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May 2016

  1. Syed Imtiyaz Hussain, Gulshan Akhter and Nausrat Ali

    Introduction: Adenoid cystic carcinoma of the breast is a rare neoplasm constituting of 0.1% of breast carcinomas. A 40 year old female patient presented with lump in the right breast. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of a lump in the lower inner quadrant revealed adenoid cystic carcinoma. We received specimen of modified radical mastectomy (MRM) with axillary dissection. Histopathology in our department revealed adenoid cystic carcinoma, eight lymph nodes were dissected out and all were free of tumour. Discussion: Adenoid cystic carcinoma of the breast is a rare neoplasm and it differs from other breast carcinomas because of its favourable prognosis. This carcinoma occurs predominantly in women in their fifth decade and usually presents as a breast mass. The diagnosis was made on fine needle aspiration cytology which was latter also confirmed by histopathology. Modified radical mastectomy (MRM) was performed with axillary dissection, and eight lymph nodes were dissected out, which were free of tumour. Conclusion: ACC is a rare malignant neoplasm. Surgical treatment is the mainstay and radiotherapy and chemotherapy have little role.

  2. Genene Tefera

    This handbook is prepared to meet basicneeds of our laboratory and hopefully, it gives highlights onlaboratory procedures to work with a variety of importantgroups of bacteria. It provides comprehensive information and logically organized, instructive, and progresses through laboratory safety, sterilization and disinfection, use of the microscope, sampling techniques, manipulation of microbes, cultures, staining and observation of microorganisms, identification of unknown microbe, maintaining cultures. With this in mind, this handbook is prepared to meet basic needs of our laboratory and hopefully, it gives highlights on laboratory procedures to work with a variety of important groups of bacteria.

  3. Owais Khan, Mohd Ilyas Khan, Akbar Husain, Muzafar Hussain Kawa, Faisal Hassan, Burhan Khan, Anas Ali Al-Tarawneh and Amer Mohmad Hamdan Thabnat

    The present study purports to assess the perceived sources of occupational stress among teachers with respect to gender The sample of the study consists of 100 teachers (males=64, females=36) belonging to various schools of District Aligarh. Occupational stress index by Srivastava & Singh was used in the present study. The data was analyzed by using t-test. The result revealed that male and female teachers significantly differs in Role Overload(RO), Role Ambiguity(RA), Unreasonable group & Political pressure(UG & PP), Under participation(UP) Poor peer relation(PPR), Impoverishment (IMP,) Unprofitability(UF)and Overall Occupational Stress whereas no significance difference was found between male and female teachers in Role Conflict(RC), Responsible for person(PR),Powerlessness (PL),Low Status( LS) and Strenuous Working condition(SWC)

  4. Tesfu Fekensa and Abebe Hailu

    In this article we reviewed honeybee genetic resources and honey production in Ethiopia. Books, journals newspapers and fact sheets were used. In Ethiopia, honeybees are known for their roles in apiculture since the third AD. Honey and bees wax have been contributing to the national and local economies as well as human nutrition for centuries. Moreover, honeybees have been playing immense roles in the overall economic development of the country as agriculture is the driving economic sector and honeybees are one of the major primary agents of pollination thereby ensuring sustainability of the later. Ethiopia is endowed with diverse honeybees genetic resources, amazing ecological diversity and climatic variation that is favorable for apiculture. Attributed to various manmade and natural factors, however, their productivity has been by far below their potential. In order to tackle these challenges that contribute for lower productivity and decline in honey bees colonies, ecosystems and biodiversity friendly and sustainable solutions need to be designed.

  5. Dr. Snehalata, G., Dr. Kanthamani, K., Dr. Nagesha, Dr. Dilip, K., Dr. Jyotsna and Dr. Preeti, B.

    Aim: The aim of the study is to determine the clinical presentation and document the etiological factors in patients with ocular motor nerve palsy in Kolar region Materials and methods: All patients with ocular motor nerve palsies at R. L. JALAPPA HOSPITAL attached to SRI DEVARAJ URS MEDICAL COLLEGE, Tamaka Kolar were taken up for this observational study between december 2013 to august 2015. Details of various modes of presentation and etiologies were documented. Results: A total of 74 patients presented with cranial nerve palsies. There were 44 males and 30 females and mean age was 40.68. Most of the patients came with chief complaints of diplopia (43%) followed by ptosis (23%), headache (19%), diminution of vision (8.1%), fever (12.2%) and eye pain (9.5%). The frequency of distribution of ocular motor nerve palsy was the 3rd cranial nerve was most affected in 31 patients (41.89%), 4th cranial nerve was involved in 4 patients(5.4%) and 6th cranial nerve was involved in 25 patients (33.78%) and multiple cranial nerve palsy were involved in 14 patients (18.2%)The etiology was classified as traumatic in 27 (36.5%), ischemic in 16(21.6%), tumor in 5 (6.8%), demyelinating in 2 (2.7%), inflammatory in 13 patients and idiopathic in 6 (8.1%) cases. Conclusion: We studied the clinical presentation and etiological pattern of ocular motor nerve palsies in Kolar region, diplopia was the most common symptom at presentation followed by ptosis. Isolated cranial nerve were more frequently affected among them third nerve was involved in majority and etiology causing third nerve palsy was trauma, second most common nerve involved was sixth cranial nerve and most of them had vascular ischemic etiology .CT/MRI have been performed in 70% of our cases and the probable diagnosis was made in 49%. Hence proving the usefulness of these imaging modalities in ocular motor nerve palsies.

  6. Rubaida Mahmood, Dr. Mukhtar Hussain, Dr. Shahida Parveen, Rabiah Khushi Muhammad Sajid Hussain and Rubina Mukhtar

    Background: Many studies show a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency across various populations the world over. There is relative lack of prevalence data in Southern Punjab, Pakistan. This cross-sectional study is carried out to assess the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in Southern Punjab population of Pakistan. Study Design: Single centre, Cross sectional study. Place and Duration of the Study: The study was conducted from June 2014 to December 2015, at diagnostic labs of MINAR, Multan, Pakistan. Materials and Methods: 450 subjects were tested for vitamin D. About 3 ml bloods from all the study subjects were collected in EDTA tube and plasma was separated via centrifugation at 4,000 rpm for 5 minutes. The test principle is based on chemiluminescent emission which is measured by photomultiplier. The reaction mixture is aspirated into the measuring cell where the microparticles are magnetically captured onto the surface of the electrode. Unbound substances are then removed with Procell. Statistical analysis was done using Chi-square test. Results: Out of a total of 450 subjects tested for vitamin D, females were 386(85.77%) and males were 64(14.22%) of the total sample size. The mean age of respondents was 44.53 years (age range 10-90 years) .Levels of 25(OH)D level in ng/ml was measured in four categories. In total no’s (both males and females) the vitamin D deficient range (<10ng/ml) was 148(32.88%), the insufficient range(10-19.9ng/ml) was 173(38.44%), the inadequate range(20-29.9ng/ml) was 70(15.55%) and desirable range(30-100ng/ml) was 59(13.11%). A high overall prevalence (86.87%) of vitamin D deficiency was observed in the study subjects. In the total subjects the deficiency of vit D observed was 88.33% in females and 78.11% in males. A significant gender-specific difference was also recorded at the cut-off level of 25 (OH) D, with women showing higher prevalence of deficiency compared to men (P < 0.05). Vitamin D level in age wise distribution showed that deficiency was higher in persons in age ranging from 50-90years as compared to age ranging from 10-49 years (P=0.11) Conclusion: The study showed a high percentage of vitamin D deficient individuals. The frequency of vitamin D deficiency was greater in females as compared to males. The vit D deficiency was higher in people above 50y. There is a need to take immediate measures to tackle this growing public health problem.

  7. Isabella Kerubo Ndege, Xiu-gui Sheng, Davis Nsamba, Xiang-wei Lu, Xing Zhen and Xue-lian Du

    Human Epididymis Protein (HE4) is a new promising biomarker in detecting recurrent ovarian cancer. In this study, we investigated the role of serum HE4 in comparison to CA125 in the detection of recurrent disease in patients during follow-up.615 ovarian cancer patients treated at Shandong Provincial Tumor Hospital between 2008 and 2014 were included in the retrospective study. Serum HE4 and CA125 were analyzed during follow-up using the ARCHITECT assay. 131 patients developed recurrent disease. Results showed that a serum HE4 level of 70pmol/L was associated with a sensitivity of 76.3%, a specificity of 89.6%, a negative predictive value of 93.3% and a positive predictive value of 66.6% when assessing for recurrent ovarian cancer whereas CA125 was associated with a sensitivity of 54.9%, a specificity of 79.3%, negative predictive value of 86.6% and a positive predictive value of 41.8%. However, combining CA125 and HE4 at a cut-off of 70pmol/L, the sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value and positive predictive value increased to 83.9%, 90.9%, 95.4% and 71.4% respectively. These data suggest HE4 is a more sensitive and specific predictor of recurrent disease and should therefore be incorporated with CA125 in detection of recurrent ovarian cancer.

  8. Shweta Dwivedi, Urvashi Singh Berman and Dharmveer Sharma

    Back-ground: Preeclampsia, a systemic illness of late pregnancy seen in approximately 6% of primigravid women, is an important cause of maternal & fetal morbidity. The levels of calcium and magnesium in pregnancy may implicate in their possible role in pregnancy induced hypertension. This study assessed serum Ca2+ , Mg2+, Na+ and K+ levels in women with PIH (pregnancy induced Hypertension) and Preeclampsia compared with normal pregnancy. Material & Methods: This study was conducted on 100 pregnant women as a control & 100 pre-eclamptic women as a study group. We evaluate the serum potassium, sodium, magnesium, calcium levels in both the group. Result: The result of this study we found evaluated serum potassium level as compared to control it is significantly higher. Calcium, Sodium, Magnesium are significantly low. Conclusion: In the light of the above observations, it can be concluded that Pre-eclamptic pregnant women have higher levels of S. Potassium decreased level of S. Calcium & Magnesium and no significant difference in Sodium levels as compared to normotensive pregnant women in their IIIrd trimester pregnancy. Lowered plasma or serum Magnesium concentrations in pre-eclampsia may contribute to the development in hypertension in pregnancy. In addition, a disturbed Calcium homeostasis is observed in pre-eclampsia.

  9. Dr. Shruthi S., Dr. Shalabh Kumar, Dr. Ambuj Arora, Dr. Praveen Kumar Rai and Dr. Sankalp Verma

    Regional odontodysplasia (ROD) is a rare, localized developmental anomaly of the dental tissues with distinctive clinical, radiographic, and histologic findings. It affects the primary and permanent dentitions in the maxilla and the mandible or both, however, the maxilla is frequently involved. Although the aetiology of the ROD is uncertain, it has been suggested that numerous other factors play a role. The treatment plan should be based on the degree of involvement as well as the functional and aesthetic needs in each case. Here we describe a case of regional odontodysplasia in an 8 year old boy with an overview of aetiology and treatment modalities. The main aim of this article is to provide valuable information to dental community about the review and treatment alternatives for ROD.

  10. Dr. Priyanka, S., Dr. Shanmuga Sundaram, M. and Dr. Saraswathi Gopal, K.

    Exophytic gingival lesions represent some of the more frequently encountered lesions in the oral cavity. Pyogenic granuloma is a primarily reactive hyperplasia which appears in the oral cavity as an overgrowth of tissue due to physical trauma or hormonal factors and irritation. The growth is typically seen in young adults, it may occur in any age, especially in individuals with poor oral hygiene. The purpose of this article is to present a case report of pyogenic granuloma in male patient with mandible involvement.

  11. Değer Öngül, Bilge Gökçen-Röhlig and Bülent Şermet

    The aim of this study was to compare the effect surface finishing and polishing methods on surface roughness of veneering ceramics for zirconia frameworks.35 disc-shaped specimens; (10x2mm) were prepared from each veneering ceramics (IPS e-max Ceram, Noritake-CZR and Vita-VM9) and glazed (Totally 105). Each group were randomly divided into 5 groups and performed the following procedures: G1: Glaze (Control); G2:Silicon wheel+rubber points (Shofu)+diamond polishing paste; G3: Shofu ceramic polishing kit; G4: Edenta ceramic polishing kit; G5: Eve ceramic polishing kit. From G2 up to G5; procedures were applied after the removal of glazed surface with a 25 µm finishing bur (Acurata, Germany). A profilometer (Mahr XR 2.0, GmbH, Gottingen) was used to measure arithmetic mean roughness (RA) of the surfaces. The Shofu and Edenta polishing kits produced a smoother surface than the Eve polishing kit and the other groups. No significant difference was found between G3 and G5 (p<.05). Vita-VM9 have the highest surface roughness value (p<.05).Within the limitations of this study, glazing and polishing kits have shown lower Ra values than silicon wheel, rubber points and polishing paste group. Clinically adequate smoothness may vary for the crystal contents and structure of ceramic that used.

  12. Prashant Battepati, B. Apurva Rao, Anand Tavargeri, Rajesh T Anegundi, Shruthi Patil and Vijay Trasad

    Dental caries according to Center for Disease Control and Prevention is a chronic and preventive disease which is 32 times more likely to occur in infants of low socioeconomic status, whose mothers have a low education level, and who consume sugary foods (Alshehri et al., 2015). Oral health care therefore, in infancy itself is the foundation on which a life time of preventive education and dental care can be built up in order to help acquire optimal oral health. The first step of infant oral health care is the preventive oral health behavior of parents since they would influence their children’s behaviour in adapting to the preventive oral health practices as they grow along. Mothers are undoubtedly the primary source of early education in children with regard to a good oral health. It is also an important aspect of general health in infants and children as it impacts the quality of life and health outcomes. Hence, timely delivery of educational information to nursing mothers whose infants are at high risk for developing caries is the ultimate goal of early assessment aiding in implementation of preventive strategies. This study was done to assess the nursing mother’s knowledge and awareness about the oral health of their infants. The study was conducted at a local medical college and hospital through an 18-item questionnaire which was distributed among 150 nursing mothers of Hubli-Dharwad region by the researcher. Response was recorded by likert and multiple choice questions written in both English and Kannada. The results were analysed using Pearson chi-square test. The study showed that people lacked awareness about important oral hygiene measures. Although The parents with their lack of awareness about the pedodontist, had a fair idea about oral hygiene maintenance among infants. This knowledge can be further improved by conducting ‘oral health care awareness programs’. They are very important to secure healthy oral condition among infants. Therefore, acummulative effort by both the medical and dental health care professionals should be initiated towards achieving it.

  13. Dr. Jagathesan, Dr. Muthuvinayagam, A., Dr. Kiruthiga, S. and Dr. Sivaraj

    Upper gastrointestinal tract disorders are one of the most common problem in clinical practice. Upper gastrointestinal (UGI) endoscopy is an important diagnostic modality in evaluation of patients with GI disorders. The endoscopic examination of upper GI is not only for diagnosing common upper GI disorders, helpful in identifications of premalignant lesion like Barret’s Oesophagus and malignant lesion. This is a prospective study conducted in 3475 patients. Who had GI symptoms in Department of General Surgery. Out of 3475 patients, 1040 cases had normal finding. Out of 2435 cases, 1425 cases had oesophageal pathology, 705 cases had gastric pathology, and 305 had duodenal pathology. Endoscopic evaluation & Biopsy plays a vital role for planning proper treatment for upper GI disorders. Objectives: Endoscopy - upper as disorders. Aim of the study: • To evaluate the monthly normal cases found during UGI scopy. • To evaluate the gender distribution of abnormal cases. • To evaluate the age distribution among the abnormal cases • To find the distribution of oesophageal, gastric and duodenal disorders • To evaluate the various GI disorders found during UGI scopy.

  14. Mohd. Shifa Hasan, Rajesh Maheshwari, Anuradha Kusum and Atul Agrawal

    Background and purpose: The presence of a spinal lesion, whether symptomatic or not, presents a diagnostic challenge as many a times clinicoradiological diagnosis differs from tissue diagnosis. Percutaneous transpedicular spinal biopsy (PTSB), along with advanced diagnostic methods in pathology, enable accurate diagnosis of pathological spinal lesions. Our goal was to determine the accuracy and clinical usefulness of this procedure in patients with suspected pathology of spine. Method: Image-guided PTSB was performed in 50 patients with osseous spinal lesions as a day care procedure. Basic blood investigations of all patients were obtained prior to procedure. All the biopsies were done in operating room under sterile conditions, under local anesthesia. In all patients biopsy was performed using 13-gauge Jamshidi needle. Biopsy specimens were sent for histolopathological/cytopathological analysis depending upon the nature of tissue retrieved. Haemorrhagic fluid obtained along with the specimens was sent for microbiological studies when clinically indicated. Results: The patients were between 10 years to 78 years, with a mean age of 49 years. 27 patients were male and 23 were female. The level of biopsy was thoracic in 22, lumbar in 27 and sacral in 1. In 46 patients, bone tissue was obtained and in the remaining 4, soft tissue was obtained. Haemorrhagic fluid was also aspirated along with biopsy specimens. In 38 patients, a clinicoradiological diagnosis of infective pathology was made. The biopsy report confirmed infective pathology in 16 patients, while in 2 patients the report suggested of neoplastic pathology. In the remaining 12 cases, clinicoradiological diagnosis was neoplastic pathology. The biopsy report confirmed neoplastic pathology in 8 patients, while in 1 patient report suggested of infective pathology. The remaining 17 reports suggested inflammatory pathology. Overall, the biopsy was positive in 44 (88%) cases, out of which diagnosis was confirmed in 27 cases (61.4%). In the remaining patients, 4 samples were suggestive of necrosis and 2 were inadequate to provide a diagnosis. Conclusion: Image-guided PTSB is an important tool in the evaluation of spinal lesions. It is technically easy, quick, reliable, safe, cost-effective, can be done as an outdoor procedure by any orthopaedic surgeon and can eliminate need for open biopsy of the spine. It should be done in all patients with suspected osseous spinal pathology to avoid mismanagement as in many cases the clinicoradiological diagnosis may differ from histological diagnosis.

  15. Dr. Priyanka Gupta, Dr. Anand Tavargeri, Dr. Rajesh T. Anegundi, Dr. Shruthi B. Patil, Dr. Vijay Trasad and Dr. Prashant Battepati

    Pyogenic granuloma is an inflammatory hyperplasia affecting the oral tissues. It is a tumour-like growth of the oral tissues, which usually arises in response to nonspecific infection. Pyogenic granuloma shows high predilection rate for gingiva and less for extra-gingival site. A case of extra gingival pyogenic granuloma was reported with presence of exophytic growth on right corner of lower lip and had frequent tendency to bleed. Lesion was treated with surgical intervention. On histopathological examination, it was confirmed as pyogenic granuloma.

  16. Ashok K. Rohilla, Anil Sindhu and Anil K. Poonia

    Seed An improved and effective method for shoot organogenesis and plant regeneration in Nyctanthes arbor-tristis (L.) was established. Shoot-tip explants were cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) media fortified with different concentrations of benzyl amino purine (BAP), naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) and zeatin for efficient shoot induction. BAP at 1.0 mgl-1 was found most effective for initial shoot bud induction. About 76.67% explants responded, resulting in the highest (5.9 ±0.11) number of shoots per explant after 30 days of culture. A combination having 1.0 mgl-1 BAP with 0.3 mgl-1 NAA in MS medium, performed best as shoot multiplication medium with highest (10.33 ±0.09) number of shoots per explant with a mean shoot length of 3.81 ±0.09 cm after six weeks. For improving the shoot morphogenesis, different concentrations of putrescine (10-100 mgl-1) were tested as an ethylene modulator. Putrescine at a concentration of 50 mgl-1 had maximum promoting influence on percentage of culture response (93.33%) and number of shoots (12.67 ±0.13) regenerated per explants with a mean shoot length of 6.84 ±0.13cm. The in vitro rooted plantlets were hardened and finally successfully transplanted in natural soil with almost 92% field survival rate.

  17. Sudipta Kar

    Dental caries is a multifactorial disease of hard tooth structure. The causative factors for dental caries are time, specific bacteria, host factors and substrate. No single factor can initiate dental caries. In oral cavity more than 250 microbial species are persisting. The tooth morphology have many inaccessible areas to physiological clearance mechanism. Thus a tooth becomes an ideal place for stubborn adherence for many of these species. Talon cusp is a prominent accessory cusp supposed to arise as a result of evagination on the external surface of a tooth before calcification. It looks like a shape of eagle’s claw hooked on to its prey from the cingulum or cementoenamel junction of mandibular or maxillary anterior tooth. For that reason it is named as talon cusp. The incidence of talon cusp is ranging from 0.04 to 8%. This article reports a case of talon cusp on maxillary permanent right lateral incisor with bilateral caries invasion and it’s management.

  18. Melissa Palma-Jiménez and Mónica Blanco-Meneses

    The State Phytosanitary Service of the Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock (SFE, for its acronym in Spanish) declared national emergency in 2014 because of rising populations of mealybug Pseudococcus elisae (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in banana plantations. Currently, there is a great concern due to the economic losses caused to farmers. To understand about the morphological and molecular relationship of these individuals, the present work was carried out with the aim of describing insects collected from 10 farms from the Atlantic region of Costa Rica and analyze three specific genes of mealybugs. The microscopy analysis was done in the Center for Research on Microscopic structures in 2012 and the molecular analysis was performed in the Molecular Phytophatology Laboratory ending in 2014, both at the University of Costa Rica. Morphological and molecular variations among mealybugs were identified; also discrepancies were noticed when comparing the results of the species among the three genes obtained from the study (18S ribosomal, E.F-1α and COXI), providing sequences that identified one of the species present in Costa Rica as Pseudococcus elisae, which was not previously described in the gene bank (NCBI). Resumen: El Servicio Fitosanitario del Estado del Ministerio de Agricultura y Ganadería (SFE) declaró emergencia fitosanitaria nacional para el año 2014 a causa del aumento de poblaciones de la cochinilla harinosa Pseudococcus elisae (Hemipters: Pseudococcidae) en el cultivo de banano. Actualmente existe una gran preocupación por las pérdidas económicas generadas a los productores. Para entender a cerca de la relación morfológica y molecular de estos individuos el presente trabajo se realizó con el objetivo de describir a los insectos colectados en 10 fincas de la región Atlántica de Costa Rica y se analizaron tres genes específicos de la cochinilla harinosa. La descripción morfológica se realizó en el CIEMic de la UCR en el año 2012 y el análisis molecular en el Laboratorio de Técnicas Moleculares aplicadas a la Fitoprotección del CIPROC para finalizar en el año 2014. Se identificó variación morfológica y molecular entre las cochinillas harinosas, también se observó discrepancias al comparar los resultados de las especies obtenidas entre los tres genes del estudio (18S ribosomal, F.E-1α y COXI), aportando además secuencias que identifican a una de las especies presente en Costa Rica como Pseudococcus elisae, la cual anteriormente no estaba descrita en el banco de genes (NCBI).

  19. Adaobi Chinwe Abia, Dr. Catherine Hayes, Prof. Adelani Tijani

    Aims: The prevalence of childhood obesity is a significant public health concern. Family-based intervention programmes have incorporated behavioural, dietary and lifestyle changes which are theoretically underpinned. Few reviews to date have determined the effectiveness of family-based interventions in reducing childhood obesity on a long-term basis. The aim of this research was to systematically review the short and long term effectiveness of family-based interventions in reducing childhood obesity among children aged 2-18 years old living in the UK. Method: An electronic search was conducted using DISCOVER, PUBMED, SCIENCE DIRECT, SPORT SCIENCE and GOOGLE SCHOLAR and by searching reference lists using a predefined search strategy. The review included a randomised controlled trials, quasi-randomised trial, cohort studies and programme evaluations. The primary outcomes measures included BMI, BMI z-score/percentile, waist circumference and weight in kg. Risk of bias and quality of evidence of selected studies were assessed using Effective Public Health Practice Project Tool. Results: The review identified 3100 articles of which 10 met the inclusion criteria. Out of the ten studies, five were randomised studies, three were cohort studies and two were programme evaluations. The participants’ ages were between 4 and 18, intervention duration ranged from 8 weeks to 1 year and follow-up period ranged between 3 months and 2 years. All the reviewed studies incorporated more than one family-based interventions- lifestyle, behavioural, dietary and physical activity; nine out of ten studies established parental involvement but three studies reported active parents’ participation. Conclusions: Family-based interventions showed varying degree of changes in adiposity of the participant children on a short-term basis and a promising advantage of a long term effect. However, the long lasting benefits of family-based weight management programme lacks strong evidence from high methodological quality studies as well as limited proof on the link between parents involvement and the effectiveness of the programme.

  20. Dr. Malini Shankar, Dr. Preeti Dodwad, Dr. Kishore Bhatt, Dr. Sushma Lewis and Dr.Nikhil Jambagi

    Objective: To evaluate and compare the antifungal efficacy of Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), Calcium enriched mixture (CEM) & Biodentine against Candida albicans by modified direct contact test (DCT) at 1, 3 and 7day intervals. Study design: The study materials selected were MTA (Group1), CEM (Group 2) and Biodentine (Group 3). The cements were mixed in strict compliance with the manufacturer’s recommendations. The modified DCT performed was based on turbidometric determination of fungal growth in 96-well microtiter plates. Sidewalls of the microtiter plate wells were coated with freshly mixed test material and a 10 μL fungal suspension was placed. After 1 hr of incubation at 37oC, Sabouraud’s dextrose agar (SDA) (245 μL) was added. These were designated as ‘Row A’ wells. 15 μL was then transferred from row A wells to an adjacent set of 4 wells containing fresh SDA medium (215 μL), designated as ‘Row B’ wells. Fungal outgrowth was monitored both in the presence (Row A wells) and in the absence (Row B wells) of the test materials. The plates were then placed in the spectrophotometer with optical density measured at 630 nm. The readings were taken hourly for 15 hours on the 1st day, 3rd day and the 7th day. Experiments were triplicated. Data was analysed using the Friedman’s test. Conclusion: All the cements showed antifungal activity against C.albicans on 1st day, which gradually declined over a period of 7 days. MTA exhibited the most efficient antifungal activity as compared to Biodentine and CEM over a period of 7 days.

  21. Dr. Saraswathi Gopal, K., Dr. J. K. Singh Kshatri and Dr. Ramesh, K.

    Treacher Collins syndrome or mandibulofacialdysostosis is the condition where the cheek-bones and jaw-bones such as maxilla and mandible are under-developed. Treacher Collins is the diagnosis, which can be given to the children who have notching or stretched lower eyelids, it can be associated with partially absent cheekbones and small mandible. Here we report a case of treacher collins syndrome with a characteristic clinical presentation

  22. Justice Kumi, Mark Ofosuhene, Seth Amanquah, Henry Asare- Anane, Eric Nyarko and Nii-Ayi Ankrah

    The consumption of foodstuffs contaminated with aflatoxins may lead to hepatotoxic effect particularly in coexistence with chronic viral hepatitis B infection. In Sub-Saharan Africa, hepatocellular carcinoma is one of the most common malignancies. The aim of this study was to measure the level of exposure of aflatoxin and liver damage markers in adults with viral hepatitis B infection in Ghana. The study was conducted in the Ejura-Sekyedumase district, Ghana. Five hundred adults were screened for viral hepatitis B surface antigen. Spot urine and blood samples were collected. Analysis of AFM1 in the urine were measured using immunoaffinity column purification (AflaTest) followed by HPLC-fluorescence detection. Viral hepatitis B surface antigen and liver damage markers were detected using Clinogen rapid kit and automated calorimetric method respectively in the blood samples. Out of total number of 500 samples screened, only 43(8.6%) tested positive for HBsAg whiles 457 (91.4%) tested negative. Forty three controls (HBsAg negative) were selected. There was significant difference in the AFM1 levels between the HBsAg positive adults (5255.0±2757.9) and their controls (374.8± 227.7) (P=0.001). There was no significant difference in the ALT, AST, and GGT concentrations between the Hepatitis B surface antigen positive and their control group. Four adults (9.3%) tested positive for HBeAg with mean concentration of AFM1, ALT and AST of 6107.1 pg/dL 56.7 U/L and 78.8U/L respectively. Results from our study have demonstrated significant levels of aflatoxin in HBsAg positive subjects compared to HBsAg negative subjects. The observations emphasize the need for aflatoxin exposure intervention strategies in high-risk countries; possibly targeted at postharvest.

  23. Dr. Ravindra Singh Shekhawat, Dr. Avinash A. Patil, Dr. Sanjana A.Patil, Dr. Malini Shankar and Dr. Shipra Singh

    The size, taper & cross-section of an instrument plays a crucial role in cleaning the apical third of a root canal which has a significant amount of debris & smear layer (SL). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the cleaning efficacy of different sizes and tapers of the MAF (Master Apical File) for penetration of irrigants to the apical third of curved mesiobuccal (MB) canals of first molars. Materials and Methods: 75 teeth were divided into 5 rotary instrumentation groups (n=14) ProTaper Universal MAF: 20.07 (group1), 25.08 (group2), 30.09 (group3) & K3XF MAF: 25.06 (group4), 30.06 (group5) and a non-rotary instrumentation group (n=5) which served as a control : 20.02 (group6). After instrumentation groups were rinsed with 2 ml of 3% NaOCl for 2 mins & 2ml of 17% EDTA for 1min twice & final flushing with 5 ml of normal saline. In controls only 5ml of saline was used. Efficacy of debridement of the canal was evaluated using Scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The data was analysed using the Post- Hoc & One-way ANOVA & Chi-square test. Results: Groups 30.09, 30.06, 25.08 showed cleaner canals when compared to groups 20.02, 25.07, 25.06 for both debris & smear layer (p<0.05).Although group 30.09 showed the best results followed by group 30.06 & group 25.08 the difference however between these three groups was not statistically significant. Conclusion: Within the limitations of the study the minimum appropriate and acceptable debridement was achieved with MAF=25.08 in the curved canals.

  24. Priya Vaswani, Dr. Pronob Sanyal, Dr. Karuna Pawashe and Dr. Abhijeet Kore

    The pontic design in anterior edentulous region is primarily influenced by aesthetic and phonetic factors and secondarily by residual soft tissue contour. One of the most challenging issues in dental treatment plan is to preserve interproximal tissue after the loss of tooth,which is detrimental in terms of esthetic outcome. A valuable solution is ovate pontic which creates the illusion of the tooth growing out of the gingiva and thereby, provides with best aesthetic result adjuvant to creation andmaintenance of interdentalpapilla, ease of cleansibility with beneficiance for elimination of ‘black triangle’spaces.

  25. Vijay Gupta, Santhoshkumar, S. N., Aziz Pahadwala, Kalyani Bhate and Padmasree Patowary

    Purpose: Pain control serves as a basis for successful oral and maxillofacial surgical practice. However, the commonest method of intraoperative pain control itself is stimulus for pain induction. In spite of various methods to reduce the pain on injection, topical anesthetic application is still most frequently used. This study compares the efficacy of two forms of topical anesthetics prior to nerve block injections. Methodology: 40 patients were divided into 2 groups. Group I- Side of the patients receiving 4% lignocaine gel; Group II - Side of the patients receiving 15% lignocaine spray. On one side 4% Lignocaine gel was applied. Following this an infraorbital nerve block and necessary dental extraction was carried out. Each patient was asked to note the pain during the injection on a 10 mm VAS scale. Similar procedure was repeated on the opposite side after 7 days using 15% lignocaine spray. The data was subjected for statistical analysis. Results: Pain on injection was significant statistically, while others were not significant. Conclusion: This study reveals that 4% lignocaine gel has better reduction in pain during administration of infraorbital nerve block injection comparatively.

  26. Verma Surender, Singh Gurdev and Goyal Gourav

    Nearly 35% of general population associated with a number of health-problems like Parkinsonism, mental disability, motion sickness, allergic rhinitis, hypertension and cardiac failure. To overcome such problems, certain innovative drug delivery systems, like Mouth Dissolving Tablets (MDT) have been developed specially for geriatrics and paediatrics patients. Mouth dissolving tablets offers rapid disintegration so as it dissolve very fast in saliva & then easily swallowed without the need of water which is a major benefit over conventional dosage form. The popularity and usefulness of the formulation resulted in development of several mouth dissolving tablet technologies for preparation. In recent past, several manufacturing technologies such as sublimation technique, spray drying technique…etc. are employed to overcome the limitations of conventional tablet dosage forms. Once the mouth dissolving tablets are prepared they are required to be evaluated for various parameters so as to have long term stability and better therapeutic efficacy.

  27. Rajankumar, T.

    Acute appendicitis is common abdominal surgical emergency. It is usually seen in teenagers. Acute appendicitis is diagnostic challenge for any surgeon, because many disease simulate acute appendicitis. Diagnostic difficulty with atypical findings resulted in unnecessary appendicectomy. Many studies shown that appendicitis associated with elevated C Reactive protein. When elevated C Reactive protein is associated with leucocytosis is more specific for appendicitis. Normal C Reactive protein associated with normal appendix.

  28. Ananda Rama Rao, B. and Ashok Kumarraju, K.

    Anal fissure is a common painful condition affecting the anal canal. Chronic anal fissures are traditionally treated by manual anal dilatation or lateral internal sphincterotomy. There is a degree of anal incontinence with these procedures. Subcutaneous fissurectomy was performed in 20 cases with a control of 20 cases operated by lateral internal sphincterotomy. Results were evaluated for pain relief (p<0.01), incontinence (p= 0.03), and no. of work days lost (p< 0.01). Subcutaneous fissurectomy was found to yield superior results when compared to lateral internal sphincterotomy.

  29. Aiyelabowo Faith, Ying Wang and Selotlegeng Lesego

    The objective of this review is to raise awareness among medical practitioners and patients. Warfarin is still the most frequently used anticoagulant worldwide in the treatment regimen of mechanical heart valves and any condition that could lead to the formation of blood clots in the blood vessels. This drug is particularly used as a prophylaxis regimen for atrial fibrillation and another use of warfarin to prevent thromboembolism that will lead to Stroke is post artificial heart valve replacement. Furthermore, the mechanism of warfarin helps us see clearly how it inhibits further coagulation of blood. The active direct thrombin and Xa inhibitor drugs have been introduced for the treatment and prevention of venous and arterial thrombosis and such drugs have a much broader therapeutic window than warfarin. Warfarin is seen to cause many side effects such as bleeding. Previous studies indicated that the risk a bleeding in warfarin use is higher than any other anticoagulant use such as heparin and other non-vitamin k dependent drugs. More research is needed to stop promoting the use of warfarin in the society.

  30. Lakshmi, T.

    The availability of potent combination of antiretroviral regimens has resulted in a dramatic reduction in HIV-1 associated morbidity and mortality in the developed world. However, HIV infection and treatment has been associated with the development of insulin resistance, glucose intolerance and diabetes. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of emtricitabine (antiHIV drug) on pharmacodynamic activity of sitagliptin (antidiabetic drug) in normal and diabetic rats with respect to insulin levels. Alloxan-induced diabetic model in rats has been used in this study. In normal rats and diabetic rats the levels of insulin were calculated at 3 hr and 8 hr. The insulin levels were found to be similar in the groups of sitagliptin control and after single dose and multiple dose treatment of emtricitabine in normal rats. The insulin levels of diabetic rats did not reduce significantly in single and multiple dose treatment of emtricitabine when compared to sitagliptin control. The results confirm the absence of pharmacodynamic interaction of sitagliptin with acute and chronic administration of emtricitabine.

  31. Dr. Shanmuga Ashok, S., Dr. Thalapathy Ramkumar, R. and Dr. Bhuvaneshwari Babu

    Overlay myringoplasty is a time tested method to repair perforated ear drum. Underlay techniques for myringoplasty has become the preferred technique due to complications in overlay method like lateralization, blunting and epithelial pearl formation. In this paper we describe how the use of endoscope has helped in preventing the complications in overlay method and the advantages of endoscope in dealing with perforations of various sizes and locations.

  32. Dr. Bhubaneswar Roy and Dr. Priyajyoti Chakma

    Background: There is a major concern all over the world regarding the rise in attempting suicide in certain population especially among the young. Wide variations have been found in suicidal attempt among different cultures, societies and countries. The rate of attempted suicide is 8-10 times more than the completed suicide. Coping is most often conceptualized as a response to the demands of specific stressful situations. Though deliberate self‑harm encompasses a wide variety of medical and social disciplines some of the important psychosocial variable such as social support, coping strategies, and quality of life has not yet been explored in depth in India. Aims: The aim was to analyze and compare the coping strategies, social support, and quality of life of suicide attempters versus matched normal controls, and to identify the risk factors leading to suicide. Settings and design: The study was conducted in the Department of Psychiatry, Agartala Govt. Medical College & GBP Hospital, Agartala, Tripura. The samples for the study were recruited from different outpatient & indoor facilities of the GBP Hospital after application of the inclusion and exclusion criteria (n= 100) cases of suicide attempters and healthy controls (n=100) were included in the study. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 consecutive suicide attempters were compared with same number of age, sex, and marital status matched healthy controls using Social Support Questionnaire, Bengali version of ways of coping Quissionare (Susan Folkman and Richard S. Lazarus) and WHO QOL‑Bref. Statistical analysis was done by using SPSS- 20, Results: Attempters experienced significantly less Social support than controls. Most common Coping strategies used by the suicide attempters were confronting coping (72.5%) followed by distancing (60%) and coping strategies used by the control groups were seeking social support (60%), accepting responsibility (52) and self-controlling (45%).Positive coping, and of QOL were significantly lower in attempters. Among all risk factors good education and good social support were protective against suicide. Conclusion: Suicide attempters were differentiated from healthy controls based on lower social support, less healthy coping, and poor QOL. However, it is difficult to pinpoint a single factor responsible for suicidal behavior. It is the complex interplay of various interrelated factors and the resultant buffering effect, which is protecting the individual against deliberate self‑harm.

  33. Dr. Nidhi Jain, Dr. Rahul Manchanda, Dr. Anshika Lekhi and Dr. Sravani Chithra

    Focal adenomyotic cyst is defined as a cystic structure lined by endometrial tissue and surrounded by the myometrium. It is a rare and benign pathology. It is seen in adolescents and young women of reproductive age group. The presenting complaints are non specific. Most commonly, women present with dysmenorrhea, chronic pelvic pain or abnormal uterine bleeding. Now a day’s its incidence is rising, one because of increasing age of conception and second because of availability of high quality imaging modalities and minimally invasive techniques such as hysteroscopy. With this background, author here report a case of 29 years old woman who presented with primary infertility since 7 years. Her laboratory investigations were normal. Ultrasound pelvis was normal. Diagnostic hysteroscopy was done, which showed mild adhesions in the uterine cavity, for which fundal and lateral wall metroplasty was done. After adhesiolysis, a brown coloured cystic lesion was visualised on posterior wall of uterus, of size 2 × 2 cm, which was excised with 5 Fr scissors. On excision, haemorrhagic fluid was drained, thus confirming the diagnosis. On conclusion, although adenomyotic cyst is a rare form of adenomyosis but now since the incidence is on rising trend, thus gynaecologists need to be more vigilant for its diagnosis and management. Through this case, authors would like to highlight the diagnostic and therapeutic role of hysteroscopy for focal adenomyotic cyst.

  34. Ajandeep Kaur, Reena Arora and Lalit Arora

    Introduction: Plantar Fasciitis occurs because of micro trauma to the plantar fascia due to abnormal loading. Plantar fasciitis is considered as a self limiting condition. However the typical resolution time is anywhere from 6-18 months or sometimes longer. Conservative management is reportedly very successful. Therapeutic ultrasound with or without phonophoresis, electrical stimulation and administration of NSAIDS through iontophoresis are said to be effective. Methods: 30 patients were taken from OPD of Department of Orthopaedics, Guru Gobind Singh Medical College and Hospital; Faridkot based upon inclusion and exclusion criteria. The subjects were divided into two groups of 15 in each by simple random sampling. Group A was treated with Ultrasound for 3weeks, Group B was treated with Iontophoresis for 3 weeks. Total treatment duration was 3 weeks. Both groups were assessed for Pain (visual analogue scale) and disability (Foot Function Index). Results: There was no significant difference between the two groups in VAS and FFI before the treatment had started at 0th week as p value was (0.851), (0.522). While there was a significant difference between the two groups after 3rd week of treatment as p value was (0.115), (0.000). The score of visual analogue scale (VAS) and foot functioning index (FFI) improved in both groups, though the decrease of intensity of pain and functional disability was more in Group B (p<0.01). Conclusion: This study concluded that both Ultrasound and Iontophoresis are effective in decreasing pain and functional disability. However, it is concluded that Iontophoresis is more effective than Ultrasound in Plantar Fasciitis.

  35. Dr. Anand Krishnan, Dr. Rajib Khadka and Dr. Sankalp Verma

    Background and Objectives: The positive identification of living or deceased persons using the unique traits and characteristics of the teeth and jaws is a cornerstone of forensics. Establishment of offender’s identity is essential in criminal investigations. Our study aims, to extract DNA from saliva deposited on a solid object (plastic cup), simulating saliva deposited on objects in real situations and to amplify STRs from salivary DNA for purpose of forensic individualization. Methods: Direct buccal swab samples were collected from five unrelated, healthy volunteers with no genetic and blood disorders. The volunteers were asked to drink fruit juice from a plastic cup and it was allowed to dry for sixty minutes. With a swab immersed in sterile distilled water the surface of the plastic cup was wiped for 15 seconds using moderately strong pressure and circular motions followed by a dry swab. The DNA is extracted using PCR technique and the Quality and quantity analysis of the DNA thus obtained will be performed by gel electrophoresis and spectrophotometry respectively. Results: Concentration of DNA isolated from direct buccal swab samples ranged from 8.5 mg/ml to 12.5 mg/ml with mean of 10.8 mg/ml, while those from five double swab samples ranged from 5.5 mg/ml to 10.5 mg/ml, with mean of 8.5 mg/ml. AMG and F13 could be amplified in all five (100%) of saliva samples deposited on the cup. All the amplified samples of double swab matched positively with corresponding direct buccal swab samples, giving 100% matching and overall success of 100%. Conclusion: Saliva is a very useful DNA source due to the fact that it contains leukocytes and exfoliated epithelial cells from the host. PCR allows replication of thousands of copies of a specific DNA sequence in vitro, enabling the study of small amounts of DNA. Our results show high reliability of PCR technique in amplifying gene loci from salivary samples. Based on our findings we concluded that even though amplification of DNA from salivary samples is a technique sensitive procedure, requiring strict control of various factors, it has a potential to be utilized in forensics.

  36. Rashmi Patwa, Sonal Shah, Pallavi Sarve, Pushkar Waknis, Lakshmi Shetty and Pratik Suthar

    Purpose: The surgical extraction of lower third molars is the most frequent intervention in oral surgery. Swelling, trismus and pain are normal phenomena induced after surgical removal of impacted mandibular third molar. The use of corticosteroids has gained wide acceptance to reduce postoperative complications. Many studies have used dexamethsone in dentoalveolar surgery to reduce facial swelling, pain and trismus but the comparative study on half an hour preoperative intramuscular and intravenous injection of dexamethasone has not been undertaken for studying its effect on postoperative sequlae of surgical removal of mandibular third molar which has been done in the present study. Methodology: Study was conducted on 15 patients with bilaterally impacted mandibular third molars with similar difficulty index. The patients were given single preoperative dose of 8mg intravenous and intramuscular dexamethasone for surgical removal of impacted mandibular third molar with a minimum interval of 1 month between two surgeries. Pre operative and first, third and seventh postoperative day’s inter-incisal distance, facial swelling & pain was assessed based on VAS. The data was subjected for statistical analysis. Results: The significant lower values of pain score on VAS scale were noted with the intravenous route of administration of dexamethasone. Conclusion: This study reveals that the half an hour preoperative intravenous route of administration of dexamethasone is preferable over the intramuscular route to reduce the incidence of post operative pain on surgical removal of impacted mandibular third molar.

  37. Dr. Rajeshwar Digra, Dr. Nidhi Gupta, Dr. Gourav Chaudhary, Dr. Pooja Ahuja and Dr. Nidhika Billawaria

    The aim of this randomized, double blind controlled trial was to verify the effectiveness of a commercially available herbal dentifrice (Dantkanti) on the reduction of plaque and gingivitis. Fifty volunteers with were randomly assigned to either a test group (herbal dentifrice) or positive control group after meeting the eligibility criteria. The present study had a controlled double blind crossover experimental design, consisted of 2 x 4 weeks experimental periods, separated by a ten day washout period. The dentifrices were distributed according to the protocol of the study to the respective group. Plaque and gingivitis assessments were carried out at baseline and after 28 days of product use. All examinations were conducted by the same calibrated investigator. Subjects were instructed to brush their teeth twice times daily using their assigned dentifrice for 28 days. There was a significant reduction in plaque levels in both the test and control groups. However, there was no significant difference between the groups. A significant reduction in gingivitis was observed in both groups, although there was no significant difference between them. The authors concluded that both dentifrices were effective in reducing plaque and gingivitis in subjects with established gingivitis.

  38. ChatrapaHudthagosol, CharoonsriChusak, PachsireeLhaothong and PromluckSomboonpanyakul

    Excessive consumption of sugar-sweetener beverages is a cause of chronic disease such as obesity and diabetes because of the impairment of postprandial state and enhancement of energy intake. Therefore, plant-derived sweetener as substitution of sugar is an alternative sweetener but the evidence in human is limited. We aimed to determine the effects of carbohydrate sugar (high fructose syrup, organic brown rice syrup, honey, and sucrose) or sweetener (stevia leaf extract and aspartame) beverage on postprandial plasma glucose level, plasma antioxidant status, appetite, and ad libitum in healthy men. Thirteen healthy men were included in six randomized, crossover study. Each participant received breakfast meal together with either 400 mL of carbohydrate sugar (570 kcal/ serving) or sweetener (406 kcal/ serving) beverage. Visual analogue scale ratings for appetite (fullness, hunger, desire to eat, and satiety) and repeated blood sampling for plasma glycemia and antioxidant status were assessed for 240 min. Then, they were allowed to choose and consume foods at an ad libitum as a buffet-like meal at 240 min. We found that BRS-containing beverage was positively associated with postprandial plasma glucose, FRAP and ORAC (P< 0.05) compared to other beverages. In addition, it also significantly increased satiety and fullness (P< 0.05) compared to others but no significant difference was found for energy intake ad libitum meal. However, increased satiety and fullness in healthy subjects was associated with reduced energy intake an ad libitum meal. Therefore, decreased energy intake ad libitum may decrease risk of weight gain and other chronic disease.

  39. Anita E. Chand, Ankur, Deepak Maheshwari and Dinesh Verma

    Introduction: Increasing rates of antimicrobial resistance have become a worldwide problem predominantly caused by Gram-negative bacteria, especially by the family of the Enterobacteriaceae. As a result, more patients need antimicrobial treatment using so called ‘last resort’ agents “The Carbapenems.” This has resulted widespread carbapenem resistant mainly due to Carbapenemase enzymes. Their identification is of primary importance since carbapenemase producers are resistant not only to most (if not all) β-lactams but also to other main classes of antibiotics. The Modified Hodge Test (MHT), is a CLSI recommended, phenotypic test for detection of carbapenemase activity. Aims and Objectives: The present study was undertaken to determine Carbapenemase resistance in Enterobacteriaceae from various clinical samples by Modified Hodge Test, a phenotypic method. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted in Department of Microbiology, Government Medical College and Associated group of hospitals, Kota (Raj.). One hundred consecutive, nonrepetitive Enterobacteriaceae isolates were processed for the study during the period of one year from September 2014 to August 2015. Antibiotic susceptibility test was performed by Kirby baeur method according to CLSI guidelines and the meropenem resistant isolates were further tested for Carbapenemase production by Modified Hodge Test (MHT). Observation and Results: Among 100 enterobacteriaceae isolates 24 showed reduced susceptibility (intermediate or resistant) to Carbapenem. Carbapenem resistance was highest in klebsiella spp. (46.7%) followed by Enterobacter spp. (25%). and E. coli (16.1%).None of proteus spp. and citrobacter spp were carbapenem resistant. Modified hodge test was done on carbapenem non susceptible Enterobacteriaceae isolates, which detect Carbapenemase production in 18 (75%) of carbapenem resistant isolates. Conclusion: To conclude, Carbapenemase producing Enterobacteriaceae isolates were relatively high in our institution. Accurate and timely detection of carbapenemase has important implications for efficient infection control and help in reducing the emergence of resistance thus decreases the morbidity and mortality rate.

  40. Abdelmoneim, E.M. Kheir, Reem, B.A. Ali and Mohammed, A.M. Ahmed

    Background: Caesarean section rates are rising with possible negative impact on mother and baby. Methods: This was a prospective, case control study that was conducted in Omdurman maternity hospital during the period July 2013 to January 2014. 400 babies were included in the study, 200 were outcome of normal spontaneous vaginal delivery and the other 200 were outcome of elective caesarian section. Data was collected using a specifically designed questionnaire containing maternal and neonatal data, Neonatal outcome was compared between the two groups.. Data was analyzed by SPSS program, Chi square test was used to study the correlation between neonatal outcome and type of delivery. Results: The results showed that the majority of the women in the caesarean section group (87%) had regular antenatal care. There were 4(2%) babies with low birth weight (LBW) in the vaginal delivery group compared to no baby in the other group. There were 7(3.5%) babies in the vaginal delivery group with Apgar score less than 7 at 5 minutes and no baby in the caesarian section group had low Apgar score with significant association between low Apgar score and type of delivery (P=0.001).Elective caesarean delivery increased the rate of transfer to the neonatal intensive care unit and the risk for transient tachypnea of the newborn with significant association between transient tachypnea of the newborn and type of delivery (P= 0.04). Conclusion: There is an association between mode of delivery and neonatal outcome. Therefore, we emphasize the importance of limiting elective caesarean deliveries to cases with clear indications and proven benefit for the mother and baby.

  41. Nasreen Sulthana and Vijay R. Chidrawar

    Colorectal cancer (CRC), also known as colon cancer or bowel cancer is a cancer resultingfrom uncontrolled cell proliferation or growth in the colon or rectum or in the appendix. 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and Oxaliplatin are most frequently prescribed drugs for treatment of CRC. But many side effects like mucositis, diarrhea, nausea; vomiting, neurotoxicity, hand foot syndrome, tinnitus, and myelosuppression, anaphylactic reactionsetc are the problems with chemotherapy. Probiotics are bacterial cultures comprising of potentially beneficial bacteria or yeast, administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are the most common microbes used. Prebiotics are non-digestible fibre compounds that act as substrate for the probiotics and stimulates the growth of useful bacteria oflarge intestine and probiotics. The ingestion of probiotics, prebiotics or combinations of both (synbiotics) represents a novel new therapeutic option. Probiotics and prebiotics act to alter the intestinal microflora by increasing concentrations of beneficial bacteria such as Lactobacillus and Bifidobacteria, and reducing the levels of pathogenic micro-organisms. This strategy has the potential to inhibit the development and progression of neoplasia via mechanisms including: decreased intestinal inflammation, enhanced immune function and anti-tumorigenic activity, binding to potential food carcinogens including toxins found in meat products, and a reduction in bacterial enzymes which hydrolyzeprecarcinogenic compounds, such as beta-glucuronidase. The present review is an attempt to explore the role of combination of probiotics with the drugs to observe the efficiency profile of the drugs in the management of CRC.

