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Plagiarism Detection

IJCR is following an instant policy on rejection those received papers with plagiarism rate of more than 20%. So, All of authors and contributors must check their papers before submission to making assurance of following our anti-plagiarism policies.





July 2016

  1. Carolyn C. Lagat and Evans Ogoti Okendo

    The study sought to ascertain the relationship and effects of foreign exchange liberalization on financial performance of commercial banks listed in Kenya’s Nairobi Securities Exchange. Baed on the study, this paper explores the extent to which interest rate fluctuations affect financial performance of banks listed at the NSE. The development of literature was guided by the interest rate parity theory. The study used a time series correlation research design targeting all commercial banks that are listed at the Nairobi Securities Exchange from 2006 to 2013. Data was sourced from the Central Bank of Kenya and published yearly accounts of listed banks. The study used multivariate Linear Regressions to establish the relationship between interest rates and bank performance indicators. The research results revealed a weak positive relationship between interest rate fluctuations and financial performance of commercial banks listed at the NSE. It is, therefore, recommended that the Central Bank of Kenya should come up with regulations to determine the interest rate of commercial banks and also help mitigate moral hazards incidental to financial performance of commercial banks.

  2. Hounga Antoine, Gbaguidi Gbèdolo Arnauld Gabriel, Ahodekon Sessou Coovi Cyriaque and Fadall-Allah Doka-Ansé

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the socio-economic consequences of the lake Tchad regression on the population of Kinasserom. The causes and the outcome of such a phenomenon on the various activities of the population are the keys point of our investigations. A specific documentation is used and the analysis of the population points of views confirm our results and interpretations. The regression of the lake chad is caused by the drought, significant year reduction among the different actors (Protagonists).

  3. Minerva Martínez Ávila, Eréndira Fierro Moreno and Joel Martínez Bello

    The objective of this study is to determine the mediating effect of strategic innovation, administrative innovation and quality innovation between Information and Communications Technology (ICT) and organizational innovation. Using a cross-sectional design, with a sample of 32 institutions of higher education in Mexico through its medium level managers and administrative staff perception. Using statistical technique of structural equation modeling (SEM) and relying on the resource based view we found support for the hypotheses. The results confirm the mediating effect of strategic innovation, administrative innovation and innovation quality between ICT and organizational innovation. This study provides empirical evidence to manage the organizational innovation taking into account involved and mediating variables in the relationship.

  4. Prof (Dr) Mukund Sarda

    The concept of obscenity denotes the quality of being obscene which means offensive to modesty or decency lewd, filthy or repulsive. Sec 292 of the Indian Penal Code was engrafted to give effect to international convention for suppression of Traffic in obscene publications. Public decency and morality are constitutionally authorised ground of restraint on the right of free speech and expression. With the help of decided cases, the concept of obscenity has been discussed elaborately. The various tests evolved by the courts such as contemporary standards, community tolerance test and others have been discussed. The concept of poetic license and its connection with obscenity has been pointed out. Though poets have the license to express themselves in thoughts and words, they should not travel into the field of perversity and should not move away from a permissible ‘target domain’. Recommendations and Suggestions emerging out of the study have been made particularly emphasising on the need to ‘define obscenity’ and for adhering to the rulings of the courts.

  5. Suganthi, S. and Dr. C. B. Senthilkumar

    Women are basically gifted with the art of multi-tasking. They are capable of handling too many things at one go. The way they project themselves & the way they handle things, it is one of the most important management study. Many women are not aware of all these. But once they value it, they start vitalizing it & make sure that they leverage it in a positive way. Many successful women have made it happen due to the bliss of multi-tasking. Women has an edge over the men is only due to multi-tasking. Though men are also capable in doing, the consistency factor will be missing.

  6. Fitsum Meseret Legesse, Kasahun Desyalew Mekonen and Yared Paulos Genetu

    Community policing is a recent philosophy in policing which is based on the assumption that the best way of solving the crime problem is taking proactive measures to prevent the occurrence of crime. The successful implementation of the strategy depends on the level of cooperation among the community, the police, and other stake holders. This study assesses how successful community policing is in a slum neighborhood which is characterized by high rate of crime and juvenile delinquency: Kebele 31 of Addis Ketema sub city, Addis Ababa. In-depth interviews with key-informants and community members and community FGDs were held with a total of 31 respondents to collect primary data. The findings of the study reveal that there is a promising change in the Kebele brought by the implementation of community policing. The changes resulted from the cooperative efforts of the police, the Kebele residents, governmental organizations, NGOS, and other stake holders involved. As the finding of the study suggests, community policing has proven to be a worthwhile endeavor in the neighborhood and it has brought about undeniable change in reducing crime and creating a better relationship between the police and the community.

  7. Ehsan Pouryousefy, Lukman Johnson, Mohsen Ghasemiziarani, Felany Wijaya and Jeffry Viriya

    Modelling tight gas unconventional reservoirs can be a complex task, as there are different uncertainties involved due to geological complications. Moreover, intrinsic characteristics of tight gas reservoirs, makes them very prone to formation damage which can affect the future production rates and increases the simulation uncertainties. The Whicher Range field in Perth Basin is a large undeveloped ‘unconventional’ tight gas reservoir in Western Australia. Gas‐in‐place estimations of up to 6 TCF have been reported. Other tight sand reservoirs have been identified in the Perth Basin, but none has been put into commercial production. Whicher Range provides a long and comprehensive case history of drilling and testing programs which, thus far, have not provided a viable well completion or field development plan. To study the associated simulation uncertainty, we developed there reservoir model and the model calibrated with available production data to be used to evaluate the reservoir behavior and possible future production scenarios. Simulation outcomes were compared with the field history data and the deviation from the field results was discussed. Result show that, if the uncertainties such as geological complexities, or formation damage (either phase trapping or fines migration) are not taken into account, the production rate can be significantly overestimated. It is also pointed out that due to the lack of lateral continuity in fluvial systems the deterministic estimation Gas Initial in Place (GIIP) can also be significantly over estimated. Associated risk of occasioning a dry well in fluvial meandering reservoirs with this degree of heterogeneity is very high. It is recommended that a thorough and meticulous study should be carried out and proper field development strategies should be established to enable the further development of this type of fields. It is very important to implement these data to construct a representative model. From the data obtained from the Whicher Range field, it is concluded that the field has potential to be developed and to be produced if the right strategy and technique is put in place.

  8. Dr. Juliana Sarmah

    The study was undertaken to disseminate nutrition messages through a package of visual aids to the beneficiaries of ICDS (A scheme under Ministry of Women & Child Development) and the study was also aimed to assess the impact of the education programme on the target women.(beneficiaries of ICDS). All the seven circles of the North-West Jorhat ICDS Project in Assam with seven dominant communities were represented in the areas selected for the study. A total of 210 women in the age group of 15-45 years selected in equal numbers from the seven communities. Thirty women from each community were the respondents for the study. The seven communities under study included: General caste, O.B.C., Muslim, S.C., Deori caste (S.T-1), Mising caste (S.T-2) and Tea garden labourer. The three nutrition messages selected were : ‘Basics of Food and Nutrition’, ‘Nutrition for mothers’ and ‘Nutrition for Children’. The visual aids included Chart, Slides, Flip Chart and Flash cards. An interview schedule for eliciting back ground information and a knowledge check for assessing nutrition knowledge of the selected respondents that is the women beneficiaries was developed and used for the present study. More than 50 per cent from the experimental group showed ‘high’ level knowledge category as a result of exposure to the nutrition messages. The general caste gained and retained the maximum knowledge, followed by Mising community. This study has thus a great contribution to ICDS scheme in strengthening the Nutrition and Health Education component of the scheme through the package of visual Aids developed. It would be a great help to Anganwadi Workers (AWWs)-a grass root level worker to conduct Nutrition and Health Education programme (NHE) in ICDS with the developed visual aids.

  9. Thulassi Raj, L. and Dr. Ganapathy, S.

    Normative survey was adopted for the study with a sample of 300 higher secondary students in Puducherry. A three point scale with 45 statements was used to access the Environmental Ethics of the higher secondary students. The collected data was statistically analysed using Statistical Package for Social Studies (version- 16) Differential analysis were carried out to study and to check the significant mean difference between variables. The results revealed that the Environmental Ethics of the higher secondary student’s was average. It was concluded that the Environmental Ethics of the higher secondary students is at average level. It is recommended that the Environmental Ethics of the higher secondary students should be improved through their teaching.

  10. Narender Kumar

    Purpose: The study aims to unveil the library collection and services which are being offered to its users without any financial benefits or charges. Although, the libraries are meant for procuring compatible study material and offer services since inception but before ICTs, the libraries had worked manually and services were also offering through manual system, thereby to retrieve the material was time consuming and after ICTs the orientation of the libraries has got drastically changed and collection is accessible 24×7 throughout the year with the facility of remote access. In fact, the transition from print to electronic has given a drastic change in every sphere of the libraries. Retrieval tools are also being changed. In the series of retrieval tools, the OPAC has proved mile stone for users to access the library collection. Indeed, this is wonderful and effective accessing tool, in addition, the users can put request to reserve, return and recall the required book(s). E-contents have reached at the threshold or at fingertips of the users. With the development and procurement of e-resources, the collection and retrieval system of libraries are also being upgraded. Some new different segments like I-Portal, Face Book, WhatsApp, E-services and many more are responsible to unveil and reach the collection of the library among the academic communities. Methodology Approach: Personal observations and experience are used to justify the title of the study. Inferential Observations: The inferential observations of this study are that the libraries are the genuine and authentic gateway to access the relevant study material. E-resources have been doing value addition and strengthening the library system to cater to the needs of the modern users. The significant impact of ICT applications is, the existing services like current awareness service, selective dissemination of information, bulletin board service, reference service, and information service are being offered through ultra modern technologies and many new services have been introduced after emerging the applications of ICTs. Practical Implications: Every library, stakeholder and information and resource centre has to take the initiative to start the program so that maximum users may attract towards the library and enjoy the services and use in the guidelines, policies framing and decision making. For new comers, the library must start induction training program and unveil the collection and facilities among them so that as and when they require the informational services, they can access without any interruption or hesitation. Originality: The applications of ICT are fully responsible to change the shape and means of delivery of library services. Now-a-days, the library collection is available on laptop, tablet, desktop and mobile by a single click. Consortium provides the platform, where users can access the huge collection on a single platform on subsidized and nominal price; in addition, under-budgeted-developed libraries may also participate as electronic contents are available and accessible on reasonable prices.

  11. Augusto Renato Pérez Mayo and José Alberto Hernández Aguilar

    This work describes the evolution of the studies on the organization and hence the ontological and epistemological conception of the organizational knowledge. It is shown that in each socioeconomic and political context the modes and forms of studying organizations are changing and hence they also change the perspectives of its analysis, increasingly enriching themselves, that is to say, systematizing the logical bodies of analysis, theories and methods arise and hence new objects of study become better defined. The empirical and theoretical practicality, that is to say, the development of concepts, scientific categories. Each evolutionary process that explains a concept, categories, suppositions and axioms arise, which comprise the plot with which scientific theories are built. Consequently the evolution of disciplinarity, interdisciplinarity, multi-disciplinarity is shown in addition to already distinguishing a transdisciplinary process in the growth of these analysis logics. All of the above under the trajectory of the proposals of Barnad, Stogdill, Ibarra, Montaño, Pfeffer, Reed, Jo Hatch, Barba, Scott, Clegg, Donaldson, and Hickson.

  12. Manesh Choubey

    The present paper deals with organisation structure and supply chain management of Sikkim Milk Union. The primary data has been collected from Sikkim milk union. Technological innovation and competition in dairy sector in India have led to improvements in supply chain management.. Supply chain improvements reduce inventories, waste, and costs, and thus increase efficiency within the firm and the market channel. The turnover of Sikkim milk union has grown from Rs. 3055 lakhs in the year 2011-12 to Rs. 3733 lakhs in the year 2013-14, which is 22.19% growth. The Churpi, Butter, Curd, Ice Cream, Milk is the prime products that are produced by The Cooperative Milk Producers Union Ltd,. at Gangtok Plant. It is procured from 170 primary milk producers’ co-operative societies from three districts (i.e. East, West and South Districts of the State of Sikkim) There are various sources of non-dairy products but most of the times these products (like sweating agents, stabilizer, emulsifier, flavours, and colour) as well as the packing materials are purchased by Sikkim Milk Union from the local market in and around Siliguri, West Bengal. The packing materials are procured from Bhutan. The Sikkim Cooperative Milk Producers Union Ltd Gangtok Processing Plant is under the control of Deputy General Manager (Quality Control), the union is under the process of getting accredited by ISO certification. In addition that they have own their food safety policy measures in their processing plant. The milk union has more concern about to provide the quality milk and milk derived products to their customers.

  13. Madhusree Dey

    Agricultural productivity can be measured in terms of the final products produced and the inputs requirement for the output. Although a considerable number of research works has been carried out on agricultural productivity in Hooghly district, but the study on the trends and the determinant factors of the agricultural productivity is rare. Therefore, scientific, empirical, factor-intentive investigation is an essential phenomenon in the rural economy of Hooghly district. This piece of work has an intention to find out the actual trends followed in the agricultural productivity in this district. Another aim is to identify and examine the scientific factors which determine the agricultural productivity in this particular place. To calculate the productivity trends, we consider the periods 1989-90 to 2009-2010 by taking Triennium period (the average of the three-years productivity). Our observations are based on primary data of 200 samples. To determine the impact of some relevant factors on agricultural productivity, we use multiple regression model. For calculating agricultural productivity simple regression analysis has been applied in this study. This work reveals that there is an increasing trend in agricultural productivity in Hooghly district during the period of study. Agricultural productivity in our survey area has shown a rising trend due to positive effect of irrigation facilities, average size of operational holdings, further scope of utilization of fertilizers and high yielding variety of seeds.

  14. Prof. Meladze, G., Prof. Meladze, M., Prof. Elizbarashvili, N. and Meladze, G.

    According to humid subtropical, mountainous and high mountainous regions of Georgia there have been identified tendencies of changes of agro-climatic indicators caused by global warming (increase or decrease). Realized studies confirm that the impact of global warming is more reflected in the mountainous and high mountainous conditions, which has a significant impact on the increase in the sums of active temperatures, extension of the vegetation period, general reduction of atmospheric precipitation and frequent droughts. In humid subtropical, mountainous and high mountainous regions of Georgia by baseline and scenarios increase of the temperature by 1 and 2°C, there is an estimated duration of the vegetation period and are calculated values of the sum of active temperatures (>10°C). In particular, in the humid sub-tropical regions the sum of active temperatures makes 4170°C (baseline), according to the scenario in case of increase by 1°C it makes 4390°C, which is suitable for citrus, fruit, technical and other crops. In mountainous and high mountainous regions of Kakheti by the scenario in case of increase of temperature by 2°C, sum of active temperatures makes 4290-1890°C (respectively). In the mentioned regions according to the data of observations during 60 years (1949-2008) there were detected tendencies of increasing the sum of active temperatures and decreasing of atmospheric precipitation during the vegetation period. There are made regression equations to determine dates of average air temperature above 10°C and sums of active temperatures (>10°C) both for the humid subtropical and mountainous and high mountainous regions as well. By the equations there are defined sums of active temperatures according to baseline and scenarios of future temperature (2030-2050) in case of increase of temperature by 1 and 2°C and are separated zones for diffusion and development of agricultures, production of agricultural goods and their development and diffusion. In the humid subtropical region there are identified 4 micro-zones, which provide for the conditions for full growth of cultures and complete maturity of crops. There is also defined providing sums of active temperatures for full maturity of the crops of the mentioned citrus cultures (lemon, orange, grapefruit, tangerine) in every ten or more years. For hilly (500-1500 m) and mountainous (1500-2500 m) regions of Kakheti there are identified 4 agro-climatic zones according to baseline and scenario (increase by 2°C) stating possible diffusion and development of agricultures. According to future scenarios for the zones of distribution of agricultures will be moved up by 100-150 meters in humid subtropics, and in mountainous and high mountainous regions by- 200-300 m above compared to the current zones of diffusion.

  15. Uday Pratap Singh

    Today, the world is facing a serves crisis of international terrorism. India and European Union have called for immediate need to redress the issue terrorism at international and regional levels. For this they have come out with various proposal the enhancement of peace and stability; one such is area is strategic partnership between India and European Union. At this level both at bilateral and multilateral levels have focused on this pertinent of issue of terrorism. The author firmly believe that if there is proper cooperation and coordination between them then the chances of containing terrorism through their own and joint methods will be immensely beneficial not only to them but to the entire world.

  16. Dilip Kumar Maurya

    Since times immemorial Central Asia has been a playing field for invaders who ventured forth from their own territories to stake their fortunes on this vast region. But with the demise of the Soviet Union these republic gained independence and are now sovereign states commonly referred as Central Asian Republic (CARs). Unexplored natural resources and their geo-strategic location have brought major powers to the ‘New Great Game’. India with immense economic and strategic stakes in the region cannot remain isolated from the region because India enjoy tremendous goodwill amongst these republics. The author concentrates on the existing political and security environment in the CAR and assesses the strategic importance of the region for India.

  17. Raghvendra Pratap Singh

    The recent trend in Indian foreign policy focuses primarily on the diplomatic engagement with great powers. So far, Indo-French relations are concerned, it was even cordiale during the Cold War period. It improved much more after 1965 and 1971 wars. The golden period was the year 1998 with India’s nuclear explosion. France, then, was the only country that did not imposed any sanction and more important it signed strategic partnership with India. From hence onwards, Indo-French objective in the Indian Ocean region was to work for peace and stability. France not only supported bilateral relations but also believed in multilateral approach to solve the problem. The author discuss various ways and means adopted by India and France to bring stability in the region.

  18. Rahul Eragula

    In this ever changing dynamic world, the need for the foundational ethics and behavioral traits is growing to a significant scale. It is an unfortunate fact that there is a notable fall in the minimal ethical standards among people. To understand the cause behind the present scenario is what this article is aimed at. The ultimate objective of this research is to contribute to the world of business a momentous understanding that will upraise the standard of managerial judgment. What is it that is responsible for the weak managerial decisions? It is the lack of empathy! It is dominantly important for the factor of empathy to be inculcated in every manager to make sound decisions. The need for this behavioral trait and the importance of empathy in this present world scenario is discussed to narrow down to the accurate scale that measures the righteousness in managerial judgment. The quality of empathy is to be withheld by every individual to retain the minimum ethical standards in decision making. Leaders have an expectancy to be maintained that will enable them to consider the followers' views and opinions. It is empathy which transforms leaders and elevates their potential to entail large number of followers. When leaders tend to work towards building their following and forget to execute what they are authorized to perform, they fail. It is when they do what they are ought to do, that they will impulsively build their following. “If we have optimism, but we don’t have empathy – then it doesn’t matter how much we master the secrets of science, we’re not really solving problems; we’re just working on puzzles.”-Bill and Melinda Gates.

  19. Dr. HazirSalihu and DardanDehari

    In this study-experiment are treated 14-15 years old young basketball players (active and not active), who besides learning process exercise basketball in different basketball schools in the city of Prishtina. The experiment includes 10 variables, 5 from those variables are from the basic motor performance and 5 other variables are from situational skills. In this study, is applied method of T-test between basic motor and situational variables. The study includes 66 entities of males (33 are active while 33 are not active), who are subjected to certain tests from the trainer.

  20. Ku. Payal Sharma and Dr. Tapesh Chandra Gupta

    India is a country rich in natural resources. Labour is aplenty and skilled Labour is easily available given the high rates of unemployment among the educated class of the country. With Asia developing as the outsourcing hub of the world, India is soon becoming the preferred manufacturing destination of most investors’ across, make in India is the Indian government’s efforts to harness this demand and boost the Indian economy. The Indian economy has been witnessing positive sentiments during the past few months. The macroeconomic indicators have also displayed an encouraging trend in the recent times. However, the situation of the manufacturing sector in India is a cause of concern. At 16% value added to GDP, the sector does not seem representative of its potential which should have been 25%. Make in India will affect the young entrepreneurs in a very positive way, if this program delivers than it will bring an attitudinal change the perception of the world towards India and at the same time encourage and empower entrepreneurs to make in India.

  21. Medakkar, S.S. and Sharma, P.P.

    A plant as a source of food is a fundamental element in the life of human beings. Though there are plenty of vegetable, fruits and other crops have been modified for good yield time to time throughout the world but the demand of the wild vegetables and fruits is increased now a days. The indigenous people, who dwell in and nearby forests, gather and consume wild edible plants as snacks, as a vegetable and at times of food scarcity. These people consume wild edible plants and rely on these resources to meet their food needs particularly in periods of food crisis. The diversity of wild species in Ahmednagar district offers wide range of edible plants and contributes to supplementary food assurance. The present ethnobotanical explorations conducted in region resulted in the information on about conventional plant uses of 52 plant species belonging to 32 families. Of these, maximum species belongs to Amaranthaceae with 5 species, 4 species each to Caesalpiniaceae, Fabaceae and Euphorbiaceae. Plants used in different recipes include 26 plants in curry preparation, 7 plants for making ‘chutney’ of pickled while 15 plant parts are consumed directly. Majority of edible plant parts are from fruits (19 species), leaves (9 species), seeds (6 species), Flowers (3 species) and for 10 species stem, tender shoots, underground parts like rhizome, tuber, etc. are used.

  22. Dr. Raymond H. Plaut

    Deflections of the head during level, straight, steady-state walking and running are considered. The literature is reviewed regarding the relationships between the forward speed, the step frequency, and the vertical, lateral, and fore-aft components of head motion for healthy adults. Typically: (i) the vertical amplitude of the head decreases as the speed of locomotion increases; (ii) the lateral amplitude increases as the speed of walking increases, reaches a maximum value in the jogging range (relatively slow running), and then decreases as the running speed increases; and (iii) the fore-aft amplitude (relative to the average forward motion) is small and does not vary significantly with speed. Based on the results presented in the literature, formulas are proposed for these three dynamic components of head motion.

  23. Lahiouel Yasmina, Lahiouel Rachid and Beddiaf Souad

    In this paper, we address the development of a global optimization procedure for the problem of designing a water distribution network, that satisfies tat specified flow demands as stated pressure head requirements. The proposed approach significantly improves upmon a previous method of Lahiouel et al. (2004) by way of adopting a simultaneous layout and pipe size otimization of water distributon networks. The necessity of a coupled solution of the layout and pipe sizing problem is shown. The method does not start with a predefined layout which includes all possible links; it is capable of designing a layout of predefined reliability, including tree-like and looped networks. The applicability of the model for optimization of pipe networks with predefined reliability is illustrated by testing the method against on benchmark example in the literature.

  24. Pradip Parmar and Dr. P. H. Darji

    Cylindrical Roller bearings are designed to carry heavy radial loads. The rollers are guided by ribs on either the inner or outer ring; therefore these bearings are also suitable for high speed applications. Furthermore, cylindrical roller bearings are separable, and relatively easy to install and disassemble even when interference fits are required. The load carrying capacity of a single row roller bearing is less than that of a double row roller bearing. An improvement in load distribution and thus load carrying capacity may be realized, as well as contact stress is also reduced. The contact stress of two patterns of double row cylindrical roller bearings evaluated by the Hertzian Contact stress theory and then by finite element analysis. The validation of Finite Element method and determining the best pattern by considering stress & fatigue life parameter.

  25. Arun, H., Franglin Jose, L., Joegin Raj, K. R., Julius Walter, A. G. and Mr. M. Murugalingam

    Pervious concrete or No fineness concrete is a conventional concrete that is used in pavement or car parking’s for draining of storm water and increasing the ground water level. This project is mainly based on the investigation and increasing the strength characteristics of Pervious concrete. The mix design is designed considering only cement and coarse aggregate since the concrete is a “NO FINENESS CONCRETE”. The mix ratio is considered as 1:6 and the water cement ratio is taken from 0.4-0.45. The admixtures are added in % of cement for Nano silica & % of concrete for polypropylene. The final outcome to be received is increase in the strength of pervious concrete by improving their characteristics and make them utilized for Road pavements.

  26. John Bijou Agbemaka

    This paper reports on a questionnaire based exploratory study of teacher perception, beliefs and current assessment practices with regard to the implementation of a curriculum reform ‘policy statement’, School-Based-Assessment (SBA), in Senior High School Mathematics classrooms in Ghana. The objective of the study was to inform the theory and design of professional development programme for teachers in an on-going formative assessment project in line with the SBA. A twenty-one self-designed items questionnaire having face and content validity covered teachers’ beliefs, perceptions, and current classroom assessment practices. By a multi-stage convenient sampling, 126 teachers were recruited out of which 77 successfully completed the study. By descriptive statistical analysis, the study established evidence that mathematics classrooms are currently mainly dominated by high-flying summative and ‘shadow’ formative assessments as a link to the nationwide external examination. Hence, there is a strong need for teachers to undertake a professional development in formative assessment so that they might be very effective in the SBA.

  27. Sameer Qasim Hasan and Alan Jalal Abdulqader

    In this paper, we proved the convergence of the solution for the nonlinear fuzzy volterra integral classes equation over fuzzy interval with high computational and complexity to find the solution in analytical method, so we describable this solution by using Homotopy perturbation method, by using Banach fixed point theory for existence and uniqueness. That with explained numerical examples. Finally using the MAPLE program to solve our problem.

  28. Suziane A. Jacobs, Renata Gimenez Sampaio Zocche, Bruno Jacobs, Fernando Zocche, Norton V. Sampaio, Luiz Antenor Rizzon, Velci Q. Souza, Maicon Nardino, Ivan R. Carvalho and César ValmorRombaldi

    The Tannat grape provides wines with good structure and coloration due to high concentration of phenolic compounds (Echeverry et al., 2005; Gonzáles-Neves et al., 2006; 2004a, b, 2002). The Cabernet Sauvignon cultivar yields a dark red wine, full-bodied, with a lasting pleasant odor (Camargo,1994; Souza, 2000).Through the monitoring of winemaking, it can be identified the behavior of phenolic compounds and color parameters in order to define the best and most suitable winemaking system, keeping the characteristics of interest. The study was conducted from a seven years old vineyard, located in the city of Bagé, Campanharegion of the RS state, Brazil, during the growing season of 2007, with Tannat and Cabernet Sauvignon cultivars. Vineyard- the vineyard was established from grafted plants in 1103 Paulsen rootstock, with spacing of 1.2 m between plants and 3 m between rows, in the simple espalier conduction system, and double Guyot pruning for Tannat cv. and simple cordon spur pruning for Cabernet Sauvignon cv. Microvinification - It was carried out the vinification of Tannat and Cabernet Sauvignon grapes harvested at technological maturity stage (March, 11th) based on the Classic method. For each experimental unit (bottle of 20 L) of each treatment, the grapes were crushed and desençada, and immediately added SO2 (50mg.L-1) and yeast (20mg.L-1 de Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Maurivin® brand), followed by 6 days of maceration at temperature of 20ºC to23ºC with daily reassembly, and cap removal on the day 7. This paper has allowed us to verify the behavior of compounds responsible for the color in winemaking of Tannat and Cabernet Sauvignon cv. wines. The decrease in acidity may have caused the fall of anthocyanin and polyphenolic compounds during the vinification for both varieties. However, Tannat cv., when compared to Cabernet Sauvignon cv., presented higher levels of these compounds. The results are very relevant because they allow the selection of the most suitable wine-making system for the studied cultivars, and also provide important information about their behavior in the studied counties.

  29. Shaker Shafi Alharthy, Mohammad Zuri Bin Ghani and Aznan Bin Che Ahmad

    A proposed (ICTiL) model that integrates thinking creatively into learning process was presented to bring the two processes as one process. One of the aims of the modelis to find a way of enhancing working-memory through following a new proposed way of learning and thinking. This enhancement is supposed to increase learning, generating and producing new ideas, and achievement. This research sought to find the impact of (ICTiL) model on working-memory. Depending on (ICTiL) model, a new proposed training program (PICTiL) was presented and delivered to the sample of this study which consisted of (92) male gifted students of secondary school stage who were distributed equally onto control and experimental groups (46 respondents each) and were assigned randomly. Mixed-method approach was used with an explanatory sequential design. Working Memory Tests was used as a pre-test/post-test as an instrument to find quantitative results, followed by a focus group to find qualitative results. The findings included high size effect in general of (ICTiL) model represented in (PICTiL) program on respondents` working-memory. All working memory elements showed statistical significance differences between pre-test and post-test means of scores except for visuospatial sketchpad and visual sketchpad functions. Findings also revealed positive attitudes towards the effectiveness of (PICTiL) training program regarding retaining and recalling information. Depending on results, invitation to adopt and improve (ICTiL) model is proposed.

  30. Manohar Reddy, K., Mahaboob Basha, U., Sardar, Ali, S. and Pavan Kumar, D. V. V.

    In the present investigation the new Nymphaea (water lily) are successfully incorporated in epoxy and the composite are prepared. Nymphaea epoxy composites with varying weight fractions (10%, 20%, 30%) are fabricated. the mechanical properties such as density, hardness, flexural strength, tensile. and moisture absorption of all composites are tested. The effects of fibre content on the mechanical properties of composites were investigated. The results show that by the incorporation of Nymphaea fibre into epoxy improves the mechanical properties. When compare in to the pure epoxy the water absorption tests were carried out in saline and sub zero environment and the results of the absorption test also presented in the project.

  31. Getaneh Berie Tarekegn and Yirga Yayeh Munaye

    The cloud computing trend of replacing software habitually installed on campus computers (and the computers themselves) with applications delivered through the internet is driven by aims of reducing universities’ information technology complexity and cost. This study examines the Exploitations of Cloud Computing in Library and Information Centers. The paper study demonstrates and elaborates the various aspects of uses of cloud computing in libraries, model of cloud computing, essential characteristics, pros and cons, benefits, how the trend of cloud computing will be impact libraries and drawback of cloud computing.

  32. Ana Paula Milanez, Anibal Tavares de Azevedo, Andréa Leda Ramos de Oliveira and Takaaki Ohishi

    The soybean exporter chain represents a high proportion of the Brazilian economy. However, the main producing areas are far from seaports and exposed to several logistic problems, which are a consequence of the lack of planning and investment in infrastructure. As a result, producers are burdened by the additional logistical costs, which affects the competitiveness of the Brazilian soybean industry and reduce the amount of capital for future investments. Faced with this reality, this paper proposes a mathematical model that combines hub network design and warehouse location to minimize the transportation and storage costs related to the soybean exportation chain.

  33. Getaneh Berie Tarekegn, Gebreiziabher Abadi Maru and Habtamu Zelalem Liyew

    Today cloud computing is the most trending and advanced technology with high future implementation in the information and technology industries. Nowadays many cloud storages or online storages are provided by a number of companies to their customers as well as to the employees. In current scenario computing infrastructure is rapidly moving towards the cloud based architecture in which the users are enabled to move their data and application software to the network and access the services on-demand. It is a flexible, cost-effective, and proven delivery platform for providing business or consumer IT services over the Internet. Cloud computing is the most crucial research area that has many potential advantages and many enterprise applications and data are migrating to public, private or hybrid cloud. Cloud Computing has the advantage of reducing cost by sharing computing and storage resources, combined with an on-demand provisioning mechanism relying on a pay-per-use business model in both acadamic and industry. But regarding some business-critical applications, the organizations, especially large enterprises, still wouldn't move them to cloud, because, without appropriate privacy and security solutions designed for clouds, it is difficult to use cloud computing by acadamic, industries, governmental organizations, healthcare sectors or other concerned units. The primary contribution of our work is to provide a better understanding of the cloud computing, to assess how privacy and security issues occur in the context of cloud computing and discuss the mechanisms to be addressed those issues in cloud computing.

  34. Perera, S. D., Perera, S. S. N. and Jayasinghe, S.

    In this paper we focus on describing the dynamics of dengue virus, using a compartment type model with time delay that occurs during the production of antibodies. We study the dynamics of healthy cells, infected cells, B-cells of the human body, viruses and antibodies where immunity is provided by the activation of B cells into plasma cells and maturation of plasma cells into antibodies (humoral immune response). Stability regions are identified with respect to the external variables and it is observed as the virus burst rate increases, the stability regions would decrease. Further, a sensitivity index is introduced to find the parameters that have a high impact on the reproduction n umber R0. In addition results indicate as the conversion rate of healthy cells into infected cells increases, the viral load in the body and the antibody production also increases which agrees with theory presented on humoral immune response and the viral load goes to negligible levels within 7-14 days as observed in dengue infection.

  35. Ana Paula Bernardes da Rosa Maluf Abbud, Leandro Moreira Tempest, TaylaneSoffenerBerlanga de Araújo, Livia Marcela da Silva Salgado, Bruna Cristina da Silva, Carlos Alberto Costa Neves Buchala, Letícia Costa Abbud, 1Luiz Paulo de Castro Oliveira and Idibe

    Background: In Brazil, between 2009 and 2016, the number of diagnostic imaging grew on average 51.35%. Radiographs are complementary tests of extreme importance to close dental diagnosis and map out a plan of treatment. Objective: The objective of this study was to compare the degradation and durability of processing liquid solutions of x-rays films, the Kodak brand in open containers (unprotected solutions) and sealed in opaque plastic containers and lids (proprietary solutions) within the darkroom. Methods: For this work we used 20 Ektaspeed periapical films manufactured by Eastman Kodak Company, Rochester, USA, classified as a group and as sensitivity, maturing for 18 months after the experimental phase, processing solutions (developer and fixer) Kodak conventional. The main variables predicting response to this work were the sensitometric properties of processing solutions such as Contrast, Optical Density and Latitude. The main continuous and categorical predictor variables were air oxidation. Results: The results were analyzed using descriptive statistics and analysis of regression and Durbin-Watson in relation to predicting response and continuous and categorical predictors, following the confidence level of 95%. It was observed that the container was in the liquid solution in a closed container (protected solution) showed less degradation and durability, while the open container was 70% higher degradation of the container to the protected solution. Also, after regression analysis between the response predictor protected degradation and continuous predictor Contrast (P) Optical Density (P) and latitude (P) was obtained in all cases p = 0.01 <0.05 and residue analysis Durbin-Watson of 2.16. The same analysis was performed for the degradation predictor response deprotected and continuous predictor Contrast (D) Optical Density (D) and latitude (D), yielding in all cases P = 0.03 <0.05 and analysis of waste Durbin Watson 2.5. Conclusion: Already be concluded that both chambers were maintained at the same temperature with the same local light and moisture, at the same time with the same number of films disclosure, this degradation occurred by the action of oxygen.

  36. Arnab N. Patowary, Jiten Hazarika and Manash P. Barman

    Background: Inadequate awareness about real dimension of diabetes mellitus among the general public of India is a key problem for increase incidence of diabetes. The status of awareness varies from place to place which necessitates case studies in small areas having geographical and cultural importance. Objectives: This study is aimed to assess the level of knowledge and awareness of diabetes mellitus among the people of river island Majuli, Assam of India which, will be of a great help to identify areas of knowledge that might require additional efforts to increase. Methodology: A cross-sectional survey is conducted to meet the objectives. There are 260 subjects scientifically selected for the study. The respondents are required to answer 32 questions focusing on different aspects of diabetes. A simple scoring method is used to convert qualitative response to quantitative ones and hence the total scores are calculated for each individual. Further, to test whether there is significant differences in awareness status of the people w.r.t. various socio-economic and demographic factors, non parametric tests such as Mann-Whitney U test and Kruskar Wallis test have been used as p-p plot shows data do not follow normal distribution. Results: The study reveals that level of awareness towards diabetes mellitus varies with respect to different socio-economic and demographic factors, viz., sex, age, marital status, caste, family structure, family history of having diabetes mellitus, occupation and income among respondents are significantly different. Only an exceptional finding observed from this study is that although, level of awareness increases towards diabetes with level of education. Conclusion: It can be concluded that inspite of the government and other organizations have been taking different steps to enhance the awareness level of the people towards various diseases having more prevalence, its impact on the society of the study area is not up to the mark.

  37. Sisay Milkias Waza and Solomon Hailemariam Didu

    The ability to make accurate measurements is one of the essential foundations of an advanced industrial society. This ability is the pivot around which trade, commerce and society revolve. Everyday extremely large number and variety of items are in the selling buying process in our surroundings for a wide variety of purposes. The prices and important decisions are based on measurements. Bearing this in mind Ethiopia is one of the country in which the economy is growing at an alarming rate, thus the research was aimed on investigating the accuracy of the mass of selected locally packed daily consumption food items which are on market in the country, those were coffee, ‘Berbere’ /Powdered chili or Ethiopian Spice Blend/, ‘Kolo’ /The cherished Ethiopian Snack/ and ‘Shiro’ /Powdered Chickpeas or broad bean/, in which packages labeled 1000 gm, 500 gm and 250 gm were considered. The methodology used for the research was cross sectional method and a total of 455 locally packed items were collected from 377 shops randomly and the collected data’s were measured in laboratory and One-Sample Test and the Mean Difference were computed using SPSS version 20 Software and the numerical results were displayed using tables and the results obtained were compared with the international standards. The overall findings of the study revealed that the locally packed items meets the standard. Accordingly, conclusions were drawn based up on the findings and recommendations were made from observations.

  38. Madhava Kumar, Y., Ramu, Ch., Bhagyasree, K., Hussain Basha, Md and Gopal, N. O.

    Methacrylic Acid – Ethylacrylate (MAA:EA) copolymer electrolytes doped with different concentration of Fe3+ were prepared using the casting technique. Electrical conductivity of the films was measured with impedance analyzer in the frequency range of 1 Hz to 1 MHz and in the temperature range of 303–348 K. It was observed that the magnitude of conductivity increased with the increase in the salt concentration as well as the temperature. UV-Vis. optical absorption spectrum indicates a variation in both intensity and optical energy gap with different concentration of doping level. Both values of direct and indirect energy gaps are calculated and discussed. Obtained data shows a defect formation which increases with increasing Fe3+ concentration. This suggests that FeCl3, as a dopant, is a good choice to improve the electrical properties of MAA:EA copolymer electrolytes.

  39. Chandraju, S., Chidan Kumar, C. S., Ajay Kumar, B. and Rajeshwari, K. N.

    Germination of Sesame (Sesamu indicum) seeds was made by irrigated with distillery spentwash of different concentration. Primary treated spentwash [PTSW], dilution with water in the ratio 1:1, 1:2 and 1:3 were analyzed for their plant nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium and physical & chemical characteristics. Experimental soil was tested for its physic-chemical parameters. Sesame seeds were sowed in the prepared land and irrigated with raw water (RW), 1:1, 1:2 and 1:3 (SW: RW) spentwash. The nature of germination and growth of seeds was studied. It was found that, the germination as well as growth was good (100%) in 1:3 SW irrigation, while very poor in 1:1 SW (25%), moderate in 1:2 SW (80%) and 95% in RW irrigations.

  40. Solomon Hailemariam Didu and Sisay Milkias Waza

    This research aimed at exploring factors that contributed to the weak performance of students in science education (Biology, Chemistry, Physics and Mathematics). It focused on five randomly selected preparatory schools of Jimma zone, Oromia regional state, Ethiopia. The study employed a cross sectional research design, and both quantitative and qualitative data types were used. Accordingly, the data were collected through structured questionnaires, focus group discussions and interview. Descriptive statistics, inferential statistics, coding and thematic analysis were the data analysis techniques employed in the present study. The quantitative data were computed and analyzed using SPSS version 20 Software. The numerical results were displayed using tables and bar graphs, whereas the qualitative findings were summarized and listed thematically. The overall findings of the study revealed that, among other things, the students’ performance were highly negatively affected by shortage of well-organized laboratories, declined interest and motivation of students to study basic science in general and their negative attitudes towards mathematics and physics in particular. Moreover, placing or assigning learners in the field of pure science by the 70/30 placement scheme found to be one of the major factors that contributed to learners’ weak performance in science education. Accordingly, conclusions were drawn based up on the findings of the study. Finally, pedagogical implications and viable solutions were recommended.

  41. Janarthanam, S. and Sukumaran S.

    The prime goal of the CBIR system is to construct meaningful descriptions of physical attributes from images. Physical features and mathematical features are two such typical descriptions. To extract physical features such as color, texture, edge, structure or a combination of two or more. The majority of the proposed solutions are variations of the color histogram initially proposed for object recognition. Since color histogram lacked spatial information methods liable to produce false positives especially when the database was large. We proposed a method called image retrieval using genetic algorithmic procedures for computing a very large number of highly selective features and comparing the features for some relevant images using only selected features can capture similarity in the given relevant images for image retrieval. This research present our review on benchmark image datasets, color spaces which are used for implementation of CBIR process, image content as color, texture and shape attributes, and feature extraction techniques, similarity measures, feature set formation and reduction techniques, image indexing applied in the process of retrieval along with various classifiers with their effect in retrieval process, effect of relevance feedback and its importance in retrieval.

  42. Monika Tiwari and Ankiet Saxena

    Increasing speeds and complexity of wireless communication systems have necessitated the progress and advancement of high performance signal processing components. Today's developing technologies involve fast processing and efficient use of properties. These properties include memory, power, and chip area. UWB delivers much potential for design of high speed wireless communication system. MB-OFDM (UWB) offers high data rates access for wireless communications. OFDM system is use for high speed applications. Ongoing research seeks to optimize resource usage as well as act. Design develops a balance and trade off flexibility, performance, difficulty, and budget. In this paper, it specifically address the power-efficient design of an FFT processor as it relates to emerging OFDM communications. OFDM is one of the efficient solutions for implementing high speed data transmission for wireless communications.

  43. Balaji, R. and Dr. Dash, P. K.

    Light aircraft are being used widely for passenger and freight transport nowadays. In this paper aerodynamics of a trainer aircraft’s 3d wing with NACA 2412 aerofoil is presented. The lift and drag coefficient of the 3d wing at different angle’s of attack using CFD software Fluent is analyzed and the plots of flow parameters like velocity, pressure and path lines are given. In this work kω sst Turbulence model is used to analyze the flow around the 3d wing of the trainer aircraft considering nominal wind turbulence conditions. For this simulation only one wing of aircraft without fuselage is considered taking symmetry in to account. Fuselage is not considered in this work since the objective of this work is to predict the performance of wing alone. Trainer aircrafts operational max speed of 240km/hr is simulated to compute lift and drag coefficients of the wing at different angle of attacks.

  44. Srinivasa Rao, T., Venkateswarlu, C., Viswanadha Reddy, A., Subrahmanyam Naidu, P. and Ratnakaram, Y. C.

    Alkali chloroborophosphate glasses containing 1 mol% of HoCl3 were prepared and characterized. The optical absorption spectra of three glasses have been studied in the UV-VIS-NIR region. Ho3+ ion has several low lying meta stable levels, which can give rise to transitions at various wavelengths from infrared (IR) to ultraviolet (UV) regions. Racah (E1, E2, E3), spin-orbit (x4f), configuration interaction parameters (a,b) and hydrogenic ratios E1/E3 and E2/E3 are also obtained. Oscillator strengths (f) are measured from the absorption spectra and three intensity parameters Wl (2, 4 and 6) are calculated. Reasonable agreement between the measured and calculated f values has been found. For Ho3+ ion, 5I8à5G6 is the hypersensitive transition. Using Judd–Ofelt intensity parameters, electric dipole line strengths (Sed) and magnetic dipole line strengths (Smd) are calculated. From these, radiative lifetimes (τR), branching ratios (bR¬) and peak stimulated emission cross-sections (sp), radiative transition rates (A) are calculated. These results were used to predict the possible potential laser transitions.

