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March 2017

  1. Swapneel Charandas Bodele, Rahul Ashok Patil, Abhijit Ningappa Gurav, Chandrakant Dharmadhikari, Sumit Shard Shetgar, Sneha Iresh Ganmukhi and Sneha Nimrao Meshram

    Background: Bio films form speedily on dental unit waterlines. The specific design of dental units favors bacteria to colonize surfaces and to form biofilm in water supply tubes, together with dental unit water line (DUWL). In recent years, microbial contamination of DUWLs has become a prominent infection control issue even receiving some alarmist coverage in the media. More than 25 different species of bacteria have been isolated from DUWLs. It may also harbour opportunistic pathogens that are responsible for respiratory disease – namely P. aeruginosa, Legionella spp and non–tuberculous Mycobacterium spp. Aim: To determine the predominant bacteria isolated from DUWL biofilm attached to ultrasonic scaler device. Method: A total 10 sample were collected from department of period ontology, TKDC & RC, Kolhapur. Each tube was aseptically cut into 2 cms length. The biofilm was removed by scraping the wall with a scalpel and the scraping were suspended in peptone water. Each suspension were spread on agar plate and incubated for 48 hrs. To obtain pure culture, morphologically different colony forming unit (CFU) were selected for subculture. Finding: The following aerobic organisms were found in samples of DUWL. Proteus species, Bacillus species, Staphylococcus albus, Staphylococcus citreus, Staphylococcus aureus. Conclusion: From the DUWL, the microorganism are transmitted with aerosol and splatter, generated by working unit handpieces. Numerous studies highlight the need for effective mechanisms to diminish the microbial contamination in DUWL and emphasize the threat for cross-infection in general practice, especially in view of the ever-increasing number of persons with immunocompromised state who present at outpatient dental clinics.

  2. Ricardo Oses Rodríguez, Jaime Wilfrido Aldaz Cárdenas, Rigoberto Fimia Duarte, Jorge Jagger Segura Ochoa, Nancy Guadalupe Aldaz Cárdenas, Jenny Janeth Segura Ochoa and Claudia Osés Llanes

    The objective of this paper is to determine how methodology ROR can give information when having a series, whose auto correlograms are a white noise. Deceased by car accidents variable was used for Cuba in the period 2006- 2011. The future projection of the data series can be obtained by using modeling ROR, which provides a new and important way, promising for the series that behave as a white noise, because this gives new information for the series and its behavior. Deceased tendency is to diminish at about 29 persons a year; deceased persons depend on quantity of deceased two years backwards. As the model is perfect and errors with zero value are obtained, Cristosols Numbers are introduced, which could create new statistics and prediction models. This study was done using the statistical package of Social Sciences (SPSS) Version 13.

  3. Ogbe, F.E., Chukwujekwu, D.C. and Lasebikan, V.O.

    BACKGROUND: HIV/AIDS is a chronic multi-systemic disorder with associated psychiatric co-morbidity of significant health importance. There is paucity of information on psychiatric morbidity among HIV patients in the undeveloped world. AIM: The study sought to investigate the occurrence of psychiatric disorders and its associated clinical factors in people living with HIV/AIDS. METHODS: Using a systematic sampling method, 353 subjects were recruited into two groups; HIV positive subjects from the RVD clinic and HIV negative subjects from the GOPD clinic. They were assessed using a self-designed questionnaire to elicit socio-demographic and clinical variables. The subjects were screened for psychological distress with a 12 item General Health Questionnaire and diagnoses made using Present State Examination (PSE) manual (version 10). Data was analysed using the statistical package for social sciences (SPSS, version 15). RESULTS: Of the 353 subjects, 241 completed the study (68% participation); 89 were HIV positive and 152 were HIV negative. There was significant difference between the mean duration of treatment for HIV positive respondents when their duration of illness was considered. Logistic regression analysis showed that the significant risk factors for psychiatric co-morbidity in these patients include presence of social support, female gender and persistent fever. CONCLUSION: An interplay of genetic, physical and psychological factors in the development of psychiatric morbidity in HIV positive patients has been highlighted. Further studies will elucidate the exact contribution of each of these to the onset of psychopathology in these patients