  42. Anshika Lekhi, Rahul Manchanda, Sudhir Kulkarni, Sravani Chithra and Nidhi Jain

    The Study Objective: 1. To study the role of hysteroscopy in evaluation of abnormal uterine bleeding. 2. To correlate accuracy of hysteroscopic findings with histopathologic findings. Material and methods Designs: A retrospective study was done from from March 2014 to March 2016. Setting: study was carried out in the Department of Gynecological endoscopy at Manchanda’s Endoscopic Center, PSRI, Delhi Patients: One hundred and two cases were selected for this study from patients of age group 18 and above, who were admitted with the history of abnormal uterine bleeding. After detailed menstrual history, both systemic and gynecological examination was done. USG pelvis was done to detect any structural abnormality and to see the endometrial thickness. Patients were admitted on D5-D10 of their menstrual cycle except patients with grossly irregular cycles. In case of post-menopausal woman, they were prepared and admitted when the bleeding decreased or stopped. Interventions: All patients underwent hysteroscopy post-menstrually, whenever possible, except in cases where menstrual cycles were grossly irregular.endometrial biopsy was taken at the same sitting during hysteroscopy and sent for histopathology. The correlation between findings on hysteroscopy and histopathological examination was tabulated and analyzed. Result: In our study we found that hysteroscopy serves as good tool with sensitivity of 87.5% in diagnosing intrauterine pathology. It also has high specificity of 91.3%. It has positive predictive value of 92.5% and negative predictive value of 85.7% .It was accurate in diagnosing pathology in 89.2% of patients with AUB with significant p value when compared to histopathology which is the gold standard. All the findings had significant p value. Conclusion: Hysteroscopy is highly sensitive and accurate tool for diagnosis in patients with AUB. Due to direct visualization, pathologies like endometrial polyp, submucous myoma, carcinoma endometrium, atrophic endometrium, retained products and hyperplasia can be diagnosed with great precision. Hysteroscopy with directed biopsies should be preferred over traditional dilatation and curettage for its advantages like direct visualization of pathology, reduced hospital stay, less surgical trauma and accuracy.

  43. Dr. Ali Asger Nakib, Dr. Ekta Lahoti, Dr. Rais Ahmed, Dr. Pintso Tshering Lepcha, and Dr. Partha Pratim Choudhury

    The maxillary incisors can be lost due to dental trauma at a young age. Along with unpleasant smile esthetics, such condition if left untreated for years, can lead to development of malocclusion which cannot be optimally managed by prosthodontics alone. The condition often requires a multidisciplinary approach and careful treatment planning on the part of orthodontist to consider either space closure or space creation for prosthetic replacement, keeping in mind optimum facial esthetics and occlusal stability and function. This case report presents orthodontic treatment of a 27 year old patient, followed by prosthetic rehabilitation of two missing maxillary incisors lost due to trauma at a young age.

  44. Dr. Nandita Kad, Dr. Deepika Dhoundiyalpg, Dr. Mangal Ahlawat, Dr. Anju Ghai and Dr. Vineet Kumar

    Background: We studied the effects of intravenous dexmedetomidine on characteristics of subarachnoid block with respect to sensory block, motor block, duration of postoperative analgesia and complications encountered. Materials and methods: Hundred patients of American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) grade I or II (20 – 50 years) presenting for lower limb orthopaedic surgery were included in the study. All patients received 2.5 ml of 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine intrathecally followed by: Group D (n=50) - Loading dose of 1 µg kg-1dexmedetomidine over 10 minutes started 20 minutes after spinal block + maintenance dose of 0.4 µg kg-1 hr-1dexmedetomidine till the end of surgery; Group P (n=50) - same calculated volume of normal saline as loading dose over 10 minutes + maintenance till end of surgery. Data regarding the onset and regression of sensory and motor block, VAS score, duration of analgesia, sedation score, haemodynamic parameters and complications were recorded. Results: The time of two segment regression, regression to S2 dermatome and time of VAS ≥ 4 was more in group D than in group P (p< 0.001). Patients in group D had a significantly higher sedation score than group P (p< 0.001). Dexmedetomidine significantly reduced the post-op requirement of diclofenac injection (p< 0.001). No other complications were observed in the two groups. Conclusion: Intravenous dexmedetomidine after spinal block resulted in significant prolongation of time to two segment regression of sensory block, motor block and time to VAS 4; reduced postoperative analgesic requirement and good sedation levels with maintenance of haemodynamic parameters.

  45. Dr. Asia Sultana and Dr. Shabnam Ansari

    Cauterization (Kai) is an ancient medical practice and one of the mode of Ilaj-bit-tadbeer (regimenal therapy) in Unani Medicine. It has been long forgotten in Unani practice due to perceived notion of pain and suffering associated with it. As per quoted in Sahih Bukhari that The Prophet of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) recommended healing through branding with fire (cauterizing) but forbid its practice probably due to pain. However, even after coverage of pain through anesthesia and analgesic drugs, cautery (Kai) is still less practiced in Unani medicine. This paper briefly reviews the basic aspect of cauterization in Unani medicine.

  46. Poonam Tiwari, Aishwarya Srivastava and Shreya Chaubey

    Nutrition and diet is now in the integral and the most essential component of healthy living in today’s world. Lack of awareness towards the advantages of nutritious diet and lifestyle pattern is becoming the major threat for human life. Proper and focused diet counselling plays a major preventive and curative role in various diseases. This correlational study was carried out in the time period of three months span amongst the OPD patients. Subjects were selected on the basis that the dietary modifications in their disease conditions played a very significant role. Inclusion criteria also included the condition that patient should be the regular visitor to the diet clinic of OPD and maintained their clinical and biochemical profiles record. Detailed pre dietary counselling and their eating pattern as an individual and family as unit were observed. During post counselling sessions efforts were made to encourage the patients and their family to explain and suggest about nutritional and lifestyle modifications by their own. In the present study it was observed that the respondents knew their food as one of the basic need but how food could be of therapeutic help was a new concept to them. Nutritional component of the food was totally missing as it was clearly indicated in their responses. The impact of the counselling was visible and could be identified by the responses of the respondent in the post counselling sessions. Another important factor observed was that their improved biochemical and anthropometric parameters helped to motivate them and reinforced the benefits of diet counselling amongst the patients and their families.

  47. Dr Tammana Sharma, Dr Susmita Saxena, Dr Richa Bansal, Dr Neha Bansal and Dr Gaurav Chaudhary

    Objective: Tuberculosis (TB) is a systemic disease with world wide distribution and its occurrence in the oral cavity is well documented in the literature. Oral TB is currently reemerging as an infectious disease and may be a diagnostic challenge for dental care providers. The aim of this study was to report all patients with primary manifestations of oral tuberculosis and to evaluate the clinical characteristics of oral tuberculosis lesions. All these patients were subsequently diagnosed with tuberculosis based on oral histological findings and referred for management and therapy. Material and methods: 10 patients with oral lesions were histologically diagnosed as having tuberculosis, who did not give any history of the disease, following surgical biopsy. Results: Oral TB was found in all 10 patients, 7 males and 3 females, with male to female ratio 7:3. Involved oral sites included the angle of the mandible (1 case), right mandibular molar region (2case), left mandibular molar region (4 cases), Gingiva (2 cases), buccal mucosa (1 case). Oral TB patients in this series ranged in age from 6 to 35 years. All the lesions were suggestive of primary tuberculosis. The appearance of the affected mucosa in oral TB was variable. The most common manifestation was ulceration and swelling of the mucosa. Conclusion: TB should be considered in patients with oral ulcerations and swellings. A biopsy specimen for histologic study, acid-fast stains and cultures should be obtained for confirmation and differential diagnosis with other conditions.

  48. Vamsi Krishna Kamana, Padmakumar Ramchandran, Ashwal, A. J., Sumith Aggarwal and Umesh Pai, M.

    Sub acute or chronic upper limb ischemia is often non-atheromatous, especially in the young and is of multiple etiologies. Subclavian artery is affected the most in atheromatous/non atheromatous etiologies but brachial artery is most affected in fibro muscular dysplasia of upper limbs. Here we have a 58-year-old man presented with right upper limb claudication for the last 1 year and on investigation found to have bilateral brachial artery occlusions was treated successfully with Percutaneous balloon angioplasty. This is a very rare case of bilateral brachial artery occlusion with a classical beaded appearance of the renal arteries giving the only clue for etiology of fibro muscular dysplasia. Excellent response to balloon angioplasty without stenting was highlighted in this case.

  49. Dr. G. V. V. Giri, Dr. K. Santhosh Kumar, Dr. S. Ramkumar, Dr. Deepak A Pandyan and Dr. Ankit Khandawal

    Pleomorphic adenoma of palate is the commonest form of minor salivary gland tumor. As it is always a asymptomatic swelling patients usually reports in a late stage for treatment which resulting in high morbidity surgeries. So we report a case of such Pleomorphic adenoma of palate treated by novel approach with minimal morbity.

  50. Sneh Kalgotra, Dr. Abhiroop Singh and Prof. (Dr). Romesh Singh

    Background: The abnormal growth and development of the oro-facial complex leads to disturbances of oro-facial functions. Aim: The aim of the study was to compare the pharyngeal airway dimensions in different antero-posterior skeletal patterns i.e skeletal Class I & Class II. Methods & Materials: Sample size was calculated using Cohen’s Formula, consisted of 60 cephalogrmas from the Out-patient department of Post-Graduate department of Orthodontics & Dento facial Orthopaedics, Government Dental College & Hospital, Srinagar. Three parameters were used for comparison between male and female subjects and between skeletal Class I & Class II. Statistical analysis: All lateral cephalograms were traced and independent t-test was used for comparison and final analysis was done using SPSS software. Results: It was found that suerioe airway space, middle airway space and inferior airway space was more in Class I subjects when compared to Class II subjects. Conclusion: A significant positive correlation was established between the airway and the skeletal pattern.

  51. Sravani Chithra, C. H., Rahul Manchanda, Nidhi Jain and Anshika Lekhi

    Aim: To assess the significance of hysteroscopy in diagnosis of Asherman’s syndrome in patients presenting with infertility, hypomenorrhea, secondary amenorrhea and dysmenorrhea. Material and Method: This is a retrospective study conducted in the department of gynecological endoscopy at Manchanda’s Endoscopic Centre, PSRI, Delhi, from March 2014 to March 2016. 230 patients between 18 to 50 years age group, who presented with complaints of infertility, hypomenorrhea, amenorrhea and dysmenorrhea were selected. All patients underwent hysteroscopy post-menstrually whenever feasible except in patients with amenorrhea. Patients with Asherman’s syndrome were treated with adhesiolysis using scissors followed by insertion of intra uterine device in patients with moderate and severe Asherman’s syndrome. They were given conjugated estrogen for 21 days followed by medroxyprogesterone acetate for 7 days. Results: Total of 230 patients with above complaints were selected, of which 101 patients had Asherman’s syndrome and 129 patients had other pathologies. Of the 101 patients, 45.5% (46 cases) presented with primary infertility, 32.7% (33 cases) with secondary infertility, 8.9% (9 cases) with secondary amenorrhea, 8.9% (9 cases) with hypomenorrhea and 4% (4 cases) with dysmenorrhea. The role of hysteroscopy in asherman’s syndrome for patients presenting with infertility, amenorrhea and hypomenorrhea was found to be significant as proven by predictive value of less than 0.05. Conclusion: Hysteroscopy plays a vital role in accurately assessing and classifying the pathology and is the gold standard method for diagnosis and management of asherman’s syndrome.

  52. Ekta khandelwal, Sumeet Tripathi, Ashok Kumar Jaryal and Deepak, K. K.

    Purpose: Autonomic dysfunction is an important cause of orthostatic hypotension. Patients of orthostatic hypotension may or may not be symptomatic. The study was conducted to evaluate cardiovascular autonomic status in symptomatic and asymptomatic patients of orthostatic hypotension. Methods: The study was conducted in 15 patients of orthostatic hypotension and 15 age matched subjects. On the basis of history the patients were grouped control groups symptomatic and asymptomatic. The heart rate variability was assessed from 5 min resting supine ECG. The parasympathetic and sympathetic autonomic reactivity was assessed using Ewing's battery of tests. Results: The heart rate variability and measures of autonomic reactivity were lower in the patients with orthostatic hypotension as compared to control. However, they were similar between the symptomatic and asymptomatic groups. The parasympathetic component of the heart rate variability and reactivity test was more affected in patients. The fall in the blood pressure on orthostasis was similar between the symptomatic and asymptomatic patients. Conclusion: Autonomic dysfunction is common in patients of orthostatic hypotension. The autonomic profile of symptomatic patients is not different from that of asymptomatic patients indicating that additional deficits of cerebral autoregulation may play a crucial in development of symptoms.

  53. Dr. Sanjay Prakash Dhangar, Dr. Anirudha Doshi, Dr. Sourabh Reddy, Dr. Ibrahim H Kothawala and Dr. Sachin Patil

    Ureteric abnormaliities are rare. Ectopic insertion of the ureter is defined as abnormal insertion of the ureter, usually distal to the trigone into the urethra in male in approximately 50% of cases. Other sites include the seminal vesicle (approximately one-third), vas deferens, bladder neck, prostate and epididymis, while the urethra and vagina are commonly affected in females. Ectopic insertion of the ureter in the genital tract is a rare anomaly. Its incidence is about 1:130000. In contrast to females who come with urinary incontinence, ureteral ectopia in males is often misdiagnosed because of its relatively covert manifestations. Most patients with this anomaly are asymptomatic until the third or fourth decade of life. We present here another case report of this unusual entity and review the clinical characteristics of such cases.

  54. Dr. Rohit Agarwal, Dr. Vijay Haralgat Seetharamaiah, Dr. Nikil Khandelwal, Dr. Mohammed Salim, Dr. Sunil Kumar and Dr. Umrao Singh Kulhari

    Introduction: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a worldwide problem. The incidence of diabetes is increasing globally. DM is known for its micro and macro vascular complications like retinopathy, neuropathy, nephropathy, cardiovascular and peripheral vascular diseases. Diabetic foot complications are responsible for more than 50% of major limb amputations. Aims: to study the clinical pattern of foot infections in diabetic patients, analyze the risk factors, outcome of treatment modalities and to educate the patient about taking care of feet and preventive care. Results: Diabetic foot showed male to female ratio of 5:1 with age varying from 16 to >65 years. Occupation had statistical significant role in diabetic foot. Trivial trauma was associated with diabetic foot in more than 50% of cases. Debridement was the most common surgical intervention performed. Amputation was the last resort in saving patients life from diabetic foot complications. Conclusion: DM is one of the common metabolic disorders faced by surgeons. Diabetic foot a common entity in India due to complications of uncontrolled DM, can present as cellulitis, abscess, ulcer and even gangrene. Diabetic foot has high morbidity to patients. Even the diabetic foot is common complication of DM, it is preventable disorder with strict adherence of patients to foot care policies and aggressive approach of treating physician and surgeons.

  55. Yahia M. Bushara, A. M. Ali, Mohammed A. Ali Omer, Ali Y. Babiker and Mohammed F. Mohammed

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the induced histological changes in the Islet of Langerhans and - cells. The ethanolic extraction of Artemisia Herba Alba (AHA) as 20 mg has been injected intraperitoneally (I/P) in induced diabetic (Injected rats intraperitoneal with a dose of 60mg/kg streptozotocin STZ) and normal Wistar rats. Three diabetic groups were selected, each consists of eight rats. Group one injected (I/P) with distilled water only; used as diabetic control, group two was injected with insulin subcutaneously (S/C), group three injected with Ether-extract of AHA (I/P), and group four selected from non diabetic rats, used as normal control injected (I/P) with distilled water. All groups were fostered for 21 day; then weighted and executed. The pancreases were taken and the histological preparations for haematoxylin & eosin (H&E) and immunohistochemistry have been done. The analyzed results showed that: the induced diabetes reduced the rats’ weight by 62.5% in average while the treatment by Insulin and AHA regain the weight up to 75% and 71.4% respectively. The induced diabetes reduced the -cells% per islet 56.8% while the treatment by Insulin and AHA increase the -cells% per islet 73.8%, and 73.4% respectively. The induced diabetes reduced the islet volumes from 1990 mm3 to 766.8 mm3, while the treatment by insulin and AHA regain the volumes up to 1730 and 1590 mm3 respectively. The microscopic results confirmed that: AHA stimulate and regenerate new -cells in islets of langerhans thus leading to increase the volume which enhancing the host weight gain.

  56. Sreeja Das, Sable, D.M., Asha Chowdhery and Mahesh Shivaji Chavan

    Objective: To compare the efficacy of HiOra-GA gel with that of Hexigel for the management of patients with gingivitis. Methods: 60 patients of either sex aged more than 18 years and who are enrolled with diagnosis of gingivitis will be included in the study under 2 groups of 30 patients each and consecutive sampling will be done for the recruitment of patients. Group I patients will be given HiOra-GA gel and Group II patients will be given Hexigel which are to be taken over the index finger and applied over the gums twice daily for a period of four weeks. Thus, the efficacy of HiOra-GA gel in gingivitis will be compared with that of Hexigel. Results: On comparison of the mean differences between both the groups using unaired t test a mean value of 1.187±0.02 for group 1 and a mean value of 1.188±0.01 for group 2 was found, with t value of 0.260 and is insignificant (p>0.05). Conclusion: It can be concluded that HiOra-GA gel and Hexigel are equally effective in the treatment of gingivitis. Further studies should be carried out with larger sample sizes and longer follow-ups to compare the efficacies of both the drugs.

  57. Dr. Anuj Kumar Pathak, Dr. Subir Sarkar, Dr. Subrata Saha, Dr. Pooja Singh and Dr. Rohini Gupta

    Treatment of the young permanent tooth with a necrotic root canal system and an incompletely developed root is very difficult and challenging. Although it is feasible to perform apexification procedures, the long term survival of these teeth is questionable due to thin, incompletely formed dentinal walls which may subsequently fracture. Regenerative endodontic procedures have emerged as a viable treatment alternative for these teeth. The purpose of this report is to present the case of a patient where revascularisation of an immature permanent maxillary central incisor with necrotic pulp space was successfully attempted. This was achieved after disinfection of the canal space with topical antibiotic paste followed by a blood clot scaffold induced from periapical tissues. This treatment approach offers clinicians great potential to avoid the need for traditional apexification with calcium hydroxide or the need to achieve an artificial apical barrier with mineral trioxide aggregate. Furthermore this treatment approach can help reinforce infected immature teeth by physiologically strengthening the root walls.

  58. Dr. Rahul KewalKumar, Dr. Vishnu Gupta, Dr. Shirish Tiwari, Dr. Rajesh Tiwari and Dr. Asha Ram Tyagi

    Tobacco Consumption & Alcohol Consumption is widely prevalent habit among Tribals. Awareness about it is important to reduce the number of users and its dependency in them. Study was conducted to find out the dependency status of Tobacco & alcohol Consumption among Tribals which was measured by KF SCORES & AUDIT SCORES respectively. A cross sectional study using Multi stage Sampling Method with house to house visits. Sample size came out 300. Study was conducted in Narayanganj block of Mandla District.182 (60.7%) of the tribals were consuming smokeless tobacco in various forms. The trend of Karl Fagersrom Score was shifted more towards tribals. 29.3% of the subjects consumed alcohol, higher AUDIT score in Tribal people & hence their dependence & high risk behaviour.Our study shows that the habit of Tobacco & Alcohol Consumption & its dependency is on the higher side among Tribals.

  59. Dr. Bappaditya Sarkar

    Free small bowel perforation is frequently encountered in surgical practice with “trauma” being the most common cause. However, there are many non-traumatic causes too with a wide range of clinical presentation that can confuse the clinician. The resultant delay in diagnosis and treatment may then prove fatal for the patient. An effort has thus been made to find out the most frequent aetiologies, different clinical presentations with their treatment options and outcome. A prospective study of 30 patients admitted with a clinical diagnosis of non-traumatic small gut perforation was carried out over a period of 18 months. Pain abdomen was the presenting complaint in all patients (100%) followed by fever (68%) and vomiting (28%).On examination, 100% had abdominal tenderness,64% had distension,52% had obliteration of liver dullness and only 13% had rigidity. Straight X-ray abdomen in erect posture revealed free gas under diaphragm in 72% of patients only. Most common site of perforation was at the ileum.Most common aetiology was tubercular pathology followed by enteric fever and nonspecific inflammation. Ileostomy of the pathological site was the most commonly performed surgery followed by primary closure and resection anastomosis. Most common postoperative complication was wound infection and mortality was found to be 20%.

  60. Dr. Sarfaraz Padda, Dr. Gaurav Goyal and Dr. Bhawandeep Kaur

    Background and Aim: Clinicians do prescribe antibiotics for either prophylactic or therapeutic reasons. Inappropriate prescribing of antibiotics by health care professionals is a worldwide concern. The decision of when and what to prescribe leaves room for misuse and therefore it is imperative to continuously monitor knowledge and pattern of prescription. In recent years, dentists have reported a shift from narrow-spectrum to broad-spectrum antibiotic prescriptions due to increasing antibiotic resistance. Irrational prescription of antibiotics by clinicians might lead to drug resistance. The aim of this present study is to investigate the prescribing patterns of the therapeutic and prophylactic use for antibiotics in various dental situations by dental practitioners. Materials and Method: This study utilized a questionnaire which was designed to investigate the antibiotic prescribing patterns by dental practitioners in the North India region. A structured and pretested questionnaire was sent to 200 dental health care practitioners by post or physical delivery or by email. Result: A total of 200 dentists responding to the questionnaire, more than 70% would prescribe antibiotics for localized fluctuant swelling and for problems for which antibiotics are not required according to good practice guidelines (acute pulpitis, chronic apical infection, periodontal abscess, chronic gingivitis, chronic periodontitis, pericoronitis and dry socket). Amoxicillin was the most frequently prescribed antibiotic for all clinical conditions but there was a wide variation in dosage, frequency and duration for all antibiotics used Conclusion: The knowledge of dental health care practitioners in antibiotic use in this study was generally low so, this study concludes that there is a clear need for the development of prescribing guidelines, regular monitoring of antibiotic prescriptions by dental practitioners and educational initiatives to encourage the rational and appropriate use of the antibiotics

  61. Vigneshpriya, D. and Shanthi, E.

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of sugarcane bagasse adsorption capacity for textile effluent. The adsorption process was investigated in a batch mode of operation under the optimize condition of amount of adsorbent, initial concentration of dye, contact time, pH, and temperature on textile effluent. The dried sugarcane bagasse sorbent was ground and sieved into 150µm size. Further investigation of the sorption process was done using the FTIR, SEM analysis. The experiment showed that the high removal percentage at PH 6, temperature 35º C with a retention time of 100 minutes. The optimum dose amount of adsorbent was 0.3g/ ml. The results obtained in this work indicated that the potential use of sugarcane bagasse as a biosorbent is feasible method for the treatment of textile effluent.

  62. Dr. Vijaya, D., Dr. Santhya, S. T. and Dr. Shakthi, R.

    Background and Objective: Candida albicans a normal commensal of human mucosal surfaces and opportunistic pathogen in immune-compromised states, diabetes mellitus and iatrogenic factors like antibiotic use, indwelling devices, intravenous catheters, etc. Most infections are caused by C.albicans, the shift towards treatment resistant non albicans candida (NAC) species is evident in recent years. One of the important factors contributing to the virulence of Candida species is the formation of surface attached microbial communities known as “Biofilm”. Thus this study is undertaken to identify, isolate, speciate and to determine Biofilm production. Materials and Methods: A total of 150 Candida species isolated from various clinical samples were processed in the department of Microbiology, AIMS, B.G.Nagara for a period of 6 months from Oct 2014 to March 2015. Isolates were from vaginal swab (76%), urine (15.3%), exudates (6.7%) and endotracheal aspirate (2%). Samples were inoculated onto Sabouraud’s dextrose agar (SDA) & chrom agar (Himedia, Bombay). Growth on SDA was speciated by standard methods using Germ tube, Corn meal agar, slide culture, sugar fermentation and sugar assimilation tests. By the colour of colonies on chrom agar, isolates were speciated. Result: Out of 150 Candida species studied, 63 were C.albicans (42%) and 87 NAC (58%). A total of 78 (52%) candida species were biofilm producers and 72 (48%) non biofilm producers. Conclusion: The above results shows increasing isolation of NAC when compared to C.albicans and Biofilm production from candida species.

  63. Sergey Viktorovich Pushkin

    The complex necrobionts and necrophilous beetles of the south of the European part of the Russia is described ecologically. The specific composition of groups is circumscribed. The legitimacies of creation necrobionts of the complex from a type of a landscape and taxonomic of an accessory of a corpse are detected. Studying of regional features ¬of formation necrobionts and necrophilous complexes has, both scientific, and practical ¬interest. Throughout 25 years we studied fauna and ecological features necrobionts Coleoptera mountain landscapes of North Caucasus and ¬adjoining areas of the south of the Russia.

  64. Musheerul Hassan, Dr. Huma Habib and Dr. Reyaz Ahmad Mir

    The investigation was aimed to carry out the antifungal activities of the hexane extract’s of Abutilon theophrasti against four fungal species, (Microsporum gypseum, Penicillium spp, Fusarium spp, Aspergillus spp). Disc-diffusion method was employed to carry out the antifungal activity against selected fungal species. Three concentrations (100µg/ml, 250 µg/ml, 500 µg/ml) were made to check the activity of crude extracts. Itraconazole was taken as standard reference drug, While as dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) served as negative control. Leaf extracts were found to show promising activity, followed by extracts of fruit body, stem and root. All crude extracts displayed their maximum inhibition against Fusarium species. Maximum inhibition (ZOI-11) was seen in crude extracts of leaves, followed by crude extracts of fruit body with inhibition zone of 10mm. Stem extracts displayed inhibition zone of 9mm while as root showed activity of 7mm. All inhibition activity was concentration dependent.

  65. Roy, B. N.

    Mill scale is a steelmaking co-product from the rolling mill in the steel hot rolling process. Mill scale contains both iron in elemental form and three types of iron oxides: Wustite, Hematite and Magnetite. The chemical composition of mill scale varies according to the type of steel produced and the process used. Rolling mill scale is a solid co-product of the steelmaking industry that contains metallic iron and three types of iron oxides: wustite, hematite and magnetite. It also contains traces of non-ferrous metals, alkaline compounds and oils from the rolling process. A study is made of the reduction of mill scale to sponge iron using coke at different temperatures and times. The reduced samples are studied by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Oxygen analysis is carried out by combustion in a LECO oven. The reduction of mill scale allows the new use and development of this material to obtain sponge iron that can be re-used to the electric furnace as metallic load in steel manufacturing. It can also used as a raw material for the production of various parts made of iron through powder metallurgy.

  66. Dr. Chetna Savita

    Rubella infection is normally of minor impact characterized by a mild, self-limited disease associated with a characteristic rash, but during pregnancy due to maternal infection many complications were seen in mother as well as in fetus as rubivirus has capability to pass through placenta and can affect organogenesis which cause congenital rubella syndrome (CRS). In study women suffering from Infertility (primrary and secondary) show highest percentage of infection i.e. 50% of them are found to be susceptible.

  67. Amadi, L. O., Wanabia, D. and Amadi, V.

    The study investigates the synergistic effects of Guava (Psidium guajava) aqueous and methanolic leaf extracts in combination with potassium aluminum sulphate (Alum) respectively. The various concentrations (0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0%) of these combinations; methanolic leaf extract plus Alum (MLE+Alum) and aqueous leaf extract plus Alum (ALE+Alum) were tested respectively for antibacterial activity on some bacterial pathogens isolated from clinical samples. These were compared with an antibiotic standard, Chloramphenicol as positive control. Antibacterial activity was assessed using both disc diffusion method (DDM) and agar well diffusion method (AWDM) respectively. Of these combinations, ALE+Alum concentrations exhibited the largest mean diameter of inhibitory zone (DIZ) values of 12.0-21.0mm and 8.5-15.0mm on the test bacteria using AWDM and DDM respectively. In contrast, there was no inhibition with MLE+Alum concentrations by AWDM whereas DIZ values ranged from 8.0-13.5mm by DDM. The susceptibility of these pathogens to the combinations were much more pronounced against the Gram-negative bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (21.0mm) and Escherichia coli (20.0mm) than Gram-positive, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis (19.0mm) respectively, thus, indicative of broad spectrum activity particularly using the AWDM. This result is almost comparable with Chloramphenicol which exhibited the overall largest mean DIZ values. However, the activity of Chloramphenicol was marginally influenced by the methodology of antibacterial assessment which reinforces the fact that purified and tested antibiotics should be used as the drug of choice for treatments. The synergistic effects of the P. guajava leaf extracts plus Alum against test bacteria reveals that they can be used as a novel antibacterial agent against infections and/or diseases caused by these pathogens.

  68. Maya M. Jaybhaye and Satish A. Bhalerao

    The increasing rate of agricultural wastes due to the large scale of urbanization and a consequence of economic development has become a problem that produces the huge quantities of waste in India and causes a serious environmental problem which is difficult for management. For the present research work, composting of paddy straw waste done along with various fungal strains such as Pleurotus sajor-caju, Trichoderma harzianum and Aspergillus niger and Chaetomium globosum in various combination for 40 days and followed by vermicomposting with Eisenia foetida for 30 days of period. As fungi helps in degradation of plant material quickly by secreting enzymes along with increase in number of earthworms and cocoons in the paddy straw vermicompost . As earthworm number increases from initial 15 to control 23 in control to 49 in final set up where as cocoons number in control was 8 to last set up were 23. As paddy straw supports more number of earthworms and cocoons when treated with various fungal strains.

  69. Subha Raju and Munuswamy Natesan

    The present study was intended to determine the ovarian developmental stages and changes in the level of vitellogenin and vitellin as a biomarker of ovary maturation. Five different stages were classified based on the size and colour of the ovary. Histological studies clearly illustrate a gradual increase in oocyte development from stage I to IV based on yolk accumulation. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay results also further confirmed gradual increase in the level of Vitellogenin and vitellin levels as the ovary maturation proceeds. The present study was intended to determine the ovarian developmental stages and changes in the level of vitellogenin and vitellin as a biomarker of ovary maturation. Five different stages were classified based on the size and colour of the ovary. Histological studies clearly illustrate a gradual increase in oocyte development from stage I to IV based on yolk accumulation. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay results also further confirmed gradual increase in the level of Vitellogenin and vitellin levels as the ovary maturation proceeds.

  70. Huidrom Puinyabati, Maibam Shomorendra and Devashish Kar

    This study presents results from a survey of helminth parasites of fishes in Manipur. The present investigation was undertaken between April, 2015 and September, 2015 with an aim to study the helminth parasites associated with different freshwater fishes in Imphal west district of Manipur. During study period total nine species of helminth parasites were identified belonging to four diverse groups comprising 4 species of nematodes, 3 species of trematodes, 1 species of cestodes and 1 species of acanthocephala. Out of thirty three freshwater fish species examined only nine species were found to infect with parasites.

  71. Asheesh Gaur, Gupta, R. C. and Shalini Gupta

    The present study has been taken up to observe the toxic effect on a fresh water snail, Pila globosa induced by Dithane M-45. The present study shows alteration in lipase activity level in hepatopancrease and renal organ of Pila globosa at acute and chronic exposure of Dithane M-45. Significant depletion in (P<0.05) in lipase activity level was observed in hepatopancreas and renal organ at chronic exposure while slight depletion was observed in both experimental tissues at acute exposure of Dithane M -45.

  72. Ogbalu, O. K. and Jaja, E. T.

    Studies on the host plants, seasonality and distribution of a phytophagous, polyphagous and edible moth (Bunaeaalcinoe) of the Niger Delta were made. The seasonal population of the edible moth was assessed on its different host plants from 2013-2014. The moth was detected practically throughout the year with lowest populations during the harmattan and dry seasons (December-February) when the host plants shed their leaves. The populations of the emperor moths were highest during the rainy seasons (April - October) when the leaves of host plants were in abundance and blossoming. The females commenced oviposition at the onset of rains and deposited their cream-coloured eggs on the adaxial surfaces of leaves of host plants. Damage to the leaves and young stems of host plants was caused by the highly voracious larvae that underwent various stages of development until the last larval stage when it migrated from host plants and searched for pupating sites. Types of damage included defoliation and skeletonization of leaves. They were known to cause retardation of young plants; older plants were able to withstand damage by the larvae.

  73. Ajith Kumar, K. G., Sunil Kesava Deth, G., Dinesh Babu, K. V. and Anju, U.

    Seed recalcitrance is a major challenge in the conservation of many tropical species. Syzygium cuminii (L.) Skeels is a threatened species due to problems associated with natural regeneration and seed recalcitrance. The study was carried out to understand the physiology and biochemistry of jamun embryos during embryogeny and embryo desiccation. Maintenance of higher moisture content in the embryos was observed throughout embryogeny and lacked an embryo desiccation phase. Seeds germinated immediately after shedding without any dormant phase and desiccated very quickly and no other innate mechanisms in the seeds to prevent water loss. The critical threshold water level in the embryos was found to be 45% and a drop in water content significantly decreased the percentage of germination. The seeds remained viable for ten days and polyembryony was a frequent occurrence. FTIR analysis showed variations in biochemical composition during embryogeny and embryo desiccation. Embryo desiccation resulted in the lack of production of many biomolecules but induced the production of certain other compounds.

  74. Nileema Gore, Rupali Kumthekar, Anuja Chaure and Sanjay Harke

    In the present study, isolation of post-harvest diseases of fruit banana and papaya was carried out such as Fusarium sp., Colletotrichum sp. and Alternaria sp. based on the cultural and morphological test, the diseased pathogens were identified as Fusarium moniliforme and Colletotrichum musae from banana and Alternaria alternata from papaya. Commercially used Lactobacillus probiotic bacteria was found most effective against Fusarium moniliforme, Colletotrichum musae and Alternaria alternata. Lactobacillus was showed highest percent inhibition 37%, 42% and 48% against Fusarium moniliforme, Colletotrichum musae and Alternaria alternata respectively. In the in vivo study, the healthy Fruits of banana were infected with Fusarium moniliforme and Colletotrichum musae were remain uninfected and healthy up to 10 days when treated with Lactobacillus and in case of Alternaria alternata was infected to healthy papaya, remain in healthy condition up to 8 days when treated with Lactobacillus. A Probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus increases the shelf life of fruit such as Papaya and Banana.

  75. Gurav, M. R., Sunetra. S. Kshirsagar, Vijaykumar, K. and Rao, K. R.

    The present investigation is focused on effect of environmental variations as well as human interference on physicochemical parameters from Ekruk tank, Solapur. The correlation is established between various physicochemical parameters during specified period 2010 -2012. In our study it is revealed that all parameters showed correlation with each other and seasonal fluctuations heavily influenced the variations found in native freshwater body. Our results are discussed in the context with influence of season as well as human interference.

  76. Iyyappan, V., Nagarajan, D. and Ramesh Kumar, T.

    The pygidial defense gland of the Pheropsophus hilaris consists of two big gland (g1 and g2), two small reservoirs (r1 and r2) sac like structures filled with secretion with associated secretary tissues and basal eversible membrane structures. The complex structure consisting of two sets of secretary lower collection canals, collector reservoir, one – way valve, sphincter muscles, exit taken and exit nozzle. The bombardier beetle has been the subject of much discussion by creationists and evolutionists alike. Resent reports demonstrate and sophistication and accuracy with which these carabid beetles deliver a spray of hot quinines and steam of ward off predators. In this study the pygidial gland is studied under scanning electron microscopy and are shown to be quite complex this complexity could suggest an origin by design.

  77. Okram. Abemsana Devi and Chinglen Chongtham

    Antioxidant activity of methanolic extracts of five medicinal plants (Debregeasia longifolia, Colocasia gigantean, Houttuynia cordata, Oenanthe javanica and Solanum xanthocarpum) of Manipur having anti-inflammatory properties was investigated by using DPPH method. The DPPH scavenging activity of the five medicinal plants ranged from 38.61±0.01% to 65.41±0.163% inhibition. The phytochemical contents like total alkaloids, total flavonoids, total phenol, total carotenoids content ranged from 10.98±0.01 to 20.55±0.005mg caffeine /100g on dry weight, 11.26±0.11 to 106.68±0.04 mg quercetin (QE)/100g on dry weight, 72.11±0.05 to 228.87±0.01 mg catechol equivalents (CE)/100g on dry weight, 0.26±0.005 to 2.56±0.01 mg/100g respectively. Pearson correlation revealed a positive correlation between total phenol content, total flavonoids content, total carotenoids content and free radical scavenging activity (DPPH) of five medicinal plants extracts. However a negative correlation was found between total alkaloids content and free radical scavenging activity of medicinal plants extracts. The reducing power of the medicinal plants extracts was statistically significant and positively correlated with DPPH free radical scavenging activity. The present study revealed that the plants with higher antioxidant activity (DPPH) showed high absorbance which indicates more reducing power.

  78. Everton Vinicius Zambiazzi, Scheila Roberta Guilherme, Alan Mario Zuffo, Flaviane de Oliveira Ribeiro, Sérgio Hebron Maia Godinho, Isabella Maria Monteiro Borges, Aline Köhn Carneiro, Joacir Mário Zuffo Júnior and André Rodrigues Salomão Pinto

    In order to promote increased efficiency of cultivation techniques for higher yield of culture in a sustainable manner, the objective of this study was to evaluate alternative sources of lettuce fertilization in the north of Mato Grosso. The cultivar Marisa was used to obtain answers regarding the agronomic performance and physical characteristics. The experimental design was a complete randomized block design with four replications. The treatments were: T1 - control (without fertilizer); T2 - chemical fertilizer (NPK); T3 - chicken manure; T4 - Sheep manure and T5 - Cotton waste (by-products of cotton trees). These were evaluated: shoot diameter, fresh matter (without root), dry matter, leaf length, number of leaves, daily increment and commercial productivity. The fertilization with animal manure and vegetable waste presented better results in relation to chemical fertilizer (NPK). The incorporation of sheep manure provides greater shoot diameter, fresh matter, dry matter, leaf length, daily increment and commercial productivity.

  79. Grace Odochi Nwaigwe, Innocent Ifeanyi Maxwell Nwankwo and Godson Emeka Nwofia

    This study was undertaken to determine associations among yield and yield related traits in sweetpotato crop so as to identify the major traits of importance that could be used as a basis for soil nutrients formulation. The experiment was conducted at Umudike in rain forest region during 2013 and 2014 cropping season. The experiments were laid out in split randomized complete block designs with three replications. The plot size used was 3m x 2m with 1m inter and intra- row spacing. The treatments included eight sweetpotato genotypes and combination of Fertilizer treatment NPK 15:15:15 and Poultry manure. Observations were made on the following characters: number of Salable root, Length of salable root, width of salable root, fresh salable root, Dry matter content, vine length at 4 week after planting, number of Leaves at 4 week after planting, vine length at 4week after planting, and Vine diameter at 4 weeks after planting. Data collected were analyzed using analysis of variance and means were separated using Standard Error of difference. Correlation and path analysis were used to select and determine characters that contributed significantly to root yield of sweetpoitato. The result of correlation and Path analysis revealed that number of salable roots, width of salable roots, number of lateral branches at 4 weeks after planting (WAP), vine length at 4WAP, number of leaves at 4WAP and dry matter content were characters that exhibited high direct effects on root yield per plant. Improving these characters through soil amendment at the recommended levels of nutrients would give better response of these characters to root yield improvement in sweetpotato.

  80. Halim, Titin Supriatun, La Karimuna, Rachmawati Hasid, Fransiscus S. Rembon and Mariadi

    This study aims to determine the effect of mycorrhiza fungi porpagules on growth of the pepper plant seedling and incidences of plant rot disease. Study was conducted in net house located in Sindang Kasih of village, District of Ranomeeto Barat, Regency of South Konawe, Province of Southeast Sulawesi and Laboratory of the Faculty of Forestry and Environmental Science Halu Oleo University Kendari, Indonesia. This research is compiled using a randomized design completelly (RDC) with two treatments combination: fungi mycorrhiza (FM) with four levels and Phytophthora capsici (Pc) with three levels. The variables observed for results were plant height, number of leaves, number of tendrils, dry plant weight, incidences of disease and percentage of mycorrhiza fungi infection on plant roots. Results of study revealed that mycorrhiza fungi inoculation 10 g polybag-1 and P.capsici inoculum 15 g polybag-1 (A2B1) can promote the growth of plant height, number of leaves, number of trindles in 70 DAT and dry plants weight. Mycorrhiza fungi inoculation 20 g polybag-1 and P.capsici inoculum 10 g polybag-1 (A3B2) cause disease incidences is lowest at 5th week is 24.30%. Mycorrhiza fungi inoculation 10 g polybag-1 and P.capsici inoculum 10 g polybag-1 (A1B1), mycorrhiza fungi 15 g polybag-1 and P.capsici inoculum 20 g polybag-1 (A2B2) constitute the highest percentage of mycorrhiza fungi infection in pepper plant roots respectively 80.00%.

  81. Vivekananda Mandi, Sudeshna Panja, Bhattacharya, C. and Sarkar, K. K.

    The present experiment was conducted in the winter season during 2009-2010 and 2010-2011 at Seed Production Farm Adisaptagram, Govt of West Bengal, Hooghly, West Bengal with twenty three potato genotypes collected from AICRP on potato, BCKV centre. Twenty three potato genotypes were screened and evaluated for yield and yield related characters viz., yield per square meter (kg), yield per plant (kg), number of tubers per plant, number of tubers per square meter, single tuber, weight. (gm), plant height (cm), number of leaves per plant, harvest index, tuber length (mm), tuber breadth (mm), small tuber percentage, medium tuber percentage, large tuber percentage. Analysis of variance for potato clearly revealed significant (at 1% level) differences among the genotypes for all the characters studied. In the present investigation, all the characters showed high heritability coupled with high genetic advance. Tuber yield per plant showed significantly positive correlation both at genotypic and phenotypic level with tuber yield per meter square, single tuber weight (gm) and no. of tubers per plant. Yield per meter square also showed significant positive correlation coefficient with single tuber weight (gm) and no. of tubers per plant. Very high and positive direct effects of no. of tubers per plant, tuber no. per meter square, single tuber weight and yield per meter square were found on tuber yield per plant. From the experimental results, it is evident that the characters viz., no. of tubers per plant, single tuber weight, yield per square meter, are important in potato for high tuber and yield per plant and emphasis should be given on these characters in selection of parents for hybridization programme. From the present experiment the genotypes K. Sadabahar and K. Chipsona-1 were identified as the highest performer in respect of yield per plant as well as yield per square meter, but in respect of mean performances K. Chipsona-1 was the best performer for both the characters studied.

  82. Lívia Martinez Abreu Soares Costa, Roseane Maria Evangelista Oliveira, Deila Magna dos Santos, Aline Cristina Teixeira Mallet, Sabrina Carvalho Bastos and Sara Maria Chalfoun Souza

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of fungus Aspergillus niger M22 in phosphate solubilization in liquid medium and lettuce development. Both Araxá phosphate and rock residue were added at the dose of 3 g to 100 mL of culture medium yeast extract glucose. The phosphate treatments were inoculated with 1 mL of fungal culture containing 108 UFC mL-1 incubated at 28° C under 190-rpm shaking, for eight days. Both pH and P content were evaluated at the end of the incubation period. To evaluate the potential of M22 in solubilizing nutrients for lettuce plants, combinations of pellets of Aspergillus nigers isolate, of Araxá apatite rock and fertilizer were used as treatments. Isolate M22 presented a higher amount of P soluble in Araxá phosphate than in phosphate rock residue. M22 increased about four times the amount of P soluble in Araxá phosphate medium in relation to the control and about three times in the medium with phosphate rock residue. Isolate M22 demonstrated capacity of solubilizing phosphates. Araxá apatite rock possesses potential to be utilized as a source of phosphorus and potassium.

  83. Kokate, K. D., Dubey, S. K., Uma Sah and Sudipto Paul

    Farm extension and advisory service delivery mechanism has witnessed challenges in diverse forms in the post Green Revolution era. The extension approaches, tools, policies and practices have undergone necessary shifts according to the need of the situation. The ‘top-down’ approach of extension, primarily being adapted in form of the globally recognized ‘Training and Visit’ system during the 1980s was gradually withdrawn and replaced with participatory ‘bottom up’ approaches. Farming system research and extension and participatory technology development became the thrust. The participatory appraisal tools like Rapid Rural Appraisal, Participatory Rural Appraisal, Participatory Learning and Action, Rapid Appraisal of Agricultural Knowledge System etc. became increasingly popular and are extensively used throughout the world. Immense policy appraisal, reforms and thereby revolution in technology dissemination could be observed during the 1990s. Merger of all the first line extension projects with the Krishi Vigyan Kendra (KVK) model of India has been visualized as the landmark step towards horizon expansion of research-extension linkage at the grass root. The farm outreach programmes exhaled a greater decentralization of decision making in all when Agricultural Technology Management Agency (ATMA) was initiated and currently spread across 630 districts of the country. With the motto of supplementing the efforts of public agricultural extension system by necessarily providing extension and other services to the farmers on payment basis or free of cost through agricultural experts, Agri-Clinic and Agri-Business Centre (ACABC) initiated in country since early 2000. Of late, the technology dissemination process recognized the farmer led innovation and extension models. For further profitability and sustainability of farm business, the scattered and largely unorganized farm businesses throughout the country are to be thoroughly organized. Linking farmers to the markets, fee based extension service delivery and judicious use of ICT tools will serve as the future perspective in this regard.

  84. Rujuta Giri and Vanisha S. Nambiar

    Background: Rapidly changing physical environment has led to socio-demographic mutilation among populations, increasing the prevalence of dual burden of malnutrition especially among school going children. Objective: The study aimed to assess the effect of dietary habits and parental history of chronic disease on prevalence of dual burden of malnutrition among school children. Design: Multistage cluster sampling technique was applied to select 10/113 public-private schools. Students of 4th to 9th standard (n= 6472) were enrolled under the study. Standard techniques were used to derive the anthropometric measurements. Information on the dietary habits and parental history of chronic degenerative diseases was elicited using structured questionnaire. Results: Eating habits were categorized under high, moderate and low risk based on the frequencies. Frequency of eating out of home was at moderate risk among 15% students. Moderately risky eating behavior prevailed among 13% - 21% students. Consumption of maggie noodles was maximum (21%), followed by ice-cream (18%), chips (17%) and soft drink (11%). Moreover consumption of junk food, fried food and sweets have shown a significant co-relation with the nutritional status of children at p value <0.05, 95% CI. Both father and mother of 8.2% children have reported to be suffering from either of the chronic diseases such as obesity, diabetes, hypertension, stroke and heart disease. Parental history of obesity followed by heart disease significantly correlated with the current nutritional status of the children. Conclusion: Unhealthy eating habits and parental history of diseases determine the shift in nutritional status of children from a young age.

  85. Mohamed Bedaiwy, Omyma A. Awadalla, Saeda M. Amer and Nedal A. Fayyad

    Fusarium oxysporum fs lycopersici (FOFL) is considered as one of the most important plant pathogen causes fusarium wilt specifically in tomato. In the present study, the antimicrobial activity of Umbelliferae members carrot, Parsley, Celery, Coriander, Fennel, Caraway, Anise, Dill and Cumin aqueous extracts on phytopathogenic fungus (FOFL). These extracts used at different concentration (1,2,4 and 8%) and proved their bioactivity as antifungal agents for the inhibition of Fusarium oxysporum radial growth, fungal biomass and sporulation. Carrot and Anise were showed more than inhibition of radial growth than chemical fungicides, but all plant aqueous extracts were showed the inhibition of fungal spores less than chemical fungicides (Bavistin at 10 ppm).Our results in this study revealed that significant antagonistic effects of Umbelliferae members against the (FOFL) and therefore could be used a viable option for natural pesticides.

  86. Raghavendra Kulkarni and Pruthviraj Bedjargi

    Sodium (Na+), potassium (K+) and Chloride (Cl¯) play an important role in osmoregulation and homeostasis. In the present study sodium, potassium, chloride and phosphate concentration in the blood of four Indian fresh water carps, Labeo rohita, Catla catla, Cirrhana mrigala and Labeo fimbriatus has been investigated in relation to a aquatic body. The results indicate that higher concentration of sodium in the blood of all the four types of carps has been noticed in comparison to other electrolytes. The degree of these concentration is as sodium>chloride>phosphate>potassium. The aquatic body in which these fishes are harbored has water with proper electrolyte concentration needed for physiological activities including osmoregulation and homeostatic mechanisms. Hence, the results of blood electrolytes found in these fishes are in normal levels indicating proper environmental conditions for their survival and are in healthy.

  87. Hariram, N., Jayasri, J. and Krishnan, M.

    The present study was the humic acid (HA)-oxidizing and the reduced organisms isolated from different localities of sewage samples in and around the 12 district of Tamil Nadu. The additional electron donating capacity of reduced HA could reasonably be attributed to the oxidation of reduced functional groups. Furthermore, this study indicates that reduced humic acids impact soil geochemistry and the indigenous bacterial community, on the basis of α, β, γ, and σ – Proteobacteria were includes heterotrophs, autotrophs, and methanotrophs. Among them methanotrophic sulfur reducing were isolated and screened by humic acid supplementation under the anaerobic fermentation. Signal transduction of ATP synthase by H2 electron donor and acceptor, the donation H2 molecule during the cell division by inducing the activity of metabolic enzyme binding and non-binding site of the cell wall in the presence of humic acid. However, further studies of metabolic interaction of the bacterial cell under humic acid supplementation traumatically changed in bacterial growth and morphology of the color have become a typical blue/greenish florescent in distinctly appear

  88. Dr. Sonu Chouhan

    The opportunistic bacteria including P.aeruginosa are ubiquitous to a wide variety of aquatic environments including drinking water distribution systems. Concern over the survival and spread of opportunistic pathogens in public drinking water supplies has been expressed in recent years because of the public health risk associated with their presence in properly treated water. A municipal drinking water distribution system in Neemuch was monitored over a 12 month period to investigate population shifts of opportunistic bacteria at various sampling sites. Data generated during this study indicated that samples collected from storage reservoir, DS1, DS2 and end points contained P.aeruginosa in substantial amounts significantly higher than the health standards (P<0.05). However, Acinetobacter, Aeromonas, Moraxella and Flavobacterium were detected in negligible amounts with lower isolation rate. Differences in the concentration of opportunistic bacteria among the four sampling sites; Dam, Storage Reservoir, Distribution System and Point of use were significant throughout the year (P<0.05), except between the two sampling sites; DS1 and DS2 within the distribution system. Reductions in cell counts and isolation rate of opportunistic bacteria during the treatment method from surface raw water to finished water reflected an improvement in its trophic status, indicating that the treatment practices principally fulfilled their function. However, their presence in samples after chlorine disinfection during distribution presents potential threat to Neemuch community. Collectively, our results show the need to develop best management practices for municipal water to control bacterial regrowth and deterioration of water before it is utilized at the point of consumption.