  45. Carlito C. Cabas, Jr. and Minerva E. Sañosa

    The study aimed to look into the findings of the outcomes-based monitoring and evaluation (OBME) in maritime education programs of Naval State University. The OBME is an approach used to audit the maritime education programs. Descriptive documentary analysis method was utilized in the study. Data were collected through the Commission on Higher Education and Maritime Industry Authority (CHED-MARINA) OBME instrument in eleven (11) key areas of evaluation, reduced, displayed, and analyzed in drawing out conclusions. Results showed that the first survey audit of CHED-MARINA OBME Team, three (3) minor non-conformances were found in the areas of curriculum, staff, and facilities and equipment and four (4) observations in facilities and extension services. However, during the verification audit it was found out that all key results areas of evaluation were in compliance with CHED Memorandum Order 20, series of 2015 and Standards of Training, Certification and Watch keeping for Seafarers (STCW) 1978 as amended in 2010.

  46. İlker H. CELEN, Eray ONLER and Oktay SOYLER

    Lack of homogeneous distribution of pesticides in agricultural spraying is negatively affecting the success of pulverization, and causing unnecessary consumption. The use of suitable machines and spraying technologies are required to be used in order to abolish this problem. Especially in cultivation of tomato, this problem is causing large amount of product losses. For this purpose, two different sprayer (air-assisted, classic sprayer) –extensively being used at an enterprise where tomato cultivation is being realized- have been selected, and pulverization has been performed. The results of residue distribution obtained as the result of the applications have been assessed.

  47. Orgest Zaka and Prof.Dr. Kristaq Filipi

    In this paper we present a set transformation of points in a line of the Desargues affine plane in a additive group. For this, the first stop on the meaning of the Desargues affine plane, formulating first axiom of his that show proposition D1. Afterwards we show that little Pappus theorem, which we use in the construction of group proofs in additions of points on a line on desargues plane, also applies in the Desargues affine plane.

  48. Omesh Jindal, Varinder Singh, Sandeep Sharma and Raj Kumar

    Machining is a vital part of production process in the manufacturing industries. With the advancing technology, chip cutting based machining (turning, milling, drilling etc.) methods still conserve their importance. Good surface finish not only assures quality, but also reduces manufacturing cost. Thus, the selection of cutting parameters, such as cutting speed, feed rate, depth of cut and cutting fluid, is very important as they directly affect the surface finish. In this study the cutting operations were carried out on a conventional lathe machine making turning operation at a different depth of cuts and spindle speeds keeping the feed rate constant with the help of uncoated carbide cutting tool bit. The operations were done in dry as well as wet conditions using vegetable oil as cutting fluid. After conducting the experiments, it has been found that surface roughness decreases with the increase of cutting speed and increases with increase in depth of cut. Also, the surface roughness decreases with use of the cutting fluid.

  49. Saad, M. A., El Rayes, S. M. and Pactor, J. M.

    An alternative Growth Media for Qualitative analysis of general aerobic bacteria counts (GAB) was determined and counterchecked with the ready-made media from HACH company Paddle testers are double-sided slides to proof the ability to use the Total Coliform media for two day at 35°C for qualitative determination of the GAB colonies in PH range 5.5-7.5 because both are Gram negative bacteria, several trials done using positive source of GAB and Coliform with blanks and all the results were accepted. However, as described by Kip and van Veen, microbial enhancement/inhibition of corrosion of metals take place through complex reactions and the mechanism of these processes is not well understood. Some microbes, particularly bacteria, colonize the metal surface forming thick non-corroding biofilms made of secreted Extracellular Polymeric Substances (EPS).

  50. Marita Di Loreto y Sampaio, Renan Ribeiro Barzan, Luiz Henrique Campos de Almeida, Gustavo Adolfo de Freitas Fregonezi and Hideaki Wilson Takahashi

    The study aimed to evaluate the magnitude of correlation between tomato yield and primary macronutrients content at leaf tissue sampled in different epochs. It was used the hybrid Paronset, cultivated in greenhouse in the fall/winter season, in a fertigation system in pots with coarse sand. Electrical conductivities of 0.8; 1.6; 2.4 and 3.2 d Sm-1 were used in a randomized block design with ten replications to induce variation of contents of primary macronutrients in the leaves and tomato fruit yield. It was collected the index leaf in three different epochs of the cycle, at 60, 85 and 110 days after transplantation (DAT), respectively above the first, second and third cluster emitted (chronological order) in the main stem, determining the N, P and K contents (g kg-1). It was evaluated the fruit absolute yield (kg plant-1) and relative yield (%), correlating the last one with the nutrients contents by the Spearman coefficient. It was observed higher and more significant correlation, for all nutrients evaluated, with the leaf collected above the second cluster, at 85 DAT, demonstrating to be the one, in these conditions, that most reflects the plant nutritional status regarding to N, P and K.

  51. Douglas Junior Bertoncelli, Guilherme Augusto Cito Alves, Ana Beatriz Prenzier Suzuki, Gustavo Henrique Freiria, Felipe Favoretto Furlan and Ricardo Tadeu de Faria

    The objective was to evaluate the effect of mepiquat chloride in red sunflower cultivation as flower vase. A completely randomized design was adopted with ten repetitions and five concentrations of mepiquat chloride (250; 500; 750; 1000 and 1250 mg L-1), was used as a control sprayed plants with only distilled water. The applications were performed at 15; 30 and 45 days after sowing. We evaluated the plant height parameters (PG), stem diameter (SD), internal diameter of the main inflorescence(IDMI), number of leaves (NL) and inflorescences (NI), dry mass of leaves (DML), mass dry stem (MDS), dry mass of inflorescence(DMI) and root dry weight (RDW), leaf area (LA), contents of chlorophyll a, b and carotenoid. Increasing the concentration of mepiquat chloride reduced the PG, IDMC, MDS, DMC, RDW and LA, but increased the SD values, DML, chlorophyll a, b and carotenoids. The NL and MSF did not significantly change the application of growth reducer. The application of mepiquat chloride increased the number of inflorescences per plant and reduced height sunflower cv. Sol Vermelho, but these reductions were not enough to obtain plants suitable for marketing in pots.

  52. Ivan Ricardo Carvalho, Maicon Nardino, Gustavo Henrique Demari, Vinícius Jardel Szareski, Tiago Zanatta Aumonde, Tiago Pedó, Manoela Andrade Monteiro, Alan Junior de Pelegrin, Tiago Olivoto, Mauricio Ferrari, Daniela Meira and Velci Queiróz de Souza

    To obtain genotypes which meet the dual purpose objectives, the breeders are based on the construction of a plant ideo type, showing rapid establishment, tillering potential, high dry matter production per unit area, tolerance to grazing and trample, regrowth capacity, long growing season and short reproductive phase, high quality bromatological forage, and adequate grain yield. The aim of this literature review is to determine the processes and biometric models used to obtainment and selection of dual purposewheat genotypes. The dual-purpose wheat presents as important alternative to the agricultural context, it potentiates energy dynamics in animal nutrition. Thus, the advances in plant genetics and plant breeding as well as in the management of culture to enable the development of genotypes that allow the forage and grain production. This strategy allows the producer to increase the income of rural property, integrate of the crop-livestock activities, reduce the effects of empty feed, maximize the physical space of the property, benefit from the dynamic atmosphere-plant-animal, and economically increase the agricultural activity. The benefits of using genotypes with double purpose are justified through their extensive uses, which replace winter grasses, with higher energy efficiency as forage as grain, this high in starch are for the development of chaffsand feed. Research developed recommended genotypes for wide regions, thus, there are a lack of specific genotypes to micro-regions and different levels of technology management, providing quantitative and qualitative demands of forage and grain, increasing energy supply in farming. Therefore, a genetic breeding program should address effective strategies to identify promising individuals, and enable genetic gains to culture. Today, genetic improvement with emphasis on genotypes for dual purpose does not reveal the necessary importance to the secondary traits, and precarious detailed identification of the interrelationships among feed traits, bromatologic and grain yield. The knowledge of these associations through biometric models, identifying the magnitude and direction of the relationship among traits, makes it possible to guide the selection strategy, and minimize time and financial resources spent.

  53. Eswari, K.B., Dr. Sudheer Kumar, Dr.Gopinath and Dr. Rao, M.V.B.

    The present investigation was carried out at college farm, College of Agriculture, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad to study the combining ability and heterosis for quality and yield characters in cotton. Further an attempt was made to trace out the best parents and crosses for future breeding programmes. In this direction seven lines and four testers were crossed in LxT mating design to generate 28 hybrids and evaluated with check NHH44 to know the combining ability of parents and crosses. The estimates of the components of variance and their ratios indicated the preponderance of non additive gene action for days to 50% flowering, number of monopodia per plant, number of sympodia per plant, number of bolls per plant, boll weight and seed cotton yield per plant, whereas non additive gene action was observed for the fiber quality traits viz., 2.5% span length, uniformity ratio, micronaire value and bundle strength. Based on gca effects the lines, CPD 420 and among the testers, HAG 1055 were identified as best general combiners for yield which were also observed to be good combiners for one or other fibre quality characters. The crosses involving the lines L604, LK 861 and MCU 17 among the testers were identified as best combiners for earliness. Based on sca effects the intra specific crosses, Galama x MCU 17 (G.hirsutum x G. hirsutum) and CPD 420 x HAG 105 (G.hirsutum x G. hirsutum) exhibited positive sca effects for bundle strength. Studies on heterosis revealed that the intraspecific cross CPD 420 x HAG 1055 were identified as promising heterotic hybrid for seed cotton yield and boll number an interspecific cross Galama x Suving were identified as early maturing along with high bundle strength and seed cotton yield.

  54. Renu Verma, Sadhna Singh and Alka Yadav

    A study was conducted in Gonda and Barabanki districts of eastern U.P. regarding salt consumption and utilization pattern of selected households. Hundred households were selected from each block and surveyed through questionnaire method about their general information such as name, age, educational status, occupation, income and specific information regarding household practices of consumption, purchasing, usage and storage of salt. Result revealed that 40% respondent from both district were in the age group 31-40 yrs and 31.5% respondent were illiterate, where as only 2.5% respondent were graduate. 40.5% respondent of both districts were doing farming in their own land, while only 13.5% respondents were doing service. 51.5% respondents in both districts belonged to low income group where as 18% respondent belonged to high income group. Result concluded that 88.5% respondent in both district were consuming crystalline salt and only 11.5% respondent were using powder salt. 7.5% respondents in both district were used branded salt and 92.5% respondent were using uncommon brand salts. The prevalence of goiter in Gonda and Barabanki districts was found to be no more. The population were consuming iodized salt but a part of iodine was lost from salt due to improper handling, storage and improper uses practice of salt.

  55. Maiara Andrade de Carvalho Sousa, Lívia Martinez Abreu Soares Costa, Taisa de Carvalho Malantrucco, Thiago Souza Pereira, Sabrina Carvalho Bastos and Eustáquio Souza Dias

    The species Lentinula edodes, also known as shiitake, presents marked utilization of cuisine and is one of the mushrooms most consumed in the world, due to the several functional properties such as anti-tumoral and hypocholesterolemic as well as its anti-microbial and antioxidant action. Nevertheless, its nutritional value is variable according to the strain, processing after harvest, developmental stage of the basidiome and of the growing substrate. Thus, the present work intended to evaluate the centesimal composition, antioxidant activity and lectin content of six strains of Lentinula edodes grown on substrate containing meals and sawdust and also to determine the enzymes present in the fruiting bodies (or fruit bodies) after harvest which can influence the browning and senescence of the mushroom. In the experiment, six strains of Lentinula edodes (LE1, LE2, LE3, LE4, LE5 e LE6) were utilized and the centesimal composition, antioxidant activity (DPPH), tyrosinase activity and laccase activity of the samples were evaluated. Strain LE6 stood out nutritionally, nevertheless, as that strain presented greater laccase activity, it may be subjected to a faster browning of mushrooms. The antioxidant activity of strain LE4 was greater, so, those two lines can be selected for future genetic breeding program.

  56. Maicon Nardino, Ivan Ricardo Carvalho, Vinícius Jardel Szareski, Alan Junior de Pelegrin, Tiago Olivoto, Daniela Meira, Mauricio Ferrari, Daiane Prochnow, Carlos Busanello, 2Braulio Otomar Caron, Denise Schmidt and Velci Queiróz de Souza

    The aim of this study is to verify, by introducing in the northwest of the RS of19 genotypes of sugarcane, that best respond for agronomic traits to three crop years, becoming promising for cultivation by farmers in the region. The traits evaluated were: total juicebrix, juiceyield and stem mass. The experimental design was a randomized complete block with three replications. Aiming at early production the genotypes RB765418, IAC 87-3396, IAC 91-5035 and Nova Iraí are more suitable for cultivation in northwest region of Rio Grande do Sul. The genotype IAC 87-3396 after the third crop year has higher productivity juice brix and stem mass. The genotype IAC 87-3396 stands out at the end of three years as the best genotype for juice yield and stem mass.

  57. Antony Y. Prabhu and Shamina, S.

    In silico screening is a study of systems biology commences by computer along with proteins and chemical compounds. Diverse types of cancer responsible proteins were analyzed under schrodinger suite such as PTEN, NKCR, BRCT7 and BRCT8, Chek1, BRCA, Rad51D, BRCA1, HSP27 and HSP70. Proteins study revealed the maximum anti-cancer effects of cervical cancers. Chrysophyllumcanito plant chemical compounds roles were annotated by means of systems biology with strong evidence. In vivo analysis was obviously demonstrated the heat shock protein 70 kilo dalton role in cervical cancer via the HeLa cell line.

  58. Nelita C. Alura, Danilo P. Alura and Imelda C. Casillano

    The acceptability and quality evaluation of Sargassum tea was studied from May 1 to April 31, 2012 to determine the most acceptable formulation of sargassum tea mixed with different flavorings (lemon grass, pandan and sweet basil leaves and pure sargassum), chemical, nutritional, microbial and heavy metals component of the best treatment were analyzed. The product were prepared in 2 grams tea bags and the different treatments were subjected to acceptability test by 60 taste panelist. The most accepted formulation was submitted for microbial and chemical analysis to Food and Nutrition Research Institute, DOST Taguig, while the heavy metals content was analyzed by the Regional Standard and Testing Laboratory, DOST Region 7, Cebu, Philppines. Results of the analysis showed that the best Sargassum tea formulation was the mixture of sargassum and sweet basil leaves followed by sargassum mix with lemon grass leaves. Analysis of variance on the acceptability of sargassum tea revealed a significant difference between treatment mean and this was further analyzed using the Least Significant Different test. Results also revealed that these two formulations did not significantly differ from each other. The chemical analysis showed that per 100 grams of Sargassum tea contain 300 kcal of ene-rgy, total fat of 2.3 grams, total carbohydrates of 57.7 grams, protein of 12.1 grams and iron is 88 mg. The Sagassum tea has calcium content 7 percent, iron of 15 percent, potassium of 2 percent and vitamin A of 2 percent of recommended energy and Nutrient Intake (RENI) for males 19 years old and above. The microbiological and heavy metals content of the product have passed the standard limit for food.

  59. Pavan C. Akkiraju, Madhuri B. Shinde and Kavita S. Dhamale

    Background: The ancient Medicine showed its versatility in applying various aspects of honey produced naturally. Honey has proved previously been antimicrobial agent as well as showing wound healing property by many authors. However, the properties of honey depend on its type, origin of location and flower which develops the final product. The current work was focused on the antimicrobial activity and protein content of honey originated from two commercial honey and two wild honey obtained from Vachellia nilotica and Tamirindus indica. Methods: All the four honey were collected and an agar well diffusion assay was performed to determine antimicrobial activity against the selected microorganisms viz. Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis, and Staphylococcus aureus. Further study was continued with the best results obtained from Vachellia nilotica honey by using minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) test through spectrophotometric analysis. The protein estimation from honey samples was performed through Lowry method. Results: The agar diffusion assay showed that, Vachellia nilotica honey had greater antimicrobial activity against the bacterial strains compared to the other three honey types. The agar well diffusion method showed that Vachellia nilotica honey has the maximum zone of inhibition against Escherichia coli (24 mm), Staphylococcus aureus (20 mm), Bacillus subtilis (15 mm), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (15 mm). The MIC test of the same showed that the honey sample has maximum inhibitory concentration at 6.3% for Pseudomonas aeruginosa (21 mm) and 50 % for Staphylococcus aureus (24 mm). The spectrophotometric analysis results for the minimum inhibitory concentration of Vachellia nilotica honey ranged from 0 (0.04%) to 0.19 (6.3%) for Pseudomonas aeruginosa and 0.02 (0.02%) to 0.24 (6.3%) for Staphylococcus aureus. The protein estimation showed that four honey samples have around 50% of protein compared to standard BSA. Conclusion: Vachellia nilotica honey showed maximum antimicrobial activity compared to other three types of honey studied and also possess proteins. This honey can be used in alternative medicine.

  60. Dr. Sara Reza, Dr. Asma Shaukat, Maria Mahmud, Dr. Tariq Arain and Umama Reza

    Background: The utility of HbA1c for long term assessment of glycemic control requires an accurate, precise and robust measurement system. Currently, immunoassay and HPLC are the most popular methods for HbA1c estimation. Merck Life Sciences has introduced a fully automated direct enzymatic method for quantification of HbA1c from whole blood on MINDRAY chemistry system. Methods and Findings: HbA1c level of 178 randomly chosen subjects was quantified using three Methods as follows: Cation-exchange High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) [Shimadzu LC-20 AT], Chemiluminescence Microparticle Immunoassay (CMIA) [Abbott architect i2000SR] and enzymatic assay [Mindray BS 400]. HPLC was accepted as comparative method. The analytical performances of the methods were evaluated with imprecision, bias estimation and comparison studies. There was good concordance between the results from CMIA and enzymatic assay when compared with HPLC (r=0.97 and r=0.96, respectively). The Bland Altman plots showed a favorable agreement between the methods, 95% of values were lying within ± 2 SD range from the mean. The average HbA1c measured by HPLC (6.8%) was higher than both the other methods (CMIA 6.4%, enzymatic assay 6.6%). Conclusion: All methods proved to be sufficiently reliable and the results of these methods showed a strong correlation; though the Direct Enzymatic HbA1c Assay in addition to having all the advantages of both the HPLC and immunoassay methods in areas of accuracy, precision, and applicability to chemistry analyzers, is cost effective, simpler and has less interferences plus it does not require a separate measurement of total hemoglobin content in samples.

  61. Onoh Charles Chukwuemeka, Akalonu George Ifeanyichukwu, Nwankwo Grace, Idawarifa Frank Cookey-Gam and Ugo Ihuoma Chiamaka

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV), Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) and Trichomoniasis are collectively known as Infective Vaginitis (IV). It is as a result of the disruption of the healthy microbiota and represents the most common gynaecologic condition encountered in the clinic. This study was aimed at determining the prevalence of BV, VVC, Trichomoniasis, microbiological patterns and predictors of infective vaginitis among female students attending Federal University of Technology, Medical Centre, Owerri. This was a cross-sectional study carried out on 150 female students of Federal University of Technology, Owerri between May 2015 and October, 2015. A self-administered structured questionnaire was used to generate data on the sociodemographic variables and predictors of Infective vaginitis. Vaginal swabs were collected and subjected to wet mount microscopy and gram staining. Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA) was used as a growth medium for the isolation of Candida species and Germ tube test was used for the identification and confirmation of Candida albicans. All bacterial isolates were characterized on the basis of colony, cellular morphology and reaction to Gram’s staining. Data were analysed using Epi INFO version 7 Software. The prevalence of BV, VVC and Trichomoniasis were reported as 22%, 36%, 0% respectively. The microbiological and morphological pattern showed some mixed bacterial and fungal infections between Escherichia coli and Candida albicans of 4%. The predictors of Infective vaginitis were found to be correct wiping pattern of front to back and first Infective vaginitis at an early age. This study helps Primary care physicians in making accurate empirical prescriptions in the treatment of Infective vaginitis, reducing the emergence of drug resistance and out-of-pocket spending.

  62. Tolessa Muleta

    Milk is a translucent white liquid produced by mammary glands of mammals. The quality of milk and its product is highly affected because it is an excellent and perfect culture medium for the growth of many kinds of micro-organisms. The objective of the review was to assess the safety of milk and its products with respect to food-borne diseases, losses and improving quality and to suggest well developed milk marketing system as a majority of small scale producers’ access to market. Accordingly, In Ethiopia, milk marketing system is not well developed and for the majority of small scale producers, access to market is limited. The amount produced is subjected to high post-harvest losses. Losses of up to 20–35% have been reported for milk and its products from milking to consumption. Such loses are mainly attributed to highly perishable nature of milk and mishandling, contamination during milking and further handling coupled with long storage time at high ambient temperature before consumption; inefficient transportation and distribution systems; inefficient processing technologies; inadequate fresh milk outlet; and spillage losses during milking. The total bacterial count obtained from raw milk collected from Yabello District of Borena zone is generally high compared to the acceptable level of 1 x 105 bacteria per ml of raw milk. The total bacterial count obtained from dairy cooperative milk collection centers was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than milk samples collected from hotels, small shops/kiosks and small scale milk producers which might be due to further contamination of the milk during transportation, use of poorly cleaned milk containers and absence of cooling systems at milk selling points. It was concluded that the microbial quality of Ethiopian milk and milk products is not to the standard and subjected to post-harvest and pre-consumption spoilage which result in milk borne illness. Therefore, awareness on hygienic production and handling of milk and products and adequate production and processing technologies should be fulfilled.

  63. Asungre, A. P., Akromah, R. and Atokple, I. D. K.

    One Hundred and fifty-one pearl millet accessions collected from their production zones of Upper East, Upper West and Northern Regions were genotyped using Thirty-Six (36) Pearl millet SSR markers (loci) in 20111. This study used the Simple Sequence Repeats (SSR) markers since these have demonstrated to be very informative in studying relationships in closely related plant species as well as readily detecting co-dominant inheritance and exhibiting a high level of polymorphism per loci. The results revealed a total of 316 alleles for all accessions using the 36 markers. A maximum of 20 alleles were observed by loci Xpsmp2270 and Xpsmp2068, and a minimum of 3 alleles were revealed by loci XPsmp2246 and Xpsmp2201 with 8.8 alleles per locus as average. The sizes of alleles ranged from 98bp at locus Xpsmp2068 to 377bp at locus M13_Xpsmp2203. The results have demonstrated the potential genetic variability inherent of the collected pearl millet accessions which can be explored for millet improvement.

  64. Kiran Kumar Nannapaneni and Krishnamoorthy Akkanna Subbiah

    Carbon sources viz., glucose, fructose, sucrose, mannitol and sorbitol; Nitrogen sources viz., ammonium nitrate, sodium nitrate, potassium nitrate, glycine and calcium nitrate were supplemented in Czapek’s dox medium to study their influence on chlamydospores production of Volvariella. Supplementation of sucrose and potassium nitrate to the growth medium each at 3 per cent level encouraged the mycelial growth and chlamydospores production of both V. volvacea strain CBE TNAU 1505 and V. bombycina strain CBE TNAU 1406.

  65. Aamir Raheem, Naeem Khan and Shahid Ali

    Present investigations were carried out to test aset of four fungicides i.e. Ridomil-G, Dithane M-45, Daconil 75 WP and Acrobat MZ and their different rates were tested for the control of post emergence damping off disease on tobacco seedlings by pre-sowing application of these fungicide sat the Tobacco Research Station, Khanghari, Mardan during the year 2013-14. Two varieties of tobacco i.e. Speight G-28 and TM 2008 were used for this study. All fungicide and their rates were proved effective in the controlling of the disease as compared to the control treatments, while the least significant difference was P ≤0.05.In Speight G-28 variety, Ridomil-G was found effective in the control of post-emergence damping off disease both at10 mL and 5 mL concentration, while Dithane M-45 was effective at 15 mL concentration, Daconil was found to be effective at 10 mL concentration and Acrobat MZ was effective at 5 mL concentration. In TM-2008 variety, Dithane M-45 was effective at 15 mL concentration, Ridomil-G at 5 Ml concentration while, Acrobat-MZ and Daconil fungicides were effective at 10 mL concentration.

  66. Dr. Meenakumari, S., Dr. Ahmed John, S. and Nagaiah, N. V.

    Megamalai hills in Southern Western Ghats of India have an unestimated wealth of mushrooms biodiversity that need to be tapped. The Megamalai hill forest was surveyed for occurrence of wild edible fungi. Studies were carried out two consequent years and it is done in all seasons. A total of 60 species of mushroom were collected, recorded, photographed and preserved. Most of the samplings were done in Megamalai reserved forest and the dense biomass favours variety of edible and medicinal mushrooms. Some of the species identified are Lymnophilus, Auricularia, Agaricus, Tricholoma, Pleurotus. These studies give significance in molecular diversity of wild edible mushrooms and its conservation from Megamalai hills.

  67. Mukul Anand and Basavaraju, R.

    The aim of the study was to determine the levels of certain phytochemicals in the leaves of Tecomastans during two physiological stages i.e., flowering and pre-flowering. The study revealed that the physiological developmental stages significantly affected the levels of studied phytochemicals. The flowering stage revealed higher levels of polyphenols, flavonoids and tannins in comparison to pre-flowering stage. However, alkaloids were observed to decline during flowering phase of the plant. Increased levels of bioactive components during generative period of the plant could be extracted using different solvent systems with maximum solubility and exploited bypharmaceutical industries in certain formulations for medicinal purposes.

  68. Poornima Shukla and Srivastava, R. K.

    Today, one of the major environmental problems being faced by Indian cities and towns relate to management and handling of municipal solid waste (MSW). Economic growth, urbanization and rising standards of living in cities have led to an increase in the quantity and complexity of the solid waste generated. This study aims to explore an alternative approach to the management of the municipal solid waste (MSW), through effective waste to energy, Public Private Partnership (PPP) approach, “5Rs” concept and the use of a specific technology that is able to meet the social, economic and environmental needs of the society.

  69. Alembrhan Assefa, Misgna Mulu and Addis Beyene

    Zoonotic diseases and other abnormalities are considered to be major health problem and causing a huge economic loss. A cross sectional active abattoir survey was conducted from May 2014 to January, 2015 to estimate direct financial losses due to organ condemnation in cattle slaughtered in abattoirs of Tigray, northern Ethiopia. A total of 479 cattle were examined through ante mortem and postmortem examinations. Postmortem examinations revealed that out of the total organs examined, 150 (31.3%) livers, 59 (12.3%) lungs, 15 (3.1%) kidneys and 4 (0.8%) hearts were totally condemned due to different parasitic, bacterial diseases and other abnormalities. A significant difference was observed in the rejection rate of liver, lung and kidney between different body condition scores of slaughtered cattle. Similarly, there was statistically significant difference in the rejection rate of liver between breed of cattle. The annual financial loss due to organ condemnation was estimated to be 10,375,900.00 Ethiopian Birr (522,452.16 USD). Liver condemnation was responsible for high financial loss followed by lung and kidney condemnation, respectively. The result of this study revealed the economical impact of the parasitic, bacterial diseases and other abnormalities is high, which necessitates designing of appropriate strategies for their control.

  70. Ana E. A. Brito, Juscelino G. Palheta, Andresa S. da Costa, Josilene do C. M. de Sousa, Vitor R. Nascimento, Liliane C. Machado, Jéssica T. S. Martins, Thays C. Costa, Glauco A. Nogueira,Waldemar V. A. Júnior, Benedito G. S. Filho and Cândido F. Oliveir

    The jatobá (Hymenaea courbaril L). is a Neotropical tree found in sandy soils, loamy well-drained upland and high plains, its importance is related to the fact that it is a promising species for reforestation programs and altered area recovery. Work objective was to evaluate the growth and ecophysiological aspect in young plants jatobá submitted water stress and flooding. The study was conducted in a greenhouse at the Federal Rural University of Amazonia in Belém, PA, Brazil. The experimental design was completely randomized with three water conditions: control, drought and flooding. A preliminary experiment was conducted simulating a severe drought and anaerobic stress, with suspension of irrigation and flood a water blade above the ground on the seedlings within 30 days. It was applied to the analysis of variance in the results and when there was a significant difference, the means were compared by Tukey test at 5% significance. The following parameters were evaluated: number of leaves, plant height, stem diameter, dry root mass, shoot, total leaf area, water potential, transpiration, stomatal conductance, carbohydrate and sucrose concentration. The results showed that the treatments promoted significant changes in plants, with decreases in transpiration and stomatal conductance, followed by the significant reduction in growth parameters, due to the reduction of water potential of plants. In addition, water stress (deficit and flooding) signification promoted increased levels of carbohydrates and sucrose in the plant.

  71. Sumanta Bera, Bhabani Prasad Pakhira, Abhinandan Ghosh, Joydev Roychowdhury and Debidas Ghosh

    The present study was conducted to investigate the duration dependent changes in gonadal hormone and semen quality of the diabetic patients under regular and irregular treatment mode. In these aspect blood glycemic sensors, gonadal hormone profile, oxidative stress sensors in sperm pellet were assessed. Spermatological profiles were evaluated for testing the semen quality. Levels of blood glycemic sensors, gonadal hormones and values of spermatological parameters were corrected in diabetic patients under regular treatment mode for 4 to 5 years upto a certain and significant levels but were not changed further along with extension of the duration of the said treatment upto 15 years. But in case of irregular treatment the values of these parameters were changed towards the pathological direction further along with the extension of the duration of the treatment in respect to 4 to 5 years of treatment suffering from diabetic. Serum insulin and C-peptide were increased significantly in diabetic patient under regular treatment mode for 4 to 5 years in respect to control but these levels were stable when duration of the treatment was increased further. In case of diabetic patient under irregular treatment mode these levels were decreased along with extension of the duration of the treatment. Oxidative stress in sperm was increased in diabetic patient under irregular treatment mode in respect to diabetic patients under regular treatment mode in duration dependent manner. Though, oxidative stress in sperm showed a tendency to be lowered in diabetic patient who received regular treatment mode for 4 to 5 years in respect to irregular treatment, but all the levels of the sensors come stable when that duration of the treatment mode was extended beyond 4 to 5 years upto 15 years. So it may be concluded that regular treatment is more beneficial for recovery of testicular hypofunction in diabetic patients in respect to irregular treatment. Moreover, irregular treatment mode may exerts more deleterious effect on testicular physiology in diabetic patients along with extension of this treatment habit.

  72. Maria Cheenickal and Dr. Sheela, D.

    The study includes phytochemical screening and quantification of primary and secondary metabolites like carbohydrates, protein, lipids, phenol, tannin and flavonoids from Syzygium malaccense (L.)Merr. & L.M.Perry leaves. The leaves of Syzygium malaccense (L.) Merr. & L.M.Perry showed highest carbohydrate value than the other primary metabolites. So malay apple can act as a good remedy for nutritional disorders and pharmaceutical agent. Secondary metabolites analysis showed the potential of malay apple leaves as anticancerous, antimutagenic, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and astringent capacities. So malay apple leaves can act as a good therapeutic agent.

  73. Dr. Priyanka Sinha, Dubey, K. K., and Rita Bhandari

    Increasing open cast mining and industrialization increase in living standard which result decrease in quality of the water. Limestone mines water [Lime stone Mine 1st situated at industrial area, Lime stone Mine 2nd situated at sensitive area and Pond 3rd (Man made) situated at residential area were analyzed for various physico chemical parameters Air Temp, Water Temp, transparency pH, TDS, Conductivity, Free CO2. Alkalinity, Hardness, chloride, PO4, DO, BOD, COD, ammonia, mercury, Ca and Mg ions. Result of this study shown that water quality of mine 1st and mine 3rd was not polluted but mine 2 is more polluted with very hard water .Data indicate that TDS, alkinity pH, hardness, ca and mg ions were found beyond the permissible limit of water quality. The mines 1st and mines 3rd water is useful for all purpose but mines 2nd water is not useful for domestic and drinking purpose and fish culture.

  74. Maria Inês Diel, Oscar Valeriano Sánchez Valera, Cícero Ortigara, Marcos Vinícius Marques Pinheiro, Matheus Milani Pretto, Daniele Cristina Fontana, Evandro Holz, Anderson Werner, Denise Schmidt, Braulio Otomar Caron and John Stolzle

    The agro industrial sector produces large amounts of waste which often are not properly disposed. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential use of burnt rice husks and sugarcane bagasse as a substrate for the production of iceberg lettuce seedlings. The study was conducted in the city of Frederico Westphalen, RS, in 2015. The experimental design was completely randomized and consisted of six treatments and four replications with 100 plants / replication. The treatments were composed of organic waste, a commercial substrate, and mixtures of these components resulting in the following treatments: T1 = 100% commercial substrate (SC); T2 = 100% burnt rice husks (CA); T3 = 100% sugarcane bagasse (BC); T4 = 25% CA + 75% BC; T5 = 50% CA+ 50% BC and T6= 75% CA + 25% BC. Responses were evaluated for germination, emergence speed index, dry weight of the shoot and root system. From the results it can be concluded that the best performance of the seedlings was found in the commercial substrate; however, costs can be reduced with the use of burnt rice husks, even though the chemical characteristics may influence the development of the seedlings. The use of sugarcane bagasse resulted in low levels of seedling development, this was likely related to the physical characteristics of these mixtures and the possible presence of allelopathic substances.

  75. Ancy Jenifer, A., Sowmiya Rajalakshmi, B. and Thamarai Selvi, C.

    An attempt was made to remove the hardness from bore well drinking water collected near sea shore area of Kanyakumari district. About 8 different sample stations were selected in Kanyakumari district. The physico-chemical parameters such as pH, TS, TDS, TSS, acidity, alkalinity, calcium, magnesium, total hardness, chloride, sulphate, phosphate, nitrate, fluoride, of the water samples were analyzed according to the standard APHA methodology. The obtained results were compared with water quality standards prescribed by BIS. All the water samples were not much contaminated and fit for domestic purpose except for an increase in few parameters in one of the selected station near the seashore (siluvai nagar). Treatment with Phyllanthus emblica wood reduced the hardness related parameters. 1.5g of wood piece was found to remove 35% of TDS, 82% of calcium, 41% of magnesium and 86% of total hardness from sample S1 in two hours. From the above results it is clear that this wood can be used to treat hard water at house hold level which is contaminated with TDS, Calcium, magnesium and other water related hardness. Ethanolic extract of wood was screened for the presence of potent bioactive phyto compounds using GC-MS analysis and also the antimicrobial activity of the wood was tested against B. subtilis, P. aeruginosa, S. aureus and E. coli. Adsorption, chelating nature of wood followed by precipitation process of Amla might have reduced the hardness from drinking water. Hence, this study was conducted to find out the potentiality of Phyllanthus emblica wood in softening hard water. Understanding the mechanism of hard water treatment using the above biological material requires further studies.

  76. Kaythegowdanadoddi Srinivasa Balaji, Priyanka Shivaprakash, Malavalli Guruswamy Dileepkumar, Chakkere Shivamadhu Madhu, Basavaraju Puttalingaiah, Kagepura Thammaiah Chandrashekara and Shankar Jayarama

    Angiogenesis is the creation of new blood vessels. The process of angiogenesis involves the migration, development, and differentiation of endothelial cells, which contour the inside wall of the blood vessels. The development of antiangiogenic agents to block new blood vessel growth will repress metastasis and encourage apoptosis of tumor. The present object focuses on phyto- constituents and antiangiogenic activity of the Leucas aspera leaves extract. Aqueous extract showed potent inhibitory activities against EAC cells procreation in in-vivo; this evidence shows that leaf extract of leucas aspera also has been showed anti- angiogenic activities. Aqueous extract steadily decreases the body weight & tumour volume when compare to control. Further, inhibition of blood vessels in intraperitoneum cavity of mice treated with Leucas aspera, which proves antiangiogenic activity. Chorioallantoic membrane assay (CAM) provides further evidence towards angiogenic inhibitory activity. Our coming up proposal is focusing in the direction is to enhancement of clincher based research and chemical characterisation of these compounds could further enhance the efficacy of this plant- based medicine in angiotherapy.

  77. Minakshi Singha, L., Shakuntala, I. and Devashish Kar

    The frequent use of antimicrobial has rendered the risk of increase in resistance against E. coli. The objective of this study was to observe the resistance pattern against most commonly used drugs. A total of 92 Escherichia coli were isolated from tissues of diseased poultry birds. The antibiotic resistance-susceptibility profiles were conducted by standardized disc diffusion following CLSI method. Test for resistance to 14 antimicrobial agents were conducted. The most frequently encountered form of resistance in all the samples were to sulphafurazole (98.91%) trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (96.73%), colistin (88.04%), tetracycline (86.95%), co-trimoxazole (76.08%), enrofloxacin (75%) and ampicillin (70.65%). 67 (72.82%) of the isolates showed resistance to more than three antimicrobial classes. The high percentage of multi-drug resistance prevailing among the samples was mainly against sulphonamides, tetracycline and fluoroquinolones. Therefore, the increase in resistance against colistin, sulphonamides and fluoroquinolones which were considered highly effective against E. coli was highly notable.

  78. Harneet Kaur, Reema Kapoor and Navpreet Singh

    Introduction: Obesity is a risk factor for diabetes mellitus. Resistin, an adipokine explains the link between obesity and diabetes. The present study was conducted to explore the association between resistin gene polymorphism and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). Study Design: It was a case control study consisted of 90 Indian subjects divided into three groups as cases (n=30), obese person without diabetes (n=30) and healthy controls (n=30). Following parameters were measured: age, body mass index (BMI), waist hip ratio (WHR), lipid profile, plasma glucose, insulin, homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and resistin. Comparison of data was done by using one way ANOVA and odd’s ratio was determined to calculate the risk. Results: Serum resistin was significantly higher in cases of type 2 diabetes with +299 (G>A) genotypes. Resistin gene polymorphism +299 (G>A) is a significant risk for type 2 diabetes. Conclusion: Resistin gene polymorphism +299(G>A) has an association with diabetes and increase the susceptibility of type 2 DM.

  79. Cândido Ferreira de Oliveira Neto, Bruno Moitinho Maltarolo, Ellen Gleyce da Silva Lima, Tamires Borges de Oliveira, Karollyne Renata Souza Silva, Wander Luiz da Silva Ataíde, Glauco André dos Santos Nogueira, Vitor Resende do Nascimento, Andresa Soares d

    The objective of this study was to assess the ecophysiological aspects and metabolic responses of carbon and nitrogen in açaí (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) plants submitted to water stress. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse at Universidade Federal Rural da Amazônia in the Brazilian city of Belém, State of Pará. The experimental design was completely randomized in two water conditions (control and water stress), with 5 repetitions, fully 30 experimental units, where each plant was an experimental unit. The treatments assessment was done at 0, 4, 8, 12 and 16 days of imposing water stress. The parameters analyzed were: water potential, gas exchange, hydraulic conductivity, vapor pressure deficit, carbohydrate concentrations, sucrose, ammonium and free proline, amino acids and total soluble proteins, glycine betaine. The suspension of irrigation for 15 days in young plants of Euterpe oleracea Mart. showed significant changes in all parameters, limiting perspiration, reducing the water potential and stomatal conductance, hydraulic conductivity and fluctuations in the VPD (Vapor Pressure Deficit), the free ammonia concentration and total soluble protein but increased carbohydrate concentrations and total soluble amino acids, sucrose, glycine betaine and proline. These changes have shown that açaí saplings show sensitivity to water stress, adjusting osmotically though.

  80. Bouthaina A. Merdan and Ahmed Ghareeb

    In Egypt, chemical insecticides are used repeatedly in mosquito control programs leading to increase insect resistance in the field especially against carbamate, Organophosphates and Pyrethroids, B.t.i. strains are restrictly used. In order to find a quick method for detecting elevation of resistance to the old insecticides or newly used biological insecticides, our research correlated between level of detoxifying and serine enzyme activity with elevation of resistance in Culex pipiens larvae against carbamate, DP and biological insecticides. Results proved that α and β-esterases showed decrease during early formation of resistance when using both carbamate and OP insecticides while no great change in B.t.i. resistant generations. Glutathione S- transferase showed positive significant difference between susceptible and carbamate and OP and B.t.i. resistance populations. Serine protease were good indicators for measuring OP and B.t.i. resistance elevation.

  81. Dr. Sandhya Mehra and Dr. Shiv Prakash Rathore

    Pregnancy complications like hypertension or gestational diabetes are reflected macroscopically and microscopically in the placenta. Placental morphologic changes vary substantially in pre-eclampsia and eclampsia that affects the growth of foetus. In pregnancy induced hypertension, there is increased resistance to utero-placental circulation which adversely affects the growth of placenta, which ultimately results in unfavorable outcome of pregnancy. The present study was undertaken to evaluate various gross pathological changes in placentae of pregnancy induced hypertension. These pathological changes were compared with placentae of normal healthy cases. In the study, it is found that the weight, circumference and thickness of placenta were significantly decreased in PIH as compared to the control. The mean minimum distance of cut edge of membrane from margin of placenta and the width of umbilical cord at insertion point on surface of placenta in PIH group was decreased significantly as compared to the control group. It may be attributed to hamper the growth of fetus.

  82. Alison Vinicius Fernandes, José Roberto Pinto de Souza and Eli Carlos de Oliveira

    The sugar cane is one of the most important crops in Brazil, both in the economic as social and environmental. The sugar cane is of fundamental importance as a raw material for the production of sugar and alcohol, which enables the replacement of fossil fuels with renewable. Mechanized harvesting sugar cane without burning straw gave rise to a new production system called green cane. The straw originated this system, combined with the intensity of rainfall determined new concepts on transposition of herbicides to the ground. The work had as objective to evaluate the passage of tebuthiuron, imazapic, hexazinone and diuron herbicides applied to different amounts of straw sugar cane and rainfall. The experiment was conducted in the greenhouse. The experimental design was distributed in a factorial 4x3 (0, 10, 20 and 30 t ha-1 of straw cane sugar and 0, 10 and 20 mm of precipitation) with 6 repetitions. Visual assessment of the indicator plant, sorghum, was based on the scale of the Brazilian Society of Science of Weed at 28 days after herbicide application. The control efficacy of the hexazinone tebuthiuron, diuron and imazapic herbicides were reduced with increasing the amount of straw sugar cane deposited on the soil surface, and increased with greater precipitation. The herbicide hexazinone showed more efficient control while diuron, less control efficiency.

  83. Neethi.C.Nair and Sheela, D.

    Free radicals are the causes of a large number of human degenerative diseases affecting a wide variety of physiological functions. Antioxidants, even at relatively small concentrations inhibit oxidation by acting as free radical scavengers and thus converting these radicals into less reactive oxygen species. The present study is on the plants such as Ageratum conyzoides, L., Eupatorium ayapana, Vent., and Chromolaena odorata, L. which belong to the tribe Eupatorieae of the family Asteraceae. These members are rich in secondary metabolites such as phenol, flavanoids and tannin. The presence of these phenolics makes them a good antioxidant. The study reveals the quantity of secondary metabolites in these plants and there by proving their antioxidant potential and so these can be used for the preparation of natural drugs.

  84. Dr. Panneerselvam, T., Dr. Vishnu Priya, M., Dr. Kumudha, P. and Dr. Sangeetha, K. P.

    Ventilatory lung functions are reduced during occupational exposure to industrial air pollutants. The degree of functional impairment has a direct relationship with the dust concentration and duration of exposure. Spirometry is a valuable tool to investigate and assess the degree of pulmonary functional impairment caused by occupational dust. Periodic pulmonary function tests help in earlier detection and intervention.