  4. Chukwujekwu, D.C., Ogbe, F.E. and Lasebikan, V.O.

    Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection tends to immune suppression which progresses terminally to death. The introduction of the highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) has changed the status of HIV infection from that of a rapidly fatal disorder to a chronic one with persisting physical symptoms. Aim: The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of persistent physical symptoms on psychiatric morbidity in HIV positive patients. Methods: Using a systematic sampling method, 353 subjects were recruited into two groups; HIV positive subjects from the RVD clinic and HIV negative subjects from the GOPD clinic. They were assessed using a self-designed questionnaire to elicit socio-demographic and clinical variables. The subjects were screened for psychological distress with a 12 item General Health Questionnaire and diagnoses made using Present State Examination (PSE) manual (version 10). Data was analysed using the statistical package for social sciences (SPSS, version 15). Results: The study shows that there was a significant difference in the prevalence of psychiatric morbidity in HIV positive patients when compared with controls. Significantly prevalent physical symptoms among the patients with psychiatric morbidity were fits, cough, dermatological lesions, chronic pain, vomiting, diarrhea, weight loss and fever. Via logistic regression, “persistent fever” was identified as a risk factor for psychiatric morbidity. Conclusion: The findings from this study underscore among other things, the need for a high index of suspicion and early identification of cases of psychiatric morbidity among HIV positive patients. This will definitely translate to a more favourable management outcome in the long run.

  5. Ogbe, F.E., Chukwujekwu, D.C. and Lasebikan, V.O.

    Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a chronic multi-systemic disorder with associated psychiatric co-morbidity of significant public health importance. Aim: The study focused on investigating the prevalence of psychiatric morbidity living with HIV and AIDS in a tertiary hospital in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. Methods: Using a systematic sampling method, 353 subjects were recruited into two groups; HIV positive subjects from the RVD clinic and HIV negative subjects from the GOPD clinic. They were assessed using a self-designed questionnaire to elicit socio-demographic and clinical variables. The subjects were screened for psychological distress with a 12 item General Health Questionnaire and diagnoses made using Present State Examination (PSE) manual (version 10). Data was analysed using the statistical package for social sciences (SPSS, version 15). Results: Among the 241 subjects who completed the study, 89 were HIV positive while 152 were HIV negative. A higher proportion of the HIV positive subjects were females (57.3%). The prevalence of psychiatric morbidity in adults living with HIV/AIDS in this study was 23.6%. There was a significant difference in the prevalence of psychiatric morbidity in the HIV positive patients when compared with controls. Conclusion: One of the results of this study was that one in five HIV/AIDS patients had a depressive disorder. This suggests that the most prevalent mental health problem in HIV and AIDS patients are mood disorders, hence the need to step up measures in preventing and managing them for a more wholesome effective management.

  6. Chukwujekwu, D. C., Ogbe, F. E. and Lasebikan, V. O.

    Background: The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a lethal neuro-medical disorder caused by infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The consequences of HIV/AIDS are myriad and devastating, but there has been paucity of studies on psychiatric morbidity in HIV/AIDS patients in the undeveloped world. Aim: The study aims to investigate the socio-demographic and psychosocial correlates of psychiatric morbidity in HIV positive patients in a tertiary hospital in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. Methods: Using a systematic sampling method, 353 subjects were recruited into two groups; HIV positive subjects from the RVD clinic and HIV negative subjects from the GOPD clinic. They were assessed using a self-designed questionnaire to elicit socio-demographic and clinical variables. The subjects were screened for psychological distress with a 12 item General Health Questionnaire and diagnoses made using Present State Examination (PSE) manual (version 10). Data was analysed using the statistical package for social sciences (SPSS, version 15). Results: Of the 241 subjects assessed, 89 were HIV positive and 152 HIV negative. Significantly more HIV positive patients practiced safe sex, denied the history of multiple sexual partners during the one month period before the interview and admitted to using psychoactive substances. Significantly more females presented with psychiatric morbidity and the only significant determinant of psychiatric morbidity was the presence of organized social support. Conclusion: In view of the monumental and diverse challenges raised by HIV/AIDS, effort should not be spent only on the chemotherapeutic management of this global nightmare but there’s urgent need to step up the management of the resultant associated psychosocial challenges.