  89. Shunmuga Priya, S. J., Shiv Kumar, G. and Hariram, N.

    A study was conducted by decomposing of Parthenium hysterophorus (Linn.) weed plants with farm yard waste; maize waste and chick waste in the ratio3:4:2:1 which allowed on an anaerobic fermentation fraction of the C-containing organic colloids of nanoparticles and organic compounds. The carbon containing nanoparticles of humic substancesarehumic acid, Fulvic acid and organic compound content was in the form of GA3, IAA and BAP amount of to 0.13 %, 0.002%, and 0.04% per unit respectively. Further, the above nano particles were subjected to FT-IR, HPTLC and HPLC and crystallization of crude plant growth hormones for confirmation.

  90. Mohana Rao, M., Yedukondala Rao, P. and Ramesh Babu, K.

    The biochemical parameters such as protein, lipid, carbohydrate and ash besides water content in the muscle of Octopus aegina, O. membranaceus, O. dollfusi and Cystopus indicus have been conducted during October2009 to September, 2011 at Visakhapatnam. The percentage composition of protein, lipid, carbohydrate and ash ranges from 9.95 to 17.56, 3.98 to 9.01, 0.23 to 0.62 and 3.73 to 7.79 respectively in juveniles and adults of four species. There was no remarkable variation in the biochemical composition of four species. Seasonally highest protein and lipid contents were noticed in summer in four species. Variations in biochemical composition in present study may be governed by spawning cycle and feeding activity. The present study indicated that all the four species of Octopuses studied were nutritionally equal to any food fish and they could be used for food and for preparation of various fish by-products.

  91. Sonia Sethi, Archana and Sangeeta

    The dye decolourizing isolates, Klebsiella pneumonia, Pseudomonas florescence, Proteus mirabilis, Alcaligens sp, Serratia marscens and E.coli from garden soil. The present study confirms the ability of all isolates for decolourization of pink and orange dye used in textile. The isolates showed 91.14 % percentage decolourization for pink colour dye and 93.6 % for orange colour dye under optimum conditions. Among all the isolates, Proteus sp for Pink dye and Pseudomonas sp for orange dye were found to be most efficient in decolourization. All parameters studied in this paper were found to be effective for all isolates. The results reported here warrant further investigation to establish the usefulness of these isolates for bioremediation and biodegradation application such as waste water treatment. High decolourization extent and facile conditions show the potential for this bacterial strain to be used in the biological treatment of dyeing mill effluents.

  92. Arend L. Mapanawang, Nova Wulur, Selvie S. Ticoalu, RasminHjMuthalib, FernandesSambode, Martha D. Korompis, SantjePangkey, Maria Rantung, Maykel A. Killing, Alexander Maengkom, Sarah G. Mapanawang, Ismail, Averous Faraby Budiadji, FrangkieMapanawang, Siti

    Indonesia is famous as an area highly rich in natural resources, both in terms of quantity and diversity. The government is striving to improve and promote the use of Indonesia’s indigenous sources of nutrients and the use of natural herbal medicines Indonesia. The use of herbal medicine is closely related to traditional medicine that is inherited across generations as well as the manufacture and sales made by shamans. Historically, the use of herbal medicine began in 5000 BC by the Sumerians who have been able to identify some of the plants. This study aims to identify estrone hormone in Gedi (Abelmoschus manihot, Jatropha multifida, euphorbiaceae) leaves, typical vegetable produces known to be useful to expedite the delivery process of pregnant women. Gedi leaves (Abelmoschus manihot Jatropha multifida, Euphorbiaceae) is a kind of leaves that become food such as vegetables by the people of Micronesia, including Indonesia, especially the eastern part of Indonesia such as Manado in North Sulawesi, Halmahera in North Maluku, and Papua. Papuans even make the leaves as the main vegetable to complement food. This research can make a valuable contribution to the development of the medical world associated with obstetrics and gynecology. The leaves containestra-1,3,5(10)-trien-17-one,a compound that affects estrogen hormone in pregnant women, especially during the third trimester to expedite the delivery process, amounted to 3.48%. Empirically, people in eastern Indonesia have been using the leaves as a traditional medicine to expedite the delivery process for generations. The identification is done by a combination chromatography, i.e., Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrophotometry (GC-MS).

  93. Lalremsanga, H. T., Saipari Sailo, Lalfamkima Varte C. and Hooroo, R. N. K.

    Observation on the choice of oviposition site of Nicobar frog, Hylarana nicobariensis was conducted under both natural and laboratory conditions. It was found that H. nicobariensis is the stream breeder, and the breeding season co-incides with winter season (October – February) in Mizoram where the water became shallow and slow flowing, and the peak period of abundance is December when the water become very shallow with the minimum velocity as well as temperature. The eggs are laid in one clutch, which remains submerged and attached to a suitable substratum in water about 5 cm – 10 cm in depth, such as rocks, boulders, pebbles, aquatic plants, dead logs, even among other laid egg clutches, etc., this ensure that the eggs are not washed away by the water currents as there is no parental care in this species. Communal egg masses were observed in the same oviposition site along the rivers or streams and it is suggested that this may confer advantages because the eggs become warmer, the risk of predation is decreased and closely positioned egg masses often adhere to each other as the jelly coat absorbs water or as the water level of the pool decreases. To test the oviposition site choice trials in 23 amplecting pairs in the laboratory, the point bi-serial correlation coefficient was calculated for the successfulness of mating and the temperature under observation for the 11 pairs kept in the terrarium without any substrata. The result revealed highly negative correlation (rpbis = -.84) with the statistically probability (p>.001). It is also suggested that the availability of substratum with low temperature provided the ambient condition for laying the eggs in the terrarium.

  94. Alaa Najeh Hammoodi AL Hasnawi and Kandru Ammani Kandru

    Over the decades our understanding of the pathogenesis of Cardiovascular Disease(CVD) has increased, and infections, including those caused by oral bacteria, are more likely involved in CVD progression than previously thought. The two disorders share several common risk factors, including cigarette smoking, age, and diabetes mellitus. The focus of this study is to assess whether available data support a causative relationship in systemic inflammation and endothelial dysfunction. Oral samples were collected from 19 patients with cardiovascular disease. The microbial flora was evaluated by drawing swab samples from the oral cavity by using sterile swabs and on Grams staining, both Gram Negative and positive organisms were found. Most of the patients had mostly gram positive organisms, only few patients showed both gram negative and positive organisms. Two cultures 3 and 5 showed coagulase and catalase positive. Biochemical tests of both 3 and 5 culture were performed and Culture 3 biochemical characteristics were little different from the normal Staphylococcal biochemical tests. Whereas Culture 5 showed similarities with the normal Staphylococcal biochemical tests. Culture 5 was taken and antibiotic sensitivity test was performed. Culture 5 was sensitive to Gentamicin followed by Linezolid, Penicillin G and Furoxone. This matches with the literature data wherein most of the CVD patients show Staph.non aureus organisms, which are responsible for them developing the CVD conditions.

  95. Suganya, D., Rajan, M. R., Sivakumar, P. and Anisha Banu, S.

    Aim: The objective of this study was to explore isolation, identification, enzymatic and antibacterial activity of intestinal bacteria of Zebra fish (Danio rerio). Methods and Results: The serially diluted (10-6) sample was plated in sterilized nutrient agar medium and incubated at 37oC for 24 hrs. After incubation the pure colonies were characterized for their morphological and various biochemical characteristics using the Berge’s Manual of Determinative Bacteriology. The isolated and identified bacteria was Aeromonas sp., Pseudomonas sp., Micrococcus sp., Escherichia sp., and Bacillus sp., The digestive enzyme productivity of isolated bacteria were identified from the culture plate using selective media. The isolated bacteria were subjected for its efficacy to produce enzymes like amylase, cellulase, lipase and protease. The antibacterial activity of isolated bacteria was tested with five fish pathogenic bacteria (Klebsiella pneumonia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli). Based on the results the selected bacteria was Pseudomonas sp., produced higher enzyme productivity of amylase, cellulose and lipase and also higher zone of inhibition in antibacterial activity test. Conclusion: Based on the above characteristics the selected intestinal bacteria was multiplied and recommended to the preparation of probiotic feed. Significance and Impact of Study: Zebra fish have near by 75% of genome is same in human genome. In future isolated Zebra fish intestinal bacteria has been formulated as probiotic feed preparation and it can be further characteristic and also will produce large scale for enhance the growth.

  96. Dr. Monika Agrawal and Dr. Ashish Bajaj

    Background: Acute Febrile illness (AFI) is a common cause of patients seeking healthcare in India, especially between June and September. Co-infections with two or more infectious agents are also becoming a major health problem and the similarity of symptoms further makes accurate clinical diagnosis and treatment difficult without laboratory confirmation. Material and methods: Total 3250 samples were tested for Dengue NS1 and IgM retrospectively from the patients with history of febrile illness between September to November 2015. Out of these, 251 positive Dengue NS1 and/or IgM samples requested for blood culture and/or Rapid Salmonella IgM test were studied for co-infection of Dengue and typhoid fever. Dengue NS1 and IgM antibodies were detected by Dengue NS1 and Dengue IgM antibody capture ELISA test. Diagnosis of Salmonella infection was done by blood culture and Rapid Salmonella IgM immunochromatography test in the laboratory. Result: In total of 251 positive Dengue samples, 9 samples were found co-infected with typhoid fever. 4 patients were blood culture positive and 5 were Rapid Salmonella IgM test positive. Maximum number of dengue positive cases was found in age group 20- 40 y. Conclusion: Acute febrile illnesses are highly prevalent during rainy season in endemic area like India and possibility of Dengue typhoid fever co infection cannot be ruled out. Meticulous history taking, careful clinical examination and right choice of laboratory tests for the diagnosis of these co-infections not only help in timely detection of the disease but also prevent from the fatal outcomes.

  97. Abdelouahed Kartas, Jihane Touati, Amina Ouazzani Touhami, Maata Nadia, EL-Maati Ben Azzouz, Fatima Gaboun, Rachid Benkirane and Allal Douira

    The aim of the present study is the characterization and evaluation of purity parameters of oils extracted from studied varieties and local types, in comparison with those obtained from transplanted foreign varieties with to regard to elaborate sterols profiles. The β-sitosterol rates are very high (82%-87%) in Bka; BM3; BMK; BMR; BM4; M1; S1; S2; G9; G10; BLg; BRK; Dahbia; Picual; Gordal; Manzanille and Picholine of Languedoc varieties and high in BMM; M6, and Ascolana Tenera (77%-81%). For Δ5-avenasterol, BMM recorded the highest rate (14%). The Manzanille variety gave the lowest one (3.82%). The proportions of campesterol and stigmasterol are not significantly different and are relatively lower than the standard limit (4%). For cholesterol, higher rates were found in M1; Picual; BM4; BMR; Dahbia varieties, and the lowest rates were recorded in BM2; BM3; BMM; BKa; BB; S1; S2 and Gordal varieties. While the Picholine of Languedoc; BRK; G9; BLg; M6; Manzanille; A BRK scolana Tenera and BMK varieties have given intermediate levels. For the erythrodiol and uvauol, the highest proportion was found in the Manzanille and the lowest rate was found in G9. The PCA has allowed constituting three groups. The group1: Ascolana Tenera; Bka; BM2; BM3; BB; BMM; joined by Δ5-avenasterol, Δ7-stigmasterol and Δ7-avenasterol. The group2: BM4; M1; BMC; Manzanille, grouped by cholesterol, campesterol, erythrodiol and uvauol. The groupe3: S1; S2; Picual; Gordal; BLg; G10, G9; Picholine of Langudoc; BRK; Dahbia; gathered by the stigmasterol and β-Sitoserol.

  98. Manimekalai, D., Srinivasan, A., Padmavathy, P., Aanand S. and Aruna, S.

    Marine debris includes all objects found in the marine and coastal environment. Any object which is discarded, disposed of or abandoned that enters the coastal or marine environment can also be classified as marine debris. Some of commonly occurring items are plastics, electronic material, glass pieces, metals, Rubber and many such objects. The typical character of marine debris is that they are non-degradable and buoyant. These two characters make them enter different realms of the marine environment where they remain for a very long period interfering with the life of biota. Human beings are the main source of marine debris. Marine debris poses threats to boaters and fishers and can affect important fish habitats, nursery and breeding grounds. It poses real threats to ocean ecosystems, marine life and human health and safety. The two primary problems which marine debris pose to marine life are entanglement and ingestion. The International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL) is an international treaty which prohibits the disposal of plastics anywhere in the ocean and restricts the disposal of most other types of solid waste.

  99. Gberikon, G. M., Okewu, O. and Sar, T. T.

    Synergistic and antimicrobial effects of fresh and dried extracts of red and green varieties of Hibiscus sabdariffacalyxes on two enteric pathogens were investigated. Isolates of enteric pathogens namely: Salmonella typhi and Escherichia coli were obtained from Benue State University Teaching Hospital, Makurdi. Test organisms were subjected to confirmatory tests using standard methods of analysis. Samples of fresh and dried red and white calyxes of Hibiscus sabdariffa were purchased from Modern Market, Makurdi. Dried calyxes of the two varieties were washed, air dried at room temperature to a constant weight. The dried calyxes were converted to a powdered form using a blender. The powdered form was subjected to ethanolic extraction. Fresh calyxes of the two varieties were cleaned air dried and meshed using ethanol, it was allowed to evaporate in a water bath for 92 hours until a gummy concentrate was obtained. Phytochemical screening was carried out on the fresh and dried extracts of H. sabdariffa calyxes. Size of inoculum developed from isolates was calibrated using Mac Farland standard 1. Agar well diffusion method was used for susceptibility testing of the test organisms with ethanolic extracts of the dried red and green calyxes. Results of phytochemical screening of dried calyxes revealed that flavonoids was absent in the green variety but present in the red variety. Steroids, terpenoides and phlobatanins were absent in both varieties. Alkaloids, tanins and phenols were present in all varieties, Also phytochemical screening of (fresh) red and green calyxes extracts showed the presence of alkaloids, tannins and phenols as the bioactive components, saponins was absent in the fresh varieties of green and red. Although, flavonoid was also present in the (fresh) red variety but absent in the (fresh) green variety. Salmonella typhi recorded a zero activity with extract of dried green variety. The (fresh) green variety had zero activity against E.coli and inhibited Salmonella typhi at concentration of 40mg/ml. However, when a synergy was established between the two extracts (red to white) at ratio 25:25, diameter of zone of inhibition (9mm) was recorded with Salmonellatyphi as oppose to zero activity with extract of the green calyx alone. There was significant difference (p<0.05) in the effectiveness of the two varieties on test organisms. Statistical analysis also revealed that there was significant difference (p<0.05) in effectiveness between (fresh) red and (fresh) green varieties. Combining (dried) red and green ethanolic extracts of Hibiscus sabdariffa at different ratio revealed that there was no significant difference (p>0.05) between concentration and ratio of red to green variety on the growth of the tested organisms. Therefore, a combination of these two extracts in equal ratio can be recommended in the treatment of enteric diseases.

  100. Nwankwo Emmanuel Chibuike

    Gene flow from one population into another is facilitated by the migration of species resulting into genetic mix in the hybrids. The event of reproduction between different species is termed as hybridization which has been greatly reported in birds. The incorporation of species’ genetic material into the gene pool of another via hybridization is called “genetic introgression” or simply “introgression.” In the events where the genetic mix result in the exhibition of the characteristic of both parents is termed “symmetrical introgression” and when the characteristics of one parent is increasingly exhibited in the hybrids it is termed “asymmetrical introgression.” Collating the recent studies on asymmetric introgression and presenting thoughts on the methods and interpretation from these studies is the main aim of this paper. Major findings include evidences for differential introgression, hybrid zones are semipermeable tension zones, absence of correlation evidence of mating advantage between manipulated males and natural males in nature, hindrance to introgression of song with the permission of asymmetrical introgression of plumage by male behavioural responses, environmental variables providing adequate explanation for variation in morphometric traits despite differences in distance between sites, lack of adverse effects of hybridization on survival and reproductive character in first generation hybrids, evidence for species collapse via hybridization and evidence for rivers not being a complete barrier to hybridization across taxon pairs. I recommend the incorporation of ecological niche of the species into the models considered for avian hybridization in addition to development of tools to incorporate climatic fluctuations into reconstructions of genetic diversification by evolutionary ornithologists.

  101. Bhattacharya, S., Dey, K. and Mandal, A. K.

    Five-month old stored soybean seeds (Glycine max [L.]Merr., cv. Soyamax) were subjected to dry and wet treatments. Dry treatments were done with powdered crude plant materials viz. red chilli powder @1g/kg of seed, neem leaf powder @2g/kg of seed, chemicals viz. iodinated calcium carbonate @ 2g/kg of seed (30mg iodine impregnated to 2g calcium carbonate), para-amino-benzoic acid @500mg/kg of seed, ferulic acid @500mg/kg and pharmaceuticals viz. aspirin @50mg/kg of seed. In case of wet treatments, Soaking-Drying (S-D), Moist-Sand-Conditioning-Drying (MSC-D), Moist-Sand-Conditioning-Soaking-Drying (MSC-SD) were employed with dry treatments. The results revealed that, wet treatment, MSC-SD followed by dry treatments with aspirin and neem leaf powder significantly improved the germination percentage, total seedling length, vigour index, field performance and productivity. Soaking-drying showed adverse effect on germinability probably due to soaking injury. Physiological and Biochemical studies indicate that MSC-SD followed by aspirin, neem leaf powder and iodinated calcium carbonate showed reduced leakage of electrolytes, sugars, amino acid with lower lipid peroxide formation than the control. It has also been noted in SDS-PAGE analysis that the invigorated seeds, especially MSC-SD showed higher number of polypeptide bands with high banding intensity than the control. On the basis of the observation, MSC-SD may be recommended for the improvement of storability as well as field performance and productivity of high medium vigour soybean seeds.

  102. Pravasini Behera, Dharitri Patra and Anita Mohanty

    The study was conducted to determine the effects of different storage materials to protect the ground nut from the attack of groundnut seed beetle in stored condition. To provide protection few materials like polythene bag, gunny bag, polythene coated gunny bag, coal tar coated gunny bag, polythene & coal tar coated gunny bag, decis impregnated and malathion impregnated gunny bag were tried . The observations on pod damage was recorded upto 150 days of storage. The results after five months showed that maximum number of beetles i.e., 392 were counted from polythene bag followed by 351 on jute gunny bag and 330 in polythene + jute gunny bag. There were no pod damage or beetle found in Polythene - coal tar coated gunny bag, Decis impregnated gunny bag and Malathion impregnated gunny bag (0.01%).

  103. Meenakshi Sharma, Dr. Lini Mathews, Alekh Manohar Sharma and Vinod Kumar Sharma

    The main objective in this study is to control the process variables (water level, temperature and flow control) of PCT 100 machine using PID controller which will be tuned by PSO/GA algorithms. The proposed work is to do automatic tuning of PID controller parameters i.e. KP, KI, KD, by intelligent methods such as GA/PSO. So the problem of tuning the PID parameters manually is eliminated and automatic tuning gives better results.

  104. Melroy Tellis, Swapnil Zambare, Ashish Sharma, Sanket Rajbhoj, Tanmay Chandavarkar and Dr. M. S. Panse

    Manual gestures have been used as a medium of communication since time immemorial. Speech-impaired individuals extensively use manual gestures for communication. In addition, human-machine interfaces based on manual gestures are much more intuitive than those presently in use such as keyboards and mice. A manual gesture decoder could therefore simplify communication for a speech-impaired individual as well as serve as the backbone for an intuitive human-machine interface. Here, we have developed a manual gesture decoder which relies on a grid of infrared sensors and a switch for detecting and decoding gestures.

  105. Uma Ramaswamy and Vicky Mani

    Vernonia cinerea is a annual herb which is commonly found in India especially in South India. The aim of the study was to evaluate the phytochemical, phytonutrient (carbohydrates, protein, lipid, vitamin,minerals, ash, moisture) and thin layer chromatography profiling of the sequential extracts of whole plant V.cinerea. The sequential extract of acetone, ethanol, ethylacetate and aqueous extract of V.cinerea for analyzing phytochemical and confirmed by thin layer chromatography (TLC). The phytochemical result depicts the presence of various bioactive compounds which includes phenolics, saponins, steroids, alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenoids, tannins and cardiac glycosides. The phytonutrient report shows total protein content was found to be higher (42.6 mg/g) than lipid(11.6 mg/g) and carbohydrate(1.62 mg/g) respectively. Among the minerals quantified calcium content was higher than phosphorus and iron. Riboflavin was found to be present in lesser amount when compared to vitamin thiamine,tocopherol and ascorbic acid.TLC profiling of all the extracts of V.cinerea confirms the presence of phytochemicals and different Rf values of compound reflects an idea about polarity. The results obtained in the present study indicated the whole plant V.cinerea as a rich source of phytonutrients, phytochemicals and minerals has medicinal property and it can be used as dietary source.

  106. Dr. Meena Mishra

    In the present study, about 20 samples of soil were collected about 50 m away from Kasimpur Thermal Power Plant to investigate the effect of fly ash spread out from the plant on the nearby soil. Can technique using LR-115 type II solid state nuclear track detector has been employed for the measurement of radon activity and radon exhalation rate. Radon activity for soil samples from inside of the Kasimpur Thermal Power Plant, varies from 4657.14 to 4714.29 Bq m-3 with an average value of 4685.72 Bq m-3 ,exhalation rate varies from 1674.35 to 1694.90 mBq m-2 h-1 with an average value of 1684.63 mBq m-2 h-1 and effective dose equivalent varies from 197.44 to 199.86 µSv y-1 with an average value of 198.65 µSv y-1, while from a distance of 50m away from power plant, radon activity varies from 2148.57 Bq m-3 to 4905.71 Bq m-3 with an average value of 3840.75 Bq m-3 , exhalation rate varies from 772.46 mBq m-2 h-1 to 1763.72 mBq m-2 h-1 with an average value of 1380.84 mBq m-2 h-1 while effective dose equivalent varies from 91.09 µSv y-1 to 207.98 µSv y-1 with an average value of 162.83 µSv y-1.Natural radioactivity in soil samples collected from a distance of 50m from Kasimpur Thermal Power Plant has been measured by low level gamma ray spectrometer. Activity concentrations were found to vary from 24.82 ± 0.68 to 241.55 ± 3.39 Bq kg-1 with an average value of 72.19 ± 1.44 Bq kg-1 for 238U, from 37.97 ± 1.3 to 97.22 ±2.16 Bq kg-1 with an average value of 68.81 ± 1.73 Bq kg-1 for 232Th and 99.73 ± 1.53 to 710.72 ± 8.56 Bq kg-1 with an average value of 517.89 ± 6.54 Bq kg-1 for 40K. Radium equivalent activity (Raeq) due to the presence of radio nuclides varies from 86.09 to 415.68 Bq kg-1 with an average value of 206.84 Bq kg-1. Total absorbed gamma dose rates in the surrounding air are found to vary from 38.56 to 191.23 nGy h-1 with an average value of 96.51 nGy h-1. Indoor and outdoor annual effective dose rate from these soil samples changes from 0.19 to 0.94 mSv y-1 and 0.05 to 0.23 mSv y-1 respectively. External hazard index, Hex for the soil samples studied in this work range from 0.23 to 1.13 with mean a value of 0.57. Internal hazard index Hin varies from 0.3 to 1.79 with an average value of 0.76.

  107. Bhushan Khartade, Dr. Rajesh Buktar, Dr. Tansen Chaudhari

    In recent fast and busy world of manufacturing industries, everything changes rapidly and new challenges are arising which require new solutions. Hence, use of technology is necessary for the industries. Digital manufacturing (D.M.) is an emerging technology in the field of industrial manufacturing to visualize the facility virtually for planning an optimized approach to obtain maximum production rate. Also, Lean manufacturing techniques are useful for the optimization of manufacturing facility. The Fluid Controls Private Limited is a leading medium scale company deals in design and production of high performance instrumentation products. One of the company’s manufacturing setup has three floor manufacturing facility. Incidentally, the material has to travel on all three floors. The company wanted to digitize the manufacturing facility for optimized approach to satisfy the continuous increasing demands of customers. It had been noticed that there was a scope to introduce digital manufacturing and lean manufacturing techniques integrated for the digitization and optimization of space utilization and parameters related to material flow. The information about layout, product, processes, resource data were collected and analyzed, after which the facility was modeled and simulation was done using digital manufacturing software ‘DELMIA’. After study of virtual model and practical constraints, the alternate layouts were produced using a lean manufacturing concept, ‘Systematic Layout Planning (S.L.P.)’. A suitable and optimized layout was selected, validated and recommended for implementation. After comparing the existing manufacturing facility layout and the theoretical results of the recommended layout, it is found that the new layout makes free space of 143.3083 m2from the total space occupied on the second floor. This free space can be utilized for the expansion of company in future. Along with this, it increases the space utilization by 13.29 %. It also results to enhance the material flow distance and material flow cost by 52.09 km per month and INR 9.54 per trip, respectively. The use of digital manufacturing and lean philosophy in industry optimization advantageously boosts up the production rate and provides an opportunity to expose these advanced areas of the technology to the industry.

  108. Kanmani, M. and Dr. Pushparani, M.

    Brain tumor is a very critical problem of the human life. In recent years, brain tumor is one of the major causes for death in people. Manually identifying the tumor is difficult. The physicians may also take risk to identify the tumor because they used for computer programming to perform operation on image. The detection of brain tumor at its early stage with its accurate diagnosis is very important. The computerized method to be used for detection of tumor on early stage. The proposed strategies to detect the extract location of brain tumor using the MRI scan images. A magnetic resonance imaging which produces a single that can be detected and its enclosed spatially results in images of the body. These methods are incorporated with noise removal, edge detection, morphological operation, classification and tumor detection. MRI plays on vital role in identify accurate location and type of brain tumor.

  109. Kavitha, A. and Dr. Pushparani, M.

    Retinal images is an methodology for diabetic retinopathy detection and analysis. The detection of blood vessels from the retinal images is a exhausting process. In this work a new algorithm to detect the blood vessels effectively has been proposed. Proposed system consists of three stages-first is preprocessing of retinal image to separate the green channel, second stage thresholding, third stage image masking, forth stage morphological processing. Initially enhancement of the image is using thresholding and changes of the variation. Since the blood vessels are distributed in different directions, morphology operate with multidirectional structuring elements are used to extract the blood vessel from the retinal images. Morphological operator by reconstruction using structure elements eliminates the ridges not belonging to the vessel. Finally applying median filter on the connected components all of images.

  110. Brinda, P. and Dr. Pushparani, M.

    Early detection of pest in bio-aggressor is a major challenge in agriculture field. Many effective measures should be taken to control the uses of pesticides. By using image processing techniques, image analysis can be applied to agricultural science; it can provide maximum cultivation of crops by protecting them from pest. This paper proposed a various software prototype system for pest detection on infected images. Infected images are collected through digital camera and processed using image enhancement; which can enhance and provide better than it original image by removing blur and rectify foggy image, image restoration; which can remove the unwanted noise and detect the edge. The Final process is image segmentation; in this techniques image is segmented using the clustering method which detects infected part of leaves. Then by establishing feature extraction pest densities in leaves can be detected. This proposed system provides an easy and effective solution to detect pest and control pesticides in plants.

  111. Roy, B. N.

    A shape-memory alloy (also known as smart metal, memory metal, memory alloy, muscle wire, smart alloy) is an alloy that "remembers" its original shape and that when deformed returns to its pre-deformed shape when heated. This material is a lightweight, solid-state alternative to conventional actuators such as hydraulic, pneumatic, and motor-based systems. Shape-memory alloys have applications in industries including automotive, aerospace, biomedical and robotics. The two main types of shape-memory alloys are copper-aluminium-nickel, and nickel-titanium (NiTi) alloys but SMAs can also be created by alloying zinc, copper, gold and iron. Although iron-based and copper-based SMAs, such as Fe-Mn-Si, Cu-Zn-Al and Cu-Al-Ni, are commercially available and cheaper than NiTi, NiTi based SMAs are preferable for most applications due to their stability, practicability (Wilkes, et al., 2000; Cederström and Van Humbeeck, 1995; Hodgson et al., 1990) and superior thermo-mechanic performance. (Huang, 2002) SMAs can exist in two different phases, with three different crystal structures (i.e. twinned martensite, detwinned martensite and austenite) and six possible transformations. (Sun and Huang, 2010; Mihálcz, 2001)

  112. Dr. Ch. Ravi Shankar Kumar

    Attempts on the occupation of particles (Frederick Reif., 2010; K.Huang. 2009: Mac Donald, 2006; R.K. Srivastava and J Ashok 2005; Avijith Lahiri, 2013; Landau and Lifshitz, 1969) relating to Bosons and Fermions that are indistinguishable particles is still attracting attention in comparison to ideal gas. These particles possess certain special characteristics relevant to its spin, indistinguishability, wave function, symmetry and its restriction. Sequential procedure is followed in obtaining equation for Bose gas and Fermi gas and comparison is implicated with ideal gas.

  113. Vladimir Savic, Dragan Popovic, Evagelia Boli, Milos Popovic and Jasna Popovic

    Objectives: The study was conducted in order to apply adequate methodological procedures to determine the influence of cognitive abilities, personality characteristics and social status on success in the subject of mathematics. Methods: For the purpose of determining the influence of cognitive abilities, personality characteristics and social status on success in mathematics with the pupils of the School of Chemical technology, we examined about 400 pupils in all four grades of the school. To evaluate the effectiveness of input processors or perceptual reasoning, IT-1 test was chosen. To evaluate the effectiveness of serial processor, or symbolic reasoning, AL-4 test was chosen. To evaluate the effectiveness of parallel processor, or identification of relations and correlates, S-1 test was chosen. To evaluate conative characteristics we chose CON6 measuring instrument by which we evaluated the following conative regulators: activity regulator, organic function regulator , defense reaction regulator, attack reaction regulator, system for coordination of regulative functions, as well as the system for integration of regulative functions. To evaluate social status a model constructed by Saksida was applied. Addendum INST2, questionnaire Boli & Popovic SSMIN was used. To evaluate pupils' success at school, we took school grades. All the data in this study were processed in the Multidisciplinary Research Center of the Faculty of Sport and Physical Education of Priština University by using software system for data processing DRSOFT. To determine the influence of cognitive abilities, personality characteristics and social status on success at mathematics, we used regression analysis. Algorithms and programs implemented within this work are shown in full, while the results of those programs were analyzed. Results: Connection of the total system of predictor variables and success in mathematics amounts to: RO=.44, which explains mutual variability of 19%. The remaining 81% in the explanation of total variability of success at mathematics can be attributed to other abilities and characteristics of the subjects which were not included in this study. Conclusions: From the above, it follows that those pupils of Technology school who achieve better success in mathematics have better symbolic reasoning, better educational and economic status, also have a higher grade in mathematics.

  114. Jyoti Pradhan and Dr. Misra, D. P.

    The Country India with 6, 38,365 villages and more than 70% of the rural populationhas become a huge consumer goods market. FMCG has emerged as a major product category in rural consumption. Companies marketing FMCG to rural consumers cannot merely extend their general marketing strategies to rural markets. Instead, they need to devise rural specific strategies. In this process, they need to understand critical issues relating to rural consumer behavior and more specifically relating to different demographic variables. This research article focuses on understanding factors that affect the purchase stage in consumer decision making process for FMCG and influence of demographic variables in Keonjhar District of Odisha State. In this study, a sample 359 respondents were consulted using a self-administered questionnaire. The study emphasized that majority of the rural consumers gave least importance to the brands of the FMCGs (60.5%), they meet their FMCG needs from village shop (47.9%), with weekly purchase frequency (41.5%), in small quantities (51.6%) and cash as mode of payment (91.6%).The study also intends to identify the level of influence of various demographic factors using Chi Square test on the purchase of FMCG products, viz., soaps, shampoo, hair oil and facial cream.

  115. Yasir Abbas Saeed Abbas

    Background: Chronic Kidney Disease is a major public health problem worldwide with enormous cost burdens on the patients’ in developing countries. The study aims to provide a detailed analysis of the costs of hemodialysis on patients in private hospital in Sudan and provide the different classification of HD costs, and explain to what extent HD patients are able to cover this costs. Methods: This study is an exploratory study, the primary data are obtained from a questionnaire directed to a sample of patients undergoing hemodialysis in private hospital in Khartoum State for six months during August 2015 to February 2016.The cost analysis includes the following types of costs: direct medical costs, indirect medical costs, and indirect costs. Results: The total cost of hemodialysis on patient per session in private hospitals in Sudan was 1648.8 SDG equivalents to ($ 257.6). The annual cost of HD on patient is 158284.8 SDG equivalents to ($ 24732).The direct medical costs (Drugs and investigations costs) have the largest percentage to total HD costs on patients(67.6 percent),10.7 percent of HD costs on patients are direct non-medical costs, while 21.7 percent of HD costs are indirect costs. Many families monthly income is not enough to cover HD cost, these families use various strategies to cope with the high costs of HD.

  116. Amin Zaigi Ngharen

    There is a quickening race to put men and machines on the planets as the technology rich countries speed towards a rendezvous with super industrialism. Every nation is attempting to rapidly accelerate towards the future. Yet as nations speed forward evidence mounts that the education sector in Nigeria is dangerously malfunctioning. The Nigerian Dream, if there is any, cannot be realized while the education sector is fast collapsing; though Boko Haram shares a contrary opinion. This paper argues that to mitigate against the shock young people are already facing in Nigeria as a result of lack of clear curriculum thrust, low quality preparation due to poor investments, continuous industrial disputes and lowering of standards through corruption and examination malpractice. The paper concludes that while young people in other nations are experiencing shocks as a result of the fast pace of innovations and technological breakthroughs, Nigerian children suffer the shock that they lack competitive ability in a knowledge age as ours.

  117. Augustine Adu Frimpong

    Consumption is an unavoidable element or phenomenon that every economy cannot do without it. Consumption has played a crucial role in the building of the human capital as well as the development of a nation. Consumption as in its peculiar state of action has a stronger multiplier effects on the output of a nation with regard to its impact on the economic growth. The paper used a secondary data from Bank of Ghana and World Bank from 1975 to 2008. The data sets is a financial data which envisage all the necessary elements or variables that measures wealth in terms of financial wealth (financial assets) and the household consumption expenditure in the economy. The study adopted an Ordinary Least Squared model to estimate the determinants of consumption. But in the case of the marginal propensity to consume (i.e. elasticity of consumption to wealth and income), the study transformed the Ordinary Least Squared model with a natural log. In order to quantify the wealth effects on consumption, the study followed the approach of Bollerslev and Engels Generalized Autoregressive Conditioning Heteroscedasticity (GARCH) model. The study found out that financial wealth (i.e. as ratio of the money supply to GDP) has a positive impact on household consumption. The study recommended that the government should remove all forms of restriction on the interest rate (i.e. Interest rate ceiling) to attract savings in order to mount up the household endowment for future consumption, which will also in effect make funds available for investment.

  118. Dr. Bindu Madhavi, N. and Dr. Sailaja, V. N.

    The beverages sector in India has undergone significant transformation in the past 10 years. The carbonated and non carbonated drinks industry in India is to grow near about 45 per cent annually and would triple or four times in size by 2014. Customer preferences are more complex and even more important for retailers today than in past. The primary purpose of this paper is to find out which company is leading the market. This study is conducted between two global beverage companies’ Coca cola and PepsiCo. This research is done to identify the various factors that influence the consumer preference towards these drinks. This intercept survey would be conducted in Vijayawada and Guntur. To accommodate this purpose survey method has been used. The data has been collected from people of all age groups. The consumer preferences were identified by a structure questionnaire. Today’s market scenario is quite different from traditional one. People have become more educated and always look for quality products. Their taste and preference’s keep changing from time to time. This research is mainly targeted to the objective where we can have the idea that what are those factors a customer or a consumer looks before purchase of a carbonated beverage, and if we will have a clear picture regarding the need of the customers then we can bring changes or add new features to the product to satisfy their needs. The study will help the retailers and manufacturers of soft drinks to understand the underlying consumer preferences factors and which factor mostly like by the customers and help them to craft their marketing strategies. Profiling customers by their choice of preferences provide more meaningful ways to identify and understand various customer segments and marketing strategies.

  119. Indu Sarmal, Sharanjit Singh, Amardeep Singh and Alka

    WSN is the networking mechanism through which data is transmitted from source to the destination. The main advantage of the WSN is least utilization of wires causing it to be used by wide variety of users. Security of the WSN will always be at stake because of the extravagant use of the WSN. There is a field of the WSN which is most commonly used known as MANET which is prone to security threats also. In the proposed paper we will consider the security concerns of the MANET and propose solution to the challenges present within the MANET. MANET is diligent in nature hence supporting work of distinct users with varying intentions. Security mechanisms are required to overcome the problems caused due to the malicious intensions of the users

  120. Ghousinnisa, S. and Dr. Subba Reddy, S.

    Working women are burdened with work and family commitments. Most of working women feel difficult in balancing their work and family life. In Health Care Sector, the employees have to perform shift duties. The nurses have to perform morning, evening and night shifts. The nurses at night shifts observe more stress than others; this shows a negative impact on their professional and personal lives. Research indicates that improper work scheduling and long working hours tend to cause adverse effect on employee’s health and well-being. This article highlights the issues connected to work life balance of female nurses and the factors that determine stress in work life balance of nurses working in Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences (RIMS), Kadapa district, Andhra Pradesh.

  121. Sema Altun YALÇIN, Paşa YALÇIN, Meryem ÖZTURAN SAĞIRLI and Sinan YALÇIN

    The aim of this research is to determine to what extent the education that teacher candidates receive improves their competence in using technology and what need to be done in order to improve it. To this aim, fourth grade students attending Science Teaching and Mathematics Teaching undergraduate programs at the Faculty of Education were asked to express their opinions. The study was conducted with a qualitative research approach, employing the case study method and descriptive analysis. The findings suggest that the participant students are of the opinion that the education given in the Faculty of Education improves their skills to recognize and use technology, but the level of improvement is very low and inadequate. Özet Bu araştırmanın amacı; öğretmen adaylarının aldıkları eğitim ile teknolojiyi kullanma yeterliklerinin ne kadar geliştiği ve geliştirmek için ne yapılması gerektiğinin tespit edilmesidir. Bu amaç doğrultusunda Eğitim Fakültesi Fen Bilgisi ve Matematik Öğretmenliği lisans programına devam etmekte olan 4. sınıf öğrencilerinin görüşleri alınmıştır. Bu çalışma nitel araştırma yaklaşımı doğrultusunda yürütülmüş olup, durum çalışması yöntemi kullanılmış ve betimsel analiz yapılmıştır. Bulgulardan elde edilen sonuçlar doğrultusunda öğretmen adaylarının eğitim fakültesinde verilen eğitimin onların teknolojiyi tanıma -kullanma becerilerini geliştirdiğini fakat bu gelişme düzeyinin çok az olduğu ve yeterli olmadığı kanaatinde oldukları saptanmıştır.

  122. Getachew Abeshu and Tsehay Baissa

    The thought of integration of students with disability in to regular educational system has old history even though there is no clear vision of why, when and how it applies in the schools of our country. Since this integration needs well organized educational delivery system, the challenges one can observe in the regular education has to get resolved based on relevant evidences supported by scrutinized study. Consequently, this study was designed to investigate the challenges children with hearing impairments face in the integrated classes. The method employed in the study was descriptive and qualitative in nature. The populations of the study were students and family of the hearing impaired children selected employing availability and purposive sampling technique. Instruments used for data collection were interview, focus group discussion and observation done at natural settings. Special education teachers also participate in the study. The results drawn from data shows that most of the students are post-lingually deaf who never benefit from oral presentation/ lecture/. The school, municipality/social affair/ and education offices have no idea about education of these children except reporting their statistics. Lack of willingness to cooperate with schools on the parents’ side; lack of awareness about disability on the community viewpoint; and unclear directives regarding the child’s education made the problem more intricate. Based on the results obtained from the schools: assignment of interpreters and training of the teachers in the integrated classes are recommended as immediate solutions while availability of detailed educational policy towards education of children with disabilities; awareness creation for the community and responsible bodies; and assignment of professionals at government and non-government organizations further assist in resolving the challenges these children faces in augmenting their education in the education for all realm.

  123. Zahoor Ahmad Bhat, Khursheed Ahmad Naikoo, Zahoor- ul- Gani, Javaid Ahmad Sheikh, and Mohammad Amin Wani

    The present study examined the level of aggression among bowlers and batsmen in cricket, for this purpose 120 cricketers were selected in Rewa city among with 60 was bowlers and 60 batsmen in each group 30 subjects was juniors and 30 was seniors. Further in each group 15 subjects was from rich families (R.F) and 15 were from poor families (P.F). The aggression level was measured by Aggression Questionnaire constructed and standardized by Dr. G. C. Pati. Results revealed that significant difference were between the levels of aggression among bowlers and batsmen. Also bowlers, junior bowlers and bowlers from poor families are more aggressive than batsmen, junior batsmen and batsmen from poor families respectively.

  124. Muhammad S. Abu-Salih, Neamah A. Khafaji and Abdelaziz B. Mohsen

    Background: The relationship between Emotional Intelligence (EI) and Transformational Leadership (TL) has been the subject of study by many authors. There have been very few studies of this relationship in Iraq. Al’Ikha industrial establishment is concerned with high technological industry and attempts to organize the relationship between the managers and staff according to scientifically studied research. Objectives: The objective of this study is to measure the impact of EI on TL in Al’Ikha establishment. The dimensions of EI are Self Awareness, Self-Regulation, Motivation, Empathy and Relations Management. The dimensions of TL are Idealized Influence, Intellectual Stimulation, Inspirational Motivation and Individualized Consideration. Methods: The study adopted the observational method, and the population consisted of the general managers, heads of departments and chairs of sections in Al’Ikha establishment. They totaled 30 persons. A self- administered questionnaire was distributed and collected from them. Results: The study showed high scores of the respondents on all dimensions of the independent variable (EI) and those of the dependent variable (TL).In addition, results indicated that EI has significant positive impact on TL. Conclusion: It is concluded that the results being as reported, it is of importance to develop and enhance the dimensions of both variables of the study in addition to carrying similar studies on other organizations.

  125. Dr. Charu Bisaria

    “XYZ INTERNATIONAL” is a school from preparatory classes to class-12 which follows CBSE pattern. School management is keen to provide quality education along with inculcating good moral values, proper physical & mental growth of its students. This school is performing good academically & financially, yet, the management is interested in improvements, whatsoever, to align itself with new ways of teaching/learning/collaborative learning so that school’s reputation is enhanced. With this objective, school management invited one of the reputed consulting firms “PALASH” to study the school’s systems & working and suggest improvements in various functional areas. PALASH critically analysed and found that school is taking only marks scored in tests as a measure to find whether a student is brilliant or not. The way this routine activity is conducted leaves behind a big question mark about the objective(s) of conducting such activity as it simply informs about the level of learning of some specific part of the subject by each student considering that Test Paper is prepared carefully so that it tested the learning properly? But this whole activity is silent about any remedial measures to be taken. Many students attaining the same percentage of marks may or may not have same need as one of them may have performed good in questions involving a particular concept while performed bad in questions involving another concept but same is not true for other student who share the same percentage of marks. Considering parents view/suggestion, it is the assessment & its reporting system which should be looked into and should be improved. Therefore, study of prevailing assessment system and its adequacy in present scenario is a matter of concern for the consulting firm. If prevailing assessment system is not adequate then what system is best for the school. Keywords:Learning needs, Traditional Assesment, School Management, Teaching ways, Remedial measures

  126. Vinod Agarwal, Mathur, S. C., Beena Bhatia, Patel, K. R., Saurabh Mathur and Tripathi, R. P.

    Mössbauer absorption areas corresponding to 57Fe in olivine, pyroxene, troilite, and the metallic phase in ordinary chondrites exhibit certain systematic behavior. H chondrites occupy distinct regions on the plot of metallic phase absorption area versus silicate absorption area. While L/LL chondrites fall in separate region. The absorption area ratio of (olivine to troilite+kamacite) also show characteristic range in which H,L and LL chondrites fall. Based on these systematic, a fallen meteorite near Nathdwara, Rajasthan, India is suggested to be an L chondrite.

  127. Dr. Anitha, M.

    Indian agriculture has, for centuries, been solely dependent on the weather and the vagaries of the monsoon in particular. Uncertainties of weather and climate pose a major threat to food security of the country. Extreme weather events like heavy rains, cyclone, hail storm, dry spells, drought, heat wave, cold wave and frost causes considerable loss in crop production every year. Drought is a complex natural hazard. It is defined as any deficiency of water to satisfy the normal need to agriculture, livestock, industry, or human population. Drought Assessment and monitoring is essential for the agricultural sector to take appropriate mitigation measures. The present study attempts to study on climate, rainfall and drought status in Andhra Pradesh. The state spread over with two distinct geographical regions, Rayalaseema and Coastal Andhra. Andhra Pradesh is an important State in Nation’s Food Production. With about 49.38 Million Population, who lives in rural areas mostly, agriculture is the main stay of their livelihood. 50.6 per cent of State’s Main workforce is engaged in Agriculture and allied Sectors accounts for 27.30 % of Gross State domestic product (GSDP) at current price. But in recent years, drought and other natural calamities have adversely affected the State’s economy and its people. Agriculture continues to be monsoon dependant, primarily on South West Monsoon (SWM) through which State receives 2/3 of its rainfall. The State with 5 chronically drought prone districts (viz., Anantapur, Kadapa, Chittoor, Kurnool, and Prakasam) out of 13 districts.

  128. Dr. Meghna Sharma, Ramneet Kaur and Prachi Trivedi

    Make in India is a global promoting battling trademark started by the Prime Minister of India, NarendraModi to pull in organizations from around the globe to put and make in India. The battle has been concentrated to satisfy the motivation behind Job Creation, Enforcement to Secondary and Tertiary division, Boosting national economy, Converting India to an independent nation and to give the Indian economy worldwide acknowledgment. The study is aimed at the history of manufacturing sector of India during the era of 1990s-2000s. The reasons behind the launch of Make In India and how the launch has affected the Indian Economy. Also what challenges the campaign in facing?. According to the 12th five-year plan the target of manufacturing sector is to reach the growth of 10%. With the initiative of Make in India campaign. It aims as making India a manufacturing hub with focus on 25 sectors with target of creating employment and raising the contribution of manufacturing sector of India to 25% in the GDP.

  129. Prof. Dr. Rajkumari Singh, Dr. ManjuJohari and Dr. Neeta Gupta

    Education sector in India has long awaited an overhaul to meet the growing demand for a contemporary educational system that may be accessible to all. During last decade the youth in our country have transformed themselves into technologically-driven, revealing considerable potential and readiness to imbibe and learn through the use of digital and electronic media inplace of print media. Digital India programme has potential to create of a knowledge based society. Digital India has been envisioned as an ambitious umbrella programme to transform India into a digitally empowered society and knowledge generating economy. Indian government has introduced many initiatives like e-education, e-basta, NandGhar which will contribute in imparting education using science and technology including smartphones, mobile apps and internet services in far-flung areas where it may not be possible for teachers to be present in person. Further, a plan has been made to convert 13 lakh Balwadis in India into NandGhar where Anganwadi educators will be trained to use digital tools as teaching aids. e-basta is another important initiative by the Indian government which is aimed at making school books accessible in digital form as e-books which may be accessed through tablets and laptops. In this article, authors have reviewed the impact of digitalization in Indian education system.

  130. Mohamad A. Bajaber, Mahmoud A.Taha, Ph.D. and Tarek Hegazy, Ph.D.

    One of the main causes of defaults and disputes in the public construction projects of Saudi Arabia is attributed to the lack of adequate contractor prequalification and selection. Typically, contractor selection decisions are based merely on price,with absence of better selection criteria. The focus of this paper, therefore, is to identify essential criteria for contractor prequalification and selection processes at semi-government organizations in Saudi Arabia, under the design-bid-build approach for competitive tenders. At first, initial criteria were identified from the literature. Afterwards, three rounds of Delphi process were used to revise the initial criteria and to establish a consensus towards their acceptance. As a result, two sets of criteria were identified: 29 for prequalification and 40 for contractor selection. After the second and third round surveys, all levels of criteria were accepted except for some criteria with low level of importance. Once all the criteria were identified, their weights were determined based on consultation with expert professionals. The identified criteria and weights represent important steps towards improving the competitive tendering practices in Saudi Arabia and can be directly used to properly select contractors to avoid construction performance problems.

  131. Karabi Das

    The Sundarban (21° N to 21°30˝N, 88° E to 88°29˝E) is the largest single block of tidal halophytic mangrove forest in the world, having a diverse range of flora, fauna and hapless inhabitants. The Sundarban is facing the dire consequences of a premature reclamation for the want of agricultural land. This reclamation has come about with the construction of embankments which reduces the spill areas of the rivers and causes in channel sedimentation. This in turn raises the river bed and in comparison to that the settlements are low making them liable to get flooded whenever the embankments breach. This is a frequent occurrence here causing much hardship. This paper takes into account the incidences of embankment breaching and its possible management options in Sambhunagar of Gosaba block in Indian Sundarban. On the basis of measurements of present embankments, data collection from satellite images, preparation of river cross profiles and questionnaire surveys, the present scenario of the extent of breach has been studied. The incidences of outmigration of people, occupational shifts and the conversion of people into environmental refugees have been identified and possible management options like construction of porcupine meshes, mangrove regeneration and construction of flood shelters have been taken into account.

  132. Emmanuel Olusegun STOBER

    Economic growth, with all of its downsides, is clearly unsustainable in the 21st century. The positive, sustainable alternative is a Steady-State Economy. This study empirically analyze show far the Nigerian economy has converged towards or diverged from steady-state. Unit root, co integration, vector error correction, and Granger causality/block exogeneity Wald tests procedures are applied on annualdata set from 1970-2013.Themodel reveals having a self-adjusting apparatus for rectifying any deviance of the variables from equilibrium. The implication is that Gross Domestic Product will reach its steady-state in approximately 1.5years, interest rate in 20years, depreciation of capital and population will be converging back to their equilibrium in 27-28years, and in 63years respectively. The sluggish rate of the variables convergence can be explained by complex administrative and political processes, therefore, in avoiding afailed state situation, it is expected of government to build strong institutions and processes, while applying some transformative economic and social policies.