  85. Mary Conice and Usha, M. S.

    E. coli isolate pe16, when subjected to PCR analysis showed positive forStx2f. Protein from this isolate was subjected to purification. The purification scheme involved ammonium sulphate precipitation at 40% saturation and then at 60% saturation, dialysis using 1% sucrose solution followed by Ion exchange chromatography. DEAE Cellulose for anion and CMC for cation were used as packing materials. Elutions obtained from above purification steps were subjected to protein estimation by Lowry’s method. Crude and purified samples were analyzed by SDS-PAGE using molecular weight markers, to determine molecular weight and purity of the samples. It was observed that crude sample showed more of bands compared to ammonium sulphate precipitation and dialysis. From SDS-PAGE the purity of isolate confirmed a band with 7 kDa protein.

  86. Fahiel Casillas, Miguel Betancourt, Alma López, Lizbeth Juárez-Rojas and Socorro Retana-Márquez

    Currently the success through natural fertilization has decreased in humans and domestic species worldwide. In Mexico, subfertility problems have come to affect 1 of 6 couples. According to the World Health Organization, the main causes are: endometriosis (42%), ovulatory disorders (33%), and the increase in the diagnosis of obesity, diabetes and cancer. On the other hand, domestic species of economic importance such as pigs, sheep and cattle have reported numerous fertility problems whose main causes are: 1) low sperm quality due to excessive ejaculations, 2) nutritional deficit, 3) infections, 4) endometriosis, 5) reduced food sources, and 6) heterozygosity loss. Therefore, oocyte and embryo cryopreservation represents an important tool for fertility preservation in the development of assisted reproductive technologies (ART). ART refers to those treatments that can solve natural fertilization problems improving human reproduction and animal production. The importance of cryopreservation is based on its application in patients with ovarian hyper stimulation syndrome diagnosis, cancer, and maternity at advanced age (>40 yr.), for the creation of gene banks and generation of a genetic reservoir in endangered species, such as the Mexican hairless pig and bighorn sheep and finally for basic and applied research. The aim of this review was to analyze two types of cryopreservation methods, slow freezing and vitrification, in terms of its success and impact on different developmental stages.

  87. Vamsi Krishna Kamana, Hashir Kareem, Tom Devasia, Vidya Nayak and Sridevi Prabhu

    Chronic Mesenteric Ischemia is a manifestation of atherosclerotic disease in the mesenteric blood vessels. It can be treated percutaneously. And the endovascular intervention of mesenteric blood vessels has surpassed surgical revascularisation over the past decade due to its lesser peri operative complication rate. Trans-femoral approach of revascularising is limited by its difficulty in coaxial alignment of the guiding catheter and hence brachial artery and recently the Radial approach have been utilized for mesenteric artery revascularisation for over a decade. We presented a case of abdominal angina which had developed in an elderly 74 years male with an associated severe abdominal aortic disease, finally treated by angioplasty. Both Celiac artery and Superior mesenteric artery are stented with same sized 6 X 24 mm Stents. Percutaneous revascularisation via the left brachial artery for the two major abdominal visceral vessels was high lightened in this case.

  88. Utkarsh Kaushik and Joshi, S. C.

    Present investigated was performed to study the toxic effects of oral administration of silver nanoparticles on liver and serum parameters of male rat. Six healthy Wistar rats weighing between 150-200 g were randomly selected and divided into three groups. Group I serve as control group and received distilled water while treatment groups were administered 1 mg kg–1 b.wt. silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) for 30 days. After 24 hrs of experiments completion, rats were sacrificed using diethyl ether. Blood was collected by cardiac puncture to extract out serum for biochemical estimation. Liver was excised and used for histopathological examination. Exposure of AgNPs results in significant alteration in levels in ALT, AST, ALP, bilirubin and acid phosphatase. The histopathological examination of liver revealed congestion, inflammation and cellular damage due to exposure to the AgNPs. Thus it can be concluded that silver nanoparticles at dose level 1 mg kg–1 b.wt could be harmful if exposed for month which proven by serum biochemical and histopathological alterations in liver.

  89. Vinay B. Raghavendra, Uzma, M., 2Govindappa, M., Vasantha, R. A. and Lokesh, S.

    Plastics have become an important part of modern life and are used in different sectors of applications like packaging, building materials, consumer products and much more. Many plastics are physically, chemically robust and cause waste management problems. Bioremediation is an important approach to waste reduction that relies on biological processes to break down a variety of pollutants. This is made possible by the vast metabolic diversity of the microbial world. To explore this diversity for the breakdown of plastics, in the present study several indigenous fungi were screened from municipal solid waste to check for its ability to degrade the polyurethane (PUR) and Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE) under in-vitro and in vivo studies. Several fungi proved their ability to efficiently degrade polyurethanes and Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE) in biodegradable studies. Vigorous activity was observed in the genus Fusarium oxysporum, Aspergillus fumigatus, Lasiodiplodia crassispora, Aspergillus niger, Penicillium sp. and Trichoderma harzianum capable of degrading this polymer display a zone of clearance around the growing culture on both PUR and LDPE growth medium. These isolates were analysed on Impranil DLN medium as the sole carbon source under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Aspergillus niger was able to degrade the polymer more activity in the PUR-A solid medium and PUR-L liquid medium than other fungal isolates. A. niger resulted in maximum decrease in percentage of elongation and tensile strength 2.94, 4.32, and 5.11 in LDPE sheets for 30, 60 and 90 days durations and 0.78, 1.44 and 2.18 in PUR sheets for 30, 60 and 90 days durations and 25.5 Mpa with breaking load 7.5, Percentage of elongation of 295 in LDPE and 12.9 Mpa with breaking load 5.8, Percentage of elongation of 186 in PUR sheets respectively. This study can be used as valuable microbial tool in the field of bioremediation to solve the inert polythene and plastic waste management.

  90. Kabyashree Sharma, Farishta Yasmin, Sukanya Baruah and Sharmistha Debnath

    Phosphorus is a major component of plants and soil. Plants can absorb phosphorus as phosphate anion. A large number of microorganisms are present in the soil are known to solubilize and make the insoluble phosphorus in the available form to the plants. Bacterial colonies from tea garden soil were isolated on Pikovskaya’s (PKV) agar medium, containing insoluble tri-calcium phosphate (TCP) as calcium source. The colonies showing clear halo zones around the bacterial growth were considered as phosphate solubilizers. Gram positive cocci bacterial colonies were identified which shows oxidase negative in their biochemical reactions. The pH of the medium was dropped because P-solubilizing activity of these strains. This finding reveals the availability of PSB in the tea garden soil which is acidic in nature. It may throw light in the PSBs prospect of application as biofertilizer in low fertile land of tea growing areas of Assam, where internationally valued organic tea are produced.

  91. Tripathi, I.P. and Ruchika Sharma

    Ayurveda and other literature mention the use of plants in treatment of the various human ailments. Ficus benghalensis is a large evergreen tree found throughout India. It is commonly called Banyan tree. It is used in traditional system of medicine like ayurveda and homoeopathy. Different parts of the tree have been found to possess medicinal properties: leaves are good for ulcer, aerial roots are useful in gonorrhea, seeds and fruits are cooling and tonic. This paper reports on its traditional and pharmacognostic properties such as antioxidant, anticancer, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antihelmintic, antidiabetic and antibacterial of Ficus bengalensis.

  92. Welvis Furtado da Silva and Ernane Rosa Martins

    This article aims to present biotechnological methods used in the recovery of soil Inert in extinct erosion area in Residential Geovanni Braga, the Annapolis City Hall in the State of Goiás, through revegetation techniques with fertilization and planting forage braquiária to improve the bed of vegetable and microbiological soil structure and chemistry. The methodological procedures adopted understood literature review, to support the activities and field work, data collection, characterized as descriptive of the nature of the objective, as its main purpose to describe the recovery of degraded soil by erosion. The results obtained were surprising, showing no erosive focus and the visual impact of the site has been significantly improved, pleasing the neighboring population erosion. Running costs were lower than traditional techniques, showing that the techniques used were adequate, efficient and economical.

  93. SANGARE Moussa et FOFANA Memon

    Ivory Coast has decided to popularize the cultivation of cotton in order to integrate the people of the savanna zone to the market economy. To carry out this policy, the State has created CIDT to help them move from a subsistence economy to that market. This parastatal opted for a close supervision that allowed Ivory Coast to achieve "records" production of seed cotton. However, since the liberalization of the cotton sector, the coaching staff, which once was the "pride" of the Ivory Coast, is increasingly criticized. It is even highlighted in recent years to explain the fall of the Ivorian cotton production. But what explains the release of the technical staff in the cotton sector? It is this question that this study attempts to provide answers. In terms of methodology, the study used a qualitative approach coupled with the analysis of the system of actors focused on semi-structured interviews, observations and focus groups.

  94. Edna Maria Bonfim-Silva, João Angelo Silva Nunes, Tonny José Araújo da Silva and Adriano Bicioni Pacheco

    The millet (Pennisetum americanum) is an annual cover crop in increasing use in the Cerrado region. Excessive use of agricultural machinery and inadequate management has caused losses in soil physical quality. Research has shown that besides being effective as ground cover, millet has shown ability to break through compacted layers. This study aimed to evaluate the growth and yield of millet plants subjected to levels of soil compaction. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse using a completely randomized design. The treatments consisted of five levels of soil densities: 1.0, 1.2, 1.4, 1.6, 1.8 Mg m-3 with four replications. The recipients were built with PVC pipes of 200 mm diameter. The collection of the experiment was performed at 34 days after sowing and the variables analysed were: chlorophyll index, plant height, number of leaves and tillers, length and stem diameter, dry mass of leaves, stems and roots. All variables were subjected to analysis of variance and regression test at 0.05 probability. The bulk density of the Oxisol that provided the best development of millet plants varied between 1.0 to 1.4 Mg m-3.

  95. Sarah Javed and Mohammad Suhaib

    Unethical business practices are gaining wide attention in the business circles, academia and government. Various measures are adopted to control these unethical business practices. However despite of the known fact that spiritual values have positive effect in controlling this menace and the fact that spiritually oriented people act in Godly ways, Spirituality as a control measure for unethical behavior and business have not been sufficiently explored. This paper argues that socially responsible organizations cannot align their activities with social expectation without creating a compassionate organizational culture based on spiritual values. This is seen to be accomplished through the development of unspoken assumptions embedded in organization culture which recognize that accomplishing what is good for the long term sustainability and success of organization can be obtained by striving for the larger social good.

  96. Noor N Nafie

    Background: Coronary Computed Tomography Angiography (CCTA) is a rapidly growing, noninvasive imaging modality that developed quickly over the last decade, and its role for evaluation of Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) becomes of great promise with high diagnostic accuracy. The presence and extent of Coronary Artery Calcification (CAC) correlates with the overall magnitude of coronary atherosclerotic plaque burden and with the development of subsequent coronary events. Glycated hemoglobin (hemoglobin A1c, HbA1c, A1C, or Hb1c; sometimes also HbA1c or HGBA1C) is a form of hemoglobin that is measured primarily to identify the average plasma glucose concentration over prolonged periods of time. Glycated hemoglobin (hemoglobin A1c, HbA1c, A1C, or Hb1c; sometimes also HbA1c or HGBA1C) is a form of hemoglobin that is measured primarily to identify the average plasma glucose concentration over prolonged periods of time. This serves as a marker for average blood glucose levels over the previous 3 months prior to the measurement as this is the half life of red blood cells. It represents a reliable and moving average of blood glucose over preceding three months, Glycated haemoglobin has been the key measure of glycaemic control in diabetic patients for last two decades. It is considered to be the gold standard test, and most widely accepted test of glycaemia among clinicians and patients. Subjects and Methods: This study was conducted at the Department of Biochemistry, College of Pharmacy, University of AL-Rasheed and at the Cardiologic Clinics of Ibn-Al-Bitar Hospital, Baghdad, Iraq, during the period from January 2015 to March 2015. The included 40 patients with ischemic heart disease were classified according to their obtained values of coronary artery Ca score into two groups: Group I (GII) involved 20 patients with coronary artery Ca score equal to 1- 399 (ASU), aged mean( 54.95±1.764) with range (37-70 year), Group II (GI) included 20 subjects who have coronary artery Ca score=0.0 Agatston Score Unit (ASU), aged mean (45.80±2.163) range (31-65 year). These subjects were considered as control group. HbA1c, fasting serum glucose, lipid profile parameters and renal function test (Urea, Creatinine & uric Acid) were also measured by using spectrophotometric methods. All investigations were performed in patients of the two groups (GI and GII). Results: The results of this study revealed significant increase in HbA1c significantly increased in GI compared with GII (P=0.019), with significant increased of (Urea, Creatinine & uric Acid) (P=0.001, p=0.004, p= 0.002) between groups. There was no significant differences in glucose & lipid profile between GI and GII in the these parameters. All patients of GII (with Ca Score =zero) taking statin & Aspirin as protective therapy compare to GI (13/20), (7/20) & which represent (65%) (35%) of this group, (p=0.004#, p=0.0001), these drugs play statically a significant role in treatment of Coronary Artery Calcification(CAC). There is non significant correlation between parameters of (lipid profile, glycemic control & renal function test) with ca- score in GI II(patients with mild to moderate degree of calcification). Conclusion: (CAC) consider to be surrogate marker of atherosclerosis which has been associate with increase value of Hb A1c%, serum level of (Urea, Creatinine & uric Acid) in patients with mild to severe degree of calcification ,combine with high serum level of both glucose & VLDL. All these parameters may play important role in pathogenesis of atherosclerosis in patients with CAD, Statin, Aspirin have protective role in patients with CAD while B-blocker to increase of the survival in and improved QoL of these patients with mild to moderate degree of calcification in patients with Ca score =0.0 Agatston.

  97. Dr. Abhishek Ranjan, Dr. Nitin V.M., Dr. Raghunath, N. and Dr. Shivalinga, B.M.

    Orthodontic management of impacted canines can be a very complex and requires a carefully planned interdisciplinary approach. The surgical orthodontic treatment of impacted canines is aimed at bringing the tooth into its correct position in the dental arch without causing periodontal damage. Various forms of inter-arch and intra-arch mechanics have been developed for the eruption of impeded and impacted teeth. The availability of newer materials with variable modulus and variable transition temperature has stimulated the development of various appliances designs with newer materials and configurations for alignment of impacted canines.

  98. Dr. K. Saraswathi Gopal and Sowmya Hemantha Kumar

    Hairy tongue (HT), also known as “lingua villosa nigra”, is a benign and reversible condition and is characterised by marked accumulation of keratin on the filiform papillae of the dorsum of the tongue resulting in a hair-like appearance. The Color of the papillae may vary from brown to black. Here we report a case of hairy tongue in a 45 year old male patient.

  99. Vijayalakshmi K. R., Swati Dahiya and Mubeen Khan

    Lipomas are benign tumours of mesenchymal origin. Intraoral lipomas are rare, representing 1% to 5% of all benign oral tumors, although they are the most common mesenchymal tumors of the trunk and proximal portions of extremities. Their diagnostic importance lies in the distinction from other benign connective tissue lesions, salivary gland neoplasms and liposarcomas. They are usually treated by surgical excision and bear excellent prognosis. Here we report a case of intraoral lipoma in the buccal mucosa.

  100. Rajesh Abbey, Dr. Punit Kumar and Dr. Amrit pal Singh Gill

    Hydatid disease is quite common in countries like India, Egypt, Australia, New zealand, Mediterranean countries, Middle East, Africa and sheep rearing countries (Kayaalp et al., 2007). This common disease is known to affect many uncommon sites in the human body as face, mediastinum, retroperitoneum, breast, thyroid and intermuscular planes. Other unusual sites include heart (2%), kidney (1.5%-3%), brain (3%), and spleen (3%). Incidence of musculoskeletal disease including subcutaneous tissue has been reported to be 0.5 to 5 % (Gole et al., 2013). Hydatid cysts at multiple unusual sites have also been reported (Abbey et al., 2002). These unusual sites, where suspicion of hydatid disease is unlikely, present as diagnostic dilemma. Incidence of hydatid disease of thigh has been reported to be 0.37% In a series of 272 cases of hydatid disease and thigh is the commonly involved unusual site (Gole et al., 2013). This could be explained due to high vascularity and less muscular activity at this site (Gracia-Diez et al., 2000) These unusual sites may present as diagnostic dilemma as suspicion of hydatid disease at these unusual sites is unlikely. Spontaneous rupture of hydatid cyst of these externally visible sites need no specific investigations when the diagnosis is more than evident on clinical examination as in the case being presented here.

  101. Dr. Madhura Jathar, Dr. Arun Subramaniam, Dr. Asha Chowdhary, Dr. Prasad Jathar, Dr. Mahesh Shivaji Chavan and Dr. Nikhil Diwan

    Knowledge of the position of the mental foramen is important when administering regional anesthesia, orthodontic tooth movement/surgery and performing periapical surgery in the mental region of mandible. The mental foramen has been reported to vary in different ethnic groups. Objectives: The objectives of the present study were to identify the most common position of mental foramen on panoramic radiograph in the western Indian population. Its symmetry of location on right and left sides and gender differences were also analysed. Methods: 400 digital panoramic radiographs of randomly selected western Indian population were evaluated with the consideration that mental foramen was clearly visible. Results: In the analysis of the sample, it was found that the mental foramen is located anywhere between the long axis of 1st premolar to the long axis of 1st molar tooth, the most common location of mental foramen in the present study was in line with the 2nd premolar. Conclusion: The most common location of mental foramen drawn from this study is in line with 2nd premolar followed by between 1st and 2nd premolar tooth which is most of the times symmetrical on both right and left sides. There are no statistically significant differences regarding position and symmetry of mental foramen with gender.

  102. Abdel Karim M. El Hemaly, Laila A.E.S. Mousa, Ibrahim M. Kandil and Khulood Samy Husssein

    Introduction: We believe that every organ in the body has a strong collagen chassis. Injury and lacerations of the chassis will distort the shape of the organ, lead to its dysfunction, abnormal position and chronic pain. The strong pelvic diaphragm keeps the pelvic organs and tracts in their normal position. Pelvic floor dysfunction is widely present in women particularly around menopause. The internal urethral sphincter (IUS) is a collagen-muscle tissue cylinder that extends from the bladder neck down to the perineal membrane. Its nerve supply is from the thoraco-lumbar alpha sympathetic nerves T10-L2. After toilet training, a gained high alpha sympathetic tone keeps the IUS contracted and the urethra closed and empty all the time. The vagina is a collagen-muscle-elastic tissue cylinder that extends up-wards and backwards from the vulva. Childbirth trauma causes redundancy of its walls with subsequent prolapse. When the injury and lacerations affect the pelvic ligaments, vault and uterine prolapse ensue. The internal anal sphincter (IAS) is a collagen-muscle tissue cylinder that surrounds the anal canal, with the external anal sphincter surrounding its lower part. Its nerve supply is thoraco-lumbar alpha-sympathetic nerves. Toilet training creates high alpha-sympathetic tone at the IAS that keeps it contracted and the anal canal closed and empty all the time. Pathology: Injury and lacerations of the collagen chassis of the pelvic tracts, lead to voiding troubles, urinary incontinence, genital prolapse and fecal incontinence. Aim of the study: Is medical imaging, show the difference between normal pelvic organs and lacerated collagen chassis? In addition, does mending the torn collagen chassis of the pelvic organs restore the normal continence and functions? Surgery: We introduced an operation “Urethro-Ano-Vaginoplasy” to correct those troubles, by mending the torn chassis. We mend the torn IUS, and then do overlapping of the bisected anterior vaginal wall. Thus, we restore the integrity and strength of the IUS, and add to it extra support and narrow the vagina. We mend the torn IAS, then do overlapping of the bisected posterior vaginal wall, approximate the levator ani muscles, and repair the perineum with excellent results of gaining continence and narrowing the patulous vagina.

  103. Priyanka Srivastava, Anuj Srivastava and Prachi Srivastava

    Background: Collodion Baby refers to clinical presentation in neonates present within a thick taut shiny translucent membrane resembling a collodion, usually this membrane sheds off within 2-3 weeks after birth Case Characteristics: Both the infants were full term and had abnormal skin with ectropion and eclabium. Apgar was normal with no gross systemic anomalies. Intervention: The infants were placed in an incubator and temperature monitoring, IV antibiotics, fluid and electrolyte replacement was done. Outcome: Both the infants died 1 in hospital due to sepsis and second one during transportation so we cannot ascertain the etiology. Message: Early diagnosis and intervention can reduce morbidity and mortality in neonates.

  104. Smita S. Aher, Poonam R. Songire and Ravindra B. Saudagar

    A sustained release matrix formulation for Albuterol Sulphate was designed and developed to achieve a 12 h release profile. Using HPMC K15M and HPMC K100M as an inert matrix forming agent to control the release of Albuterol Sulphate. The matrix tablets for these formulations were prepared by direct compression and their in-vitro release tests were carried out for a period of 12 hours using USP dissolution test apparatus (type II Paddle) at 37±0.5°C and 50 rpm speed. A 32 full factorial design was used for optimization by taking the concentration of HPMC K15M (X1) and HPMC K100M (X2) were selected as independent variables, whereas initial release at the (Y1, % drug release), (Y2, % drug Content) the concentration of Were chosen as dependent variables. The optimized formulation F1 follows Higuchi model and Korsemeyer - Pappas release kinetics with non- Fickian diffusion mechanism. From the study, it was concluded that the release of Albuterol Sulphate can be effectively controlled using combination of HPMC K15M, HPMC K 100M and Carbopol 940.

  105. Ayşe Özlem Balık, Levent Soydan and Zeynep Gamze Kılıçoğlu

    Primary epiploic appendagitis is an exceptional reason of the acute abdomen. It is an ischemic infarction of an epiploic appendage. If it happens on the right hemicolon, it looks like anappendicitis whereas a left-sided epiploic appendagitis can be mistaken for sigmoid diverticulitis. In this study, cases for both of these conditions are exhibited with respective clinical, computed tomography (CT) and ultrasonographic (US) findings. Both cases were analyzed conventionally.

  106. Nikitha Ramesh, Dr. Pradeep Kumar and Dr. S. Thenmozhi

    Aim: The aim of the study is to asses dental students perception, attitude and their views on anti tobacco counselling. Objective: The study is conducted to understand the influence of knowledge on counselling, the effectiveness of the counselling and how they rate themselves as counselors and the barriers faced by them in the counselling process. Background: The results of the study will help to asses the knowledge of dental students about anti tobacco counselling, how effective the counselling is and what barriers dental students face in counselling and their attitude and views about anti tobacco counselling. Reason: Tobacco use is one of the most important reasons for various oral and systemic conditions. It is one of the major risk factors for oral cancer, periodontal diseases, and other serious oral diseases. As dentists it is our duty and responsibility to advice patients against the use of tobacco and educate them about the risks, oral and systemic implications on the continuous use of tobacco and help the in the processes of quitting the habit.

  107. Megha V Chavda and Hetshri M Shah

    Background: Asthma is one of the commonest chronic childhood illness. Childhood obesity forms a link between adult obesity and cardio-vascular risk. Exercise-induced asthma is defined as an intermittent narrowing of the airways, demonstrated by a decrease in some measure of flow, that the patient experiences as wheezing, chest tightness, coughing and difficulty in breathing that is triggered by exercise. Objective: Objective is to compare the effectiveness of Pursed Lip Breathing (PLB) and Buteyko Breathing Technique (BBT) in reducing the symptoms of Exercise Induced Asthma (EIA) in obese children. Method: 50 subjects, diagnosed as Exercise Induced Asthma by paediatrician were randomly selected in to two groups – group A and group B. Group A was treated with pursed lip breathing and group B was treated with Buteyko breathing technique for period of one week. Both the groups were given a common exercise program of chest mobilization with upper limb PNF pattern. Prior to the treatment both the subjects were given relaxation for 5 minutes. Outcome measures of peak expiratory flow rate and paediatric asthma diary scale were taken on 0, 3rd and 7th day. Data was analysed by independent sample t test (SPSS version 21.0) Result: Group B (Buteyko breathing technique) exhibited more improvement in PEFR 70 l/min than group A (Pursed lip breathing) 67.6 l/min. The mean difference of PAD in day time symptoms in group A and group B was 19.47% and 28% respectively, whereas the mean difference in night time awakening symptoms in group A and group B 18.93% and 26.67% respectively. Conclusion: In this study the patients were treated with pursed lip breathing and Buteyko breathing technique respectively. Both of this exercise are statistically significant in reducing the symptoms but Buteyko breathing technique shows more clinical improvement when compare with pursed lip breathing technique.

  108. Kishore Kumar, M.

    Patients whose teeth are affected by severe dental fluorosis with enamel defects (Thylstrup-Fejerskov Index = 5-7) have a great concern regarding the appearance of their teeth and can have psychological impact on the quality of their life. This paper proposes a minimal invasive technique for the esthetic management of such teeth.

  109. Moono Silitongo, Dailesi Ndhlovu, Sikaniso Mutemwa, Martin D. Mulipilwa and Chileshe Mwaba

    Background: Accessory coronary ostia refer are ostia located in the aortic sinuses other than those of the left and right coronary arteries. The most common ostia found in the aortic sinuses are those of the conal and sinoatrial node arteries. Knowledge and recognition of these two arteries is important when performing coronary angiography. Aim and Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of accessory ostia in the aortic sinuses in autopsied hearts. Materials and Methods: A total of 127 human hearts were dissected and grossly examined during autopsy from subjects aged between 17 and 86 years. Results: Accessory ostia were found in 39.4% (50/127) hearts and all of them were located in right aortic sinus. Conal artery ostia were observed in 30.7% (39/127) whilst the sinoatrial node artery ostia was observed in 8.7% (11/127) of the specimens. Conclusions: Accessory coronary ostia were observed in only in the right aortic sinus in 39.4% (50/127) of the hearts.

  110. Abdel Karim M. El Hemaly, Laila A.E.S. Mousa, Ibrahim M. Kandil and Khulood Samy Husssein

    We put forward a novel concept to explain the physiology of micturition. Micturition consists of two stages, first stage in infancy and early childhood and the second stage starts after toilet training. In the first stage, micturition is a sacral spinal reflex. In the second stage, after toilet training, the person builds up, by learning and training, high alpha sympathetic tone at the internal urethral sphincter (IUS) keeping it contracted and the urethra closed and empty all the time. The IUS is a collagen-muscle tissue cylinder that extends from the bladder neck down to the perineal membrane. Its nerve supply is from the thoracic-lumbar alpha sympathetic nerves T10-L2. After toilet training, a gained high alpha sympathetic tone keeps the IUS contracted and the urethra closed and empty all the time.

  111. Dr. Rucha Gore

    Melanoma is malignant neoplasm of melanocytes and their precursor cells. It accounts for 5% of all cutaneous cancer. 30% of cutaneous melanoma arises in the head and the neck region. The most commonly affected intra-oral sites are palate and maxillary gingiva. Since most of the mucosal melanoma are usually asymptomatic in early stages and presents as pigmented patch or a mass the diagnosis is delayed until symptoms of swelling, ulceration, bleeding are noted. Herewith we report a case of intra-oral malignant melanoma in a 30 years old female patient.

  112. Shaveta Jagdevan, Sachin Mehta, Laljee K. Makwana and Pagi, S. L.

    Uterine rupture is a catastrophic complication of pregnancy occurring most commonly during third trimester. Though, uterine rupture in first and second trimesters is rare, spontaneous mid-trimester rupture is even rarer with only four such cases described in English literature. We hereby report an extremely rare case of spontaneous midtrimester uterine rupture due to angular pregnancy. With this case report we intend to emphasize that though angular pregnancy is a rare clinical entity, it should be considered in differential diagnosis of patients presenting with haemoperitoneum in early/mid pregnancy. A knowledge of ultrasonographic features of angular pregnancy can potentially prevent occurence of a catastrophic consequence.

  113. Niranjan Kumar Verma and Alok Kumar Singh

    Glycine 1.5% is used for optimal visualization during hysteroscopy, but it may cause pulmonary oedema. We are reporting a case of severe and life threatening appearance of Operative hysteroscopy intravascular absorption syndrome during hysteroscopy myomectomy under GA in the Gynecology operation theater. Development of pulmonary oedema, metabolic acidosis and Hyponatremia was very fast forcing us to abandon the procedure and shifting the patient to ICU. Patient was however saved with great efforts by mechanical ventilation, correction of metabolic acidosis, Diuretics, fresh blood transfusion, 7-5% soda bicarbonate, correction of hyponatremia by 3% NaCl infusion, broad spectrum antibiotics and other corrective measures as and when required. Patient was discharged on the 14th day with full recovery.

  114. Dr. Debopriya Chatterjee, Dr. Aishwarya Chatterjee and Dr Juhi Bendigari

    Given the profound perturbations in the maternal immune system during pregnancy and the postpartum period, it is not surprising that the clinical and biological features of periodontal infections are affected. Some of the pregnancy-induced immunological modifications in the mother increase her susceptibility to a number of infections, including periodontal disease. It also appears that periodontal infections, at least in some populations, can increase the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. Such outcomes include pre-term birth, preeclampsia, gestational diabetes, delivery of a small for-gestational-age infant, and fetal loss. The purpose of this review is to summarize the literature associated with the relationship between pregnancy and periodontal disease.

  115. Dr. Bhupinder Singh, Dr. Deepkanwar Kaur and Dr. Ambuj chandna

    Maintaining good oral hygiene is a must for the successful outcome of orthodontic treatment with tooth brush as a main aide of cleaning. This study was planned to check plaque controlling and cleaning effectiveness of brushing with conventional tooth brush, orthodontic tooth brush and an electrically operated rotary brush in patients who had fixed orthodontic appliances placed in their mouth. Study included 30 orthodontic patients (18-25yrs.) were divided equally into three groups. Group A subjects were made to brush with conventional tooth brush, Group B with orthodontic tooth brush and Group C with electrical tooth brush respectively. Plaque indices were recorded on each patient at the time period of baseline, 7days and 14days. It was found that in comparison to conventional tooth brush, orthodontic tooth brush and powered brushes performed better for removing plaque with same capacity.

  116. Aher, S. S., Pagar, P. R. and Saudagar, R. B.

    The limited solubility of drugs is a challenging issue for industry, during the development of the solid dosage form. Liquisolid technique is a novel and promising approach to overcome this problem. This technique is an efficient method for formulating water insoluble and poorly water soluble drugs. The liquisolid technique is based upon the dissolving the insoluble drug in the nonvolatile solvent and admixture of drug loaded solutions with appropriate carrier and coating materials to convert into acceptably flowing and compressible powder. The use of non-volatile solvent causes improved wettability and ensures molecular dispersion of drug in the formulation and leads to enhance solubility. Purpose of this study is to develop novel liquisolid technique to enhance the dissolution rate of Budesonide. Liquisolid tablet prepared by using Avicel PH 102, Aerosil 200 and sodium starch glycolate were employed as carrier, coating material and disintegrant respectively. The interaction between drug and excipients in prepared LS compacts were studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Powder X- ray diffraction (PXRD).The prepared LS compacts were evaluated for their flow properties such as bulk density, tapped density, angle of repose, Carr’s compressibility index and Hausner’s ratio. The drug release rates of LS compacts were distinctly higher as compared to directly compressed conventional tablets, which show significant benefit of LS in increasing wetting properties and surface area of drug available for dissolution. LS compact system showed acceptable flowability, Carr’s compressibility index and Hausner’s ratio. The DSC and XRD studies conforms the no significant interaction between the drug and excipients used in LS compacts. From this study it concludes that the LS technique is a promising alternative for improvement of dissolution property of water-insoluble drugs.

  117. Naveed Mohsin

    Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) is a well recognized iatrogenic complication of assisted conception techniques, which uses pharmacological ovarian stimulation during assisted reproductive technology (ART). However, in most cases OHSS is self-limiting and requires supportive management and monitoring while awaiting resolution. In a minority of women undergoing treatment it can result in life-threatening complications such as thrombo-embolic phenomena and multiple organ dysfunctions. The key principles of OHSS management therefore are early recognition and the prompt assessment and treatment. The recent increase in the usage of ART will inevitably result in a rise in the number of cases of OHSS seen in the emergency department (ED), this will give the emergency physician an important role in expediting and optimizing treatment for these patients. Five cases in their early thirties with a history of nausea, vomiting, breathlessness and bloating after ovarian stimulation were enrolled. Cases were confirmed to be suffering from severe OHSS and received supportive management.

  118. Mangalam, P., Balasubramaniyan, R. and Vasuki, V.

    Lymphatic filariasis, caused by Brugia malayi, commonly known as elephantiasis, is a neglected tropical disease. No vaccines are available for the prevention of filarial infections. A number of pathogenic organisms including filarial parasites display specialized proteins on their cell surface to assist in invasion. One of the best characterized is the glycolytic enzyme enolase. Enolase represents a multifunctional protein involved in basic energy metabolism in pathogens. In the present study, gene encoding enolase of B. malayi was isolated, amplified and identified by sequencing. The amplification and sequencing was done using specific primers. The primers were designed based on the complete genome contig sequence of B. malayi to amplify the cDNA of enolase. The full length cDNA of this gene from B. malayi was obtained by overlapping the sequences of both amplification products using BioEdit version. The results showed that the full length cDNA comprised of 1314 bp. The gene encoding enolase from B. malayi (BmEno) was identified by BLAST result. The sequence of the B. malayi enolase was found to be identical to that of the B. malayi partial coding sequences. The complete coding sequence of B. malayi enolase was submitted to GenBank and accession number (KF830990.1) was obtained. Phylogenetic analysis of B. malayi enolase revealed the occurrence of homology with closely related filarial parasites. Further studies are being carried out to clone and express the enolase gene in the expression vector to study its enzyme activity for therapeutic potential.

  119. Dr. Roopa Patil, Dr. Sonal Joshi, Dr. Neha Dhaded and Dr. Shantesh, M

    Fractured anterior tooth with a fracture line extending subgingivally poses multiple problems to clinicians. Since it requires exposure of sound tooth structure to achieve proper finish line for restoration, it is necessary to elevate the fracture line above the epithelial attachment. Orthodontic forced eruption is suitable approach for extrusion of tooth, without disturbing esthetics, in cases where fracture line is extending below gingiva or alvelor bone crest. Conventional orthodontic appliance is unappealing due to brackets. This case report describes a novel approach to establish not only long term restorative success but also immediate dental esthetics, using modified cast post with hook and labial acrylic veneer attached to it so that the patient is able to smile with confidence during course of treatment.

  120. Mansi Chandna, Rajni Bharti and Atul Gupta

    Castleman’s disease (CD) is an uncommon lymphoproliferative disorder typically presenting as ‘Mediastinal’ lymph node swelling. Clinical presentation can range from asymptomatic to generalised lymphadenopathy and hepatosplenomegaly. Two histological variants are hyaline vascular type and plasma cell type. Hyaline vascular type CD presents as unicentric mass mimicking various infectious and malignant causes of lymphadenopathy. Cytological features vary depending upon the extent of the lesion, thus, fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is not always conclusive and histopathology is required to reach a definitive diagnosis. Here we present a case of unicentric castleman’s disease (UCD) diagnosed on FNAC with histological correlation.

  121. Dr. Prem Bhushan, Dr. Meena A. Aras, Dr. Vidya Chitre and Dr. Kennedy Mascarenhas

    Eyes are one of the important senses of our body. Damage to the eyes can severely affect patient functioning, his psychology and overall personality. It is not always possible to repair and provide complete functioning, but reconstruction should always be attempted. Though a routine standard procedure has been provided in reconstruction of an ocular prosthesis, ideal cases scenarios are rare and require certain modifications. Through this article we are going to discuss a simpler way of making an ocular prosthesis for a complicated case using basic concepts of dentistry and an attempt to save on laboratory time.

  122. Sai Pavithra and Dr. Shabeena Taj

    Aim: The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of impacted maxillary and mandibular canine Objective: The objective is to investigate for the incidence of maxillary and mandibular canine impaction in patients reporting to orthodontic treatment. Material and method: A total of 100 patients in the age range of 13-40 yrs, who visited for orthodontic treatment. The canine impaction was diagnosed from the Orthopantomogram (OPG ).The criterion for assessing the radiographic favorability of maxillary canine impaction for orthodontic traction was angulations of impacted canine to the midline. Result: A total of 100 patients were examined, out of which 7 patients has canine impaction. single canine impaction was more prevalent than the multiple canine impaction . Conclusion: The prevalence of maxillary canine impaction was found to be higher than the mandibular canine canine impaction.

  123. Nausrat Ali Bhat, Reyaz A Tasleem, Syed Imtiyaz Hussain, Ruby Reshi, Aejaz Amin Zargar and Farooq Sideeq

    Background: Lung cancer is currently the most frequently diagnosed major cancer in the world and the most common cause of cancer mortality worldwide. It comprises about 17% of the total new cancer cases in males and 23% of the total cancer deaths. The incidence is increasing dramatically in women and lung cancer has surpassed breast cancer as a leading cause of cancer death in women. To combat the disease successfully, lung cancer should be diagnosed at earliest possible stage preferably before the lesion has reached the stage of a visible and palpable tumor. Aim: To study the role of bronchial biopsies in diagnosis of different lung lesions, study the correlation between various histopathological lesions of lung with age and sex of patients and to find correlation between clinical presentation and nature of lung lesions. Materials and Methods: Two year prospective study conducted in the Department of Pathology Government Medical college Srinagar, from July 2013 to August2015.The study was conducted on 130 bronchial biopsies including transbronchial biopsies (TBB)). The biopsies so obtained have been fixed in 10% buffered formalin. And the specimen of tissue have been processed, then sections of 4-5 micron thickness have been prepared and stained with routine hematoxylin and eosin. Results: In our study conducted on 130 bronchial biopsies(including TBB), the results are summarized as under ,Out of a total of 130 clinically suspected cases of lung cancer tumor was found in 83 cases(83/130) by biopsy. The overall mean age of patients of primary lung cancer was 63.12 years with maximum number of cases seen between 61-70years.The mean age for men was 62.23 years and for females, it was 59.34 years. The peak incidence of the disease was seen in age group of 61-70 years which constituted 32.03% percent of all cases. Minimum age was 35year old male diagnosed as well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma, maximum age seen was 90 years. Males were more common affected by lung tumors than females with a male to female ratio was 1.88:1.Tumor was found in the right side of lung in 58 cases (69.87%) and in the left side of lung in 25 cases (30.12%). The smoker to non-smoker ratio was 1.4:1.The two main histological sub-types of lung cancer among smokers was squamous cell carcinoma (65.06%) and Adenocarcinoma (19.27%). Diagnostic yield for endobronchial biopsy was 63.84% (83/130cases), Squamous cell carcinoma (65.25%) and small cell carcinoma (12.4%) were more associated with endoscopically visible lesions than other cell types. Adenocarcinoma and (54%) and large cell carcinoma (57% were more associated with peripheral lesions. Squamous cell carcinoma, Adenocarcinoma, small cell carcinoma are more common in males whereas Pleomorphic anaplastic carcinoma was seen exclusively in females. Conclusion: The bronchial biopsies permits exact diagnosis of specific entity histologically including infectious pathology at earliest stage. Thus in the present study yield of diagnosis was highest with the bronchoscopic biopsies and in maximum number of cases, specific histopathological diagnosis was made on biopsies only.

  124. Balbir S Deswal and Tarun Kumar

    Background: Poorly nourished child grows less rapidly during first 6 years of age. In India, around 43% of under five children were underweight. Child protein energy malnutrition reflects a number of intermediately processes such as household access to food, access to health service and caring practices. the present study was undertaken to assess prevalence of malnutrition as well asthe nutritional status of children below six years’ age group and to explore most probable risk factors influencing malnutrition. Methods: The study was a community based cross-sectional study carried out in 500 randomly selected households in a slum area of Gurgaon among the children below 6 years of age using pretested Performa which contained details regarding socio-demographic, nutritional conditions and utilization of health care services. Nutritional status was assessed by Physical examination, anthropometric measurement, haemoglobin & parasitological (stool) tests. Nutritional grading was done according to by physical and anthropometric examination of child using Indian Academy of Pediatrics (IAP) classification and supplemented by WHO growth chart. Data was entered in the MS Excel sheet and analyzed using Epi info Ver 7. Results: During survey acute illness detected among 0.25% children and chronic illness prevalence was 25%. Prevalence of malnutrition was found to be 43.86% (37.73% among males, 50.0 % among females). Clinical signs of nutritional deficiency were detected among 31.48 % of children. Common types of nutrition deficiency were anemia, PEM, and vitamin A & B complex deficiencies. Main reasons of malnutrition were attributed to female sex, poor literacy of parents, low socioeconomic status, higher No. siblings and large family, recurrent diarrhea and other infections, prolonged breast feeding with delayed introduction of supplements particularly semisolid and poor quality of supplements. Intestinal parasite detected among 38.43% of children, commonest parasite being giardia, as cariasis & thread worms. Existing health services utilized in 30.72% of total illness. This was identified not due to lack of knowledge but other domestic problems. Conclusion: Prevalence of malnutrition was attributed to poor living conditions, poor literacy status of parents, higher No. of siblings, poor utilization of health services, poor nutritional services of children and faulty breast feeding and weaning practices in the family. Public health specialists should plan interventions focusing on these issues.

  125. Dr. Tejaswin Polepalle, Dr. Moogala Srinivas, Dr. Chaitanya Adurty and Dr. Sindhuri Sirigadha

    Introduction: Traditional surgical techniques both resective and regenerative establish periodontal health addressing the primary goal of pocket elimination. Restoration of lost periodontal tissues rather than regeneration is being accomplished with untoward side effects which led to the advent of a newer non-invasive Laser assisted new attachment procedure protocol challenging the old paradigm of periodontal healing in the absence of guided tissue regeneration barriers(GTR) or bone grafting materials. Materials and Methods: A female patient reported to the out patient department of periodontics, sibar institute of dental sciences with chief complaint of mobile teeth in posterior region and on intra oral examination probing pocket depths of 9-10mm were observed at 16,26,36,46. The details about the various treatment options available and their benefits and risks had been explained to the patient and it was decided to provide Laser assisted new attachment procedure. The initial step of Laser assisted new attachement protocol is bone sounding around each tooth with administration of local anesthesia to determine areas of osseous defects that cannot be seen radiographically. The first pass of Laser, termed troughing was passed at wavelength of 890 nm, 2 Watts, 150millisecs, around each tooth to remove diseased epithelium by forming a mini-flap followed by removal of calculus on root surface using piezoscalers. The further application of Lasers was done to enhance the ability to form a fibrin clot to close the mini-flap and to disinfect site again Conclusion: Radiographic evidence of bone regeneration with attachment gain is observed postoperatively after 24 months.

  126. Priyadarsini, P., Vivek, N., Saravanan, C., Karthik, R., Prasanthi, G. and Jones, S.

    Introduction: In present day scenario, maxillofacial trauma plays a dominant role in road traffic accidents. The purpose of this study is to enhance our understanding of the epidemiology and trauma patterns of mid-face injuries, to come up with protocols that can ensure a more efficient management of trauma patients, implement programs to increase public awareness regarding road safety rules and ultimately, aim to reduce the incidence of maxillofacial trauma in RTA. Methods: This is a retrospective 2-year study, in which the nature of trauma patterns of mid-face fractures were analyzed taking into consideration parameters such as age, sex, nature of injury and any associated head injury. Results: The total number of patients analyzed with mid-face fractures for 2 years was 420. Males were more prone to RTA. Number of males affected was 378 and females affected were 42. There was a predominance of trauma in 2nd to 3rd decade of life with a frequency of 178 (42.4%). Based on the nature of injury, RTA was the chief cause of mid-face fractures in 411 (97.9%) patients. Incidence of head injury was seen in 126 (30%). RTA was the most common cause of mid-face fractures. Young males were more prone to trauma from RTA. One mortality was recorded in patients with associated head injury.

