rural malnourished children, points to the challenge of food security which is fundamental for child survival. Overweight being more prevalent in the urban malnourished should engender healthier dietary habits in children from affluent homes by the mothers. Malaria was the most prevalent co-morbidity in both urban and rural malnourished populations; hence more efforts should be directed at malaria control measures.

  195. Dr. Hetal Jain, Dr. Bhuvnesh Patel, Dr. Jinal Patel and Dr. Vikas Desai

    Background: A decline in balance function has been reported in women from 40 years of age onward. Dynamic balance tests are used to predict fall risk in elder women (Plisky et al., 2009; Shaffer et al., 2013; Gribble, 2012; Schmitz, 2007). Objective: 1) To find Normative Y balance test value in Middle aged women and compare Y balance test value in age groups 41-50 and 51-60 years of females. Method: 200 females age between 41-60 years were recruited from community of Charotar region and divided in groups1 & 2. After consideration of inclusion and exclusion criteria informed consent was taken. Details regarding demographic data of all subjects along with Berg Balance Test and Y Balance test was taken. Result: There was no significant difference in Anterior reach distance between Right and left sides in both groups while Posteromedial direction had significant difference in group 2 (P= 0.006). Posterolateral reach distance showed significant difference in between right and left sides in both groups (P=0.02 & P=0.0064). Conclusion: There is significant difference in the reach distance in both the age groups of females with distance comparatively less in the 51-60 year supporting the age related decline in flexibility and balance. Among the 3 directions Posterolateral direction showed significant difference in both the groups.

  196. Dr. Swarup Anand, Dr. Radha Verma and Dr. Chirag Vaja

    Tubercular abscess is usually an extension from the underlying lymph node or bone, but occurrence at the site of intramuscular injections is rare.1 We present one such case of tubercular abscess mimicking injection site abscess.

  197. Dr. Sonavani-Borkar Mangala, Dr. Patil Sagar Pandurang, Dr. Pandey Vimlesh Ramsewak, Dr. Surwade Gajanan, Dr. Nagori Varun and Dr. Ankushe Rajendra T.

    Background: Since 2009, Government Medical College, Aurangabad, which is a tertiary care hospital in the region, has been regularly admitting cases of pneumonia and ARDS, that are labeled as swine flu suspects, in the Isolation Ward. Those cases whose report tests positive for H1N1 are retained in the well equipped Ward, whereas the others are shifted to the general MICU or respective wards. This study correlates SpO2 on admission with the outcome in swine flu patients admitted to Government Medical College, Aurangabad from January 2015 to May -2015. Aims and Objectives: The primary objective was to correlate the SpO2 (Oxygen saturation) at admission with outcome –viz survival or death. Materials and Methods: 59 cases of swine flu confirmed by PCR were admitted in the swine flu ward from January 2015 to May -2015, of whom 24 died. All the cases who were admitted immediately underwent a thorough clinical examination, including SpO2. ABG, routine CBC, LFT, KFT, HIV testing (after counselling patient or close relative), X-Ray chest were done in all cases. Statistical analysis was done by SPSS, version 20. Results: A total of 59 PCR-confirmed H1N1-infected patients were included in the study. Of these 31 (53%) were males and 28 (47%) females. All the 8 (100%) HINI positive patients whose SpO2 immediately at the time of admission, while breathing room air, was< 60%, died. 7of the 9 (78%) HINI positive patients whose SpO2 at the time of admission was 61-75% also died. On the other hand, only 9 (21.4%) of the 42 HINI positive patients having SpO2 >76% died (p= 0.00000141) Conclusion: In H1N1 positive patients, the value of Sp02 at the time of admission by a simple device like pulse oximeter is a significant predictor of mortality. In our study it was observed that if the SpO2 measured immediately at admission was <60, the mortality was 100%, regardless of other factors. All the patients whose Sp02 at admission was 89% or more, survived (100%).In the nine cases in whom the SpO2 was 61-75%, only two (22.2 %) survived. These values are highly significant statistically (p= 0.00000141).

  198. Dr. Borkar Mangala, S., Dr. Pandey Vimlesh, R., Dr. Surwade Gajanan, S., Dr. Rewari Bharat, B., Dr. Pawar Shilpa, Y. and Dr. Varun V. Nagori

    Background : HIV‐2 is intrinsically resistant to non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase (NNRTI) drugs, Nevirapine and Efavirenz, the mainstay of national first line ART regimen.1 Studies mention that there is no clearly accepted regime for the management of HIV‐2 . Aim of study: To study the response to second –line ART drugs (as prescribed by NACO) in the HIV‐2 cases attending ART center of tertiary care hospital. Method: It is a cross- sectional study. Of the 12906 HIV cases registered in the ART Center of this institute, 16 cases are HIV‐2 cases. In the present study, though the clinical profile of all the 16 has been reported, only 8 of the 16 who have been receiving treatment for more than a year have been studied for response to second line ART. Rise in CD 4 count, weight gain and rise in hemoglobin was calculated and statistical test of significance was applied. Results: There was significant rise in CD4 count (p value of 0.007) and significant gain in weight (p value of 0.015), while change in hemoglobin before and after therapy was not significant. Limitations: As reliable viral load measurement is not yet available for HIV‐2infection,1 the patients’ response has to be judged clinically ,by rise in CD 4 count and weight gain. Conclusion: After statistical analysis, it was observed that there was a significant rise in CD4 count and weight gain after one year of second line therapy. None of these patients developed new opportunistic infections.

  199. Dr. Dolanchanpa Dasgupta, Dr. Saibal Kumar Sen, Dr. Sneh Nidhi and Dr. Md Rabiul Islam

    Primary resection and radiotherapy for oral carcinoma present a myriad of challenges during prosthetic rehabilitation. A 65 years old lady developed microstomia, post-radiation xerostomia, altered muscle attachments following subtotal maxillectomy involving the entire premaxilla. Here, standard procedure for rehabilitation was tried with hollow complete denture. The final outcome of the functional prosthesis proves that simple prosthetic rehabilitation modified in harmony to her post-morbid condition can provide the best option for treating such elderly patients.

  200. Lakshmi, R., Rajeswari, V. and Badhe, A. S

    Introduction: Acute critical illness is characterized by catabolism exceeding anabolism. Nutritional support has now recognized as sine qua non in management of critically ill. Timely initiation of optimal nutritional support is important to limit the catabolic process. The awareness among nursing staff about nutritional therapy is important for the overall management of patients in the ICU. Aim and Objectives: This research project aimed to assess the Nursing care practices on enteral feeding in critically ill patients. Material and methods: This study adopted prospective observational design to collect the data regarding feeding practices in critically ill patients. The study was conducted in a tertiary care center Intensive care units of South India. Sample of this study comprised of 1000 feeding observations from 121 critically ill patients on enteral nutrition. Results: The data reveals that, before administering naso gastric feeds the nurses washed the hands in 43 % of the observations. The head end of the bed was elevated less than 30 degree angle in 12% observation .The placement of the enteral tube was not checked in 73% of the observation. The gastric residual volume was not checked in 73% of the observations. The medications were mixed with the enteral feeds in 48% of the observation. The motility agents were not used in 99.3% of the observations. Conclusion: Inconsistency in nursing practice to be improved with continuing education and practice surveillance

  201. Gaffer, M.O., Sulieman, H. A., Elmahi, Y. E. and Elhag, A. Z

    The carbon to nitrogen ratio (C/N) determination is one of the most important parameters of soil characterization. The validity of the methods used for determining organic carbon and total nitrogen in some Aridisols soils collected from Khartoum State, Sudan was studied. Organic carbon (O.C) was determined by wet combustion method which was considered as a reference or standard method against Walkley-Black and Tinsley methods that are widely used in the Sudan. In the latter two methods, the organic material was found to be poorly oxidized, and the use of their conventional conversion factors will thus lead to underestimation of O.C. Using the wet combustion method as standard, new conversion factors were suggested, which were about 30% and 20% higher than those used in Walkley-Black and Tinsley methods, respectively. The contribution of non-exchangeable nitrogen to total nitrogen was determined, and was found that it significantly affected the C/N especially in the subsoil.