  133. Harleytega Williams, Joseph M. Okonkwo, Irinyemi A. Benson and Adetoso Adegoke

    This study investigates the impact of pre and post Initial Public Offering (IPO) Performance on selected firms. The data analysis ranges from 1 to 300 observations within a model specification framework on a Multivariate methodology. Two models were formulated to carry out the analysis on an Eview7 statistical package. The objective was to find out the position of the selected firms before and after IPO has been initiated and do a comparative analysis. From the analysis, Model two was seen as the best model to carry out a research of this nature because the independent variables such as age of company, total asset, ownership concentration, CEO stockholdings, average return on capital employed and the industry in which the company operates are regarded as the factors that influences IPO performance. The result shows that all the variables are positive showing a direct relation with IPOR. The coefficient of determination shows 52.9% indicating that the model is good fit and the F-statistics of 54.8558 shows that all the variables in the model are statistically significant. However, the Durbin Watson statistics shows the presence of positive serial correlation. The study therefore recommend that firms should uphold the principles of good corporate governance and also ensure they disclose relevant information to the public in terms of CEO stockholdings in the company so as to build public confidence and to create and maintain good business image.

  134. Daniel Gebreslassie Mekonnen

    The study basically aimed at assessing the current practices of play based learning in the Early Childhood Care and Education program of North Gondar, Ethiopia. This issue is important because of the recent movement for a more academic focus in preschool education. Therefore, this study first examined the teachers perceived emotional and social developmental value of play based learning in the preschool education. Second it examined and discussed the role of teachers in implementing play based learning. This is because understanding the significance of play based learning could make teachers to be less worried while implementing it and enable them to answer questions regarding the value of play for social and emotional development of preschool children. Third, it assessed the physical learning environment including the indoor and outdoor play materials and equipment of the preschools. Besides this study has assessed the major challenges and opportunities of both the private and government owned KGs. Those things that were investigated by the study, may contribute their lions’ share in enhancing the effective implementation of play based learning in preschool education. As a means, mixed research method was employed to analyze both the collected qualitative and quantitative data. Comparative study was used to compare the government and private kindergartens (KGs). It involved, 32 preschool teachers drawn from 4 pre-schools (24 % of the study population) and 4 preschool coordinators, selected using simple random sampling and purposive sampling techniques respectively. Data were collected by questionnaire from preschool teachers, interview guide from the preschool coordinators and observation check list of the preschool physical learning environment. Thematic data analysis techniques were used to analyze the gathered qualitative data; whereas the quantitative data were analysed by using statistical techniques of t-test .The study found out that most teachers do not fulfill some of the roles specified to them in implementing play based learning in the preschool education. Moreover, the result of the one sample t-test analysis displays that there was no appropriate integration of play based learning both in the private and government owned KGs. The study also revealed that there was better indoor outdoor materials and equipment in the private KGs than the government KGs. However, as the independent sample t-test result indicated, there is no statistically significant difference among the private and government owned KGs in implementing play based learning. Finally, pertinent recommendations were drawn from the findings and the conclusions of the study.

  135. Sudipto Roy, Dibyajyoti Laha, Argho Aranya Sangma and Indrani Pal

    A theoretical model of cosmic expansion has been formulated on an assumption of inter-conversion of matter and dark energy, in the framework of Brans-Dicke theory. An empirical scale factor has been used, which generates a signature flip of the deceleration parameter with time. To account for the non-conservation of matter, a function of time f(t) is incorporated into the equation representing the density of matter. Its value at any instant of time is proportional to the matter content of the universe. The functional form of f(t) has been determined from the field equations by using an empirical scalar field parameter expressed in terms of the scale factor. It is found to decrease with time almost monotonically, implying a conversion of matter into dark energy. Using this function f(t), the time variation of the density of matter has been determined and also the expressions regarding the proportions of matter and dark energy of the universe have been formulated. Time variation of gravitational constant, its fractional rate of change and the Brans-Dicke dimensionless parameter has been analyzed. The dependence of Brans-Dicke parameter upon the scalar field has been determined. The present study enables us to correlate the change of matter content with the change of deceleration parameter and gravitational constant without using any specific mechanism of interaction between matter and scalar field.

  136. Chandra Mouli, B., Vijay Kumar, A., SaiSandeep, N. V. and Sai Vivek, T.

    In the last few years there been a swift increase in the utilization of aluminum-silicon alloys, particularly in the automobile and manufacturing industries, this is because due to their high strength to weight ratio, high wear resistance, low density and low coefficient of thermal expansion. The progressions in the field of application make the study of their wear and tensile behavior an utmost importance. In this present investigation, Aluminum Based Alloys containing 6%, 10%,13%, 16%, 20% and 23% weight of Silicon were synthesized using sand casting method. The tensile, hardness and impact tests are done on different samples of same composition where the results increased with increase in silicon percentage. Yield strength and ultimate tensile strength has increased with increase in silicon percentage. Wear behavior was studied by using computerized pin-on-disc wear testing machine. Resistance to wear has increased with increase in silicon amount and the worn surfaces were analyzed using optical microscope.

  137. Stella, A., Dr Thirumalai Selvi, Dr Jeeva Rathan and Dr Emmanuel D. S. Azariah

    One of the legally accepted methods of age estimation is dental age estimation. The differentiation of an adult and a child has been quiet easy. But determining the age of an individual with a mixed dentition has been challenging. This article enlighten on the advantages and pitfalls of few dental age assessment techniques.

  138. Nguyen Thi Lan, M. A.

    Purpose: To share the experiences and challenges faced by the researchers in building standardized tools for subject cataloging work. Design/methodology/approach: This research used analyzing literature, observation, statistics methods to figure out the cataloging principles and methods and settings as well as integrating subject headings. Besides, personal interviews method is also help to find out the advantages and disadvantages of building subject cataloging tools. Findings: Presentating methods and steps carried out to build the Vietnamese subject cataloging tools. At the same time, given the results achieved as well as provides solutions to improve the quality of this tool. Originality/value: This is the first research which implement building adequately subject cataloging tools for the Vietnam National University Hochiminh City library system. These includes Vietnamese subject headings and subject cataloging manual.

  139. Sharmila, M. and Dr. Pushparani, M.

    Attribute-based encryption (ABE) is a vision of public key encryption that allows users to encrypt and decrypt messages based on user attributes. In a typical implementation, the size of the ciphertext is proportional to the number of attributes associated with it and the decryption time is proportional to the number of attributes used during decryption. To reduce the decryption time in outsourced encryption method the user provides a transformation key to the cloud to translate any ABE ciphertext into simple ciphertext and it only incurs a small computational overhead for the user to recover the plaintext from the transformed ciphertext. We cannot guarantee that the cloud server will perform the transformation correctly. The proposed system introduces the Verifiable Outsourced Encryption so that the user can check the correctness of the transformation performed by the cloud server.

  140. Priyanka, A. and Dr. Pushpa Rani, M.

    While using a cellular network inactivity timers are used to control and release of radio resources. The timeout time of inactivity timers is called Tail Time. In thus Tail Time wastage of a lot of energy in client devices and a lot of radio assets. To mitigate this problem Idle Leverage method is proposed. This is for batching and pre-fetching which automatically reduce energy consumption. Several modules are there in use namely, Radio optimization, Traffic aggregation, and a tail time mechanism. In this paper, reviews the Tail Time mechanism the important tool used in Idle Leverage process. It helps to developers determine amount of tail time and terminating the transmission rate.

  141. Shyamala, S. and Dr. Pushparani, M.

    In a Human body the cell that grows out of control forms a tumour called cancer. The tumour found in the lungs is named after it as lung cancer which endangers the human life the early identification increase the patient’s survival in this world. For detection of lung nodules Computed Tomography (CT) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) are the computer aided diagnosis techniques are used. This paper mainly discuss about the pre-processing and segmentation process. Pre-processing step focus to reduce the noises in CT images and segmentation refers to the process of partitioning the pre-processed CT image into multiple regions. Further this paper briefly explains feature extraction and classification.

  142. Ilakkiya, A. and Dr. Pushpa Rani, M.

    Recent developments of digital image production and applications have increases importance of digital image compression and security in today’s world. The proposed method is developed to combine both compression and security of image. Compression is achieved by the removal of redundant data. Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) is a recently developed compression technique in image compression. The existing methods to encrypt images usually treat the whole matrix as the key which makes the key too large to distribute and memorize or store. To solve this problem, in this proposed method key controlled matrix is constructed using the logistic map and the Arnold transform is used for image location scrambling.

  143. Aman Singla and Gurwinder Singh

    Textual information in the world can be broadly categorized into two main types: facts and opinions. Facts are objective expressions about entities, events and their properties. Opinions are usually subjective expressions that describe people’s sentiments, appraisals or feelings toward entities, events and their properties. With the growing availability of online resources on web and popularity of fast and rich resources of opinion sharing such as online review sites and personal blogs, Opinion Mining has become an interesting area of research. Identifying sentiments from an opinion is a challenging problem. For a popular product, the number of reviews can be in hundreds or even more. This makes it difficult for a customer to read them to make an informed decision on whether to purchase the product. It also makes it difficult for the manufacturer of the product to keep track and to manage customer opinions. For the manufacturer, there are additional difficulties because many merchant sites may sell the same product. In this research, we aim to mine and to summarize all the customer reviews of a product and summarize whether the opinions are positive or negative.

  144. Paramjot Kaur and Mini Singh Ahuja

    Diabetes is the most common disease currently affecting the more than 371 million people. Blood glucose irregulation is the main cause of diabetes. Many methods are currently available such as artificial pancreas which consist of the glucose sensors, insulin pump and controller. The process of testing blood glucose level was quite tedious in past days. But now a days glucose biosensors are used to test the blood glucose level. The currently available biosensors are electrochemical type. These glucose biosensors are very sensitive, easy to maintain and their cost is too low. Glucose biosensors are basically based upon the oxidation of glucose with molecular oxygen. But still many important challenges remaining to achieve a reliable glucose monitoring device.

  145. Alexinah Muyenga and Biemba Maliti

    The Zambian truffle has not been marketed both locally and internationally despite the product’s high marketing prospects. This study was to assess the economic and nutritional values of the Zambian truffle, the marketing activities associated with it, the challenges local traders faced in selling it, its marketing prospects, its other uses and products from it and the strategies that could be employed to grow it. The major finding was that the product had high marketing prospects both in local and international markets. It also had high nutrition and economic values. From it, many products like spices, oil etc can be produced. It also has many uses such as for meals, flavours, seasoning, medicine as well as an export product. But local traders have found it difficult to sell the product even locally because the product was not known. Some suggestions were that the product needed the application of the Marketing mix elements and that there was need to identify a niche market for it. The product needed to be marketed well throughout the country to make it known and needed to be grown on larger scale, certified, processed, packaged and the distribution channels and road networks need to be improved.

  146. Dayalan, N.

    Morphometric parameters likespatial distribution of relief (contour lines) and drainage basin (Stream area) was studied in Jayankondan block. The Jayankondan block lies between 10⁰54’N to 11⁰30’N latitude and 78⁰40’ to 79⁰30’ longitude with an area of 343.81 sq.km. It is bounded on the south by T, palur and Ariyalur block and on the north by on the western side by andimadam and sendurai blocks. The Jayankondam block consists of 32 panchayat villages. Morphometric studies involvesthe evaluation of measurement of various profiles such as (superimposed, composite and projected profile), height histogram, hypsometric curve, relative relief map, average slope map. Analysis of various drainage parameters namely ordering of the various streams and measurement of area of basin, perimeter of basin, length of drainage channels, drainage density (Dd), drainage frequency, bifurcation ratio (Rb), drainage texture (T), Roughness index and ruggedness was determined which are used to describe and compare the basins of different sizes. A major objective of morphometrics is to statistically determining the factors that affect relief features. No segment of the basin is gauged and only piecemeal information on the basin is available as no research has been carried in this direction.

  147. Nirankush Chakraborty and Gazole Mahvidyalaya

    Husserl saw the crisis of the European science, their loss of significance for life in the advent of modern objectivism and its forgetfulness of the life-world. It was therefore necessary to recover this “ground” for the sciences, on which they, on the one hand, have historically grown up and which, on the other hand, forms their continuing foundation of phenomenology, if phenomenology is to satisfy its own requirmentradical sense-clarification of the subset taken as the transcendental guideline for questioning back into the constitutive achievement of subjectivity. Above all, it should not be over looked that Husserl wanted the crisis as a whole to be understood as a new “introduction” to transcendental phenomenology. The life-world became a theme for Husserl in two respects : First, he found in it the “ground of sense” of the objective sciences. Second, he took it as the “guiding clue” for a transcendental phenomenological return to “the ultimate life”. Thus Husserl’s requirement of a return to the foundations of the science can mean nothing but the sense-genetic reactivation of those past sense-bestowals which, through all their sediments, are currently in force in present scientific formation. This reactivation is to take place in such a way that the scientific arguments which find their place and their validity within the life-world and also change and transform the life-world through scientific inquiry, are “repeatable”

  148. Koushik Barick

    The Kandi Development Block is situated in a flood prone region of moribund delta of West Bengal. Flood is a common environmental disaster in Kandi like any other deltaic region of the world. The block is well drained by a number of river systems such as mayurakshi, Kana, Kuye, Dwarka Brmhani, Gambhira etc. Kandi development block is westerly located in Murshidabad district. Apart from heavy and prolonged rainfalls river over flows, there are some casual factors of flooding. As a result the recent flood effect on a large number of people makes huge seasonal neo-refugees in every year. Create some flood shelter for sheltering flood affected people. The aim of the present work is to study causes of flood and determine preventive measures. Data and information are collected from Kandi B.D.O, Irrigation office of Kandi Sub-division, Kandi Panchayat Samiti office, satellite imagery, publication report and articles. The result shows that drainage density will high, all over the block are covered by flood; many people are displaced and sheltered in different temporary flood shelters. Most of the river side protection work is based on engineering not condition the social dimension as well as some holistic planning are urgently needed to tackle this problem.

  149. Amelia Girly L. Aranas

    Ethical conducts of public servants is reinforced by political commitment. This political commitment, difficult to benchmark, has been demonstrated by some policy and pronouncements. It is essential to the proper conduct and operation of government that public officials be independent and impartial and that public office not be used for private gain other than the remuneration provided by law. The public interest, therefore, requires that the law protect against any conflict of interest and establish standards for the conduct of elected officials and government employees in situations where conflicts may exist.

  150. Williams Abayaawien Atuilik

    According to media reports corruption in governments occur in all countries around the world, but corruption in developing countries is reportedly higher and more severe than it is in developed countries. The emergence of the International Public Sector Accounting Standards (IPSAS) has been established as one of the most significant moves in recent years to enhance public sector accountability. This study examined the relationship between announcement of adoption of IPSAS and perceived levels of corruption in developing and developed countries. The study found that levels of perceptions of corruption for developed countries that have announced IPSAS adoption do not differ significantly with the levels of perceived corruption for developed countries that have not announced IPSAS adoption; however, perceptions of corruption differ significantly between developing countries that have announced IPSAS adoption and developing countries that have not adopted IPSAS. Governments of developing countries may expect to improve their ratings on perceptions of corruption through the adoption and implementation of IPSAS.

  151. Rohit Garkoti

    The present study was done to assess and to establish the norms of upper and lower pharyngeal width for Garhwali population and to determine sexual dimorphism among the population. Methodology: Sample of sixty Class I subject (30 male and 30 females) with well-balanced face were selected with age group of 18-24 years. Lateral cephalogram of the subjects were taken using natural head position and true vertical line.All reference points, landmarks and measurement were made according to McNamara airway analysis. Lateral cephalograms were digitized using Dolphin software and separate reading for male and female samples were recorded and sent for statistical analysis. The arithmetic mean and standard deviation of pharyngeal width were calculated. Student’s t-test was used to compare between pharyngeal width in males and females. Results: The mean upper pharyngeal width was 15.03+/- 3 mm and mean lower pharyngeal width was 10.7 +/- 2.5 mm. Significant difference exist in upper and lower pharyngeal width in males and females. Conclusion: Good compatibility of age and sex seen in pharyngeal width of Class I subjects. Males have higher upper and lower pharyngeal width than females.

  152. Bonyo, B. O., Odongo, B. C. and Okwara, M. O.

    The use of integration as a pedagogical tool in the teaching of English language and literature subjects is a priority in Kenya. Despite the inception of the integrated English curriculum two decades ago, not all English language teachers use it as conceived by the curriculum developer, Kenya Institute of Curriculum Development (KICD). This is why teachers’ pedagogical experiences in implementing it become paramount. The Purpose of this study was to explore pedagogical experiences of teachers in implementing the integrated English language curriculum in Kenya, Kisumu County. Guided by Fuller’s Concern Based Adoption Model (CBAM) theoretical framework, this study utilized Concurrent Triangulation design under a mixed methods approach to determine English language teachers’ expected role in the implementation of the integrated curriculum. The study targeted a population of 211 comprising principals, heads of departments, subject teachers and education officers. Saturated sampling design was used to select 110 subject teachers, 52 heads of departments and 52 principals currently implementing the integrated English curriculum to fill questionnaires. Purposive sampling was done to select 16 teachers for interviews. The Sub County Quality Assurance Officer was interviewed and document analysis done to corroborate and triangulate data on the teachers’ experiences. The researcher piloted the instruments through test-retest where correlation co-efficient (rho) was worked out in two schools outside the sub-county to determine reliability and validity while the research purpose was clarified to participants for authenticity and trustworthiness. Quantitative data was analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) version 20 computer program to generate descriptive statistics while the qualitative data was analyzed using content, narrative, and thematic methods in line with the study objective. The study findings indicated that most teachers knew their roles in implementing the integrated curriculum but needed continuous professional development in implementing the integrated approach because some teachers taught English language and Literature as separate subjects implying confusion at their role. The study recommended a home-grown, school-based on-going preparation model for professional teacher development to succeed in implementing the official curriculum.

  153. Daniel Gebreslassie Mekonnen and Yitayal Alemu Mengistu

    This study aimed at assessing the current practices of educating students with visual impairment in the integrated primary schools of North and South Gondar. It employed qualitative research design. The data were collected using semi-structured interviews and participant- observation methods. Though students with visual impairment have good opportunities to learn and live together with the other students without disabilities; the findings revealed that the teachers have little knowledge, attitude and practice in teaching students with visual impairment in integrated education system. More specifically, teachers were not using their little knowledge of teaching in integrated classrooms. This is basically due to many challenges surrounding the integrated primary schools like scarcity of qualified special needs teachers, lack of commitment and motivation among the teachers and students, scarcity of teaching materials and equipments; and the availability of rigid curriculum. Finally, pertinent conclusions and recommendations were drawn from the findings of the study.

  154. Sureshkumar, R., Karuppaiah, P., Rajkumar, M. and Sendhilnathan, R.

    Investigation on “Influence of plant growth regulators on growth and yield of bitter gourd ecotype mithipagal in the rice fallow of cauvery delta region” was carried out in the Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar, Tamilnadu The treatment schedule comprised five growth regulators in two levels such as GA3 (25 and 50 ppm), Ethrel (ethylene) (250 and 500 ppm), NAA (100 and 250 ppm), Triacantanol (5 and 10 ppm) and Brassinosteroid (0.5 and 1.0 ppm) sprayed on 15, 30 and 45 DAS and untreated control with twelve treatments laid in randomized block design with three replications. The observations viz., yield and quality parameters along were recorded. It was observed that the application of GA3 @ 25 ppm (T1) recorded the maximum values in number of fruits plant-1, fruit weight, fruit length, fruit diameter, volume, fruit yield plant-1 (1.77 kg) and fruit yield ha-1 (22.47 t) were recorded with the application of ethrel @ 250 ppm (T3). It was followed by T10 (brassinosteroid @ 1.0 ppm). Regarding the fruit quality characters, the ascorbic acid content and total soluble solids were found to be the maximum with the treatment T3 ethrel @ 250 ppm and it was followed by T7 (triacontanol @ 5 ppm).

  155. Sureshkumar, R., Chandramohan, A., Sendhilnathan, R. and Rajkumar, M.

    The present investigation was carried out in the form of different experiments to find out the effect of organic inputs on certain growth and flowering characters of pumpkin in the Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar, Tamilnadu during the year 2012.And it was undertaken with various organic inputs such as FYM (25 t ha-1), Vermicompost (5 t ha-1 ), Pressmud compost ( 5 t ha-1),Poultry manure (5 t ha-1 ), Neem cake (5 t ha-1) and Humic acid(85%) as soil application @50 g ha-1 which comprises 13 treatment combinations including absolute control under Randomized Block Design with three replications. The observations were registered on the following growth and flowering aspects viz., vine length, number of branches plant-1, number of leaves plant-1, leaf area, days to male and female flowering, number of male and female flowers plant-1.The treatments have the significant influence on the above characters and the results revealed that the treatment combination of vermicompost @ 5t ha-1 with concentrated humic acid (85%) as soil application @ 50 g ha-1was found to be the best with the fruit yield of 29.61 t ha-1.

  156. Rajkumar, M., Karuppaiah, P., Sendhilnathan R. and Sureshkumar, R.

    Snake gourd (Trichosanthes Anguina L.) is an important Cucurbitaceous vegetable and has been traditionally grown due to its easy cultivation and short duration Performance of Snake Gourd (Trichosanthes Anguina L.) Varieties on Flowering and Fruiting Attributes. An experiment was conducted by Randomized block design to characterize and assess the growth and flowering attributes collected from different parts of South India at the Department of Horticulture, Annamalai University. Data were recorded for eight characters. Variations have been observed in different characters like days to first male flowering, days to first female flower opening, Number of fruits per plant, Fruit length(cm),Flesh thickness(cm), Fruit weight (g), Fruit yield (kg/plant) and Number of seeds per fruit. The range observed for days to first male flower opening (18.38 to 46.50), days to first female flower opening (28.88 to 57.33), Number of fruits per plant(7.00 to 27.50), Fruit length(34.73 to 175.99), Flesh thickness(0.40 to 1.17), Fruit weight(292.70 to 970.71), Fruit yield/plant(3.06 to 10.4g) and Number of seeds per fruit (22.18 to 90.75).

  157. Dr. Muzafar Ahmad Bhat, Dr. Mirza Aumir Beg and Dr. Shafia Nisar Kakroo

    Background and Objectives: The presence of furcation involvement represents a formidable problem in the treatment of periodontal disease. Advances in radiographic analysis such as radiovisuographic (RVG) aid in the early diagnosis and treatment planning, which is critical for long‑term success. The present investigation aims to correlate the interdental and interradicular bone loss in chronic periodontitis patients so as to explore the potential of interdental bone loss as a rough approximate screening tool for early furcation diagnosis in mandibular first molar. Materials and Methods: RVG radiographs with furcation radiolucency in mandibular first molars were selected. The morphometric measurements of mesial, distal interdental bone loss, and interradicular bone loss in mandibular first molars were recorded using RVG. The correlation between mesial and distal interdental bone loss and interradicular bone loss was analyzed. Results: In this retrospective investigation, it was observed that distal interdental bone loss was not significantly different when compared with mesial interdental bone loss. The interradicular bone loss was significantly different when compared with mesial interdental bone loss, whereas on analysis between distal interdental bone loss and interradicular bone loss was also found to be statistically significant. Interpretation and Conclusion: Interdental bone loss was found to be associated with progressive bone destruction in furcation area which suggests that early detection of interdental bone loss can be helpful in predicting future interradicular bone loss.

  158. Rohitash Kumar and Singh, H. S.

    In the present work, the composition Bi2Sr2Can-1CunOx were prepared by solid state reaction of more purity metals with Fe2O3 doping. The critical temperature Tc of the high temperature superconducting cuprate Bi¬2Sr4-xCaxFe3-yCuyOz were obtained 157K. On this temperature, The Resistance of the sample is going to zero. We have study in the paper about Electrical Resistant at 157K temperature of the samples.

  159. Poonam Bhagwandas Godhwani and Anita Natubhai Gianchandani

    The major focus in this technological era is on software development and the factors used in measuring the software quality, different types of the metric used in the current market to measure the software quality of their proposed system. It also discusses the issues in which users are concerned to the software quality of the product or system.

  160. Malka Sheffet and Ronit Bassan-Cincinatus

    In previous activities we identified misconceptions of pre-service teachers about the topic of percentages (Bassan-Cincinatus & Sheffet, 2016). Consequently, we built a teaching unit based on the constructivist approach and used the cognitive conflict method. Our main objective was to assist pre-service teachers to be aware of the fact that intuitions do not always lead to the correct solution of this issue. The teaching unit consisted of six stages. This paper will describe the various stages, present the way of experiencing, the findings as well as pre-service teachers' reflection and responses following the activity.

  161. Sushil Kumar Saini and Pawan Kumar Sharma

    This communication investigates the oscillatory flow with the combined effects of fluctuating heat and mass transfer past vertical parallel porous flat plates. It is assumed that vertical channel is rotating with angular velocity . The periodic suction velocity is assumed at the plate and other plate oscillating with periodic free stream velocity. The governing equations are solved by adopting complex variable notations. The analytical expressions for velocity and temperature fields are obtained using perturbation technique. The effects of various parameters on mean primary, mean secondary velocity, mean temperature, mean concentration, transient velocity, transient temperature, transient concentration and rate of heat and mass transfer in terms of amplitude and phase differences have been discussed and shown graphically.

  162. Shilpa Patel

    Carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, unburnt hydrocarbons and particulate matter are the principal air quality pollutant emission from automobiles. Number of automobiles are rocketed in recent years all over the world. Carbon monoxide it reduces the blood oxygen-carrying capacity which can reduce the availability of oxygen to key organs. Extreme level of exposure can be fatal. Maximum 8 hours average CO level allowed by WHO is 10mg/m3 Thus, it is very necessary to control exhaust emission from automotive source for environment. Catalytic converters are used for this purpose which converts carbon monoxide into less harmful carbon dioxide. Catalytic converters are not only useful for automobile but also in forklifts , mining equipments, generator sets, locomotives, motor cycles, airplanes etc. Three way oxidation- reduction catalytic converters are used in gasoline- powered vehicle for strict vehicle emission regulations. Research has been carried out and still going on for development of more economical and efficient catalyst. Originally very expensive metals Pt and Rh were used. Perovskites are one of these development but low surface area is its limitation. To overcome this limitation doped perovskite is the solution which reduces 70% decrease in precious metal usage. To develop doped perovskites using different material and different method to make catalyst more economical and efficient will be goal of the research work.

  163. Kompella Venkata Ramana, Ph.D

    In this paper, equality is established and discussed among soft erosion, soft dilation and soft close in multi scale environment. Soft erosion and soft dilation will exist for various thresholds. So soft open and soft close also exist for various thresholds. If definition for soft erosion and soft dilation are studied (5), then some type of equalities are viewed among soft morphological operations. So equality may be established in between soft erosion and soft dilation in multi scale environment (47). open and close are composite operations. So soft open and soft close are also composite operations which will exist at various thresholds. Equality may be viewed among all soft morphological operations. As part of that, in this paper equality may be established in between soft erosion, soft dilation and soft close in multi scale environment. A very important point is that equality does not exist in mathematical morphology but will exist in soft mathematical morphology.

  164. Rani, A., Gupta, A. and Chopra, N.

    “Arbi leaves”, (also known as Taro) in its dry form has been known as a good source of Calcium. Scientifically known as Colocasia esculenta and belongs to Araceae. The present study was conducted on “organoleptic evaluation of dried Colocasia leaves incorporated in Palak Pakore and Kachori”. In the present study dried Colocasia leaves was incorporated in different ratios in Kachori (5%, 7% and 10%) and Palak Pakore (5%, 7% and 10%). A panel of 12 members was selected through Triangle Test for evaluation of the incorporated recipes. 9 Point Hedonic Rating Scale and Composite Scoring test was used for evaluation. Mean score, S.D, and p-value of t were used for statistical analysis of the scores of acceptability trials of all recipes. On the basis of scores two most acceptable recipes of kachori and palak pakore (5% dried colocasia leaves incorporated) from all the samples were selected and their nutritive value was calculated. The nutrient calculation showed a good increase in calcium with the incorporation of dried colocasia leaves as compared to standard recipe. On the basis of scores 5% dried colocasia leaves incorporated Kachori was most acceptable. It was concluded that dried colocasia leaves could be successfully incorporated in recipes as it is a very good source of calcium and could be very beneficial for women having calcium deficiency.

  165. Shanmugam, G., Ashok Kumar, S., Bhaskar, R. S. and Moses. V. G. Isaiah

    ZnS/PVA and Pb doped ZnS/PVA nanocomposite films were synthesized using in-situ chemical method. X-ray diffraction patterns of the films confirm the cubic structure of ZnS. Optical absorption studies exhibit the red shifted phenomenon with the comparison of absorption peak of bulk ZnS. The optical band gap energy increases with increasing Pb dopant concentration. Photoluminescence spectra of the ZnS/PVA and Pb doped ZnS/PVA nanocomposite films show the two emission peaks in the visible region.

  166. Farnaz Amouzegar-Hashemi, Ali Tabatabaei, Afsaneh Maddah Safaei, Mohammad Babaei and Sepehr Moalej

    Background: Adjuvant radiotherapy has been given to many women with breast cancer for more than 50 years and it is currently recommended for a substantial proportion of such women. Long-term follow-up of these women has, however, revealed that some past radiotherapy techniques led to cardiac and pulmonary toxicity, because of unwanted irradiation of the cardiac structures and lungs by using traditional 2D techniques. Most of the breast cancer patients in our center traditionally treated with 2D technique and cobalt 60 machine up to 3 years ago. Therefore we present a study on cardiac and pulmonary dose-volume data of conventional 2D tangential breast irradiation achieved by three-dimensional conformal tangential irradiation. The result of this study may be beneficial to guide the radiation oncologists to improve treatment outcome by decreasing radiation toxicities in normal tissues. Material and Methods: Twenty consecutive patients with left-sided breast cancer who were irradiated with 2D- conventional tangential beams, entered to this study. For each patient (CT)-based three-dimensional treatment planning has been used to reconstruct conventional RT regimens. Then images were transferred to treatment planning system, then Contralateral breast, both lungs and heart were contoured after reconstruction of tangential fields by considering radio opaque markers located on field borders. Dose-volume histograms (DVH) for the heart, right breast and both lungs were calculated. Results: For individual women in the study, there was a wide range of cardiac doses of between 4.52 and 19.17Gy and between 9.86 and 24.75Gy mean left lung dose. Conclusion: We strongly advise 3D treatment planning or utilizing shielding system and techniques such as breath holding to reduce the dose irradiated to vital organs in 2D left breast cancer radiotherapy.

  167. Keyur M. Patel, Dr. M. Balaganapathy and Hinal M. Patel

    Background: Spinal mobilization is commonly used in the treatment of chronic neck pain. Various methods are used to treat patient with neck pain. In chronic neck pain patients have impaired neck proprioception. Manual therapy has evidence in improving neck proprioception patient with chronic neck pain. There is no study found in comparing two spinal manipulative therapies on neck proprioception. Objective: objective of this study is to find out effect of Maitland mobilization versus mulligan (SNAGs) on head repositioning accuracy (HRA), pain and functional disability in chronic neck pain patient. Method: 63 patients was randomly allocated by lottery method and equally allocated into 3 groups. The 3 groups are 1) Maitland mobilization, 2) Mulligan (SNAGS) and3) Conventional treatment group. All the groups given different exercise and treatment given for 3 WEEKS (5 session / week) and they are statistically analysed by ANOVA. Result: When comparison pain between Maitland group and Conventional group shows a mean difference of 1.38 and shows statically significant improvement (p=0.00). For HRA Maitland to SNAGs group and Maitland to conventional shows highly significant (p<0.05), and for Copenhagen Neck Functional Disability all group shows highly significant with higher improvement shown on Maitland group (p=0.00). Conclusion: In this study the patients were treated with Maitland mobilization, SNAGs and conventional therapy in 3 groups, respectively. All three exercises are statistically significant in reducing the patient symptoms. But Maitland mobilization is significant in reducing the patient symptoms when it compared with conventional therapy and SNAGs mobilization.

  168. Ogunbosoye, D. O.

    This study was conducted to estimate the fermentation characteristics and acceptability of some selected plant species using West African dwarf (WAD) goats in a completely randomized design. The experimental samples were incubated in vitro with rumen liquor taken from three WAD goats in 24 h fermentation. The volume of gas produced at the end of incubation was highest in ECA (27 ml/200mg DM.) and lowest in PRA (24 ml/200mg DM.). The methane ranged from 16 to 5.33 in ECA and PRA respectively. The cumulative gas produced and the nutrients composition of the forages were used to predict the Organic Matter digestibility (OMD), Metabolisable Energy (ME) and Short Chain Fatty Acids (SCFA). The values obtained for the OMD, ME and SCFA ranged from 37.44 to 51.95 %, 2.61to 6.80 MJ/Kg and 0.23 to 0.60µmol respectively. The forage acceptability revealed that the daily DM intake increased as the day progressed. Gliricidia sepium had the highest DM intake from the inception of experiment while Prosopis africana was the least. Coefficient of Preference (COP) varied from 2.20 in GLS to 0.93 in PRA. It was indicated that Gliricidia sepium was best accepted amongst the forages. The rank is as follows: GLS > DLO > PAB > ECA > FIC > FIP > PRA. In conclusion, the result in this study showed that in vitro gas production and acceptability trial may be useful methods of evaluating feed stuffs in ruminant production to avert feed scarcity experienced during the lean period of the year.

  169. Partha Sarathi Das, Sandip Chakroborty, Keshab Chandra Mondal, Tapash Chandra Ghosh and Bikas Ranjan Pati

    Protein structure is phyletically conserved to serve its specific functions. But several proteins are found to be partially lacking a definite folded structure under specific conditions and this is known as disorderness. Intrinsically disordered proteins serve many important functions of the cell. Essential genes of an organism refer to the minimal gene set among the genome and mutation in any of which may confer a lethal or non-fertile phenotype. Essential genes show high phyletic retention and high degree of conservation. Thus comparison on the basis of disorderness of the proteins encoded by essential and non-essential genes may form a basis of segregation between these two kinds of genes. A machine learning framework using neural network as a classifier was implemented here which could successfully segregate the essential genes from non-essential ones.

  170. Subhedar Vaibhavi, Dr. Neelam Bharihoke and Dr. Jain Sudhir Kumar

    “Candida Overgrowth Syndrome” is an upcoming and more of common condition found particularly in youngsters who are on long term broad spectrum antibiotics for the treatment of acne and chronic sinusitis. Candidas are budding yeast cells which normally inhabit our gastrointestinal tract along with the other normal microbial flora. Overgrowth of Candida is made possible by overuse or misuse of antibiotics, a dysfunctional immune system or gastrointestinal distress. The striking feature is that the patients develop too many generalized, gastrointestinal and behavioral symptoms, with all their blood and other diagnostic tests negative. Timely and evidence based diagnosis of “Candida Overgrowth Syndrome” helps in accurate and timely treatment of the patient, thus avoiding unnecessary tests and medications. Here we present such a case of a young boy who landed up with “Candida Overgrowth Syndrome” after long-term intake of antibiotics taken for treating acne.

  171. Manish Sharma, Dr. Deepak Kotwal and Dr. Divya Gupta

    Endoscopic examination of the middle ear cleft visualizes whole tympanum and the ear canal from multiple angles without any need to manipulate the patients head or the microscope. Endoscope allows the surgeon to visualize the middle ear completely and to simultaneously check the ossicular continuity and mobility. The present study was conducted for a period of one year in 70 patients who were admitted for surgical management of tubotympanic CSOM (safe type), atticoantral CSOM (unsafe) and secretory otitis media. Regarding safe type of CSOM cases, in endoscopic group it was observed that in 95% cases post operative AB Gap was less than 20db as compared to only 5% pre operatively and in microscopic group it was observed that in 85% post operative AB Gap was less than 20db as compared to only 5% pre operatively. Regarding unsafe type of CSOM cases, in 3 (37.5%) patients out of 8 patients, cholesteatoma left inadvertently after microscopic canal wall down mastoidectomy surgery was identified and removed by otoendoscope from sinus tympani and anterior attic area. Similarly in 2 (40%) patients out of 5 patients cholesteatoma left inadvertently after microscopic canal wall down surgery was removed from sinus tympani, anterior attic and protympanum. No cholesteatoma remnants left inadvertently were observed by otoendoscope in 2 patients of microscopic atticotomy. Overall incidence of cholesteatoma observed and removed from hidden areas by endoscope was 33.3% thus defining the importance of otoendoscopy in cholesteatoma surgery. Overall pre-operative AB-Gap was more than 41db recorded in 13 (86.7%) patients on PTA. Post-operative AB-Gap was reduced by 10 db in 10 (66.7%) patients. Endoscopic myringoplasty was found to be equally effective and less morbid. Endoscope assisted surgery allows a better understanding of cholesteatoma and improved eradication of residual/recurrent disease from hidden areas such as facial recess, sinus tympani, anterior epitympanic space, protympanum and hypotympanum than with conventional microscopic surgery alone. Grommet insertion can be done effectively using otoendoscope.

  172. Dr. Samiya Mufti, Dr. Samina Sultana and Dr. Samina Mufti

    Background: Acute puerperal uterine inversion is a rare but potentially life-threatening complication in which the uterine fundus collapses within the endometrial cavity. Although the cause of uterine inversion is unclear, several predisposing factors have been described. Maternal mortality is extremely high unless the condition is recognized and corrected. Methods: This was a prospective observational study, conducted over a period of three years from March 2012 to June 2015. The study included all the patients who developed acute puerperal inversion in the hospital or outside the hospital and were referred as a case of acute puerperal inversion. Patients of chronic puerperal inversion and non-puerperal inversion were not included in the study. Thorough abdominal and pelvic examination was carried out to confirm diagnosis and the observations were recorded. Results: A total of 71125 deliveries took place which includes 11 cases of puerperal inversion, the incidence being 1 in 6466 deliveries. More than half of the patients (54.54%) were multigravida. Majority of patients(81.8%) presented with features of moderate to severe shock. out of 11 patients in 6 the uterus was reposited back by O’Sullivan Hydrostatic method, two patients had to undergo hysterectomy one for morbidly adherent placenta and another for atonic PPH. In two patients the placenta could be reposited back manually and in one patient laparotomy was required to get the uterus back to its anatomical position. There was one maternal death out of 11 cases.

  173. Kumari, M. J., Ancy M. Das, Aneena Dominic, Deena Davis, Linsha George and Sandhya

    Introduction: Each cardiac drug has its own pharmacological properties and side effects. Medication safety is a major concern and global issue related to the quality and safety of patient care. The administration of medication is an important aspect of nurse’s professional practice. So, nurses should update their knowledge to improve the quality of nursing care. Materials and Methods: A descriptive cross sectional research study was designed to assess the knowledge regarding common cardiac drugs among the staff Nurses in Cardiac units and to identify the factors associated with the level of knowledge about common cardiac drugs among the staff nurses in cardiac unit. The sample included 40 staff nurses who fulfilled inclusion criteria. Convenience sampling technique was used to select sample. The data collection was done by using a self-administered questionnaire. Results: Out of 40 staff nurses, four (10%) had excellent knowledge, 23 (57.5%) had good level of knowledge, 12 (30%) had average knowledge and only one had poor knowledge on common cardiac drugs. There was no significance relationship between knowledge scores and selected demographic variables like age, sex, year of experience, qualifications and area of work. Conclusion: Cardiac nurses should therefore be equipped with updated knowledge on various aspects of drug administration.

  174. Fayza El- Sayed Ahmed and Zeinab M. Alazouny

    Furan is produced during food processing and preservation techniques that involve heat treatment. Furan-exposed rats showed dose-dependent gross and histological changes in endocrine and reproductive organs. Aim: this work was carried out to investigate the effect of furan on the histological structure of adrenal cortex in adult male rats. Material and methods: twenty adult male albino rats (4 months old) were divided equally into two groups. Group I (control) and group II (Furan- treated) that was administered furan in a dose of 8 mg kg/ day orally by dissolving it in corn oil for 90 days. The animals were sacrificed at the end of the experiment. The suprarenal glands of the two groups were prepared for light and electron microscope examination. Blood samples from animals of all groups for estimation of serum corticosterone with statistical analysis of the levels were done. Morphometric study was also performed. Serum level of corticosterone showed significant decrease after furan administration. Results: The suprarenal cortex of the furan-treated group (group II) exhibited loss of architecture of both the zona glomerulosa and fasciculata with cellular infiltration. Areas of hyperplasia were found under the capsule. Also, the cells of zona fasciculata appeared with marked cytoplasmic vacuolation, whereas zona reticularis cells had condensed nuclei and congested blood sinusoids. Ultrastructurally, the cells of zona glomerulosa and fasciculata showed swollen mitochondria with disrupted cristae and many lipid droplets. Electron dense apoptotic nuclei were also seen.

  175. Abdalla, N. M., Abdelgani, A. M., Osman, A. A. and Mohamed, M. N.

    A cross-sectional study conducted in Al-Madinah Almonawarah in KSA held during the period from March 2014-March 2015. This study aiming to identify the epidemiological and clinical pattern of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Al-Madinah Almonawarah area. Epidemiological and clinical data were collected using special questionnaire. Statistical analysis was done using special computer program SPSS. Laboratory specimens were collected using skin scraping and needle aspiration. Staining and direct microscopy were done. LST was conducted. The study includes 164 patients, all of them were men, almost half of them were farmers. 58% indoor transmission. Bed nets were not used by 85.4% of patients, moreover most of the patient 83% were not using protective clothes. Clinically sever form of presentation indicate 4 and more ulcers. Severe form was encountered in (14.6%) among children < 15years and 32.1%. in the Adults. Those with underweight had higher percent in mild and severe form of presentation 61.5% and 38.5% respectively. LST was negative in all cases. The study revealed that Al-Madinah Almonawarah is endemic area for cutaneous leishmaniasis due to the presence of the vector and the reservoir. Age has less effect on clinical presentation (indoors and outdoors transmission are present) compared with social habits of patients and nutritional status.

  176. Deepak, C., Eswari Jagdish, Senthoor Pandian, Shanthi, K. and Ravindran, C.

    The aim of this study was to describe the standard diagnostic procedure and the application of the Caldwell-Luc approach for the retrieval of a displaced root from the maxillary sinus and to share our experience in treating this complication. We Demonstrate a modified Reharmann flap that can be used for both retrieval of root as well as can be used to advance the buccal flap for closure of oroantral fistula that could be created because of the displaced root or the attempt by the dental surgeon to retrieve it.

  177. Dr. J. Selvaraj and Dr. Kumarasenthil

    Objective: • To study about the 'perioperative' glycaemic control and postoperative infections. • To study about the postoperative glycaemic status and postoperative infections. • To study the range of the blood sugar to be maintained Methods: All patients with diabetes mellitus who underwent elective and emergency surgeries are studied with perioperative blood sugar values and postoperative wound infections, urinary tract infections, lower respiratory tract infections and sepsis Results: The incidence of surgical site infections in these patients were proportional to the glycaemic control achieved, the highest being in the fourth quartile(261-350md/dl) patients i.e. 100% and the least being in the first quartile patients(120-180mg/dl) i.e.16.6%. In the glycaemic range above 260mg/dl almost all patients had surgical site infections invariably stressing the importance of strict glycaemic control in these patients to avoid long hospital stay and the health care expenditure that results. Conclusion: It is conclusive that the incidence of postoperative infections in patients with diabetes undergoing surgeries is higher with greater mean plasma glucose levels. patients with control mean sugar values were free of surgical postoperative complications.

  178. Dr. Arthy, O. S., Dr. Viswanathan, P., Dr. Rehana Tippoo, Dr. Ranjit Singh, R. and Dr. Prema

    Bowen’s disease is a clinical expression of squamous cell carcinoma in situ of the skin which presents as an asymptomatic well defined erythematous scaly plaque. (Weedon’s skin pathology, 2010) There is a predilection for both sun exposed areas like head and neck and non sun exposed areas like genitalia of both sexes, occurring in elderly people. A case of Bowen’s disease occurring over the right thumb, in a middle aged woman, who is a beedi maker, is being presented.

  179. Dr Pankaj Kumar Jain, Dr Kailash Meena, Dr Sohan Lal Bajya and Dr Rambabu Sharma

    Objective: To compare efficacy of special blue compact fluorescent lamp (CFL) phototherapy with special blue standard-length tube lights (STL) phototherapy in terms of rate of fall of serum bilirubin levels, required duration of phototherapy and to compare the incidences of clinically observable side effects between both groups. Study design: Randomized prospective Observational Study. Setting: Tertiary level of neonatal intensive care unit. Study was conducted from December 2011 to September 2012. Participants: Stable neonates of gestation >34 weeks with hyperbilirubinemia requiring phototherapy, were included. Sick babies, Rh iso-immunized babies, those who required and underwent exchange transfusion and whose parents refused for consent were excluded. Intervention: Babies were enrolled on consecutive basis and after randomization were allocated to receive phototherapy by CFL or STL. CFL and STL were both special blue lights with irradiance maintained above 15 µW/nm/cm2. Total serum bilirubin (TSB) was measured 24 hourly till phototherapy was stopped or an exchange transfusion was done. Vital parameters and clinically observable side effect were recorded 12 hourly till phototherapy was stopped. Results: 100 babies were enrolled in each group. Baseline characteristics, causes of jaundice, baseline haemoglobin and TSB were similar in both groups. Base line irradiance was more in CFL group compare to STL group {P=0.000, highly significant (HS)}. Rate of fall of serum bilirubin {P< 0.001(HS)} was more in CFL group. Mean required duration of phototherapy {P=0.002(HS)} was less in CFL group. Side effects were comparable in two groups (P > 0.05). Conclusions: CFL phototherapy is superior to STL phototherapy in terms of efficacy with comparable side effects.

  180. Dr. Gaurav Chaudhary, Dr. P. Narayana Prasad, Dr. Tejkali Pothuri, Dr. Anshu Rani and Dr. Yash Raj Bahadhur

    Introduction: Physical characteristics and the protection from the bone jaw preserve the dentition even when the bony structures of the body are destroyed. Due to this, the use of dental morphology to determine sexual dimorphism is a procedure established in anthropological and biological studies. Aim: This study aims to evaluate sexual dimorphism in crown width and cusp parameters of permanent maxillary first and second molars in Uttarakhand population. Materials and methods: A sample of 100 maxillary dental casts of Uttarakhand population (50 males, 50 females, and aged 15-25 years) was selected. Eight parameters were determined for each of the left maxillary first and second molars using a digital vernier caliper: four crown width measurements (buccolingual, mesiodistal, mesiobuccal–distolingual and distobuccal–mesiolingual) and four cusp measurements (hypocone, protocone, paracone and metacone) were taken. The percentage of sexual dimorphism for each parameter was computed. Results: BL width showed highest sexual dimorphism when compared all eight parameters in both first and second molars. The highest sexual dimorphism was shown by paracone in the first molar and hypocone in the second molar. Conclusion: Based on this study, odontometric measurements of maxillary molars provide low to moderate sexual dimorphism.

  181. Priyanka Kumari, Eenu and Amoldeep

    To measure the availability of knowledge of services among women regarding maternal and child health services. Study Design and setting: This study follows check list scale containing 74 set of items related to services provides by the community health set up in rural area. 100 multigravida women who were utilizing the services from the community health center from the sample. Directive technique is used for the data collect to collect the data from the sample. Data analysis consisted of inferential statistics analysis by using non purposive. Result: The check list consist of five categories related to maternal and child health services. Preparation of check list contain statement belong to general health services, antenatal, postnatal, child care and immunization and family planning services. The reliability coefficient for check list was calculated by using split halfmethod and was found to be 0.71. Women who were utilizing the services from the community health centerhaving the 100% knowledge in the field of the antenatal and family planning services. In case of postnatal services 84% of data lied under the good category and 16% of knowledge score came under the averagecategory. They were not having appropriate knowledge related to the child care as well as immunization. That’s why 100% of women fall under the average category regarding the knowledge of maternal and child health services. Conclusion: Enhancing the free of coat Antenatal , postnatal and child care and immunization services in the rural area and in all the health center will lead to achieve the target of “Health for all”

  182. Dr. Syed Sajad Hussain, Dr. Samina Farhat, Dr. Yasir Hassan Rather and Dr. Rehana Tabassum

    Background: Depression is a major public health problem as it can cause significant clinical distress. Major depression disorder (MDD) has been found to cause impairment of social, occupational or other areas of function. Antidepressant drugs being leading psycho tropics that are prescribed worldwide, their utilization in actual clinical practice, effectiveness and safety in real life situation need continuous study. Objective: Present study was carried out to evaluate the prescribing patterns of different antidepressants in psychiatry unit of a tertiary care hospital. Methods: This prospective, observational and cross sectional study was conducted in the out-patient department (OPD) of General Psychiatry Unit of Sheri Maharaja Hari Singh (SMHS) hospital. A total of 600 cases were enrolled for the present study to investigate the prescribing pattern of antidepressants using a predesigned format out of which 543 subjects were taken for final results. Results: Depression was found to be the leading cause of psychiatric morbidity among the subjects accounting for 36% of the total study population. Females suffered from depression more than their male counterparts. The most common age group suffering from MDD was found to between 20-39 years comprising almost 50% of study population. Monotherapy was practiced more frequently than polytherapy with 2or more drugs. Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs) like escitalopram was found out to be the most preferred antidepressant chosen by the treating psychiatrists. Conclusion: Depression being the most common psychiatric disorder and this part of world is no exception to this. Among many other antidepressant groups, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are preferred over others because of their better side effect profile.