  127. Jerusha Santa Packyanathan and Dr. M. S. Thenmozhi

    Objective: To review the literature for evidence based understanding of the clinical presentation, pathogenesis and treatment of the phantom limb syndrome. Background: Phantom limb pain (PLP) refers to the sensation of pain in the missing part of the amputated limb. It usually manifests as a burning sensation, a gripe and may vary in both intensity and frequency. It is associated with stump pain (SP) and phantom limb sensation (PLS). The incidence of this is very high, among patients who have undergone any amputation. The reason for this phenomenon is not fully understood and various hypothesis have been emerging since its original discovery. It has the potential to worsen the quality of life of the amputees. There are several methods of treatment, but their efficiency varies from patient to patient. Design: We conducted a systematic review of original research papers investigating the phantom limb syndrome, its cause and treatment and quality of life. Literature was sourced from articles and reviews in PubMed and Google scholar. Results and Conclusions: The phantom phenomenon is a chronic post-surgical pain with high incidence and profoundly affects the quality of life in amputees. Its treatment poses a huge challenge as the potential of the efficacy of treatment varies from person to person. Larger studies are required to investigate this phenomenon, both in terms of pathogenesis and effective treatment as it has a high morbidity.

  128. Dr. Sharvari T. Tawale, Dr. Neelima Rajhans, Dr. Supriya S. Mhaske, Dr. Nilkanth Mhaske, Dr. Nikesh Moolya and Dr. Shailesh D. Kumbhare

    Background: The purpose of the study is to estimate the knowledge, attitude and practice of the oral hygiene, and dental treatment, and its correlation with everyday oral hygiene practices among the health care professionals of Ahmednagar, Maharashtra. Methods: A cross sectional survey was conducted on 300 health care professionals. Two hundred health professionals were asked to answer a questionnaire containing 20questions.Data once collected was analysed. Results: 14% health professionals visited the dentist once in a year. Dental caries followed by dental pain was the main cause for making dental appointments.42%obtained information on oral hygiene practices directly from the dentist followed by 36 % who obtained it from mass media.48%brushed their teeth twice daily.48% used soft bristle tooth brush. 51 % had a brushing time of 1-3 min. 54% did not use any other oral hygiene aid .58% had never got scaling done.28% frequently had complains regarding sensitivity. Only 20% bought toothpaste for sensitivity.24% felt that scaling caused loss of enamel. Conclusion: The knowledge, attitude, and awareness of oral hygiene practices and dental treatment in health care professionals of Ahmednagar district is good. Though there is need of more awareness and knowledge regarding other oral hygiene practices and aids.

  129. Pallavi Indurkar, Roshani Shrivastava, Yasmeen Siddiqui, Prabhakar Singh, Manoj Indurkar and Amita Singh

    Aims and Objectives: The aim of study is to evaluate the prevalence and clinical presentation of congenital preauricular sinus (PAS) and to determine its association with other congenital abnormalities. Methods: This is an observational study conducted in patients attending to OPD of ENT department. All patients with clinical diagnosis of pre-auricular sinus were enrolled after taking written informed consent and detail histories of presenting complaints were taken. Otologic, nose, throat and full general examinations were done to rule out the other associated congenital anomalies. Results: A total 36276 patients were enrolled during the study period, of these 23 (0.06%) subjects were presented with pre-auricular sinus with some associated symptoms. 52.17% of these were belong to11-20 age group. 39.13% patients were presented with symptoms. Prevalence of PAS in patients attending OPD was 1:1656. Unilateral PAS was found in 73.91%; of this right side occurs more frequently (52.94%). Swelling in front of the ear and sinus discharge is (22.22%) most common complaint. Conclusion: Preauricular sinuses (ear pits) are common congenital abnormalities. They can occur either side or bilateral but most frequently present on the right side ear. Most of cases were asymptomatic, but some may become infected; most commonly with gram-positive bacteria which can responsible for recurrent infection and purulent discharge.

  130. Jerusha Santa Packyanathan and Dr. S. Gowri Sethu

    Objective: To review the literature for evidence based understanding of mirror neurons, its discovery, and significance in social cognition. Background: Mirror neurons are a type of brain cell that respond when we perform an action and when we witness someone else perform the same action. They possess the fascinating property of being activated by the performance as well as the observation of specific motor actions. It is widely assumed that mirror neurons were designed by evolution to enable action understanding. That is, the neuron "mirrors" the behavior of the other, as though the observer was acting. It was first discovered in the ventral premotor cortex (area 5) of the monkey (Rhesus macaque). Recent research has discovered these neurons invarious parts of the human brain including the somatosensory cortex. These areas are thought to make the observer feel what it’s like to move in the observed manner. Mirror neurons play an important role in understanding the actions of other people, and for learning new skills by imitation. It is believed to play a role in various aspects of cognition, observed action, mind skills, and language abilities. Design: A systematic review of original research papers investigating mirror neuron systems in humans and its effect in social cognition like imitation, language, emotion, empathy and learning was conducted. Literature was sourced from articles and reviews in PubMed. Results and Conclusions: Mirror neurons play a significant role in intentional thought, subsequent action and interpretation in a person as well as that of others. Social interaction may have a neuroscientific basis although more research is needed to evaluate the underlying mechanisms involved.

  131. Ahmad Al Nashar

    Objective: The aim of this work was to review the literature about The role of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells BMSCs in bone healing in cranio-maxillofacial bone defects. Design: Using related key words, electronic search of English-language papers was conducted on PubMed data-bases in Mars/2016. Studies that assessed the use of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells BMSCs in bone regeneration in cranio-maxillofacial bone defects in human or animal models were included. The retrieved articles were thoroughly reviewed according to the in vivo experimental model, the cell carrier, the defect type, the method of evaluating and the obtained results. Results: A total of 24 articles were matched with the inclusion criteria of this study. Six articles were performed on rats, six on rabbits, six on dogs, two on pigs and four on human Conclusion: According to this review, the majority of the evaluated studies demonstrated positive results regarding the efficiency of bone marrow stem cells for in vivo bone regenerating.

  132. Dr. Vishal Dnyandeorao Solanke, Dr. Sangeeta Pawar, Dr. Shubhangikhandekar, Dr. Sonali Deshmukh, Dr. Manoj Likhitkar and Dr. Shivani Shokeen

    Background: Oral cancer is currently the most frequent cause of cancer-related deaths among Indian men, which is usually preceded by oral potentially malignant conditions (OPC) like leukoplakia and/or oral submucous fibrosis. The idea of screening and following patients with malignancy by blood-based tests is appealing from several points of view including its ease, economic advantage, non-invasiveness and possibility of repeated sampling.the purpose of the present study is to estimate serum levels of sialic acid, in the oralpotentially malignant conditions (OPC) along with the oral cancer patients and in healthy control group to evaluate their role in diagnosis and prognosis of oral cancer. Aim: To compare and correlate serum level of total sialic acid (TSA) and lipid bound sialic acid (LSA) in oral Squamous cell carcinoma and potentially malignant condition with normal healthy subjects. Methods: Total sialic acid (TSA) and Lipid bound sialic acid (LSA) determination was carried out in patients included in study along with 30 healthy individuals without any systemic disease. Total sialic acid (TSA) determination was carried out using the Thiobarbituric acid method. 10Lipid bound sialic acid (LSA) determination was carried out using method described by Katopodis and coworkers.11 Clinical stage of the disease was determined as per American Joint Committee of Cancer (AJCC) norms.60Patients with Oral submucous fibrosis were included in the study as a potentially malignant condition and graded according to classification given by Khanna JN and Andrade NN (1995) 61 Result: The increase in TSA and LSA in oral Squamous cell carcinoma patients(Group III) patients were statistically significant compared with control as well as with the patients with (Group II) oral submucous fibrosis (p<0.001). The increase in TSA and LSA were not significant in oral submucous fibrosis when compared with controls. Conclusion: A significant increase in serum TSA & LSA levels in OSMF and oral cancer as compared to control group was noticed.

  133. Dr. Shivani Shokeen, Dr. Ipseeta Menon, Dr. Aruna, D. S., Dr. Richa Arora, Dr. Anubhav Sharma and Dr. Avnish Singh

    Introduction: Oral health is essential for general health and well-being throughout life and is a marker for overall health status. It is associated with the development of healthy personality and perception that enables an individual to speak, eat and socialize without active disease, discomfort or embarrassment. Aim: To determine association of dental caries prevalence and oral hygiene indicators among 12 and 15 years old school going children using ICDAS II. Material and methods: The data was recorded by investigator in pre-designed proforma. The proforma was divided into 2 parts. First part covers general information that comprise of demographic variables and socio-economic status to be filled by parents/guardians/caregivers. Second part comprised of questions regarding oral hygiene practices, dental behavioural indicators such as past dental care received to be filled by examiner through structured interview method . Plaque level was assessed by Patient Hygiene Performance (PHP) index. Result: The results of the present study showed that most of students 11.2% 12 years old were affected by non-cavitated surface with underlying dark shadow from dentin, followed by distinct cavity with visible dentin 10.8%, extensive distinct cavity 7%. Among 15 years most of students were affected by 11.2% distinct cavity with visible dentin, followed by 10% non-cavitated surface with underlying dark shadow from dentin, extensive distinct cavity 4.6%. Conclusion: It was concluded that Dental caries showed significant association with age, gender, level of education, occupation, frequency of tooth cleaning, frequency of changing toothbrush, time of tooth cleaning, tongue cleaning, past dental visit, duration of dental visit and dental care received during dental visit and also that the ICDAS II showed significant association with PHP index.

  134. Babu Lal Bansiwal, Maneesha Jelia, Surendra Kumar, Mukesh Kalera and Kuldeep Bijaraniya

    Pleural effusion is excess fluid that accumulates between the two pleural layers, the fluid-filled space that surrounds the lungs. Excessive amounts of such fluid can impair breathing by limiting the expansion of the lungs during ventilation. This is an open label, comparative, analytical interventional and prospective study done in the Department of Respiratory Medicine, Government Medical College Hospital, Kota during period Oct. 2013 to Sept. 2014. On the basis of history, clinical examination and various investigation 100 study cases of pleural effusion were taken from Respiratory medicine ward. The aim of study to evaluate the role of ultrasonography in diagnosis of pleural effusion and its comparison to chest radiography. In our study, we were able to diagnose pleural effusion in 63 patients. Out of these cases; 47 (75%) cases had effusion in right sided, 14 (22%) had left sided while 2 (4%) had bilateral effusion. The majority of cases had minimal effusion occupying less than 1/3rd of hemi thorax. USG diagnosed 96 cases of pleural effusion; 65 (68%) cases had right sided pleural effusion, 22 (23%) had left sided effusion and 9 (10%) were bilateral effusion. An analysis of data obtained, we concluded that chest radiograph had a sensitivity of 66%, specificity 81%, while USG had a sensitivity of 96%, specificity 100% and diagnostic accuracy of 100%. Thus ultrasonography is superior in diagnosis of pleural effusion by detecting 33 extra cases.

  135. Aggarwal Isha and Wadhawan Manu

    The objectives of orthodontic therapy are to establish a good occlusion, enhance the health of the periodontium, and improve dental and facial esthetics. Although tooth contact is important, the interrelationship between orthodontics, periodontics, and esthetics, should not be deemphasized. The common unaesthetic situations that may develop during orthodontic treatment are the gummy smile, gingival margin discrepancies, and the missing papilla. This article describes these situations dusring orthodontic treatment and how to overcome them.

  136. Sathya, P. and Priyanka Shah

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the affection of grip strength in cricketers who are having soft tissue injury of shoulder. Method: A cross sectional survey was carried out on 80 cricketers, between 17-19 years of age. They were divided into two groups out of which group 1 had 40 cricket players without any soft tissue injury of shoulder and group 2 had 40 cricket players who had soft tissue shoulder injury on the dominant side and had resumed playing cricket. The grip strength is evaluated using hydraulic hand dynamometer on dominant and non-dominant hand in both the groups. Results: Grip strength of group 1 players on the dominant hand was 35.58 and the grip strength of players in (group 2) on the dominant hand was 29.78. Grip strength of players in (group 1) on the non-dominant hand was 34.72 and the grip strength of players in (group2) on the non-dominant hand was 29.19A decrease in the grip strength on the dominant and non-dominant hand was found in (group 2) which had cricket players with soft tissue injury of shoulder on the dominant side as compared to group 1. Conclusion: A reduction in grip strength is found on the dominant hand and non-dominant hand, in cricket players who had soft tissue shoulder injury on the dominant side.

  137. Chiramana Sandeep, Katragadda Mythili, Muvva Suresh Babu, Anne Gopinadh, Kadiyala Krishna Kishore, Jyothula Ravi Rakesh Dev, Srujana Zakkula, Phani Krishna, G. and Narendra Kedasi

    Aim & Objectives: To determine the tensile bond strength of different tray adhesives which were allowed to dry for various intervals of time between auto polymerizing resin and polyvinylsiloxane impression material. Materials and Methods: A total of 56 samples were prepared for this study. Out of the total 56 samples, a single coat of Coltene tray adhesive and Medicept tray adhesive was applied for 28 samples each, following which tray adhesive was allowed to dry for four different time intervals. (0 min, 20 min, 40 min, 60 min). Results: The results were analyzed using ANOVA one way test, Scheffe test and unpaired ‘t’ test. Results showed that a minimum of 20 minutes drying time is necessary for acceptable bond strength. Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, it can be concluded that a minimum of 20 minutes drying time is necessary for acceptable bond strength. Coltene tray adhesive showed superior resultsthan with Medicept tray adhesive.

  138. Dr. Mydhili Mungara, Dr. Rajmohan, Dr. Prabu, D., Dr. Sunayana Manipal and Dr. Selva Kumar, C.

    Introduction: Diabetes has a high prevalence rate in India. More than 62 million diabetic individuals were currently diagnosed with diabetes. Most often patients with diabetes go undiagnosed. This study was undertaken to screen patients for diabetes mellitus using gingival crevicular blood during dental procedures. Objective: Objectives are to assess and compare the glucose levels in the gingival crevicular blood, Finger capillary, and intravenous blood. Materials and Methods: The study involved 30 diabetics and 30 non-diabetic patients in the age group of 20 to 80 years of either sex with a positive sign of bleeding on probing. Glucometer has been used to measure blood glucose measurements from the samples of gingival crevicular blood (GCB) and finger prick(FP). Intravenous blood (IVB) was collected for glucose level measurement in a laboratory glucose analyzer. Results: Among diabetics, GCB and IVB show moderate positive correlation (0.71) and strong positive correlation between FP and IVB (0.93). Among Non-diabetics, moderate positive correlation observed between FP and IVB (0.67) and GCB and IVB(0.76). Conclusion: The data from this study shows that among diabetic patients FP can be taken as a strong tool for glucometric analysis. Whereas among non-diabetic patients GCB can be considered as good source of blood for glucometric analysis. In diabetics, GCB can be taken as a source for glucometric analysis but with caution as GCB and IVB showed moderate positive correlation.

  139. Dr. Cheena Singh and Dr. Kamal Sagar

    Mucocele is a clinical term that describes swelling caused by accumulation of saliva at site of a traumatized or obstructed minor salivary gland duct. It is basically a pseudocyst which can be classified as extarvasation and retention type. Mucocele can affect the general population, but most commonly young patients (20-30 years old). Clinically they consist of a soft, bluish and transparent cystic swelling which normally resolves spontaneously. The most common location of the extravasation mucocele is the lower lip. Although diagnosis of mucocle is challenging so care should be taken while diagnosis. Treatment frequently involves surgical removal. However it can also be treated by micro marsupialization, cryosurgery, steroid injections and CO2 laser. Here, we will discuss the 2 reported cases of mucoceles treated surgically and review of literature.

  140. Kaushik Mayank, Singh Rajwinder and Dalal Ashish

    Darier's disease is characterised by skin colored, yellow brown or brown firm rough papules in the seborrhoeic rich areas of scalp, face and trunk. The disorder can also present with a myriad of unusually rare cutaneous lesions like small leukodermic macules. We present such a case of darier’s disease with hypopigmented maculopapular lesions because of the rarity of its occurrence.

  141. Massimiliano Gollin, Luca Beratto and Federico Abate Daga

    Objectives: To determinate the duration of the effects caused by Intermittent Static Stretching (ISS) on muscle elongation. Background: Flexibility training is considered an essential physical quality in sport competition, injuries prevention and adapted physically activity. However, there is little information about the duration of the effects provoked by a stretching protocol on muscles-tendon unit, even if elongation exercises are very common in all physical activities. Methods: Eighteen fitness active participants aged 20-30 years were recruited for this study and casually assigned to an Experimental Group (EG) or a Control Group (CG). Participants were tested using the sit and reach test. EG used the sit and reach protocol also as experimental exercise. Test were taken for both groups at 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 30, 45, 60, 60, 120 minutes, after 4, 24, 48, 72 hours and the end 7 days after the last stretching set (EG) or basal condition measurement (CG). Results: Friedman and Dunn’s Post Hoc tests were used for statistical analysis. Results showed in EG increasing in basal R.O.M. (p< 0,001, +21%). In addition, this result is maintained for 48 hours. In the same group statistically significant decrease of gained ROM was identified at 72 hours (p<0,001, -8%) and 7 days (p<0,001, 10%) after the last ISS set Instead, no significant differences were found in CG. Conclusion: The results of this study showed the duration of ISS stretching effects, giving the possibility to plan weekly the flexibility training during a microcycle.

  142. Nada M. El Rewainy, Amr M. Abdallah, Abdel Fattah Hammouda and Nihal A. Leheta

    Introduction: The development of new endodontic technology is aimed at increasing ease and practicality. However, the basic principles of disinfection should also be considered because the presence of residual necrotic tissues and bacteria in the root canal has a direct effect on the outcome of endodontic therapy. Aim of the study: To evaluate the effect of two rotary systems versus manual instrumentation on the reduction of Enterococcus faecalis count in the root canal. Materials and Methods: Forty extracted mandibular premolars with single canals were inoculated with Enterococcus faecalis suspension (ATCC 29212). Specimens were divided according to the instrumentation technique into four parallel groups (n=10). Group I: ProTaper Next, Group II: One Shape Apical, Group III: K-Flexofiles and Group IV: No instrumentation (control group). Irrigation was performed using sterile saline solution. Bacterial samples were taken before, immediately after and one week after instrumentation. The samples were cultured on blood agar plates, incubated and the colony forming units were counted. Data was collected and then statistically analyzed. Results: Significant bacterial reduction was observed in Groups I, II and III compared to the control group. Groups I, II and III also showed significant reduction in the bacterial count in immediate and final samples compared to the initial samples. No significant difference was found between the three groups immediately after instrumentation. However, Group I showed significantly higher bacterial reduction one week after instrumentation, compared to the initial sample and the other three groups. Conclusions: All instrumentation techniques were equally significantly effective in reducing intracanal E. faecalis count immediately after instrumentation. After one week, bacterial growth was observed in all the groups; however, ProTaper Next significantly demonstrated the least amount of bacterial growth compared to One Shape Apical and K-Flexofiles.

  143. Harpreet Kaur Bajwa, Nidhi Sagar, Mamta and Jasbir Kaur

    Prolonged labour is a leading cause of death among mothers and newborns in developing countries. Early detection of abnormal progress and prevention of prolonged labour cansignificantly improve the outcome of labour. The partograph is a simple chart for recording information about progress of labour. A descriptive study was carried out to assess the knowledge, attitude and practices regarding partograph among 60 staff nurses selected by convenience sampling technique, working in Labour ward of selected hospitals of district Ludhiana, Punjab. A structured questionnaire for knowledge, Likert scale for attitude and checklist for practices regarding partograph. More than half of staff nurses (55%) had good knowledge, majority (90%) had positive attitude whereas only 18.3% had practiced partograph. The association of knowledge with attitude ( p≤ 0.01) and practices (p<0.05) regarding partograph among staff nurses was found to highly significant with a weak positive relationship between knowledge and attitude (r= 0.455; p=0.000) whereas a strong positive relationship between knowledge and practices( r= 0.701; p= 0.016). A statistically significant association of knowledge and attitude with education was found and the association of attitude with experience in labour ward and number of deliveries conducted was also found to be significant.

  144. Petrusevska, A., Spasovski, M., Zisovska, E. and Isjanovska, R.

    Background: Considerable amount of research has been done on the evaluation and improvement of the quality of health care delivery in the past 30 years. It seems likely that there will never be a solitary criterion by which to measure the quality of patient care One of the first steps to build quality in a healthcare organization is to evaluate the perceptions of the medical personell about quality issues. This would be the bases upon which interventions are to be made in order to reach the quality golas set by the organizations in accordance with the requirements of the healthcare sistem in which services are delivered. Objective: This study aims at evaluating the perceptions of the medical personel in healthcare organizations, concerning quality issues in a period just before starting national accreditation in hospitals in R. Makedonia and to interconnect certain variables regarding quality with the implementation of the accreditation process to be. Methods: A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted, performed in healthcare organizations in R. Makedonia. The study was conducted in 17 healthcare organizations and, 402 healthcare givers took part in the survey. The tool for the study was a questionnaire consisting of 4 questions of a closed type. Results: In our study the major percent of the respondants, agree that members of the staff are involved in designing, implementing and evaluating of quality improvement plans. Also, healthcare staff according to their answers (53,8% ) strongly agree that their organisation has set organizational improvement goals. The answers from the respondants regarding the question if individuals and teams that make significant contributions to quality improvement are effectivly rewarded are evenly distribted, that is unconclusive, between respondants that agree, do not agree and are without opinion Majority of the respondants, judging by their answers recognize and accept elements of quality as the basis for implementing accreditation Conclusion: These attitudes show the awareness of the healthcre professionals that quality and accreditation stand side by side on the road to achieving positive outcomes in terms of operating a healthcare

  145. Dr. Yashmeet Kaur, Dr. Tejinder Kaur, Dr. Jasmine Kaur and Dr. Sarfaraz Padda

    Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor AOT is a relatively uncommon, benign tumor accounting for 2.2-13% of all odontogenic tumors. It presents in three clinicopathological variants as: Follicular, Extrafollicular and Peripheral type. We present clinical features, radiological evaluation and treatmentof two rare cases of extrafollicular variant of AOT who reported to the department of oral and maxillofacial surgery.

  146. Ahmad Al Nashar

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the marginal bone loss around immediate dental implants with synthetic Hydroxyapatite graft. Materials and Methods: Twenty- four implants in the premolar area of maxilla in 15 patients were included in this study. 12 implants placed immediately after extraction with synthetic hydroxyapatite graft (group I) and 12 without using hydroxyapatite graft served as control (group II). Implant success, plaque index PI, and bleeding index BI, and marginal bone loss MBL were evaluated. Results: Complete soft tissue healing had occurred in all patients and all the implants were successfully osseointegrated over 18 months. The results of the present study showed that at 18 months the mean values of MBL were 1.30±0.21mm at control site and 0.68±0.13mm at the test site, there were no statistical differences between the test and control group regarding, BI, PI, while there was statistical differences between the test and control regarding MBL through follow- up periods. Conclusions: Using synthetic hydroxyapatite graft with immediate placement of dental implants into Fresh Extraction sockets significantly reduces marginal bone loss around the implants.

  147. Kundan, Aman Kumar and Ajit Bahadur Singh

    Background: During laparoscopic cholecystectomy, gallbladder perforation with leakage of bile and/or gallstones into the abdominal cavity occurs frequently while gallbladder is being dissected from liver bed or while extracting it through the port site. In this retrospective study we have studied the case files of the patients who underwent laproscopic cholecystectomy and had intraoperative gallbladder perforation and had studied its effect on outcome of the surgery. Material & method: This is a retrospective done at patna medical college and hospital in January 2016 in which the patients records of 310 patients of laproscopic cholecystectomy from January 2015 to December 2015 were studied. The incidence of perforation, duration of operation and the post-operative complications were noted and the data obtained was analysed Result: In 310 patient , only 16 (5.17%) patients had gallbladder perforation. The perforation was more common during dissection from liver bed. The mean duration of surgery in perforated cases were 65 min compared to 50 mins in patients without perforation. Mean duration of stay in hospital was 56 hrs in patients with perforation while it was 22 hrs in patients without perforation. Conclusion: Intraoperative Gallbladder perforation does not lead to any other adverse complications.

  148. Jagan Mohan Reddy, K., Vishnu, S., Monappa A Naik and Sharath K Rao

    Introduction: Posterior dislocation of the elbow joint with fracture of both the radial head and coronoid process, the so called ‘terrible triad’, is a complex and difficult-to-treat injury. We present a rare case of Bilateral terrible triad of elbow associated with left peri-lunate dislocation and right lunate dislocation never reported in the literature. Case report: A 38 year old male presented to our hospital after a road traffic accident with fall on outstretched hand, complaining of pain in both elbows and wrist. There were no external injuries at the time of presentation. On clinical examination, there was instability of both elbows. There was swelling over both elbows and wrists. No neurovascular deficit noted. Radiological examination revealed terrible triad of both elbows, left trans-scaphoid peri-lunate dislocation with right lunate dislocation. Confirmed with CT scan. Under sedation, closed reduction tried. Right lunate reduced and was stable. Left lunate and both elbows were irreducible. So patient was posted for surgical management under GA with a single posterior incision. Patient was started on Tablet Indomethacin 25mg TID for 3 weeks. After 3 weeks, K-wires of left wrist removed, wrist and elbow mobilization started. After 6 months of follow up, patient has 20-1000 elbow range of motion with 0-70 0 pronation and supination. Patient is able to do all his daily routine activities without any difficulty. Conclusion: Terrible triad of elbow is one of the difficult to deal with injuries around elbow. CT scan is must to understand the pattern of injury. Meticulous repair of bony-capsular complex gives good results and prevent instability.

  149. Onila Nongmaithem

    Intestinal coccidian infection is a major health problem in a developing country like India, having the largest number of people living with HIV in the world. This study includes 80 stool samples from AIDS patients with diarrhoea attending St. John medical college and hospital, Bangalore. Cryptosporidium species and Isospora species oocysts were detected using modified acid fast stain and rapid saffranin method. This was done in stool samples before and after concentration. Cryptosporidium species oocyst (2.5%) was detected in the stool samples stain with modified acid fast stain before stool concentration. An additional Cryptosporidium species oocyst (18.75%) was detected following stool concentration. Isospora species oocyst (11.25%) was detected following formalin ether concentration technique. Of the Cryptosporidium oocyst (3.7%) detected by the modified acid fast stain was also seen using the rapid saffranin method following stool concentration method. Cyclospora oocysts were not detected. Both modified acid fast stain and rapid saffranin method are useful in demonstrating oocysts of Cryptosporidium species and Isospora species. Stool concentration improved detection of oocysts.

  150. Dr. Prashant Shukla, Dr. Anita Gupta and Dr. Anjleen Kaur

    Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease. The worldwide of persons afflicted with the disease is increasing. The incidence of the disease has increased manifold particularly in the South- East Asian Region. Although lifestyle modification and pharmacotherapy is particularly important in the management of the disease, compliance of the patient is often compromised owing to the chronic nature of the disease. This is where the role of technology comes into being. Technology, if used judiciously, can be of great benefits in the management of the disease. Many of these tools are still in the clinical trials or in the conceptual phase. But these tools hold great potential in shaping the future course of management of the disease.

  151. Dr. Himsweta Srivastava, Dr. Sneha Shree, Dr. Sneha Shree and Dr. Lipi Sharma

    Renal artery aneurysm accounts for 1% of all aneurysms. Pregnancy is a predisposing condition for aneurysm formation and rupture. Our aim is to reinforce the presence of this rare condition as a cause of hypovolemic shock in pregnancy. With this aim, we present a case of a female who presented to us with this rare entity. The diagnosis of renal artery aneurysm during pregnancy remains elusive due to its rare occurrence and non-specific presentation. A high degree of vigilance and prompt treatment is required to salvage the lives of both mother and fetus. KEY MESSAGE: The diagnosis of renal artery aneurysm during pregnancy remains elusive due to its rare occurrence and non-specific presentation. Our aim is to reinforce the presence of this rare condition as a cause of hypovolemic shock in pregnancy. It is never thought of as a cause of hemorrhagic shock during pregnancy. We wish to make obstetricians aware of this condition as a differential diagnosis in such cases.

  152. Rajesh Abbey, Anil Negi and Anurag verma

    Ectrodactyly is one of the rarest congenital malformation of the limb also termed as split hand/split-foot malformation (SHFM).Majority of cases are sporadic, as is the present case, but familial types also exist with autosomal dominant inheritance. The causative factor is defect of central elements of the autopod (Hand/Foot). There is deep median cleft of the hand and/or foot. It is also known as “lobster-claw” deformity because of the cone-shaped clefts of the hands and/or feet. A rare case of severe bilateral SHFM in 46 yrs old male patient, who had adjusted with the normal pursuits of his routine life without much disability, is being presented. Both the feet were divided into two parts by a cone shaped cleft proceeding proximally and resembling a “Lobster claw”(bidactyly). Though in both the hands, the claw deformity was not seen (monodactyly) with aplasia of the rest of the phalanges and metacarpals. The present case represents non-syndromic type of SHFM as other as no known associated anomaly was seen in this patient. In the absence of any functional disability, as in the present case, reconstructive procedures were not advocated.

  153. Shilpi Shah

    Objective: The purpose of the study was to evaluate and compare the linear and cross arch dimensional accuracy of conventional alginate (Algitex) and alginate alternative ( AlgiNot) at different time intervals. Materials and Methods: Thirty two impressions of full arch master model were made with both the materials and they were divided into four groups: immediate pour, poured at24 hours, 96 hours,and 120 hours. Anterio posterior (A-B& A-C) and cross arch (B-C) measurements were made on the casts with the help of coordinated measuring machine. Results: Alginate Alternative (AlgiNot) produced the casts with minimum distortion at each time interval. Conventional alginate (Algitex) produced accurate casts when impressions were poured immediately. There was an increase in distortion at each time interval for conventional alginate. At the end of 120 hrs conventional alginate showed 3.67% increase in A-B (antero posterior)dimension, 3.53% increase in A-C (antero posterior) dimension and 2.18% in B-C (cross arch) dimension. At the end of 120 hrs alginate alternative showed 1.7% increase in A-B (antero posterior) dimension, 1.3% increase in A-C (antero posterior) dimension and 0.62% in B-C (cross arch) dimension. Conclusion: Dimensional changes were evident with both the materials tested in the study at the end of 120 hours. Conventional alginate (Algitex) and Alginate Alternative (AlgiNot) both produced accurate casts at immediate pour. Conventional alginate (Algitex) showed marked dimensional changes at 24hours, 96hours, and 120 hours. Whereas, Alginate Alternative (AlgiNot) showed less significant changes at 24hrs, 96hrs and 120 hrs.

  154. Dr. Aman Kumar, Dr. Kundan, Dr. Anubha, Dr. Ravindra Kumar and Dr. A. B. Singh

    Background: Acute abdominal emergencies are common reason for admission into emergency unit of most hospitals. This study was undertaken to look at the spectrum of such presentations to Patna Medical College and Hospital, Patna, Bihar, India. The management and outcome were also highlighted. Method: A retrospective review of case notes of patients with abdominal emergency conditions between year 2012-14 was carried out. Parameters studied included demographic characteristics, diagnosis, management and outcome. Results: A total of 202 patients were studied. Out of this male: female ratio was 2.8:1. The mean age was 35.5 years. In present study hollow viscus perforation, duodenal ulcer perforation has higher incidence rate 31 (15.34%). Next is typhoid ulcer perforation 29 (14.35%) and acute appendicitis 26(12.8%) (14.35%) followed by obstruction due to band adhesion 19(9.4%), closed injury of abdomen 17(8.4%), volvulus 16 (7.92%), open injury of abdomen 11(5.44%), ruptured liver abscess 9 (4.45%), strangulated inguinal hernia 7(3.46%), acute cholecystitis 6 (2.97%), imperforate anus 6(2.97%), gastric ulcer perforation 5 (2.47%), intussusceptions 5 (2.47%), obstruction due to stricture of small intestine 4(1.99%), round worm infestations 4(1.99%), meckle’s diverticulum 3(1.49%), acute pancreatitis 2(0.99%), large bowel perforation 1(0.49%), growth in colon and rectum 1(0.49%). Conclusion: Duodenal ulcer perforation was the commonest cause of abdominal emergency in our study .This was followed by typhoid ulcer perforation and acute appendicitis.

  155. Dr. Puneet Kumar, Dr. Raghavenraswamy, K.N., Dr. Anil Kumar Gujjari and Dr. Shah Shilpi Vastupal

    Purpose: The intaglio surface of complete denture is not polished so due to rough surface adhesion of microorganisms to denture surface. This study aimed to measure the antimicrobial activity and flexural strength of heat cure acrylic resin after incorporating zinc acetate in different percentage. Materials and Method: A total number of thirty-two disk shaped (6mm x 1mm) and rectangular shaped samples (65mm x 10mm x 2.5mm) were prepared from heat-polymerized acrylic resin incorporated with Zinc acetate. The zone of inhibition diameters were measured with zone measuring scale (in mm) and this measurement indicated the microbial susceptibility to the material. And, the flexural strength of the specimens was determined using a 3-point bend testing device in a Lloyd's Universal Testing Machine. The measured values were submitted to statistical analysis by descriptive statistics, independent sample't' test and one way ANOVA followed by Scheffe's Post Hoc test. Results: One way ANOVA descriptive analysis detected the different percentage of zinc acetate in heat polymerized acrylic resin showed significant difference. The increasing order of antimicrobial activity is: Group A (control) < Group B (2.25% zinc acetate) < Group C (5% zinc acetate) < Group D (7.25% zinc acetate). However, the increasing order of flexural strength is: Group D (7.25% zinc acetate) < Group C (5% zinc acetate) < Group B (2.25% zinc acetate) < Group A (control).

  156. Meena K Yadav, Bal Krishna Singh and Laxmi Tripathi

    A series of novel 1,3,5-triazinyl benzothiazine derivatives have been prepared by condensation of N-[1-alkyl]4-aryl-6-thioxo-1,6-dihydro-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl]-N’-arylidenhydrazine with 2-mercaptobenzoic acid. The structure of the new compounds has been established by elemental, spectral and m.p. studies. All the compounds have been subjected to antibacterial and antifungal screening. In the series, compounds with chloro- inhibit the growth of S. aureus at MIC of 1.22 μg/mL whereas in the antifungal testing compounds 6d, 6i, and 6l are more potent than standard drug and zone of inhibition was more against A. fumigatus.

  157. Dr. Sujatha, D. and Dr. Akshita, D.

    Down syndrome (DS) was first described by John Langdon Down (1866) at mid-nineteenth century and one century later, the DS primary cause due to trisomy 21 was reported (Lejeune et al., 1959). DS is predominantly due to non-disjunction of chromosome 21. It is not a disease; however the affected individuals have a greater risk in acquiring many systemic and oral conditions. DS is the most common autosomal chromosomal anomaly with an incidence of 1 in 600 to 1000 live births in all races and economic groups. The extra genetic material in these patients causes a delay in the way a child develops, either mentally or physically. The present article discusses a case report of a 5-year old male patient with the classical features of Down syndrome. The skeletal and soft tissue features, aberrations in dental, periodontal and caries characteristics are discussed and dental management of such patients.

  158. Dr. Pardeep Mahajan, Dr. Sunny Gandhi, Dr. Megha Mahajan, Dr. Nirapjeet Kaur, Dr. Prashant Monga and Dr. Nitika Bajaj

    Introduction: Evolution of dental materials has increased the indication of esthetic restorative procedures. However, composite resin materials are not suitable for posterior class II restorations because of their high wear rate and insufficient marginal adaptation. Resin composite materials undergo volumetric polymerization contraction of at least 2% which results in gap formation at cavity margins. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of glass and polyethylene fiber inserts and flowable composite as a liner on the micro leakage of class II composite restorations with gingival margins on root surfaces. Methods: Class II slot preparation was on both the proximal sides of seventy five freshly extracted mandibular molars and were divided into five groups depending on the type of fiber inserts and use of flowable composite as a liner. The specimens were thermo cycled and stained with basic fuchsin dye and sectioned to evaluate the dye penetration under stereomicroscope. Statistical analysis was done using Kruskal Wallis test and Mann Whitney U test. Results and Conclusion: the study showed that the fiber inserts group showed significantly less micro leakage as compared to other groups. However no statistically significant difference was found between the groups with fiber inserts.

  159. Dr. Divish Saxena, Dr. Murtaza Akhtar, Dr. Arpit Bansal and Dr. Gayatri Deshpande

    Background: Presence of viable bacteria obtained from gall bladder during elective cholecystectomy can be decisive in the outcome of gall bladder surgeries with reference to surgical site infection. Materials and Methods: 104 patients with symptomatic gall stone disease underwent elective cholecystectomy. Bile sample was taken intra operatively from gallbladder using a size 22 spinal needle before beginning gallbladder dissection in both open and laparoscopic procedures and sent for culture and sensitivity examination. The patients were then divided into two groups depending on the presence or absence of bacterial growth on bile culture. Results: No bacterial growth was observed on bile culture in 76 patients (73.1%). This supports that in majority of the cases the bile was sterile. In rest 26.9 % E. Coli was grown in 18.26 % and Klebsiella pneumonia in 8.66 % patients. On correlation of bile culture and surgical site infection, it was observed that positive bile culture had higher incidence of surgical site infection i.e. 14.2% which was statistically significant. Conclusion: There is increased incidence of surgical site infection in patients with infected bile than with sterile bile. A routine bile culture during cholecystectomy can be predictor of surgical site infection.

  160. P. S. Ghalaut, Mohini, Isha Pahuja, Naresh Gaur, Arvind Chahal and Suvrit Jain

    Anemia in the elderly patients is an extremely common problem that can be associated with mortality and impair the quality of life. Since anemia is a sign and not a diagnosis, therefore an evaluation is almost always warranted to identify its cause. (Bhasin and Rao, 2011) In our prospective study we investigated about the morphological type and the etiological spectrum of anemia in 100 patients with age 60 years and above. Hb< 12gm/dl (in females) and Hb<13gm/dl (in males) {acc to WHO Criteria} (World Health Organization, 2010) were the cut off value for anemia. The study population consisted of 66 male patients and 34 female patients with generalized weakness and easy fatigability as the most common symptom which was present in 100% of cases. The most common cause of anemia in elderly patients is anemia due to chronic kidney disease (35%) followed by iron deficiency (20%) than malignancy (15%), vitamin B12 and folic acid deficiency (14%), anemia of chronic inflammation (11%) and in 5% others including unexplained anemia. Overall the hematological causes were 50% and non-hematological causes were 46%. Normocytic normochromic (53%) anemia was the most common morphological type; was followed by microcytic hypochromic 30%) and then macrocytic as least common (17%). In geriatric age group hematological and non hematological causes were almost equal in our study that is comparable to other Indian studies and some western studies but the pattern vary from study to study indicates geographical variation in spectrum of etiology of anemia in elderly.

  161. Dr. Hemant Kumar Halwai and Dr. Vanita Gautam

    Aim: to correlate the position of impacted maxillary canines on panoramic radiography with cone beam CT (CBCT). Materials & Methods: In this study fifty patients with sixty impacted maxillary canine were retrospectively radiographed. The labiopalatal position of the impacted canines and root resorption of permanent incisors were evaluated with CBCT. The findings of panoramic radiography and CBCT were analysed and compared through statistics. Results Results revealed a statistically significant association between the panoramic sectors of the impacted canines and the labiopalatal position of the canines (p < 0.001). Conclusions The labiopalatal position of impacted canines and resorption of permanent incisors might be predicted using sector location on panoramic radiography.

  162. Dr. Vanita Gautam and Dr. Hemant Kumar Halwai

    Aim: to compare the efficacy and cytotoxicity of four different types of sealers including AH plus, Sankin, Tubliseal EWT and Apexit as well as their effect on cytokine release of L929 fibroblasts. Materials and Methods: Here cells were cultured in Complete Medium Culture (CMC) and then divided into two test groups. In group 1, sealers were added to cell culture wells immediately after mixing. In group 2, sealers were added to cell cultures 3 hours after mixing. Cell viability was evaluated by MTT assay after 4, 24 and 168 hours. The amount of Interleukin-6 (IL-6) released in response to the sealers was also evaluated by ELISA technique on fibroblasts after 24 hour period. Results: Significant differences were seen in cytotoxicity in both groups (P<0.001). The least cytotoxic sealers were AH Plus and Sankin respectively, whereas Tubliseal EWT showed the greatest cytotoxicity. The highest IL-6 level was observed in Tubliseal EWT and Sankin groups; which was statistically significant (P<0.001). Conclusion: AH plus has less cytotoxicity and induces less IL-6 release. Tubliseal EWT has greater cytotoxicity and induces more IL-6 release than other sealers.

  163. Agnieszka Pawlak, Emilia Rejmak- Kozicka, Katarzyna Gil, Andrzej Ziemba, Leszek Kaczmarek and Gil, R. J.

    Background: Desmin as one of the major stress-bearing elements in the sarcomere and intercalated disk is an important determinant of cardiomyocyte function and long outcome. However, DES disturbances have been noticed in various heart diseases and can be modified by DES mRNA and ubiquitin proteasome system. The relation between desmin mRNA, desmin and ubiquitin in patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (IDCM) has not been examined. Aim: The evaluation of desmin and ubiquitin gene expression and ubiquitin expression in different types of desmin expression in cardiomyocytes in patients with IDCM. Methods: Left ventricular endomyocardial biopsy was performed in 60 patients (85% males, mean age 46±14 years) with clinical symptoms of heart failure (HF) and left ventricular ejection fraction <45%. Expression and localization of desmin and ubiquitin were analysed in histological sections by immunohistochemical method using anti-desmin and anti-ubiquitin (DAKO) antibodies. Desmin mRNA expression and localization was determined by FISH methods. Western-blott (W-b) was performed to quantify analysis of desmin and ubiquitin. Patients were assigned to four types according to the desmin expression in cardiomyocytes: type I, 9 patients with normal desmin expression; type IIA, 23 patients with high desmin expression in physiological localisation, type IIB, 20 patients with high desmin expression and desmin aggregates; group III, 8 patients with low desmin expression in cardiomyocytes. Results: In group I, even and weak expression of ubiquitin in the cytosol and low expression of desmin mRNA in cytosol and nuclei of cardiomyocytes was observed. The expression of ubiquitin and desmin mRNA increased along with the progression of desmin cytoskeleton remodeling (type IIA and IIB). Desmin mRNA and ubiquitin were weakly expressed or not present in myocardium of patients from desmin type III. The desmin mRNA, desmin and ubiquitin expression in cardiomyocyte was associated with gradual changes in cardiomyocyte structure (increase in cardiomyocytes hypertrophy and fibrosis) as well as HF progress (higher NYHA class, increase in the level of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic protein and left ventricular end diastolic diameter and decrease in left ventricular ejection fraction). Conclusions: The ubiquitin and the mRNA of desmin can modify the level of desmin expression. Increase in expression of ubiquitin and desmin mRNA might be a feature associated with protection an unfavorable cell remodeling, which reduces the adverse effects of cytoskeleton damage in the early stage of HF. It seems that the lack of ubiquitin and low desmin mRNA expression can be a marker of the end stage HF.