  202. Mittisila Jyothi, Srinivasa Rao, D., Brahmaji Rao, P. and Sudhakar, G

    The purpose of study was to assess the accumulation of heavy metals (Zinc, Nickel, Copper, Manganese, Cadmium, Chromium, Iron, and Lead) in agricultural soils and their uptake by grass being irrigated by municipal sewage water. In current time the environment is heavily polluted by various toxic metals, which create a danger for all living beings. Phytoremediation can be potentially used to remediate metal contaminated sites. it has been observed that high amounts of heavy metals such as Fe>Zn>Mn>Cu>Cr>Ni>Cd>Pb in the para grass (Urochola Mutica) samples according to the Indian Standards. Effluent contains nutrients as well toxic components depending upon the source of production. The direct discharge of sewage from Automobile Industry and industrial effluents contaminate the agricultural soils in the study region. Present study highlights the fact that Urochola Mutica accumulates large concentration of heavy metals, therefore can play an important role in the phytoremediation but transfer the metals into animals through food chain.

  203. Shabnam Bayat, Babak Delkhosh, Alireza Etminan and Majid Gholibaygian

    In order to determination the effects of pH and salinity on germination and root elongation in three corn (Zea maize.L) cultivars, an experiment was conducted in factorial on the base of randomized complete design with four replication in agronomy lab. of Islamic Azad University Science and Research Branch of Tehran-Iran 2014. The ecological factors included three levels of pH (6.5, 7.5 as control and 8.2) as well as three levels of salinity (Distilled water as control, 6 and 10 g/l of sodium chloride) effect on three corn cultivars (KSC703, 704 and 705) had observed. Each unit test was considers a petri dish with 9 cm diameter and 10 seed of specie slightly and had employed ecological treatment. The results indicated that increasing of pH and salinity had negative effects on seed germination and root elongation also the anova analyzing showed KSC703 as the most resistant cultivars.

  204. P. Rajaraman, P. Kumarasamy and K. Muthukumaravel

    The toxic effect of cypermethrin on the serum cortisol of Labeo rohita was studied. The fish were exposed for 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours in 10 and 20% sub lethal concentrations of 96 h LC50 of cypermethrin (0.0037 ppm). There is no much significant variation in the plasma cortisol level of the control fish at different experimental peirods. But in the cypermethrin fish there is an eloquent increase in the plasma cortisol level with increase in concentration and time of exposure.

  205. Ebanasar, J., Samynathan, M. and Pathmavathy, R.

    Distribution pattern of earthworm fauna in Nilgiris District were studied during North East monsoon and South East monsoons of 2013. The survey was carried out in 26 stations in different elevations ranging from 763 to 2336 meters above msl. 22 Species of earthworms viz., Allolobophora caliginosa, Allolobophora chlorotica, Allolobophora rubida, Drawida species, Drawida grandis, Drawida pellucida, Drawida naduvattemensis, Drawida robusta, Drawida parva, Drawida minuta, Drawida modesta, Drawida chlorina, Eisenia foetida, Eisenia rosea, Lampito mauritii, Lumbricus sp, Megascolex imperatrix, Megascolex ratus, Octolasian cyaneum, Perionyx excavatus, Perionyx saltans, Pheretima sp. belonging to nine genera and three families were recorded. The distribution of different species of earthworms along the altitudinal gradient is discussed.

  206. Nihad A. Lateef Ali and Motasem Al Massad

    This study was conducted at Poultry Farm of Animal Resources Dept., College of Agriculture, University of AL-Qasim Green to investigate the effect of adding Lycopene to the ration on productive traits of broiler Ross 308. Use the 90 broiler chicks Ross 308 day-old were randomly assigned to three treatments (by 3 replicates per treatment 10 chicks per replicate), and treatments were as follows: control group without adding lycopene to the ration, add lycopene by 250 mg / kg feed (first treatment) and add lycopene by 500 mg / kg feed (second treatment). The experiment included a study of the following characteristics: body weight, weight gain, feed consumption, feed conversion efficiency and mortality. The results indicated that the addition of lycopene by 250 mg / kg feed to broiler diet led to a significant improvement in the body weight and to a significant decrease in the mortality. In the rest of the qualities of productivity there has not been significant differences between all treatments. It concluded from this experience, that the addition of lycopene by 250 mg / kg feed to the ration can lead to improved performance of the broiler production

  207. Khalid S. Alshallash

    In four glasshouse experiments, efficiency and quantifying using the green dock beetle (Gastrophysa virdula) as biological control agent of sorrel dock (Rumex crispus) was studied. The effect of the green dock beetle (Gastrophysa virdula) on Rumex crispuswas investigated at four levels of beetles number/plant(pot); 0, 1, 2 or 3 beetles/plant (pot) at four different seedlings growth stages of Rumex crispus measured by the average of the total leaf area/plant (pot); 1.22 cm2/plant (pot), 4.45 cm2/plant (pot), 11.56cm2/plant (pot) or 71.52cm2 plant (pot).Beetle grazing resulted in a great reduction in Rumex crispus dry weight (g)/plant (pot) and shoots number/plant (pot). Statistical analysis showed significant reduction in the average of the four growth stages of Rumex crispus dry weight (g)/plant (pot) and shoots number/plant (pot)at high level of significance of (≤0.01) even in the presence of only one beetle/plant (pot). The presence of two or three beetle sometimes increased the reduction although it was not significant and dramatic confirming great effect of one beetle on one seedling of the weed. The present of one beetle reduced the average dry weight of Rumex crisps (g)/plant (pot) of the four growth stages by 63%. Whereas, the percentage of reduction in Rumex crispus shoot numbers /plant (pot) as a result of the present of one beetle was 49%. Dry weight (g)/plant (pot) and shoots number/plant (pot) of Rumex crispus have been affected significantly (P≤0.01) by the grazing of one beetle at all examined growth stages and this effect continued with the increase of beetle numbers/plant (pot) at the four growth stages. However, the increase in beetle number/plant (pot) was not of significant effect in all examined growth stages of Rumex crispus confirming the efficiency of one beetle to create considerable effect on one Rumex crispus seedling at all examined four growth stages. After four months from beetle grazing, Rumex crispus seedlings were not able to regrow confirming to be dead especially at smaller seedling stages. At the oldest growth stage with average of total leaf area of 71.52/plant (pot), some plants of Rumex crispus reemerged. This suggests that the highest beetle effect occurs in early seedling stages of Rumex crispus. Combining beetle grazing with other weed control measure at older growth stages could give better result in suppressing the weed. Statistical analysis showed high correlation (0.77) between the measurements taken for Rumex crispus seedlings (dry weight (g)/plant (pot) and shoots number/plant (pot)) at the four seedlings growth stages which confirms similarity of the beetle effect on Rumex crispusat all examined growth stages. Moreover, it does show similar effect of the beetle on the two measurements of Rumex crispus growth (dry weight (g)/plant (pot) and shoots number/plant (pot)) which indicate that the beetle grazing covers both leaves and tillers of Rumex crispusat similar amount including the whole above ground fresh matter of the weed.