  7. Chukwujekwu, D.C. and Okeafor, C. U.

    Conversion disorder is a condition in which patients present with neurological symptoms such as numbness, blindness, paralysis, or myoclonus and other movement disorders without a neurological cause, which arises in response to difficulties in the patient. Until recently, hysteria was believed to be uncommon amongst the indigenous inhabitants of tropical Africa. This article reports the first case of Conversion Disorders in an adolescent in UPTH and emphasizes the need for better clinical judgement to reduce the burden of missed diagnosis and also the impact of psychosocial stressors, harsh parenting, hostile home environment and high expressed emotion in the aetiology of the disorder and establishes a temporal relationship between the psychological stressors and the disorder which underscores its diagnostic and prognostic implications.

  8. Dr. Prateek, Dr. Shami and Dr. Sandhya

    Functional appliances have been used since the 1930s. Despite this relatively long history, there continues to be much confusion relating to their use, method of action, and effectiveness. These appliances alter the arrangement of various muscle groups that influence the function and position of the mandible in order to trasmit forces to the dentition and the basal bone. Typically these muscular forces are generated by altering the mandibular position sagitally and vertically, resulting in orthodontic and orthopedic changes. Functional appliances have been broadly divided into two categories removable and fixed functional appliances. Fixed functional appliances have been used in patients who are non compliant to removable appliances and in patients after the active growth phase has been completed. The purpose of this review was to overview the different fixed functional appliances available till date for the treatment of Class II malocclusions.

  9. Yan Vares, Yuliya Medvid and Dr. Nataliya Chegrynec

    Intermaxillary fixation is an essential part of treatment of fractures of the facial bones. The procedure ensures an adequate interrelationship of occlusive surfaces and is applicable for both the independent conservatively-orthopedic treatment and in the course of a surgical fixation (osteosynthesis) of jaw bones fragments as a compulsory component of pre-, intra- and postoperative management. The common and conventional methods of maxillomandibular splinting, and dental wiring techniques in particular, as well as the ligation of teeth have proven to be highly disadvantageous in terms of the severe damage of periodontal tissues, low hygiene, uneven load on chewing muscles, painful and stressful procedure overall. All these have urged the doctors to seek alternative methods of intermaxillary fixation. Present article is the case study and reports the results and outcomes of treatment of a bilateral traumatic mandibular fracture with orthodontic bracket system for a prolonged maxillomandibular immobilization. We analyse the benefits of a suggested method and compare it with conventional procedures of intermaxillary fixation.

  10. Salhi, H., Jaidane, O., Ayadi, M.M., Hassouna, J.B., Dhiab, T., Hechiche, M. and Rahal, K.

    Background and aim: Primary mucinous carcinoma of the vagina is a rare disease which is characterized by aggressiveness and relative resistance to conventional treatment modalities. We aim to report a new case of this rare entity, to investigate its characteristics and its prognostic factors. It is a case of advanced stage of primary mucinous adenocarcinoma of the vagina, diagnosed in our service in January 2015, showing a highly aggressive course. Case: A 35 year old woman was admitted to our institute to be treated for advanced stage primary mucinous adenocarcinoma of the vagina. She had no history of in utero exposure to diethylstilbestrol. A digestive endoscopy and a colonoscopy were normal. She was treated by three courses of neoadjuvant chemotherapy with tri-weekly paclitaxel and carboplatin which were partially effective. However, the disease progressed rapidly and the patient died four months after the treatment. Conclusion: Recognition of this rare entity is important and additional data about patients with primary mucinous carcinoma of the vagina should be collected and analyzed to better characterize these tumors and to elucidate its prognostic factors, optimal treatment and outcome.