  164. Saleh M. Ruzan, Saleh M. Sama, Alhasan H. Ahmed and Al-Nazzawi T. Mohammed

    Background: Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide. Most women with newly diagnosed breast cancer are of luminal type. Aim: To explore the modern modalities focusing on the hormone therapies for breast cancer. Methods: Systemic review of PubMed filter finds publications to support keywords of the current study. Findings: Treatment of breast cancer can be classified into local or systemic therapies. Local therapies like Surgery, Radiotherapy, However systemic treatment includes chemotherapy, Targeted therapy by anti-HER2 blockade and endocrine treatment that involves selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERM), aromatase Inhibitors (AI), fulvestrant, and ovarian suppression. Recent studies recommends that higher-risk patients should receive ovarian suppression in addition to adjuvant endocrine therapy, whereas lower-risk patients should not. Women with stage II or III breast cancers who would ordinarily be advised to receive adjuvant chemotherapy should receive ovarian suppression with endocrine therapy. Conclusion: Hormonal therapy of breast cancer is personal, women with stage I breast cancers not warranting chemotherapy should not receive ovarian suppression, nor should women with node-negative cancers 1 cm or less. Ovarian suppression is effective and may be administered with either tamoxifen or an aromatase inhibitor.

  165. Dr. Vinay Rupakar, Dr. Mansi Dandnaik, Dr. Keyur Gadhesariya and Dr. Ryan Job Vachaparampil

    Introduction: Different adjuvants have been used to extend spinal anesthesia, with probable benefits of late commencement of postoperative pain and reduced analgesic requirements. Midazolam has only sedative property. However, dexmedetomidine has both analgesic and sedative properties that may prolong the duration of sensory and motor block obtained with spinal anesthesia. This study was designed to compare intravenous dexmedetomidine with midazolam and placebo on spinal block duration, analgesia and sedation. Method: Single blinded randomized study was carried out on 75 patients undergoing surgeries in spinal anesthesia at General Surgery 0T in Civil hospital Ahmedabad. Patients were randomly divided into 3 groups D-received Dexmedetomidine 0.5 µg/kg i.v. M-received Midazolam 0.05 mg/kg i.v. S-received Normal Saline i.v. After 5 min all patients were induced under spinal anesthesia with 0.5%bupivacaine heavy 3 ml intrathecaly. Time taken for highest level and duration of sensory and motor block of bupivacaine spinal block was noted. Duration of analgesia and sedation were recorded. Result: Highest upper level of sensory block were higher in D(T560±1.73)than in M(T784±1.99) (p<0.001) or with S( T8.48±1.75) (p<0.001). Time for sensory regression of two dermatomes was 154±9.89 min in D while 112±10.31 min in M (p<0.001) and 96.4±10.94 min in S (p<0.001). Duration of motor block was higher in D(194±9.94 min) compared to M(169±11.38 min) and S(169±18.38 min) Patients in D had 24 hrs mean VAS score <3 while patients in M and S needed rescue analgesic after 12 hr and 8 hr respectively as their VAS score were >3.The median of RAMSAY sedation score was 2(2-5) in D,3 (2-5) for M and 1(1-2) for S. Conclusion: Dexmedetomidine prolonged highest upper level, duration of sensory blockade of bupivacaine induced spinal anesthesia with effective analgesia and sedation compared to intravenous midazolam.

  166. Dr. Amit H. Agravat, Dr. Bhumi Padia, Dr. Gauravi A. Dhruva, Dr. Kaushal R. Bhojani and Dr. Krupal M. Pujara

    Introduction: In India minimum required hemoglobin for blood donation is 12.5 gm%. Blood donation deferrals due to anemia are very common and it decreases availability of precious blood donor for the blood bank. Aim and Objective: To provide baseline information regarding the prevalence and spectrum of anemia in retrospective blood donors to help plan a future strategy for donor management. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective, single center-based study assessing the blood donor deferral due to anemia was carried out in Blood Bank, P.D.U. Medical College and Hospital, Rajkot, Gujarat (India). During the study period (January ‘2012 to December ‘2014), 34,435 retrospective blood donors were screened. Hemoglobin estimation was performed by Copper sulfate specific gravity method. Result and Conclusion: In our study prevalence of anemia in blood donors is 2.8% and deferral due to anemia is 16%.

  167. N’Guessan Assiènin Hauverset, N’Guessan Kouamé François, Kouassi Kouassi Philippe and KouaméN’ Dri Norbert

    Objective: The cocoa stem borer, Eulophonotusmyrmeleon Felder causes today serious damage in cocoa farm in Côte d’Ivoire. This study was conducted to determine the outbreak periods of this new lepidopteran pest in the Indénié-Djuablin region, the second largest cocoa producing area in Côte d'Ivoire. Methodology and Results: The study was conducted from 2009 to 2013 in farmers’ cocoa farms of the Indénié-Djuablin region in Côte d'Ivoire. Changes in the population density and attack rates ofE. Myrmeleon were assessed by counting fresh holes in six cocoa farms chosen in 3 localities with 2 farms in each locality. The data of Rainfall and temperature were also collected during this study. The results showed that there are two periods of severe attacks of this pest during the year, in the Indénié-Djuablin region. These periods occur from December to April with a peak in February and May to November with a peak around July-August. During these periods, the larval population level is high in the cocoa farms, indicating intense larval activities in the farms. The results also showed that the level of attack increased in 2009 than in other years. Rainfall seems to play a significant role in the population rise of the insect as periods of heavy attacks were observed after periods of high rainfalls. Similarly, the lower temperatures seemed to favor an increase in E.myrmeleon attack. Conclusion and Applications: The results obtained in this study could be very useful for recommending control measures against larvae or adults. Indeed, periods of heavy attacks and adult emergence could be taken into account for rational insecticide application against this pest.

  168. Ashish Pandey and Dr. Fanish Pandey

    Polycyclic Aromatic hydrocarbons(PAHs) being a toxic xenobiotic aromatic compounds generated as a result of incomplete combustion of organic matter pose a direct threat to human health due to their mutagenic and carcinogenic nature. PAHs being non-polar have low solubility in water and hence are difficult to be eradicated by any means. A constant struggle of scientific community and incessant research has espied various methodologies to increase the rate of degradation of PAHs by modification of environmental factors. One of the most successful amongst the technologies is the process of Chemical Oxidation (specially by potassium permanganate which is also the device of this research) which has recently gained much recently recognition by the scientific community. The aim of this research is to find out whether Bioremediation of PAHs by ecofriendly PAH degrading Bacteria can be the new solution to the PAH problem. Also the study tries to find out the comparative testing of effectiveness of Bioremediation by PAH- Biodegrading bacteria over chemical oxidation.

  169. Dr. Bader Shahda Said Hamdan and Dr. Sameer Abu Mudallala

    The study estimated the effect exports and imports on economic growth in the Arab countries during the period 1995 to 2013. The study used panel data approach by E- views program in 17 countries: (Jordan, United Arab Emirates, Bahrain, Tunisia, Algeria, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Oman, Qatar, Kuwait, Lebanon, Egypt, Djibouti, Mauritania, Morocco, Yemen and Palestine). The study found that the effect exports and imports have positive effect of economic growth in the Arab countries during the period 1995 to 2013. The study recommended it is important indicator for measuring the efficiency and effectiveness of the work element in achieving a certain level of the output in the production process. There is need to increase the imports of technology for increasing labor productivity which can directly promote economic growth, and thus improve the standards of living in the Arab countries.

  170. Dr. K. Saraswathi Gopal, Dr. M. Shanmuga Sundaram and Dr. P. Mahesh Kumar

    Lichen planus is an chronic mucocutaneous condition that affect adults and is uncommon disease for a child, but in rare condition it may affect children of any age. In this case a 6 years old female child presented with oral ulcerative lichen planus that involves the dorsum of the tongue and right buccal mucosa for past 6 month. She also hadextroral manifestation of lichen planus involving the hand wrist region and ankle of the knee region. Oral Lichen planus was confirmed with the clinical and histopathological features. Patient was under treatment for both intraoral and extra oral manifestation.

  171. Kanika Miglani, Imteyaz Ahmad, Anita Yadav, Neeraj Aggarwal and Ranjan Gupta

    Occupational exposure to Polyaromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) constitutes an important health hazard. PAH may lead to the increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) causing oxidative stress. In the present study, the effect of PAH was investigated on 77 charcoal workers and 79 control population by quantifying antioxidant enzymes such as Catalase (CAT), Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) and Glutathione Peroxidase (GPX) after recording the demographic characteristics (age of the subject), lifestyle (smoking habit, alcohol and tobacco consumption), and occupational features (lifetime exposure to wood smoke, use of personal protective equipment). Level of urinary 1-hydroxypyrene which is a marker of PAH and 8-OHdG which is a marker of oxidative stress were significantly higher in charcoal workers (0.25µg/ml) as compared with control workers (0.065µg/ml). Mean of SOD and CAT activity in charcoal workers was significantly higher, while GPX activity was lower than control workers. These results suggest that occupational exposure to PAH increase oxidative stress levels as a response to elevated ROS generation. Elevated levels of ROS has been known to causes health hazards as they possess high reactivity with biomolecules i.e. DNA, RNA and proteins. So, it is evident that preventive changes in work conditions and lifestyle are necessary to improve the quality of life of charcoal workers who are exposed to PAH.

  172. Dr. Dhrubajyoti Choudhury, Dr. Rupali Baruah and Dr. Jutika Ojah

    Background: Vaccination is one of the most effective disease prevention strategies and potency of vaccine is dependent on effective management of cold chain at all levels of vaccine handling by cold chain handler. An effective cold chain maintenance system is the backbone of success of any immunization program. This study was done with objectives to assess the knowledge and practices of Cold chain handler regarding cold chain equipments and vaccines storage. Methods: Study design: Cross-sectional study was conducted during 1st Jan.2015 to 30thJune 2015 in Chirang district of Assam using a pre-structured questionnaire among the cold chain handler. Sampling methods: Chirang district has total of 2 BPHC and total of 12 cold chain point under this 2 BPHC (Block PHC) were selected purposively,6 cold chain point from each block. Study population and Sample size: Cold chain handler of the facilities of Chirang District with cold chain point and thus sample size was 12. Results: Out of total 12 cold chain handler 7(58.33%) were female, 5(41.67%) were male, only 7(58.33%) of cold chain handlers knew properly about cold chain. All 12 (100%) of the cold chain points ILR were functioning and only 5(41.67%) of the respondents practiced of record keeping for power failure and defrosting of ILRs and DFs. Conclusion: There is a need to improve methods of ILR and DF maintenance of temperature and regular defrosting with record keeping.

  173. Fawzia Zweher Saleh Moghamsi

    Aim: The aim of this research is to investigate the impact of technical mathematics laboratory in teaching secondary Thirty-seventh school female students Jeddah - Saudi Arabia Methodology: descriptive-analytical approach, the study included 28 female secondary students of Thirty-seventh school full semester after the use of technical mathematics laboratory, the research sample was chosen randomly, and questionnaire was used as data collection tool, data entry and analysis was done by Microsoft's Excel 2016. Results: The results showed that there was fun, thrill and cooperative participation and teamwork during and after lessons by 99%, and that the teacher used modern and exciting teaching aids by 98% and used modern technology in lesson by 100%, and students reported that learning in the technical laboratory make space for them to participate during the lesson by 98%, increasing understanding and the level of achievement by 96%, and that the students have increased chances for self-evaluation by 97%. Conclusion: The use of technical mathematics laboratory has increased fun, cooperative participation, teamwork and good understanding of mathematics and increased the level of academic achievement among students.

  174. Tarekegn Wondimu and Yemanebirhan Kelemework

    In order to find out whether there is difference in reading comprehension skills between the governmental and non-governmental grade 12 preparatory school students of Jimma town, necessary data were collected by using reading comprehension test, questionnaire for students and for teachers. The data collected were analyzed quantitatively using statistical techniques of percentage and mean. According to the findings of the study the students of Jimma University Community Preparatory School (JUCPS) have obtained a better result in the reading comprehension test than the students of Jimma Preparatory School (JPS). The fact that the reading comprehension strategies, which the students of JUCPS used, such as: being able to guess the meaning of new words in context and from word formation rather than turning to dictionaries now and then and skipping new words, being able to predict the main idea of the whole text from titles and keywords, grasping the gist of the material by quickly reading the first and the last paragraph, background experience and motivation that they got from parents and from their elementary and secondary school teachers, full support and belief of their current teachers to let them use different strategies in their reading comprehension activities every time, were the main factors or reasons that contributed to the difference.

  175. Rajakchanda, Verma Rahul, Singh Prabhakar, Shiralkar Milind and ShrivastavaRoshani

    Background: Now days, stress is dangerous & significant problems of World & affect physical, mental, behavioral, and emotional health. Yoga has been reported to control stress, to be beneficial in treating stress related disorders, improving autonomic functions, lower blood pressure, increase strength and flexibility of muscles, improve the sense of wellbeing, slowed ageing process, control breathing, reducing signs of oxidative stress and improving spiritual growth. (Chanda Rajak et al., 2012) Objective: The aim of present study was to investigate whether regular practice of Yoga for six months can reduce the level of adrenaline, serum cortisol, plasma melatonin and cardiovascular reactivity induced by cold pressor test. Material and Method: The study group comprises 50 healthy subjects of 18-25 years age group. Initially there were 30 hyper-reactors to cold pressor test. The hyper-reactivity of 25 volunteers converted to hypo-reactivity after the yoga therapy of six months (83.3%). The parameters like level of serumadrenaline, serum cortisol, plasma melatonin, basal blood pressure, rise in blood pressure and pulse rate were also significantly reduced statistically by using student‘t’ test. Result: Regular practice of yoga significantly reduce the level of Adrenaline, serum cortisol, plasma melatonin and cardiovascular hyper-reactivity to cold pressor test, in basal blood pressure, rise in blood pressure and pulse rate after six month of yoga practice. Conclusion: We concluded that regular practice of yoga for six months reduced the possibly by inducing parasympathetic predominance and cortico-hypothalamo-medullary inhibition, who was hyper–reactive to cold stress, This shows that yoga provides significant improvement in aging to reduce the morbidity and mortality from stress induced disorders. Yogic practices can be used as psychophysiologic stimuli to increase endogenous secretion of melatonin, which, in turn, might be responsible for improved sense of well-being.

  176. Prasad, K. D. V., Rajesh Vaidya and Anil Kumar, V

    The research study reports the results of a comparative analysis on causes of occupational stress among the men and women employees and its effect on the employee performance at the workplace International Agricultural Research Institute, Hyderabad. A survey of 200 employees consisting 120 men and 80 women from the institute carried out to assess the nine independent stress causing factors Work overload, Boss-Peer, Role Ambiguity, Role Overload, Co-Workers, Lack of control, Career, Individual, Physiological Factors and its effect on employees’ Performance a dependent factor. The descriptive analysis, correlation techniques and parametric statistics like t-test carried out to arrive at the conclusions. To measure the reliability of the scale used for this study, and internal consistencies of the survey questionnaire, the reliability statistics Cronbach’s alpha (C-Alpha) and Spearman-Brown split-half reliability were estimated. The overall C-Alpha value is 0.84 whereas the Spearman-Brown split half static is 0.92. The C-Alpha values ranged from 0.68 to 0.82 for men and 0.64 to 0.80 for women, for all the 9 independent and one dependent factor. The results of the study indicate that the medium level occupational stress exist at the workplace in general, effecting the performance moderately and women employees experience more stress than men. Health-wise, some employees developed chronic neck and back pain, an effect of long sitting hours at work. The significance of the study is that the authors believe it is the first study in India carried out in agriculture sector.

  177. Rajkumar, M., Karuppaiah, P., Sureshkumar, R. and Sendhilnathan, R.

    Snake gourd (Trichosanthes anguina L.) is an important Cucurbitaceous vegetable and has been traditionally grown due to its easy cultivation and short duration. An experiment was conducted by Randomized block design to characterize and assess the genetic diversity of 40 genotypes collected from different parts of South India which differ morphologically including one check variety MDU-1, at the Department of Horticulture, Annamalai University. Data were recorded for eleven characters. Variations have been observed in different characters like days to first male flowering, days to first female flower opening, Number of fruits per plant, Fruit length(cm), Fruit girth (cm), Flesh thickness (cm), Fruit weight (g), Fruit yield (kg/plant) and Number of seeds per fruit. The range observed for days to first male flower opening (18.38 to 46.50), days to first female flower opening (28.88 to 57.33), Number of fruits per plant (7.00 to 27.50), Fruit length (34.73 to 175.99), Fruit girth (10.20 to 30.36), Flesh thickness (0.40 to 1.17), Fruit weight (292.70 to 970.71), Fruit yield/plant (3.06 to 10.4g) and Number of seeds per fruit (22.18 to 90.75).

  178. Sendhilnathan, R., Manimaran, P., Rajkumar, M. and Sureshkumar, R.

    An experiment was carried out to study the influence of organic nutrients and Gibberllic acid on the performance of English cape lily (Crinum spp) . Among the treatments, it can be concluded that the organic manure viz., Farmyard manure @ 15 t ha-1 along with foliar application of Gibberllic acid @ 500 ppm was found most effective in maximizing the days taken for sprouting (10.12 days ), plant height (66.12 cm), number of leaves ( 22.57 plant-1) and leaf area (246.12 cm2 ) . Flower parameters viz., days taken for spike emergence 27.69 days, Days taken for floret open (32.36 days) , spike length (57.28 cm), flower length (12.88 cm) and vase life ( 12.59 days). The growth, flowering and quality parameters of English cape lily was minimum in control. Thus the present investigation clearly indicate that application of farmyard manure @ 15 t ha-1 and GA3 @ 500 ppm could adjudged as the best treatment in performance of English cape lilly.

  179. Sureshkumar, R., Manivannan, K. Sendhilnathan, R. and Rajkumar, M.

    Growing maize for vegetable purpose is a recent development for which baby maize called “Babycorn” has proved enormously successful as a venture in worldwide. An experiment was conducted at the Department of Horticulture, Annamalai University with Factorial Randomized Block Design(FRBD) which consist of 15 treatments which has different graded levels of Nitrogen at the rate of 100,125,150,175 and 200 kg ha-1along with Phosphorus viz., 40,60 and 80 kg ha-1 in addition to a constant dose of Potassium at the rate of 50 kg ha-1and the data were recorded for seven characters. Significant effects due to various individual and combined application of nitrogen and phosphorus levels has been observed in different growth, physiological and yield characters like plant height, number of leaves per plant, leaf area index, dry matter production, days to tasselling, chlorophyll content and ear yield. The data collected on different trials were analysed statistically and the range observed in plant height (30.35-60.05cm), number of leaves (6.91-11.35), leaf area index(2.32-3.42) dry matter production(8,112.33-12,422 kgha-1), days to tasselling (62.32-68.63) chlorophyll content (2.18-2.71mg g-1), ear weight(17.52-21.07 g) and ear yield (3.07-6.51t ha-1).

  180. Sendhilnathan, R., Suresh, V., Sureshkumar, R. and Rajkumar, M.

    “An investigation was carried out to study the “Effect of organic manures along with Humic acid on growth and yield of Thuduvalai was carried out with four different organic manures such as Farm yard manure @15, 17.5 and 20 t ha-1, vermicompost @ 2.5, 2.75 and 3 t ha-1, Coir pith compost @ 2.5, 2.75 and 3 t ha-1 t ha-1, Poultry manure @ 2.5, 2.75 and 3 t ha-1 along with Humic acid @ 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 per cent as foliar spray were studied under in randomized block design with three replication of 13 treatments. The growth parameters viz., plant height, number of branches, number of leaves, leaf area, leaf yield parameters, dry matter production and chlorophyll content were registered to be the highest when the Vermicompost (3 t ha-1) + Humic acid @ 0.3 per cent were sprayed. Among the treatments, application of Vermicompost (3 t ha-1) along in addition with Humic acid @ 0.3 per cent were found to be the best in increasing the plant growth and leaf yield attributes.

  181. Sendhilnathan, R., Karuppaiah, P., Rajkumar M. and Sureshkumar, R.

    The study on the effect of plant growth regulators on growth and yield of Periwinkle [Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don] cv. Rose purple flowered was carried out in the medicinal unit, Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Annamalai nagar, Tamil Nadu. This experiment is carried out in Randomized block design with 10 different treatments replicated thrice. The experiment comprised of control and three growth regulators with their three levels viz., Gibberllic acid @100, 200 and 300 ppm, Naphthalene acetic acid @50, 100 and 150 ppm, Cycocel @ 250, 500 and 750 ppm were applied as foliar application. Observations of biometric characters like plant height, number of branches plant-1, number of leaves plant-1, leaf area, total chlorophyll content, dry matter production (kg ha-1), number of flowers plant-1, dry leaf yield plant-1 (g), total dry leaf yield plant-1 (g), dry leaf yield plot-1 (g) and dry leaf yield ha-1 (kg) on final harvest were observed. The treatments significantly influenced the growth and yield of periwinkle and the results revealed that application of GA3 @ 300 ppm in the treatment (T3) recorded the maximum performance on growth and yield characters. Hence this treatment was found as superior than the rest in and ultimately increasing the dry leaf yield (2784.16 kg ha-1) when compare to control.

  182. Bharathajothi, P.

    Superficial fungal infections of skin affect millions of people throughout the world. The information of medicinal plants has been accumulated in the course of several centuries based on various medicinal systems such as Ayurveda, Homeopathy, Naturopathy, Modern, Siddha and Unani. Enicostema axillare is a common Indian medicinal plant belonging to the family Gentinaceae was selected and screened for the phyto chemical compounds, antifungal activity and clinical evaluations. Samples collected from the skin infected patients and the patients were treated with plant drug Vellarugu chooranam (Enicostema axillare). The anti fungal activity was studied only on the predominant fungal pathogens Trichopyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagraphytes.

  183. Rabbanie Tariq Wani, Hibba Dar, Junaid Ahmed Ahangar and Muhammad Salim Khan, S.

    Background: Public health is increasingly concerned with recognizing factors that lead to differences on the basis of profession & teaching practices in stroke. We conducted a study to determine the knowledge of stroke risk factors and warning signs, and how both are perceived, in a representative sample of female multipurpose health care workers (FMPHWs) in Kashmir valley Methods: A representative sample of the female healthcare workers of two districts of Kashmir division were selected using a double randomization technique. Data was collected by giving a structured questionnaire to the participants. Results: 202 subjects were interviewed (52.0 % from district Anantnag ; mean age (SD) 34.9 (6.1) years).Thirty two percent of FMPHWs had never heard of the term stroke. Surprisingly eighty five percent of all subjects reported at least one correct warning sign of stroke (OR: 1.4; 95 % CI: 0.66 –3.22). The most frequently mentioned individual warning signs were sudden difficulty speaking, sudden weakness. There were no district wise differences regarding the types of warning symptoms that respondents listed. Female Healthcare workers from district Anantnag displayed better knowledge of risk factors than from District Baramulla (OR: 1.1; 95 % CI: 0.8–1.6). 8.6% FMPHWs from Anantnag answered risk factors incorrectly & Hypertension accounted for 61.9% followed by smoking (27.6%) among the correct answers whereas 34% of FMPHWs from Baramulla answered incorrectly about risk factors and also listed Hypertension(57.7%) followed by smoking(11.3%) as risk factors. In response to stroke, FMPHWs from Anantnag were significantly less likely than from Baramulla to choose to call an ambulance or to send the patient immediately to hospital (OR: 0.7; 95 % CI: 0.60–1.01). Conclusions: Stroke knowledge is sub optimal in both districts. This study demonstrates gaps in the knowledge of these health care providers about stroke, and treatment choice. Therefore, workshops, seminars and public awareness campaigns must be implemented to increase knowledge of stroke among female multipurpose health workers and make them aware of the importance of referring the patient immediately to hospital if they experience warning signs of stroke

  184. Dr. Rishav Singh, Dr. Rajat R. Khajuria Dr. Mukesh Kumar, Dr. Aarathi Shenoy, Dr. Rashmi Singh and Dr. SankalpVerma

    Background: The aim of this article is to report the prevalence of various dental manifestations of rickets in young children. Methods: Pediatric patients of both the genders of age-group 6-18 years of age with history of rickets in infancy as reported by pediatrician were examined clinically. The exclusion criteria for the study were patients with history of fluorosis, any syndromes or any congenital skeletal deformities. After scanning the medical records, a total of 120 patients (72 males and 48 females) were selected and enrolled for study after taking informed consent from the parents. Data collection was done on an exclusively made self-structured format. Any anomalies of tooth size, shape, and number were noted and co-related with radiographs. The collected data was compiled and statistically compiled. Results: Out of 120 patients, enamel hypoplasia was detected in 90 (75%) cases, missing teeth were detected in 45 (37.5%) cases, bilaterally missing mandibular second premolars were detected in 30 (25%) cases, seven cases were found with bilaterally missing maxillary first premolars, maxillary canines(6.25%) and seven cases were detected with bilaterally missing deciduous lateral incisor (6.25%). Other dental findings revealed spontaneous gingival and dental abscesses occurring without history of trauma and caries. Radiographic examinations revealed large pulp chambers, short roots, poorly defined lamina dura, and hypoplastic alveolar ridge in majority of patients. Conclusion: Based on the high prevalence of oral manifestations of vitamin D deficiency as observed in this study, the authors conclude that the knowledge an practice of prevention treatment strategies is must to preserve the oral and systemic health of children.

  185. Dr. Barun Dev Kumar, Dr. Anshu Sahu, Dr. Sneha Thakur, Dr. Praveen Kumar Rai and Dr. Sankalp Verma

    Objective: To examine the effects of three different parameters—pH value, brands of bracket, and role of brushing—on release of metal ions from orthodontic appliances. Materials and Methods: Simulated fixed orthodontic appliances which consist of brackets with covered base were immersed in artificial saliva of different pH values (4.2, 6.5 and 7.6) during 28-day period. Three different brands of stainless steel brackets were used: Gemini(3M), Abzil(3M), Orthox(JJ ortho) series. All the brackets embedded in self cure and the effect of brushing on ions release have been evaluated. The quantity of metal ions was determined with the use of a Atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Results: The release of Nickel and chromium ions were observed. Results showed that (1) The Ni and Cr released from all the brands of brackets; (2)The change in pH had a strong effect on the release of ions; and (3) When compared between brushing and non brushing group maximum amount of Ni and Cr released from brushing group at all the days. Conclusion: Levels of released ions are sufficient to cause delayed allergic reactions. This must be taken into account when different brand of brackets is selected, especially in patients with hypersensitivity or compromised oral hygiene.

  186. Dr. K. G. Kiran, Dr. Nanjesh Kumar, S., Dr. N. Uday Kiran, Dr. Avin B. R. Alva, Dr. Swathi, H. N. and Dr. Sanjeev Badiger

    Background: Knowledge about the health status of migrants is often limited due to lack of data. This is because migrants are often excluded from surveys. Immigrants from disease-endemic areas settle in urban slums with highly vector-receptive and unprotected housing, introducing new and drug-resistant strains. Aims and objectives: 1. Study of Morbidity Pattern among Migrant Workers Material and Methods: Migrant population in coastal city was the study population. Study duration: From December 2015 to April 2016.Study design: Cross sectional study. Subjects of this study included migrant population located in 3 different areas of coastal city. Clinical examination was done at the site of camp. Pretested questionnaire was used to collect data by interview method. Results and Discussion: A total 300 migrant workers were included in the study, of this 75.33%were male workers and 24.67% were female workers. 39.33%of the workers belonged to the age group of 21-30 years. Amongst the migrants workers, musculoskeletal symptoms ranked 1st in 43.33% subjects. 22.66% migrants had skin problem followed by fever which was seen in 20.66% migrants. Other important illness seen in the migrants were gastrointestinal problems (9%) respiratory problems (8%) and urinary tract infections (6.66%).Only 6% of the migrants had complained of having malaria. Injuries were seen in 3.3% migrants. Conclusion: This study has shown the pattern of health problems amongst migrant workers, which can contribute to further development of health promotion strategies for migrant workers.

  187. Richa Singh, Madan Lal Brahma Bhatt, Saurabh Pratap Singh, Vijay Kumar, Madhu Mati Goel, Durga Prasad Mishra and Rajendra Kumar

    Background: Breast cancer is the commonest female cancer worldwide and metastasis deteriorates it’s therapeutic outcome. Several clinicopathological parameters have been associated with metastatic suppressor gene (MSG) expression levels that decipher it’s prognostic/predictive significance. The role of MSG Nm23H1 in breast cancer is inconclusive. Our goal was to investigate the possible clinical significance and correlation of Nm23H1 with metastatic breast cancer. Materials & methods: The study was conducted on 178 histologically proven cases of breast cancer and similar number of matched controls. Semi quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT PCR) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) were used to investigate KiSS1 at gene and protein level, respectively. The Nm23H1 levels were correlated with several patient characteristics including age, family history, hormonal receptor status, stage, tumor size, nodal involvement and metastatic manifestation. Statistical analysis was done to evaluate correlation between expression of Nm23H1 and clinicopathological parameters. Results: Our study revealed (i) Diminished Nm23H1 levels in normal vs breast cancer (p < 0.05). (ii) Likewise, a statistically significant down-regulation of NM23H1 was observed in metastatic cases vs non metastatic in breast cancer (P = 0.04). (iii) NM23H1 levels strongly correlated with T,N,M category, histological grade and advanced stage (p<0.001) and not associated with any other studied parameter. Conclusion: Conclusively, reduced Nm23H1 expression is a negative prognostic factor for OS, advancing tumor stage, axillary lymph node status, metastatic propensity and advancing grade of the breast cancer patient. Patients with negative Nm23H1 expression may require a more intensive therapeutic strategy.

  188. Dr. Javvid Muzamil, Dr. ShiekhAejaz Aziz, Dr Gull Mohammad Bhat, Dr. Abdul Rashid Lone Dr ShuaebBhat and DrFirdousaNabi

    Plasma cell dyscrasias represent 1.4-2 % of all malignancies and among hematologic malignancies; it constitutes 10 % of the tumors. Plasma cell dyscrasias are composed of multiple myeloma, primary and secondary plasma cell leukemia. Primary plasma cell leukemia (pPCL) is a rare and aggressive disease, represents 1-4 % of plasma cell dyscrasias. The prognosis of this is very poor with median survival of 8- 11 months in different reported series. We are reporting a study from our hospital over a period of ten years, in which pPCL was found in 1.8% of multiple myeloma patients, with slight male predominance and earlier age than multiple myeloma, and all had high disease burden with high LDH, β2 microglobulin, and plasmacytosis. This disease had very aggressive behavior especially with light chain lambda disease and all patients succumbed within 8 months of treatment.

  189. Dr. Mamatha G. S. Reddy, Dr. Archana Gupta, Dr. Supriya Kheur, Dr. Roopa Madalli and Dr. Elizabeth Dony

    Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) is a potentially malignant disorder with 7.6% of transformation rate into oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) of which majority display low grade of tumor differentiation. The aim of the study is to assess the genetic markers p53 and ki-67 in OSMF, OSCC and OSCC with the background of OSMF. 10 cases of each group were stained with p53 and Ki-67 by immunohistochemistry. Statistically significant results were found amongst the 3 groups with moderate to severe expression (p<0.05) of both the markers. To conclude, these biomarkers can be useful in assessing the malignant transformation in oral precancerous conditions and may serve as intermediate points for cancer prevention programmes.

  190. Aemero Asmamaw, Sirak H/Mariam and Tefera Tadesse

    The objective of this study was to assess the existing institutional practices and conditions that nurture the development of students in two sports academies in Ethiopia. To this end, the researchers used a qualitative case study design conducting focus group discussions with 20 randomly selected students and individual interviews with 4 coaches and 2 sports academy directors. The findings pointed some strengths and weaknesses of the programs. For most of the study participants the prevailing learning environment, levels of engagement in sports, and academic culture were found essential conditions for learning and development. Moreover, many of them explained the presence of positive relationship between students and coaches. Also, they felt that sporting events were properly managed with the specified time frame, and expressed positive views about participating in friendly matches with other sport clubs. However, the study participants expressed negative opinions about the sports programs as they predominantly focused on the practical skill training, without a balanced complement of theoretical components. Even sports trainings mainly represent team trainings with minimal or no individual trainings. Also, coaches most often arranged friendly matches with other more advanced clubs that used players of higher age levels than students in sports academies. It was clear from the study participants report that the two sports academies were in short of sports materials, equipment, facilities, as well as recreational and entertainment places. In sum, study participants strongly suggested the need for well harmonized sports education programs supported by academic sciences and psychological trainings, along with the fulfillment of essential resources and the planned conduct of friendly matches with participants of the same age categories.

  191. Dr. Archana A. Gupta, Dr Supriya Kheur, 1Dr. Mamatha, G. S., Dr. Lakshmi Shetty and Dr. Mohit Kheur

    Traditionally oral cancer has always been associated with tobacco and areca nut chewing habit. An emerging concept is that tumor development and progression is also largely dependent on the cross - talk between immune system and tumor cells. Amongst internal agents, tumor associated macrophages and fibroblasts, play a pivotal role. Cytokines released by fibroblasts crucially affect the carcinoma cell behaviour and the role of chronic inflammation in tumor progression has now widely accepted. Amongst external agents causing infections like, fungal agents (candidiasis) and viruses (HPV and EBV), with oral cancer have already been discussed by many researchers. It is the bacterial population (H. pylori) in microenvironment, which is now continuously increasing the concern of the scientists towards itself. H. pylori association has already been established with gastric, pancreatic and hepatocellular cancers. It is present in oral cavity with GCF and plaque as its ecological niche and is shown to release inflammatory mediators like cytokines, when associated with chronic gingivitis and periodontitis. These inflammatory mediators when accumulate in the microenvironment of tissues for prolonged periods of time have the capacity to induce cell proliferation and to promote prolonged cell survival through activation of oncogenes and inactivation of tumor suppressor genes. This results in genetic instability with increased risk of oral cancer. Association of H. pylori is still a grey area of study as not many studies have been done in respect to the same. Hence, this study is done to outline the association between H. pylori, its role in chronic inflammation and finally the progression of the disease towards oral cancer.

  192. Nazima Ameen and Sabeeha Shafi

    Mentha arvensis Linn belonging to family Lamiaceae is native to the temperate regions of Europe and western and central Asia, east to the Himalaya and eastern Siberia, and America. It is a herbaceous perennial plant growing to 10–60 cm (rarely to 100 cm) tall. The leaves are in opposite pairs, simple, 2–6.5 cm long and 1–2 cm broad, hairy, and with a coarsely serrated margin. The flowers are pale purple (occasionally white or pink), in clusters on the stem, each flower 3–4 mm long. The plant is widely distributed throughout India.

  193. Arjun Agarwal, 2Rojaramani, P., Sathyanarayan Shivkumaran, Ganesh, M. S., Cheena Garg and Sreekanth Reddy

    Ovarian malignancies are on the rise worldwide. Important strategy in management is to differentiate benign from malignant lesions since for benign lesions ovariectomy is sufficient but malignant tumours require cytoreductive surgery with IV or intraperitoneal chemotherapy. Though imaging can help in diagnosis, histopathology is confirmatory. This report highlights the role of intraoperative frozen section in diagnosis of such malignancies.

  194. Dr. Shalaka Indap, Dr. Mugdha Kowli, Dr. Amiti Shah, Dr. Nilay Chakrabarti and Dr. Kalpana Hajirnis

    Pancreatic panniculitis is rare form of panniculitis associated with pancreatic disease. The skin manifestations can occur at any time of the pancreatic pathology. Here we report a case of pancreatic panniculitis in a patient with no pancreatic pathology.

  195. Tewodros G Mariam, Dr. Sisay Mengistu and Belay Zewude

    Background: According to high blood pressure statistics, about 1.5 billion people are suffering from high blood pressure world-wide. Arterial hypertension is a major health problem among all population in the world. Hypertension is common risk factors for sexual dysfunction. Study shows that there was a greater tendency for hypertensive adults with or without treatment to have low libido compared with age-matched normotensive adults. So, sexual dysfunction (dissatisfaction) is more frequent in patients with uncontrolled. Research has shown that an improvement in sexual satisfaction among hypertensive adults suffer from sexual dysfunction, as a result of increased physical activity. Objective: The main objective of this study is to determine the relationship between sexual dysfunction and physical activity among adults with uncontrolled hypertension. Methods: A nationwide hospital based cross-sectional study design was employed to determine the relationship between physical activity and sexual dysfunction among adults with uncontrolled hypertension. The study was conducted from October 1 to march 30, 2014/15. Six hospitals were selected purposively, from the selected hospitals hypertensive adults’ patients were selected by systematic random sampling technique. Interview administered questionnaire, blood pressure and anthropometry measurements were used as a data collection instruments. The study was under go after the approval of Jimma Institutional Review Board (IRB) college of Natural science and receiving support of letter. Results: Hypertensive patients’ participated in regular physical activity had an overall positive effect on sexual satisfaction during sexual activity (M = 1.46, SD= 0.622) than those did not participate in regular physical activity (M = 1.15, SD= 0.374) and hypertensive participants having normal weight had higher overall sexual satisfaction during sexual activity (M=1.63, SD=0.768) than obese (M=1.54, SD=0.616) and overweight participants (M=1.53, SD=0.626). In addition, hypertensive men had slightly higher overall sexual satisfaction during sexual activity (M=1.56, SD=0.721) than hypertensive women (M=1.54, SD=0.644). Conclusion: Normal weight hypertensive participant’s significantly more sexually satisfying than overweight and obese hypertensive participants. And hypertensive patients’ participated in physical exercise increased their overall effect of sexual satisfaction than those did not participate in physical activity. Furthermore, hypertensive women were decreased their overall sexual satisfaction during sexual activity than hypertensive men.

  196. Sushila Devi Bhandari and Dr. Sarala Joshi

    Background: Globally, pregnancy and childbirth complications are the major cause of death among 15 to 19 year teenaged mothers. Teenage pregnancy and childbirth is a common health problem in industrialized as well as the middle and low income countries. Teenage pregnancy is also a major social and health problem in Nepal and which occurs two times higher in rural areas than in urban areas. The purpose of this study was to explore maternal and foetal outcomes among teenage mothers regarding teenage pregnancy and childbirth. Methods: Descriptive exploratory study design was used. Simple random sampling technique was used to select the hospital and purposive sampling was used for the selection of the study population and total population was 245 teenage mothers delivered at hospital.Written consent was obtained from each respondent. Semi structured interview schedule was used for data collection and collecting data was analysis by using SPSS 20. Results: The mean age of the respondents was 18.04 years ± 1.018. The study found that ethnicity; numbers of sibling, education and respondents knowledge are the most aggravating factors for early marriage, pregnancy and childbirth. Early teenage mothers faced social as well as health problems in relation to late teen mothers. Antenatal visit has significant association (p-value=0.017) with health problems faced during pregnancy. Neonates born from early teenage mother were more prone to being low birth weight than late teen mother (p value=0.006). Conclusion: Teenage pregnancy and childbirth can be minimized by advocating girl’s education and increasing awareness among parents and girl child herself. Regular Antenatal clinic visit during pregnancy help to improve the pregnancy outcomes.

  197. Saraswati Sharma and Dr. Sarala Joshi

    Introduction: Type II diabetes is a common condition and a serious national and international health problem. In most countries diabetes has increased along-side rapid cultural and social changes: ageing populations, increasing urbanization, dietary changes, reduced physical activity and unhealthy behaviors. About eight percent of adults in the world are estimated to have diabetes, out of them eighty percent live in low- and middle-income countries. The main objective of this study is to assess the health related quality of life of adult diabetic client. Methods: In this study descriptive exploratory study design was used. Simple random sampling technique was adopted to select the hospital and purposive sampling was used for the selection of the study population. All together the total study population were 301 of type II diabetic client Written consent was taken from each respondents. Univariate analysis was used for mean, median, range and standard deviation and Bivariate analysis was used for Chi-square test, ANOVA and Pearson Co-relation. Result: The mean age of the respondents was 52.903 years ±8.272 and it is strongly related with physical domain, which is statistically significant where (p-value =0.000). The chi-square test (p-value =0.021) showed that there is relationship between duration of diabetes and psychological health status. There is strong relationship between diabetes complication and quality of life which is proved by ANOVA test where (F-value 8.208 and P- value.004). Conclusion: HRQoL is strongly reduced in diabetic patients. Apart from demographic characteristics, presence of complications influences is more in HRQoL. Diabetes could be prevented by running awareness program and adopting the healthier behavior.

  198. Gurwinder Kaur, Dr. Sukhraj Kaur and Dr. Amritpal Kaur

    Background and Aim: Infertility is a common condition with a prevalence of 12-14%. It has important medical, economic and psychological implications. Thyroid hormones play an important role in menstural health and fertility. The aim of the study was to study serum gonadotrophins in hypothyroid females in reproductive age group and to find a correlation if any amongst the two and also study the prevalence of infertility in hypothyroid and subclinical hypothyroid patients. Design and Methods: In this study Thyroid function tests (T3, T4, TSH) and serum Prolactin, FSH and LH was estimated in 150 individuals, out of which 75 females were having primary infertility and 75 females were normal. Statistical analysis: Data collected is presented as mean± S.D. Pearson’s coefficient of correlation was calculated to study the correlation between different parameters. Results: The prevalence of sub clinical hypothyroidism was 81% with increased serum prolactin. A Significant positive correlation was found between TSH and LH and a negative correlation between TSH and FSH Conclusions: Prevalence of sub clinical hypothyroidism is more than overt hypothyroidism in the infertile females enrolled in the present study. A small deviation from the normal levels of TSH should be taken into consideration and treated accordingly so as to prevent primary infertility.

  199. Roshna, K. R. and Dr. R. Pradeep Kumar

    Background: Dental caries is highly prevalent and a significant public health problem among children throughout the world. The prevalence and incidence of dental caries in a population is influenced by a number of risk factor such as age, sex, socio-economic status, dietary patterns and hygienic habits. The main objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of dental caries among school children in Chennai. Aim and objectives: This study is to assess the prevalence of dental caries among 3-15 year old school children in Chennai. Methods: A dental screening camp conducted for 570 school children in Chennai. Results: The prevalence of dental caries was found higher among males. The mean decayed teeth were found to be higher in 3-5year old children when compared to 3 to 15 year old school children. Conclusion: In the present study, it was observed that approximately half of children are caries free. Still as public health people. It is important to maintain low prevalence of caries among children by increasing awareness and promoting oral health care strategies and we have to aim at achieving DMFT for all school going children.