  208. Rupa Verma, Ashok Kumar Choudhary, Abhijit Dutta and Sudarshan Maurya

    Ralstonia solanacearum, a known dreaded soil borne phytopathogenic bacteria, has been causing enormous crop losses in tropical, subtropical and temperate regions across the world including the eastern plateau and hill regions of India, where soil is mostly acidic. In this study, honey bee derived peptide apidaecin and some antibiotics observed to be exhibiting antimicrobial efficacy against the bacteria R.solanacearum isolated from infected tomato, brinjal and capsicum plants. Effectiveness of apideacin was compared with three potential antibiotics likeceftriaxone, ambistryn and gentamicin towards containing the bacterial phytopathogen. Ceftriaxone showed the strongest antibacterial efficacy with zone of inhibition 17.94mm, 17mm and 15.88 mm at 40 μgmL-1respectively in three isolates of R.solanacearum vizbrinjal, capsicum and tomato. Ambistryn, compared to gentamicin, was next best in exhibiting antibacterial efficacy with zone of inhibition ranging from 10.2 mm to14.8 mm. Apidaecin exhibited antibacterial effectiveness onbrinjal and capsicum isolates at the concentration of 20 to 40 μgmL-1with zone of inhibition varying from4.1 mm to 8.4 mm at 40 μgmL-1. Apideacin, compared to gentamicin, was effective in capsicum and nearly potent to gentamicin in tomato at higher concentrations. Apideacin, compared to the antibiotics, was moderately effective on selected plant isolates.

  209. Fatma and Avijit Mazumder

    Nature has been a source of herbal medicinal agents for thousand of years and an impressive number of modern drugs have been isolated from natural sources. About 80% of the world’s population rely mainly on traditional medicines for their primary health care. Areca catechu L. (Palmaceae), commonly known as Areca nut in English, is a perennial tree occurring throughout the Indian subcontinent and used traditionally for several medicinal purposes. Areca catechu is the most widely cultivated species in the genus Areca and has been distributed by humans throughout the tropics. Its various parts are used against wide range of ailments. The plant has traditional uses which consist of wound healing, antidiabetic, anti-fungal, antidepressant, antioxidant, and anti malarial. Areca is used for treatment of schizophrenia and glaucoma. It is also used as a mild stimulant; and as a digestive aid. Some people use areca as a recreational drug because it stimulates the central nervous system (CNS). Its medicinal properties is due to presence of numerous secondary metabolites like alkaloids, tannins and terpenoids. Hence this article aims to provide a comprehensive review on past work done on Areca catechu with special emphasis on its pharmacological properties.

  210. Labeeb A. AL-Zubaidi, Muna T. AL-Mossawei, Saja Y. Abduljaleel

    The 145 samples were collected from different region from Iraq during March 2014 – February 2015, distributed into 55 samples imported and 90 samples local markets include: corn, wheat, malt, soybeans, compete cow's feed and feed additives. The samples were analysis to quality and quantity detection of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) by using methods of Thin layer chromatography(TLC), High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and Enzyme Linked Immune Sorbent Assay (ELISA) techniques. The results from quality detection of AFB1 by TLC showed the 30% of samples were positive, While the quantity and quality detection of HPLC and -ELISA techniques results appeared 44.8 % and 41 % of samples respectively were positive (contaminated with AFB1), furthermore the results showed the corn, complete cow's feed and feed additives samples more contaminated samples with AFB1. The highest concentration of AFB1 found in imported compete cow's feed at 100% were positive with AFB1 ranged from 70.5-86.43 ng/ g in HPLC and 76.1-95.1 ng/ g in ELISA whereas in local samples was found feed additives with high concentration of AFB1 at 75% in HPLC and 50% in ELISA were ranged from 1.1 to 817.9 ng/g and 3.32 to 111.47 ng/g in HPLC and ELISA technique respectively while the soy sample was lesser contaminate. The contamination rate was high in the local samples compared to imported samples. Also the results observed that no significant differences between the HPLC and ELISA techniques, but have significant differences when compared with TLC technique, that may be refer into the sensitivity and specificity of HPLC and ELISA were higher than the TLC.

  211. Snehal V. More

    The textile industry is the largest industry in terms of value, production and also in effluent generation. With the increasingly important requirement for textile manufacturers to reduce pollution in textile production, the use of enzymes in the chemical processing of fibers and textiles is rapidly gaining wider recognition because of their non-toxic and eco-friendly characteristics. As far as textiles are concerned, researchers’ emphasis on reduction of the use of harsh chemicals and reuse of effluent waste water. Majority of enzyme is used in degumming which is a silk refining process of the drawn silk fibre or yarn. The conventional degumming methods like extraction with water, boiling off in soap, degumming with alkali/acidic solutions have certain disadvantages like, removal of the sericin with low percentages, the surface hardening and damage of the filaments, lack of stringent control over process conditions and more time duration. Substituting proteolytic enzymes in silk degumming process for harsh chemicals such as alkalis, acids or soaps and conditions should improve the quality and preserve the physical properties of silk fibroin, to bring uniform removal of sericin and to reduce the pollution levels. Use of proteolytic enzymes in silk degumming resulted in complete sericin removal and retaining tensile properties, while improving surface smoothness and luster. There is an urgent need for scientific studies for potential application of proteolytic enzymes in silk degumming process as enzymatic method is known to be eco friendly reduces energy cost and enhances the productivity and quality of silk as compared to the chemical methods

  212. Deshmukh, O.S.

    Spatholobus purpureus Benth.ex Baker, a medicinally important plant belongs to the family Fabaceae. Traditionally roots are used in the treatment of Haemoresic septicemia in animals. In the present study, the bioactive compounds of Spatholobus purpureus root have been evaluated using GC-MS. The chemical compositions of the acetone extract of S. purpureus were investigated using Perkin-Elmer Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectroscopy. GC-MS analysis of S. purpureus acetone extract revealed the existence of the GC-MS chromatogram of the seventeen peaks presented. The major chemical constituents are like 2-Pentanone, 4-Hydroxy-4-Methyl, Diphenylmethane, Heptacosane, Tetratetracontane, Octacosane (51.44%), , Di-N-Octyl Phthalate, 6H-Benzofuro(3,2-C)(1) Benzopyran,3,9-Dimethoxy, Tritetracontane (16.52%), 6A,12A-Dihydro-6H-(1,3) Dioxolo (5,6) Benzofuro(3,2-C) Chromen-3-Ol, Oxalic acid (6.17%), Decyl 2-Ethyl Hexyl Ester,Pyridine2-Methyl-3-(Trimethylsilyloxy)-4,5-Bis ( (Trimethysilyloxy) Methyl (4.31%), Octadecane,3-Ethyl-5-(2-Ethylbutyl), Di-N-Decylsulfone and Cyclotrisiloxane Hexamethyl (4.47%).