  183. Dr. Prerna Kukreti, Dr. Pankaj Kumar and Dr. Rajesh Kumar

    Background: Bipolar disorder despite being episodic illness, due to chronicity imposes a great financial burden of care on service users (patients & caregivers), especially in traditional societies like India where caring for a family member with disability is a norm. Economic burden serves as a barrier in access to health, infringing upon the right to health. Different determinants add to this burden in urban and rural settings, requiring different intervention strategies. There is dearth of health economics data from developing countries. Formal need assessment to influence resource allocation starting from policy level to the affected ones down is needed. Aims & objectives: (i) To study direct and indirect costs of mental health care in stable patients with bipolar affective disorder and their respective caregivers. (ii) To compare difference in cost of care across urban & rural area setting and its determinants.(iii) Extent of utilization of existing government social welfare measures to reduce economic burden Methods: Hospital based cross sectional study recruiting fifty stable married homemaker female patients diagnosed bipolar affective disorder (as per ICD 10) in 18-40 years age group with their caregivers following up in OPD for minimum 1 year. Tools used were specific questionnaire designed for the study, Young’s mania rating scale (YMRS) and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS). Results: Monthly cost of treatment for bipolar disorder was Rs.2832 for urban residents & Rs.1964 for rural residents. Direct cost of illness was significantly higher for rural residents. Major determinant of direct cost was transportation and out of pocket expenditure for the indirect cost. Government provided measures to reduce economic burden are meager and extent of utilization of existing disability benefits is also very low (<20%) due to poor awareness. Conclusions: Government initiatives need to focus on increasing awareness regarding available health facilities, strengthen network of district health clinics to reduce money and time spent on travelling especially in rural areas. Since indirect cost of care is significantly high, so, efforts on providing appropriate economic respite care to patients and family caregivers should be considered to reduce ‘out of pocket expenditure’.

  184. Purbasha Ghosh and Rabindra Nath Misra and Retina Paul

    The incidence of sepsis is increasing globally, with high morbidity and mortality. Diagnosis of neonatal sepsis is still a clinical and laboratory challenge. Though blood culture is gold standard, it sometimes gives false negative result. So, judgement of clinical condition along with various investigations is important. Methodology: Blood culture, sepsis screen, biochemical markers, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) study, radiology, MRSA (methicillin resistance Staphylococcus aureus) surveillance were carried out in this study. Results: One seventy (65.9%) were culture positive and 88 (34.1%) were culture negative out of 258 clinically suspected cases. Methicillin sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) 66 (38.82%) was the commonest organism. Among 88 culture negative cases, 38(43.2%) babies were two or more sepsis screen tests positive, 40(45.5%) culture negative babies were with risk factors and 5 (5.7%) had radiological evidence of pneumonia. Conclusion: The clinical diagnosis of it remains difficult as the symptoms are non-specific. So, blood culture is mandatory. Other diagnostic tests also help in this situation.

  185. Ahmed Basher, M.

    A sinus tachycardia is an accelerated sinus rate that is a physiological response e.g., to fever, anxiety, pain, exercises hyperthyroidism or cardiac disease. Heart rate is more than 100 bpm and rhythm is usually regular and P waves are present.31 cases (8 male and 23 female) has been diagnosed with sinus tachycardia according to the clinical feature and ECG assessment, ages between (19-34) years old, age mean ± SD (23.7097± 3.98492).Assessment of electrocardiography (ECG) to conform the sinus tachycardia, also assessment of Echocardiography has been done to exclusion others cardiac disease diseases. Laboratory investigations has been done, free serum vitamin D (25-dihydroxyvitamin D [25(OH) D]) has been evaluated by ELISA, this type provides the single best assessment of vitamin D status and thyroid functions (T3, T4, and TSH). Our results suggested that there is an association between the vitamin D deficiency and patients diagnosed with sinus tachycardia by assessment the free serum vitamin D (25-dihydroxyvitamin D [25(OH) D]). Also the results showed strong evidence among patients whose received treatment with vitamin D3 (300000 IU/month for 3 Consecutive months) and showed a good response according to statistical analysis (P = 0.005). In conclusion, the deficiency of vitamin D effect on regulation of the heart beats; also the poster of vitamin D 3 in certain dose for certain period can be treating the disturbance of the heart beats.

  186. Dr. Kalyani Borde, Dr. Jyoti S. Kabbin, Dr. Nagrathnamma, T., Dr. Sandhya, K. and Dr. Aarthi, S.

    Introduction: Methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a common causative agent of nosocomial infections. Healthcare workers (HCW) have been shown to be the carriers and hence help in spread of the organism. Carriage by HCWs provides a very convenient niche for this organism to spread in the society, especially to susceptible patient population. Aim: This study was done to screen all the healthcare workers (doctors, nurses, technicians, group D workers) in our hospital in order to establish a baseline data for MRSA carrier rates and prevent outbreaks by initiating decolonization protocol. Material and method: A total of 226 HCWs were screened for nasal carriage of MRSA. Isolates were classified as coagulase negative staphylococci (CoNS) and Staphylococcus aureus based on cultural characteristics and biochemical reactions. Methicillin resistance was further tested based on antibiotic susceptibility testing and methicillin resistant organisms were denoted as methicillin resistant coagulase negative staphylococci (MRCoNS) or methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Resistance was correlated with results from Biomérieux PBP-2a latex agglutination reaction. Results: MRSA nasal carriage rate in our hospital was 3.5%. Further, we found that 9% isolates were methicillin sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) and 61% were MRCoNS, remaining being CoNS. Conclusion: This study helped in identifying the carriers amongst the HCWs and take preventive actions. A comparatively lower prevalence of MRSA carrier rates as against certain other studies reflects the proper hand hygiene practices and incentivizes the staff to adhere to personal safety precautions.

  187. Atta-Darkwa, T., Kabo-bah, A. T., Akolgo, G. A., Kotei, R. and Amo-Boateng, M.

    Hydrochemical study is a useful tool to identify the suitability of groundwater for irrigation purpose. Groundwater samples were collected from fourteen piezometers from the various locations in the study area to assess the quality of groundwater for irrigation use. To achieve this objective, concentrations of physicochemical parameters were analysed and interpreted with different irrigation indexes like Sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), ECw, Percent sodium, Magnezium hazard and Kelly’s ratio. The various parameters estimated showed that electrical conductivity values ranged between186 to 638 µS/cm, TDS values were less than 500mg/l, SAR values varies from 0.34 to 0.86 meq/l, Na % values ranges from 20.55 % to 44.09 %, MH values ranged between 25.86 % to 55.29 % and KR varying between 0.13 and 0.44. The hydrochemical study of the area revealed that alkaline earths exceed alkalis and weak acids exceed strong acids in groundwater which presented a Ca-Mg-HCO3 groundwater type. Results from the groundwater chemistry of the boreholes plotted on the USSL diagram and the Wilcox diagram indicated that the groundwater is of good quality for irrigation. The study unraveled the mechanism controlling groundwater chemistry as the chemical weathering of rock-forming minerals and evaporation.

  188. Tzvetan Kikindonov, Kalin Slanev, Georgi Kikindonov and Stanimir Enchev

    The increasing tendency of deviations from the agro-climatic norms forces the search of alternative forage crops. The great variety of grain and sweet sorghum forms, sudangrass and their hybrids of the breeding program of Agricultural Institute – Shumen is a good basis for selection of adapted to the actual conditions genotypes, allowing harvest of green mass in different stages of the crops’ development during vegetation. The many years studies – breeding and technological, of the sudangrass, sorghum x sudangrass hybrids and sweet sorghum forms allows summarizing the field test results of Standard varieties and materials bred in the Institute for productivity of green and dry mass. It has been studied the genotype and the agro-climatic conditions’ influence on the productive potential of Standard varieties, populations and sorghum x sudangrass hybrids. Assessment is made for the effectiveness of harvesting the tested origins in four stages of development – brooming, flowering, milky-wax and technological maturity of seeds. The application of different schemes of harvesting diversifies the sources of green mass as rich forage for production of silage, haylage and hay.

  189. Nguyen Van Noi, Yao-Chi Chung and Ta-Chih Cheng

    The expression of recombinant protein for structure determination is one of the major challenges in pharmaceutical and academic research, since the number of potential drug targets has increased significantly in the last decade. Despite the fact that the baculovirus expression vector system is widely used for this purpose, the system is hampered by three very slow and tedious procedures, namely generation of high titer baculovirus stock, determination of the virus titer and discovery of the best conditions for protein expression. We herein describe the development of the Bac to Bac system to address and overcome these issues for protein expression in insect cells. We have established a new baculovirus expression technology for insect cells that is based on expression of PEDV with target gene, a new regime for cell culturing and a highly efficient purification and enrichment procedure for recombinant baculovirus particles. Expression of PEDV is used to monitor the infection of insect cells, to simplify titer determination and to optimize expression conditions. The new regime for cell culturing with increased viability of non-infected insect cells and its combination with the massive enrichment of virus particles via high-speed centrifugation enables the production of large amounts of recombinant virus in a very short period of time. By combining these techniques and by using the bicistronic vector pFastBacHTb, we have been able to cut the time-lines for protein expression in insect cells by half, approaching those for protein production in Escherichia coli. This new expression system is a significant step forward towards industrialized protein production in both, industry and academia.

  190. Rekha, D., Soundari, K., Lavanya, A. and Panneerselvam, A.

    Medicinal plants have been an integral part of life in various regional communities for food and drug. The use of medicinal plants to treat human diseases has its root in pre historical times. The aim of the present study was to investigate the ethnomedicinal uses of various plant species in three villages of Poovanur, Velukudi and Lakshmangudi from Needamagalam Taluk, Thiruvarur District. The present study reports a total number of 79 species used to cure various oilments like antidiabetics, diarrhoea and dysentery, Gastrointestinal order, Rheumatism, wounds and skin diseases. The findings provide support for the use of the plant in traditional medication.

  191. Venkata Rao, G., Srinivasa Rao, D., Madhusudhana Rao, V. and Sambasiva Rao, K.R.S.

    Heavy metal pollution is one of the most serious environmental problems to be considered at utmost priority. Hence, there is an urgent need to tune all our activities in compliance with environment friendly manner. Many efforts have been made to search for effective and economic techniques for the removal of heavy metals from water. Alternative process is biosorption which utilizes the dead biosorbent for heavy metal removal. This is having many advantages over the other processes. The biosorption has low operating cost and high efficiency in detoxifying very dilute effluents. Keeping in mind the potentiality and availability of the chosen yeast biomass as an adsorbent, the present work has been carried out to come up with more optimal values and conditions for better biosorption of the toxic metals which are under the category of huge volume and low concentration compounds, by that it will become easy to scale up the technology to apply for large scale effluent treatment plants.

  192. Dr. Hemantha Kumara, D. S., Dr. Muralidhara Krishna, C. S. and Dr. Vishwanath, H. L.

    Introduction: Thyroid hormone is one of the central regulator of body functions. The effect of thyroid hormones on electrolytes has not been well established and the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. Only few data on the association between thyroid function and electrolyte disorders exists. Thus our aim was to find out the electrolytes imbalance between hypo and hyperthyroidism and their correlation. Materials and Methods: 60 patients and 30 controls were included in this study. Thyroid hormones (T3, T4 and TSH) were measured by Beckman coulter Access-2 auto analyser and Serum sodium, potassium and chlorides were estimated using Ion Selective Electrodes. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS 16. Results: Patients with hypothyroidism showed significant decrease in serum sodium, potassium and chloride levels (p<0.05) and Patients with hyperthyroidism showed significant increase in serum potassium levels (p<0.05). When correlated with TSH, Serum sodium and potassium showed negative correlation where it has positive for serum chloride in case of hypothyroidism. For hyperthyroid patients, correlation was negative for serum sodium and chloride whereas positive for serum potassium. Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that the serum electrolytes were significantly imbalanced in hypothyroid and hyperthyroidism patients. They should be regularly checked for serum electrolytes to prevent possible complications.

  193. Dr. Leelambika C. and Dr. Pushpa Sarkar

    Objectives: The objective of our follow-up study is to evaluate liver enzymes in acne patients treated with isotretinoin. Setting: Dermatology outpatient clinics, MIMS, Mandya. Participants: we included the patients diagnosed with moderate to severe acne. All patients were treated with low dose isotretinoin and followed-up in our outpatient clinics 20 weeks. Patients were subjected to an interview questionnaire which included data on age, gender, previous treatment and liver enzymes. Primary outcome: Blood analyses were repeated in the follow-up visits baseline, 4,8,12,16,20 weeks. Results: AST, ALT of 40 patients aged 15-40 years receiving isotretinoin for moderate to severe acen were monitored before, during and every month interval for 4 months. Pretreatment values of mean AST and ALT levels are 12.58±3.58 and 10.76± 2.70 repectively. Values of AST and ALT were increased from the baseline. There is statistically significant increase in the levels at second, third and fourth month. The values were increased two times the upper limit upto grade 2. Conclusion: The present study showed statistically significant increase in liver aminotranferase, the increase was >two times the upper limit of normal.

  194. SipraswarupaSahoo and Patra, A. K.

    An experiment was conducted under Laboratory culture conditions for 120days to evaluate the nutritional values and acceptability of Lemna minor as component in the diets of Cirrhinus mrigala fry. By replacing fish meal with Lemna minor at 0%, 15%, 30% and 45% inclusion levels, four different fish feeds comprising of Lemna, fish meal, GNOC(Groundnut Oil Cake), rice bran, soybean, salt and vitamin were used to formulate compound diets. The fries were fed twice daily, morning and evening at 5% body weight. The three inclusion levels of duckweed supported the growth of Cirrhinus mrigala fry but growth performances weight gain and growth rate was favoured by low inclusion of duckweed meal. However, highest body weight gain (%) was recorded in the group of fish fed diet (0% inclusion of duckweed) which was not significantly different (P<0.05) from 15% level inclusion of duckweed. On the basis of the findings, the study revealed that although fish fry fed diet of 15% duckweed dietary inclusion performs best result but fish meal was completely non-replaceable however, can be supplemented with duckweed up to an optimum level to produce cost effective feed.

  195. Kamil, M. Yousif

    Nawruz is one of the most fabulous festivals celebrated in Kurdistan of Iraq (KOI) with joy and happiness. Nawruz is celebrated by people from diverse ethnic communities and religious backgrounds for thousands of years. During Nawruz festival, which held annually in KOI, thousands of firecrackers are set off, in an intense pyrotechnic spectacle. Firework displays are high-intensity anthropogenic activities that create notable air pollution and obvious short-term air-quality degradation. The study was conducted to determine the trends and variations of air pollution levels at Duhok city (DC), Iraq, as well as to create awareness about air pollution through availability of scientific monitoring data. The average concentration of SO2, and NO2 in DC area was slightly higher than the standard prescribed limit. While the average concentration of CO in DC area was almost lower than the WHO guidelines value. The concentration of particulate matters (PM) was ~ 5 times higher on festive day as compared to the non festive day at the study site of DC.

  196. Dr. Madhvi Rane and Vivek Bhojwani

    The collection of indigenous bacterial cultures was performed to estimate its ability to degrade harmful pollutants present in molasses spent wash (MSW) and to understand its degradation potential through natural attenuation for which bacterial (Bacillus subtilis) and fungal strain (Fusarium solani) was utilized. From the following results 1.2% glucose/peptone concentrations were considered to be the optimized source for carbon and nitrogen for the organisms. Further, the degradation potential of the consortia in different concentrations of MSW along with its application on potted wheat plant was studied.

  197. Dr. Anjana Rita Xalxo, Dr. Rajeshwari Singh and Dr. Mita Kotecha

    A single blind clinical trial conducted for a period of 3 months to evaluate the effect of the bark of Holoptelea integrifolia (Family- Ulmaceae) on body weight and associated metabolic disorder in over weight human volunteers (BMI >25/m2). The trial and positive control groups received GHANAVATI (Holoptelea integrifolia) and NAVAKA GUGGULU (Standard Ayurvedic Preparation) respectively 30-60 minute before lunch and dinner. At baseline, after 3 months, significant improvement in body weight, BMI, chest, abdomen, waist, arm and thigh, biceps and triceps circumference, as well as haematological parameter (Hb, serum cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL, LDL, VLDL) were observed in the GHANAVATI group compared with NAVAKA GUGGULU. Bark extract of Holoptelea integrifolia may prove to be a useful tool in dealing with the emerging global epidemics of obesity, hyperlipedemia and cardio- metabolic disorders.

  198. Saba Yasmeen, Vijayalakshmi Muvva and Rajesh Kumar Munaganti

    The present work is aimed to isolate, identify and characterize the rare actinobaterial strains VJSY-1 and VJSY-14 from the mangrove soils of Gilakaladindi, Krishna district of Andhra Pradesh. The soil samples were collected, pre treated with calcium carbonate and used for the isolation of rare actinobacterial strains. Identification of these strains was carried out by polyphasic taxonomical studies including morphological, cultural, physiological, biochemical characters along with 16S rRNA analysis. Phylogenetic tree was constructed using Molecular Evolutionary Genetic Analysis software (MEGA) version 6.0. Phylogenetic analysis by 16S rRNA sequencing revealed that the strains VJSY-1 and VJSY-14 are closely related to the genus Nocardiopsis and the bioactive metabolites produced by the strains inhibited Gram positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus (MTCC 3160), Bacillus megaterium (NCIM 2187), Bacillus subtilis, Gram negative bacteria Xanthomonas campestris (MTCC 2286), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 9027) and Escherichia coli (ATCC 35218), and fungi like Aspergillus niger, Fusarium solani, F. oxysporum and Candida albicans (MTCC 183). Attempts are being made to optimize the cultural conditions for enhanced production of bioactive metabolites by the strains as well as characterization of the bioactive compounds.

  199. Peer Mahammad Shaik, Raju Samraju, Ravi Chithakari and Mustafa Mohammad

    The comparative study was conducted to analyze the effect of TDZ on Caullogenesis of M. balsamina and M. charantia a closely related important medicinal cucurbits. The highest number of (10.9 ± 0.05) multiple shoots were observed on MS medium fortified with TDZ+ CSH (2.0 + 200 mg/L) from cotyledonary explant of M. balsamina However cotyledonary explants were produced maximum number of shoots (9.00± 0.23) on MS medium augmented with TDZ + CSH (2.0 + 200 mg/L) in M. charantia. Best rooting response obtained from regenerated shoots on MS medium supplemented with IBA (3.0 mg/L) in both plants. The plantlets raised in vitro were transferred in to green house and successfully acclimatized to natural condition with 75 % survival rate. This study is used for the analysis of effect of various concentration of TDZ on both plants and it is tool for genetics and transformation applications.

  200. Edna Maria Bonfim-Silva, Adriano Bicioni Pacheco, Tonny José Araújo da Silva, Éllen Souza do Espirito Santo, Carina Sthefanie Lemes e Lima Bär and Helon Hébano de Freitas Sousa

    Safflower is primarily intended to produce oil for human consumption, having the potential for biodiesel production. This study aimed to evaluate macro and micronutrients omission effect on biometrics and visual diagnosis of nutritional deficiencies in safflower plants grown in nutrient solution. Research was conducted in a greenhouse. Nutrient solutions containing all nutrients and with individual omissions of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, sulfur, boron, copper, iron, manganese, molybdenum and zinc were used. The design was completely randomized, with four repetitions. Visual diagnosis of nutrient deficiency symptoms and biometric characteristics were assessed. Data were subjected to analysis of variance and Scott-Knott’s test was applied when significant, both up to 5% probability. Among primary macronutrients, nitrogen, followed by phosphorus, caused the highest reductions in all the analyzed variables in safflower plants. Among secondary macronutrients, calcium absence caused the highest reductions, and the need for these three nutrients did not allow for plants to complete their life cycle. Macronutrient omission showed the most severe symptoms in relation to micronutrients.

  201. Neeraj Jain

    Investigations carried out deal with the effect of inorganic and organic admixtures in different concentrations on the properties of ß-hemihydrate plasters of mineral gypsum (selenite) and chemical gypsum (phosphogypsum). It has been observed that the addition of these admixtures plays a vital role in the increase of the compressive strength and also improves water resistance of the plaster. Addition of 1 % K2SO4 increases about 54 % and 66 % of compressive strength of selenite and phophogypsum plasters respectively, while water absorption decreases upto 30 %. The order of increase in compressive strength and water resistance observed is Al2(SO4)3

  202. Nadir Ali Birmani, Kiran Naz Memon, Sana Altaf Bhatti and Ali Murtaza Dharejo

    During present study on the helminth parasites of birds, a total of five Little Egret Egretta garzetta (Ciconiiformes: Ardeidea) were collected from different locations of river Indus at Jamshoro, Sindh, Pakistan. During examination of gut contents and visceral organs, seven trematodes belonging to genus Pegosomum Ratz, 1903 were collected from liver of two host birds. Present species differs from its congeners by having 26 number of collar spines, sub-terminal oral sucker, pre-pharynx absent, longer, tubular esophagus, ventral sucker rounded located at mid- level of body, cirrus sac elongated and wider at its base overlapping acetabulum, ovary spherical, slightly sub-median, both testes have smooth margin, anterior testis overlaps ceca from right side, posterior testis overlaps ceca from both sides, vitellarria commencing from lower level of pharynx, overlapping ceca reaching upto anterior testis, ceca with regular smooth outline and other varying characters.

  203. Yasmin Taj, S. and Narasegowda, P. N.

    Artemisia species has various medicinal properties, constituting the main source artemisinin, an antimalarial drug which has widespread importance to mankind. The production of artemisinin either in cell/tissue/the whole plant of Artemisia species is therefore highly desirable. This artemisinin varies in different species of Artemisia based on their genetic diversity. Thus in the present study an attempt has been made successfully to assess the genetic diversity among Artemisia species using EST- derived SSR marker as well as RAPD marker. The five species of Artemisia were collected from different regions of Karnataka, India and used for the DNA isolation using CTAB method and DNA quantified using 260/280 in UV-Vis spectrophotometer. The Isolated DNA was amplified using five EST derived Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) markers and 10 RAPD marker. Further the amplified products were separated by Gel Electrophoresis. The bands were scored for the presence or absence of bands. SSR produced a total of 25 alleles with an average of 5 alleles per locus. The polymorphism information content (PIC) reflections of allele diversity, frequency among the varieties ranged from 0.03 to 0.33, with an average of 0.18. The 10 decamer-RAPD primers generated 352 RAPD fragments. Most of the RAPD markers studied showed different level of genetic polymorphism. Pairwise Nei and Li’s similarity coefficient value ranged from 0.62-0.83 for 5 species of medicinal plants. A dendrogram was constructed using Unweight Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Mean (UPGMA) revealing 5 genotype with 4 clusters (SSR marker) and 3 clusters (RAPD marker), wide range of dissimilarity values which showed a high degree of diversity among the cultivars. The Artemisia species showed rich allelic diversity, indicating that there is great potential for identification of associations with present genotypes. Thus this method of analysis can be a helpful tool in selecting diverse parents and give broadness to the germ plasm base of medicinal plant breeding programs for the future, which can be utilized to develop new varieties with traits of interest.

  204. Vivekanandhan, S. and Maithili, S. S.

    The present study was under-taken to assess the changes occurring during the decomposition of municipal solid waste, through the estimation of some typical physico-chemical, and biological characteristics. Changes in the composition characteristics of the compost over-time, included increased electrical conductivity, bulk density, water holding capacity and total soluble solids etc, during the decomposition process, where as the moisture content got reduced towards the end of composting (with final moisture content being around 27 %). The changes in these characteristics appeared to reflect the microbial activity and biomass present. The successive levels of composting process, pathogenic bacterial populations decreased, physico-chemical analysis of compost from the point of view moisture content, pH, chloride, organic matter, calcium, magnesium, total phosphorus, total nitrogen, C/N ratio, sodium and potassium agreed with recommended standards and higher heavy metals concentrations was detected at all the decomposition stages of composting and were found to be within the permissible limits of Ohai- EPA standards. From the results, it can be concluded that, Turned windrow composting and Aerated static pile composting, could produce acceptable quality of compost, which can be used as fertilizer or soil amendment.

  205. Priyanka Arora, Geeta Singh and Archana Tiwari

    Aluminium is one of the most abundant elements on earth’s crust. It forms approximately 7% of the earth’s crust. In soils having low pH, aluminium combines very frequently with oxygen forming complexes which are rather more stable and harmful to microbes as well as plant species. Microorganisms continuously interact with various elements present in soil. Some interactions are beneficial but under low pH conditions some interactions are there which can cause inhibitory effect on them thereby limiting their growth under such conditions. Our current study aimed at studying the tolerance level of Burkholderia strain under aluminium toxic conditions and its role as bioinoculants on chlorophyll content and nitrate reductase activity of leaves in Zea mays. The results clearly depicted that Burkholderia species were able to survive even at 20mM aluminium stressed conditions and further when this strain was used as bioinoculant for coating maize seeds under stressed conditions, the plant thus grown resulted in an increase in chlorophyll content as well as nitrate reductase activity by approximately 1.2- folds and 2.5- folds respectively. The research revealed that Burkholderia has immense potential to tolerate stress thereby enhancing physiological parameters of plants. Further, elaboration of this study may explore new insights towards mechanism involved and the role of microbes in improving crop productivity.

  206. Ladke, L. S., Hiwarkar, R. A. and Jaiswal, V. K.

    In this paper, modified Einstein’s field equations are solved in the presence of bulk viscous fluid for spatially homogeneous and anisotropic Bianchi Type-V cosmological model by using the average scale factor as which leads to the time varying deceleration parameter. We also use the barotropic equation of state for pressure and density. The physical aspects of this model have been discussed.

  207. Shaik Sameer, Dr. P. Vijayabalan and Dr. Mylaudy

    Carbon dioxide is a major cause of natural calamities and changes in climatic conditions. Of all the sources of emission, the amount of carbon dioxide from automobiles is approximately 65%, which is more than any other sources of emissions. Raise in carbon dioxide content in atmosphere is causing global warming which is evolved from greenhouse gases. To reduce the emission and control of carbon dioxide percentage in atmosphere form automobiles, theoretical & practical methods of adsorption of carbon dioxide using activated charcoal (carbon) in diesel operated engines is conducted. Charcoal is one of the best adsorption material due to its high pours valve and capture capacity, when reacted with other reagents in order of activation, it increases its adsorption capacity than that of regular charcoal. In this project the activation of charcoal is a steam activation. The amount of carbon dioxide exhausted from diesel engine in ideal condition and after the reactor chamber is added to the exhaust system the content of carbon dioxide is controlled up to 9.266%.

  208. Abdelnabi Ali Elamin, Abdelhlaim Ahmed ZainElabdeen, Mubarak DirarAbd-Alla, Ali SulaimanMohamed and Bashir ElhajAhamed

    The main objective of the present work was investigated the self-magnetization for Iron filling samples. The experimental shown that the self-magnetization increasing dependent on size nanoparticles for the samples (x1,x2 and x3), which x1 denote the hard sample, x2 is the mid-size and x3 is soft one for Iron filling. The magnetization of sample x3 was greater than sample x2and sample x1.

  209. Rajesh Kumar, Sunil Pathania, Ankit Gupta, Raja Sekhar, Y. and Aggarwal, R.K.

    A new model based on artificial neural network has been developed to estimate monthly average global solar radiation for different Indian locations. Two layers feed forward network sigmoid trained with Levenberg-Marquardt back propagation algorithm with eleven input terminals and ten hidden layer neurons have been used to give solar radiation as an output. The model was trained, validated and tested by using measured global solar radiation data of eighteen Indian locations spread over different Indian climatic zones for which measured data was available. The regression coefficient was found to be 0.95967 with mean square error of 0.204. The mean percentage error, root mean square error and mean bias error between estimated and measured global solar radiation of eighteen locations have been found to be in the range of -4.16 to 4.82 , 0.02 to 0.26 and -0.30 to 0.08 respectively. A graphical user interface has also been developed to find the monthly global solar radiation of any location throughout India by putting eleven input geographical parameters of the desired location. Research Highlights: • Development of an artificial neural network model for the estimation of monthly average global solar radiation • Graphical user interface development for the developed artificial neural network model • Graphical representation of best validation performance • Comparison of measured and estimated solar radiation data • Regression coefficient representation

  210. Sumati Pati

    In the present work various toxic and combustible gases such as CO and CH4 could be well discriminated using ZnO thin film gas sensors from statistical analysis of their conductance transients. ZnO thin films are grown using MOCVD technique. The gas sensing characteristics of the grown films are studied at different operating temperatures in presence of various gases. The first Fourier transformation (FFT) yield excellent results in discriminating the gases at different operating temperatures.

  211. Vashi, D. M., Anant Desai and Sonam Singh

    A series of acid azo dyes were synthesized by the coupling of various Naphthoic acids with the diazonium salt solution of 3-(2-amino-thiazol-4-yl) coumarin. The resulting dyes were characterized by spectral techniques, i.e., elemental analysis, UV, IR and 1H-NMR spectroscopy. The dyeing performances of all the dyes were evaluated on woolen fabric. Dyeing of woolen fabric resulted in reddish pink to violet shades with good depth and levelness. The dyed fabrics showed moderate to very good washing and perspiration fastness.

  212. Amardeep Singh, Sharanjit Singh, Samson and Pratibha

    In recent years huge amounts of information has been collected in health based databases depicting patients’ health status (e.g., as laboratory results, treatment plans, medical reports). Thus, diagnosis of patient’s health has been considered as one of the vital processes in health care expert systems for the detection of acquired diseases from the given symptoms of the affected person. Dengue fever is a mosquito-borne disease caused by the dengue virus that in recent years has become a major public health concern because it can result in the death of the affected person if no action is taken. This disease is caused by the mosquito bite infected by one of the four dengue virus surrogates. It is one of those diseases whose symptoms are hard to detect. The main problem with the dengue fever detection is many people cannot depict whether they are infected by dengue fever or not which make them do nothing as they thought it is only a normal fever. However, early clinical diagnosis and careful clinical management by trained can increase survival of patients. In that case some reliable system is needed that can predict the disease and allow the user to take the necessary steps. This paper discusses the development of a wellness recommender system that would help users to detect dengue. Fuzzy systems are widely used in health care systems and are one of the most common subjects of today’s Medical Informatics. This paper has proposed a model that makes use of expert system based on fuzzy logic that analyzes symptoms introduced by the user and formulates a diagnosis using fuzzy sets to detect whether person is infected with dengue or not. Thus the proposed model uses rules of fuzzy logic in order to check whether person’s symptoms are to be qualified to be in infected category or not.

  213. Digitemie-Batubo, Beleudaara and Shidi, Hungwa

    Journals are meant to publish results of original research and current developments as well as announce new discoveries within a specific discipline or field of study usually in successive parts indefinitely. Librarians, like other academics need to consult them in order to conduct research and publish research results. This paper discusses the use of journals in Library and Information Science (LIS) by librarians in university libraries in Rivers and Bayelsa states of Nigeria. The study was set to identify library and information science (LIS) journals which are subscribed to by the university libraries in Rivers and Bayelsa States, extent of use, challenges and measures to improve the use of the journals. Descriptive survey design was used for this study. All the 53 librarians in the three universities in Rivers and Bayelsa States constituted the population of the study. Questionnaire and observation checklist were appropriate instruments for data collection while frequency tables, simple percentages and arithmetic mean were employed as instruments of data analysis in answer to the research questions. It was found among other things, that many of the LIS journals were not subscribed to by the universities under study and that, librarians’ extent of use of LIS journals from the various libraries is very low. It was recommended among others that, more LIS journals be subscribed to by the libraries and that, journal authors and publishers should make them visible/accessible.

  214. Kayalvizhi, R. and Sankar, K.

    Land use and land cover is an important component in understanding the interactions of the human activities with the environment and thus it is necessary to be able to simulate changes. Empirical observation revealed a change in land use land cover classification in the parts of Pudukkottai District Tamil Nadu state. In this paper an attempt is made to study the changes in land use and land cover in the study area 10 years period (2003-2013). The land use/land cover prepared LANDSAT ETM+ satellite imageries data (Path153, Row053, acquired on 30 meter resolution image). The image characteristics like size, shape, shadow, tone/colors, texture, pattern and various associated features were considered for interpretation and to achieve it initial identification of different land use classes was pointed out on the image before carrying out the image classification and Geo-referencing of the image was also carried out. The satellite digital data was rectified using Survey of India (SOI) to posheets and field visits in the parts of Pudukkottai District accessibility is the main reason to exploitation of land resources. The land use was classified into nine classes. The two different year land use/land cover maps were integrated in GIS environment. In 2003, dense trees cover, agriculture and water bodies dominated the entire study area, covering a total of 1103.4 Km2 (74.85%). The fourth largest land cover corresponds to Land without Scrub, which occupied 8.8% of the landscape followed by current fallow land (5.8%), sandy area (4.2%), Land with Scrub (3.4%), Barren land (1.5%) and built up land (1.4%).

  215. OWOLABI, Adenike Olanrewaju, AJIDAGBA, Adebayo Benedict, AKINOLA, Abisola Titilayo, FALAYE, Folayemi Omoladun and IRINYEMI, Benson Ademola

    This study assessed the impact of health insurance on employees productivity, using Nigerian Bottling Company Plc. as the case study. The study based its analysis on the premise that risk and uncertainty are the major elements of care. The study makes use of primary data that was sourced through a well-structured questionnaire. A total of one hundred and four (104) questionnaires were administered to the selected sample from a population of (208). The person product moment correlation coefficient was adopted for the data analysis. This study concludes that there is a significant relationship between health insurance and employee’s productivity. (r = .743**, N=104, P < .01) as revealed by the result of the analysis; there exists a negative relationship between risk and uncertainty and health insurance demand. Also there exists a strong positive relationship between product accessibility and health insurance demand. It was recommended, based on the conclusion of the findings, that every individual in an organization must have a defined and accessible health insurance scheme. This is expected to alleviate the problem of risk and uncertainty that is associated with heath care delivery.

  216. Koech Joseph, C.

    Enterprise development interventions refer to programs that provide business-focused solutions to help entrepreneurs in the developing world work their way out of poverty. They provide an intelligent mix of counselling, training and consultancy; financial interventions; infrastructural development and legal and regulatory framework helping people to work their way out of poverty. This paper examines the role of financial interventions in enhancing the growth of new venture start-ups based on a study of women- and youth-owned new enterprises in Baringo County, Kenya. The study adopted a survey research design targeting a population of 1049 respondents from which a sample of 281 was randomly selected. Data was collected using questionnaires and data sheet and analyzed using both descriptive and inferential statistics. The research findings established that women and youth entrepreneurs accessed funds to start their businesses in form of loans, personal savings, grants, finance from leasing, and finance from Equity bank and other agents. Most of the entrepreneurs were, however, not aware of grant availability in the national and county governments. As a result, very few of them had ever applied for these grants. Moreover, most of those who had applied and gotten the loan said they were not satisfied by the loans because the amount of collateral required was high. Nevertheless, most of the respondents admitted that loan availability, status of the grace period on loans, reimbursement periods and the complexity of application procedures had improved over time. They nonetheless lamented that the interest rates had in fact deteriorated. The study established that there is a significant relationship between financial interventions and new venture start-ups (p=0.005). To mitigate the above challenges, the county government of Baringo should come up with interventions that address issues of access to finances by women and youth entrepreneurs. The county government should also give the women and youth business owners a favourable environment to enable them to undertake their business ventures successfully.

  217. John Paul Castillo Vallente

    This contrastive genre study applies Martin and White’s Appraisal framework, specifically its Attitude subsystem in order to find out if there exist differences between stance patterns exhibited by American and Filipino disaster news writers, and if the manner by which US writers represent Philippines during post-catastrophic events and the way Filipino writers portray the country within similar context vary. Three U.S. daily newspapers and three Philippine broadsheets, which were selected based on readership online rankings, were the sources of data in the study. Data was examined employing critical discourse analysis and descriptive statistics, and qualitative interpretations were based on document investigation of existing relevant literatures and cross-cultural academic articles. Findings of the study revealed that there are differences of stance patterns employed by writers when presenting disaster discourse in print media. Philippine and U.S. newspapers put more emphasis on the categories of Judgment and Appreciation, basically rendering the items classified under Affect almost inconsequential. Moreover, both contexts frequently demonstrate negative attitudes toward the impact of super typhoon Yolanda on people and physical properties, and toward the overall recovery operations undertaken by the government to alleviate the crises experienced by the victims in post-disaster situations. On the other hand, the positive attitudes are associated with how the local community effectively participated in information dissemination and recovery operations—empowering the local government unit (LGU) in times of disaster and crises is certainly a strategic move towards attaining sustainable post-catastrophic interventions.

  218. Nida Rizvi, Dr. Deeksha Katyal and Dr. Varun Joshi

    River Hindon is an important river catering the demand of highly populated and industrial cluster of western Uttar Pradesh, India. Water quality of river Hindon is constantly deteriorating at an alarming rate due to various industrial, municipal and agricultural activities taking place along the course of the river. The present study investigates the seasonal and spatial variation in the water quality parameters at eight different sites for two consecutive years (2013-2015) along the selected stretch of the river. The physicochemical parameters such as pH, temperature, turbidity, total hardness (TH), total dissolved solids (TDS), total solids (TS), dissolved oxygen (DO), biological oxygen demand (BOD), chloride, nitrate, phosphate and fecal Coliform were analyzed for the river water quality. One way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to investigate the statistically considerable spatial and seasonal difference. Results of ANOVA suggest that there exist a statistically significant seasonal variation in the water quality of river with respect to pH, temperature, nitrate, sulphate, phosphate and DO. Whereas, the significant spatial variation was shown by TDS, TS, TH and chloride. Water quality index (WQI) was calculated for each site using the National sanitation foundation water quality index (NSFWQI) method. WQI results in the present study reveals that the water quality varies “bad” to “very bad” category at all sites in pre monsoon season. In post monsoon water quality comes under “bad” category at all sampling locations. The significant seasonal variation (p< 0.05) was recorded between the WQI of pre monsoon and post monsoon.

  219. Dr. Vasimalairaja, M.

    The aim of education Endeavour is to help one to develop one‘s individuality, develop all the inborn potentialities and innate capabilities and above all develop both body and mind. The emotional stability and consistency may depend upon the kind of environment in which the individuals been nurtured and trained up. Hence the investigator chose to study a problem in the area of “A study on Emotional Turbulence among XII Students in Madurai District”. The study was conducted on higher secondary school students sample consist of 300 students studying XII standard in Madurai district, Tamilnadu. Simple random sampling technique was used for the selection of the sample. The investigator adopted the survey method for this study. The results found that the level of emotional turbulence of XII students in Madurai district is moderate. It was found that there exists positive correlation between emotional turbulence and family educational status of XII students. There is significant relationship was found between emotional turbulence and family educational status of XII male as well female students. The emotional trouble can be tackled through the effective guidance.

  220. Otieno Joel Okumu and Luke Oyugi

    Savings and Credit Cooperative Societies (SACCOs) play an essential role in economic development as part of the financial system. In Kenya, 63% of population benefit from SACCOs. SACCOs are now a vital instrument embraced by Kenyan Government towards increasing financial inclusion especially now that financial transactions are tending towards a cashless economy. In light of this, various scholars have conducted studies on financial performance within the SACCO movement and using various variables. However, none of the scholars adopted the CAMELS model in their studies. This study was thus different from the previous ones as it adopted the CAMELS model in evaluating the factors that influence the financial performance of SACCOs measured by the return on asset (ROA). The study was guided by the following research Objectives: To determine the extent to which capital adequacy influences financial performance of SACCOs in Kisumu County; to evaluate the extent to which asset quality influences financial performance of SACCOs in Kisumu County; to find out how corporate management influences financial performance of SACCOs in Kisumu County and; to examine how liquidity management influences financial performance of SACCOs in Kisumu County. Towards meeting these objectives, the study adopted a survey research design, using 62 managing directors and finance managers at the 31registered SACCOs in the County that are operational. The sample size of 53 respondents was derived using the Yamane model; pilot testing was done on 6 SACCOs to test reliability and validity of the research tools. In the study, both secondary and primary data were used. While secondary data was obtained from authoritative documentations from the target units, primary data was collected by use of semi-structured questionnaires administered to 31 managing directors and 22 finance managers of SACCOs in Kisumu County. Obtained data was analyzed by use of descriptive and inferential statistical techniques. For non-quantitative data, content analysis was adopted. The study results were presented in tabular and chart formats. The study concluded that financial performance of SACCOs in Kisumu County is influenced by capital Adequacy, Asset Quality, management efficiency and Liquidity management. As explained by adjusted R2 of 0.4211% implying that capital adequacy, Asset Quality, and Liquidity Management, holding other factors constant contributed 42.11% of the variation in the Return on Asset. The p- value of 0.05α obtained implied that the regression model was significant in predicting the extent to which Return on Asset is influenced by predictor variables as it was less than α= 0.05. The study established that Capital Adequacy plays a key role in determining the financial performance of SACCOs. With regard to management efficiency the study realized that there was a strong positive correlation with financial performance. The study recommended that the management of the SACCOs to take good care of the Assets as they play a major role in generating the finances. The SACCOs also needed to put in place a proper management team to ensure prudent management of finances.

  221. Dr. Paul Mansingh, J. and Mr. Fikadu Abdese Erena

    Mobile delivery of extension information is an idea whose time has come, as this represents the most cost-effective and widespread interactive delivery medium. Communication through mobile phones is not a replacement of traditional communication tools, but compliments and facilitates the process of dissemination. Mobile phone usage by farmers can reduce the information search costs, thereby dramatically lowering transaction costs and enabling greater farmer participation in commercial agriculture. It is very much imperative to know the impact of mobile phone technology in the field of agriculture and rural development. This knowledge will help to redesign the existing transfer of technology programmes in such a way by utilising the mobile Phone technology so that the knowledge will be disseminated in an efficient and better way. The research design employed was ‘Secondary data analysis’ which is an analysis of data that has previously been collected and tabulated by other sources. Various research studies, project reports and conference proceedings were analysed to document the impact of mobile Phone technology in agriculture and rural development. To be included in the review, projects had to be specifically focused on mobile phones. To fit in the protocol, projects had to offer sufficient details around the use of mobiles to illuminate their role in the development processes. The impact of mobile Phone technology was analysed in the following fields: Agriculture, Rural Health, Rural Finance, Rural Development, Education and Natural Disaster Management. The impact was visible in all the fields analysed and therefore, it is more important to communicate the information needed by the local communities in a way they can grasp and act upon. Mobile Phone technology will unlock enormous benefits for the agricultural and rural development sector, particularly in the developing world.

  222. Eugenio A. Ermac

    This study assessed practical discussion on helping the faculty’s enhancement of various competencies. Further, the study conducted to examine the essential core competencies for training faculty in Competency Requirements under the Philippine Technical Vocational Education Training (TVET) in Trainers Qualification System (PTTQS) handling Refrigeration and Air-conditioning Technology at Cebu Technological University. The qualitative and quantitative data were collected through interviews and document analysis. Moreover, the importance of core competencies as rated by respondents and the mean rating were calculated for each competency. The quality of the results had to be applied for a systematic training enhancement for effective implementation and guidelines. Thus, enhance the competencies in Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Technology.

  223. Abdulrasool Alaee, Hadi Majidi, Ghassem Janbabai, Siavash Abedi, Mohammad Khademloo and Aliasghar Aghajani

    Background and Objective: The most common radiographic abnormalities related to lung metastasis are pulmonary nodules .The CT scan in most circumstances are the best modality for lung metastasis evaluation..In this study we aimed to investigate the diagnostic accuracy of lung CT scan with slice thickness less than 1 mm (0.625 mm) compared with the usual slice thickness for detection of tiny metastatic pulmonary nodules. Materials and Methods: This study was a diagnostic study performed on 110 patients with malignant diagnosis who were referred to the Radiology Department of Hospital. At first, following performance of routine CT scan with millimetres slice thickness (2mm ) from the patients’ lung, extra images were taken by sub millimetres slice thickness to assess either presence or not of nodules by two radiologists simultaneously. Data were analysed using Chi2, Fisher Extract, one way ANOVA, SPSS version 18 and Independent t statistical tests. In all cases, p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Radiologists reported nodules in 40 (36.36%) of cases using millimetres slice thickness of the images and in the submillimetreslice thickness images, nodules were found in 58 (52.70%) cases (P=0.001). There were significant differences between images with different thickness in visibility, resolution and the number of nodules observation. Conclusion: With reducing thickness, pulmonary nodule detection is increased and the use of submillimetric slice thickness (0.625mm) in comparing to conventional millimetres slice thickness has a significant difference in detection, and the number of pulmonary nodules. Environmental factor as an independent factor non-related to the modality and the observer can be also effective.

  224. Dr.Gholamreza Jahanshahi,Dr.Laleh Nazemi and Dr.Ardeshir Talebi

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCCs) is one of the most prevalent types of all oral neoplasms that highly require early diagnosis. Salivary evaluation is non-invasive, simple, and rapid.The aim of the current study was to investigate the relationship between salivary MMP-9 concentration and its tissue expression in patients with OSCC.Materials and Methods: Saliva samples were collected from 24 patients with primary diagnosis of OSCC and 24 healthy age-and-gender- matched. The unstipulated saliva was collected with spitting method. After saliva collection, the tissue samples were obtained by biopsy. Salivary concentration and tissue expression of MMP-9 were evaluated using ELISA and immune histochemistry assays, respectively. Data were analyzed using t-test, chi-square, and ANOVA tests with the confidence interval of 95%. Results: A significant increase in salivary concentration of MMP-9 was evident in OSCC patients in comparison to healthy individuals (P-value < 0.05).In addition, the MMP-9 salivary concentration was significantly higher in males in comparison with females (P-value < 0.05). There was a positive and significant correlation between salivary concentration of MMP-9 and its tissue expression (Pearson Correlation = 0.669, P-value< 0.05). Conclusion: Salivary evaluation of MMP-9 concentration could be a valuable tool to detect OSCC.

  225. Rajkumar, P. N., Dinesh, M.G., Syed Altaf, Vishnu Kurpad, N. and Harish H Kumar

    Breast cancer is known to spread to bone, lung and liver commonly. However, spread to gastrointestinal tract is rare. As compared to other parts of the gastro intestinal tract, stomach is the most commonly involved metastatic site. Primary gastric cancers must be differentiated from metastasis to stomach as the later condition is underdaignosed and associated with poor prognosis. Information is very sparse regarding the management of patients with cancer breast metastasizing to stomach, as there are very few case series and reports that are available in literature. We present a case series of five patients of breast cancer with mixed pathology metastasising to stomach with review of literature.

  226. Dr. Ragidi Raju, Dr. Bathineni Haritha, Dr. Balagoni Swetha Goud, Dr. H. R. Nagrale, Dr. Veeraswamy and Dr. Gonegandla Aejaz Ahmed

    Objective: To know the role of USG and CT in pancreatitis, compare the findings of USG with CT, correlate USG and CT findings with biochemical parameters, evaluate the occurrence of complications, and predict the outcome of patients with pancreatitis Materials and Methods: Ultrasound and CT (plain and contrast) evaluation was done in 55 patients clinically suspected of pancreatitis of all age groups and both sexes. The Ultrasound and CT findings were compared and correlated with the biochemical parameters. Cases are evaluated for the occurrence and complications & outcome .Discrepancies found between ultrasonographic and CT findings were analysed. Results: 55 cases were studied and they were subjected to USG and CT (plain and contrast). Most of the patients were males with male to female ratio 13:1. Most common etiology was chronic alcohol consumption (42 cases, 76.33%) followed by idiopathic (11 cases, 20%) and trauma (2 cases, 3.66%). Multiple sites of involvement (35 cases, 63.65%) was more common than focal involvement of pancreas. Severe form of pancreatitis (37 cases, 67.27%) was the most common type according to MCTSI. The most common complication was ascites (36 cases, 65.45%) followed by pseudocyst (31 cases, 56.36%) and pleural effusion (16 cases, 29.09%). Conclusion: The sensitivity of USG in detecting acute pancreatitis was 41.8% .The sensitivity of CT (pain and contrast) in detecting pancreatitis was 100%.Modified CT severity index shows significant correlation between severity of pancreatitis and patient outcome. Serum lipase is more accurate in detecting acute pancreatitis than serum amylase. Thus, from the present study it can be concluded that CT (plain and contrast) is superior in detecting and evaluating pancreatitis. Hence, CT (plain and contrast) should be performed in all cases of clinically suspected pancreatitis especially with positive serological findings.

  227. Richard K. Gyasi, Du-Bois Asante, Richard H. Asmah, Abdul R. Adams, Kinji Baba, Benjamin Amoani and Abdul R.M Iddriss

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is classified as a malignant neoplasm and is endemic to the Far East Asia. Oncogenic viruses such as Epstein Barr virus (EBV) and Human papillomavirus (HPV) are known to contribute to the pathogenesis of NPC tumours, with the former being well establish to have a strong association with the cancer. Little is known about the association of HPV, as well as the correlation of cytopathic effect induced by this virus and its presence in NPC tissue samples. The aim of this study was to compare the histopathological features (Koilocytosis) with PCR method to predict the presence of HPV infection in formalin-fixed-paraffin-embedded tissue (FFPET) samples of NPCs. Seventy-two archival (72) NPC tissues samples from the year 2006 to 2012 were retrieved from Pathology Department of University of Ghana School of Biomedical and Allied Health sciences. Sections were taken for histopathological analysis and DNA extraction. Detection of koilocytes was done using light microscopy where tissue samples were regrouped into WHO type I, II and III respectively. Consensus HPV forward primer (GP-E6-3F) and two consensus reverse primers (GP-E7-5B and GP-E7-6B) were used in polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis to determine the presence of HPV DNAs in the study sample. Out of the 72 archival NPC biopsies analysed, koilocytes were detected in 22 (30.6%) during microscopy and HPV DNA was detected in 14 (19.4%) during PCR analysis. Ten (10) samples out of the 22 with koilocytes were found to be HPV positive. There was a weak correlation (C= 0.436), though data analysis using Fisher’s exact probability test was statistically significant (p<0.05). There was a significant level of association between koilocytes and HPV, and thus, the presence of koilocytes in NPC tissues samples can serve as an indicator for the possible presence of HPV in NPC tissue samples.

  228. Utkirbek Matkuliev, Kim Jae Kyu and Bekhzod Abdullaev

    Background: Nowadays, transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) has become a mainstay treatment option for the management of portal hypertension-related complications in liver cirrhosis. Accumulated evidence has shown that its indications are being gradually expanded. Notwithstanding, less attention has been paid for the selection of an appropriate stent during a TIPS procedure. Aim: To evaluate efficacy of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt stent for decreasing portal pressure and estimate stent diameter according to the classification and patient condition. Materials and Methods: We observed and surveyed 67 patients between 2002 and 2014, 67 patients with cirrhosis (60 males) with a mean age 51.08±12.574 years underwent TIPS in the Tashkent Medical Academy II clinic (18 patients) and Chonnam National University Hospital (49 patients) who underwent TIPS. 17 patients were infected with hepatitis B virus, 6 patients were with hepatitis C, 1 patient were diagnosed with both of HBV, HCV, and histiocytosis. In 2 patients developed cirrhosis cause of both alcohol and hepatitis B virus. The hepatic function status evaluated by Child-Pugh classification. Results: We compared patients’ condition and complications of the TIPS according to stent diameter. The first month mortality rate was higher in the 12-mm stent group than in the 10-mm stent group. The 10 mm stents were more effective than the 8 mm stents for reducing portosystemic pressure gradient after TIPS (6.5±2.7 mm Hg and 8.9±2.7 mm Hg, P=0.007). A 10-mm stent group was superior to the 8-mm stent group for decreasing the first year rate of remaining free of recurrence and/or persistence of complications due to portal hypertension (82.9% and 41.9%, P = 0.002, by Log-Rank test). Conclusion: The study showed that a 10-mm stent might be effective and brought less complication than an 8-mm or 12-mm stent for the management of PH and the development of shunt patency. Covered stents are better than bare stents for decreasing the shunt dysfunction. The placement of a stent in the left portal vein branch may enhance the hepatic perfusion and decrease the incidence of hepatic encephalopathy.