  200. Dr. Qasim Hamza Eriby and Luai Farhan Zghair

    Background: Trauma remains a big health problem in every country. Regardless of the level of socioeconomic development, trauma is responsible for 25% of the death in the USA. It is also the leading cause of death in the people from 1 to 44 years of age. Penetrating trauma is still the most frequent cause of death in the first four decades of life, and the rate of trauma causing morbidity and mortality increase in war time and violent conditions. In order to minimize the morbidity and mortality rate associated with penetrating trauma, the factors affecting morbidity and mortality were evaluated to choose those patients who need more intensive care and put them in the suitable ward with high facility or refer them to better centers. Study of these predictive factors also gives an idea about the efficacy of surgical team and hospital facilities and help in comparison between different trauma centers. Objectives: The aim of this study is to evaluate and analyze predictive factors for developing mortality and morbidity in penetrating abdominal trauma by using penetrating abdominal trauma index (PATI), number of intra abdominal organs injured, associated extra- abdominal injuries , age, sex, and type of injuring agent. Patients and methods: In this study 96 patients managed at Hospital for a period of 2 years. Patient age, sex, causative agent, severity of injury according to PATI and number of intra abdominal injured organ, associated extra- abdominal injuries and time between injury and arrival to hospital were studied. Results: Eighty Patients (83.3%) were males,16 (16.7%) were females. The male to females ratio was 5:1. The age of Patients were ranged from 1.5 to 60 years, with a mean age of 27.9 years ± SD 10.9 years, and the majority being in the third decade. Our study showed that the Injured intra-abdominal organs in decreasing frequency were large bowel (35.4%), liver (33.3%), small bowel (33.3%), diaphragm (22.9%), kidney (19.8%), stomach (19.8%), spleen (16.6%) and pancreas (7.3%). The extra- abdominal organ injured was chest (35.4%), upper limb (8.3%), lower limb (4.1%), head and neck (4.1%) and spinal cord (2.1 %). PATI was calculated in every operated Patient, the range of PATI was between (0 to 70) with a mean value (20.8 ± S.D 14). The study showed that PATI in dead Patients was the highest value while in morbid patients was more than 25, while patients with smooth post operative course was less than 25. Thirteen patients died (13.5%), 11 males (11.4%) and 2 females (2.1%) due to severe hemorrhage and consequences of dissaminating intravascular coagulation (DIC) and multiorgan failure (MOF). Seven (7.3%) of the dead Patients had extra- abdominal injuries. The morbidity rate was (37.5%) and the main cause of morbidity was wound sepsis (15.6%). Conclusion: Patients with penetrating abdominal trauma index more than 20 have greater possibility for developing complications and may need admition to intensive care unit (ICU) or respiratory care unit (RCU). Recommendation: 1. Efficient ambulance service, blood bank and regional trauma center are important to the reduction of the mortality and morbidity in trauma patients. 2. Increase the beds with good staff and equipments in ICU and RCU is important for decrease the mortality and morbidity in postoperative period. 3. Libral use of blood products is essential in management of penetrating abdominal trauma. 4. PATI is useful in planning management of patients with penetrating abdominal trauma.

  201. Syed Imtiyaz Hussain, Gulshan Akhter, Baba Iqbal Khaliq and Ruby Reshi

    Endometriosis is characterized by the presence of endometrial tissue consisting of glands and/or stroma located outside the uterus. Involvement of the terminal ileum is extremely rare. Preoperative distinction of ileal endometriosis from other diseases of the ileocecal region is difficult in terms of clinical presentation, symptomatology, radiological appearance, and surgical and pathological findings. We report a case which was diagnosed as suspicious of malignancy and was having intestinal obstruction, but finally diagnosed as ileocaecal endometriosis by histopathological evaluation after resection of the involved segment.

  202. Dr Umapathy Thimmegowda, Dr Prem Kishore Kajapuram, Dr Prasanna Kumar Bhat, Kumar B. Niwlikar and Dr Ashwini Chikkanayakanahalli Prabhakar

    The cleidocranial dysplasia is a rare disease which can occur in either sex equally or by autosomal dominant trait. Problems associated with this condition are multiple supernumerary teeth, retained deciduous teeth, delayed eruption, change in shape, impacted teeth and absence of deciduous teeth resorption. For the management of Cleidocranial dyaplasia with many clinical conditions various orthodontic-surgical regimes are discussed in literature. Here we report a rare case of cleidocranial dysplasia in a 25 year old female patient with a new orthodontic- surgical approach which is more adaptive and useful for interdisciplinary management.

  203. Vanja Filipovski, Vesna Janevska, Katerina Kubelka-Sabit and Dzengis Jasar

    Introduction: Androgens are vital to prostate growth, development, and prostatic carcinogenesis. Studies have been conducted to evaluate androgen receptor expression in cancer cells and most of the studies have concentrated on cancer epithelial cells and not cancer stromal cells. Development of the prostate gland as well as development of prostatic cancer is closely associated with stromal-epithelial interactions and in the centre of these interactions stands the Androgen Receptor in both stromal and epithelial cells. Material and Methods: A retrospective study was conducted using 70 cases of diagnosed prostatic cancer from radical prostatectomy samples. The immunohistichemical analysis was conducted using Androgen Receptor antibody. Quantification of the signal was analyzed using the histological score (HSCORE) that encompasses the percentage of stained cells and the intensity of the signal. Than histological score was correlated with tumor grade using the Gleason scoring system were the cancers were divided into well differentiated prostatic carcinoma (G1) (Gleason score 2-6), moderately differentiated carcinoma (G2) (Gleason score 7) and poorly differentiated carcinoma (G3) (Gleason score 8-10). Results: In the epithelial cells Androgen Receptor expression declined as Gleason grade increased but this correlation was statistically not significant. In the stromal cells a decline in Androgen Receptor expression was also noted but this decline was more pronounced and statistically significant correlation of Androgen Receptor expression was noted between well differentiated carcinomas and moderately and poorly differentiated prostatic carcinomas. Conclusion: Androgen Receptor expression in stromal cells of prostatic carcinoma shows more pronounced decrease as the tumor dedifferentiates compared to Androgen Receptor expression in epithelial cells of prostatic carcinoma.

  204. Poonam Chaudhary, Mahavir Singh, Satia, H. K., Raman Sharma and Puneeta Ajmera

    Background and Aim: This manuscript is aimed to develop a theoretical framework for performance management and measurement of Medical Equipment Management System (MEMS) based on key performance indicators (KPIs) which fits well in public hospital context of India and other developing countries. Material and Methods: The paper is based on literature analysis followed by statistical analysis. Study design consisted of selection of a set of KPIs and their organization into a simple logic model consisting of four domains of input, process, output and outcome. These domains and the integrated framework were subjected to the reliability and validity testing by statistical methods. Results: 28 numbers of valid KPIs were selected and organized into domains and further into an integrated framework for comprehensive measurement of the performance of MEMS for the public hospital in an effective and efficient manner. Conclusions: Establishment and validation of the framework for MEMS was an attempt for holistic management of the medical devices from the perspectives of the primary healthcare stakeholders and the patients. The framework will also be useful to find out the strengths and weaknesses of MEMS at an individual organizational level. Moreover, based upon the measuring tool of KPIs, it also helps at an early stage to make the appropriate changes and quality improvements in the system.

  205. Dr. Madhusudhanreddy, Dr. N. Govindraj Kumar, Dr. Swetha, P. and Dr. A. NagaSupriya

    Tooth that is present in addition to the normal set of dentition was termed as supernumerary tooth or hyperdontia. They may be erupted or unerupted, single, multiple, unilateral or bilateral, and in one or both jaws. Multiple supernumerary teeth are rare in individuals with no other associated diseases or syndromes. Here we discussed two interesting cases of supernumeraries in female patients without any associated syndromes

  206. Savjot Kaur, Mridula Mahajan, AJS Bhanwer, Santokh Singh and Kawaljit Matharoo

    Background: CAD has been associated with mortality and diminished quality of life. Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma is a transcription factor that leads to the regulation of glucose homeostasis, lipoprotein metabolism and nuclear homeostasis. Aim: The present study aimed at evaluating the association, if any, of Pro12Ala polymorphism (rs1801282) in PPARγ gene in CAD cases in the North West Punjabi population of Punjab. Subjects and Methods: A total of 600 samples from Punjab comprising 300 CAD cases (199 CAD without T2DM and 101 CAD with T2DM) and 300 controls were genotyped for Pro12Ala PPARγ polymorphism using amplification-refractory mutation system-polymerase chain reaction. Results: The frequency of G allele was observed to be higher in controls (14.8%) compared to CAD without T2DM (11.6%) and CAD with T2DM (13.4%) cases. Co-dominant model provided 0.64 fold protection towards CAD predisposition (p=0.04, OR=0.64(0.41-0.98)). Conclusion: The study demonstrated that under genetic model analysis, only co-dominant model provided significant association and G allele (Pro12Ala) conferred protection against CAD in individuals with low waist circumference.

  207. Dr. Dhirendra Ray and Dr. Sachin Khanna

    We reported a rare case of unilateral agenesis of levator ani. A adolescent male child came for evaluation of perineal swelling. On MRI study, we nicely depicted complete nonvizualization of unilateral levator ani muscle.

  208. Priya Sapra and Neha Keshwani Dhaded

    Rehabilitation of a missing anterior tooth poses a challenge for the clinician. A variety of therapeutic options from implants to conventional Maryland bridges can be used to address this challenge. However cost, time and preservation of natural tooth structure limits their use. Recently, Fiber reinforced composite resin bridges have been suggested as a good alternative to conventional prosthetic treatment when fixed, conservative, economical and immediate tooth replacement is desired. This article describes a case of immediate tooth replacement by single-visit fiber reinforced resin composite bridge using impregnated glass woven fiber (Interlig, Angelus, Brazil) to reinforce composite resin as pontic. The procedure was completed chair-side, thereby avoiding laboratory cost and time. Eight month follow-up has shown a successful treatment outcome with no evidence of problems.

  209. Dr. Shantipriya Reddy, Dr. Prasad, M. G. S., Dr. Nirjhar Bhowmick, Dr. Savita Singh and Dr. Abis Amir

    Guided Bone Regeneration (GBR) is a technique for bone reconstruction of alveolar ridge achieved with help of non resorbable or resorbable membranes. Bone grafts can be used in combination with membranes to further enhance the results. It may be used in conjunction with dental implants, in socket preservation, or in a staged manner. GBR procedures have been utilized for localized ridge augmentation as well as in reconstruction of larger areas. Both vertical and horizontal augmentation can be achieved although the predictability is not same for both. This literature review discusses the rationale, flap designs and predictability of GBR.

  210. Dr. C. Sumalata

    Pancreatic disorders like Acute pancreatitis, Pancreatic Abscess, Pseudocyst, Pancreatic malignancy, Chronic pancreatitis present with pleural effusions. Here we present four cases of right sided massive hemorrhagic pancreatic pleural effusion which presented with chest complaints rather than abdominal ailments. Pancreatic pathology was established after thorough workup and Pleural fluid analysis which showed elevated amylase levels in all the cases and this was clinching our diagnosis which was also supported by Computed Tomography of Abdomen (Plain and Contrast). Hemorrhagic Pleural effusions which also occur in tuberculosis, malignancy primary or secondary or may be due trauma are ruled out during evaluation of each and every case.

  211. Dr. Sangeetha, K. P., Dr. Kumudha, P., Dr. Vishnu Priya, M. and Dr. Panneerselvam, T.

    Introduction: The commonest complication of liver cirrhosis is hepatic encephalopathy. Hepatic encephalopathy is a complication of acute or chronic liver disease. Clinically hepatic encephalopathy can be classified as overt and Minimal. Minimal hepatic encephalopathy represents cognitive deficits in the absence of Overt encephalopathy. Aims and Objectives: The study is conducted to evaluate cognitive dysfunction ,which is a marker of subclinical or Minimal hepatic encephalopathy in liver cirrhotics by Minimental state examination and Number connection test. Materials and Methods: 30 liver cirrhotics of both sexes in the age group 30 and 58 of various etiology with atleast primary school education and without clinical evidence of hepatic encephalopathy were included in the study. controls were age and sex matched healthy population. Both the controls and cirrhotics are subjected to MMSE, number connection test. Mean > 2 SD of controls was considered as cut off point for the diagnosis of minimal hepatic encephalopathy .The data were analysed by students ‘t’ test. Results: MMSE scoring showed no significant difference between both the groups. Controls were able to perform better in number connection test than cirrhotics (41.27 ± 11 vs 105 ± 49). About 63 % of cirrhotics had abnormal number connection test suggestive of cognitive impairement .No significant difference was observed in number connection test between alcoholic and nonalcoholic cirrhotics. Thus alcohol as independent factor in cognitive dysfunction can be ruled out. Conclusion: Though all patients had preserved language, memory and verbal abilities there is significant cognitive impairement such as impaired attention and visuospatial orientation which may indicate minimal hepatic encephalopathy. This suggest the possibility that this disorder mainly affects prefrontal cortex and circuit between basal ganglia and prefrontal cortex. Thus periodic evaluation with number connection test may be helpful in diagnosing subclinical hepatic encephalopathy.

  212. Javvid Muzamil, Dr. ShiekhAejaz Aziz, Dr. Gull Mohammad Bhat, Dr. Abdul Rashid Lone, Dr. AnsarHakim, Dr. NadeemShouket, Dr. BurhanWani and FirdousaNabi

    Chemotherapy is still the standard of care in management of solid tumors. Chemotherapy has a common toxicity of myelosuppression. Some chemotherapy regimens cause either thrombocytopenia or bi-cytopenia. Living in developing countries pose another challenge in treatment of myelosuppression, and to continue timely chemotherapy. Aim: To study the role of Carica Papaya extract in treatment of chemo induced thrombocytopenia in low socio-economic strata of patients. Methods: It was a prospective study, in which patients of different solid tumors were enrolled. Haemogram of all patients was recorded when they got myelosuppression on continuation of chemotherapy. Carica Papaya plant extract in the form of capsule (Swiss count from Friska) 700 to 1400 mg a day in two divided doses was given for a period of five days. Repeat haemogram was carried out on sixth day. Results: There was median nine fold rise in platelet count and median 1.65 fold rise in total leucocyte count in cases, while as in controls; there was 4.3 fold rise in platelet count. Conclusion: This is a very economical method of treatment of chemotherapy induced myelosuppression and very much recommended for developing countries, to decrease cost of treatment significantly.

  213. Dr. Panneerselvam, T., Dr. Kumudha, P., Dr. Vishnu Priya M. and Dr. Sangeetha, K. P.

    Introduction: The pulmonary function tests give an objective assessment of the functional status of the respiratory system and indicate the nature and extent of the functional disturbance in disorders associated with pulmonary impairment and disability. Spirometry is valuable in industrial medicine, to study the lung involvement in occupational diseases which occur in workers of textile mills, coal mines and other occupations in which they are exposed to various forms of air pollutants. Several research workers have confirmed the ill effects of air pollutants on respiratory functions of human being. In stainless steel utensil polishing industries the workers are exposed to carbon black and chromium dust. This prompted us to undertake this study to assess the pulmonary function tests in the stainless steel utensil polish workers. Aim: To perform pulmonary function test in stainless steel utensil workers to evaluate and analyze whether long term occupational exposure to stainless steel utensil polishing dust which contains carbon black and chromium affects lung functions. Materials and Methods: This cross sectional study was carried out to assess and evaluate the effects of stainless steel utensil polishing dust on the lung function. The study involved 65 male workers exposed to stainless steel utensil polishing dust and 50 healthy individuals as control group. The workers were aged between 18-32 years and the duration of employment was above 5 years. The control group also aged between 18-32 years. The micromedical superspiro was used for this study. The procedure was explained to the subject repeatedly in detail. The maneuver was demonstrated to each subject separately before performing the test. The pulmonary function test was conducted by seating the subject comfortably in chair with spine erect position. The following functional parameters, Forced Expiratory Volume in first second (FEV1), Forced Vital Capacity (FVC), Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PEF), FEV1 as percentage of VC (FEV1/VC), Maximum Expired Flow Rate at 75%, 50%, 25% of FVC remaining such as MEF75, MEF50, MEF25, Mean Mid Expiratory Flow Rate (MMEF Or FEF 25-75%), Maximum Voluntary Ventilation Indicated (MVV Ind), Forced Inspiratory Volume In First Second ( FIV1), Forced Inspiratory Vital Capacity (FIVC), Peak Inspiratory Flow Rate (PIF), Maximum Expiratory Flow Rate 50/ Maximum Inspiratory Flow Rate 50 (MEF50/ MIF50), Forced Expiratory Time (FET) were studied. Results: The FEV1, FVC, PEF, FEVI/FVC, MEF50, MEF25, MMEF, MVVInd, FIV1, FIVC, PIF, MEF50/ MIF50 and FET values were used for this study. The data collected were statistically analysed by using students‘t’- test. Having analysed the results in our study the following was inferred. The FEV1, FVC, PEF, MEF75, MEF50, MMEF, MVVInd, FIV1, FIVC, PIF, FET showed significant decrease in stainless steel utensil polish workers than control group. The FEV1/ FVC, MEF50/ MIF50, MEF25 showed a slight increase in stainless steel utensil polish workers when compared to control group, suggesting a restrictive pulmonary parenchymal disease. Conclusion: As per the PFT results, among the 65 polish workers 26 workers have mild restriction, 16 workers have moderate restriction and 23 workers have severe restriction. Hence it is concluded that yearly assessment of pulmonary function is necessary for evaluation of the respiratory risk from carbon black and chromium dust environment to plan further preventive intervention.

  214. Dr. Pradeep Kumar, Dr. Ida de Noronha de Ataide, Dr. Marina Fernandes and Dr. Rajan Lambor

    Furcal perforation is usually an undesired complication that can occur during preparation of endodontic access cavities or exploring canal orifice of multirooted teeth. Inadequacy of the repair materials has been a contributing factor to the poor outcome of repair procedures. On the basis of several studies carried out and assess the physical and biologic property of Biodentin, it was concluded that this material may be suitable for closing the communication between the pulp chamber and the underlying periodontal tissues. The purpose of this case report was to describe the treatment of a furcal perforation using Biodentin in a mandibular molar. The perforation site was irrigated with saline solution and sealed with Biodentin with internal matrix. The teeth was endodontically treated and coronally restored. After one year, the absence of periradicular radiolucent lesion, pain and swelling along with functional tooth stability indicated a successful outcome of the sealing procedure.

  215. Dr. Babitha, G. A., Dr. Shiva Charan Yadav, Dr. Shobha Prakash, Dr. K. Suresh, Dr. Snehal Deotale and Dr. Sachin Gaikwad

    Objective: To assess correlation between dermatoglyphics, ABO blood groups ,Rh factor among periodontally healthy and diseased patients Materials and Methods: A total of 100 patients with chronic periodontitis and 100 periodontally healthy patients were included in the study. The finger print pattern of participants will be recorded with a rolling impression technique using duplicating ink on executive bond paper. Non fasting venous blood was collected from each subject, and analyzed for determination of ABO blood groups and Rh factor. Oral hard and soft tissue examination done with clinical parameters like gingival bleeding on probing, probing pocket depth, clinical attachment level. The data will then be correlated Results: It was observed that there is increased frequency of whorl and loop on all fingers compared to arch pattern in patients with chronic periodontitis. There is increased prevalance of patients with O positive blood group showed inclination towards chronic periodontitis, where as patients with A positive blood group inclined towards healthy periodontium.

  216. Brito do Rosario Belinda Amarilda, Hong Jiang, Jinling Du, Selotlegeng Lesego and Fang Pan

    Hospital humanization is necessary to creating a comfortable place for patients to get well. The aim of this study was to investigate the perceived quality of hospital environment between the different categories of hospital users, i.e. Patients, staff and visitor/companions in China. A total of 204 subjects including inpatients, outpatients, companions, health professionals, as well as hospital administrations were enrolled in the present study. Subjects completed questionnaires including the demographic information, physical environment variables and social environment variables. The results indicated hospital unit humanization: 79 (38.7%) low humanized, 83 (40.7%) medium humanized, and 46 (22.5%) high humanized. When comes to positive points; the hospital users are satisfied with physical environmental variables in general. In relation to accessibility the results indicated that 23.1 % among those who belong to administration of the hospital are dissatisfied, 38.5 % consider is normal/regular, while 38.5 % are satisfied. The study concluded that base on the level of satisfaction of hospital users and the direct observation of the hospital environment, the hospital under study approached a humanized hospital.

  217. Ashish Dalal, Ritambhara Lohan, Gauri Chauhan and Muskaan Ahlawat

    Transient neonatal pustular melanosis TNPM and Erythema Toxicum Neonatorum ETN are benign dermatosis with vesiculopustular erruptionsoccurring in the neonatal period. On the basis of overlapping clinical and microscopic staining of lesions, few authors suggested that clear cut distinction could not be made between TNPM and ETN. In our case both occurred separately, as TNPM was followed by ETN.

  218. Dr. Jacob Prakash Animelli, Dr. Madhusudhan Reddy, Dr. Naveen, P., Dr. Mahesh, N. and Dr. Vijayalakshmi Mahanthi

    A wide variety of normal and neoplastic human tissues are characterized by granular cells. Granular cell lesions from many different sites share similar light and electron microscopic features. The striking histological feature is the morphological resemblance of the cells in these lesions which are characterized primarily by the presence of numerous cytoplasmic acidophilic granules. The entire tumor may be composed of these cells or the cells may be seen as focal aggregates. Odontogenic tumors of the jaws with a predominant component of granular cells are exceedingly rare. This presentation highlights the occurrence of granular cells of both epithelial and mesenchymal origin in odontogenic tumors of varying clinical behaviour, treatment and prognosis.

  219. Dr. Meenakshi K Bharadwaj and Dr. Seema Patriker

    World over, half of the anaemic burden is assumed to be due to iron deficiency. In pregnancy, it has been estimated that 38.2% (95% CI: 33.5-42.6) of pregnant women which corresponds to 32 million women have anaemia globally. Iron deficiency results when there is inadequate iron intake and absorption, increased iron requirement during growth, and excessive iron losses. Iron absorption is tightly regulated according to body iron reserves and the intensity of erythropoiesis. An important iron regulatory peptide hormone, hepcidin secreted by the liver, is detected to play significant role in iron homeostasis. Serum ferritin levels are the accurate indicator of total body iron stores and serum sTfR a sensitive marker of iron deficiency in pregnancy. Iron deficiency anaemia in pregnancy is known to be associated with increased risk of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. Iron is important for early placental development, which maintains pregnancy and provides nutrients and oxygen to the developing fetus. Iron deficiency can adversely impact birth outcomes and result in preterm birth and low birth weight. Dietary iron which is the commonest source of iron is mostly in ferric form and it has to be reduced by the enzyme ferric reductase to the ferrous form before it can be absorbed by the enterocytes in the duodenum and jejunum. Iron absorption can vary from 1% to 40%, depending on the mix of enhancers and inhibitors in the meal. Oral iron therapy is standard care for the iron deficiency anaemia and parenteral iron is indicated when oral iron cannot be tolerated or absorbed or patient compliance is in doubt or if the woman is approaching term and there is insufficient time for oral supplementation to be effective (Level C recommendation). It is, however, more invasive and expensive to administer. Due to risk of allergic reactions, intravenous iron products should only be administered when staff trained to evaluate and manage anaphylactic or anaphylactoid reactions, as well as resuscitation facilities, are immediately available.

  220. Sphoorthi Basavannaiah

    Introduction: Eustachian tube maintains equilibrium between middle ear and atmosphere, protects against nasopharyngeal pressure variations, ascending secretions and microorganisms. Patent and functioning Eustachian tube is the foremost requirement for success of tympanoplasty. The reason behind graftfailure is abnormal function of Eustachian tube, which is the main pathology behind chronic suppurative otitis media. Objectives: The Eustachian tube patency is assessed here with various tubal function tests in all cases of safe otitis media. Materials and Methods: A random sample of 100 patients were screened and tubal function of each of them was assessed through simple, reliable and cost effective and those which can be daily applicable Eustachian tube function tests,and each test was compared with the other individually and results were drawn accordingly. Results: Among all 100 patients assessed, impression drawn were in terms of success rates : On Valsalva- 84%, Siegalisation- 86%, Ear drops- 87%, Nasopharyngoscopy- 80%, Tympanometry- in 75% pressure could not be built up and rest 25% were subjected to Toynbee’s test, of which 64% showed “step-ladder” graph and 36% showed “flat” graph. Conclusions: Of all the tests mentioned above that mainly comment on patency of the Eustachian tube, Toynbee’s maneuveris the only test which tells about function of Eustachian tube, opening and closing mechanism for equalisation of middle ear pressure.

  221. Dr. Santosh Manohar Bhosale and Dr. Nagaraj Mallashetty

    Background: Upper subscapular nerve is one of the most varied nerves of Brachial plexus. Variations in the origin of upper subscapular nerve of the posterior cord of brachial plexus are essential in surgical approaches to the axilla and upper arm, administration of anesthetic blocks, interpreting effects of nervous compressions and in repair of plexus injuries. The plethora of variations in the origin shows population differences. Data from central Karnataka population is scanty and needs detailed documentation. Objective: To describe the variations in the origin of upper subscapular nerve of the posterior cord of brachial plexus and its distance of origin from mid-clavicular point in the Central Karnataka population. Material and Methods: Forty brachial plexuses from 20 formalin fixed cadavers were explored by gross dissection. Origin and number of upper subscapular nerve was recorded. The distance of origin from mid-clavicular point was measured. Representative photographs were then taken using a digital camera. Results: Upper subscapular nerve had origin from the posterior cord in100 % specimens and 17.5% of specimens showed two upper subscapular nerves. Upper subscapular nerve in 63.8% specimens had origin at a distance of 3.6 – 4.0 cm, 19.1% of specimens at a distance of 3.1 – 3.5 cm and 17% of specimens at a distance of 4.1 – 4.5 cm.

  222. Joseph Pushpa Innocent, D.

    Aim: The aim of the study is to identify Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection among the rural population and to analyze the pattern of infection (pulmonary and extra pulmonary) in various age and sex wise distribution of the disease. Methodology: A total no of 1,31,600 patients attended Out Patient Department (OPD) of Karpaga Vinayaga Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Centre (KIMS-RC), over a period of six months between October 2015 and March 2016 and were clinically examined. Among them, 273 tuberculosis suspected cases were identified and included in this study. Specimens were collected from pulmonary and extra pulmonary suspected cases. Sputum samples were collected as per CDC guidelines collection procedure and the procedure was clearly explained to the patients and the collections were made under the supervision of a trained technician. Mucus and purulent part of the sputum samples were used to prepare the AFB smear. For extra pulmonary cases, body fluids and urine samples were collected. Smears were prepared as per the standard method and were stained by Zeil-Neelson’s procedure. Stained smears were studied by using oil immersion objective and the acid fast bacilli (AFB) were identified and graded as per standard guide lines. Results: Results were analyzed and it was found that the incidence of tuberculosis among the OPD attended cases (general population) it is only 0.21%. Among the tuberculosis suspected cases, 20.15% were positive for AFB and the pattern of infection was as follows. 52.7% were belonged to pulmonary tuberculosis and 47.3% were extra pulmonary cases. Conclusion: It is concluded that our study results revealed an alarming level of increase in extra pulmonary tuberculosis infection in this study population. Further our report indicated, as the age increases the rate of tuberculosis infection also increases. Male patients are found to be more prone for tuberculosis than females.

  223. Archanashivamurthy, Lee Mun Chin, Soh Siew Moon and Illiya Azizand Sive Shangkery

    Introduction: In today’s fast pace world, there is a greater need in building an effective doctor patient relationship, as patients also tend to expect more than just regular check-up sessions and demand a more holistic medical experience comprising of good doctor-patient relationship. Objective: To investigate students’ opinion on which factor is the most essential in building a good doctor-patient relationship Method: The study design for this study is cross-sectional study. Data was collected from 500 students via the prepared questionnaire and was scored using a scale from 1 to 5. Results were tabulated and analyzed. Result: Majority of students think that communication skills (87.65%) is the most important factor to establish a good doctor-patient relationship, followed by appearance (86.52%), manners (82.45%) and understanding (76.30%). Conclusion: Doctors communication and interpersonal skills encompass the ability to gather information in order to facilitate accurate diagnosis, counsel appropriately, give therapeutic instructions, and establish caring relationships with patients.

  224. Dr. Pardeep Mahajan, Dr. Navkesh Singh, Dr. Shikha Baghi Bhandari, Dr. Prashant Monga, Dr. Vanita Keshav and Dr. Deepika Singla

    Rotary nickel-titanium (NiTi) endodontic instruments are commonly used to prepare root canals. Several studies have reported the ability of rotary NiTi instruments to produce well-centered, smooth, minimally transported canals. Although having many advantages, these instruments have one major disadvantage of file breakage during canal preparation, which often occurs without prior warning to the operator. It is difficult to remove a separated instrument from root canal with conventional methods. Ultrasonics prove to be very useful in retrieving a seperated instrument , even though they may result in some complications.

  225. Chandrasekar, R., Sivagami, B. and Habibur Rahman, S. M.

    The use of traditional medicine (TM) com¬plementary and alternative medicine (CAM) has increased significantly over the past few years. In this context, it is necessary to develop information to meet the needs of consumers. Inequities in availability, accessibility and affordability of health care have increased, between as well as within populations the world over. In the recent past there has been a growing interest in Traditional medicine/Complementary and Alternative Medicine (TCAM) and their relevance to public health both in developed and developing countries. Diversity, flexibility, easy accessibility, broad continuing acceptance in developing countries and increasing popularity in developed countries, relative low cost, low levels of technological input, relative low side effects and growing economic importance are some of the positive features of traditional medicine (WHO 2002). According to WHO some of the major policy challenges include safety, efficacy, quality and rational use of traditional medicine. As a continuing effort, the current paper will give an overview on herbal medicines, which are the most influential traditional medicine systems to improve public health problems.

  226. Dr. S. Gokkulakrishnan, Dr. Satyabhushan, Dr. Suresh Kumar, Dr. Aarathi Shenoy, Dr. Rajaram Abishek balaji, Dr. Karunanidhi Sundharesh, Dr. Noel Davidson Kingsen Blessly Isaac, Dr. B. Nitin Joseph Jude and Dr. Sankalp verma

    Context: Establishment of a person’s individuality is of significance for legal as well as humanitarian purpose. Lip print is one of the evidence that can be left in the crime scene by which it helps in identification purpose. Thus the investigators can rely on chelioscopy as supportive evidence in specific investigation. Aim: The aim of the study to evaluate the predominant pattern of lip prints in Visakhapatnam population. The objectives of this study were to highlight the importance of lip prints related to forensic investigators for identification, to study the uniqueness of lip prints as like thumb prints in forensic investigations, to study the most common lip print in each individual and to compare the lip print patterns of male and female and to find out sex wise predilection of the lip. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 900 students of dental college in South India. The lips of the individuals were cleaned and a red colored lip stick was applied evenly, followed by transfer of lip prints using cellophane strip. Data was analyzed using SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences, Version 7.5) Statistical Package. Results: Type I and type IV were the most predominant lip patterns while type V was the least common pattern observed. There was no statistically observed difference between males and females in individual lip print types. Conclusion: So based on the findings we conclude that no two lip print patterns match each other thus establishing the uniqueness of lip prints.

  227. Dr. Balaji Aironi and Dr. Rohit Shahapurkar

    Congenital cyanotic heart diseases (CCHD) especially cyanotic spells require urgent assessment and treatment either medical or surgical intra-cardiac repair in view of the wide spectrum of anatomic variation. The prognosis of the disease, morbidity and mortality was high requiring special expertise and setup. Presence or absence of Patent Ductus decides the morbidity and mortality. Prostaglandins (PGE-1) can reopen and maintain patency of ductus arteriosus in neonates reducing the urgency of performing shunts and allowing resuscitation of the patients preoperatively. This study was thus done to show the interim changes that take place after the palliative surgery and thus preparing the patient for intra-cardiac repair. 40 patients with post Modified B T Shunt were studied with follow up for 5 years and to show the improvement of the various clinical features, and the favorable effects on patient condition and the long term beneficial results of the procedures.

  228. Shavkat Ibragimovich Karimov and Matkuliev Utkirbek Ismailovich

    Background: One of the most significant developments in recent years relating to the treatment of bleeding varicose veins of the esophagus and stomach (VVES) at Portal hypertension (PH), is the introduction into practice of the new endovascular technique - transjugular intrahepatic porto-systemic shunt (TIPS). TIPS is minimally invasive method of creating a portosystemic shunt to decompress the portal venous system and method allows embolize tributaries (left gastric vein, short gastric vein) VVES and thereby reduce the risk of bleeding. Aim: To study evaluation efficacy of the treatment of patients after TIPS with recurrent bleeding from VVES when endoscopic intervention were unsuccessful. Materials and Methods: Analyzed the results of examination and treatment of 76 patients undergoing TIPS attempt was made. 18 patients were in the Department of Abdominal Surgery of 2ndClinic of Tashkent Medical Academy (2014-2015), 58 - in the Chonnam National University Hospital (Republic of Korea) (2003-2013). In the 65 observations TIPS was successful. In 11 patients, due to technical difficulties (repeated exploratory puncture of the portal vein), TIPS failed. Of these, 8 patients had PH decompensated with refractory ascites. The technical success of the TIPS was 85.5%. Results: In 58 patients underwent TIPS observations using bare metal stents and 7 cases -stent grafts. In all cases there was a reduction of the pressure gradient, with an average of 21,1 ± 4,5 to 11,5 ± 1,8 mm Hg. Worsening encephalopathy was observed in 15 patients (23.0%). In 5 cases, the progression of liver failure was observed. Mortality from progressing PN observed in 2 patients. In 48 cases, TIPS was performed to stop the bleeding when the endoscopic procedures were unsuccessful. Hemostasis by reducing portal pressure was 95.8% (46 cases). In 2 cases of bleeding after TIPS marked relapse in the early period of shunt thrombosis. Patients were subjected to endovascular recanalization shunt. In 5 (8.0%) patients revealed thrombosis of intrahepatic stent and in 57 (89.2%) - portosystemic shunts were passable. Recurrent bleeding from VVES noted in 3 (4.8%) patients, which was the cause of death in one case. The growth of ascites was observed in 1 (1.6%) patients. Conclusion: We concluded that the main method of stop recurrent bleeding from VVES in patients with portal hypertension is TIPS. High mortality after implementation of public emergency operations at an altitude of bleeding stresses the need for the introduction of TIPS in the minutes introducing patients to emergency surgery. Moreover, TIPS is a type of porto-systemic shunt and cannot be considered a definitive treatment for patients with liver cirrhosis complicated with portal hypertension.

  229. Niketh Desouza

    Urinary incontinence is the involuntary leakage of urine. It is present in 35% of people over the age of 65 with half of the patients who are homebound or institutionalized being incontinent (Hannestad et al., 2000). It is twice more likely to occur in women over the age of 60 than in men due to the weakening of pelvic floor muscles during labour. Even the Ebers Papyrus (an ancient Egyptian medical text from 1500 B.C.) has mentioned using pads for the treatment and management of urinary incontinence (Becker, Horst-Dieter, 2005). The cause of incontinence can be reversible or transient. Urinary incontinence can have various economic, psychosocial and medical implications. It can lead to significant morbidity, decrease in activities and depression. The four main types of incontinence seen in the geriatric population are stress incontinence, urge incontinence, over flow incontinence and functional incontinence. If a patient presents with a combination of symptoms of stress and urge incontinence it can be termed as mixed incontinence. It is important to be able to distinguish between the several types of incontinence so that appropriate treatment can be given to reduce or eliminate to leakage.

  230. Dr. Sivasankari P., Dr. Manasa Anand Meundi, Dr. Chaya M David, Dr. Elavarasi Pandian and Dr. Abhishek Dubey

    Saliva has been described as the mirror of the body as it reflects oral and systemic health. The presence of disease specific biomarkers in saliva, aid in identification and monitoring of the disease progress. As a result saliva has increasingly been evaluated for its use as a diagnostic medium in the detection of dental caries, periodontal disease and other infectious diseases, salivary gland diseases, systemic diseases such as cardiovascular, renal, autoimmune disorders and in malignancies. Saliva as a diagnostic tool offers distinctive advantages over other body fluids because of its non invasive collection method and others. With the evolution of modern technologies, the options for use of saliva in diagnosis is becoming extensive. This review highlights the application of saliva as a potential biological tool in health and in diagnosis and monitoring the progression of disease states.

  231. Harshit Srivastava, Aastha Arora Srivastava, Ashwini.B.Prasad and Deepak Raisingani

    For successful endodontic therapy, the clinician must have the thorough knowledge of root canal morphology. But variations in the root canal morphology makes the endodontic treatment challenging. One of the most challenging anatomic variations is the “C” shape configuration of the canal system. C shape canal presents an extensive complex system which is difficult to diagnose by preoperative Intra oral periapical radiograph as it is two- dimensional image of a tooth. However, with the help of Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) which is a non-invasive three-dimensional (3D) imaging technique, clinician will get more precise detailing of canal morphology which in turn helps in successful diagnosis and treatment of tooth which has “C” shaped canal morphology. Here, in this paper we are discussing a case of C shape canal in the mandibular third molar which was successfully diagnosed and treated with the help of CBCT.

  232. Dr. Abhay Uppe, Dr. Abhijit Ahuja and Dr. Girija Nair

    Myocardial infarction in a young female without any known genetic or family history of heart disease nor any history of hyperlipidemia is rarely seen. We document a case of an 18 year old female with pulmonary tuberculosis developing myocardial infarction.

  233. Tamgadge Sandhya, Tamgadge Avinash and Agre Bhagyashre

    A healthy body is determined by the health of each cells which depends on acid-alkaline balance (or pH Balance). It is most crucial which can affect human health status. It impacts immunity, digestion, bone strength, symptoms of joint disease, hormones, and the function of essential internal organs." An improper pH balance that is acidic ph can not only severely impact quality of life, but it can also shorten life. On contrary alkaline ph can reverse the disease process. Even cancer cells thrive in an acid environment. Therefore this review presents a report on “body ph” or “internal ph in health and disease”.

  234. Lalitha Devi Seerla, Syed Abdul Jaweed and Varikasuvu Seshadri Reddy

    Background: Epilepsy is a neurological disorder of brain. Oxidative stress may contribute to seizures noticed in epilepsy. The present study was taken to relate the oxidative stress role in epilepsy and also possible mechanism which may lead to further seizures and finally neuronal death noticed in Epilepsy. Aims and objectives: A total of 150 patients and 100 cases were taken in the study. All patients were diagnosed as epileptic by neurologist. Patients were categorized as Group-I (GTCS) 50 patients, group-II (JME) 50 patients and Group-III controls 50. All patients were on treatment with Anti Epileptic Drugs (AED) monotherapy and none of them are on Polytherapy i.e., 1 or 2 AEDs. Biochemical parameters MDA were analyzed by TBARS method and Total Thiols by Ellman’s method. Continuous variable with a normal distribution were expressed as means with Standard error of mean. The intergroup difference was tested using one way ANOVA test. The categorical variables were expressed as numbers with percentage. All statistical analysis was performed by using SPSS (15.0) package. A value of P <0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: The MDA levels were significantly increased in cases compared to controls, whereas Total Thiols were significantly decreased compared to controls with P-value <0.001. Conclusion: study reports increased oxidative stress (OS) and decreased antioxidant status, suggesting that OS has relation with seizure generation and pathophysiology of epilepsy. Treatment of Epilepsy with antioxidants, along with anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) may help to scavenge the excessive free radicals generation in epilepsy.

  235. Dr. Parul Tandon, Dr. Harish Saluja, Dr. Ahmed Khan and Dr. Shivani Sachdeva

    As in today’s modern era of antibiotics where the incidence of osteomyelitis of jaws seems to be decreasing, it still remains a challenging clinical entity due to the substancial growth of graph of systemic diseases. Osteomyelitis is an inflammatory bone disease commonly related to complex microbiota, most commonly pyogenic staphylococcus, and occasionally, streptococci, pneumococci and enterobacteriae. It presents a varied clinical and radiographial manifestations depending upon the severity of its spread into the bony architecture. Based on the pathogenesis and nature of the disease, various classifications have been established for the proper understanding of its varied types. Several treatment options depending upon the severity of osteomyelitis are available.

  236. Dr. Usha Vaswani, Dr. Sudhir Bhamre, Dr. Mandar Vaidya and Dr. Anita Gangurde

    Choledochal cyst is a rare disease of the biliary tract. Historically, choledochal cyst disease was considered as a disease of childhood but is increasingly being recognised in adults. The optimal and definitive treatment used today is the complete excision of the extrahepatic duct, cholecystectomy and roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy due to high morbidity and high risk for carcinoma associated with internal drainage, a commonly used treatment in the past. We report a case of 14 year old male patient with markedly dilated tortuous CBD with marked splenomegaly and portal hypertension. The treatment of Choledochal cyst complicated by portal hypertension has evolved from internal drainage of cyst to single stage excision of cyst with bilioenteric anastomosis. Portal decompression is reserved for cases with extensive collaterals

  237. Dr. Abhijit Ahuja, Dr. Abhay Uppe and Dr. Girija Nair

    Objective: To study pulmonary function indices of tobacco chewers and compare with those of nonusers by PFT & DLCO. Materials & methods: 60 stable patients attending OPD of D.Y.Patil Hospital, India were recruited in the study, of which 30 were chronic tobacco chewers but non smokers & 30 served as control subjects without any history of tobacco consumption. Results: In our study we had a total of 60 patients. 29/60 (48.3%) were females and 31/60 (51.7%) were males. The mean FEV1/FVC (% predicted value) for tobacco chewers was 79.8% as compared to mean FEV1 /FVC for non tobacco chewers being 83 %. The mean FEV1 (% Actual/Predicted) of tobacco chewers was 88.03 %. However for non chewers the mean FEV1 (% Actual/Predicted) was higher at 95.96 %. The MMEF 75-25 of tobacco chewers with that of non chewers and we observe that the mean MMEF 75-25 for tobacco chewers is 71.76 % while that for the non smokers is 85.43 %. Conclusion: In this study, tobacco chewers had low pulmonary function indices which may be due to increased oxidative stress. Considering the large number of tobacco chewers in our country, further studies may be required to identify the effects of tobacco chewing not only locally in the oral cavity but also other systems of the body.

  238. Arifa Dastagir Sangle, Khan Kalimuddin Salahudiin, Padmaja Rao Ayalasomayajula and Imtiyaz Ansari

    In this review, an attempt has been made to delineate with pharmacological and phytochemical aspects of Clerodendrum serratum Linn. Clerodendrum serratum commonly known as Bharangi is traditionally valued and reported for having Bronchodilator, Wound healing, Anti-inflammatory, Anti-oxidant, Anti allergic, anticancer activity. Phytochemical study shows the presence of Saponins, terpenoids, D-mannitol, minerals, glycosides which are responsible for the pharmacological activity. This review paper highlights the various phytochemical and pharmacological activities of Clerodendrum serratum.

  239. Vamsi Krishna Kamana, Padmakumar Ramchandran, Umesh Pai, M., Sridevi Prabhu and Ravella Keerthika Chowdary

    Subclavian steal syndrome is a form of peripheral artery disease which may be a marker of underlying atherosclerotic disease. It can manifest as symptomatic ischemia affecting the upper extremities, and in some cases the brain. The condition still remains under diagnosed mainly in elderly people. Here we had a 84 year male who presented with neurological disturbances and feeble pulses of left hand. On evaluation he was found to have neurological deficits with a significant narrowing at proximal left subclavian artery. He was successfully treated with Peripheral angioplasty with stent and got symptomatic relief. His ataxic symptoms improved more than the motor weakness at a month of follow up. This case high lightens that prompt intervention for a significant Subclavian artery stenosis would benefit in a manner similar to that treating the carotid artery stenosis by stenting.