  213. Dr. Smita S. Sonawane, Dr. Milind V. Patil, and Dr. Kalgutkar, A.D.

    Introduction: Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) is the most common bacterial infection in human. In our study we are studying histopathological changes in gastric mucosa in patient with H. pylori infection. Comparison of staining methods in terms of their cost, time required, reproducibility of techniques and ability to demonstrate H. pylori in Paraffine sections were also done. Materials and methods: Prospective analysis of 100 patients presented with acid peptic disorder to our gastroenterology outpatient department for a period of 1 ½ year was carried out . Biopsies taken and were immediately subjected to Rapid urease test in endoscopy room. Thereafter the biopsy processed, standard routine histological section were cut at five micron thickness with the help of fully automated microtome. Sections were stained with routine H & E and special stains like Modified Giemsa, Gimenez, Warthin Starry stain re evaluated for the presence of H. pylori bacterial infection in the antral biopsies. Observation and results: The maximum H. pylori positivity by histopathology was found in age group 21-40 years (60.2%) and followed by 41-60 years (58.2%) and then up to 20 year (57.1%). The grades of chronic inflammation and activity (infiltration by neutrophils) were higher with higher grades of H. pylori infection. Intestinal metaplasia, atrophy and lymphoid follicles aggregates were found mostly with grade I and grade II. Out of total 100 cases maximum number of H. pylori positive cases were detected by Warthin starry stain 55/100(55%) followed by Gimenez 53/100 (53%). On Giemsa staining 52/100 cases were detected. H and E could detect only 50 cases out of 100. Least number of cases were detected by H and E stain. Conclusion: histopathology is the investigation of choice in detection of H pylori. It can detect carcinoma, lymphoma in early stages. Geimnez stain most useful as it is economical and quick, Modified Giemsa is also good but it requires careful search as good contrast is not provided. Warthin starry stain is time consuming, expensive, least reproducible so difficult to use.

  214. Julius L. Livondo, Anderson Kipkoech, Eunice W. Macharia and Paul O. Odwori

    Information dissemination is a key element in the adoption of the different striga control technologies. Majority of farmers tend to lag in adoption of Striga control technologies due to lack of information about the technologies. Information materials should thus include simple explanations to farmers on how the control measures work. This study sought to establish the most preferred communication channels by farmers in accessing agricultural technology based information. Farmers in Associations (FAs) in Bungoma County have been accessing information on agricultural technologies from various sources like University of Eldoret using Information Communication Technologies and the convention extension methods. The study was carried out in Bungoma County, Kenya. A cross-sectional survey design was adopted. The target population included farmers in Associations and non-member farmers. A sample size of 210 respondents was used in the study. A semi-structured questionnaire and interview schedules were used to collect data from the FAs and Non FAs farmers. Quantitative statistics was used to compute means, percentages and standard deviations. A t-test was performed at 5% significant level. The study revealed that farmers’ meetings were the most preferred channel of communication. The findings of this study would be important to extension officers in Bungoma County by providing information on the preferred communication channels for enhanced adoption of striga control technology in maize crops.

  215. Sudeshna Sil, Vibha, C. and Vishwanath, H. L.

    Introduction: Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune disease of unknown etiology characterised by persistent inflammatory synovitis involving multiple peripheral joints in a symmetrical distribution. Cathepsin K is a cysteine protease that plays an essential role in osteoclast function and in the degradation of protein components of bone matrix. It is synthesized by osteoclast and activated synovial macrophages and it cleaves collagen type I, collagen type II and osteonectin, therefore having a role in bone remodelling and resorption. Larsen score is a method of radiological scoring of X-rays in Rheumatoid arthritis. Aim: To measure the serum levels of cathepsin K as a marker of bone resorption in rheumatoid arthritis and its correlation with the Larsen score. Method: Case control study involving 30 patients of rheumatoid arthritis as cases and 30 age and sex matched healthy individuals as controls. Serum cathepsin K was determined and X-rays were scored by Larsen scoring method in cases. Results: Mean serum cathepsin K (p moles/litre) was significantly increased in cases (116.18 ± 78.18) than controls (12.86 ± 3.04) with P < 0.001 and a significant positive correlation of serum cathepsin K with Larsen score (r value 0.903 and P < 0.001) was seen in cases. Conclusion: The upregulation of serum Cathepsin K in cases and its significant positive correlation with the Larsen score mirrors the destruction of bone structures in established Rheumatoid arthritis. Cathepsin K seems to be a valuable parameter for assessment of bone metabolism in rheumatoid arthritis patients. Its measurement will contribute to the development of targeted therapies for the prevention of further bone destruction.

  216. Wasfy Jameel Hamad, Hani JameelHamad and Mohammed Omar Ibrahim

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is one of the most common neurodegenerative diseases AD is characterized by adult-onset progressive dementia, beginning with subtle memory failure that becomes more severe and is eventually incapacitating. The most common neuropathological feature of AD is the presence of neurofibrillary tangles and amyloid deposits that form plaques and cerebrovascular accumulations. AD is divided into familial and sporadic forms. AD is considered familial when more than one person in a family is affected, while sporadic refers to AD cases when no other cases have been seen in close family members. It has been over 100 years since the first cases of AD were described, and since then much has been discovered about the molecular nature of the disease. The genetic control of complex diseases is becoming more apparent as previously unidentified mutations in the human genome are described. As the genetic control of AD is uncovered, improved therapies may also be uncovered

  217. Zerihun Girma, George Chuyong, Paul Evangelista and Yosef Mamo

    Tragelaphus buxtoni and Tragelaphus scriptus meneliki are spiral-horned antelopes endemic to highlands and south eastern highlands of Ethiopia respectively. The ranges of both species often overlap and are threatened by the loss and degradation of their montane habitats. The objective of the study was to identify their preference and associated vegetation characteristics of montane habitats in Arsi Mountains National Park. Intensive-Modified Whitaker nested plot design was used to sample vegetation and scat across habitats. The Intensive-Modified Whitaker plot had four 1-m2 non-overlapping sub plots and one 10-m2 non-overlapping subplot, all nested within a 100-m2 exterior plot. In each of the 1-m2 sub plots, we recorded the presence and estimated percent cover for all plants encountered. In the 10-m2 and 100-m2 plots, unique plant species and scat piles of the wildlife species were recorded. The highest plant α-diversity was recorded in the natural forest (130 species). The highest Shannon-Wiener Diversity (4.509) was recorded from the mixed plantation. The highest habitat preference index for the mountain nyala (0.44) and Menelik’s bushbuck (0.58) were recorded in the mixed plantation and natural forest during dry season respectively. Urgent conservation of natural forest and mixed plantations are required for the survival of both wildlife species.