  229. Mate Siakwa, Dzigbodi Kpikpitse, Wisdom Azanu, Robert Bella Kuganab-lem and Emmanuel Hanson-Owoo

    The main objective of this study is to determine neonatal sepsis among neonates born to Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infected mothers. One hundred and one neonatesborn to CT infected mothers were screened for CT infection by polymerase chain reaction (PCR).Maternal and neonatal risk factors for sepsis were also assessed using a checklist. Thirty-four of the neonates had sepsis of these, twenty-two(22) were early onset and 12 late onset. Neonatal infections included respiratory tract infections (RTI) 16; blood stream infection (BSI) 7; gastrointestinal tract (GIT) infections 5; urinary tract infection (UTI) 3; conjunctivitis (CONJ) 2; otitis media (OM) 1. Premature rapture of membrane (PROM) p<0.001); foul smelling liquor (FSL, p<0.001) intra partum fever (IPF) p<0.001) and meconium stained amniotic fluid (MSAF) p<0.001) were maternal factors found to have significantly increased the risk for CT infection in the neonate.Preterm birth (p<0.00O1) low birth weight and APGAR score less than 7 were neonatal characteristics found to have increased the risk for CT associated sepsis in the neonate.Caesarian section significantly reduced the risk for vertical transmission of CT (p<0.05).Routine screening and treatment of pregnant women for CT infection is recommended to reduce neonatal morbidity and mortality.

  230. Dr. Lalita, V, Dr Jyoti John, Dr. D. Niraimathi and Dr. Nitin John

    Reaction time study has been evaluated in many health and disease conditions. It reflects the alertness, calmness, concentration and cognitive abilities of an individual. Further study of choice reaction time for individual’s response of visual reaction time for red and green and auditory reaction time for low and high frequency sound helps in microanalysis of perception of central nervous system to wide variety of stimulus and response pattern in each of the exposed stimuli. Neurotoxic side effects such as mood fluctuations, impaired concentration abilities, memory deficit and cognitive dysfunction resulting from chronic exposure to formaldehyde fumes are well known. Our earlier study observation revealed increased auditory and visual reaction time. The above fact gave us an impetus to investigate the choice reaction time tasks for auditory and visual stimuli in those exposed to formaldehyde for duration of three to five years period. The Visual reaction time for red color was shortest and delayed for green color in the study and control groups. Similarly, the study group and control reacted faster for high frequency than low frequency sound. The student’s t test was employed to evaluate statistical significance. P value ≤ 0.05 was considered to be significant. Both visual and auditory choice reaction time was found to be delayed in study group as compared to control but this was not found to be statistically significant. Protective measures to prevent ill effects of formaldehyde exposure on human health are recommended.

  231. Razia Anjum, Syed, S. Imam and Rakshanda Rasheed

    The present study investigated emotional intelligence and job tenure as predictors of job satisfaction among university administrative staff. The sample was selected through purposive sampling and inclusion criteria were gazetted and non-gazetted administrative staff members having minimum job experience of one year. The data was collected from 153 administrative staff members (Male = 105, Female = 45)of 22 to 63 years old that having current job tenure ranged from 1 to 7 years. Emotional Intelligence Scale (Wong and Law, 2002) and Job Satisfaction Survey Scale (Spector, 1985) were administered individually to the participants in their respective offices. The results revealed that the variable of Emotional Intelligence is not significantly correlated with Job Satisfaction and Current job tenure but Job Satisfaction is significantly correlated with Current job tenure. Further Linear Regression Analysis illustrated that Current Job Tenure is a significant predictor of job satisfaction of university Administrative Staff. The findings also illustrated that there was no gender difference in the current job tenure as well as expression of Emotional Intelligence and Job Satisfaction. The current findings were also discussed in the terms of cultural and research implications for organizations.

  232. Manas Joshi M., Aleen Catharine, Mareena John and Anil Antony

    Context: Health related problems of elderly in India needs special attention. There are no prescribed guidelines for elderly in India, various physiological and age related factors contribute to unwanted reactions in elderly. In clinical practice it is very difficult for choose an appropriate medication for them. Considering all this problems we need an appropriate prescription pattern for elderly. Objective: To analyze the prescription appropriateness in elderly using beers and STOPP criteria and to identify the mishaps in prescriptions. Materials and Methods: All patients having age ≥ 65 years admitted in general medicine department during the study period was observed. Prospective and retrospective data were collected from patient medication record. Results and Discussion: 43.7% prescriptions showed inappropriateness in prescriptions and beers criteria were identified in more prescriptions. Conclusion: Inappropriateness in prescriptions common in our hospital and this mishaps point out for careful attention to elderly prescription pattern. Inappropriateness can minimized by selection of appropriate medication and need a team effort also point out the need of a proper guidelines for elderly patients.

  233. Dr. P. Narayana Prasad, Dr. Tarun Rana, Dr. Tarun Sharma, Dr. Gaurav Chaudhary, Dr. Yashraj Bahadur and Dr. Sonia Gera

    Introduction: Functional appliances are mostly used in the modulation of mandibular growth and displacement of the tongue, which results in the alteration of the oropharyngeal airway. This study was carried out to evaluate the cepalometric changes in pharyngeal airway space along with the position of hyoid bone, size and position of tongue and soft palate after functional appliance therapy in growing patients. Aims and objectives: 1.To evaluate the changes in pharyngeal length and width 2.To evaluate hyoid bone position and angulation, and 3. To compare size of tongue and soft palate before and after functional appliance therapy. Materials and method: The pretreatment and post treatment cephalometric radiograph of 8 growing subjects were considered and the changes in the airway were analyzed by dividing the sample in pretreatment (Group 1) and the post treatment group (Group 2). Cephalometric readings were analyzed using Paired t test and Pearsons correlation to evaluate the changes in the dimensions of pharyngeal airway, position and angulation of hyoid bone, length and width of soft palate and tongue. Results: Statistically significant changes were found in the anterioposterior dimensions of hypopharyngeal airway space (p=0.004) and hyoid distance from mandibular plane (p=0.046) after the completion of functional appliance therapy. Conclusion: The functional appliances play a significant role in the improvement of hyphopharyngeal airway space and in the upward movement of the hyoid bone in relation to the mandibular plane, increasing the area of the lower airway and hence decreasing the lower airway resistance.

  234. Mohammad Abu Bin Nyeem, Mohammad Nazrul Islam, Md Khairul Alam, Md. Masum Billah, Bijoya Islam and Mahbub Mostofa

    The present study was carried out to investigate possible antidiarrhoeal and antibacterial activities of methanolic extract of the flowering tops of Rosa damascena. Antidiarrhoeal activity of the methanolic extract of the flowering tops of Rosa damascena was tested by castor oil induced diarrhoea in mice, it increases mean latent period and decreased the frequency of defecation significantly and dose dependently at the doses of 250 mg/kg (P < 0.005) and 500 mg/kg (P < 0.001) body weight comparable to the standard drug loperamide at the doses of 50 mg/kg body weight. The antimicrobial activity was investigated against two Gram positive and nine Gram negative bacteria by using disc diffusion method. The methanolic extract showed moderate antimicrobial activity against Gram positive bacteria namely Staphylococcus aureus, and Gram negative bacteria namely Escherichia coli, Shigella boydii, Shigella flexneri, Enterococci spp, and Samonella typhi in dose dependant manner. The present study clearly supports the medicinal value of this plant. The overall results indicate the possibility of presence of some active principles in the plant extract possessing antidiarrhoeal and antibacterial actions.

  235. Ntuen, N. A. and Wakwe, V. C.

    Background: The study was carried out to determine the serum concentrations of Myoglobin in obese subjects attending University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital. Methods: One hundred and Eighty Five (185) obese subjects of BMI >30 had their Myoglobin determined and compared with 160 age and sex matched controls. Results: The myoglobin concentration of 14.33+15.61 in Obese subjects was higher than 13.59+3.69 obtained in the Control (P>0.05). Conclusion: The result of this study suggests that serum level of Myoglobin is increased in Obese subject.

  236. Dr. Madhubala, E. and Dr. Saraswathi Gopal

    Background: Salivary Evidence in a crime scene is scaling revolutionary heights in Forensics. Saliva identification on a victim proves malicious contact, thus carrying more evidentiary weight. Salivary DNA is also a promising tool for epidemiological genomic studies. This study was conducted to investigate state of DNA in scenarios of delayed evidence collection in tropical climatic temperatures. Aim: To evaluate quality of genomic DNA extracted from saliva swabs obtained from bite imprints and to assess the genomic fidelity when the DNA from the dry evidence is preserved in favorable and unfavorable temperatures for a period of 60 days. Materials and Methods: 25 participants were recruited and 2 samples, the first comprising of 5ml of unstimulated saliva and second, bite imprints recorded on putty impression material were obtained. Swabs were taken from the bite imprint on the 1st day simulating early evidence collection and 3rd day simulating delayed evidence collection respectively; the 3 day interval during which bite imprints were left unprotected at room temperature. Single swabbing technique was employed in swab collection. DNA extraction was done from the collected saliva and the swabs to compare quantity and check quality. Extracted Trace DNA was preserved in a range of tropical temperatures and inspected for degradation by PCR once in 20 days, for 60 days. On the 60th day, DNA quality comparison was done. Results: The comparison between quantity of DNA in saliva and swab A showed statistical significance with P=0.0005 <0.001 with the mean±S.D of saliva (87.44±42.05 ) and Quantity of DNA from swab A being (1.53±0.72). Similarly the comparison of Quantity of DNA from saliva and swab B showed significance with P=0.0005<0.001 with swab B ( 0.65±0.30) and the comparison between swab A and Swab B also statistical significant with ( 1.53 ±0.72) and (0.65±0.30) respectively. The Trace genomic DNA which was obtained by portioning Swab B DNA into 3 parts and preserved in unfavorable temperatures exhibited reliable quality within study period which was demonstrated by DNA amplification pattern in Polymerase chain reaction. Conclusion: In delayed Evidence collection upto 3 days, tropical climatic temperature does not seem to hamper the quality of DNA and the genomic fidelity was found to be maintained. The study also proved that Trace Genomic DNA can be preserved in normal tropical temperatures for a minimum of 60 days without the threat of complete DNA degradation.

  237. Akter, N., Ferdous, H. S. and Qureshi, N. K.

    Objective: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is considered as the principal cause of chronic elevated liver enzymes. The components of metabolic syndrome are found to be significantly associated with NAFLD. The study was carried out to determine association between nonalcoholic fatty liver diseases and components of metabolic syndrome. Methods: This cross sectional observational study was conducted with ethical permission, between April 2015- September 2015, among randomly collected 203 Bangladeshi subjects with Metabolic Syndrome, aged >18 years, who visited Out Patient Department (OPD) of MARKS Medical College & Hospital, Dhaka. In the study, Adult treatment Panel (ATP) III criteria was used to diagnose metabolic syndrome and 4D abdominal ultrasonography were performed to detect fatty infiltration in the liver. Data were collected in pre-formed record form, analyzed with SSPS for Windows version 16. Results: Presences of NAFLD among subjects with metabolic syndrome were evaluated by abdominal 4D ultrasonography. Frequency of NAFLD was 26.60%. Women had more NAFLD (55.55%) than men. Men were more overweight than female and female were more obese than male [p0.023]. Waist-hip ratio (WHR) were more in subjects with NAFLD [0.96±0.02 vs 0.94±0.04, p0.001) and High Density Lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol were significantly less in subjects with NAFLD (36.97±3.52 vs 40.93±6.89, p0.002) than subjects with non-NAFLD. Conclusion: The components of metabolic syndrome are found to be closely linked with NAFLD. In this study, high WHR and low HDL cholesterol were significantly associated with NAFLD.

  238. Dr. Anindya Sundar Das, Dr. Jayanthi K., Dr. Diwakar Athreyas Rao, Dr. Deepukrishna S. and Dr. Deepukrishna S.

    Pycnodysostosis is a rare clinical entity, first described in 1962 by Maroteaux and Lamy. It is an autosomal recessive genetic disorder characterized by osteosclerosis, brittle bones, short stature, delayed closure of the fontanels, wide lambdoidal sutures and premature synostosis of the coronal suture, clavicular dysplasia spondylolysis and acroosteolysis. This paper presents a very rare case of a patient with Pycnodysostosis, with concurrent osteomyelitis and review the relevant literature.

  239. Touti, R., Chaouqi, A., Misdaq, M. A. and Matrane, A.

    Urban populations in Morocco receive free medical drugs as prescribed by doctors in district health centres. To explore the exposure pathway of 238U, 232Th and their decay products to the skin of patients, these radionuclides were measured in various medical drugs by using solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs).The measured concentrations range of 238U and 232Th in the medical drug samples of interest vary from (4.3±0.3) mBq.l-1 to (11.1±0.7) mBq.l-1 and (0.49±0.03) mBql-1 to (1.3±0.1) mBq.l-1, respectively. A new dosimetric model, based on the concept of specific alpha-dose and alpha-particle residual energy, was developed for evaluating radiation doses to skin following the application of different medical drugs by patients. The maximum total equivalent effective dose to skin due to the 238U and 232Th series from cutaneous application of different medical drugs by patients was found to be 2.8 mSv y-1cm-2.

  240. Rajalakshmi Murugan, Firew Tiruneh and Maria Therese

    Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder is a common childhood neuro- developmental disorder with early onset, affecting 5.4% and 8.7% of African children. Recent studies reveal that 30% to 70% of children continue to experience the problem in adulthood. In spite of high morbidity, a large majority of children with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder remain undiagnosed or do not receive appropriate specialized services because of lack of technology. The disease causes impairments of personal, social, academic, or occupational functioning. Even though studies in Africa show that large numbers of children are having the disease, there is paucity of information on the prevalence in Ethiopia. This study was aimed todetermine the prevalence of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder among children in Jimma Zone, south west Ethiopia. Community based descriptive cross-sectional study design was employed among children aged between 6 to 16 years old. Simple random sampling was used to select 02 Woredas from 17 woredas in Jimma zone. Then 03 kebeles were randomly selected from each selected woredas; and in turn 406 study subjects were selected randomly from a household within each selected section, Multi stage cluster sampling. A validated an 18-items of the Disruptive Behaviour Disorder rating scale was used to investigate the presence of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder symptoms. Out of all, 95.3 %( n=387) of study participants were completed the interview and the prevalence of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder was found to be 13.7%, 95%CI (10.1, 17.3), with male to female ratio of nearly 1.3: 1. The prevalence was high in this study; that shows Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder is significant public health issue that requires a great emphasis; affecting males more than females. So, early screening and intervention of the disease should be integrated in child care service settings and supported with high technology.

  241. Vecchione, R., Picariello, N., Haidar Hassan, K., Del Corso, F., Corcos, L., Nappi, A., Mauro, U. and Antonucci, N.

    Background: Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy (HBOT) is a recommended treatment for all hypoxic-ischemic pathologies. It has been demonstrated that perfusion abnormalities are present in some areas of cerebral grey matter in autistic children and there is a lack of connectivity in areas of the white matter. The cause of these anomalies is still unknown. The areas involved (temporal lobes, frontal lobes, and other areas such as the thalamus, limbic circuits, corpus callosum, and cerebellum) are connected to the symptoms and behavior of these patients. The PET and SPECT scans demonstrate how low pressure HBOT facilitates the oxygenation of hypoxic cerebral areas in autistic children. The clinical trials recorded in the literature are still insufficient for clarifying many elements. Goals: To demonstrate that HBOT leads to significant improvements in specific abilities and behavioral symptoms tied to the functioning of the affected brain areas, and to show the safety of the HBOT treatments. Materials and Methods: Thirty children between five and nine years old, randomized, with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) underwent HBOT at 1.5 ATA and 100% oxygen for a total of 40 sessions. The following eight psychometric scales were used for the analysis: VMI (Visual-Motor Integration), PPVT (receptive-auditory language), BRIEF (executive function), SRS (social responsiveness scale), VABS (adaptive behavior), ABC (aberrant behavior), PSI (parental distress index), A.T.E.C. (analysis of treatment outcomes). Multiple statistical tests were used, based on the requirements of each specific analysis. Results: Improvement was found in the following areas/abilities: receptive-auditory vocabulary (p=0.016), visual-motor integration (p=0.045), visual perception (p= 0.004), motor coordination (p=0.049), “SHIFT” scale (p=0.013), subscale I/irritability (p=0.001), subscale II/lethargy (p=0.015), subscale III/stereotypic behavior (p=0.040), subscale IV/hyperactivity (p=0.000), subscale V/inappropriate speech (p=0.008) on the ABC test, communication scale (p=0.000), global scale of adaptive behavior (p=0.001), and in the outcomes of the treatment (p=0.029). A decrease was found on the social awareness subscale (p= 0.21). The analysis of the ABC subscale revealed that there were also significant improvements during the course of the treatment. Conclusions: A significant probability of obtaining positive clinical results using HBOT in subjects affected by ASD was demonstrated. No side effects were observed in any of the children who were treated.

  242. Mohammed KhalifaAbdelsalam, Ahmed YusniBahaudeen and Ahmed Mohammed Kamaruddeen

    In examining the influence of the organizational structure and culture on the medical waste management practice (MWMP) among public hospitals in Libya, this paper depicts a theoretical view to develop several corresponding hypotheses, with the two organizational factors (structure and culture) proposed to draw their effect upon hospital groups who are in charge of medical waste. Therefore, this paper examines the direct relationship between independent variables (structure and culture) and the dependent variable (MWMP). In doing so, previous research noticed that certain organizational factors such as (structure and culture) do influence waste management at the hospitals. Our finding shows that there are some inconsistent findings. We used the questionnaire design to gather the data from the surveyed hospitals located in the southern part of Libya. A total of 210 questionnaires were distributed and 171 usable responses were received, yielding 70% response rate. The two dimensions of the structure examined in this research (centralization and formalization) are found to have a positive relationship and significant influence on the management practice of medical waste. Moreover, the relationship between the organizational culture and MWMP is positive. The findings obtained from this research suggest that in order to improve MWMP among the public hospitals in Libya, nurses and cleaners should consider the structure dimension such as formalization seriously. We seek for our findings to be able to enhance the way medical waste is handled in the Libyan hospitals and complement the existing body of knowledge as well as to contribute to future studies in regards.

  243. Dr. Gangwal Himanshi and Dr. Rajoria Lata

    Objective: To study the demographic risk factors, sites, types, clinical features, management of rupture uterus and to study the maternal & fetal outcome and to make a strategy for prevention of this catastrophe. Method: This study was carried out in Jan 2008 to Jan 2009 at Mahila Chikitsalaya, SMS Medical College, Jaipur. 70 cases of rupture uterus were taken and analysed during 1 year. They were examined after proper history and informed consent, beyond 28 wks of gestation. Patients were dealt according to general condition, parity, presence or absence of sepsis. Maternal and fetal outcome in the form of morbidity and mortality was recorded. Results: Out of 70 cases studied majority of patients (n = 38) had h/o previous LSCS with no prior vaginal delivery. Maximum number of cases were diagnosed during pregnancy 67.14% cases and out of 70 cases, 40% cases presented with fetal distress or IUFD followed by maternal tachycardia in 32.86% and scar tenderness in 30% cases. Maternal morbidity was mainly due to anaemia 51.43% followed by sepsis in 20% cases. Fetal morbidity and mortality is maximum in form of still birth 44.29%. Conclusion: Rupture uterus is a most devastating catastrophe with high incidence and mortality. It is potentially preventable by early and prompt diagnosis, effective treatment and public education and awareness.

  244. Eman Ramadan Kamel

    This paper was conducted to evaluate the economic and productive efficiency of two layer breeds and their crossing in Egypt. The first breed is indigenous Fayoumi, and the second is exotic Rhode Island Red (RIR). Both breeds have their different performances, and each breed was preferred over the other for some particular traits. By crossing the two breeds, the crossbreds could benefit from the strengths of the purebreds. The economic efficiency measures are used to determine the economic value for various traits and to compare the performance of purebreds and crossbreds. 480 chicks were divided into 4 groups consisting of Fayoumi, Rhode Island Red (RIR), Rhode Island Red × Fayoumi crossbred and Fayoumi × Rhode Island Red crossbred. Each genotype was divided into 3 replicates, all housed in a litter floor house up to 28 weeks of age. Economic and productive efficiency measures were calculated. On the basis of our results, it would be concluded that, RIR purebred showed the highest body weight, average daily gain and relative growth rate at 0-8th, 8th-20th, 20th-28th weeks of age. Net profit was significantly higher (P < 0.05) for Fayoumi × RIR crossbred (L.E/chicken 27.37), followed by RIR purebred (L.E/chicken 26), then Fayoumi purebred (L.E/chicken 24.48) and the lowest was RIR×Fayoumi crossbred (L.E/chicken 20.6).

  245. Shobhit Srivastava, Anil Kumar Saksena, Sanjay Khattri and Santosh Kumar

    Aim: The objective of the study was to find out association between serum uric acid (UA) levels and severity of pain in different grades of osteoarthritis of knee (KOA) patients. Methods: After obtaining ethical clearance, 160 patients suffering from KOA were enrolled in the study. Informed consent was taken and blood samples along with the radiographs of the knee joints were obtained. On the basis of the radiographic pictures the patients were categorised into four grades according to Kellgren Lawrence (KL) grading method. For each patient serum UA level was estimated and degree of pain was calculated using Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). Results: Both the UA levels and severity of pain were found to be in increasing order in parallel from grade-I to grade- IV patients. The severity of pain was significantly higher in grade IV as while the increase in UA levels was not significant. Conclusion: It may be concluded that the level of UA is raised in parallel with the severity of KOA

  246. Vandana Sharma, Sadhana Sood and Dharmveer Yadav

    Introduction: Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the most common cause of mortality around the world (2). Identification of risk factors and early diagnosis are important as symptoms may indicate unexpected and serious consequences. In addition to genetic predisposition; obesity, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidaemia, hypertension and smoking are well established risk factors. The relationship between increased Serum Uric Acid level and development of CAD has been investigated for more than 50 years. Methods: The study is aimed to find out the significance of raised Serum Uric Acid level in patients with Coronary Artery Disease (CAD). In this study, we included forty CAD patients as test group and equal number of controls. Both test group and control group were selected according to inclusion and exclusion criteria. All candidates were assessed for anthropometric and biochemical parameters. Lipid profiles and Serum Uric Acid was estimated by auto-analyser and IFCC approved methods. Results: The present study showed significant increased level of Total Cholesterol (p< 0.001) and elevated LDL-C (p<0.001) in CAD patients as compared to controls. Mean Uric Acid was also significantly higher in test group (7.83±1.83) as compared to control group (5.06±1.48). Conclusion: Serum Uric Acid, TC/HDL and LDL/HDL ratios could be regarded as objective markers in association with existing atherogenic dyslipidaemia in patients with CAD.

  247. Arend Laurence Mapanawang, Mustofa, Mahardika A Wijayanti, Rina Handayani, Lukman Hakim, Maikel Killing, Aleksander Maengkom, Frangky Mapanawang, Fernandes Sambode, Henderina Maengkom and Sarah Mapanawang

    Malaria remains one of the deadly diseases in Indonesia. In its attempts to cure malaria, the government has implemented the DHP formulation (dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine) added with primaquine. However, no study has been carried out on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of this combination. The purpose of this research is to compare absorption rate constant (Ka), time of maximum concentration observed (Tmax), elimination half-life (t1/2), volume of distribution (VD), clearance (CL), plasma maximum concentration (Cmax), and area under curve (AUC) of the DHA-piperaquine (DHP) and primaquine combination in 12 uncomplicated falciparum malaria patients and the pharmacological effects. Random clinical tests were conducted with an experimental method to 12 patients from September to December 2014. Blood samples were taken sequentially, starting from day 0 to day 28, and then tested using LC-MS to measure the kinetic concentration. The results showed that the kinetic profile of DHA, piperaquine, and primaquine synergized well with no contradictions recorded as the patients were cured without any side effects. The DHP-primaquine combination (Cmax and Auc) was able to clean the parasite in just two days of treatment and showed that there was a significant relation (P = 0.001 < 0.05 AND 0.010 < 0.05) between the drug content and parasite clearance. The pharmacological effect was APCR, with 100% of treatment success.

  248. Prakash Kumar Mishra, Kaur, I. R., Manchanda, V., Batra, P. and Singh, N. P.

    Introduction & objective: Acute Bacterial Meningitis (ABM) is a medical emergency which warrants early diagnosis. Pretreatment with antibiotic before lumbar puncture make interpretation of CSF culture difficult. Clinicians must rely on the other tests to determine the etiology of meningitis. Thus it is very important to ascertain the diagnostic efficacy of different tests employed. This study was aimed to evaluate Real Time PCR with other diagnostic methods in culture negative ABM in pediatric age group. Material & Method: 60 CSF samples from suspected cases of ABM were subjected to cytology, gram staining, biochemical analysis, culture as well as antigen detection by latex agglutination test (LAT) for S.pneumoniae, H.influenzae, N.meningitidis, E.coli, Gr.B Streptococcus and probe based Real Time PCR for S.pneumoniae, H.influenzae, N.meningitidis. Result: Among the five PCR positive samples for S. pneumoniae four were positive by LAT, of which only one was isolated by culture. Of the three PCR positive H.influenzae samples, two were positive by LAT but none yielded growth. All CSF samples demonstrating microorganism by any means (culture, LAT, RTPCR) had shown Polymorphonuclear leucocytosis & pus cells. Conclusion: This study emphasizes the need to subject pediatric CSF samples to Real Time PCR for identifying microorganism, showing polymorphonuclear leucocytosis & pus cells which may be missed on culture.

  249. Dr. Saquib Ahmed Shaikh, Dr. Lekha, K., Dr. Gaurav Mathur, Dr. Swasti Tambi Mathur and Dr. Anup, N.

    Debonding of the soft liner from the denture base is a major problem that plagues their longevity. Various surface modifications have been introduced to increase the bond strength. But no studies have been conducted comparing the bond strength between denture liners and acrylic resin following Plasma-oxygen and laser treatment. A total of 108 rectangular denture base resin blocks each having a cross-sectional area of 10mm × 10mm and 40 mm length were fabricated. The blocks were divided into 2 groups (n=54) each for bonding with the 2 soft liners (Group 1-Molloplast-B, Group 2-Permasoft). Sample for tensile bond testing was made by packing a soft liner of 3mm thickness between the 2 blocks. Each group was further divided into 3 subgroups based on the surface treatment of the bonding surfaces of the resin blocks i.e. Group A- control (untreated, n=9) Group B-laser treated (n=9) and Group C-Plasma-oxygen treated (n=9). The samples were subjected to tensile stress in universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 5mm/min. The data was tabulated and subjected to statistical analysis using One way-ANOVA test. Results of this study showed that Plasma-oxygen treatment was more effective in increasing the bond strength as compared to laser pre treatment.

  250. Nagwa Ebrahim, ABOZEID A. HASSANIEN, MAGDY Mahmud Mohamed and Gamal Ahmed Tawfik

    Background: Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is one of the chronic complications of diabetes mellitus (DM) that cause a common end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Cytokines regulate inflammatory processes in response to the degree of inflammations. Overproduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factoralpha (TNF-α) and interlukin-6 (IL-6) play a role in the development and progression of DN. Aim: To evaluate the levels of TNF-α and IL-6, and their implication in diagnosis and progression of nephropathy in patients with type 2diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Subjects and Methods: Sixty subjects (45 patients, 15 normal) were selected from Suez city and general hospital in Suez, with mean age43.3±8.2years. They were classified into four groups, Group I:healthy subjects, Group II:T2DMpatients; GroupIII: Nephropathicpatients identified by high level of creatinine in blood and microalbuminurea; and Group IV: Nephropathic patients with T2DM as identified by high level of creatinine and glucose in blood and microalbuminurea. Blood and urine samples were collected and tested for fasting and postprandial blood glucose (PBG) level, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1C), liver and kidney function tests. In addition, serum TNF-α, and IL-6levels were measured by Enzyme Linked Immune Sorbent Assay (ELISA). Results: The level of IL-6 was significantly increased (p<0.05) in nephropathy and DN groups compared to control and T2DM groups with a significant positive correlation between its level and the duration of diabetes in DN group and significant negative correlation between its level and duration of diabetes in T2DM group. On the other side, TNF-α levels were significantly decreased(p<0.05) in both nephropathy and DN groups compared with control and T2DM groups which was not correlate to the duration of diabetes in either T2DM or DN groups. Conclusion: Tracking the levels of IL-6 cytokine in T2DM patients could be used as a marker for progression to DN patients.

  251. Dr. Asha, M. L., Dr. Jasti Sri Lakshmi, Dr. Lekshmy J., Dr. Mahesh Kumar, H. M. and Dr. Laboni Ghorai

    Hydatid cyst or Echinococcosis is a parasitic disease caused by tapeworm. Dog being the definitive host, this disease is common worldwide. Hydatid disease is most commonly caused by E. granulosus. Liver and lung are the frequently affected organs. It is a chronic disease and cyst can be localized in different organs. Incidence of hydatid cyst in head and neck region is extremely rare. This is a case report emphasis on extremely rare presentation of hydatid cyst in buccal vestibule.

  252. Defaru Debebe and Tekilu Teshome

    Human Immunodeficiency Virus| Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (HIV|AIDS) has become the common deadly chronic disease. Provision of antiretroviral drugs is believed in reducing the effect of stigma and social discrimination. Previous studies verified the association between accesses of ART on stigma reduction. In this study, the urban data results confirmed with the previous study results. However, the rural data do not reflect the access of ART reduces the stigma of patients on ART. Most of patients in rural hospitals give up continuing on ART due to stigmatization. As a result the survival probabilities of rural patients on ART in Gidole (rural hospital) become 0.0997 in 104th survival month from 0.9956 in 17th survival month. For the same survival months, the survival probabilities of patients on ART in Arba Minch (urban hospital) become 0.5924 from 0.9936. To improve the survival probability of patient, we should improve CD4 count. It is the main determinant factor in patient survival modeling.

  253. Manjusha Hivre, Veena Hatolkar and Deepali Vaishnav

    Background: While working in a clinical laboratory, sometimes it happens that the health and safety can be overlooked, inadvertently pushed aside or forgotten–with dire consequences. However, with proper training and practice in noticing the mundane i.e. safety measures, we can find and correct many common mistakes and prevent hazards and injury. Aim: A study was carried out to study the knowledge and practice of safety measures being adopted in clinical laboratories. Material and methods: The study consists of 97 respondents. Questionnaire was given in the form of pre-test and post-test to survey knowledge and practice of technical staff in the laboratory. In between training was conducted for improving the knowledge of the staff. Results: Regarding laboratory symbols and laboratory safety knowledge - majority of the participants knew most of the symbols, health safety measures and their knowledge improved after training. Conclusion: Laboratory safety in India has to be a part of overall safety programme in hospitals and all this can be achieved by having a good training programmes in hospitals in general and laboratories in particular.

  254. Nurul Hudani Md. Nawi, Marof Redzuan, Puteri Hayati Megat, Ahmad and Shazia Iqbal Hashmi

    Background: Various changes in the educational system have evolved for educator leaders recently. However, negative impacts on leader’s emotional intelligence due to leadership behavior that arise problems in producing good quality of work can have significant effect on their performance. Objective: This study investigates the impact of an emotional intelligence on leadership behaviour as well as fitness of the suggested hypothetical model and the observed data. Method: Using a structured questionnaire derived from the literature, data were collected from 306 (89%) subjects from a 15 SBT (High Performance Schools) in Malaysia which were chosen by cluster sampling procedure. The data were then analyzed using structural equation modeling (SEM); an acceptable level of model fit was found. Two sets of questionnaire to measure emotional intelligence (Emotional Competence Inventory)(ECI)and leadership behavior (Multi-factor leadership questionnaire)(MLQ) were administered. The inclusion criteria consisted of leaders in a school setting. Results: Three-hundred-and-six educator leaders from fifteen SBT schools in Malaysia were recruited into the study. Respondents were on average 41 years old (range= 26-60 years). The Majority were female (n=174), education level (degree; n=255), and working experience (range=11-20 years; n=107).In examining the relationship between emotional intelligence with leadership behavior, EQ was positively related to transformational leadership, p < 0.001, R2 = 0.61, and transactional leadership, p< 0.001, R2 = 0.77. The result shows that the model fit indices demonstrates TLI (Tucker-Lewis Index), NFI (Normed Fit Index), RFI (Relative Fit Index), IFI (Incremental Fit Index) and CFI (Comparative Fit Index) are more than .90 (from .932 until .975), RMSEA (Root Mean Square Error of Approximation) also shows 0.055 (RMSEA <. 08) (Byrne, 2001). These values indicate an adequate fit and it’s obviously met the basic requirement of model fit. The values of the Chi-Squared Roots Goodness of Fit also show 1.87, below 3. Therefore, the model is significantly fit and support to the data. Conclusion: On a practical note, the assessment of psychological constructs in school setting eg; EQ and leadership behavior could possibly assist in enhancing the work performances in delivering huge benefits to the society especially in the educational contexts.

  255. Vini Talwar, Shashirekha, M., Geetanjali Mohan, Athul Antony Simon, Aga Ammar Murthuza and Varsha Mokhasi

    The jugular foramen is a hiatus located at the base of the skull. The ninth, tenth and eleventh cranial nerves pass through this foramen. The increasing use of modern diagnostic procedures and new surgical approaches has created a need for detailed anatomical studies of the foramen. Hundred dry south Indian human skulls were collected from the Department of Anatomy Vydehi Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Center and a study was undertaken to measure the size of jugular foramen. The length, width and depth of jugular foramen on both sides were measured using digital Vernier callipers and the incidence of septation of jugular foramen was noted. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS Version 21. The Independent Sample t test was used after checking the normality of the data. In 57% of skulls length of jugular foramen on right was more than on the left. It was observed that 21 skulls had complete septa on the right and 18 had complete septa on the left, while 79 skulls had incomplete septa on the right and 82 skulls had incomplete septa on the left side. It was observed that Jugular foramen was larger on the right which was statistically significant.

  256. Anumula Vamsi Krishna Reddy, Gudiseva Swetha, Inampudi Lavanya, Poosarla Chandrashekar and Chiramana Sandeep

    Nanotechnology refers to the research and development of an applied science at the atomic or molecular level (i.e. molecular engineering, manufacturing). Although the nanoscale is small in size, its potential is vast. Almost every area of human activity will be affected by future nanotechnologies. Nanotechnology is based on the concept of creating functional structures by controlling atoms and molecules on a one-by-one basis. With developments in materials science and biotechnology, nanotechnology is especially anticipated to provide advances in dentistry and innovations in oral health-related diagnostic and therapeutic methods.

  257. Abdelrahman A.H. Mohamed, Mutaz Ibrahim Hassan, ALnair Ibrahim, Omaima Suliman and Gamal. M. Elimairi

    Background: Human in contact with petroleum products always in regular life needs as they are parts of many materials on consumption needs, the more affected individuals are those in direct contact with these products are individuals in work positions make easy direct exposure, as workers in petrol stations, petrol products enter the body though breathing from air; swallow in water, food, or through touching. Most components can enter the blood stream rapidly when inhaled. Liver one of the organs exposure to patrol components can lead to its damage which can be manifested in different patterns. Objectives: the aim of this study was to assess the liver function tests in benzene stations workers in Khartoum state- Sudan. Results: The results of the study revealed significant difference in serum Aspartate Amino Transferase (AST) and Alanine Amino Transferase (ALT) in case group as compared with control group with mean of (30.3) IU/L, (22.3) IU/L and (24.3) IU/l, (17.6) IU/L with (P.Value 0.001, 0.01) respectively. On other biochemical parameter there was no significant variation between case and control group (P.Value >0.05). Conclusions: There were no obvious effects on LFT in most of parameters, but LFT should be assessed with the time of work and an end point for such work should be kept in employment rules, to prevent irreversible damage in gas worker health status.

  258. Akanksha Khurana and Jyoti Bhoj

    Condom Social Marketing is a means in which condom brands are developed and marketing with the promotional campaigns to be sold to specific target groups. Currently, more than two billion socially marketed condoms are distributed each year and present in 66 countries in the globe. The origin of Condom Social Marketing was in 1960’s when Government of India expanded it family planning methods with special focus on condoms. The efforts are further focused on condom promotion in 1980’s with discovery of HIV/AIDS. The article will provide in brief about the efforts of government and its implication on condom awareness in the country. The article states the two major campaigns by Department of Health and Family Welfare and National AIDS Control Organization (NACO), i.e. Social Marketing Scheme and Target Condom Social Marketing Programme (CSMP) respectively. The article analyzes the data regarding condom sales, distribution and usage. Further, the article examines the key findings and provides few suggestions followed by conclusion.

  259. Fatemeh Motamedi, Sajedeh Malekzadeh, Moghadameh Mirzaei and Mohammad Azami

    Background & Aim: Literacy is as an active link between people and health literacy field. People with certain factors such as cognitive abilities, social skills, emotional state and physical condition are healthy tissue. The aim of this study was to Investigation of health lieracy level of cardiovascular patients hospitalized in educational hospitals of Kerman city in 2015. Material & Methods: This study used survey methods, analytical and cross-sectional manner. Data was collected through questionnaires distributed functional health literacy among 100 patients of cardiovascular-hospitalization took place in the city of Kerman. Results: Results showed that 10 percent of patients with adequate health literacy, 13% of patients in cross-border health literacy and 77% of patients with inadequate health literacy. Conclusions: The results showed that most patients had inadequate health literacy. Therefore, these patients to understand and to use by physician and other health information they need additional medical staff and need more time to communicate with doctors and nurse and business information easier and understandable language, allocate.

  260. Parag Bhattacharya, M.D.

    Despite availability of several antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) for the management of epilepsy the problems of inadequate seizure control and disturbing side effects with these drugs persist and hence, quest continues for newer agents with superior clinical efficacy and safety profile. Brivaracetam (BRV) is a new AED that is an analog of levetiracetam (LEV). Its mechanism of antiseizure action seemingly involves selective binding to synaptic vesicle protein 2A, akin to LEV. Its safety and efficacy as an add-on therapy have been studied primarily in adult epilepsy patients with uncontrolled partial-onset seizures. In addition, a few studies have involved patients with generalized seizures, and progressive myoclonic epilepsies. BRV has been found to be efficacious and well tolerated as add-on therapy in partial-onset seizures and generalized seizures. Side effects due to BRV tend to be non-serious, mild-to-moderate in intensity and transient in nature. This article has described the brief pharmacological and clinical profile of BRV.

  261. Pavan Kumar Kothapuvari, Swati Rawat and Kishore Kumar Kadimpati

    This review article overview the advancement in the oral dosage forms, application, formulation consideration, method of preparation, evaluation of new generation Anti migraine drugs. Fast dissolving oral films (FDOFs) have been introduced in the market recently as they provide convenience and ease of use over other dosage forms such as orally disintegrating tablets. This technology evolved over the past few years from the confection and oral care markets in the form of breath strips and became a novel and widely accepted form by consumers, so FDOFs are gaining the interest of large number of pharmaceutical industries. Fast dissolving oral films is the type of drug delivery system which when placed in the oral cavity, disintegrate or dissolve within few seconds without the intake of water. FDOFs are very similar to postage stamp in their shape, size and thickness. These films have a potential to deliver the drug systemically through intragastric, sublingual or buccal route of administration and also has been used for local action. Migraine is a common, chronic disorder with episodic attacks9. It affects 10-20% of the population during the most productive periods of their working lives, women are affected up to four times more often than men. The present review provides an account of various formulation considerations, suitable method of preparation of the new generation Anti migraine drugs like Almotriptan malate and Eletriptan HBR into FDOFs.

  262. Dr. Jalis Fatima, (Prof.) Dr. SubrataSaha and (Prof.) Dr. SubirSarkar

    Biggest challenge that a pediatric dentist has to face is the ever dynamic changes in a newborn and infant through childhood and adolescence. Being a pedodontist, and having to work exclusively on child patients, our foremost requirement is to be able to appreciate fully the massive difference in each and every aspect of biological and behavioural spheres between a child and an adult through adolescence. A thorough knowledge of this significant difference between the two age groups will not only help in better understanding of the patient’s present condition and its clinical significance in pediatric dentistry but will also guide a pedodontist to take age appropriate measures in treatment of an individual. The overall management of patients by a pedodontist is not just limited to the care of oral cavity but should also include the consideration of the other body systems like gastrointestinal system, renal system, respiratory system, cardiovascular system, central nervous system, muscular system, immune system, as these systems in themselves effect the treatment protocols.

  263. Sarabjeet Kohli, Nilesh Vishwakarma, Varun Joshi, Shaival Chauhan, Kuldip Salgotra, Siddhant Jain, Ayush Tiwari and Abhijeet Yadav

    Patellar fractures are common and constitute about 1% of all skeletal injuries and results because of direct trauma, which causes more comminution whereas indirect injury leads to more displacement with transverse fracture pattern1, 2. Modified tension-band wiring (TBW) technique 6,7,8 is the most widely used technique and has give best results in the operative group. We carried out a prospective study of displaced fracture patella by modified tension band wiring in adults with an objective of evaluating the functional outcome and associated complications. The mean age was 38 years and the incidence was high in the age group of more than 40 years. Mostly indirect injuries came with close type of wound but there were 5 cases of Gustillo-Anderson type 1 of open injuries due to direct injury. In our study we had 23 cases of direct injuries and 7 cases of indirect injuries to patella. Our study included patella fracture from 34C1.1 [transverse] to 34C3.1 [communited] with maximum cases in 34C1.1. The complications are minor which commonly includes hardware prominence due to subcutaneous patellar location but implant removal due to exposed hardware is not common. As for the delayed complications all the fractures united so we had no cases of delayed union or malunion of fracture. But we had a case of migration of pin through the skin after 11 weeks for which K-wire had to be removed. Most of the patellar fractures treated with TBW have good to fair results.

  264. Dr. Pandit, G. A., Dr. Khiste, J. A. and Dr. Swati Jindal

    Gynecological specimens form a major bulk of histopathology laboratory. Aim of this study was to determine the frequency and histomorphological patterns of lesions of the cervix. This was a 2 year retrospective study done in a tertiary care hospital. A total of 600 cases were retrieved from histopathology department and evaluated. The age group of the patients was between 20-75 years. It was concluded that about 79% cases were non –neoplastic and 21% were neoplastic. The most common of all these lesions was chronic non-specific cervicitis. All the lesions of cervix were common in age group of 41-50 years followed by 31-40 years. Large cell non-keratinizing squamous cell carcinoma was the most common carcinoma.

  265. Abdelmoneim, E. M. Kheir, Reem, B. A. Ali and Samah, M. H. Abdelmonim

    Background: Twin pregnancy is considered as one of high risk for both mother and baby with variable incidence worldwide. Methods: This was a prospective, observational, hospital based study that was carried out in Omdurman maternity hospital during the period September 2012 to February 2013, 112 ladies with twin pregnancy and their respective babies were included in the study. Maternal and neonatal data were recorded using a specifically designed questionnaire. Data was processed and analyzed using SPSS Program. Results: The study revealed that the prevalence of twins was 3.34%, most of the women lied between the age group 23-32 years.57 (50.9%) of the women had previous history or family history of twins, the commonest antenatal complication encountered was severe urinary tract infection in 79(70.5%) followed by hyper emesis gravidarum in 52(46.4%) and anaemia in 43(38.4%). The main postpartum complication was postpartum haemorrhage in 39(34.8%). Most of the babies (81.3%) needed admission to the neonatal unit. The study revealed that 60.4% of the babies had low birth weight, prematurity was 66% among the study group. Early neonatal mortality rate was found to be 196/1000 among the study subjects. Conclusion: Twin pregnancy is a significant risk factor for maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality in low-resource settings.

  266. Mostafa Soliman Mostafa Ali, Faten Hassan Abd Elazem and Ghada Mohamed Anwar

    Background: Balance is a component of basic needs for daily activities and it plays an important role in static and dynamic activities. Core stabilization training is thought to improve balance, postural control, and reduce the risk of lower extremity injuries. The purpose of this study was to study the effect of core stabilizing program on balance in spastic hemiplegic cerebral palsy children. Subjects and Methods: Thirty hemiplegic cerebral palsy children from both sexes ranged in age from six to eight years participated in this study. They were assigned randomly into two groups of equal numbers, control group (A) children were received selective therapeutic exercises and study group (B) children were received selective therapeutic exercises plus core stabilizing program for eight weeks. Each patient of the two groups was evaluated before and after treatment by Biodex Balance System in laboratory of balance in faculty of physical therapy (antero posterior, medio lateral and overall stability). Patients in both groups received traditional physical therapy program for one hour per day and three sessions per week and group (B) were received core stabilizing program for eight weeks three times per week. Results: There was no significant difference between the two groups in all measured variables before wearing the orthosis (p>0.05), while there was significant difference when comparing pre and post mean values of all measured variables in each group (p<0.01).When comparing post mean values between both groups, the results revealed significant improvement in favor of group (B) (p<0.01). Conclusion: Core stabilizing program is an effective therapeutic exercise to improve balance in hemiplegic cerebral palsy children.

  267. Dr Richa Bansal, Dr. Tammanna Sharma, Dr. Susmita Saxena, Dr. Vishal Bansal and Dr. Neha Bansal

    We describe a case of 25 year old male patient with a growth over the anterior rugae region of hard palate since 3 years. Based on histological appearance, diagnosis of sebaceous gland hyperplasia in fibroepithelial polyp was given which itself is a rare entity and in our case it was encountered at the rarest of sites.

  268. Atta Gitti Allawi

    Background: Angiotensine converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE-I) are commonly used drugs for treatment of hypertension and heart failure. Cough is most common side effect occurring in 0.7-35% according to various reports. Objective: To estimate the incidence of ACE-I induced cough in IRAQI patients. Method: 2800 Iraqi patients using different ACE-I drugs (captopril, Enalpril, Lisinipril and Ramipril) visiting hypertension and Out-patient –Clinic at ALKARAMA and AL-ZAHRA teaching hospitals at Wasit Governorate / IRAQ, these patients were interviewed for cough related to ACE-I use , patients having cough were underwent investigations to other causes of cough and re-evaluated 4-weeks after changing their medication. Result: 925 patients have ACE-I induced cough (502 (54.27%) females Vs. 423(45.72%) males) so cough occur in 33% of total patients, more common in females , it occur most frequently with Enalipril users (44.75%) and least in Captopril group (25%). Conclusion: ACE-I induced cough is common and underestimated problem in Iraq , genetics and environmental factors are playing important role in the determination of difference incidence around the world.

  269. Dr. Paresh Patil, Dr. Jimit Shah, Dr. Ravindra Gunaki, Dr. Navdeep Lokare, Dr. Rupesh Gor, Dr. Vaibhav Koli and Dr. Sudeep

    Background: Intertrochanteric (IT) fractures are common injuries that most commonly affect the elderly but are also seen in younger age patients. Understanding of Biomechanics of the fracture and also development of implants had led to improvement in the treatment modalities available for these patients. Trochanteric Fixation Nail were developed to improve the rotational stability of the proximal fracture fragment and the tip of the nail was re-designed with reduction of the distal diameter of the nail to decrease the risk of intra and postoperative fractures of the femoral shaft by a significant reduction in bone stress. Materials and methods: The study was done on 40 patients with unstable intertrochanteric fracture treated with trochanteric fixation nail. The patients were followed up at 4th week, 6th week, 3rd and 6th months. All surgeries were done by the same surgeon. Average length of incision, intraoperative blood loss, duration of surgery, intraoperative complications, postoperative infection, duration of hospital stay, range of movements, shortening of limb, implant failure, union time, periprosthetic fracture and any additional surgical procedure done were studied. Functional outcome was assessed based on Kyle’s criteria. Results: There was decrease in size of incision, intraoperative blood loss, duration of surgery, hospital stay with Trochanteric Fixation Nail. Range of movement was good to excellent in almost all cases. No periprosthetic fracture was seen in any patients. Conclusion: Our study conclude that Trochanteric Fixation Nail is a significant advancement in the treatment of unstable intertrochanteric fractures which has the unique advantages of closed reduction, preservation of fracture hematoma, less tissue damage, early rehabilitation and early return to work.

  270. Dr. Arunoday Kumar, Dr. Aarathi Shenoy, Dr. Rishav Singh, Dr. Piyush Kumar and Dr. Sankalp Verma

    Ectodermal dysplasias is a rare hereditary disorder that results due to disturbances in the ectoderm of the developing embryo. The classic features that define this condition are partial or complete tooth agenesis which is a congenital lack of one or more teeth of primary and or permanent teeth, sparse hair, dystrophies of nails and lack of sweat glands. Since the pediatric dentists are the first to be consulted in case of loss of teeth, this article is a sincere effort to spread awareness about this rare entity. A case of eleven year old girl child is reported hereby who presented with a complaint of missing teeth, dry skin and brittle nails.

  271. Dr. ShenoyShaileshRamdas, Dr. RakshaBallal, K., Dr. Sham. S. Bhat, Dr. MushaqueerHussain, K. I. and Dr. Mallikarjunaragher

    Objectives: To determine and assess the oral health knowledge and awareness of early childhood caries (ECC) and its prevention among the pregnant mothers. Methodology: About 110 mothers were interviewed combined with questionnaires. The interview and questionnaires composed of questions about family demographics, personal oral health and hygiene measures, causes of ECC as per their purview and earlier knowledge, breast feeding and bottle feeding practices, types of food, level of dental care and hygiene practices of both mother and children, preventive methods of ECC, oral health awareness educational programs attended, if any, and knowledge regarding oral hygiene measures. Results: 95 % of the mothers were from low socioeconomic status and low educational status. None of them knew about fluoride and its role in teeth and bones. Nor anyone knew about mother - to - child transmission of S.mutans. Majority of them were not aware about mother’s oral hygiene importance during pregnancy. However all knew that sugars and starchy foods are dietary cause of dental caries. Low level of education, low family income, and having more children, were significantly correlated with knowledge regarding infant oral health and dental care. The knowledge and awarenwess of ECC prevention was poor and unsatisfactory. Conclusion: Intensified mother and infant oral health care educational programmes (including home visits) is of utmost necessity and importance. Gynaecologists and pediatricians also have a very important role in these aspects of prevention of ECC.