  240. Hetshri Shah, Falgun Bhatt, Abhik Patel, Dharmendra Solanki and Megha Chavda

    Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is defined as a diseased state characterized by poorly reversible airflow limitation that is usually both progressive and associated with an abnormal inflammatory response of the lung. As a sub maximal exercise test, the 6 min walking test (6MWT) is a good predictor of functional status for patients with chronic respiratory disease. The 6MWT is easy to administer, well tolerated and more reflective of activities of daily life than the other walk tests and cardiopulmonary exercise tests. The ability to stand up from a chair is an important component for maintaining independence in elderly people and in individuals with disabilities. For this reason, Sit-to-Stand Test (STST) has been accepted as an indicator of functional status for elderly people. Therefore, we concluded that, similar to the 6MWT, STST can also be used to determine the functional status in patients with COPD. Objective: The objective of the present study is to evaluate the functional status by the STST and the 6MWT in patients with COPD, and to compare the results of both tests according to some outcome parameters of the patients in order to investigate the utility of STST for patients with COPD. Method: The chosen subjects who agreed to participate in the study, pulmonary function test will be done before starting exercises. Subjects will be asked to pick a token numbered “1” and “2”. Patients with token “1” are asked to perform sit to stand test and token “2” are asked to perform 6 minute walk test. Patients were taught sit to stand test and 6 minute walk test prior to testing. Result:. HR, SBP and DBP shows significant difference of 0.000 (p<0.005) at the end of both SMWT and STST. Whereas, subjective exertion also shows significant difference of 0.000(p<0.05) .Strong correlation was found with r=0.418 (p<0.05) between SMWT distance and STST repetitions. At the end of both tests we found significant correlation of HR, SBP and DBP with r=0.705, 0.607 and 0.446 respectively. (p < 0.05). Whereas significant correlation with r=0.882 (p˂0.05) was obtained for subjective exertion at the end of both SMWT and STST Conclusion: Both the tests were found to be effective in measuring cardio-vascular endurance in COPD patients. We also found significant difference for performance variable and criterion measures in both tests clinically and statistically. Therefore, we conclude STST can be an alternative of SMWT to assess cardio-vascular endurance in patients with COPD.

  241. Dr. Swyeta Jain Gupta, Dr. Amit Gupta, Dr. Vivek Gautam, Dr. Anushree Gupta and Dr. Eenal Bhambri

    Stem cells can self-renew and produce different cell types, thus providing new strategies to regenerate missing tissues and treat diseases. In the field of dentistry, adult mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) have been identified in several oral and maxillofacial tissues, which suggest that the oral tissues are a rich source of stem cells, and oral stem and mucosal cells are expected to provide an ideal source for genetically reprogrammed cells such as induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. Furthermore, oral tissues are expected to be not only a source but also a therapeutic target for stem cells, as stem cell and tissue engineering therapies in dentistry continue to attract increasing clinical interest. Part I of this review outlines various types of intra- and extra-oral tissue-derived stem cells with regard to clinical availability and applications in dentistry. Additionally, appropriate sources of stem cells for regenerative dentistry are discussed with regard to differentiation capacity, accessibility and possible immunomodulatory properties.

  242. Sumit Prinja

    Allergic rhinitis is a very common disorder that affects people of all ages affects quality of life and productivity at work. Antihistamines, sympathomimetics, xanthine derivatives are commonly used as the treatment for symptomatic management, but they do not prevent recurrent episodes. . Bresol tablets is polyherbal formulations indicated for the management of allergic rhinitis. 100 subjects of either sex aged between 15 to 60 years and suffering from allergic rhinitis like sneezing, nasal congestion, itching of the eyes, itching of the nose, postnasal drip, rhinorrhoea and watery eyes were included in the study. Subjects were advised to consume two Bresol tablets, twice-daily for 6 weeks. All subjects were investigated for evaluated for symptomatic improvement of allergic rhinitis (sneezing, nasal congestion, itching of the eyes, itching of the nose, postnasal drip, rhinorrhea and watery eyes). Subjects were investigated by hematological and biochemical tests at the end of the study period. Bresol tablets significantly reduced the symptoms of allergic rhinitis namely sneezing, nasal congestion, itching of nose, postnasal drip and rhinorrhea and also significantly reduced elevated Total leukocyte count , Erythrocyte sedimentation rate and Absolute eosinophyl count levels without causing clinically significant adverse reactions. Thus it can be concluded that the Bresol tablets are effective and safe in the management of allergic rhinitis.

  243. Dr. Digvijaysinh B. Rathod, Dr. Shivlal Vishnoi and Dr. Sarath Chandran

    The main objective of periodontal therapy is to achieve complete regeneration of loss of tissue due to periodontal disease. There are various modality of treatment available for the regeneration of periodontal tissue. Minimal invasive techniques are the procedures allow less tissue trauma and better result. In this article various minimally invasive techniques for regeneration of periodontal tissue has been described.

  244. Anjali Solanki, Raveendra Sandhu and Rohit Kathpalia

    Despite being an essential component of medical profession, medical ethics has been neglected in the curriculum resulting in increased instances of unethical practice and dwindled respect for the profession. To overcome all these challenges and to restore the professionalism, effective medical ethics education is extremely desirable at this point of time. Medical ethics education should be integrated into undergraduate curriculum and reinforced through continuing professional development in later stages to establish ethical, patient-focused practice as a standard and to resolve the moral crisis in medical profession. This article discusses the need for medical ethics educations, various obstacles and key steps for cultivating professionalism among medical learners in Indian context.

  245. Sangeeta Saxena, Ranjana Meena, Harsh Vardhan Khokhar, Dharmraj Meena and Pradeep Choudhary

    Objective: Study was undertaken to evaluate the role of MRI in the evaluation of pelvic mass lesions, and performed clinico-pathological correlation. Methods: The Prospective cross-sectional study was conducted in 60 female patients who were clinically suspected to have pelvic mass lesions or detected with a pelvic mass incidentally on USG in the hospitals attached to Govt. Medical College, Kota during the period from December 2014 to December 2015. Final diagnosis were obtained by histopathological correlation in near all cases. The imaging results were then compared with the pathological results to determine the sensitivity and specificity of magnetic resonance imaging for the determination of the nature of mass. Results: Study was undertaken in 60 females age ranged between 11-75 years with mean age of 37.88 ± SD 15.5 in years. The 48 cases (80%) were benign and 12 cases (20%) were malignant. Most common lesions evaluated on imaging were uterine leomyoma. The maximum pelvic masses were arising from ovaries (56.67%). The consistency of masses was solid in 46.67% cases. The Sensitivity and Specificity of MRI in characterizing pelvic masses as benign was 97.92% and 91.67% respectively, and for malignant lesion 91.67% and 97.92% respectively. In diagnosing uterine mass, the values of Sensitivity and Specificity were 94.44% and 100% for benign and 100% & 94.44% for malignant respectively, In ovarian mass, 100% and 88.89% for benign and 88.89% & 100% for malignant ovarian masse respectively. All extrauterine and extraovarian mass cases were correctly diagnosed by MRI with 100% sensitivity and specificity. Conclusion: Magnetic resonance imaging was highly accurate in characterising the pelvic masses as benign and malignant.

  246. Dr. Nitika Bajaj, Dr. Prashant Monga, Dr. Pardeep Mahajan, Dr. Rajiv Tiwari, Dr. Navkesh Singh, Dr. Pardeep Kumar and Dr. Nirapjeet Kaur

    Aim: To examine possible microbiological contamination of normal saline solution under normal clinical surroundings, also to determine the duration for which dentist could use their normal saline solution without microbiological contamination using different techniques and to identify common micro organisms that may contaminate such solutions. Materials and Methods: Three procedures for collecting samples of the normal saline from each of three sealed plastic bottles available in market were used comparable to procedure routinely followed in clinics. 1. The bottle 1 was cut with sterile B.P. blade and normal saline solution was taken into a disposable plastic glass. 2. Evacuate normal saline solution from bottle 2 using sterile syringe 3. Evacuate normal saline from bottle 3 using sterile syringe and solution was taken into sterile autoclave container with all aseptic precautions. Same procedure was followed for each of three normal saline bottles of brand two. Samples were collected at 0, 2, 4 hours of clinical work timings every day for three consecutive days. Every time immediately after collecting sample of saline, it was inoculated onto the blood agar and MacConkey agar. Plates are then incubated. After obtaining growth, gram staining was done to identify and categorize the bacteria. Results: On day 1 of study, growth starts to appear in disposable glass technique by the end of day i.e. at 4 hr interval sample which consisted of gram positive cocci. Growth in the case of sterile syringe method started to appear at 2 hrs on day 3 which was also gram positive cocci and in the case of sterile container growth started to appear at 4 hr sample on day 3, again gram positive cocci. Conclusions: The present study showed that microbiological contamination does occur whatever technique may be followed. Saline from sealed bottle should be used for once, then it should be discarded. However, amongst methods used in study, the best method that dentist could use is the use of sterile autoclaved container which can be best used maximum for two days using same bottle of saline. The use of disposable glass for keeping normal saline solution to be used root canal irrigation should be discarded. Also, this study indicated that most common contaminant in this solution was gram positive cocci.

  247. Toma I. Avramov, Miroslava O. Tsekova-Chernopolska, Borislav M. Kutchoukov, Jordanka A. Timova, Petko T. Rusev and Antoaneta M. Manolova

    Introduction: We present our clinical experience in a case of orbital fracture occurred as a result of a penetrating foreign body in left midfacial segment causing orbital floor fracture and a fracture of median wall of the left maxillary sinus. Case presentation: We report an unusual clinical case of a 66-year-old Caucasian man, received emergency in the ENT clinic at the University Hospital "Tzaritza Joanna - ISUL" with work-related blunt orbital and facial trauma. A clinical examination and a computed tomography revealed a penetrating foreign body (tree branch split into three parts) from orbit in the left maxillary sinus, which is traversed the medial wall of the left maxillary sinus and penetrated the lower turbinate. Conclusion: In indicated case, attached combined access allowed us to achieve an adequate exposure to remove the foreign body and perform reconstruction of the injured regions, leading to very good results if the anatomical and functional properties of the orbit and its contents are respected. Careful consideration of detailed clinical history as well as choosing an appropriate medical imaging modality as computed tomography should always be kept in mind in order to have a prompt and adequate diagnosis and start early treatment to reduce complications. cardio-vascular endurance in patients with COPD as it is less stressful and easier to apply compared to SMWT.

  248. Vamsi Krishna Kamana, Padmakumar Ramchandran, Umesh Pai, M., Ravella Keerthika Chowdary and Sridevi Prabhu

    Patency following percutaneous transluminal angioplasty is highest for lesions in the common iliac artery than more distal vasculature of lower limbs. The outcomes following use of self expanding stents in the distal aorta and iliac arteries at the bifurcation was shown to be promising in the past. Here we present a case of bilateral severe iliac artery disease treated by using two self expandable long stents using bifurcation technique. The immediate and one month clinical outcome is very good in this case.

  249. Hadeer A Abbassy, Dalia A Elneely and Maha Y Zeid

    Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most common form of childhood cancer. Overexpression of survivin is associated with increased risk of recurrence in a variety of cancers including hematologic malignancies. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has been demonstrated to be a significant promoter of tumor neovascularity. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the prognostic significance of expression of survivin and VEGF in pediatric patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia at induction and their correlation with minimal residual disease (MRD) following chemotherapy. This study was conducted on 100 patients with de novo ALL. Survivin and VEGF expression were analyzed before and after chemotherapy. Patients were examined for MRD by flow cytometry to determine those prone to relapse. Using real time polymerase chain reaction, there was an over expression of both survivin and VEGF in patients before induction chemotherapy. After induction, survivin expression declined significantly, while VEGF expression significantly increased. Patients with MRD had significantly higher expression of both genes with a significant positive correlation before and after induction chemotherapy. In conclusion, these data support the association between a high coexpression of survivin and VEGF and disease activation as well as their correlation with a higher tendency to relapse in pediatric ALL.

  250. Erhauyi Meshach Aiwerioghene, Maj Gen (Dr) Mahavir Singh, Dr. Puneeta Ajmera and Dr. H. K. Satia

    Globalization of healthcare has brought about the possibility of medical tourism, where medical treatment can be provided across border. Medical professionals from all over the world travel to developed countries for getting new technologies to be applied in their medical services. The term medical tourism has become a household name, which involves patients from developed and underdeveloped countries to seek medical treatment abroad for various reasons. This paper reviews and analyzes the literature based upon a comparison between the health care system in India and Nigeria. Across the globe, India has become one of the most sourced out destination for medical tourism. This paper also reviews the studies analyzing the issues faced by the Nigeria Healthcare sector, which has seen an increased level of travel of its patients for obtaining medical treatment abroad.

  251. Hadeer A Abbassy, Hanaa M Donia and Omar M Ghallab

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a highly fatal disease. Therefore, accurate predictors of clinical outcome can contribute to the design of appropriate treatment for individual patients. Proviral integration of Moloney virus-2 (PIM2) is a key mediator of hematopoietic cell growth and apoptotic resistance. Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) activation by Pim-2 is required for its antiapoptotic function. The aim of the present study was to assess PIM-2 and NF-κB ex¬pression in adult patients with AML and to determine their correlation with the induction outcome. This study was conducted on 90 patients with de novo AML. Using real time polymerase chain reaction RT-PCR, PIM2 and NF-κB expression was analyzed. Patients were followed up by bone marrow examination on day 28 after induction to assess the response to chemotherapy. There was an overexpression of both PIM-2 and NF-κB in patients before induction. After induction, those who failed to respond to induction therapy had higher expression levels than those who achieved complete remission. A significant positive correlation was evident between their expression in patients with AML and with induction failure. In conclusion overexpression of PIM-2 and NF-κB in patients with AML is associated with resistance to induction therapy and low complete remission rate.

  252. Yohou, K. S., Kroa, E., Yao, K. J., Yayo, S. P. O. and Kouassi, D.

    Introduction: Côte d'Ivoire has established several structures working in the field of public health since its independence in 1960, to deal with health problems. More than five decades later, a study has been conducted by the National Public Health Institute with the objective to realize a situation analysis of public health structures. Methods : This study was a cross sectional study with descriptive purpose carried out in Abidjan in 2012, with 26 structures involved in the field of public health and from different ministries in Côte d’Ivoire. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire. The data analysis was done using Epi Info software. Results : Of the 26 structures identified, 23 have participated in the study. Most public health activities were carried out by eight (08) Technical Ministries. 15 of the 23 structures depended of the Ministry in charge of health. A large proportion of the budget of these structures was allocated to public health statutory missions such as training (15/23) and research (12/23). Among the facilities visited, the most essential functions of public health were found research (11/23) and training (11/23). An average of 46.50% of the structures budget was allocated to health promotion. 737 agents on the strength of 3539 officers of all structures visited, had received training in public health. Discussion: Several challenges remain by health authorities, including the balance between available resources and the needs of structures and better coordination of the structures involved in the field of public health in particular through the establishment of structures coordination, allow the country to have efficient public health institutions.

  253. Anjali Solanki, Raveendra Sandhu, Manita Duggal and Rohit Kathpalia

    We present a case of disseminated invasive aspergillosis involving lung, heart and both kidneys in a 62-year old male who developed bronchopneumonia after chest trauma. Though endotracheal aspiration demonstrated presence of Aspergillus flavus during his hospital stay but invasive status and extent of dissemination was established only by autopsy and histopathological examination. This case report discusses the predisposing factors, pathogenesis, clinical presentation, diagnostic difficulties and course of disseminated aspergillosis. Moreover, this autopsy report emphasizes the significance of the postmortem examination to know extent of the disease in such cases and to gain insight into the pathogenesis of aspergillus infection.

  254. Dr. Jyoti Syal

    Mahaswea Devi is one of the few authors who have an unflinching commitment and passion for the underdog. She has been writing about the dispossessed people of India for fifty years. She not only depicts their lives in her writings but also tries to change the conditions of their lives through various social welfare activities – it is here that her uniqueness as a creative thinker lies. The present paper analyses the connection between the works of Mahasweta Devi and her social work. In fact most of her writings are an outcome of her activism. Seeds, one of her short stories, can be interpreted as a story of rebellion; the seeds which are sown in the form of corpses. In a sense, this story describes an inversion of civilized norpms by the very people who are supposed to sustain them. Violence in turn is suggested the only way out. In this story, the landlord manipulates the political machinery, even getting away with murder, until Dulan Ganju, a poor peasant and the protagonist retaliates at the end by smashing his head with stone. After the killing, Dulan buries the headman under a pile of stones, which is an exact reversal of what the headman got Dulan to do, to the victims of his oppression. This is the natural outcome of years of silence, which should not be equated with acceptance and condoning of suppression of rights. Though Devi does not glorify violence, yet she is deeply aware of the way the mind of an oppressed works. The human spirit has its limitations to bear oppression and victimization and the consequence violence.

  255. Ornela Ҫuçi, Anila Kala, Adem Meta, Seit Shallari and Fatbardh Sallaku

    The Prior to 1990, there was hardly any problem of solid waste management in Albania. The solid waste was locally managed in all the urban areas of Albania. Almost all the wastes was organic in nature and was used as manure. Traditionally, only a special caste was involved in waste management activities. In the past, these people collected the waste from settlements using primitive tools such as buffalo ribs to lift the waste and shoulder baskets to carry the wastes. The wastes collected were dumped on nearby river banks or in open fields. In those days, the flow of water in nearby rivers was capable in degrading the dumped organic wastes which were small in quantity. But these traditional practices could not continue due to the increasing population densities in urban areas. Increase in population density has lead to the increase in the volume of waste. This has created a massive threat to public health due to the lack of proper solid waste management. One of the key goals of the Albanian Government is to ensure sustainable provision of water and wastewater services, adapted to the needs of the population and industry, and approximation to the standards of the European Union. Albania is making progress towards accession to the EU, an important part of which is harmonizing environmental legislation with EU Acquis Communautaire. A number of important laws, strategies and plans are adopted or in draft, and these form the framework for environmental improvement in all sectors to be implemented over the next few years. While operationally sludge is an issue for the wastewater sector, from a legal perspective it is a component of the waste sector, which is still in development. To facilitate the development of sludge regulations, this study has prepared an outline of the standards that are considered appropriate for the conditions in Albania and which will harmonize with the EC Directive on sludge use in agriculture (86/278/EEC). There are a number of potential options for using sludge in land reclamation in Albania: abandoned mining sites (control of soil erosion and heavy metal pollution, undertaken by the local forestry offices); quarries (restoration is a legal obligation of owners); waste dump sites (to be restored when regional landfills are available); progressive restoration of the planned regional landfills; and possibly in land development (golf courses, etc. as tourism develops). Such sites could potentially use large quantities of sludge but the opportunities are few and periodic and currently there are no confirmed projects. The overall objective of the current study is to elaborate sludge management strategies for Albania. Since this is the first comprehensive strategic evaluation of sludge management options undertaken in Albania, the study inevitably raises issues of national importance.

  256. Khose, R. S., Pawar, S. V. and Kute, N. S.

    The experiment was undertaken during the period 2014-15 at Sorghum Improvement Project, M.P.K.V., Rahuri with the objectives to estimate the general and specific combining ability of parents and hybrids. To achieve these objectives, four cytoplasmic male sterile lines (females), ten restorers (males) and their forty hybrids were studied by using Line x Tester mating design. Observations were recorded on eight characters viz., days to 50 % flowering, plant height, panicle length, panicle breadth, 1000 grain weight, number of grains per panicle, grain yield per plant and fodder yield per plant. Based on results obtained the hybrids RMS-2010-10A x RSR-999, RMS-2010-16A x RSR-990, 185-A x RSR-992 and 185A x RSR-994 were observed most promising and could be exploited for further hybrid development, while the parents 185-A, RSR-994, RSR-993 and RSR-995 were observed as a good general combiners and need due consideration in future hybridization programme.

  257. Varaprasad, B. V. and Shivani, D.

    The experiment was carried out during rabi, 2012-13 involving 15 inbred lines in combination with 4 testers in line x tester design to obtain 60 cross combinations for evaluation along with three checks for heterosis in terms of yield and its attributes. The results indicated significant negative relative heterosis for days to 50 per cent tasseling in 26 hybrids indicating earliness for maturity. Relative heterosis for plant height varied from 10.99 to 102.98 per cent, heterobeltiosis from -1.45 to 61.89 and standard heterosis from -35.44 to 7.75 per cent, -28.55 to 19.26 per cent and -26.88 to 22.04 per cent over DHM 117, 30 V 92 and0 900 M Gold, respectively. Relative heterosis and heterobeltiosis for ear height and ear length was found to be positively significant in most of the crosses. For 100-seed weight, majority of the hybrids showed significant and positive relative heterosis and heterobeltiosis with range of relative heterosis from -21.74 to 31.97 per cent and heterobeltiosis from -38.18 to 27.63 per cent and standard heterosis from -17.07 to 21.95 per cent over DHM-117, from -17.07 to 21.95 per cent over 30 V 92 and -8.11 to 35.14 over 900 M Gold, respectively. Significant positive relative heterosis and heterobeltiosis for grain yield per plant was also recorded by many hybrids indicating simultaneous manifestation of heterosis for yield component traits.

  258. Srikanth, S., Manish Pandey, MBVN Kousik, Vijay Kumar, S., Ch. Bala Chiranjeevi, Hajira, S. K., Bhadana, V. P., Sheshu Madhav, M., Suneetha, K., Subba Rao, L. V., Archana Giri, Shobha Rani N. and Sundaram, R. M.

    IET 18006 is an elite Basmati variety, with highly desirable long slender grain type and medium duration and possesses excellent aroma. However, the variety is highly susceptible two major diseases, viz., bacterial blight (BB) and blast which reduce yield of the elite Basmati variety significantly. We have improved IET 18006 through targeted introgression of the major BB resistance genes, Xa21 and xa13 and the major blast resistance gene, Pi54 through marker-assisted backcross breeding (MABB). The elite variety, Improved Samba Mahsuri (ISM) possessing bacterial blight resistant genes Xa21 and xa13 and a Vietnamese variety, Tetep possessing blast resistant gene, Pi54 were used as donor parents for improvement of IET 18006 through two sets of backcrosses and backcrossing was continued till BC2 generation. At each backcross generation, plants possessing Xa21, xa13 and Pi54 in heterozygous condition were identified with help of gene-specific markers through foreground selection; while a set of parental polymorphic SSR markers were used for background selection. At BC2F2, a promising backcross plant possessing Xa21 + xa13 was intermated with a backcross plant possessing Pi54 to generate intercross F1s (i.e. ICF1s), which were then selfed. At ICF2 generation, plants which possessing Xa21 + xa13 + Pi54 in homozygous condition were identified with the help of gene specific markers and advanced further through selfing. At ICF4¬, four promising three-gene pyramid lines of IET 18006 possessing high level of resistance against both BB and blast along with high yield and grain type similar to the recurrent parent were identified.

  259. Kiruthika, K. and Dr. Dhanalakshmi, B.

    The present study was carried out to investigate the potential of the supplementation of the green seaweed Ulvafasciata, as a dietary additive ingredient along with the basic feed ingredient in fish feed, to improve the fresh water fish Rohu so called Labeorohita (Hamilton) biochemical composition. The experiment was carried out in the PG and Research laboratory, Nirmala College for women, on Labeorohita of a mean length (10cm) and weight of (45±1g). Five experimental diets composed of dietary protein were prepared using dried algae meal ingredient incorporated at levels of 0% (control), (TF1) 5%, (TF2)10%, (TF3)15%, (TF4)20% and (TF5)25% of fish feed. By the end of the experiment, fish biochemical composition like protein, lipid and carbohydrate were evaluated. With increasing Ulvafasciata level in the fish diet protein, carbohydrate and lipid concentration increased significantly (P < 0.05) till (TF3)15%.The highest value was maintained at fish fed the diet containing 15% Ulvafasciata while the lowest was maintained at control treatment. From the present result highest significant values of protein, carbohydrate and lipid values were obtained from fish maintained at (TF1) 5%, (TF2)10%, (TF3)15% Ulvafasciata incorporated dietary treated fishes till 45 days which states that Ulvafasciata can be supplemented to Labeorohita diet till an optimum level of 15% which will not show any adverse effect on their survival rate.

  260. Dhary Alewy Almashhadany, Haifa M. Ba_salamah, Abdulrahman M. Shater and Abdulwahab S. Al Sanabani

    Study the effect of different thermal treatment on Listeria monocytogenes survival in applied studies. For this object, isolate was used from Red meat source. The preservation of meat at (4 oC) had no major effect on isolation of Listeria monocytogenes, also when we kept samples at a room temperature of (21oC). Whereas the isolation of Listeria monocytogenes from preservation samples at (-18oC) were stopped after the sixth weeks. The isolation rate was decreased in the infected cooked meat pieces at the temperature of (75oC) for a period of 15 minutes, nonetheless the isolation was completely stopped in the infected meat pieces at (75oC) for 5 minutes by cooking with Dry heat (Microwaves).

  261. Chakraborty, S. and Mondal, P.

    Pulses (grain legumes) are the second most important group of crops worldwide. Globally, 840 million people are under nourished mainly on account of inadequate intake of proteins, vitamins and minerals in their diets. Under stored conditions , pulses suffer maximum grain loss due to dreaded stored grain bruchid pests. Studies on the biology of pulse beetle Callosobruchus chinensis (Linn) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) on the stored pulses revealed multi climatic factors particularly temperature can extend or reduce the life cycle of insects and thermal thresh hold influence the insects cycle stage, growth or some internal metabolic activities. In addition to temperature insects also respond to a-biotic factors like humidity, light and food etc. in different ways. The damage caused by the insect differ depending upon the seasons. Infestation was higher during the rainy season and lowest during the winter. The average number of eggs laid per female was found to be maximum when insect were reared at 30˚C and minimum number of eggs was observed at 15˚C in all host pulses. The highest number of eggs were noted laid on kidney bean (175.35) at 30˚C. The most favorable humidity level for adult emergence was found 75±5 per cent, at which maximum adult emergence of 121.32 occurred from cow pea. The combined effect of relative humidity and temperature showed that maximum grain weight loss at 30˚C and 85±5 per cent relative humidity while minimum weight loss at 15˚C and 65±5 per cent relative humidity. Thus, fundamental to insect growth, however, are environmental factors of temperature, relative humidity and moisture content of food materials. When a combination of favorable factors leads to increased insect development there is a co-related increase in the damage to materials through eating, despoiling, burrowing and other activities.

  262. Mohammad Ali, Tarique Faizi Rizvi, Md. Razauddin, Talat Jahan, Zeba Naz, Md. Seemab Akhter, Ranjit Kumar, Prabhat Shankar and Arun Kumar

    Doxorubicin is one of the important antitumor agents having a variety of therapeutic potency against variety of human tumors including soft tissue sarcoma, breast cancer, small cell carcinoma of the lung and acute leukemias. Similarly it has toxic effect on various parts of the body especially on immune system and heart. Whenever this drug is used on cancer patients, its toxicity acts on immune system of the patients by depressing the bone marrow. It has been suggested that Ashwagandha plays an important role in immune system regulation, but its impact on toxicity produced by cancer chemotherapy is still obscure. In present investigation to evaluate the efficacy of Ashwagandha against Doxorubicin (anti cancer drug) toxicity lymphocyte subpopulations activity was examined in Rats. After administration of Doxorubicin @ 5 mg/kg b.w. Intraperitoneal (I.P.) to rats marked reduction in the number of CD8+ cells and in the proportion of CD4+ cells were observed on day 21st. When Ashwagandha (300mg/kg b.w.) administered five days prior to Doxorubicin administration and continued for 21 days ((21 days was counted from the first exposure of Doxorubicin)) then significant increase in the number of CD8+ cells and in the proportion of CD4+ cells were observed. Thus findings of present investigation showed that Ashwagandha acts as an immunomodulator for cellular immunity and ameliorate the toxicity produced during cancer chemotherapy by mitigating the bone marrow depression.

  263. Dalie Dominic, A., Inasu N. D. and Swapna Johny

    Ornamental fishes are show pieces and expressions of aquatic splendor. The ornamental fish industry has now secured an essential section of international trade for which, fish needs to be transported to far away destinations. Ornamental fish packaging systems are characterized by very high fish loading densities and high metabolic wastes in the transport water. Stress created due to this affects the survival of the fish. Therefore new technologies needs to be undertaken for fish transportation. Anaesthetics are nowadays used for fish transportation. These are drugs that cause a reversible loss of consciousness. The fish ventilates these anaesthetics and it enters the blood stream. However knowledge of appropriate concentration to be used is essential for any aquarist. Therefore in the present study efficiency of 2-Phenoxyethanol, Clove oil and Lemongrass oil as anaesthetic for transportation of Etroplus maculatus, a popular ornamental fish was done. A concentration of 60mg/l, 12mg/l and 8mg/l were ideal for transportation with 2- Phenoxy ethanol, Clove oil and Lemon grass oil as anaesthetic for the 48 hour transportation.

  264. Srivastva Neha, Gunja, Jain Priyanka, Kumar Dhermander, Sharma Chandra Kant, Janbade Anuradha and Jain R. K.

    Pulp and paper mill released large amount of wastewater which affects the environment. These mills uses highly toxic chemical for pulping and bleaching processes. The intention of this research paper is to identify predominant bacteria in pulp and paper mill effluent. In addition to evaluate the degradation efficiency of bacterial isolates and combination of bacterial isolates by shake flask method. Biological treatment methods involve the utilization of bacterial consortia found to be effective in removal of colour, lignin and COD. This study indicates that bacterial consortia treatment gave a reduction of colour 55%, lignin 25% and COD 64% in 72 hrs at 370C incubation temperature and pH 7.

  265. Ogaga, G. A., Igori Wallace and Egbodo Benson, A.

    This study investigated the effect of instructional materials on the teaching and learning of social studies in secondary schools in Oju local government area of Benue state. The research was guided with four purposes, four research questions and hypothesis. Survey design was adopted and both students and teachers constituted the population for study. A sample of hundred subjects was drawn from five schools and was administered questionnaires. Data collected was analyzed using simple percentage (%) for research question and chi square for hypothesis. However, the four hypothesis were tested at 0.05 level of significance and were all rejected. The study revealed that selection of relevant instructional materials, availability and ability of the teacher to improve all had significant relationship with the teaching and learning of social studies in Oju local government area. The research recommends among others that government and school heads should ensure the provision of instructional materials in secondary schools.

  266. Aparna Radhakrishnan, Jancy Gupta, Dileepkumar, R. and Sreeram, V.

    Animal husbandry signifies as the second largest economical activity and provides employment and economic support to rural families. Many of the important tasks in animal husbandry are performed by women besides their responsibilities as home makers but the role of dairy farm women is not recognized as economic contribution and they remain as unpaid labour. This study emphasized the analysis of participation of dairy farm women in animal husbandry occupation. The study was conducted in Shimoga district of Karnataka. Data were collected from 120 farm women using structured interview schedule. The participation was observed more in the aspects related to milking, feeding, health care and management, breeding and less in finance management.

  267. Asongwed-Awa, A., Megueni, C., Youmbi, E., Ko Awono, P. M. D. and Yiirta, T. B.

    Low herbaceous cover is a major constraint to productivity in the farming systems of Sudano-Sahelian zones. The adoption of herbaceous species for the improvement of these farming systems has been quite low in the Sudano-Sahelian zone of Cameroon. In a survey that looked at the role of herbaceous species in the farming system, farmer perception of the potential use and importance of local herbaceous species was also evaluated. Famers identified most of the species encountered with well known local uses. When grouped according to local uses, 38% were used as forage, 21% for medicinal purposes and 11% for soil cover followed by human consumption, other uses, in that order. Arachis hypogaea and Hibiscus sabdarifa were ranked highest in terms of local use, followed by Senna obtusifolia, Sesbania rostrata and Crotalaria spectabilis. Factors that are liable to facilitate adoption of local species by farmers were plant performance and productivity, especially in associations with the main crop. Prior knowledge of a species and land ownership would seem to influence farmer adoption. Governments’ policy on land-use and management should be holistic, taking into account implementation of research initiatives. This will help in the improvement of productivity of farming systems and the maintenance of environmental equilibrium with the ultimate goal of poverty reduction and improved livelihoods.

  268. Rimpi Pandey and Archana Singh

    Controlling mosquito is of utmost importance in the present day scenario with rising number of mosquito borne diseases. An alarming increase in the range of mosquito is mainly due to deforestation, industrialized farming and stagnant water. Thus, special products like mosquito repellents for combating mosquitoes are required. The present study was an endeavor in this direction, where attempt has been made to collect, the information on natural mosquito repellent and to standardize the tie dye recipes with (natural mosquito repellent) for cotton fabric. In this direction a research is mainly carried out for the development of mosquito repellent finished cotton fabric using lemon eucalyptus leaves extract. A series of experiment were conducted to optimize the concentration of lemon eucalyptus leaves, concentration of lemon eucalyptus leaves extract, concentration of mordant and dyeing time on the basis of optical density and mosquito repellency test. After that dyed samples with lemon eucalyptus leaves were mordanted with different concentration of polyvinyl alcohol for different time and tested for wash durability and mosquito repellency test and its provides 95 percent mosquito repellency.

  269. Srivastava Nikita and Mishra Sunita

    Life satisfaction among aged is an important construct in psycho-social study of ageing. In the present study is based on a sample of 120 people 60 male and 60 female drawn from Lucknow city. Sample consisted of adults living in homes with families it was planned to assess the relationship between life satisfaction and recreational activities of old age people. Researcher used standardized scale (Satisfaction with life scale, Diener, E) and self structured questionnaire. The results of the present study revealed that there is relationship between life satisfaction and recreational activities.

  270. Ramesh, B. and Aruna, M.

    Phytoplanktonic algae and aquatic macrophytes play dynamic role in fresh water ecosystem. The lake, locally called as Amruthapur lake is located in the vicinity of Telangana University campus, Amruthapur village, Dichpally. This lake was chosen to enumerate diversity of phytoplankton’s and distribution of aquatic macrophytes by seasonal variation for which collections were analyzed for a period of one year during August, 2014-October, 2015. For experimental studies surface and bottom water samples were collected from differenent sites of Amruthapur lake. The observations revealed that Amruthapur lake showed more abundance of phytoplanktonic algae belonging to class Chlorophyceae, Bacillariophyceae and Cyanophyceae. Aquatic macrophytes found were categorized into three morpho-ecological forms such as free floating, submerged and emergent forms. In this study a total of 42 algal species and 22 aquatic macrophytes were recorded.

  271. Daniele Cristina Fontana, Carine Cocco, Maria Inês Diel, Matheus Milani Pretto, Evandro Holz, Anderson Werner, Valéria Testa, BraulioOtomarCaron, John Stolzle, Marcos Vinícius Marques Pinheiro and Denise Schmidt

    Strawberry cultivation is widespread in several regions of the State of Rio Grande do Sul, and there is a high demand for strawberries by the consumer market; they are often an alternative income for family farmers. This research aimed to evaluate the agronomic performance of strawberry cultivars Albion, Camarosa, San Andreas, Camino Real, and Aromas in the climatic conditions found in Frederico Westphalen - RS. The experiment was conducted at the Federal University of Santa Maria campus Frederico Westphalen/RS in the year 2015, in the conventional conduction system in low tunnels. A randomized block design was used with four replications, eight plants per plot totaling 32 plants evaluated for each treatment. Phyllochron (°C day leaf -1) was evaluated by estimating the inverse angular coefficient of the linear regression between the number of sheets in the main crown and the sum of thermal time accumulated from the transplant of the seedlings. The number of fruits, yield per plant, total acidity (TA), total soluble solids (TSS) and Ratio (TSS/TA) were also evaluated. The leaf emission rate was similar among the cultivars. The cultivar Camino Real highlighted by the larger production of fruits, averaged a superior mass (fruit plant-1) than the other cultivars. Albion, Camarosa, and San Andreas highlighted,in relation to quality parameters, the highest values of TSS.

  272. Yadav, B. P., Yadav, D. N., Koirala, K. B., Pandey, K. R. and Thapa, R. B.

    A field experiment was conducted at Agronomy research farm of IAAS, Rampur, chitwan, Nepal during summer and winter season 2010 and 2011 to study the effect of crop sequence and nitrogen rates on hybrid maize. There were thirty treatment combination consisting of six crop sequences, maize-maize, fallow-maize, greengram-maize, cowpea-maize, blackgram-maize, clusterbean-maize in main plots and five nitrogen rates 0, 50, 100, 150, 200 kg/ha in subplots with three replication. The research finding revealed that Maximum number of cobs (61,200/ha in 2010 and 61,900/ ha in 2011) was recorded under blackgram –maize sequence which was comparable to number of cobs/ha under greengram-maize while it was minimum under maize-maize sequence during both the years. Number of cobs was maximum 66,200/ha in 2010 and 67,200/ha 2011 with 200kg/ha and it was minimum under no nitrogen application. Percentage of barren plants was minimum (11.7 in 2010 and 11.5 in 2011) under blackgram-maize sequence which was comparable to greengram –maize sequence, while maximum percentage of barren plants was recorded under maize-maize sequence. Minimum percentage of barren plants (5.6 in 2010 and 6.2 in 2011) was recorded with 200kgN/ha and it was maximum under no nitrogen application. Minimum number of days to silking (54 .7 in 2010 and 53.3 in 2011) was recorded under greengram– maize sequence while it was maximum (57.3 in 2010 and 55 .8 in 2011) under maize–maize sequences. Number of days to silking was minimum (53.1 in 2010 and 52 .1 in 2011) with 200 kg N/ha while it was maximum (60 .6 in 2010 and 59 .1 in 2011) under no nitrogen application. At maturity (90 days after sowing), maximum dry matter accumulation per plant (174.7 g in 2010 and 176.0 g in 2011) was recorded under greengram– maize sequences and it was minimum under maize– maize sequences. It was maximum (206.0 g in 2010 and 207.2 g in 2011) with 200kg N/ha minimum with no nitrogen. At maturity (90 DAS) maximum plant height (170.7 cm in 2010 and 173.9 cm in 2011) under greengram– maize sequences while it was minimum under maize– maize. At maturity (90 DAS) maximum plant height (169.2 cm in 2010 and 173.1 cm 2011) was recorded with 200 kg N/ha while it was minimum with no nitrogen application. At silking stages (60 DAS) maximum leaf area index (3.39 in 2010 and 3.45 in 2011) was recorded under greengram – maize sequences and it was minimum under maize – maize. At silking stage (60 DAS) leaf area index was maximum (3.86 in 2010 and 3.72 in 2011) with 200 kg N/ha while it was minimum with no nitrogen application.

  273. Srikanth, G. and Masilamani, V.

    The present works deals with internal radiation dose of Po-210 through the consumption of drinking water from Tiruchirappalli city. The concentration of Po-210 was determined in 10 (S1-S10) different drinking water samples. The Po-210 in drinking water ranged from 0.67 mBq/l to1.75 mBq/l. The highest Po-210 activity measured in Thillai nagar (S5) water sample. The Po-210 dose to the individual member of public by consumption of drinking water ranged from 0.70 µSv/y to 1.77 µSv/y.

  274. Arul Kumar Murugesan, Karuna Sagaran Gunasagaran and Muthumary Johnpaul

    The study investigates Pleurotus sp is potential growth in producing mycelium and enhancing biomass production for their stimulatory effects under submerged culture condition. Addition of 25.07 gL-1at the 21st day’s stage of exponential growth stationary phase give the most excellent stimulatory effect on growth of mycelium and fungal biomass production increase. The decline phase on 28th days under submerged culture biomass of dry weight production (20.50gL-1) level decrease. The optimized nutritional parameters were influencing the mycelia growth biomass productions enhance on carbon source in the form of glucose (23.71gL-1) at 21st days under submerged condition. Peptone (23.73gL-1) was found good nitrogen source for higher biomass production and stimulates the fungal growth. The effects of carbon/nitrogen (C/N) ratios were identified high yield biomass production on Glucose: Yeast Extract (G: YE) at 21st days (23.22gL-1). Phosphorus (P) form of Monosodium phosphate (NaH2PO4) and Potassium (K) in the form of Pottassium chloride(KCl) their involving process (P: 25.31gL-1; K: 22.79 gL-1) also change the growth and yield of biomass production between stationary phase and decline phase. The Magnesium (Mg) and Calcium (Ca) sources (Mg: 23.14 gL-1;Ca: 23.01gL-1) also specific changes and maximal mycelial growth as well as biomass production. The optimal media comparison of the environmental factors, Temperature at 30°C (26.22gL-1), pH 5.5 (23.22gL-1) and light at dark condition (24.34gL-1) under submerged culture for mycelial growth and production of biomass respectively. The potential use of mycelium growth and biomass production processes for can be achieve the future generations without human disorder disease from fungal metabolites.

  275. Sikhamoni Borgohain, Dr. Daisy Hazarika and Dr. Juliana Sarmah

    The investigation was conducted to study the “Opinion of Televiewers about News programmes telecast through different channels of Assam” with the objectives (i) to analyze the viewing behaviour of the respondents, (ii) to draw opinion of the viewers about News programmes telecast through different channels, (iii) to elicit suggestion from the viewers in the prospect of improving the News programmes. The study was conducted in Jorhat district of Assam. A purposive multi stage sampling method was adopted for selecting the representative sample of the study. Two urban and two rural areas were selected for the present study. Total sample was 180. The study revealed that Majority (68.33 %) of the respondents had high level of viewing behaviour. Men (91.67%) and (86.67%) women both had high viewing behaviour than youth (26.67%). Respondents had favorable opinion towards the News programmes of the selected channels: Doordarshan- 88.89 per cent, News live: 55 per cent, DY365: 49.44 per cent respectively. Large majority of the respondents had suggested that repetition of news should be avoid (91.67%) and news having negative impact must be avoided (91.11%).

  276. Sushma Kumari, Anil Sindhu, Mansi and Parveen Kaur Sidhu

    Herbal medicines have gained global importance, both medically as well as economically. Bacopa monnieri (L.) is commonly and widely called as brahmi, belongs to the family Scrophulariaceae. It is a traditional plant in India, which has been used for centuries to increase mental capacity, improve mental and brain functions. The plant was reported to have anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic, antioxidant and anticancer activities. In the present study, a comparative analysis of antioxidant and phytochemical content difference is done among the in vitro and in vivo cultivated plants of three different cultivars of Bacopa monnieri (L.). In DPPH free radical assay, cultivar procured from Chuharpur showed 95.47% of inhibition at 70µg/ml concentration whereas 95.02% of inhibition of nitric oxide (at conc.140µg/ml) in nitric oxide free radical assay. Callus and in vitro grown plants of all the three cultivars of Bacopa monnieri showed positive test for amino acids, carbohydrates, alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids, phenolic compounds, carotenoids and terpenoids.

  277. Mohammed El Akil, Ali Outcoumit, Amina Ouazzani Touhami, Rachid Benkirane and Allal Douira

    Surveys were conducted in the forest of Beni Yaala (mining site of Jerada), Ain Beni Mathar, and Tendrara (North-eastern Morocco) have allowed harvesting 29 truffle fruiting body of five different locations and record information on fungal species encountered. In the laboratory, macro-and microscopic structure criteria for identifying of these species were determined. Five species Macromycetes Ascomycetes belonging to two genera Tirmania and Terfezia the Family of Pezizaceae: Tirmania nivea, Terfezia olbiensis, Terfezia leptoderma, Terfezia boudieri and Terfezia claveryi were studied and described in the study regions. The systematic position, the mycorrhizal association, the ethnological importance, etymological, environmental, gastronomic and human importance, well as their distribution in the world have been discussed in this work. The results are integrated into the contribution to determination of the fungal diversity of Morocco and valorization of edible forest mushrooms.