  218. Sherene, T., Kavimani, R. and Bharathikumar, K

    To assess the soil health under transgenic Bt cotton grown soils (RCH-2 Bt, Bunny Bt and NHH 44 Bt) expressing cry1Ac gene were evaluated for their effects on soil microbial population, Microbial Biomass carbon (MBC), Microbial Biomass Nitrogen (MBN), soil respiration, and Dehydrogenase (DHA) activity to ascertain for rhizosphere soil quality under field conditions. The soil biological indicators viz.,microbial population, DHA, soil respiration, MBC and MBN were higher in Bt cotton grown soils when compared to non Bt cotton grown soils indicating no adverse effects of Bt toxin on rhizosphere soil microbial activity. These results suggest that cultivation of Bt cotton expressing cry1Ac gene may not pose ecological or environmental risk.

  219. Jakeli Julieta and Metreveli Mariam

    The article analyzes the composition and conservation significance of the plants protected by the global and national “Red Lists” in the specific diversity of the Ajara floristic region. The article discusses the peculiarities of growth-development and reproductive biology of the plants of the tertiary period relict species of wingnut - Pterocarya pterocarpa growing at the Batumi Botanical Garden, protected by the International Union of Conservation of Nature (IUCN), Georgian “Red Book” and Georgian “Red List”. The study of the development biology and elaboration of the effective methods of propagation is the basis for elaboration and implementation of conservation measures for ex situ – in the Batumi Botanical Garden, and in situ – in the natural Colchis conditions – conservation.

  220. Marcelo de Freitas Ribeiro, Eduardo Fontes Araújo, Genaina Aparecida de Souza, Raquel Maria de Oliveira Pires, Roberto Fontes Araújo, Paola Andrea Hormaza Martinez and Marcelo Resende de Freitas Ribeiro

    Coffe seeds are classified like intermediate, presenting difficulties in production of viable and vigor seeds for a long period of time. The objective of this work was to evaluate the viability of coffee seeds using different microbial control agents storage in natural environment. The fruits were selected in cherry phase, peeled and desmucilated in natural fermentation for 12 hours, with initial water content of 42%. For the control of fungus contamination in seeds, were tested dehydrated and powdered medicinal plants in doses of 200 g kg-1 of seed, chemical fungicides mancozeb (Dithane® NT 4 g kg-1 of seed), potassium sorbate (300 g L-1) and sodium benzoate (300 g L-1 ) and three biological products, trichodermil® SP (1 g kg-1 of seed), trichodel® (50 g kg-1 of seed) and trichoplus® (50 g kg-1 of seed). Samples of 200g of seeds were conditioned in three different packages: polypropylene flasks, kraft paper bags and polyethylene nylon bags for a period of 15 months with evaluations each three months. Seeds conditioned in kraft paper bags presented germination average, higher than those conditioned in polypropylene flasks or polyethylene+nylon bags, however the polyethylene nylon bags were most efficient in keep the longevity of seeds. In this study, medicinal plants that allowed better control of fungi population during the storage were, rosemary, garlic and clove in all packaging.

  221. Jyostna, V., Anuhya, G., Aswini Kumar, Y. V. V. and Dr. Sudhakar, P.

    Oxidative stress is defined as the imbalance between the production of free radicals and the ability of the body to detoxify their harmful effects through neutralization by antioxidants. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of cadmium on oxidative stress enzymes and the reversal effect of vitamin-C. For this purpose rats were exposed to cadmium through subcutaneous injections and post administration of vitamin-C for a period of thirty days. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), Catalase (CAT), Glutathione peroxidase (GPx), Xanthine oxidase (XOD) enzyme activities and Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were estimated in cortex, cerebellum and hippocampus of rat brain. cadmium administration led to decrease in the levels of oxidative stress enzymes and increase in the levels of TBARS. Vitamin-C an antioxidant prevented cadmium induced alterations in the antioxidant enzyme and oxidative neutralising enzymes partially to the control level.

  222. Svilen Raykov, Krasimira Tanova and Veselin Uchkunov

    During the period of 2013-2015, in the proving grounds of the Agricultural Institute - Shumen was performed an assessment for the agent causing cercosporosis – Cercospora beticola Sacardo from 16 selection materials of mangold. The assessment is made under natural infectious background, with importing of the leaf fertilizer umustim” (1000ml/ha), as well as without it. For the aims of the examination is performed proving test on the block method scheme, in four successions. The recordings are made based on point scales unified by the Agricultural Institute. The infection index of the cercosporosis is determined and the sorts’ reaction of the tested materials was compared, in order for the materials to be assessed with the stability methodic, which is standard for the country. It was determined that the infection index of the cercosporosis Cercospora beticola Sacardo for the mangold depends mostly on the stability of the plants and to a lesser extent on the external conditions; the tested selection materials are averagely sensitive and averagely stable; the import of the leaf fertilizer, Humustim”, in dose 1000ml/ha, under favourable conditions for the development of the cercosporosis, does not affect the infection index values.

  223. Svilen Raykov and Krasimira Tanova

    During the period from 2012 – 2014,in the proving grounds of the Agricultural Institute – Shumen, has been performed an assessment of the selection forms of sugar beet to the agents causing fusarium rotting and scab root decay. The assessment is performed under field conditions in natural infectious background, with block method attempts, in 4 successions and with size of the cultivation area – 10.8 m2. The disease spreading is recorded and shown in % of sick plants per unit of area (ha). In the test are included 8 selection materials of sugar beet, among which there is 1 sort fodder beet for standard during the examination – the sort “Pliska”. It is found that this sort is sensitive to the “root decay”; the sorts “Radost2” and ‘Radost3”, as well as the selection lines 802-41Red are averagely sensitive towards the “root decay” ; the sort “Radost1” and the lines 803 Red, 802 Red, 804- Yellow and 805- Yellow are averagely stable towards the “root decay” .

  224. Leena Chaurasia and Vishakha Bisht

    Concrete although is a mechanically strong construction material, but suffer from several inherent drawbacks, such as low tensile strength, permeability to liquid and consequent corrosion of reinforcement, susceptibility to chemical attack and low durability, ultimately reduced service life. Therefore, properties such as strength, permeability, crack formation and corrosion properties defines the overall quality of concrete. To improve the overall performance of concrete from these deficiencies, microbial mineral precipitation resulting from metabolic activities of some specific microorganisms in concrete has been attempted. Concrete incorporated bacteria can produce copious amounts of minerals which can potentially seal freshly formed cracks. However, its performance in presence of acid need to be understood. This paper reports the effects of microbial calcite precipitation on parameters affecting the transport processes and durability of mortar. To study the effect of durability, mortar cubes with and without Bacillus cohnii were cast and subjected to acid attack. Treatments were evaluated by visualizing and calculating the extent of acid attack in terms of % strength loss and % weight loss on 0.5%HCl and H2SO4 exposed mortar specimens. The durability of the bacteria treated specimens have been studied by measuring the resistance against acid attack in terms of acid attack factor and increased durability in terms of acid durability factor. Microbial calcite precipitation was quantified by X-ray diffraction analysis and visualized by SEM. Bacterial deposition of a layer of calcite on the surface of the specimens resulted in reduction in pore percentage and therefore, a decrease of acid ingress inside the mortar specimen was detected. From all the aforesaid studies it was revealed that bio-concrete is more durable.