  272. Shovkat ahmad mir, M.S., Kazim Abbas, Varughese Mathi and Ramakrishna, B.S.

    Background and Aims: Leakage rates from colonic anastomoses continue to be significant. The effect of luminal butyrate on the healing of colonic anastomoses in the ascending and descending colon was investigated in rats. Methods: Colonic resection and anastomosis was performed in the proximal and distal colon of adult Wistar rats. Daily enemas of butyrate (40 mM) or saline were administered to case and control rats respectively. Animals were sacrificed on the 6th day and colonic segments of 4 cm including the anastomoses were excised from both the ascending and descending colons. Bursting pressure for the anastomotic line was measured for each colonic segment. Results: The mean bursting pressure was significantly higher (131.96±20.11 mm Hg, mean+SD) in the group receiving butyrate enemas as compared to the control group receiving saline enemas (91.29±15.91) (P<0.001). The effect of butyrate on bursting wall tension was higher in the proximal colon than in the distal colon. Conclusion: Butyrate facilitates colonic anastomotic healing and results in significantly stronger anastomoses judged by the bursting pressure. There may be a role for local butyrate instillation in healing of colonic anastomoses.

  273. Dr. Arunoday Kumar, Dr. Vijay Shekhar, Dr. Rishav Singh, Dr. Bhaskar Gupta, Dr. V Mahalakshmi and Dr. Sankalp Verma

    The unique complexity of the oral cavity and adjacent areas presents a continual challenge to prosthodontist. Patients usually maintain acceptable speech if the dentures satisfy the requirement of function and esthetics. However, some patients with dentures encounter difficulty and their speech becomes a major concern. Recording the posterior palatal seal area in complete denture fabrication has always been an attempt by the clinicians. It not only provides a psychological satisfaction in terms of good fit but also provides comfort and better adaption to functions like mastication and speech. The purpose of this study is to compare the perceptual and acoustic characteristics of velar sounds in an edentulous patient, with and without Posterior palatal seal area recorded in the denture of complete denture wearers. Materials and methods: Thirty completely edentulous Malayalam and Kannada speaking subjects aged 45-55 years were included for the study. Conventional complete denture was fabricated for each subject participating in the study. Posterior palatal seal area was recorded in the denture with fluid wax technique in the patient’s mouth and the subjects were evaluated perceptually and acoustically with (fluid wax record simulating P.P.S) and without (scrape off the P.P.S recorded with wax) the record of posterior palatal seal area. Velar Stop consonants in monosyllables /ka/ and /ga/ were used for acoustic analysis for all the subjects and Kannada as well as Malayalam articulation tests appropriate for the language of the subjects were used, for perceptual analysis. All the samples recorded were subjected to acoustic analysis using PRAAT software (version 4.5.06; Paul and David, 2006). The following parameters were extracted: Burst duration, Voice onset time, and Formant frequencies. Results: Acoustic analysis showed a significant relation between the acoustic characteristics of velar sounds and the posterior palatal seal area recorded in the denture. Conclusions and clinical implications: The study implies that Prosthodontist can contribute effectively as a team member, working with Speech Language Pathologist in the appropriate fabrication of the denture, by evaluating the patient’s speech with respect to posterior palatal seal area recorded in the intaglio surface of the denture (post-dam area).

  274. Dr. Anjana Gopi, Dr. Syeda Misbah ul khair and Dr. Hitha, T. K.

    Background: Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CoNS) found in the normal skin flora and mucous membranes have recently got attention as a potential pathogen, specifically for nosocomial infections. Recent reports suggest coagulase negative Staphylococci as the most common pathogens of blood stream infections. Aims: To identify and speciate various species of coagulase negative Staphylococci isolated from bloodstream infection and determine their antimicrobial resistance pattern. Materials and methods: We collected 224 strains of different CoNS species from positive blood cultures obtained from paediatric patients aged less than 6 years during a period of three years-from January 2012 to December 2014.Isolates were identified and antimicrobial susceptibility was performed by MicroScan Walkaway SI system (Siemens). Results: Among the 224 pediatric patients enrolled, 120 were male and 104 were female babies. Of the 224 clinical isolates, Staphylococcus hominis was the most common species found 89(39.7%). The overall drug resistance among the species ranged from 8.5% to 87% to all the drugs tested except to Vancomycin, Linezolid and Streptogramins which were 100% sensitive. The highest drug resistance was exhibited towards Penicillin and Ampicillin (86.6%) and Oxacillin (69.7%). The minimum drug resistance was shown towards Gentamicin (12.3%) and Rifampicin (8.5%). S.hyicus, S.cohnii, S.xylosus, S.saprophyticus, S.warneri, S.capitis were 100% sensitive to Gentamicin. Conclusions: CoNS have emerged as one of the important cause of blood stream infections. High rate of resistance is exhibited against commonly used antibiotics like Penicillins and Cephalosporins. Hence empirical use of antibiotics has to be avoided to prevent development of multidrug resistant strains.

  275. Dr. Antony Prabakar

    • To study the epidemiology of the solitary nodule of the thyroid. • To study the role of fine needle aspiration cytology in the management of solitary nodule of the thyroid. • To study the incidence of malignancy in solitary nodule of the thyroid. Materials and Methods Case selection All patients admitted with a solitary nodule of the thyroid. Exclusion criteria • Patients with severe comorbid illness. • Patients with solitary nodule of thyroid and regional lymph adenopathy. Materials and Methods Place of study: Thanjavur medical college hospital, Thanjavur. Period of study: 31.01.2014 to 31.01.2016- 2 years No of patients: 100 A total of (110) consecutive patients admitted at TMCH, Thanjavur with solitary nodule of the thyroid and only 100 of the patients who satisfied the above criteria were included in the study. Limitation of the study: Many patients are lost to follow up after 2 reviews and the exact incidence of post operative hypothyroidism could not be evaluated.

  276. Subash Raj, S.

    Objective: To evaluate the association of verbal memory scores of similar and dissimilar pairs with their Hb concentration in elderly population. Methods: From an urban health centre, 60 healthy elderly subjects (aged between 50 to 60 years) who had participated in a health camp were selected. Their verbal retention memory levels were evaluated using PGIMS. The Hb concentration was collected from their haematology report. Then values of verbal memory was analysed against their Hb concentration. Result: The R values of similar and dissimilar pair of verbal memory (0.26 & 0.35 respectively) showed weak positive linear association with Hb concentration. But still both the values showed significant correlation coefficient (P<0.05) with Hb concentration. Conclusion: Using PGI memory scale, the verbal retention memory is associated with Hb concentration for elderly and the association was relatively more for dissimilar word pairs than similar word pairs.

  277. Professor and Head. Dr. Mangala Sonavani Borkar, JRII. Dr. Shradha S. Runwal, JRIII. Dr. Vimlesh R. Pandey, Associate Professor. Dr. Gajanan A. Surwade and Assistant professor. Dr. Prashant T. Gajbhare

    Nitrobenzene is a nitrite compound often used in polishes or solvents. Its toxic effects are due to its ability to induce methemoglobinaemia. The clinical presentation of this poisoning varies according to the concentration of methemoglobin level in blood. The importance of early identification of the compound on the basis of clinical suspicion corroborative with methemoglobin levels with timely intervention is required to prevent fatal outcome (Agrawal et al., 2011). Our case presented with history of consumption of unknown compound followed by vomiting,mild cyanosis and altered sensorium. On investigation, ABG was suggestive of decreased SpO2, methemoglobinemia and severe metabolic acidosis. The urgent institution of methylene blue as the specific antidote saved the patient’s life.

  278. Dr. Shilpa and Chethana, R.

    Objective: 1) To estimate the prevalence of primary infertility in the study population. 2) To describe the socio demographic characteristics prevailing among couples with primary infertility in the study population. 3) To identify the probable medical conditions associated with primary infertility. Design: Cross- sectional descriptive study. Setting: Rural field practice area of tertiary hospital, Bangalore. Sample: Complete enumeration of entire Kumbalgodu Primary Health center area covering 26, 190 populations. Methods: In depth interview using a pretested pre-structured questionnaire was conducted for a period of 18 months (January 2012 to August 2013) to enumerate all couples with primary infertility in the entire Kumbalgodu Primary Health Centre area. Review of investigation reports available with couples at the time of study. Results: In the present study area, prevalence of primary infertility was 4.5%. The most common cause of primary infertility among females was pelvic inflammatory disease followed by polycystic ovarian disease and among males it was oligospermia. Conclusion: This study has yielded important information regarding the prevalence and risk factors influencing primary infertility. Efforts to raise awareness in the population about the causes of primary infertility are needed and facilities should be made available for early diagnosis and treatment.

  279. Dr. Renu Gupta, Dr. Luthra, R.P. and Dr. Savisha Mehta

    Rehabilitation of patients with facial deformation requires multidisciplinary approach. Repair of auricular defects can be a difficlut task replicating pronounced convolutions and severe undercuts with wide range of clinical presentations and available treatment options. Surgical reconstruction is not possible in all situations, thereby neccessitating fabrication of esthetic prosthesis This clinical report presents an outlined procedure for fabrication of an auricular prosthesis using 3-piece die technique which is cost effective, less time consuming and provides cosmetically acceptable prosthesis.

  280. Amir Mohamed Ali

    Background: Age estimation in the living is one of the most important tasks of a forensic practitioner especially in developing countries where birth records are often not well-maintained. Objective: Prospective cross-sectional study was carried out in Wad Medani Teaching Hospital, Wad Medani orthopedic Center and Gezira National Center for Pediatric Surgery with the objective to assess the bone age by epiphyseal fusion of the distal end of the femur by using radiographs of Sudanese subject at Gezira State. Methods: A total of 113 Subjects comprising of 62 females and 51 males, free from any musculoskeletal, nutritional and endocrinal disorder and confirmed dates of births were enrolled in the current study, The Subjects were divided into 12 groups on the basis of their age. Radiographs of knee joint were taken and a classification into four group on fusion base was applied, Stage I: No fusion; Stage II: Partial fusion; Stage III: Recent fusion; Stage IV: Complete fusion. Results: It was found that the lower end of femur united completely with shaft in age group of 19- 20 years in males and 17- 18 years in females. The epiphysis average age of fusion is higher in males as compared to females. Conclusion: The sequence of fusion of distal end of femur was almost similar with other workers.

  281. Dr. Sanjay Kumar Sinha, Dr. Bimleshwar Kumar and Dr. Birendra Prasad Gupta

    Dentigerous cysts are benign odontogenic cysts that surrounds the crown of impacted, embedded, unerupted or developing tooth. These cysts are the second most common odontogenic cysts of the oral cavity after radicular cysts and they are most frequently associated with impacted mandibular third molars, less frequent with canines and maxillary third molars. but dentigerous cysts involving impacted second premolars are extremely rare occurence. We hereby present a rare case of dentigerous cyst in fourteen year old male child associated with an unerupted/impacted mandibular second premolar which was successfully managed at our clinic.

  282. Dr. Anjana Gopi, Dr. Hitha, T. K. and Dr. Syeda Misbah-Ul-Khair

    Background: Tuberculosis (TB) is a significant infectious disease in many parts of the world, which is of great concern. Prompt detection, isolation, identification and susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from clinical specimens is essential for appropriate management of patients with tuberculosis. This study aims to compare the sensitivity of BACTEC MGIT method in detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis among various clinical samples and to detect the drug resistance pattern to 1st line drugs among Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates. Materials and Methods: A three year cross sectional study was done among 300 patients in the department of Microbiology, KIMS, Bangalore. Study group included cases with clinical or radiological evidence suggestive of tuberculosis. Specimens were subjected to direct microscopy by Ziehl-Neelsen staining and fluorescent staining. Culture was done by semi automated BACTEC MGIT system. Rapid antigen detection by SD TBAg MPT64 kit was performed to confirm the positive isolates. Isolates confirmed as Mycobacterium tuberculosis were subjected to drug susceptibility testing using MGIT method for 1st line drugs ie Streptomycin, Isoniazid, Rifampicin and Ethambutol. Results: The sensitivity of direct microscopy was 12.33% by Ziehl-Neelsen staining and 14.33% by fluorescent staining .Overall culture positivity was 18.6% (56). 55 isolates were Mycobacterium tuberculosis and one was nontuberculous mycobacterium. The mean detection time was 20.75 days by MGIT method. A sensitivity of 96.3% for streptomycin, 89% for isoniazid, 98.1% for rifampicin and 96.3% for ethambutol was noticed. Discussion and Conclusion: This study highlights the importance of culturing the suspected tuberculosis cases prior to empirical therapy. Newer automated culture methods aids in earlier detection of cases and drug susceptibility testing of isolates and helps in selection of appropriate treatment for tuberculosis.

  283. Vibhu Jha, Anurag Agrawal, Swati Sahawal, Kumari Neha, Divya Agrawal, Neha Chopra and Sunanda Kr. Mandal

    DPP-4 Inhibitors are the class of oral hypoglycemics that block DPP-4 (Dipeptidyl peptidase-4), used to treat T2DM. The first agent of the class Sitagliptin was approved by the FDA in 2006. Most of the antidiabetic have major side effects like weight gain, hypoglycemia, GI adverse reactions etc. DPP-IV Inhibitors are devoid of such major side effects. Designing pyrimidinedione-based compounds may probably give safe pharmacological profile with significant antidiabetic activity. Compounds are designed rationally and molecular docking studies are performed on DPP-IV subunits by PyRx 0.8 (Autodock vina based scoring function) and compared by Alogliptin (FDA Approved, 2013). These compounds possess significant binding scores on comparision with molecular docking study of Alogliptin. Futher, these compounds are designed on the basis of synthetic outcomes. Now, under synthetic procedures, may probably result in compounds with significant DPP-IV Inhibitory activity. Satisfactory in vitro, in vivo and toxicological activity can lead to the development of drug candidate since this category of compounds have negligible side effects.

  284. Khoushika Raajshree, R. and Chitra, P.

    Emollients have been part of human life for centuries. It softens and smoothes the skin. They improve the skin barrier function by decreasing the Transepidermal water loss. Leaves of Ocimum tenuiflorum and Azadirachta indica as well as peel of Aloe vera have been principle ingredients in emollient creams. They were subjected to qualitative tests and quantitative total phenolic content assay. It was found that the ethanolic extracts of the sample had high phenolic content and it had a good correlation with DPPH free radical scavenging assay. GC-MS analysis of the ethanolic extracts of the samples gave several compounds and of which Thymol, Methylparaben, Vitamin E, 1-acetyl pyrrolidine and n-Hexadecanoic acid were selected for the study. It was docked against Human Retinoic Acid Receptor (RXR)-Gamma. In silico docking studies showed that n-Hexadecanoic acid as an active compound with high emollient activity with a fitness score of 33.05. This paves way for treating Eczema and photodamaged skin at molecular level.

  285. Lavinia Teixeira-Machado, Thainá Menezes Santos, Fabiane Andrade Cunha, Fernanda Mendonça Araujo, Mayara Alves Menezes, Clecia da Silva Ferreira And Josimari Melo DeSantana

    Background: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder related mainly to the progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta, a structure of the basal ganglia. Objective: To analyze quantitatively the changes in postural stability and static balance in patients with PD. Methods: The sample was comprised of participants with a clinical diagnosis of idiopathic PD, and healthy participants. The participants remained in static position on the force platform. Data were obtained with open and closed eyes. The following parameters related to the body, right foot and left foot were used as main variables: 1) Area of influence of the sway (COP-Center of Pressure), 2) Antero-posterior sway (AP COP), 3) Latero-lateral sway (LL COP), 4) Average speed sway (v) of COP AP and LL. Results: 34 volunteers underwent into two groups: (1) Parkinson Group (PG: 17 idiopathic PD-patients, age: 64.11±10.70), and Control Group (CG: 17 healthy controls, 60.47±8.53 years old). Without the visual feedback, PD-patients showed significant differences between healthy controls: COP of the body (p=0.004) and right foot(p=0.02); the sway of AP COP (p=0.009), right foot (p=0.03) and left foot (p=0.02) AP COP; vof the body AP COP (p=0.02), right foot (p=0.03) and left foot (p=0.01) v AP COP; sway of LL COP (p=0.01) and right foot (p=0.05) LL COP; v LL COP (p=0.01). Conclusion: The sway of center of pression in PD-patients showed worse when compared with healthy controls, wich may explain the greater probability to imbalances and falls in these people.

  286. Bustos Crescentino, D. and Bustos, D. A.

    Biotransformation processes are defined as the use of complete biological systems or its parts to make structural funcionalizations to xenobiotics compounds. Microbial transformations are characterized by versatility, efficiency, regioselectivity, chemoselectivity and enantioselectivity of the enzymatic processes involved. In a single process one or more products can be obtained and they occur under mild conditions considered environmentally friendly and can be placed in the field of white biotechnology and green chemistry. The microorganisms are capable of transforming a wide variety of organic compounds, in especial phytopatogenic fungi are an interesting group because of the large number of genera and species that form and the variety of enzymatic processes that can be achieved by them. In this article, it is described the biotransformation of many sesquiterpenes by different fungal species applied towards the obtaining of derivatives. The transformation of these compounds can result in compounds with enhanced biological activities with potential applications in various industrial sectors such as the pharmaceutical, agricultural, food, etc.

  287. Md. Abdul Mottalib, Sazzad Hossain Somoal, Md. Aftab Ali Shaikh and Md. Shafikul Islam

    The present investigation was conducted to determine levels of heavy metal pollution in tannery area of Dhaka city. Concentration of Fe, Cr, Cu, Cd, Pb, Ni and As have been estimated in soil and vegetables grown around the leather industrial area. The investigated soil and vegetables samples were collected in open place of different distances from the tannery area. The order of metal contents was found Fe > Cr > Pb > Cu > Ni > As > Cd both in soil and vegetables. The results were compared with the recommended maximum tolerable levels proposed by the joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. The experimental results indicate that the concentration of Pb, Cu, Ni, As and Cd both in soil and vegetables were within the limit however the concentration of Cr and Fe were extremely higher than the tolerance limit.

  288. Shyamanta Chakraborty and Nripen Medhi

    Natural convective MHD flow of a viscous incompressible fluid along a vertical plate is discussed with the effect of variable electrical conductivity and heat generation under the action of transverse magnetic field in porous medium. It is supposed that there is an internal heat generation along the plate that decays exponentially while electrical conductivity of the fluid is a function of fluid temperature. The process of similarity transformation is used to transform the partial governing equations into ordinary. Considering fluid flow of low Prandlt Number {Pr << 1}, numerical solutions and results are obtained using Runge-Kutta method while Shooting method is used to find the missing initial conditions. The results are used to plot velocity and temperature profile near the plate, and variation of skin-friction and heat transfer at the plate for various values of physical parameters used. The results show significant effects of fluid electrical conductivity and medium porosity on the flow and heat transfer in presence of transverse magnetic field and heat generation.

  289. Mahima Singh, Raina Pal, Atul Kumar and Anamika Tripathi

    The present investigation is carried out at two urban parks to assess the soil metal and atmospheric heavy metals in plant species which are commonly growing at varying distances from heavily trafficked National Highway 24 in Moradabad city. Emission of heavy metals from the automobile exhaust and brassware industries nearby the highway contaminates the soil and surrounding plants. Unwashed leaves samples were used to assess the of total metal concentration (Cr, Cu, Cd, Fe, Ni, Zn, Pb) and for the purpose six common plant species i.e. Ficus rumphii, Polyalthia longifolia, Bauhinia variegata, Delonix regia, Alstonia scholaris and Anthocephalus kadamba were collected from both sites and were analyzed by Inductively Coupled Plasma- Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES). The results indicate that the plants species such as Bauhinia variegata is sensitive among all the species having highest concentration of heavy metals at both of the sites and Ficus rumphii with lowest concentration, is tolerant among all the species. It possibly may be due to differences in plant morphology and leaf surface and apparently particulate size decides the extent of solubility providing the bioavailability of metals to primary consumers. Univariate (correlation study) and Multivariate statistical analysis were adopted including; factor analysis, cluster analysis and enrichment factor analysis to identify the sources and their contribution to urban soil. The major source of airborne trace metals identified were brassware industries, illegal e-waste burning automobile emissions and combustion processes.

  290. Arnaja Sen, Lipika Mahajan, Priyanka Kuwor and Asha Khatri

    Wireless technology has been gaining rapid popularity over the years. Nowadays, security is considered as one of the most critical parameter for the acceptance of any wireless networking technology. Although implementation of technological solutions is the most common way to respond to threats of wireless security systems and susceptibility, wireless security is basically a management issue. Effective management planned after analyzing current threats will help to sort out issues in a better way. In this paper, we analyze the security related protocol (WEP, WPA, WPA2) and current scenario of the wireless network security systems. We also figure out various issues that allow hackers to monitor and even change the integrity of transmitted data and discuss a number of available solutions to counter those threats.

  291. Asfawossen Birhane and Kinde Getachew

    Research works the relationship between students’ mathematics self-efficacy and academic performances are scarce in African context. This study, therefore, is conducted to fill this gap. 218 first year engineering students completed scales on self-efficacy belief and sources of self-efficacy beliefs in math. The result indicated moderate mean on both variables. 19.3% of the variance on first semester grade in applied Math I explained by performance experience; and 21.4 % of the variance on first semester grade in applied Math I was explained by students self efficacy belief in math I. The independent sample t test revealed statistically significant mean differences between male and female students on mean scores of self efficacy belief in math I and first semester academic grade in applied math I but not statistically significant mean differences on all of sources of self efficacy belief in Math. Further study on the applicability and generalizeability of the findings with more rigorous design in other contexts is one of the recommendations.

  292. Mashkoor Alam, Savita Yadav and M. Raziuddin

    Pregnancy is a special time during a woman’s reproductive life as a result of the unique physiology and the presence of a developing fetus. Despite an impressive amount of effort and extensive research over the past century, our knowledge of the development, physiology and pathophysiology of the fetus and its environment remains limited. Thus, study of amniotic fluid (AF) provides unique as well as vital information about the understanding of the biochemistry and physiology of AF and to foresee ways in which the fluid might be used in other diagnostic problems. AF is a complex and dynamic biological fluid that surrounds the fetus in the amniotic cavity which protects the fetus from mechanical as well as thermal shock and also contains nutrients and growth factors that facilitate fetal growth. AF is known to contain large amounts of proteins whose expression profile reflects the genotypic constitution of the fetus and regulates feto-maternal physiological interaction. An intricate balance of proteins is required throughout pregnancy and in cases of pregnancy complications or fetal genetic abnormalities, the balance may be disturbed. So, identification of these changes therefore, may be used for the detection of a particular type of pathology. Proteomics have additional relevance in understanding pathophysiology and the development of molecularly targeted therapeutics. Comparison of normal human AF proteome with that coming from pregnancies carrying fetuses with chromosomal abnormalities facilitated the detection of panels of potential biomarkers for prenatal detection of fetal aneuploidies. The discovery of novel protein biomarkers in either drug development or the study of disease in AF is often hindered by certain particular proteins present at relatively high concentrations. The ability to deplete these proteins specifically, reproducibly and high selectivity is increasingly important in proteomic studies and success in this procedure is leading to an ever-increasing list of low abundant proteins being identified in AF. AF proved to be a promising target for biomarker discovery of pre-mature rupture of amnion, intra-amniotic infection, diseases like DS (Down syndrome) and to distinguish pre-eclampsia from chronic hypertension and normotensic controls.

  293. Rajesh Kumar and Aggarwal, R. K.

    Energy conservation can be achieved by trimming down the energy consumption of the edifices. Six storey edifice of Shoolini University at Bhajol, Solan, Himachal Pradesh (India) is taken as a case study in this work. Energy load of the edifice during winter months is 165.27 MWh, whereas during summer months is 110.99 MWh, and thus annual load is 276.26 MWh. The total energy load of the edifice has been met out by using conventional sources of energy. The emission of CO2 by using fossil fuels has been estimated and worked out 1.11 tonne per annum. Adoption of solar passive features (viz. insulation to north wall and the roof, increasing glazing at south wall, double glazing at north wall) and energy efficient technologies like light emitting diode in the building can reduce the energy consumption by 36.61% besides resulting reduction in CO2 emission by 36.94%. The fuel bill of the building will also be reduced by 36.67%. All the suggested energy efficient features require Rs 34.0 lac investments with a payback period of four years.

  294. Preethi, L. and RamyaRani, N.

    In this paper, a configuration of a five-level neutral point clamped (NPC) inverter that can integrate solar PV with battery storage and it is connected to the induction motor and vlf speed control is also proposed. This paper illustrates the design of three-port dc–dc converter for stand-alone PV systems based on an improved Flyback-Forward topology. It provides a compact single-unit solution with a combined feature of optimized maximum power point tracking (MPPT), high step-up ratio, galvanic isolation, and multiple operating modes for domestic, aerospace and for industrial applications.

  295. Mr. Keshav Purswani and Mr. Arjun Jadhaw

    Mobile Ad-hoc Network (MANET) is a collection of wireless mobile nodes without fixed network infrastructure and centralized control, it is a type of network in which nodes are interconnected by wireless medium, it is self configure network in this network nodes automatically change its location. In this paper predictive methodology is provided which includes the genetic algorithm for improving the performance of the mobile network.

  296. Amit, B. Kasar, Abhijeet, R. Shete, Prashant, V. Rade, Sandeep, R. Varpe, Sujata, S. Virulkar and Prakash C. Patil

    At present condition both type of capacitor high and low voltage capacitors are made up of using All Polypropylene Film (APP) and Low tension capacitors made up of using Metalized Polypropylene Film (MPP).APP film capacitor having less dielectric losses and high voltage stress. It also have long life hence generally used in high voltage and low voltage capacitor. But the cost of low voltage capacitor is increased due to use of All Polypropylene film. So due the high, the use of this type of capacitor is less. Most important disadvantage of this type of capacitor non-self-healing property means if fault occur in capacitor large amount of capacitance value decreases or may be damage of capacitor takes place. On the other hand, MPP Film capacitor having self-healing property. This is heart of MPP type of capacitor. For increasing the current economy of the power system and to manufacture efficient and economical capacitors, in this thesis we worked on the loss angle or called dissipation factor, the cost of capacitor and voltage stress. By using Metalized film the size and weight of the capacitor also reduces. Due to metalized film the time required for production of capacitor will reduces. Similarly the material required for capacitor for same rating as of APP is reduces, so weight and size will be decreases. Hence the cost of capacitor decreases.

  297. Suradi, Hammada Abbas, Wihardi Tjaronge and Victor Sampebulu

    Brick light of Kalla Block is a subsidiary of PT.BUMI SARANA BETON at Kalla Group, which produces light brick of high quality raw materials with German technology that meet acceptable standards Deutch Industries Norm (DIN). Problems faced of Kalla Block this time is how to increase production ratio because increasing demand, one of the efforts is how to increase productivity and work efficiency. The purpose of this study was optimizing the number of labour based on production processes Autoclave Aerated Concrete(AAC) and assess the model in order to improve production efficiency AAC on Kalla Block company without increasing or reducing the amount of energy used is two models Workload Analysis. Model 1 according to Work Method of Load Analysis (WLA) and model 2 according to Theory Wakui (TW). The difference results workload calculation models Work Load Analysis located at Westinghouse adjustment factor and factor allowances which are based on factors such as the state of the working conditions of lighting, temperature and noise of the room. In an effort to improve production efficiency at the Kalla’s company AAC Block without increasing or reducing the amount of labour then the review in terms of time is measured by calculating the standard time. Based on research results, it is recommended to use the model 2which obtained total value of the work load at now conditions; AAC production process is currently at 407.89% to 278.31 minutes work loading time. After the analysis of the workload and workforce optimization has gained workload with model 2 formulation of 385.49% with a time of 260.39 minutes work loading resulting workload efficiency of 22.40%.

  298. Chavan M. S., Aadya, DevanshNema and ShamliTelrandhe

    Two- wheeler riding calls for constant attention. The moment you become unmindful of speed, applying sudden brakes to avoid obstacle may lead to accident. An over-speed alarm can be of great help to avoid such situations. It acts like a watchful friend that warns you whenever you drive faster than the set limit speed. Over speed indicator is a device that tells the driver if he is exceeding the particular speed limit. With the over speed indicator in your car you can be sure that you are not going get yourself booked for over speeding. The system has a computer which stores the speed limits of different areas. The GPS in the system feeds the exact location of the car to the computer which looks up in its database to determine the permissible speed for the area and limits the car within the allowable speed.

  299. Seethalashmi, A. N.

    Biomass is the most potential considering their quantitative availability. Prosopis juliflora a Mesquite is a shrub or small tree in the Fabaceae family. It is also one of the biomass which is available hundred hectares in our area. Casuarina equisetifolia is an evergreen shrubs trees growing to 35m tall. In order to characterize the physical and chemical properties of P.juliflora and C.equisetifolia as feed stocks for energy conversion process, we developed protocol. The particle size of both samples was found to be 8nm from X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique. Surface morphology of the samples was studied by scanning electron microscopy. Proximate, structural and elemental analyses showed that P.juliflora has lower moisture content and high fixed carbon indicates that it is appropriate to meet requirements of thermochemical process. Also, considered as one of the strengths of biomass utilization for energy purposes in terms of contribution to environmental protection, P.juliflora contains very low level of Mg and Ca (0.39% & 2.32% respectively). Higher proportion of carbon and lower proportion of oxygen content in P.juliflora leads to high calorific value 3891Kcal/kg.

  300. Rupali, R. Sonawane

    The aim of this system is to track person of interest in real time based on scenes obtained from camera modules. This system avoids potential human errors as we are using automatic monitoring. It is a histogram based real time tracking system. Moving objects are detected using background subtraction. Moving object detection, recognition and tracking are basic steps in processing video frames.

  301. Ronak M. Patel and Achyut S. Patel

    In this paper a comparison of double priors assumed for the parameter of power distribution is ‘made sometimes we may have different prior information’s available instead of single prior for the parameter of the power distribution. It may be beneficial to include such different types of information’s in the Bayes estimation of the parameter. We have considered three double prior distributions viz. Gamma and Uniform priors, Gamma and Jeffrey’s priors, Gamma and priors and only Gamma prior. The results are compared with results based on single Gamma prior. We have derived Bayes estimator for the parameter and reliability of the distribution under squared error loss function based on type-II censored sample. The predictive distribution for future failure time and for the remaining failure times after the first r failures observed have been derived. For each case corresponding equal tail credible intervals are also obtained. A simulation study is done to exemplify the results obtained.

  302. Aman Saran, Lavesh Mulchandani, Anant Pandey and Sonali K. Pawar

    The project ‘Inverter uses switch mode power supply’ is use to convert direct current into alternating current using IC LM 324 and IC CD4047. This project is designed to meet up with power demand in home and office in the absence of power supply. It is designed in such a way that it will take 12v DC from the battery and convert it into 220v, 50hz AC. The circuit is capable of charging the battery that is 12v source in case of power is present.

  303. Mubeena Shaik, Dr. Wali Ullah, Dr. Sheela Rani, C. M.

    Business Intelligence (BI) allows an Organization's executives to obtain a better understanding of their customers, sales, market, supply and resources, and competitors in order to make effective strategic decisions. The rapid growth of computer in today's business environment has increased the demand and urgency of successful business organization to be able to react quickly to the changing dynamic market demands in locally as well as globally.

  304. Shukla Harsh, B.

    The Calcium oxalate (CaOx), a biomineral occurs in both plant and the animal kingdom. Calcium oxalate also has a commercial importance; it is used as filler and a pigment in coated paper and the cardboard industry to impart brightness. Three hydrate forms of Calcium oxalate which are crystallized in different morphologies and the natural occurrence is connected with the three minerals whewellite as monoclinic monohydrate (COM), weddilite as orthorhombic dehydrate (COD) and caoxite as triclinic trihydrate. A study based on homogeneous precipitation indicates that many parameters like relative super saturation, pH, precipitation time, stirring affect the calcium oxalate hydrate forms and their morphology.

  305. Amine F. M. Fahmy, Magdy M. Hemdan, Amira A. El-Sayed, Aya I. Hassaballah and Nashwa, A. Ahmed

    Mechano heterocyclic chemistry (MHC) is a recent and quickly growing technique in synthesis of heterocycles. Benzo[b]1,4-thiazepines,benzo[b]1,4-diazepines\were prepared via new mechano-chemical (grinding)technique of α,β-epoxyketoneswith o-aminothiophenol, and o-phenylenediamine, respectively. The same compounds were synthesized under conventional thermal method. However, quinoxalines were obtained from α,β-epoxyketones and o-phenylenediamine, mainly under conventional method. We introduced the yield economy [YE] as a metric to assess the conversion efficiency of grinding and conventional synthetic reactions. Notably, the mechano-chemical reaction provides a green facile access of thiazepines, diazepines,andquinoxalines in excellent yields, as well as providing higher yield economy [YE] compared with conventional thermal methods. The antimicrobial activity of some of the synthesized heterocycles was tested.

  306. Ayi Koffi ADDEN and Kouami KOKOU

    A problem for container tillers is managing container substrate and plant fertility. A comparative study in nurseries on the effects of soil quantity in pot and nitrogen fertilizer on the chemical properties of residual soil and the nutriments uptake by cocoa seedlings were led in a Randomized Complete Block Design. Two types of pots with different capacities (1055 cm3 and 2021 cm3) without any contribution and four nitrogen doses applied in pots of 2021 cm3, were used. The two nurseries were managed under the same conditions. Data were collected on the soil samples at the beginning and the end of experiment then analysed. The results showed that the cocoa seedlings effectively used the soil nutriments reserves but there was no significant difference (p>0.05) between the seedlings nutrition in the two types of sachets, nor with the nitrogen application. The major nutriments budget showed that the sold of N, K and Mg were negative whereas those of P and Ca were positive. Calcium profits were so stable whereas P profits were gradual according to the increasing amount of N. Thus, it is possible to grow cocoa seedlings on soil contained in pots of 1055 cm3 (coffee pot) while ensuring a balanced nutrition of the seedlings.

  307. Subhash Kumar Mishra, Ramesh Chandra and Ramjee Singh

    Bioethanol is one of the energy sources that can be produced by renewable sources. Waste potatoes relatively inexpensive as compared with other feedstock considered as food sources. However, a pretreatment process is needed. In Chitrakoot a much amount of potatoes are produced every year. This research was carried out to find out the optimum conditions for bioethanol production. The protocol was used by co-cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Aspergillus niger under simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF). Bioethanol production was done at different temperature (25 to 35°C), pH (4 to 6) and fermentation protocol was done at 96, 120, 144 hours. The optimal condition for the production of bioethanol was 6 pH and 30°C temperature. The fermentation of potatoes was the highest at 144 hours with yeast concentration 4 to 6 %.The maximum ethanol yield from waste potatoes was 11.14% and amount of ethanol content increased with the increase in fermentation time.

  308. BalajiNaik, B., Sreenivas, G., Raji Reddy,D. and Leela Rani, P.

    A field experiment was conducted at Agriculture Research Station, Madhira for two consecutive seasons of kharif, 2012 and 2013 on clay soils to study the effect of different sowing dates on tillering behavior, growth and yield of rice varieties under aerobic culture. The results indicated that, the crop sown early i.e on 18 June produced more number of total and effective tillers, grain and straw yields and decreases with every successive 15 days delay in sowing from 7 July to 18 August during both the years. Among the cultivars medium and long duration cultivars viz., JGL 11470 and MTU 1061 took more number of days to reach maximum tillering and produced more number of tillers, grain and straw yields over short and extra short duration cultivars viz., JGL 17004 and MTU 1010. Therefore, under assured irrigation and well distributed rainfall condition early sowing of long and medium duration cultivars would produce more yields under aerobic culture in Central Telangana Zone of Telangana State, India.

  309. Lone, J. A., Lone, F. A., Suseela, M. R. and Toppo, K.

    A research study conducted on the Himalayan Dal Lake has shown that this lentic ecosystem is rich in microalgal flora. During the study, a total of 21 algal genera comprising of 39 species, 6 varieties were identified during the four seasons at six different sites of Dal Lake. Cyanophyceae with 16 genera, 29 species and 2 varieties were the largest class recorded, showed their peak abundance during summer and autumn seasons with the maximum standing crop at DLS-VI. Euglenophyceae includes 4 genera, 9 species and 4 varieties and show their appreciable numbers at DLS-VI during the autumn season. In case of Rhodophyceae only one genera and one species namely Glaucosphaera vacuolata was reported during the autumn season at DLS-IV and is a new record reported to the phycological studies of India. Blue green microalgae Microcystis aeruginosa was found abundantly at DLS-II indicating alarming toxic nature of water as this alga contains microcystins of neuro and hepato toxins. The water chemistry revealed the lake is undergoing tremendous cultural eutrophication, DLS-VI was the most polluted site of the lake with the highest chemical nutrient load observed in summer season exhibiting highest value of 3.95 ppm of nitrate and 1.80 ppm of phosphate.

  310. Mergu Prasad, Satya Prasad Venugopal and Vijayakumar, J.

    In India there is a practice of using plants in traditional medicines from the time immemorial. Among many other problems, infertility is a major problem taunting the modern society. With increasing pollution at all levels and stress factors in the present day situations, infertility is mushrooming like an epidemic and creating havoc for couples and their families causing lot of turmoil in their lives. To overcome the problem of infertility the traditional practitioners are using various plant products to treat infertility one among them is stem bark of Syzygium cumini (jamun). Though it is administered to treat infertility by traditional practitioners, the scientific literature about its effect on the fertility is lacking and less research work is done on this aspect. The female Wistar rats weighing about 190 – 210 grams were used for the study. The oral administration of fresh extract of stem bark was done by utilizing a curved ball-tipped intubation needle affixed to a 2 ml syringe. In the present study treated group showed slight increase in body and uterine weight. The microscopic structure of uterus showed unaltered histo-architecture with respect to myometrial and perimetrial thickness in treated and control groups while the endometrial thickness was found to be more in the treated group. We can conclude from the present study that the fresh extract of stem bark of Syzygium cumini exerted a profertility effect. Further studies are required with Syzygium cumini stem bark to determine the mechanism of action that leads to endometrial thickness increase.

  311. Kalola, A. D., Parmar, D. J., Motka, G. N. and Vaishnav, P. R.

    The data of a varietal trial having 40 genotypes evaluated in three replications at Forage Research Project on forage sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] were collected and were subjected to factor analysis using SAS software. The data on Days to flowering(DTF), Plant height(PH), No. of tillers /plant(NTP), Leaf stem ratio(LSR), No. of leaves/ plant(NLP), Leaf length(LL), Leaf width (LW), Stem girth ratio(SG), Green fodder yield(g) /plant (GFYPP), Dry matter content (DMC), and Dry matter yield(g) /plant (DMYPP) were used for the present study. The results revealed that the highest C.V.% (82.8 %) was observed for leaf stem ratio followed by dry matter yield and green fodder yield, number of leaves /plant and stem girth ratio. Almost at par results were observed for range coefficient. The genotypic correlation coefficients between green fodder yield of sorghum with leaf length, leaf width, stem girth and dry matter yield per plant were significant and positive at genetic level. Leaf length is significantly associated with leaf stem ratio, number of leaves per plant leaf width, stem girth and with dry fodder yield. The results of rotated factor analysis score values indicated that the first factor included green and dry fodder yield per plant and stem girth, leaf length and leaf width to be the important factor contributing 31.4 % of common variation in forage sorghum. Besides this the second factor consisted leaf stem ratio, number of leaves and tillers per plant which can contribute about 30.4 % of common variation, while third factor identified days to flowering over and above the two factors having 10.4 % common variation. The total common variation accounted by all three variables was 72.2 % . Green and dry fodder yield and leaf stem ratio exhibited more than 0.8 communality which indicates to have high common variation in sorghum . Thus, overall result suggested that selection of leaf length, leaf width and green and dry fodder yield are more important followed by leaf stem ratio, number of leaves and tillers/plant. Dry matter content and plant height needs to be controlled at the same time as the have negative loadings.

  312. Biswal, M., Palai, S.K., Mishra, P., Chhuria, S., Sahu, P.

    The present investigation was carried out on an important ornamental plant Jasminum sambac L. Aiton. belonging to family Oleaceae. The different vegetative parts i.e. nodal explants, shoot apices, stem and leaves were used to standardize the protocol through in vitro.The explants excised from field grown mature plant and thereafter planted on variously supplemented Murashige and Skoog’s medium for multiple shoot proliferation and callus induction. Early bud break (25-26 days) and maximum percentage of bud break (83.7) was observed in Jasminum sambac when MS medium supplemented with BAP (2.0 mg/l), Kn (1.0 mg/l), Ads (50 mg/l). Maximum percentage of multiple shoots was observed in Jasminum sambac on MS medium fortified with 2 mg/l BAP, 1.0 mg/l Kn and 50 mg/l Ads. Callus induction from leaf and meristem explants were achieved using different concentrations of auxins and cytokinins. Maximum percentage of cultures showing callus proliferation from leaf explants was observed in the media containing MS basal salts supplemented with 3.0mg/l BAP and 2.0 mg/l IAA in leaf explants. The percentage of cultures showing callus was similar in the media containing MS basal salts supplemented with 5.0 mg/l BAP and 2.0 mg/l NAA in leaf explants. However, white and friable callus were obtained in the media containing MS basal salts supplemented with 2.0mg/l BAP, 2.0 mg/l Kn and 2.0 mg/l IAA from meristem explants.

  313. Jusuf Leiwakabessy, Daniel A. N. Apituley and Raja B. D. Sormin

    Fish is a prospectus source of protein, vitamins, and minerals. In compared to other food product, fish protein consist of amino acids that has a composition more complete and more digestible. The fish flesh also contains fatty acid, particularly Omega-3 which important for health. Research aimed to study the profile of amino acid and fatty acid of Indian Mackeral Scad and Darkbar Flyingfish which it applied to treatments: presto and presto by added 12% yeast. Research results showed that presto processed treatment applied to the fishes influenced the content of amino acid and fatty acid, where amino acid content of the two kind of fish treated increased after treatment, however, fatty acid content decreased except for some o fatty acids such as oleic acid, linoleic acid, and DHA. The changes of amino acid and fatty acid composition of Indian Mackeral Scad and Darkbar Flyingfish were closely linked to the treatments of which steaming and yeast addition applied, where they were significantly determining fish chemical compositions.

  314. Mehnaz Bi, Asheesh Gaur and Shalini Gupta

    The major problem faced by current period is water pollution. Due to this pollution the physicochemical properties of water are highly influenced. The parameters show different values at upstream and downstream level, the value of parameters also fluctuate with changing locations. This problem is created by man itself either through industrialization, or discharge of sewage or chemicals in water bodies which affect the life of aquatic flora and fauna and becomes unsafe for agricultural and drinking purpose.

  315. Bagul Ramakant, M.

    Manudevi forest is one of the richest floristic regions among Satpuda forest ranges of Maharashtra. An attempt has been made to document the rare, endangered and threatened species of Manudevi forest area which become helpful for the protection, management & conservation of biodiversity in general.In this work attempt has been made to highlight some of threatened important medicinal plants species found growing still in the Manudevi forest area reported in the Red list of IUCN.

  316. Beena, V. L. and Suhara Beevy, S.

    Passiflora L. belonging to the family Passifloraceae includes more than 465 species, of which 12 are cultivated with worldwide distribution. A breeding program of the genus for developing new cultivars has therefore become much important, and diversity analysis has become a necessity to screen the elite germplasm. The present study thus aims at determining the genetic variability in the genus Passiflora with a view to identify the superior germplasm for the improvement of the fruit crop. Eight wild and two cultivated species of Passiflora L. from the state of Kerala were analysed for the phenological (onset of flowering, end of flowering, flowering period and harvesting date) and pomological (fruit size, fruit color, fruit juice aroma, and fruit juice taste) characters. Statistical analysis of the qualitative and quantitative traits revealed wide variations in the size, shape and color of the fruits and in the taste and content of juice. Phenological and pomological differentiation suggests the inter and intra specific variations in the wild and the cultivated species of Passiflora L. It was observed that the number of flowering times was higher (three or four times per year) in the varieties of the wild species, P.foetida. The study identified the cultivar, Passiflora edulis cv. Panamared and the wild species, P.subpeltata and P.foetida as the elite germplasm for the improvement of this fruit crop.

  317. Dr. Abboud Y. El Kichaoui and Mohammed Kh. Al Massri

    The aim of this research is to control the pathogenic fungus, which causes Fusarium wilt disease in watermelon, Citrullus lanatus var lanatuscv. (Crimson Sweet 0015) by grafting it onto pumpkin, Cucurbita moschatacv. (Tetsukabuto). Pathogenic fungus was isolated from the infected roots of watermelon seedlings through growing it into PDA culture. In this study, Tongue approach grafting method was applied. Plants have been divided into four groups. Only two groups have been injected with spores of Fusarium oxysporum 1x106 conidia / ml, then plants were planted in industrial sterile soil contains peat moss and vermiculite (1:1 vol/vol) in pots at a completely randomized design. Finally, results of observations were collected after the disease symptoms appeared on the plants. The results and statistical analysis for data showed that grafting had a positive effect, where the grafted plants were better than non-grafted in all the measurements in terms of the weight of the shoot and root, the length of stems and roots, as well as the number and weight of fruits. These results also indicated that grafting of watermelon onto specific rootstock (pumpkin) has left a positive impact on plants disease resistance. Therefore, the results of this study conclude that the grafting is an advantageous alternative method to the control of Fusarium wilt disease in watermelon.

  318. Okwuosa, O. B., Egwurochi, W. I. and Okonkwo, E.

    Identification, classification and the prevalence rate of intestinal parasites of different fish species found in Afikpo North Local Government Area fresh waters were carried out. A total of 58 fishes were collected at random locations in Afikpo North Local Government Area of Ebonyi state. They were sampled, identified and classified into 28 species. Seven (7) common fishes among them were examined for gastrointestinal parasites. A total of twenty one (21) parasites of Seven (7) species were isolated from the fishes which comprising of Six (6) Diphyllobothrium spp, Four (4) Contracaecium spp, Three (3) Acanthocephalan, One (1) Ornithodiplostoniummetacoracariae, Three (3) Polyonchobothriumclariae, Three (3) Procamallusspp and One (1) Anisakis simples. Those whose standard length falls between the range of 18.4-19.5cm have the prevalence rate of 47.62% and those that falls between the range of 23.5-34.7cm have the prevalence rate of 52.38%. Among the parasites isolated, Diphyllobothriumspp recorded the highest prevalence rate of 28.6% while Anisakis simples and Ornithodiplostonium metacoracariae recorded lowest rate of 4.76%.

  319. MaisEmad.Ahmed and Dr. Muna Turkey. Al Mossaw

    The antibacterial activity of local isolates frome isolated from Baghdad, Iraq samples of different sources urine and wounds, ear and eye swab(25)strain of Staphylococcus aureus. From the collected clinical samples that gave positive result in coagulase of it was (MRSA methicillinresistance S. aureus 1 according to sensitivity test and vitek 2 system. Bacteriocin synthesis is a valuable character of some staphylococcal strains. Staphylococcal bacteriocinsa broad activity spectrum against many Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria are lethal to strains belonging to the same or related species as well as have. On the other hand, studies on the possibility of typing S. aureus MRSA, on the basis of their sensitivity to bacteriocins, are rarely published. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to use the production of bacteriocin from active strains in typing of S. aureus. A total of 10S. aureus were isolated from wound infections. Four staphylococci isolates (S. aureus1) were selected on the basis of sensitivity to most antibiotics which were used as basic indicator strains to determine the most producing staphylococcin isolates. (S. aureus 1) were chosen as good Staphylococcin producers according to their widest inhibition zone on the basic indicator isolates. Then the 10 isolates (producers) were tested against (Indicator) by well diffusion method. Staphylococcin of S. aureus 1, 5,7,8,11,16,18,22,23,25 strains inhibited of the tested isolates respectively (from wound infaction) multiple resistant strains that produced largest inhibition zone against the indicator strain was chosen for further study,

  320. Ahmed H. I. Elfaig, Eltyeb Wadi, Omer Egemi, Hamid H. Ibrahim and Ali M. Eisa

    This study conducted in the semi-arid lands of central Sudan, aimed at investigating and analyzing the coping mechanisms that have been adopted by the traditional farmers on the main staple food (sorghum and millet) to cope with rainfall variability. Primary and secondary sources were used in the study. Five hundred (500) headed households were randomly selected from eight sample sites and questionnaire interviews were conducted focusing on the adopted coping mechanisms. Coefficient of variation and descriptive analytical methods were used in the data analysis. The results showed medium coefficient of variation for rainfall ranges (0.3 to 0.37) for the period 1972 to 2013. Similarly, high coefficient of variation for sorghum and millet production ranges (0.61 to 0.92) was found. A significant relationship between education and intercropping (P ≤ 0.05) and between education and Ramil mechanism (P ≤ 0.01) was found. The results showed that the coping mechanisms were adopted with no regards to the demographic variables. The efficiency and productivity of these mechanisms was found to be low except for the shift to quick maturing varieties under existing rainfall variability and crop's production uncertainty which represents the major constraints for the resilience of local communities.

  321. Oluoch, I. A., Ogallo, L., Kamirika, J., Obongo, J. and Tororei, S. K.

    Whereas Food and Nutrition security play a crucial role in the management of HIV and AIDS, the scourge is a significant threat to good nutrition and food security. It increases vulnerability and depletes the capacity of a society to cope yet no proper documentation has been done in Migori County. This paper examines food and nutrition coping strategies adopted by sugarcane and tobacco farmers living with HIV and AIDS and their families in the County. Design of the study was a cross sectional descriptive and analytical survey. A two stage sampling technique was used to identify study area and selection of respondents (341) for exit interview, Focused Group Discussions (FGD) and Key Informant Interview (KII). Data collected included: demographics, food and nutrition, stigma and discrimination, psychosocial care and support and economic coping strategies. Food and nutrition coping mechanisms included: diversification (30.5%), adopting low labour intensive technologies (20.4%), substitution with subsistence crops (21.5%) and reduction of land acreage (23.4%).The paper concludes that farmers are coping with the impacts of the epidemic and are able to access nutritious foods though not always in adequate quality and quantity and that the strategies established are not only multi-dimensional but also dynamic and interdependent. Consequently, development and implementation of county food security strategy policy that facilitate access to nutritious food is recommended.

  322. Rajesh, B. and Ananda, K. S.

    The present effort has been made to characterize the arecanut accessions based on total phenolic content and native protein profiles. The study showed significant variations for total phenolic content in the mature fruits among the arecanut accessions. Accessions VTL-26 (Fiji), VTL-11 (Indonesia) and VTL-60 (West Bengal) recorded higher phenolic content while low content was noticed in VTL-56 (Hirehalli Dwarf). The study indicated that protein profiles could be used for identification of individual accession of arecanut and cluster analysis also did not show any correlation between geographic affinity and genetic affinity of arecanut accessions in the cluster diagram.