  11. Nor Syakirah Shahroom and Dr. Sangeetha

    Aim and Objective: To determine and assess the awareness and level of knowledge on digital impression technique among dental students in various institutions. Materials and Method: This study was done by distributing a total of 10 questionnaires through online survey to dental students among various institutions. The questionnaires were prepared to evaluate the awareness and the views on intraoral impression technique among the dental students. The data were collected and statistical analyses is done. Result: The result showed only 59% of the students were aware about various digital impression technique in dentistry. This is because they would have experienced very less dental procedures using digital impression techniques (14%). The (91%) dental students preferred it will be helpful in dental clinics and (88%) dental students believed that digital impression technique consume less working time. But only (52%) of them rated the uses of digital impression technique as moderate. (83%) of them believed that their patient would prefer digital impression technique. In spite of their preference to use digital impression technique (78%) in the future, only (37.9%) of them rated it is moderately effective highly accurate. Conclusion: The awareness on digital impression technique is very poor among the dental students in various institutions. Most of them does not aware about the uses and effectiveness of digital impression technique in dentistry as they never experience using it in their institutions. Therefore, various measures need to be taken to improve their awareness and knowledge on digital impression techniques.

  12. Dr. Siya Dukle, Dr. Alok Patel and Dr. Sanket Kunte

    The aim of this study was to assess the levels of dental fear and state anxiety in the mothers of pediatric dental patients and whether providing preparatory information regarding treatment would have a significant impact on the anticipatory anxiety. Forty children and their mothers visiting the pediatric dental clinic were participants of the study, and were randomly allocated into two groups. One group was provided with preparatory information regarding the child's treatment. Using dental fear survey and state trait anxiety inventory - state, fear and anxiety levels in the mothers were measured respectively, before and after reading the preparatory information. In Experimental Group, the mother’s dental fear and anxiety levels showed a significant reduction as compared to the control group. This study confirms the existence of a significant relationship between maternal fear and anxiety, and child behaviour in the dental office. Involving the parents through communication, and engendering a cooperative spirit will assure reduced stress in treating our pediatric patients.

  13. Hari Mohan Meena, Sharma, B. S., Prity Sharma and Chetan Meena

    Objective: To evaluate to pattern and proportion of sleep disorders in asthmatic children aged 6 to 18 years. Material & Method: It was a validated questionnaire based observational study, performed from May 2013 to April 2014 at department of pediatrics, Swai Man Singh (SMS) Medical College, Jaipur, India. We enrolled 63 asthmatic children age between 6 to 18 years. Results: The mean age of study subjects was 10.2±1.5 year. The restlessness during sleep was found in 50.8% asthmatic children. The other sleep disorders among asthmatic children reported in our study was snoring during sleep (30.1%),Growing pains of legs when in bed (33.3%), difficulty falling asleep (30.2%), frequent nocturnal awakening (38%), grinding of teeth during sleep (28.5%), bed wetting during sleep (25.3%), perspiration during sleep(36.5%), sleepiness during day(44.4%) wake up with headache in morning(30.1%), sleep talking (31.7%) and sleep walking(17.4%). Conclusion: The symptoms of sleep disorders in asthmatic children are prevalent. Common disorders are restlessness during sleep, growing pains of leg, difficulty in falling asleep, day time sleepiness, bed wetting during sleep, frequent nocturnal awakening and grinding of teeth.