  225. Sanjay Gandhi, S. and Usha Rani, S.

    A pot trial study was conducted to determine the efficacy of combined application of both fungal and bacterial antagonistic organism against Fusarium wilt of cotton. Further, also to estimate the rhizosphere population of antagonistic organism. Among the treatment, combined application of T. viride + P. fluorescens @10ml kg-1 and SA @2.5lit ha-1 (T3) recorded minimum disease incidence (15.57 %) which was on par with the fungicide (14.20%) and also recorded maximum shoot length, root length and plant biomass over untreated control recorded maximum disease incidence (60.86%) and minimum growth parameters. With regard to estimation of rhizosphere population T3 recorded minimum population of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. vasinfectum (10.30×10-6) and maximum rhizosphere population of 25.20×10-3 cfu g-1 soil of T.viride (Tv3) and 30.10×10-6 cfu g-1 soil of P. fluorescens (Pf7).

  226. Srinivas B. Goudar and Prabhu I. Mandi

    In this Paper presents the result for different dielectric constant values and the result is performed by thickness of 2.88mm and resonance frequency of 2GHz where 2.32 (Duroid) are gives the best result. In the recent years the development in communication systems requires the evelopment of low cost, minimal weight, low profile antennas that are capable of maintaining high performance over a wide spectrum of frequencies. This technological trend has focused much effort into the design of a Microstrip patch antenna. The proposed antenna design on different dielectric constant and analyzed result of all dielectric constant from 1 to 10, when the proposed antenna designs on Duroid substrate with dielectric constant 2.32. At 2GHz verified and tested result on MATLAB are Radiation Efficiency=91.99%, Directivity=5.4dBi, Directive gain=4.98dBi and Half Power Beam Width-H plane=99.6123 degrees.

  227. Ravi Sethi and Mamta Ahuja

    As evident from the literature, in recent years a significant portion of research work in heterocyclic chemistry has been devoted to pyrazolines containing different aryl groups as substituents. The coordination chemistry of pyrazoline derived ligands has received much attention, primarily due to their biological implications. Several studies have centered around synthesis and structural studies of metal complexes of pyrazolines containing bidentate ligands (S, N, O donors) due to the reported biological activities of these donor ligands and complexes obtained from them.

  228. Anoosha, K., Sravani, K. and Reddy, G. L.

    In this paper we obtain the size of the disc in which the zeros of polar derivatives of polynomial of degree n with real coefficients with respect to a real α lie.

  229. Áurea Sousa, Helena Bacelar-Nicolau, Fernando C. Nicolau and Osvaldo Silva

    In this paper we compare the best partitions of data units (cities) obtained from different algorithms of Ascendant Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (AHCA) of a well-known data set of the literature on symbolic data analysis (“city temperature interval data set”) with a priori partition of cities given by a panel of human observers. The AHCA was based on the weighted generalised affinity, a(k,k'), with equal weights, and on the probabilistic coefficient, α_WW (k,k'), associated with the asymptotic standardized weighted generalized affinity coefficient by the method of Wald and Wolfowitz. These similarity coefficients between elements were combined with three aggregation criteria, one classical, Single Linkage (SL), and the other ones probabilistic, AV1 and AVB, the last ones in the scope of the VL methodology. The evaluation of the partitions in order to find the partitioning that best fits the underlying data was carried out using some validation measures based on the similarity matrices. In general, global satisfactory results have been obtained using our methods, being the best partitions quite close (or even coinciding) with the a priori partition provided by the panel of human observers.

  230. Muruganantham, C. and Geetha, R

    A user would issue a query and expect a response to be returned within the deadline. While the use of fault tolerance mechanisms through redundancy improves query reliability. We develop a mathematical model for the lifetime of the sensor system as a function of system parameters including the “source” and “path” redundancy levels utilized. Data sensing and retrieval in wireless sensor systems have a widespread application in areas such as security and surveillance monitoring. Redundancy management of clustered heterogeneous wireless sensor networks utilizing multipath routing to answer user queries. Lifetime of a heterogeneous wireless sensor network is maximized while satisfying the reliability. We applied our analysis results to the design of a dynamic redundancy management. The best design parameter settings at runtime in response to environment changes to prolong the system lifetime.

  231. Dr. Prakriti Vohra

    Introduction: The indiscriminate disposal of waste has resulted in a rise in deadly infections such as Human Immunodeficiency virus and Hepatitis B. Therefore, Biomedical Waste Management has recently emerged as an issue of major concern. Objectives: To study the handling, segregation and collection practices of bio-medical solid waste in the hospital and its mandatory compliance with Regulatory Notifications for Bio-medical Waste (Management and Handling) Rules, 1998. Materials and Methods: Primary data was collected from the interview basis of the staff and personal observation by visiting the sites of biomedical waste generation, segregation, temporary collection and transport. Secondary data was collected from the records of the department by the permission of the hospital administration team. Results: Total 86 sites of biomedical waste generation were visited. Location of bags & dustbins at right place was found 100% correct in case of yellow, red & blue bags while it was correct in case of black bags 98.83% of location points. All the bags (100%) were leak-proof. Availability of black, red, yellow & blue bag was 88.37%, 95.38%, 91.86% & 97.67% respectively. Daily collection of BMW from black, red, yellow & blue bag was 96.51%, 96.51%, 98.83% & 97.67% respectively. Out of all visited sites needle destroyers were present at 97.67% places & were in working condition at 95.34% places. Syringes were not kept in different buckets for disinfection except 5.81% sites. Before transportation to temporary storage area BMW is being tagged only at 10.46% of total sites. Compliance with the rules was found to be 62%. Conclusion: Biomedical waste management in hospital of SHKM GMC is in compliance with Biomedical Waste (management & handling) Rules. But, still there is a scope of further improvement in BMW management practices, so that proper follow up of mandatory rules can be ensured

  232. Lunshan (Shaun) GAO

    This paper presents an algorithm for calculating mixed Nash equilibria in 2-player games. The algorithm is based on the mathematical equivalence between the expected payoff function of bi-matrix games and the fuzzy average. It was proved that the expected payoff function of 2-player games is identical to the fuzzy average of two linguistic values when the payoff matrix is replaced with the consequence matrix, the strategy sets are replaced with term sets in linguistic variables. This paper proves that the new algorithm can compute mixed NE in 2-player games within polynomial time for any types of bi-matrix games. We claim that there is a fully polynomial time scheme for computing mixed NE in 2-player games.

  233. Thenmozhi, C., Manivannan, V., Kumar, E. and Veera Rethina Murugan, S.

    SnO2 nanoparticles were synthesized by microwave assisted hydrothermal method using SnCl2•2H2O as a precursor. The synthesized SnO2 nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infra-Red spectroscopy (FT-IR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), to find their structure and crystal size, functional group, particle morphology, surface morphology respectively. The broad peaks in the X-ray diffraction spectra indicate that the obtained powder is SnO2 and are in crystalline nature. The size of the crystalline SnO2 nanoparticles was found to be in the range of 10-21nm as calculated from the Debye - Scherrer formula.