  323. Lavanya, A., Ambikapathy, V. and Panneerselvam, A.

    Innumerable plants were used in Indian Systems of medicine like Siddha, Ayurvedha and Unani. With increasing demand for herbal drugs, the natural populations of Aristolochia bracteolata are threatened with overexploitation. The present study was aimed to develop an innovative micropropagation protocol in Aristolochia bracteolata. Nodal and shoot tip explants were used as a starting material for micropropagation. Explants were surface sterilized and aseptically cultured on MS medium supplemented with different plant growth regulators. Best results of axillary bud formation were observed on MS medium containing 2.0 mg/l BAP. The multiple shoot formation from nodal segments were highest in MS medium supplemented with 1mg/l BAP + 2.0 mg/l kinetin. For rooting various concentrations of IBA were used. The rooted plantlets were finally hardened.

  324. Maryum Meraj, Md. Niamat Ali, Bashir A. Ganai, F. A. Bhat and Hilal A. Ganaie

    Changes in micronuclei frequency of fish captured from stressed environments may represent a reliable tool in revealing sub lethal effects of the pollutants found in aquatic ecosystems. The response patterns of peripheral erythrocyte micronuclei were assessed in fish caught at Dal Lake and Mansbal Lake which have different pollution levels with the aim to evaluate the suitability of the MN, for the Halics detection of mutagens in freshwaters. As indicator species, Cyprinid fish (Cyprinus carpio and Carassius carassius L.) were used because of their ecological significance. Blood samplings were performed on fish immediately after capture and repeated at different time intervals (15, 30, 45 and 60 days) on the same fish individuals after transfer to clean environment (aquariums) in the laboratory. The MN formation in the peripheral erythrocytes, authenticated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), was found significantly higher (p < 0.01) in both species of fish caught from Dal Lake in comparison to fish from Mansbal Lake and also from the positive control (EMS, 5mg/L). Cyprinid fish examined after 15, 30, 45 and 60 days of maintenance after capture presented a remarkable decrease resulting in recovery up in MN frequency in comparison with the frequency observed at capture. Results suggested the suitability of the test species used as tools in environmental monitoring programs of risk assessment in fresh water environments.

  325. Hamdia Z. Ali, AbdulRahman AbdulQader, A., Ali, A. Abdullah, Hutham, M. Saood, Ameera, S. Mohammed, Salam, D. Salman and Thamer, F. Abed

    This research dealt with findings that included laboratory and greenhouse studies on the efficacy of our isolates of Trichoderma spp. in controlling Fusarium spp., Nigrospora oryzae, Exserohilum rostratum, Bipolaris spicifera, Curvularia lunata, Alternaria spp., and Thanatephorus cucumeris. Ten isolates of Trichoderma spp. were pre-screened on chitin plates to determine its ability to digest chitin therefore indicating the presence of chitinase which is a good disease resistance candidate. In vitro test conducted with Trichoderma isolate T.7 against 23 isolates of pathogens via the dual culture technique showed that isolates exhibited high antagonistic activity and reduced radial growth for each pathogen. As a consequence of dual culture assay, greenhouse study was conducted to determine the effectiveness of Trichoderma isolate T.7 to suppress major phytopathogens by using local rice variety cv. Forat Anbar as the model plant in autoclaved soil. Four parameters were tested; antagonistic activity, disease incidence, disease severity and population density parameter of Trichoderma isolate T.7 for each pathogen. The greenhouse experiment exhibited Trichoderma isolate T.7 greater efficiency of reducing disease severity in majority of pathogens e.g. T.7+T.cucumeris R2, T.7+F.solani R11, T.7+N. oryzae R9 and T.7+A.alternata R20 which reduced disease severity by approximately 2.2 %. Trichoderma isolate T.7 addition had significant effect on growth parameters of rice plant, fresh and dry weight as well as nitrogen and protein concentration.

  326. Sadia Chishty, Monika, Nimali Singh and Anil Agarwal

    IMNCI is a key evidence based strategy for reducing neonatal and infant mortality through systematic approach. The focus is on overall well being of the child. The aim of IMNCI is to train, and provide preventative and home-based care through, India’s network of frontline health workers and supervisors. ASHA occupies a major position and perform as important element in health system networking. Supportive supervision and timely monitoring of any program is of utmost importance to make the program a success. Objective: To assess the impact of monitoring and supportive supervision on performance of IMNCI trained ASHA. Method: The present study is a longitudinal study of Baran district of Rajasthan, India. A total number of 382 IMNCI trained ASHAs selected by random sampling technique. An interview schedule was used for collection of data regarding the skills of ASHA, the health worker for her skills on IMNCI protocol with respect to skill in identifying the sick child, grade him, and refer him/her if required and on recording and reporting of the program. Data analysis was done using SPSS 16.0. Results: The improvement in the overall IMNCI skills from visit first to third visit was highly significant statistically. Conclusion: Close monitoring, supportive supervision and re-strengthening of the program had a positive impact on the overall performance of ASHAs.

  327. Safiya Tazeen, Kulkarni, R. S. and Murali Jadesh

    Profenofos is commonly used pest control in the agricultural fields surrounding freshwater reservoirs. This study was conducted to determine the acute toxicity of organophosphate pesticide and its effects on some haematological parameters of fresh water teleost fish Notopterus notopterus. The experimental groups showed decreased RBC, and Hb at 24 and 96 hrs exposures, and WBC value were found decreased at 24 hrs and increased at 96 as compared to control groups respectively. The results of examinations of blood profile indicate marked nuerotoxic effect of profenofos in fishes. The changes in values of both erythrocyte and luekocyte profile after exposure to profenofos based preparation may be referred to disruption of haematopoiesis as well as to a decrease on non-specific immunity of the fish.

  328. Rambabu, R., Vijay kumar, S., Abhilash Kumar, V., Madhavi, K. R., Aruna, J., Madhav, M. S., Ravindrababu, V. and Srinivas Prasad, M.

    Swarna is high yielding and widely grown indica rice cultivar covering a substantial portion of rice area in India and in the Asian countries such as Bangladesh, Philippines, Thailand and Indonesia, but it is highly susceptible to blast disease. The donor selected for the resistant gene is C101LAC carrying blast resistance gene Pi-1 derived from LAC23. The Pi-1 gene was done introgressed into Swarna by using Marker assisted backcross breeding method. Foreground selection was using RM224 linked marker to identify plants possessing resistance alleles in the segregating generations along with stringent phenotypic selection for faster recovery of the recurrent parent genome (RPG). Foreground selection coupled with stringent phenotypic selection identified plants homozygous for Pi-1, which was advanced to BC2F4 through pedigree selection. Marker-assisted selection for Pi-1 in BC2F4 using flanking markers identified five homozygous families. Background analysis with parental SSR markers was used to estimate the recovery of RPG in improved lines and it revealed that RPG recovery was up to 94.7% (# SL-10-3-7-63-45-7). Screening with highly virulent isolate SPI-28 showed that the improved lines were resistant to blast disease and were on a par with swarna for yield, and grain quality. These introgressed lines provide valuable material for resistant breeding program.

  329. De, L.C., Devadas, R., Singh, D.R., SumanThapa and Wilson Rai

    The Vanda orchids are totally tropical and are cross compatible with other genera like Ascocentrum, Aerides, Rhyncostylis, Neofinetia, Renanthera and even Phalaenopsis. All orchids having the same characteristics as the Vanda genus is called as a vandaceous orchid and they grouped together to form the Vanda Alliance. Genera like Vandas, Aerides, Ascocentrum, Renanthera, Rhyncostylis, Aranda, Mokara, Kagawara are included in the Vanda Alliance. They are ideal for cut flowers, hanging baskets, pots or tree logs. The present investigation was carried out with 18 hybrids of Vanda orchids which were grown with recommended package of practices under greenhouse condition. Observations were taken on 65 morphological characteristics which could be used in future for crop improvement programme for developing new Vanda hybrids.

  330. Srinath, D. and Uma Maheswari, K.

    Rice is a major component of the agricultural sector in particular and the overall economy in general. Flooded paddy is often sold at low price causing economical loss to the farmers. Therefore, the present study was conducted to study the physical quality properties of flood affected paddy and rice in comparison with normal paddy and rice to find the quality of various physical parameters. Statistically significant difference (P <0.05) in the physical properties such as grain hardness (N: 4.20 Kg and F: 2.91 Kg), bulk density (N: 0.85 g/ml and F: 0.82 g/ml), 1000 kernel weight (N: 15.55 g and F: 14.53 g), kernel length (N: 5.71 mm and F: 5.19 mm), L/B ratio (N: 3.59 mm and F: 3.32 mm)was found between the normal rice and flood affected rice. However, no significant difference was observed in the breadth (N: 1.59 mm and F: 1.56 mm) between the samples. Statistically significant difference was observed in the L* a* b* values in paddy, unpolished rice and polished rice except a* (Hue) value for paddy and b* (brightness) value for unpolished rice, between control and experimental samples. Therefore, further extensive research is needed for the utilization of paddy for the production of more feasible and convenient products in order to minimize the economic losses to the farmers.

  331. Regalakshmi, T., Rekha, D., Vasantha, S. and Panneerselvam, A.

    An ethnobotanical survey was carried out in the Avidanallavijayapuram (Pappanadu) village of, Orathanadu (tk), Thanjavur (dt), Tamilnadu, India. Interviews and detailed personal discussions were conducted with the herbalist and local people to identify plants and collect the medicinal information for 12 months (from January 2015 to December 2015). The medicinally important plants were botanically identified. Totally 137species of 125 genera belonging to 57 families were reported with ethno medicinal values. Leaves are the mostly used part to prepare medicine. Generally fresh parts are used. The medicinal plants used by villagers were arranged alphabetically followed by botanical name, family name, local name part used, and medicinal uses.

  332. Bandar H. Aloufi

    Background and Methods: The majorities of young people have no healthy life style or dietary habits. In the current study, we investigated the associations between hypertension and smoking among Hail University students in Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional study was conducted among university students. Randomly, 100 male young students between the ages of 18- 24 years were selected. Data were collected on a self-completed questionnaire in order to record smoking behavior and dietary habits. Body mass index (BMI) and the systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and heart rate (HR) were measured three times with10–15-min intervals in the sitting position and at the resting state. Results: The numbers of Participants were 100 students from male university campus aged 18–23years. 48% of participant was within normal weight, 28% overweight and 24% obese. The prevalence of current percentage of smokers in the student population is 32%. Smokers had significantly higher blood pressure and heart rate values than non-smokers. Both university student smokers and non-smokers with history of hypertension in the family had significantly higher values of blood pressure than those without history of hypertension in the family. Conclusion: A significant elevation of blood pressure and heart rate was observed among young smokers.

  333. Ajanta Sarkar, Dr. A. K. Patra and Dr. Utpal Kumar Sar

    The present study was carried out to determine the morphological and anatomical character of fresh-water air-breathing fish Clariasbatrachus to characterized the length, weight of alimentary tract and reproductive aspects like condition factor (K), Gastrosomatic index (GSI), Gonadosomatic index (GnSI), Hepatosomatic index (HSI). The result obtained indicated adverse effects on the gonads as well as on liver weight. The average Gastrosomatic index (GSI), Gonadosomatic index (GnSI), Hepatosomatic index (HSI) and condition factor (K) in young and adult male and female sexes of Clariasbatrachus were 1.73 and 1.01, 1.70 and 1.70 (GSI) 0.37 and 0.32, 0.05 and 0.32 (GnSI) 0.62 and 0.43, 0.56 and 0.64, (HSI)2.42 and 2.80, 2.54 and 2.18 (K) respectively. The physico-chemical parameters of pond water during winter season showed. . PH 8.1 Alkalinity 66.0 mg/l Free CO2 9.5 mg/l Dissolved O2 6.5 mg/l Total Solid 114 mg/l Total hardness 60 mg/l Total suspended solid 4.0 mg/l Chlorides 10.6 mg/l The weight-length relationship, Gastrosomatic index, Gonadosomatic index, Hepatosomatic index and condition factor differed from four specimens.

  334. Dr. Avinash Kumar Yadav

    The purpose of this paper is to explain the importance of math Manipulative. For decades, the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics has encouraged school districts nationwide to use Manipulative in mathematical instruction. The value of Manipulative has been recognized for many years, but some teachers are reluctant to use them in their lessons. Throughout this paper, a discussion of the positive results of several research studies that strongly suggest the use of Manipulative will be mentioned. The history and advancement of Manipulative with also be discussed. Defining Manipulative and explaining the correct way to use them will be highlighted in this paper.

  335. Silvana Pasovska and Ljuben Poposki

    According to the National strategy for environmental investments in the Republic of Macedonia 2007- 2013, the country has enough green energy, sunny days, hydropotential, geothermal watersuu8and biomass, i.e. potentials which are not sufficiently exploited, and it is bound to produce at least 20% renewable energy by 2020. The fact that tobacco production is a major source of income to many Macedonian families and direct incentive of economic development of certain regions in the country has encouraged the experts to find acceptable solution that will follow the EU guidelines on finding green energy as a renewable source and will also contribute to the anti-smoking campaign by alternative use of tobacco. Tobacco leaf is used for extraction of components for production of anti-inflammatory medications and drugs for treatment of Alzheimer’s and Parkinson's disease, diabetes etc. It can be also applied inantibactericide, antifungicide and antiinsecticidepreparations which proved their high efficiency in practice and are considered natural products for environmental protection. The amount of biomass per unit area is an important component in the production of biogas and organic fertilizer. Composition of tobacco plant and the ratio between its constituents (oil, cellulose, starch, sugar) is consideredan ideal combination for biogas production. If we defeat our prejudices that tobacco is used only for production of cigarettes and make deeper analyses of its real potentials, it will be realized that tobacco is the food of the future and agricultural crop which deserves more attention.

  336. Aditya Kishore Dash, Abanti Pradhan and HimanshuSekhar Patra

    Soil pollution is mostlyrelated to human activities such as industry, agriculture, burning of fossil fuels, mining and metallurgical processes and their waste disposal. A work was undertaken to study the physico- chemical characteristics of soil at three villages like Raika, Bansapani and Kalinga near the mining area of Keonjhar District, Odisha. The physico- chemical parameters like pH, conductivity, organic carbon, and organic matter, N, P, K, Zn, Fe and Mn were analyzed following the standard methods. It was observed that, parameters like pH, conductivity, organic carbon and organic matter content did not show any significant difference between the three sampling stations. The minimum and maximum values for different parameters at all the three stations are; pH 6.43-6.7, conductivity 75.6–96.6, OC (%) 0.32-0.53 and OM (%) 0.82-0.98. However, the major soil nutrient like Nitrogen, Phosphorous and Potassium content of soil in the three stations showed significant difference. Further, the micro- nutrient like Zn, Fe and Mn content of soil were also analyzed in the above three stations. There was no significant difference of Zn and Fe concentration between the stations however the manganese content of soil showed a significant difference. Abanti Pradhan and HimanshuSekhar Patra

  337. Bhuvaneshwari, T. and Muruganandam, A.

    The present investigation suggests that the influence of metrological and Physico-chemical factors on the seasonal variation of cyanobacterial diversity were performed. Marine water samples were collected at monthly wise from Thondiyakadu coast for one year from July 2013 to June 2014 and Physico-chemical Parameters such as rainfall, atmosphere temperature, water temperature, pH, salinity, dissolved oxygen; Nitrate and total phosphorous were analyzed. Maximum rainfall was September may record during the period of 2013 to 2014. Maximum pH was June and July was recorded in the study. The results were discussed.

  338. Mangalanayaki, R. and Saranya, E.

    The present investigation was carried out to isolate the Bacillus species. From clinical and subclinical Bovine mastitis milk and to determine antimicrobial susceptibility. The samples were collected from mannargudi Taluk, Thiruvarur (Dt) Tamilnadu.from January 2016 to March 2016. A total of 41 Milk samples suffering from mastitis were screened and a total 9 Bacillus species. Were recovered. The isolated were subjected to the antibiotics resistance screening. The antibiotic resistance test showed that the isolated Bacillus species were resistant Methicillin (100%) followed by Penicillin G (91.40%), Oxacillin (80.54%), Cefixime (54.75%), Ampicillin (50.67%), Ceftriaxone (35.29) , Streptomycin (28.50%), Erythromycin (20.36%), Amikacin (17.64%), Gentamicin (12.21%), Cefpodoxime (8.59%), (12.21%), Tetracycline (7.69%), Chloramphenicol (6.33%), Azithromycin (5.42%), Ciprofloxacin (4.07%), Ofloxacin (2.26%) and all Bacillus specie were susceptible to vancomycin. The present study demonstrated the presence of alarming level of resistance of frequently and commonly used antimicrobial agents to the isolated bacteria. Therefore , an examination of the antibiotics resistance profiles of the isolated must be done earlier to the use of antibiotics in both to choose appropriate antibiotic for treatment and prevention of Bovine mastitis.

  339. Aviral Shah

    An apparently healthy 50-year-old male, reported in OPD with the history of fever for last 1 year associated with decreased appetite and weight loss in last 6 months and skin rash all over body for last 4-6 weeks. On physical examination, the patient was looking ill. He was febrile, pale, tachycardic and blood pressure was within normal range. Axillary lymph nodes were enlarged, right was approximately of6cms x 4 cms, and left was 3cms x 4 cms, firm, non-tender and mobile. He had raised skin lesions of varying sizes 0.5-1 cms all over body including the genitals, sparing palm and sole. Rash was not associated with redness, pain, itching or any discharge. Bilateral ulnar nerves were thickened. Abdominal examination revealed a moderately enlarged non-tender liver and palpable spleen. Cardiovascular, respiratory system and nervous system examination were normal. Provisional diagnosis of Lepra Reaction/ skin manifestation of lymphoma / infective etiology such as Tuberculosis, Fungal infection and Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) was kept. After bone marrow examination and biopsy from the skin lesion patient was ultimately diagnosed as disseminated fungal infection. Patient was initiated on treatment with colloid amphotericin B IV for 3 days followed by oral itraconazole 200 mg BD. On follow - up patient is doing well his lymph nodes have disappeared his fever has subsided and skin lesions are regressing. He is still on followup.

  340. Rajagopal, S., Muruganandam, A. and Rengarajan, R.

    The study was carried out to assess the water quality parameters of the Agniyar estuary, Tamil Nadu, India from August 2015 to April 2016. The monthly variations showed minimum and maximum value water temperature (24.52 – 32.15˚C), turbidity (47.75 – 59.15 cm), pH (7.62 – 8.4 ppm), dissolved oxygen (3.35 to 6.19 mg/L), salinity (18.27 - 25.57 ppt), calcium (95.15 – 146.9 mg/L, nitrate (0.32 – 0.51 mg/L) and ammonia (0.13 – 0.24 mg/L) respectively.. The minimum and maximum values of above parameters were observed during the study period of August 2015 to April 2016 in the Agniyar estuary.

  341. Rajkumar, G. and Ravipaul, S.

    Managathi forest of Ariyalur district, Tamilnadu was explored for the floristic studies and life form spectrum. It covers an area 32ha. Totally 141Angiosprmic plant species represented by 105 genera belonging to 49 families and the habit wise distribution of plants species dominance of herb 48 (28.36%)followed by shrub 38 species (26.95%), trees 36 species (25.53%)and climber 27 species (19.14%) were recorded. Life form spectrum revealed the dominance of Phanerophytes (55.31%) and these were followed by the Therophytes (35.46%), Chameophytes (14.63%), Hemicryprophytes (2.83%) and Cryptophytes (2.12%). Phanerophytes were found higher than the normal biological spectrum which indicated that study area prevailing environment. Some rare plants are confined these forest.

  342. Manimekalai, G. and Karthika, S.

    The present study deals with the analysis of macro and micronutrients and microbial diversity of soils from Thanjavur Taluk, Thanjavur District, Tamil Nadu. Soil samples were collected at various seasons (Monsoon, Pre monsoon, Summer, Post monsoon) from three villages namely Thanjavur, Sengipatti and Sadayarkovil. The physico chemical parameters of soils were analysed. The physical parameter includes the analysis of pH, moisture content and temperature of the soils. The chemical parameter includes the analysis of macronutrients such as carbon, nitrogen, pottasium, phosphorus, calcium, magnesium and micronutrients such as zinc, iron, manganese and copper present in three crop land soils of three different villages. Totally 21 different species of soil bacteria were observed from the soil samples in three villages namely Thanjavur, Sengipatti, Sadayarkovil. Among the bacterial species identified, Staphylococcus spp, E.coli, Bacillus Spp and Entrobacter spp were dominant in bacteria. Totally 19 different species of soil fungi were observed. Among the fungal species identified, Rhizopus spp, Fusarium solani, Aspergillus spp, and Gliocladium spp were predominant in fungi. The chemical parameters and microbial population of rhizosphere soils of crop plant have suggested as future course work.

  343. Gurav, M.R., Sunetra. S. Kshirsagar, Vijaykumar, K. and Rao, K.R.

    The present investigation is focused on effect of environmental variations as well as human interference on physicochemical parameters from Ekruk tank, Solapur.The correlation is established between various physicochemical parameters during specified period 2010 -2012.In our study it is revealed that all parameters showed correlation with each other and seasonal fluctuations heavily influenced the variations found in native freshwater body. Our results are discussed in the context with influence of season as well as human interference.

  344. Ibrahim Sani and Dr. Muhammad Aminu Mode

    Presidential inaugural speeches have witnessed a rapid proliferation of research in the 21st century in the field of political discourse. This paper focuses on how presidential inaugural speech is used as a vital vehicle for setting social agenda as well as prioritize policies both local and international as a roadmap to a new democratically elected government. The paper uses Agenda setting Theory to highlight how issues gain prominence in media coverages. CDA is also harnessed to portray the connection of language and power in political discourse. Thus, the paper examines Muhammadu Buhari’s inaugural speech as the unit of its analysis. The findings of the paper demonstrate that inaugural speeches provide means for politicians to project their government policies as well as their main priorities. On the other hand, the presidential speeches also form a vital instrument the media harness for setting agenda at a given political dispensation.

  345. SaharBoukadida and Riadh El Abed

    Political instability and market reassessment of sovereign credit risk pricing could be considered as being the most relevant determinants of Tunisian and Egyptian sovereign CDS spreads volatility. In fact, after the “Arabic Spring” revolutions, Tunisia and Egypt knew a wave of sovereign credit rating degradations; CDS spreads increases and economic fundamentals deterioration. Under dictatorial political regimes, these two economies seemed to be economically stable despite their worsening macroeconomics fundamentals. We use VAR/VECM models and generalized impulse responses to assess financial stress transmission between the sovereign CDS market, the real economy and financial market before and after revolutions. Results show that, after revolutions, investors revaluated the sovereign credit risk of Tunisia and Egypt. Fundamentals deterioration impact has become stronger and rapid but is not the main cause of sovereign CDS spreads increase.

  346. Dr. Govardhana Naidu, S.

    At the national level the first ever coalition government was formed under the Prime Minister ship of Late Shri Morarji Desai Ji which existed from 24th March 1977 to 15th July 1979. Country India is a geographically vast with varied dialect divided in 28 states and 7 union territories has blessed with predominance of the regional and sub regional issues and problems. Within these issues and concerns the birth of regional political parties is inevitable and resulted in to more politically sharp focused regional parties. Ever since 1989 India has been through the phase of governance which is obviously the coalition government. The initiation of coalition government at the center level can be traced to the parliamentary election of 1969 when the Congress Party first reduced to minority due to split of it. To evaluate whether coalition governance make good or bad veil cover over democracy needs to study in an uncertainty situation. Under the coalition governance where ruling people are not from the single party, the prime motive of political policy will vary in time and space and result in certainty with high risk or sometimes into uncertainty. The Time-period of India from 2004 -2014 records the countries march in time on the roads of coalition led policy governance. Though the Country has recorded commendable growth till 2009, and slowdown along with global scenario of recession, the economic events with government policies in various areas of industry and human needs served, have carried the stigma of the corruption charges on some of the ruling people in coalition intertwine network.

  347. Benjamin Adjei, Prince Donkor, Samuel Agyei Nimo, Wilson Kwaku Nimsaah and Benjamin Adjei Danquah

    The study examines the relationships between equity and foreign exchange markets with a focus on return and volatility spillovers in Egypt, Kenya, Nigeria, South Africa and Tunisia. To aid analysis, a bivariate VAR-GARCH BEKK model is employed in the study. The main findings suggest a higher dependence of own return in the stock markets and a uni-directional return spillover from the currencies to the equity markets except for South Africa which has a weaker interrelation among the two markets. Furthermore, results was able to prove a higher level of segmentation among the stock and foreign exchange markets in transmitting volatility spillovers, hence indicating a low integration among them. Investors who are likely to diversify into these growing African markets are likely to reap results of this diversification by trading strategically in the equity and currencies markets.

  348. Augustine Adu Frimpong

    Maternal lifestyle is a key determinant of maternal health in the global world. Maternal health has become the top most priorities for the United Nations, the World Health Organization, Governments and institutions around the world. As a result many attempts have been made in order to improve maternal health by educating the pregnant women on their way of life, nature of diet and the kind of activities they engage themselves in during the period of pregnancy. World including, Sub- Saharan African countries specifically, Ghana has worked harder in order to achieve the millennium development goal target of improving maternal health, thereby reducing maternal mortality ratio by ¾ in 2015 (Report from Ghana Millennium Development Goals, 2008). The researched work was a quantitative study; with the helped of probit model the field data was analyzed. The study used a sample size of 200 pregnant women. The study employed both purposive and random sampling technique in taking the data. Purposively the area under study was selected in order to get the required respondents at Kwabre East District: Asonomaso Government Hospital. But in selecting the pregnant women in the study area a simple random sampling techniques was used. The study found out that, there was a negative effects of the number of period females spend on education (i.e. knowledge or absent of ignorance) and age of the pregnant women on drinking lifestyle, smoking lifestyle but exhibited a positive effect on the use of mosquito net, regular exercise and visitation of antenatal care among pregnant women. The study recommended that the Government of Ghana and all other stakeholders which include NGOs, Ghana Health service should educate the pregnant women on the use of treated mosquito net and the need to do regular exercises as well as visiting the antenatal for care. Thus, all stakeholders should engage the mass media (i.e. radio stations, television and internet) massively, to campaign and promote education for females and also inform the public to widen their knowledge on the relevance of prenatal care, post natal care, and hospital delivery, in order to reduce maternal death during delivery. Again, the study recommended that, the Government of Ghana together with all stakeholders should institute affirmative measures and actions that will encourage ladies (i.e. girls) to attend school.

  349. Jitumoni Neog and Nithyashree, D. A.

    The aims and objectives of Home Science education have been changed to a greater extent. It is treated as the systematic arrangement for the use of human and non-human resources for deriving maximum satisfaction to bring about qualitative change in life. Further, the study of Home Science opens avenues for a number of vocations. Hence, it was felt necessary to construct a comprehensive, valid and reliable scale and an attempt was made to develop a scale in order to measure the attitude of the students towards Home Science degree programme. Eighteen statements were selected from 26 statements for which the validity was identified with the help content validity method and reliability was determined by split half method which was found to be 0.78.

  350. Pallabi Deka

    Literacy is an important indicator for all round development of an individual as well as a nation. It eradicates the poverty and unemployment, cultural and social advancement, economic growth and political maturity, generates peace, international relationship and brotherhood and free demographic processes. There is a wide disparity of literacy between SC and ST population of Goalpara district. The main objectives of the paper are to study the circle wise disparity between SC and ST population and to compare the gender disparity of SC and ST population of Goalpara district. The required data has been collected from secondary source and comparative method is used for data analysis. The study concluded that highest SC and ST literacy is recorded in Balijana (16.12%) and Dudhnai (87.39%) block in 2011 respectively. Rangjuli (16.69%) and Dudhnai (82.48%) are recorded highest SC and ST male literacy in 2011 and lowest SC and ST male literacy is recorded in Lakhipur (5.79%) and Lakhipur (3.08%) respectively. On other than Balijana (17.03%) and Dudhnai (92.25%) showing highest SC and ST female literacy in 2011 and lowest female SC and ST literacy is recorded in Lakhipur and Balijana Block respectively.

  351. Antonio C. Pelicano, Guadalupe Q. Morante and Tirso A. Morante

    This study assessed the extent of implementation of student services program and its activities in ESSU Salcedo Campus during the school year 2014-2015 in order to derive input for an intervention scheme. The study utilized the descriptive correlational method of research and utilized a descriptive survey questionnaire in gathering data from the respondents. This was conducted in all colleges of ESSU Salcedo Campus. The respondents of the study composed of 325 fourth year college students of ESSU Salcedo campus. Also involved were 30 faculty members who were involved in student services program as advisers and/or coaches of the different student organizations. There were 15 OSS personnel who comprised the different in-charge of the different student services such as the school nurse, guidance counsellor, housing, etc. who also served as respondents of the study. A modified survey questionnaire was used to gather the data relevant to this study. The researchers personally administered the questionnaires to the respondents. Data collection was done during the third week of October 2014. Weighted mean was computed to determine the extent of implementation, the extent of support extended to non-instructional services program, the level of satisfaction of the respondents on non-instructional services and the problems encountered by the respondents. The Cramer’s V Coefficient Correlation was computed to determine the significant relationship between the extent of support extended to OSS and extent of implementation of the non-instructional services program and the relationship between the extent of implementation of the non-instructional services program and the level of satisfaction of respondents of the non-instructional services. The null hypotheses were tested at .05 level of significance.

  352. Han Ruihui

    The luxurious consumption of China increased fast in recent years and got much concern. At least for several years, China consumed the most part of the luxurious goods. In Europe, some thinkers gave the riveting evaluations for luxury. Wemer Sombart’s famous work Luxury and Capitalism describes and analyses luxury, and believes that luxury is the origin of capitalism. There were also some Chinese thinkers assessed the luxury phenomenon, and literary works described that. According to the opinion of Wemer Sombart, the luxurious consumption of China could accelerate the economic development. If China consumed more luxurious goods, the economy of China would develop faster. However, the reality seems not coincident with his theory. The paper compares the luxurious consumptions and the attitudes toward luxury in China and Europe respectively to the problem. There were luxury tides in the history of both ancient China and Europe, especially around 17th century. However, the attitudes of China and Europe toward luxury were different, especially after 17th century. The consumption pattern were different after 17th century accordingly. The differences derive from the different economic basis in China and Europe. Luxury is the result of the development of commerce, instead of the contrary. The current luxurious consumption condition seems not last long.

  353. Marida Amira S.R., Zahora Ismail and Ahmad Said, S.

    Beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua is a well-known insect pest of various crop plants, commercial trees, ornamental plants and flowers. This insect has a wide range of host plants around the world, therefore it has a potential to become pest of medicinal plant plantations in commercial use. A study was conducted to determine the suitability of four medicinal plant species as host plants: Gynura procumbens (Sambung Nyawa), Cantella asiatica (Pegaga Daun Besar), Orthosiphon stamineus (Misai Kucing) and Capsium frutescens (Cili Api), for the growth and development of beet armyworm. The fresh host plant leaves each species with the fix size (2½ cm diameter) were given to fed at the first instars of larvae until the pre-pupation stage. Based on the survival and mortality rates, developmental time, and pupae weight, G. procumbens was found more suitable for faster growth and development of larvae compared to O. stamineus which had survived only for nine days. Duration of the larval stage development was shortest on G. procumbens which only 9.11 days and longest on C. asiatica which 15.03 days. But numbers of survival are highest on C. asiatica, 24% and lowest on G. Procumbens, 13%. Whereas, the larvae on O. stamineus failed to survive. Over all, the arrangement suitability of the host plants were G. procumbens > C. frutescens > C. asiatica > O. stamineus. The physical and chemical characteristic of these different host plants may influence the differences of development and growth of S. exigua larval. The finding of this study can be used to estimation for controlling this insect to become pest in medicinal plant plantations if it was going to commercial planted.

  354. Sunil Franklin, A. and Dr. Muthuswamy, P.R.

    The tribal population in India constitutes 8.6% of the country’s population (Census, 2011) and is considered as socially and economically backward and disadvantaged. Tribal poverty has come into sharp focus since their food sources from the forest have started dwindling. Also, widespread poverty, illiteracy, under nutrition, absence of safe drinking water and sanitary living conditions, poor maternal and child health services and ineffective coverage of national health and developmental services have been identified by several studies, as possible contributing factors to the dismal health conditions prevailing among the tribal population in India. In this article, the author focuses on certain interacting factors like the infant mortality rate, life expectancy, genetic disorders, sexually transmitted diseases, nutritional status, child health and health care practices which are generally responsible for determining the health status and health behavior of tribal communities.

  355. Dr. David Kiprop, Dr. Justina Syonthi Ndaita and Dr. Julia Situma

    An overview of the history of Open and Distance Education integration strategies in institutions of repute the world over reveals at least two distinct characteristic features: being fraught with myriad challenges and an outstanding determination and resolve exhibited by the founders to make a success of the project in order to achieve the set goals of ODL. This paper examines the educational management and technical challenges facing integration and implementation of Open and Distance Learning programmes in public universities in Kenya. The paper is based on a study conducted in six of the seven public universities in Kenya, namely Maseno, Moi, Masinde Muliro, Egerton, Kenyatta, Nairobi and Jomo Kenyatta Universities. Data was collected using questionnaires and interview schedules from 20 departmental chairs and practitioners. These respondents were purposefully selected along with 378 students randomly selected from the accessible population. The data was analyzed using Chi-square test of goodness of fit and percentage distribution techniques. The findings indicated that there was inadequacy of trained teaching and technical staff, funds allocation, infrastructure in general, motivation of faculty, student support provision and lack of policy guidelines on ODL crucial issues. The research recommendations included the need for adequate training of human resource personnel, and liaison between the universities and the government and other interested stakeholders to help in infrastructure acquisition.

  356. Md. Safikul Islam and Dr. Lubna Siddiqui

    Muslim population is the highest minority in India by occupying a modest equivalent status as others in the society but it has been degrading due to the uneven opportunities in the fields of education, economic participation, health etc. This manuscript is an attempt to assess the socio-economic conditions of Muslim population in urban areas. A cross sectional investigative survey among the 150 migrant Muslims residing in Okhla Vihar, Jamia Nagar, New Delhi, was conducted in the month of March 2015. The outcome of this survey was very surprising which represents a different level of socio-economic phenomena. About 2/3rd Muslim are having very low income i.e. Rs. 35000 per month and rest of them earn more than Rs 35,000 per month. So, low income and high income definitely lead to worst and better living conditions respectively. The reasons for such conditions have been discussed in the following in-depth analysis.

  357. Dr. Nasrin Sultana and Fatema Tania

    Street sweepers play an important role in maintaining the health and hygiene in the cities. This job exposes street sweepers to a variety of risk factors such as dust, volatile organic matter and mechanical stress, which makes them susceptible to certain occupational diseases. The aim of this study was to assess the awareness and knowledge on health and safety conditions of sweepers. The study was also conducted to investigate the health problems among street sweepers of shyamoli area in Dhaka city. Quantitative methods were used on this research. Occupational safety and health of sweepers revealed that the potential health effects of waste. As they were not provided any personal protective equipment, cut in hands and legs were very common that caused them long term infection. Most of sweepers were suffering from various infectious diseases although there were no official statistics; proper investigation and research is therefore key demand for sweeper’s occupational health and safety net. The total respondents of research were 105.According to research, among 105 respondents 56% respondents age were20-40 years,65% respondents were male, 69% respondents were Illiterate, 32% respondents income more than five thousand, 86% were muslin and 55% respondents were married. During work 67% respondents faced problem, 96% respondents do not have any idea about hygienic, 79% respondents do not use protective equipment, 51% respondent’s works 10 hours per day in the work place, 53% respondents not injured during work in the past year, 9% respondents injured once to twice, 20% respondent injured three to five, 11% respondents injured six to ten and 7% respondents injured more than ten times. According to results 81% respondents faced health problems like skin disease, 85% told about fever, 64% complains about Hypertension & eye problems, on the other hand 61% respondents told about Low Back Pain & joint pain(where multiple answer is included).

  358. Waseem Raja Mir and Dr. Vijay, S.

    The Dermatoglyphic features may be used as a suggestive diagnostic tool to the persons who are at risk of some ailments and to check the performance. The ‘‘atd’’ angle is the most widely used method in Dermatoglyphics. The present study aims to examine the dermatoglyphic ‘atd’ angle among different pace runners of all India varsity track runners. The study was confined on 88 athletes, who are participated in the 75th All India Inter University Athletic Championship held at Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences, Bangalore, Karnataka during 16 to 20 January 2015. The subjects who are qualified for finals in the events of sprint n=40 (100m, 200m, 400m, 110m Hurdles, 400m Hurdles), Middle Distance n=16 (800m, 1500m) and long distance n=32 (3000m, 5000m, 10000m, 20km walk) athletes were selected and grouped accordingly. The age of the subjects ranged from 18 to 28 years. The ‘atd’ angle (in degrees) was selected as dependent variable and measured by using Cummins ink method. The collected data was analyzed statistically by using analysis of variance (ANOVA) to find out the significance among groups. Further, the Scheffe’s post hoc test was applied to know the paired mean difference if any between groups. The independent‘t’ test was employed to find out the difference between right hand and left hand ‘atd’ angle of total population. The level of confidence was fixed at 0.05. The present investigation revived that there was no significant difference between the right hand and left hand ‘atd’’ angle among different pace runners.

  359. Dr. Roqsana Taher, A.

    Consumer Buying Behavior refers to the buying behavior of the ultimate consumer. Many factors, specificities and characteristics influence the individual in what he is and the consumer in his decision making process, shopping habits, purchasing behavior, the brands he buys or the retailers he goes. A purchase decision is the result of each and every one of these factors. An individual and a consumer is led by his culture, his subculture, his social class, his membership groups, his family, his personality, his psychological factors, etc.. and is influenced by social as well as his psychological environment. By identifying and understanding the factors that influence their customers, brands have the opportunity to develop a strategy, a marketing message (Unique Value Proposition) and advertising campaigns more efficient and more in line with the needs and ways of thinking of their target consumers, a real asset to better meet the needs of its customers and increase sales.

  360. Dr. Ashish K. Desai

    Capital market provides a variety of investment opportunity to the investors which help them to invest. Mutual fund ensures the minimum risks and maximum return to the investors among various financial alternatives. Consequently, close surveillance and evaluation of mutual funds has become crucial. For that reason, choosing profitable mutual funds for investment is a very important issue. This study is deals with the performance evaluation of selected large-cap mutual funds in India based on risk-return and risk-adjusted return performance measurements. To evaluate risk-return performance, return, Beta and Standard deviation have been considered. To evaluate risk-adjusted Performance, widely used performance measure indexes like Sharpe’s performance Index, Treynor’s performance Index and Sortino’s performance Index have been used. Period during five years of 2011-12 to 2015-16 has been considered. Total nine mutual funds have been taken for the study. From the analysis, it has been concluded that performance of selected large-cap mutual funds in India remains better in comparison than that of the category return.

  361. Dr. Mitar Lutovac and Dr. Vladimir Stojanovic

    Globalization dates from the earliest period of the history of human society, from the time when people began to spread their knowledge and skills of knowledge and phenomena that surround them. Today, when globalization has entered in almost all segments of social phenomena, modern society is preoccupied with exploring the risks of globalization. The research aims at overcoming the risk of danger affecting the security of the state, society and individuals, respectively, on security in the broadest sense. The paper covers the conceptual definition of the concept of globalization, with particular OUTLOOK theorists. The perceived risks which is characterized by made their classification. The paper analyzes the economic consequences of globalization, the disparities in economic growth and development of the economy and poverty in the world. As a result of the action of globalization on human society, treated and cultural homogenization.

  362. Dr. Dawood Shah

    The paper has tried to review the progress towards EFA goals, MDGs related to education and NEP (2009) objectives and targets pertaining to universal primary education and literacy and to identify issues and challenges. Some progress has been made for achieving universal primary education and literacy targets, however, the pace of progress is very slow and Pakistan has missed most of the targets set under EFA, MDSs and NEP (2009). Pakistan is still facing multifaceted challenges in education sector which include low access to education, low retention and high dropout rates, gender disparity, high adult illiteracy rate, poor quality of education, and poor physical infrastructure. Other influencing factors which hinder the progress towards achieving these goals are low budgetary provision for education in terms of GNP, political interference in administrative affairs, poor governance, poverty, high population growth and lack of proper coordination and monitoring mechanism within provinces and at federal level. The Provincial and area governments lack institutional capacity to plan, manage and monitor education system properly in their respective areas especially after 18th Constitutional Amendment. After devolution, the provinces have allocated a significant portion of their budget for education, however a major chunk of budget is spent on salaries and allowances whereas a meager amount is left for development expenditure. Increasing financing for education especially development budget for primary education, capacity building of education managers and teachers, political support for education, school infrastructure improvement, good quality teaching and learning materials and proper implementation and monitoring mechanism are the key ingredients responsible to produce the desired results.

  363. Shruti Marwaha and Geetika Seth

    Whiz Kid - iclass program is designed to enable students to enhance their intelligence in a stress free environment and to start enjoying the student life aiding in the child development right from the crucial age. The program is enlisted for 3-7 years of age. This 104-hour unique programme is specifically framed for weekend sessions; 2 hours/session, stretching it for a year. It builds a mindset that always delivers when the situation arrives. The in hand research study was conducted in Chandigarh, Panchkula, Hoshiarpur and Jalandhar. The sample was randomly selected that consisted of 200 students between 3 and 7 years of age. The study intends to trace and enhance the natural abilities and learning styles of the children and to groom their cognitive abilities for the development of innate passion and mental faculties at the right age. After the successful completion of the programme, a drastic improvement in the activity marks was noticed. Children were found to engage more actively in practical learning thereby developing Ideation, Innovation and Application. The contemporary action oriented program witnessed tangible results and inevitably elevated the performance of the students after the successful implementation of the programme.

  364. Dhanesh and Dr. Lini Mathew

    This paper proposes an Adaptive Volterra Series Filter with a lattice structure and delayed element for reducing noise from nonlinear system. Based on the lattice-channel structure, the Adaptive Second Order Volterra Series Filter Least Mean Square (ASVF-LMS) algorithms have been derived. In order to reduce the computational complexity and the nonlinear distortion with no need of solving the nonlinear acoustic equation, the ASVF-LMS algorithm with a lattice structure and least means square algorithm is proposed. MATLAB simulations demonstrate the control performance improvement using the proposed algorithms.

  365. Sudhakar, K. and Dr. Nellaiyapen, N. O.

    The aim of the study is to find out the relationship between academic achievement and home environment of high school students with reference to gender, type of family and parents’ educational qualification. In the present study normative survey method was employed and to assess the academic achievement of the high school students (X standard students), the board examination total marks (2015) is taken into account and for the assessment of Home environment, the tool was constructed and validated by Aaliya Aktar and Dr.Shail Bala Saxena (2013). For the purpose of the study a sample of 400 high school students were selected through stratified random sampling technique. The results reveal that the level of academic achievement and home environment of high school students is average level. There exists is a significant relationship between the academic achievement and home environment of high school students.

  366. Dr. Moly Kuruvilla and Thasniya, K. T.

    Social institutions such as family and schools have a leading role in gender role socialization of boys and girls. Observation of role plays of children was undertaken to analyse the patterns of gender identities and extent of role differentiation among primary school children. The sample consisted of boys and girls in the third standards of six primary schools each in Malappuram and Thrissur districts of Kerala State. Role plays were done by 12 boys’ groups and 12 girls’ groups, each with 4 to 6 members. An inventoryon gender attributes was also used to collect data regarding the extent of gender identity formation among 120 girls and 120 boys. The results of the study reveal that girls and boys show behavioral patterns appropriate for the concerned gender with regard to responsibilities; styles of communication and adherence to the gender hierarchy implying the formulation of gender identities in the early childhood itself. Both boys and girls were ready to take up the roles appropriate for their gender and while the boys showed reluctance to take up opposite gender roles, girls expressed more interest and happiness to do the roles of boys and men. The role of family rather than the school in developing gendered identities and role differentiation in primary school children is highlighted by the findings of the study.

  367. Mohd Ashraf Ganaie and Shafiqa Mohiuddin

    Globalization Without any iota of doubt had contributed to bring lot of changes and reductions to the scope of State Sovereign Powers. There had being numerous threats to the state sovereignty of which special can be made of Global financial flows, multinational Corporations, global media empires and the internet. The World War Second had changed everything drastically and most of the sovereign state deliberately and consciously limited their rights. The reasons behind such deliberate acts on the part of such sovereign states was that they had the intention to gain quite real advantages by becoming the members of regional and inter regional unions. Globalization gave us an alarm call that the lines ahead to us are a great threat in the form of capital labour and the different inequalities which could make us pay a heavy price, If we don’t listen to the call of the hour which is to limit hour aggressive power’s for the betterment of our societies in general end of the world in particular. This deceleration given by the former president of the international court of justice represented the conventional wisdom about of global governance.

  368. Mini Singh Ahuja and Jobanpreet Singh

    The infectious diseases are common now days. We catch these infections easily because of unbalanced diets that human being takes. Once person catches infectionthere are several ways by which that infection is spread to multiple persons. When infection is considered then there must be some infection agent and population. The infection agent will be responsible for passing the infection to the population. The infection separations will also depend upon the immune system of the human within the population. In the proposed paper we will study the rate at which the recovery of the human from the infection takes place and also the rate at which infection spread.If the rate of infection spreading is higher than whole of the population will be infected. So the proposed paper studies the rate at which recovery must happen so that population can recover from the infection. This paper present the comparison among various techniques used to detect the disjoint communities in epidemic networks.

  369. Dr. Lim, Gee Nee and Dr. Lee, Mun Seng

    Internal business is comprised by many theories and explanation. This article is aimed on a Chinese company, a foreign company at Malaysia and a Malaysia company in order to elaborate on their success. Each of them are discussed based on individual theory and explanation, thus this gives a good understanding to public on their path of success and the application of international business theories.

  370. Jakhar, S. R.

    It is well established through studies of diverse parameters that there are a number of palaeochannels exist in the Thar Desert of western Rajasthan. These palaeochannels are good sites for plantation. Plants through their transpiration process increases in content of water vapour in the atmosphere leading to precipitation in form of rain. The rain will reduce frequency and intensity of draught and will convert dry land into greenery which will check further extension of the desert. Other then wood we will get a number of products from plants too. The primary aim of the present study is to find out the possible cause of the contribution of palaeochannels for well being of local residents of the area.

  371. Ashvini Chawla, Sujatha, R. and Balvinder Shukla

    Organizations live with greater risk of poor decision making amidst challenges and assumptions likely to jeopardize performance and reputation. Present day organizations need to be flatter and dispersed; people operating at higher levels – decentralized decision making because businesses cannot hinge around limited people and decisions need to be made at functional, operating and local level. Success depends on the intent and quality of decisions made at every level in supporting and strengthening strategy; reaching out to more people and larger goal. While some leaders bring positive systemic changes, others, more often than not live with presumptions; processes, practices and policies can be recompensed by customization -individual conventions in making things work. This conceptual paper attempts to contemplate the paradox of customization - luxury of leadership pitched against processes; bring systemic change or ignore and grow above processes!

  372. Kanika

    Teacher education is being challenged in the last decades on every front by fundamental changes in the concepts about the nature of knowledge, the phenomenal speed at which knowledge is created, the emerging knowledge- driven economy, the paradigm shift in the theories of learning, rapid developments in the information technology and globalization. In the turmoil, the teachers are being held accountable for the failure of schooling and teacher education held accountable for the quality of teachers. From the positive perspective, teachers are being regarded as the key change agent in the education reform and reform of teacher education is seen by the policy makers and educators as mandatory for the nation to face up the many challenges in the new century. Thus, there are compelling reasons for teachers to approach a ‘culture of innovation’ from the perspective of the knowledge economy, that is, to see innovation as a driving force for the kinds of knowledge needed in the knowledge society. The present paper highlights the constructivism approach of teaching learning process.

  373. Raj Garg, C. A.

    Cost Audit represents the verification of cost accounts and check on the adherence to cost accounting plan. This article focuses on various provisions regarding applicability of cost audit rules to various companies, how cost auditor is appointed, how remunearation of cost auditor is determined etc. Cost Audit ascertain the accuracy of cost accounting records to ensure that they are in conformity with Cost Accounting principles, plans, procedures and objective. These Rules shall apply to every company covered under the Companies (Cost Accounting Records) Rules, 2013 under Sub-Section (1) of Section 148 and which have such amount of net worth or the value of the turnover made by the company from sale or supply of all products or activities during the immediately preceding financial year. Every company as specified in Rule 3 above shall, within one hundred and eighty days of the commencement of every financial year, appoints a cost auditor

  374. Shanthi, D. and Sankar, K.

    Water is one of the most valuable natural resources, which supports human health, economic development and ecological diversity. Because of its several inherent qualities (Eg., consistent temperature, wider spread and continuous availability, excellent natural quality, limited vulnerability, low development cost, drought reliability etc.). It has become an immensely important and dependable source of water supplies in all climate regions including both urban and rural areas of development and developing countries. Major portion of the surface water and ground water is being consumed by agriculture and the left over portion is used for industrial and domestic requirements Trichy has located in centre of Tamilnadu (India). Its border populated upto Perambalur district. The people in the 40 villagers use kollidam river water and the ground water for drinking. Lot of work has been done and published already on the ground water quality of many villages in trichy district. But there is a need to undertake the study to assess the drinking water quality. Hence water samples of twenty five villages were subjected to physio-chemical parameters such as pH, electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids (TDS), total hardness (TH), Calcium (Ca), Magnesium (Mg), Sodium (Na), Potasium (K), Chloride (Cl), Sulphate (SO4) were analyzed and were compared with standard prescribed by WHO and suitable suggestion were made. The correlation coefficients were calculated for water quality assessment.

  375. Dr. Antony Prabakar

    Objectives 1. To evaluate the common causes of acute intestinal obstruction in this region. 2. To identify the etio-pathogenesis 3. To evaluate the various modes of presentation. 4. To study the various modalities of treatment in this centre. 5. To evaluate the morbidity and mortality of acute intestinal obstruction Methods Study design : Retrospective Study centre : Department Of General Surgery, Thanjavur Medical College Hospital, Thanjavur, Tamil Nadu, India Study period: May 2007 – November 2009 Duration of study: 30 months Total number of cases studied : 229 Inclusion criteria: both men and women > 12 years of age Exclusion criteria : pediatric patients are not included Conclusion : Majority of acute intestinal obstruction is contributed by small bowel; major cause being external hernias; strangulation rate is comparatively much lower; adhesive obstruction accounts for most; sigmoid volvulus ranking fourth; plain X-ray abdomen is a valuable and minimal investigation before surgery; early diagnosis and early surgical intervention is the key to reduce mortality

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