  14. Chetan Bhat, Sampada Lonkar, Smita Patil, Shweta Jajoo and Amol Patil

    Objectives: To compare streptococcus mutans levels in saliva, before and after consumption of milk containing probiotic and probiotic curd. Materials and Methods: Twenty caries free children in the aged 12-14 years were selectedand divided into two groups A and B respectively. Children in group Awas given probiotic curd for first 7 days and group B was given probiotic milk for first 7 days.7 days wash out period was given to both the groups and for next 7 days, group A was given probiotic milkand group B was given ml probiotic curd.Saliva samples were assessedat baseline, 1 hour after consumption, on 7th day, after wash out period (14th day) and on 21thday. Results: The study revealed a reduction in salivary mutans streptococci (MS) counts after 7 days in both the groups. After 7 days, probiotic milk showed a statistically significant reduction in MS counts.The difference in the reduction of MS counts with probiotic milk and probiotic curd at21th day was not statistically significant. Conclusion: The use of probiotic products could be an alternative strategy of displacing pathogenic microorganisms by probiotic bacteria

  15. Dr. Rosy Lekharu, Ekta Patel, Jayshree Tolani, Dr. Ramesh Pradhan and Dr. Pinakin Trivedi

    Hemolysis following birth is a normal way of replacing fetal haemoglobin with adult haemoglobin. It is a physiological mechanism. Albumin is the carrier of bilirubin in the blood to the Liver. Hypoalbuminemia leads to lesser availability of albumin to carry Bilirubin thereby increasing the hyperbilirubinemia and increasing chances of Kernicterus. Our study proposes to study the correlation between cord blood Total protein and Albumin levels and the time of onset and the severity of jaundice. 50 term neonates were taken up for the study. Cord blood sample was collected and estimation of bilirubin, total protein and albumin was done. Follow up was done to observe the development of clinical jaundice and its severity. Significant association has been found between cord blood albumin, total protein and bilirubin levels and the tendency to develop neonatal hyperbilirubinemia

  16. Jitender Sharma and Roopali Rajput

    Asthma continues to be a major public health problem and dietary factors play a significant role in triggering as well as in preventing bronchial asthma. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to highlight the nutritional aspect of asthma.

  17. Dr. A. S. Ramesh Chetty, Dr. Jayashree, Dr. V. R. Arunkumar, 4Dr. S. Elakkiya and Dr. Gowtham

    Alginate is the choice of Impression material for most practicing dentist. But, these materials should be poured immediately or else they will get distorted. To overcome this, extended pour alginate were introduced. A study was conducted to check their accuracy over an extended period of time and was found to be sufficient if stored as per manufacturer’s instructions. Background: To check the validity of the claim by the manufacturer that extended pour alginates retain their dimensions over a period of time. Aim: To check the effect of storage time of extended pour alginate on dimensional accuracy. Methods: Impressions of a model was made and stored. They were retrieved at set time period and cast was poured. The change in dimension between the cast poured immediately and the cast poured after a time delay was studied. Results: The dimensional accuracy of the extended pour alginate was found satisfactory Conclusion: Impressions made of extended pour alginate may be stored till a period of 5 days without losing its dimensional accuracy.

  18. Senival Alves de Oliveira Júnior, Edlana Rebouças Veloso Guimarães, Arnaldo Costa de Medeiros Junior, Jéssica Siebra Macário de Brito, Aline Vasconcelos de Carvalho, Letícia Araújo Costa-Uchôa, Irami Araújo-Neto, Amália Cinthia Menezes Rêgo and Irami A

    Acute aortic syndrome (AAS) describes emergency aortic diseases. In 80% of patients, the AAS presents itself as an Acute Dissection of Aorta (ADA). It's worth pointing out that the traumatic etiology of this condition, has great relevance regarding morbidity and mortality. This is fact that the Traumatic Thoracic Aortic Dissection (TTAD), usually occurs from a contuse injury, product of an abrupt deceleration, especially in men and individuals with overweight or obesity, which have a history of smoking and heart surgeries. Early diagnosis of ADA is indispensable, since patients who arrive alive at the hospital, have high probability of death in a short period of time if not treated properly, especially those who have been victims of some traumatic event earlier. In this context, the endovascular approach has become the treatment of choice for acute surgical emergencies involving the descending thoracic aorta. Moreover, it should be considered as a first-line option in the conduct of any emerging conditions that involve this region of the aorta. It is important to note that the longevity and durability of this technology throughout the life of young patients remains to be elucidated.