  234. Mahdi Mahjour and Hossein Golnabi

    Simultaneous with developing science and technology, increasing need to controller devices is felt more than before. Among these controller devices, those sensors preparing with optical fiber due to themselves advantages are very popular. In this study factor of distance in three main directions for an optical fiber sensor from 200 to 2700 micrometer has been studied and results was shown in two orders, microwatt and dBm. Accordingly, the maximum light reach to second fiber when two fibers be only fixed in a line (Z axis). Furthermore, increasing distance results in decreasing output power. In this paper the first stage of designing an optical fiber sensor which is increasing distance factor, has been performed and other dates will be published in future regarding the achievement.

  235. Dr. Jagadeesh Kumar, P.S. and Angelo D’Souza

    The predicament of defense has been an obsession of torment to any escalating nation. It has been branded that one dome by which this hindrance can be scuffled is to boast a safe border where the populace that nomadic of the nation is being documented and properly scrutinized. In line, to skirmish the colonization control, the manuscript consequently anticipated a safe and sound frontier defense using dual countenance check through Boast Cosseted (BC) scheme. The dual countenance check exploits fingerprint detection and face recognition in the boast cosseted scheme as adroit for detection and corroboration of personnel inimitably. Then, indubitably the intended proposal purges the likelihood of double registration at the frontier by the colonizer.

  236. Dr. Obianuju Mary Chiekezie and Nsoedo, Onyekachukwu

    Highly engaged workforce can increase innovation, productivity, and bottom-line performance when their jobs are well designed. Job design represents the delineation of task responsibility as dictated by organizational strategy, technology and structure. This study explores the effect of job design on employee engagement using the social exchange theory. The study considers the relationship between the variables of job design which include skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy and feedback on employee engagement. The study employed cross-sectional survey design. Stratified sampling technique was used to get the sample size. Questionnaire was used to elicit information from respondents. Pearson product moment correlation was adopted as a statistical tool for data analysis. Based on the data from the survey investigation of employees across three manufacturing companies in Nigeria, the results revealed that there is a significant positive relationship between job design and employee engagement. The study therefore recommends that management need to pay more attention to job design, by creating more opportunity for workers to contribute.

  237. Joshi Hem Chandra, Rajpoot, Y. S., Ghai Guru Datt and Rajpurohit, R. S.

    The objective of the study was to investigate the occurrence of upper extremity musculoskeletal overuse injuries among professional lawn tennis players belonging Gwalior region. The total of 86 professional tennis players (N=86) having at least 3 years of competitive experience were purposely selected for the study. The data was collected through interview method. The overuse injuries selected for this study were associated with Wrist, Elbow and Shoulder joint. The percentage analysis statistical technique was employed to analyse the data. Results of percentage analysis showed that maximum number of cases reported by players were injuries (overuse) associated with elbow joint (total 37% of sample population) whereas, injuries related to shoulder and wrist joint, female players have reported more cases of overuse injuries associated with wrist joint (female 30% and male 16%) and comparison to shoulder joint whereas, male have reported more case of shoulder injuries(mostly Rotator Cuff Tendinitis) in comparison to wrist joint (male 26% and female 10%).

  238. Rajesh R. Desai and Ankit D. Patel,

    The word tax is derived from the Latin word ‘taxare’ meaning to estimate. Tax policies play an important role on the economy through their impact on both efficiency and equity. The replacement of the state sales taxes by the Value Added Tax in 2005 marked a significant step forward in the reform of domestic trade taxes in India. The goods and services tax (GST) is aimed at creating a single, unified market that will benefit both corporate and the economy. India has been trying to implement the Goods and Service Tax (GST) for last few years but due to political and state government autonomy issues the federal government has been unable to make it a law. Intention to implement this was declared in 2008 and it was supposed to be in existence from April 2010. 85 percent of the revenue of state governments is generated from the indirect taxes on goods and services and sales tax alone accounts for 61percent of the total revenue. Introduction of state level value added tax in 2005 led to uniform tax rates and eliminated cascading tax rates but it is still a step towards more comprehensive reforms as that of GST. In this paper, author tries to investigate various opportunities and challenges lay ahead for the state government in relation to GST in India.

  239. Chaibou Issoufou

    In Islam, ethical values have the highest significance in business transactions. They are the most important elements that can distinguish Islamic business from conventional business. For this reason, this paper examines the implementation of Islamic business ethics in term of merchants, commodities circulating in the market, and market movements. The research adopts classical and modern jurists’ approaches to analyse jurisprudential issues on the theme from the Islamic juristic perspective. It explores ethical conducton financial products and services. It also discusses the impact of Islamic ethics in business areas and emphasises moral values in all aspects of human daily activities. The study explains freedom of enterprise in Islam and keenness to earn lawful income. It highlights prohibited conduct in business transactions. Today, everybody’s concern is to earn profit even if that means ignoring ethical standards in business. This phenomenon is widespread in Muslim and non-Muslim countries. In Islam, there are ethical rules and regulations to be followed in business transactions. It is crucial for merchants to implement those rules and regulations in their business in order to establish a stable and sustainable financial system.

  240. Ashuli Kaisa

    Oral Narration plays a prominent role in the life of the tribal’s. It chronicled the history of the people and its identity. This tradition recorded the very life of the people, their beliefs, the wars fought, the cultivation systems, the values and beliefs, the customs and traditions, events of peace and war and their entire social life. This rich oral tradition has been the only source of history handed to the present generation according to each narrator’s best knowledge and memory power .The hegemonic narration influenced the life of the people in all aspects. Songs, tales, fables, folklore, folktales, myth and legends recounted the very detail life of the past. They are the carriers of the meaningful civilization of the tribals. With no written scripts the traditions of mouth to mouth narration for generation after generations has been the only source of knowledge about the past of the tribal. For years till today the Nagas flourished without any written script of their own like any other tribals. The legacy that has been handed to them through oral has been the only source to ascertain their roots. Though the Mao tribe has no script of their own, the memory served best knowledge of oral legacy sustained them in their unique history and philosophical belief of life. Have the narration and tales so altered after many generations? With no narrative techniques each narrator is bound in their own narrative style.

  241. Nancy A. Arellano and *Raymund B. Gemora

    The study aimed to find out the performance of Teacher Education students in their English subjects. It also determined the significant differences in the performance of the respondents when they were grouped as to sex, course and year level. It utilized the descriptive method in describing students’ performance and attitude towards English subjects at West Visayas State University – Janiuay Campus (WVSU-JC). One hundred ninety-one randomly selected Teacher Education students taking English subjects from WVSU-JC first semester of school year 2013-2014 were utilized as the respondents of the study. A standardized attitudinaire test adopted from the study of Gemora (2001), was utilized to gather data. Means and standard deviation were used to describe the performance and attitude of the respondents in their English subjects. The t-test and ANOVA were used to determine the significant difference on the performance and attitude of the respondents. Pearson-r correlation was used to determine the significant relationship between the respondents’ performance in English and their attitude towards English subjects. Results revealed that the performance of the Teacher Education students in their English subjects was average when they were taken as an entire group and when they were grouped as to sex, course and year level. Further, the attitude of Teacher Education students towards English when they were taken as entire group and when they were grouped as to sex, course and year level was positive. The t-test results revealed no significant difference on the performance of the respondents in their English subjects and their attitude towards English when they were grouped as to sex and course, however, the ANOVA results disclosed that when they were grouped as to year level, there was a significant difference on their performance in their English subjects but no significant difference on their attitude towards English courses. Pearson-r correlation revealed no significant relationship between the Teacher Education students’ performance in English and their attitude towards English courses.