  278. Prafull Kumar, Thakur, A. K. and Poonam Kumari

    The present experiment was undertaken in Kharif 2013 at Upland Rice Research Block of S. G. College and Research Station, Jagdalpur to investigate the role of floral behavior on yield physiology of upland rainfed rice. Spikelet fertility is found to be positively linked with prolonged vegetative growth (0.0255) because of ample supply of food material. Plant height was observed to be very important in operating grain yield via panicle length (0.2518), spikelet per panicle (0.2821*), spikelet fertility (0.5058**) and biological yield (0.3972**). Grain yield was positively and significantly associated with total crop biomass (0.6669**), plant height (0.5059**). Days to 50 percent flowering was positively associated with crop duration (0.7451***) but exhibited negative inheritance with grain yield (-0.1941) which may pertain to post anthesis stress. Summarily, floral biology should be emphasized while designing crop breeding experiment and genotypes exhibiting positive inheritance among these traits with grain yield must be opted to precede rainfed rice research.

  279. Hiralal Jana, Debabrata Basu and Kole, R. K.

    India is an agriculture based country. Imbalance between demand and supply of agricultural production is a major concern to feed the ever-increasing population of our country. To enhance agricultural production, there are several ways. Out of various ways, plant protection occupies prime position. Insect-pests and diseases cause enormous damage to agricultural crops, forests as well as stored agricultural commodities. Almost every economically important plant is attacked by a variety of insect-pests and diseases. Therefore, the study was concentrated on the objective- to portray the plant protection chemicals use bahaviour in cauliflower cultivation in controlling insect-pests and diseases. The study was conducted in Nadia district of West Bengal. For the selection of area and respondents of the present study, multi-stage random sampling technique and universe method were followed. The study reveals that (1) at the most 47 percent of respondents had secondary level of education (2) at the most 32 percent of respondents had 1.1 to 2.0 bigha of own cultivable land (3) Nearly half of respondents (45%) had upto 5 katha of non-cultivable land (4) at the most 32 percent of respondents had 1.1 to 2 bigha (20 katha=1 bigha, 3 bihga= 1 acre, 2.5 acre=1 ha=7.5 bigha=150 katha) of land for vegetable cultivation (5) at the most 35 percent of respondents had 21-30 years of experience in vegetable cultivation (6) at the most 20 percent each of respondents had 11-15 years, 16-20 years and above 25 years of experience in pesticides application (7) All the respondents (100%) cultivated cauliflower crop in rabi season mainly (8) majority of the respondents (53%) applied pesticides on 4-7 days interval (9) all the respondents (100%) adopted spraying method for application of pesticides (10) all the respondents’ (100%) main personal source of information on pesticides use was agricultural input retailers (11) nearly half of respondents (48%) main impersonal source of information on pesticides use was radio (12) At the most 56 percent of respondents used 30-40 litres of water per bigha for spraying chemicals at seedling stage (13) at the most 66 percent of respondents used 40-80 litres of water per bigha for spraying chemicals at mature stage of the crop (14) at the most 19 percent of respondents used phorate 10G for soil treatment (15) at the most 22 percent of respondents used Mancozeb (Dithane M-45) for seed treatment (16) all the respondents (100%) reported that insect-pests and diseases mainly infested the crop at mature stage (17) according to the report of cauliflower growers (100%), diamond back moth was the most harmful insect-pest of cauliflower crop (18) majority of respondents (51%) reported, downy mildew disease was the most harmful disease of cauliflower crop (19) to control the insect-pests and diseases, respondents used various pesticides with their various brands and in various doses (20) generally, farmers used more amount of chemicals than the recommended amount (dose) for controlling insect-pests and diseases (21) the study also indicated that nowadays the mixed agro-chemicals are coming in market for controlling insect-pests and diseases. (22) the study also revealed that farmers are not following various precautions properly in applying pesticides. Therefore, the various public extension agencies, pesticide companies and non-government organizations should re-orient their extension programmes on the basis of the findings of the present investigation.

  280. Pinkie Cherian and Sheela, D.

    The family Amarantaceae has got potent antioxidant property and in the present study antioxidant properties of the ethyl acetate extracts of Amarantus viridis L. and Amarantus spinosus L. were evaluated by different in-vitro experiments including DPPH radical assay, Total antioxidant assay and Reducing activity assay for ascorbic acid equivalents, Total Phenolic content and Total flavonoid content. The present study revealed that Amarantusspinosus L. extract exhibited the highest DPPH radical scavenging activity (IC50 value of 295.2 μg/ml), Total antioxidant activity (0.25±0.02), Total flavonoid contents (1.50±0.340mg/gm) and Amarantus viridis L. extract showed highest Reducing power activity (1.25±0.11),Total phenol content (8.68±0.403mg/gm). The results obtained in the present study indicate that the leaves of Tanduliya showed potential antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity.

  281. Karmakar, S., Mondal, R., Dasgupta, S., Roychoudhuri, U. K., Guha, P. and Mandal, A. K.

    Grain discoloration disease is presently becoming a serious threat in rice growing areas of India including West Bengal. The disease is causing both qualitative and quantitative losses of grain yield as well as reducing germination and increasing seedling mortality. Except other factors several micro organisms specially fungi play major role in development of this disease. On the background of these facts, the present investigation was carried out with some newly evolved and commercially available seven old and new generation fungicides. The experiment was conducted at farmer’s field in village Falta under South 24 Parganas District during Boro Season 2013-14 and 2014-15. Among seven fungicides tested, five fungicides were found effective in reducing disease incidence. Among five fungicides, Trifloxystrobin25% +Tebuconazole 50% WG was found to be best performing fungicide with minimum level of PDI and percentage of severely disease infected seed was also very less. The other four fungicides namely Carbendazim25%+Mancozeb 50%WS, Tricyclazole 18%+Mancozeb 62% WP, Tricyclazole75 % WP, Propiconazole13.9%+ Difeconazole13.9% EC had significant role in reducing PDI and percentage of disease infected seeds.

  282. Renu Gangwar and S.K. Kashyap

    Agriculture sector is playing a critical role in sustaining rural economy of the country even in the era of liberalization and globalization. In India, about 75 per cent people are living in rural areas and directly and indirectly dependent on agriculture. In recent years, commercialization, diversification and human resource issues in agriculture have been emphasized in several policy documents. Agriculture is a labour intensive activity, there was 12 per cent increase in overall labour force in India between 2001-2011 whereas in agriculture there was 3.6 per cent decline in labour force. The unemployment rate in lobour in India was very high due to lack of marketable education and skills. Without productive human capital, it cannot complete a demographic transition to improve socio economic development of rural areas. Across the world. 1.8 billion people belong from 15-35 years of age and in India, youth population is 460 million. About 65 per cent of India population is below the age of 35 years and unemployment rate among youth is 10.6 per cent. The integration of rural youth into agriculture and allied activities will increase the level of labour productivity. Keeping this in mind, it is necessary to tap their strength and reap the benefits of their creativity and energy. In the effort to develop a more inclusive approach, the sustainable livelihood approach is being pursued. The framework will help to identify use of sustainable natural resources, vulnerable factors, policies, local rural institutions and the livelihood outcomes for rural youth.

  283. Sangle, S. M.

    The mutagenic effects of Gamma rays, EMS and SA on frequency, spectrum and relative percentage of promising mutant in two varieties of pigeon pea viz. BDN 708 and BSMR 853 have been studied. These varieties showed differential response to mutagens. In morphological mutants tall, dwarf, small compact leaves, small pod, five seeded pod, two seeded pod and branched were isolated. Majority of such mutants bred true during the subsequent generation. The wide range of variability for yield contributing characters was observed.

  284. Srikala Ganapathy and Karpagam, S.

    Due to increase in occurrence of antibiotic resistant bacterial pathogens, there is a pressing need to develop effective alternate antibacterial compounds. Medicinal plants are the rich source of secondary metabolites that serve as potential antibacterial agents. The aim of the present study is to fractionate screen the crude ethanolic leaf extract of Aegle marmelos screen for the antibacterial activity against Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and identify the compounds present in the active fraction. Column chromatography of the crude ethanolic extract yielded a total of 10 fractions. One candidate fraction showed highest antibacterial activity. Gas chromatography mass spectral studies identified the presence of seven phytochemical compounds in the active fraction. Among them, the three leading compounds are alphamonostearin followed by stigmast–5–en–3–ol and pyrrolidino piperazine 3, 6 dione.

  285. Renu Rana

    The specimens of Pleurotus sajor-caju were collected from nature during 2011-2012. Collections were made from differ¬ent parts of Distt. Shimla (H. P.). The antimicrobial activity, of Pleurotus sajor-caju, at four concentrations (20, 40, 60 and 80%) of extracts prepared in different solvents (water, methanol and ethanol) were screened against five pathogens including three fungal pathogens (P. infestans, A. alternata and F. sambucinum) and two bacterial pathogens (E. coli and S. aureus). Maximum inhibition against all the five test pathogens including fungal as well as bacterial pathogens was observed in methanol extract at a concentration level of 80%, followed by ethanol and aqueous extracts at the same concentration. On comparing antifungal and antibacterial activity, it was observed that all extracts were having more antifungal property as compared to antibacterial property. In case of P. infestans, methanol and ethanol extracts in the concentration range of 40-80% completely checked the mycelial growth i.e. 100%. Whereas, growth inhibition of remaining four pathogens i.e. A. alternata, F. sambucinum E. coli and S. aureus increased with increase in concentration level of different solvent extracts.

  286. Mugambi Allan and Prof. Njogu Waita

    This paper interrogates the stylistic devices of oral narrative in an African set up with a case study of Wanjira WA Rukenya who is a renowned narrator from Kirinyaga County in the republic of Kenya. The thrust of the work will focus on two levels. Firstly the study introduces the influence that created Wanjira„ the artist‟. Secondly the investigation will narrow down on the devices and techniques of performance employed by this artist which makes her work outstanding as well as outlining its relevance to the oral literature. Among the stylistic devices discussed in this paper are; dramatization, fantasy, idiophones, songs and repetition as well as narrator‟s intrusions. These devices are discussed with special reference to narrative performance of Wanjira Rukenya the artist.

  287. Dr. Hiregoudar Yerrannagoudar, Manjunatha, K. and Nagaraj Malagund

    In view of the existing fossil fuel deposits may come for another 30 to 40 years and Costs of these Fissile Fuels are day by day increasing. As we know that all over the world the diesel vehicle population is growing at an alarming rate. The emission will irritate skin, eyes, nose and throat and also leads to bronchitis asthma in the long run and has been led to air pollution. It is a serious concern with the pollution point of view. Developing Countries like India depends on its fossil fuel requirements on foreign countries for which spars a huge foreign currency in purchase of crude oil. The increasing pressure on crude oil reserves and environmental degradation as an outcome. Hence in view of the above drawbacks there is an urgent need to find an alternative fuels in the existing engines. Fuelslike (Low Cetane Fuels) like Mango seed oil blended with Methanol may promise and present a sustainable solution as it can be produced from a wide range of plants and seeds.

  288. Priyadharshini, M., Jesurani, S., Ranjani M. and Vennila, S.

    The sol-gel method was used to produce nanoparticles of nickel ferrite. The brown powders were sintering at the temperature of 800˚C for 24 hrs. The ferrite nanoparticles were determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The structural characteristics of calcined sample of Ni1-x Znx Fe2 O4 (x = 0.0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5).The FT-IR analyzed the functional group. The prepared samples have cubic structure and crystalline size decreases from 25-55nm calculated using Debye’s Sherrer formula. The preparation method investigated brought about formation of Nickel ferrite single phase. TG/DTA measurement showed the weight loss between 0-200˚C, 200-400˚C and 400-600˚C which corresponding the endothermic and exothermic processes. An exothermic peak observed at around 400˚C is due to the thermal decomposition of the ingredients to form Ni Fe2O4. The Vibrating Sample Magnetometer was used to obtain the Hysteresis parameters. The saturation magnetization value is 0.2 emu/g to 0.7emu/g for the sample sintered at 800˚C.

  289. Hatem Yazidi, Inshirah Al-Maskari, Joseph V. Thanikal and Abubacker, K. M.

    The mechanism of obtaining a reliable estimate of methane potential using an anaerobic bio-digester system is of high importance. The universality of the procedure undertaken to determine the methane production using an anaerobic system is essential to ensure inter-laboratory repeatability and accuracy of the results. Anaerobic sludge from UASB reactors are used as inoculum for seeding in anaerobic digesters. It is challenging to obtain anaerobic sludge with microbial community for startup of the bioreactor. This paper study the specific contribution of the Horse dung slurry inocula methanogenic community for startup reactor. The experimental results obtained discusses the operational parameters for preparation of inoculum from horse dung slurry and its low potential inhibiting effect.

  290. Sagar Desai and Prof. G. D. Korwar

    Expansion joints used to absorb any misalignment due to positioning axial angular or due to thermal expansion of pipes. In large steel reduction plants corex process is implemented. In corex process all compressed hot gases reused and are carried to each station by pipes. To ensure safe working with these hot pressurized gases expansion joints used in piping system. Expansion joint provides flexibility to piping systems. Different expansion joints can be used to give flexibility in different direction like axial, angular and lateral. Aim of this project was to investigate the failure and modify the design of expansion joint used in steel plant. Finite element method is used for modal and Frequency response analysis. Modal analysis results which are basis for the frequency response analysis are validated with the analytical results. Fatigue life is also calculated considering maximum and minimum stresses from FRF analysis. Frequency response is considered for analysis based on failure pattern. Pulsating frequency of compressor is considered as the excitation frequency for expansion joints. After analyzing the results from the frequency response analysis modifications implemented from EJMA standards. All implemented modification are reanalyzed. Modification with reversed sleeve is found suitable for desired working.

  291. Dr. Hiregoudar Yerrannagoudar, Manjunatha K., Basavaraja, K. M. and Shiva Kumar, S.

    In view of the existing fossil fuel deposits may come for another 30 to 40 years and Costs of these Fissile Fuels are day by day increasing. As we know that all over the world the diesel vehicle population is growing at an alarming rate. The emission will irritate skin, eyes, nose and throat and also leads to bronchitis asthma in the long run and has been led to air pollution. It is a serious concern with the pollution point of view. Developing Countries like India depends on its fossil fuel requirements on foreign countries for which spars a huge foreign currency in purchase of crude oil. The increasing pressure on crude oil reserves and environmental degradation as an outcome. Hence in view of the above drawbacks there is an urgent need to find an alternative fuels in the existing engines. Fuelslike (Low Cetane Fuels) like Soyabean oil blended with Methanol may promise and present a sustainable solution as it can be produced from a wide range of plants and seeds.

  292. Mehmet ÇAKMAKKAYA

    The development of the welding of aluminum has seen greater demands upon the design of faster and larger aerospace and automotive industries. AA 6082 (EN AW 6082) grade aluminum alloy is mostly used for lightweight construction. These alloys contain small amounts of silicon and magnesium, typically less than 1% each, and may be further alloyed with equally small amounts of manganese, copper, zinc and chromium. Hardening constituent in this alloy is magnesium silicate Mg2Si phase. The alloys are sensitive to metal cracking such as in the root pass of the weld due to, particularly, the high alloying element content in parent metal. In this study, the mechanical properties of the weld specimens were investigated based on the microstructure obtained from AA 6082 alloy heat treated with T0, T6 and T73 heat treatment scheme and the optimization of TIG welding procedures were also attempted. The information obtained in this study may help automotive producers to take full advantage of the developments in automotive grade aluminum alloys.

  293. Syeda Tasneem Fathima, Naduvinamani, N. B., Sreekala, C. K. and Hanumagouda, B. N.

    A comparative study on the performance characteristics of wide porous plane and parabolic slider is investigated in this paper. The modified Reynolds equation is derived subject to Darcy’s condition for porous media. The closed form expressions for pressure, load carrying capacity and frictional force, and coefficient of friction is obtained. It is found that the effect of MHD and lubricant additives in conducting fluid is to increases the load carrying capacity and frictional force in porous media for both the sliders. But as the value of porous parameter increases load carrying capacity and frictional force decreases and coefficient of friction increases. Also the effect of porosity is prominent for plane slider than in parabolic slider.

  294. Dheeraj A Bumb and Dr. D. M. Ghaitidak

    Quality is one of the important aspects for construction projects. The level of success of construction projects depends upon the quality performance. Quality management provides the environment within related tools, techniques, procedures that can be deployed effectively leading to success of construction project. Though quality management is important at every stage of the project but quality management at execution stage contribute significantly on final quality outcome of construction projects. This paper proposes Quality Management System for a construction site located in Pune which aims to raise quality of works and to improve the consciousness in staff at different managerial level about the quality management concepts and its importance in construction industry.

  295. Kannan, A. and Shanmugam, G.

    The nanocomposite film of lead sulphide nanoparticles and poly vinyl alcohol has been prepared by chemical synthesis method. Lead nitrate and sodium sulphide were used as lead (Pb2+) and sulphur (S2-) ion sources respectively. X-ray diffraction pattern revealed the cubic structure of PbS. Formation of the nanocomposite film is confirmed using the FTIR. Photoluminescence spectrum exhibited the two emission peaks corresponding to the blue-green and green emission of PbS. Electrical properties of PbS film were measured using impedance analyzer in the frequency range of 1 kHz to 1 MHz and in the temperature range of 303-348 K.

  296. Komala, M., Dr. Nataraj, K. R. and Dr. Mallikarjunaswamy, S.

    These days the requirement of memory is increasing day by day as it has become one of the integral part of the our day to day equipment’s that we use such as phones, computers, etc. the main reason for the popularity is its upgraded features like high speed of operation, easy to configure, very small in size and hence occupy negligible area, improved latency, and high performance. It has become possible due to advance controller that is used these days to provide necessary signal and commands to the SDRAM to perform at its best and provide outstanding features for the users. Hence it is very much necessary to design a controller for the SDRAM memory element to enhance its functionality. The paper proposed here basically targets the design and implementation of SDRAM controller to be designed for high speed interface with PCI Bus that can handle huge amount of data and can be used for various storage related application such as BIG DATA, etc. The controller proposed in the paper is mainly comprised of some of the basic functionality like read, write operation, refresh, synchronization, etc. The design developed is implemented on FPGA operating on 200MHz clock frequency and coded using verilog language. Xilinx ISE 14.1 is used as a development environment and Modelsim6.3 is used to work on the functional verification of the design.

  297. Chandu, T. and Vanajakshi Devi, K.

    Cloud Computing (CC) deals with incorporations of Enormous data storages and its heavy data processing abilities whereas on the other hand pervasive data collection capabilities of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN). The interactions and communication between the CC-WSN makes a huge difference in acquiring results and greatly reduces human effort thus receiving a lot of attention from industrial and academic purposes as it provides lot of computing services. However accreditation or authentication for reliable services, reputation calculation and managing of cloud and sensor networks are rarely addressed as Cloud Service Providers (CSP) and Sensor Network Providers (SNP) are least explored issues in CC-WSN integration. This paper intends to propose a novel approach to minimize risk and highly trustworthy with authenticated service of CSP and SNP’s for resource sharing between them that provides efficient and uninterrupted services for Cloud Service User (CSU). The proposed system mainly focuses on resolving issues like Accrediting of CSP’s and SNP’s to avoid any malicious attacks that replicate the data, calculating and managing reliability and reputation of CSP’s and SNP’s and assisting CSU in choosing CSP; assisting CSP to select appropriate SNP for alliance. Thus issues like management and trust in resource sharing of CSP’s are profoundly reduced to deliver service to CSU with minimal cost and high quality service.

  298. Gurunadh, J. V., Srinivasulu, G. and Sri Durga Prasad, D.

    Recent developments in the technology of the power metallurgy process includes powder production, powder consolidation and sinterings and attainment of high performance properties of metals and alloys direct outcome of the technological advances. latest developments in “green compaction, sintering or pressure sintering of preforms and the forging, rolling or extrusion techniques for final consolidation of such preforms. Quality powder in tonnage quantities at low cost make p/m process inhearently attractive. Economic availbility of tonnage quantities of quality powders makes powder metallurgy production feasibilities of metals &alloys applications to larger components demonstrates “Potentials for utilization of powder metallurgy components with high performance propertities with less weight and low cost in processing is unique for powder materials utilization in economical way. Powder metallurgy is competing with the conventional manufacturing methods by offering greater economy with better performance

  299. Pradnya P. Dhamdhere and Vijaykumar Bhusare

    Silos are containers used for storing bulk solids. Although there is no generally accepted definition for these terms, shallow structures containing coal, coke, ore, crushed stone, gravel, and similar materials. Silos are special structures subjected to many different unconventional loading conditions, which result in unusual failure modes. In this present study pressure calculation is carried out by Janseen’s theory and Reimbert theory for static condition and additional pressure due seismic action is calculated by Theoretical approach. Base shear force generated at bottom of silo is compared with using IS 1893-2002, ASCE 7-05, AIJ 2010. Calculation is completely based on respective codal provision applied to Indian seismic zones, site condition etc.

  300. Omkar S. Kunte

    With the exploding human population on the Earth, consumption of resources is increasing day by day. Thus, increasing the pressure on the natural resources. Therefore, harnessing energy and production of non-toxic substances has become a priority. Green Technology is the way out to overcome these problems. This paper provides a brief description of the green vehicle and its types. Green Vehicle is a part of green technology which produces less harmful impacts to the environment than the other engine vehicles.

  301. Prof. Hemant Salunkhe and Mr. Pramod Sarwade

    The construction industry is one of the key economic industries in India and is the main motivating force in Indian national economy. But, it suffers from a number of problems that affect time, cost performances. The construction industry is dynamic in nature due to uncertainties in technology, budgets and development process. The Indian construction sector has been acted as an engine of growth for the Indian economy for over the past five-decades and becoming a basic input for the socio economic development of the country. Construction is the second largest economic activity after agriculture, and has contributed around six to nine percent of India’s GDP over the past five years while registering eight to ten percent growth per annum. Projects are reportedly failing across all the key performance measures including cost, time and quality. Successful management of construction projects is based on three major factors i.e. time, cost and quality.

  302. Nassreldeen Elsheikh, Farah Saboun and Ibrahim ElAgib

    Experiments were carried out to explore the performance of the gamma back-scattering technique in detection and localization of contrabands such as; TNT (C7H5N3O6), codeine (C18H21NO3) hidden in hollow plastic tubes. This is done using an assembly consisting of 241Am gamma source, producing about 5×107 photon.s-1, in conjunction with a NaI(Tl) detector. The source-detector distance was optimized and the optimal configuration was selected to scan the two samples each in turn. The results in terms of contrast ratios and Figure of Merit verified the capability of the proposed device to detect and localize the targeted samples when sealed in plastic discs as small as 2.8 cm in diameter. In addition, the high contrast ratios achieved; 30% for TNT and 25% for codeine demonstrated the good distinction ability of the device.

  303. Mr. Yogesh R.Tambe and Prof. Hemantsalunkhe

    Slum Sanitation Program (SSP) was conceptualized with the objective of improving health and hygiene conditions of slums in Mumbai through better sanitation services. The approach to build only demand based community toilets and active involvement of the community based organization for maintenance demonstrated consistent achievement of objectives resulting in Reduction of open defecation and improved health and hygiene conditions. The implementation of “ONLY WOMEN” community organization demonstrated accrual of other social benefits. The Program through its approach over years has demonstrated its sustainability and potential to be deployed in other cities of India. The program has deployed various innovative technical solutions viz. Bio Digester, Bio Culture, incinerator and solar panel to overcome hurdles in providing sustainable sanitation services in remote and geographically impossible slums. The use of GIS based platform has enhanced transparency and cleanliness. The program emphasizes success of mission, Swatch Bharat Mission, if rightly implemented.

  304. Anupama Munshi

    Software Metrics are instrumental in improving the quality of the Software. The sustainability of any software depends on the quality of that particular software. In this technical era where there is no dearth of software’s, we need to find out various factors that affect the quality of the software, and an important one of them being the Software Metrics. This paper attempts to define the various software metrics available for the measurement of software and lays stress on the relationship between the software metrics and the quality of the software. Since the basic objective of software development is to provide high quality software, this paper provides an insight into the need of good software metrics which can help in the improvement of the quality of the software product. Also the paper lays emphasis on the impact of Metrics on the quality of the Software.

  305. Kunkulol, M. K. and Prof. Ashish Waghmare

    Initiatives to set up 100 smart cities in the country by 2022 are underway and being implemented at a very faster pace. With the aim to strengthen and revitalize the urban local bodies the government has introduces a city challenge system for selecting smart cities on the basis of urban amenities, demographic profile and financial situation. India is the third largest Economy in the world in terms of purchasing power parity (PPP) with a 6.4% share of worldwide gross domestic product (GDP) on a PPP basis. The country also ranks second in terms of population, with more than 1.2 billion people, out of which, nearly one-third are urban dwellers. The urban population in the country has increased from 17.3 % in 1951 to 31.2% in 2011.Over the last decade Indian cities have witnessed a high rate of Urbanization with Delhi leading the race, registering a growth rate of 4.1%, followed by Mumbai and Kolkata with growth rates of 3.1 % and 2.1 % respectively. The new Indian government has taken cognizance of this accelerating expansion. Investments required to stabilize, augment as well as build a robust infrastructure are at the forefront of the governments agenda. The objective of this Knowledge paper is to provide an overview of the opportunity landscape for smart cities in India as well as facilitate Global solution providers to take stock of the current situation and support the Indian government’s Smart city initiative. A strong and stable democratic government coupled with the relatively free play of market forces today makes India the most Attractive Investment destination. It would also be imperative to have smart leadership not only at the national level but also at the local municipal level who can take bold decisions in every urban area and more importantly, smart people who are willing to support smart leaders for bringing the necessary change and to implement the plans.

  306. Ollanazarov Bekmurod Davlatmuratovich, Saidov Dilshodbek Razzokovich, Salaev Sanatbek Komilovich and Alimov Atabek Kerimbergenovich

    In this paper we looked through the features and trends of development of the service sector in Uzbekistan. For that we gave notion about service and service economy. Moreover we compare international and national classification of services, as well as in the paper given development tendencies and history of services sector in the global economy. Also we conduct comparative analysis of countries, due to the role of services sector in their GDP and employment. Consequently we looked through and analyzed development of services sector in Uzbekistan, change of its share in GDP as well as employment and its role in well being of the population. As a result we found out factors those effecting to the development of services sectors and divided them into two groups according to the their positive and negative effect. Those analyses give us chance to analyze the results of the reforms carried out in the service sector in the years of independence, moreover to give advices for further development of the sector in Uzbekistan.

  307. Habtu Nigus Deribew

    The study explores the impact of agricultural extension on households’ income and income inequality at a micro level using data from 734 rural households (out of which 390 are extension participants and 344 are non-participants) in Tigray region, northern Ethiopia. It also deals with the determinants of income and income inequality. The data for the study is derived from eight tabias and three agro-ecological zones of the Geba catchment collected by MU-IUC project. Descriptive statistics with respective t-values, Gini Decomposition Analysis and OLS Model together with Regression based Inequality Decomposition Analyses are employed to the respective objectives of the study. In the decomposition analysis, off-farm income and livestock income show an inequality decreasing sources while agricultural (mainly crop) income reveals an inequality increasing source. However, some off-farm income sources such as wage income which includes food for work program run by the government working in rural projects has an inequality reducing effect. Generally, the Agricultural extension program has substantial positive impact on households’ income.

  308. Dr. Anupama.K. Malagi and Ms. Rashmi Shetty

    The importance of EQ has been rising consistently over recent few years. With the increase in intolerance among the people both personal and professional arenas have turned into a battlefield with bloodshed creating a red ocean. People firstly fail to understand their emotions and even if they do they fail in managing their emotions. It is also a role of education that should equip the students with the tools to manage their emotions. A concrete mentoring process supports the students to effectively understand as well as manage their emotions. Hence leading to the reduction in the gap and increasing the tolerance level. When an education institution produces students with high EQ it invariably contributes towards the better performance and organisational growth. The institution becomes the player in Blue Ocean which is a win-win situation for all. This paper first explores the level of the emotional intelligence possessed by the students. It then proves that the students are not able to manage their emotions. Further the work suggests how mentoring can interfere and facilitate the transformation in the students.

  309. Biswajeet Saha

    Empowerment of Women is the newest contemporary issue in the present day context. We are the civilised people and we are proud to be Indian but there is a big question has raised recently that are we really civilized Indian, because it has been considered properly that there is a discrimination between male and female and the Indian superstitious people make this discrimination line markedly since last decadal era. Our Indian Constitution has established the fact, there is no neglecting or separating boundary between male and female and everybody should empower their opinion independently and this opinion might have justified in changing the curse of civilisation. Women are now become deprived from the context of family, education, decision making, and societal administration as well as deprived from getting equal opportunities in the sector of employment. In this context, Magrahat, Block II, study area has been taken into consideration to point out the scenario of deprivation of women from the context of rural West Bengal. This study area is under Diamond Harbour subdivision and a gargantuan number of women belong to Muslim community and most of them are illiterate and even being deprived in the context of education, social customs as well as administrative empowerment. These women’s are being victimized by physical and mental tortured by their family members as well as by their neighbours. Therefore they have been discriminated as an illiterate Muslim women in between the boundary of literate Muslim and Hindu women. Education or establishment of women education is the only way out through which these Muslim women will get the equal opportunity and they will bring the empowering status in the rural village Magrahat. Therefore, in this research paper an attempt has been made to point out the problems of Muslim women in the Magrahat village followed by some strategic educable suggestion through which these women will make their position further in the base of education, societal change, rituals and societal decision followed by some stringent suggestions which will bring the empowerment of Muslim women near future in Magrahat suburb.

  310. Mini Singh Ahuja and Navpreet Kaur

    Now a day’s many researchers have been researching on how to find most influential nodes in a network, especially in social networks. If we are given a social network where neighbors can influence other nodes of a network then to identify some such seed nodes in social network through which we can maximize the spread of influence is recent research topic. In this paper we are working on weighted greedy algorithm and modifying it to get better results.

  311. Dr. Dawood Shah

    This article tried to examine education policies and five years development plans in education sector particularly focusing on secondary education since 1947. The main objective of this article was to analyze the planning strategies pertaining to secondary education, allocation and utilization of funds for secondary education, reviewing the targets and achievements related to secondary education and to identify implementation gaps. Since 1947 eight major education policies and nine five year plans were developed which had tried to address the problems and issues of education sector in Pakistan. The main focus of these policies and plans was on access to education, quality of education, reducing gender disparity in educational provisions, education governance, structure of education, science education, technical and vocational education and relevance of education. The policies and plans also focused on improving secondary school infrastructure by opening new schools, up gradation and rehabilitation of schools to accommodate the output of primary schools. The policies and plans had also put emphasis on qualitative aspects of secondary education by updating and reforming the curricula, improving textbooks, reforming examination systems, and enhancing the capacity of teaching force. Unfortunately most of the policies and plans could not achieve their objectives due to lack of political will, inconsistency and frequent policy changes with change of governments, lack of financial resources, poor governance, weak government structure for implementation and monitoring of policies and plans, non-reflection of policies recommendations by development plans, lack of evaluation of education policies to identify causes of their failures, lack of coordination between policy makers and implementers, non-availability of authentic and reliable data, political instability and ignorance on the part of the masses. Despite all strategies and remedial measures proposed by education policies and plans, the education system of Pakistan is still facing numerous issues and challenges which include high illiteracy rate, low budgetary provision for education in terms of GNP, low enrolment rates at all levels of education, high dropout rate , inequality in educational provisions across regions and gender, lack of facilities for professional development of teachers, outdated curricula and poor quality of teaching and learning materials, poor physical infrastructure, poor management and supervision, and poor quality of education.

  312. Dr. Jehangir Bharucha, M. A.

    Every organization needs to mobilize and sustain commitment which will give the team its strength. Professionals as well as interns and beginners belonging to lower, middle and upper level of hierarchy working in the manufacturing and service sector organizations were questioned and conclusions drawn.

  313. Dr. Goutam Saha

    The traditional symbiotic relationships between tribal community and forest have been revealed from thousands of years. These two are ecologically and economically inseparable and co-existed. India (specifically north eastern region) has a huge population living close to the forest with their livelihood critically linked to the forest ecosystem. People living in their forest fringe villages depend upon forest for a variety of goods and services. This paper tries to analyze statistically the recorded forest area, change of forest cover and the related change matrix over the 8 north east states. It also pin-out the comparative study about the forest and its resources among the north eastern states.

  314. Pooja Bhagat

    The purpose of the present study was to see Gender differences in the Self-efficacy of Secondary School Students. The study was conducted on a sample of 200students of 9th class studying in Government and Private Schools of Jammu district. Self-efficacy scale constructed and standardized by Dr. G.P.Mathur and Dr. Raj Kumar Bhatnagar was used to collect data. The collected data was analyzed with the help of‘t’ test. The results of the present study showed that significant difference exists in the Self-confidence of secondary school boys and girls. Girls are found more self-confident than boys. Significant difference exists in the Self- esteem of secondary school boys and girls. Boys are found to possess higher level of self-esteem in comparison to their counterparts. Significant difference exists in the Self-cognition of secondary school boys and girls. Boys are found to possess higher level of self-cognition in comparison to their counterparts.

  315. Uma, R. and Dr. V. Selvam

    The modern revival of organic farming dates back to the first half of the 20th century at a time when there was a growing reliance on these new synthetic, inorganic methods. Consumer’s consumption pattern has been changing rapidly about the food safety as well dietary consuming in India. Consumers become more anxiety about the food they consume. With the accessibility of organic food products in the market people have begun buying in the local retail markets. The relative success of organic farming in many countries are due to the high awareness of the health problems caused by the consumption of contaminated food products, the ill effects of environment degradation, appropriate supports by the government. Organic farming is one of the widely used methods, and considered as the best alternative to avoid the ill effects of chemical farming. The marketers should increase the supply and availability of the organic food products to match their consumer demand. But there seems to be a mismatch between the grown of organic food product industry and consumers’ reluctance to purchase organic food products. In traditional India, agriculture using organic techniques like pesticides, fertilizers, additives etc., were obtained from plants and animals products. The system is oriented towards high production without much concern for ecology and the very existence of man himself. In this backdrop, the present empirical research work is an attempt to explore the reluctant factors towards buying organic food products in Vellore city, Tamil Nadu, India.

  316. Romeo M. Guillo, Jr.

    The study was conducted to determine the readiness of the faculty and students of the College of Teacher Education (CTE) of Batangas State University as well as the ICT infrastructure in the utilization of e-learning system in the teaching learning process. The descriptive method was used in the study with the questionnaire as the main data gathering instrument. One hundred (100) CTE teachers in the university served as the respondents of the study. The study revealed that based on the assessment of the teacher-respondents, they somewhat agreed on the readiness of CTE teachers, students, management, and infrastructure for e-learning system. It is recommended that the provision of orientation seminars and training workshops on this endeavor will help the teachers acquire the needed skills and upgrade the hardware and software requirements in order to operationalize the e-learning system in the department.

  317. Tejaswini Patil, Dr. Ramanjaneyalu and Kiran Ambekar

    Organizational commitment is defined as the level of involvement and identification with a given organization. Employees with high level of organizational commitment have significant contributions to the achievement of the organization under competitive conditions (Feldman & Moore, 1982). Job involvement is a function of individual difference and the work situation. Blau and Ryan put forward that job involvement and organizational commitment are negatively related to absence, withdrawal intentions and turnover as well as lateness and leaving work early and job involvement is positively related to work effort and performance. Individuals with high levels of both job involvement and organizational commitment should be the most motivated to go to work and to go on time. The study was conducted in AB Label Pvt, ltd, Bangalore a Small Scale Industry registered under the ministry of MSME which manufactures self adhesive and metal labels to meet the needs of various segments of industry (Electronics, Electrical, Automotive, Solar). The Objectives of the research are to determine the level of organizational commitment, job involvement and to determine the relation between organizational commitment and job involvement. The designed questionnaire was administered to 38 employees of the company. The results of the research revealed that the variance level is found to be 13% (.366*.366) between job involvement and organizational commitment. That is organizational commitment explains 13% of job involvement and vice versa. Hence the hypothesis (H0) set for the research i.e “There is relationship between organizational commitment and job involvement”. is proved. There is relationship between organizational commitment and job involvement”. Five –point Likert scale was used for capturing the responses of the respondents. The rating scales ranging from ‘strongly disagree’ to strongly agree’ was used for each statement. Validity and reliability of the scales were tested and found to be significant. SPSS was applied for data analysis. Pearson’s Correlation was applied to check the relationship and the significance of Job Involvement and Organizational Commitment by processing the data using SPSS.

  318. David Pérez-Jorge, Josué Gutiérrez-Barroso, Irama Morales-León and María Sandra Marrero-Morales

    This research describes the development and assessment of an instrument to evaluate the processes of collaborative work carried out in primary and secondary schools in Tenerife (Canary Islands). In this sense, an adaptation of the questionnaire developed by Ferrandis, Grau and Fortes (2010), Questionnaire for evaluating Predisposition and Collaboration as regards Response to Diversity (CEPCRD), was carried out. The adequateness of this instrument was analyzed by means of content validity, reliability and underlying structure. Three basic dimensions were identified. Results and differences in several dimensions as regards the participants’ professional training and qualification were presented taking into account such dimensions.

  319. Nada Mohammed and Alhayiti

    Grammatical functions can be defined as the functional relation between items that make up a clause and include notions such as the object and the subject. Grammatical functions form an important aspect of LFG and according to Keenan (1987), the study of LFG involves linguistic theories which explore the diverse linguistic structure aspects and their relations. Additionally, LFG analysis involves two syntactic structures; Constituent structure or the c-structure and the functional structure known or the f-structure. The debate on whether grammatical relation is universal or not has been on for quite some times now, some linguistics argue that grammatical relations are universal given that the subject-object notion apply to all languages (Dryer 1987: 121). This paper argues against this view and seeks to point out how the grammatical relation is not universal. In LFG analysis, the c-structure represents word order together with phrasal groupings while the f-structure while the f-structure relate to grammatical functions such as subject, as well as object. It should be noted that the mentioned structures entail significant separate representations, although they complement one another in logical aspects. Current LFG research incorporates examinations about argument structure and semantic structure, as well as other structures of linguistic along with their significant relation to c-structure in addition to f-structure. LFG presents a language structure theory and how different linguistic structures are interlinked. The LFG theory is significantly lexical, meaning that the lexicon is splendidly well thought-out, comprising lexical relations as opposed to transformations or phrase structure operations on trees in order to capture linguistic generalizations. Additionally, it is functional, meaning that grammatical functions such as subject as well as object are primitives and not described through configuration of phrase structure nor semantic roles. However, recent developments in LMT analyzes grammatical functions as no longer primitives but decomposable into primitive features of [+/-r] and [+/-o] (Closs and Trausdale 2008: 8). As earlier mentioned, the universality of grammatical functions has raised a heated debate. Linguistic organizations are diverse and the likelihood of all languages having the same structure is farfetched. Keenan (1987: 118) tries to give a universal definition of “subject of.” His definition is quite complex but it succeeds in its attempt to show a general trend in the definition of the subject functions that would be accepted globally. He states that examining subjects across various languages clearly shows that the noun phrase containing the subject is unique to that particular language and that no universality is shown (Keenan 1987: 91).

  320. Peter Otieno Ogada and Enose M. W. Simatwa

    Although progress has been made in increasing enrollment in many countries, these gains are undermined by large number of pupils who take more than one year to complete a particular grade or dropout before completing the primary cycle. In Kakamega District, where Kakamega Municipality is located, the high enrollment was short lived as the dropout rate rose from 2.4% in 2003 to 10.9% in 2004 and then declined to 1.2% in 2007. The purpose of this study was therefore to find out factors influencing dropout in public primary schools in Kakamega Municipality. The objective of the study was to determine factors that influence dropout of pupils in public primary schools in Kakamega Municipality. A Conceptual Framework consisting of independent variables and dependent variables was used to guide the study. The study adopted descriptive survey research design. The study population comprised of 25 head teachers, 457 teachers, 1548 standard 8 pupils, 50 class 5 to 7 dropouts and one Assistant Education Officer. Simple random sampling was used to select 480 standard 8 pupils and 115 teachers while saturated sampling was used to select 23 head teachers and one Assistant Education Officer. Snowball sampling was used to select 25 dropouts. Questionnaires were used to collect information from Head teachers, teachers, dropouts and pupils. In-depth interview schedules assisted in getting information from the Assistant Education Officer. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics in form of frequency counts and percentages. Face and content validity of the instruments was assessed by three experts in Planning and Economics of Education. Reliability of the instruments was determined through pilot survey in 2(8.0%) schools using test re-test method. The Pearson Product Moment correlation coefficient was 0.9 for Head teachers’ questionnaire, 0.7 for teachers’ questionnaire, 0.75 for pupil dropout questionnaire and 0.8 for pupil’s questionnaire. Qualitative data was transcribed into emergent themes and sub-themes and reported. The findings from this study indicated that the factors that influenced drop out were; poor parental care, poverty, child labour, death of parents, pregnancy, peer influence and indiscipline. The study concluded that dropout was influenced by poor parental care, peer influence, child labour, poverty and pupil indiscipline. The study recommended the need for deliberate efforts to eliminate dropout, sensitization of teachers and parents on the implications of repetition and dropout, better methods of handling indiscipline. These findings are useful to Head teachers, teachers, parents, students and to the Ministry of Education in the formulation and strengthening of policies to eliminate dropout in the public primary educational sub-sector.

  321. Joyce Awuor Ariembi Omondi, Enose M.W. Simatwa and Theodore M.O. Ayodo

    Kisumu Municipality is one of the areas that has high Human Immuno Deficiency Virus and Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome prevalence rate of 15% compared to a national prevalence rate of 7.3%. The HIV and AIDS scourge has resulted into many orphans who are vulnerable to many forms of exploitation such as a sexual exploitation and child labor. These forms of exploitation are bound to affect participation of children in education. The purpose of this study was therefore to establish perspectives of stakeholders on the effects of HIV and AIDS on primary school pupil dropout in Kisumu Municipality, Kenya. The study was guided by a conceptual framework that illustrates how HIV and AIDS could affect primary school pupil drop out. The study adopted a descriptive survey design. The study population consisted of one Municipal Education Officer, one Quality and Assurance Standards Officer, 17933 standard 7 and 8 pupils, 117 head teachers and 234 classes 7 and 8 class teachers. Questionnaires, interview schedules and focus group discussion guide were used to collect data. Quantitative data was analyzed using descriptive statistics in form of frequency counts, means and percentages. Qualitative data was coded and analyzed in emergent themes and sub themes. The study findings revealed that HIV and AIDS have had an impact on the school going children. It has exposed children who are orphaned to challenges due to lack of providers and care takers. The study found out that there are quite a number of strategies that the schools and the government are using to reduce drop out in the primary schools within the municipality. The study also revealed that there are quite a number of challenges in the process of mitigating primary drop out. To improve on the quality of education and learning in primary schools in Kisumu Municipality this study recommended that the government should put in place measures to reduce the rapid increase of orphans due to HIV and AIDS effects, increase the amount of funds set aside for HIV and AIDS affected or infected pupils, ensure quality health services for all, eradicate graft in conveying funds for personal effects for orphans due HIV and AIDS ,and educate the society on the effects of HIV and AIDS. The findings of this research are useful to policy makers, Non Governmental Organizations, well wishers, head teachers, teachers and all stakeholders in eradicating school dropout in educational institutions.





Rosane Cavalcante Fragoso, Brasil


Chief Scientific Officer and Head of a Research Group

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