  19. Dr. Samia Perwaiz Khan, Dr. Fadielah A. Sohail and Dr. Muslim Abbas

    Background: PBL is a small group teaching method that combines the acquisition of knowledge with the development of skills and attitudes. Educationally, it is based on adult learning theory and is predicted to produce a better learning environment and improved outcomes in terms of graduate knowledge, skills, and attitudes. It can also be of benefit in integrating learning and evaluation for undergraduate medical students. Methodology: Problem based learning program was started in the syllabus of medical education in Jinnah Medical and Dental College in 2016. The PBL process was divided into three sessions. In order to evaluate the PBL process we designed an evaluation form to be filled in by facilitators. Results: The three sessions were scored, Session 1: punctuality, teamwork, chair (leadership), cooperation in group, applying prior knowledge. Session 2, makes them self-learners and improve their literature search skills, according to learning objectives. Last but not the least Session 3 in addition to above students update integrated knowledge (Table - 1). The scatter plot the score achieved by hundred students in the three session of PBL which shown in Table 2. Conclusion: It can be concluded that problem based learning is for attaining integrated knowledge and skills. Along with being useful tool for evaluation and assessment of the individual student.

  20. Elia Georgieva

    Objectives: To analyse the prevalence of role modelling among third and sixth course medical students at Medical faculty - Sofia. Methods: Cross-sectional web-based study was carried out in 2015 at the Department of Social medicine, Faculty of Public Health- Sofia. In the study took part 123 medical students in third course and 134 students in sixth course. Relation between variables was assessed with chi-square test with a significance level of p <0.05. Results: Almost half of the medical students (48.2%) declared not having a role model. From the respondents 49.8% said that negative role models are more common during their medical education. The most valued qualities in the role models were, excellent clinical ability and skilful work with patients". The study found an association between abuse of medical students and negative role modelling. Conclusion: Medical teachers in Medical faculty - Sofia do not always serve as good role models for the students. Positive role modelling should be stimulated through policies against abuse in medical universities and a proper training of the medical educators. Strategies to improve role modelling should be an integral part of the politic of the medical universities for the training of the medical educators (Cruess et al., 2008).

  21. Senival Alves de Oliveira Júnior, Rielly de Sousa e Silva, Ana Karla de Sousa Almeida, Artur Dantas Freire, César de Carvalho Garcia, Thiago Emanuel Véras Lemos, Irami Araújo-Neto, Letícia Araújo Costa Uchôa, Amália Cinthia Meneses Rêgo and Irami Araúj

    Unilateral diaphragmatic paralysis is a condition that can lead to respiratory dysfunction and, in extreme cases, death. Presents similar etiology to paralysis of bilateral involvement, and in many cases, are idiopathic. Therefore, have considerable diagnostic not index. Has wide range of clinical manifestations, ranging from asymptomatic episodes’ frames with respiratory failure. This article makes a bibliographical review about the main features of unilateral diaphragmatic paralysis (UDP), highlighting the most relevant data about definition, etiology, pathophysiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis and more effective treatment of this illness to systematize the knowledge about this disease.

  22. Sílvio José de Lucena Dantas, Senival Alves de Oliveira-Júnior, Rielly de Sousa e Silva, 2Arnaldo Costa de Medeiros-Junior, Sarah Hulliane Freitas Pinheiro de Paiva, Artur de Lemos Campos, Manoel Crizanto das Neves-Neto, José Saint-Clair de Sousa Tôrres-