  242. John M. Momanyi, Jackson K. Too and Catherine Simiyu

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of type of school on academic motivation and academic performance among secondary school students attending day schools within Nakuru municipality. The study also investigated how gender, age of the student, and category of school contribute towards academic motivation and academic performance. The objectives specific to this study were to investigate how type of school influenced academic motivation and academic performance. The study adapted the ex-post facto design. The target population comprised all Form two and Form four students in the sixteen secondary schools in Nakuru municipality from which seven day schools were sampled using the stratified random sampling technique. The sample was made up of 489 students. Data was collected using a students’ AMS questionnaire. the academic performance scores were obtained from the school records of the previous year. The major statistical methods used in this study were: Pearson’s r, and analysis of variance (ANOVA). Descriptive statistics, means, frequencies, percentages and standard deviations were used for data presentation and to explain the variables in this study. The findings of this study indicated that type of school strongly contributed to the learners’ academic motivation and academic performance. These findings will assist teachers, parents, administrators and other stake holders to engage in interventions in school that can improve the quality of learning and hence boost the student’s academic performance.

  243. Swarup Jyoti Baishya and Dr. Dhrubajyoti Sahariah

    Rivers are one of the most dynamic entities over the earth’s surface. River channels are confined to symmetrical and definite track. They persistently shift their courses over the space through time. A river has its tendency to attain an equilibrium condition so as to adjust itself with the varying fluvial-geomorphic as well as climatic conditions. Changes in river channel and its immediate surroundings over space and time require historical analysis and careful observation of the river system. For the implementation of any watershed management programme micro-level study of spatio-temporal channel changing pattern of a river basin is necessary. Based on such significances, the Baralia River of Assam has been selected here which flows from the Bhutan Himalayas. The present study is primarily aiming at the investigation of the subsequent changes in the channel and secondarily upon the dynamics of its banklines over space and time. A multi-temporal database has been developed based on Survey of India Topographical Maps and Satellite Imageries for a comprehensive and scientific analysis. The controlling factors and variables of these changes have also been examined. Field observations, various statistical techniques have been used for computation along with GIS software for mapping and final layout preparation. The results can thus be utilized as baseline information for the policy making to combat against the bank-erosion hazard.

  244. Dr. Jeelan Basha, V.

    The investors carefully watch the performance of stock markets by observing the composite market index in general and BSE Sensex in particular before their investment. The Sensex (market index) acts as a yardstick to influence foreign investors to secure investments in the form of Forex Reserves. It provides a base for investors in forecasting future trends in the market. Hence, It is essential to understand whether Sensex causes Forex Reserves or otherwise to formulate suitable policies. The objective of the study is to investigate the casual relationship between Sensex and Forex Reserves. The empirical investigation was carried out based on monthly data ranging from July 1997 to Sept. 2015 covering 219 observations. The study has selected BSE Sensex of Indian stock market which may have influence on the Forex Reserves. Data for variables are collected from the database of the Indian economy maintained by Reserve Bank of India. Sensex data is obtained from the official website of the BSE India.com, yahoo finance .com. and other official websites. E-Views is used to analyze the data. Statistical tools used for the study is Descriptive statistic, Unit root test, Johansen Cointegration test and Granger causality test. The results of the study reveal that the BSE Sensex and Forex Reserves are cointegrated at first difference level. The BSE Sensex does Granger Cause Forex Reserves. The Granger causality study reveals that there is unidirectional causality between the BSE Sensex and Forex Reserves.

  245. Dr. Bushra al Nouri

    This study aims at investigating EFL College Students' Attitudes Toward Using Facebook and its Impact on Writing Skill. The population of this research comprises the number of the students attending the third stage at English Departments in College of Basic Education and College of Education, Misan University. A random sample of fifty EFL students has been chosen to be the study sample. It includes 12 males (24%) and 38 females (76%). The participants range in age from 21 to 22 years. In order to fulfill the aim of the present study, a checklist is constructed by the researcher herself. The results of the checklist show that students have positive attitude towards Using Facebook and its Impact on Writing Skill.

  246. Pitambar Behera and Renuka Behera

    Meaning has been one of the primordial issues of concern because of its enigmatic nature not only in the Oriental Philosophy but also in the Occidental tradition. Initially rationalism and empiricism dominated the ambit of analytic philosophy, and it is not an exception to these impacts. Later on, the concept has been dealt with structuralist and post-structuralist perspectives. The paper undertaken hereby aims at conducting a contrastive study on the conception of the problem of meaning approached by two schools of philosophy: structuralism and post-structuralism. On one hand, it deals with the issues attempted by Saussure, Barthes, Bloomfield, Louis Hjelmslev and Jakobson, whereas on the other hand, those by Foucault and Derrida. Furthermore, it strives to delve deep into the points of contact, similarities and differences between them on the aforementioned issue. Whereas, for the structuralists, meaning arises from the functional differences between the elements (signs) within the system (langue). On the contrary, post-structuralists view the signification of meaning as an infinite and perennial process and meaning is the result of a play of ‘différance’.

  247. Kehkashan Mujeeb, Md. Imran Khan, Farrukh A. Khan, Dr. Ferasat Ali and Khan, K. Z.

    Hypertension is one of the major health challenges of 21st century, which, for most countries, has developed together with rapid cultural and social changes, ageing populations, increasing urbanization, dietary changes, reduced physical activity, and other unhealthy behaviors. Objectives: (1) It is aimed to determine the temperament of persons suffering from hypertension. (2) To estimate the prevalence of hypertension in different temperaments. (3) To study the relationship, between hypertension and temperament, if any. Materials and Methods: An OPD based cross sectional study was conducted among individuals aged 21to 80 years in Aligarh National Charitable Hospital, Near Jama Masjid Upper Fort, Aligarh, during March 2014 to April 2015. The assessment of the temperament (Mizaj) of the patients was made on the basis of a Performa (questionnaire) prepared in the light of criteria described in classical Unani literature. The categorization of HP was done according to Joint National Committee VII (Indian scenario), 2003-12. Results: Out of 502 hypertensive persons 311 (61.95%) were suffering from both systolic and diastolic hypertension and 191 hypertensive’s (38.05%) had isolated systolic hypertension. It was observed further, that out of 502 hypertensive’s, 237 were having sanguineous temperament, 145 phlegmatic temperament, 94 bilious temperament and 26 were having melancholic temperament. Conclusions: It can be concluded by this study that there is a relation between hypertension and mizaj (temperament) of an individual’s, and that, prevalence of HP in individuals varies significantly when categorized with respect to different temperament. The need of the hour is to understand the concept and importance of temperament and its application in health care.

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