    Background: Severe acute pancreatitis is an acute abdominal disease that possesses a powerful systemic inflammatory response, and can progress quickly, going from the stage of local pancreatic damages to the dysfunction of several organs, with the development of multiple local and systemic complications. Aim: In this article, a case of splenic perforation by abdominal drain will be described, as a late complication of pancreatic necrosectomy, in a patient with severe acute pancreatitis. Methods: The information was obtained through data from medical records and photographic registers of the diagnosed methods to which the patient has been submitted, andrevision of medical literature. Results: F.L.S, female, 54 years old, hospitalized at Health House São Lucas Hospital presenting intense abdominal pain and elevation of pancreatic enzymes. During the hospitalization, the patient developed a sepsis and a new abdominal CT scan showed necrosis covering more than 70% of the pancreas, associated with the infection of the mentioned necrosis. Following the pancreatic necrosectomy by placement of abdominal drains, the patient presented a splenic perforation by the tubular abdominal drain, resulting in the necessity to adopt conservatory measures to deal with this case. Conclusion: Therefore, it is possible to observe that there hasn´t been any reports of splenic perforation by draining following a pancreatic necrosectomy in the medical literature consulted. Thus, this report constitutes a rare case to the present day. However, there is no way to contraindicate the frequent use of tubular draining, since this is an isolated case and there isn´t other data and there aren´t reports that analyses this topic in medical literature.

  23. Dr. Bipsa Singh, Dr. Jaya Singh Kshatri, Dr. Sangeeta Das, Dr. Leena Das, and Dr. Tripathy, R. M.

    Objectives: To describe the etiological and clinical profile of viral hepatitis and its outcome in a tertiary care hospital of Odisha. Methods: 71 children with jaundice were selected from dept. of Paediatrics, SCB MCH, Cuttack. Clinical examination, LFT & tests of viral markers of these children were done. Results: Most common age group of presentation was 5-10 years. Most of the children were male (61%). Majority (71%) were from rural areas. The most common signs & symptoms were jaundice (97.1%), fever (88.7%), nausea & vomiting (92,9%), splenomegaly (47.8%), ascites (19.7%), encephalopathy (22.7%) & GI bleed (9.8%). The common cause of viral hepatitis were hepatitis A (67.6%), hepatitis B (11.2%), hepatitis C(1.4%), hepatitis E (4.2%). No marker was detected in 14% of cases. The highest value of bilirubin total & direct were 44.6mg%, 13.6mg% respectively in the cohort. SGPT level was more than four times in all cases with highest 9350IU/L. PT was prolonged in 26.8% cases. 20(28.1%) cases which developed fulminant hepatic failure (FHF) were admitted to ICU out of which 9 patients recovered and 11 patients (16.71) died. Out of the 11 patients who died 9 patients (75%) had no viral marker. FHF due to hepatitis A singly is more common & 2 cases of Sickle cell disease with hepatitis A developed FHF more rapidly. 2 cases of hepatitis E developed FHF & recovered completely. Conclusion:-There is need of hepatitis A vaccination to young children, which will reduce the risk of infection in adolescents and adults through a herd immunity effect. Hepatitis B can be prevented by Universal immunization. Hepatitis C can be prevented by proper screening of blood and blood Products.

  24. Dr. Abirami, P., Bhuvaneswari and Jerin Prabha

    Mental health is a level of psychological well-being, or an absence of a mental disorder. It is the "psychological state of someone who is functioning at a satisfactory level of emotional and behavioral adjustment”. According to World Health Organization (WHO) mental health includes "subjective well-being, perceived self-efficacy, autonomy, competence, intergenerational dependence, and self-actualization of one's intellectual and emotional potential, among others. " A person struggling with his or her mental health may experience stress, depression, anxiety, relationship problems, grief, addiction, ADHD or learning disabilities, mood disorders, or other mental illnesses of varying degrees. The aim of this study was to assess the level of mental health among young middle aged population and to associate the level of mental health among the middle aged population with their demographic variables. Non experimental research design was adopted to assess the level of mental health among the young middle aged population. The study was conducted at East Potheri, Kattankulathur, Kancheepuram dist. Standardized tool was used to assess the level of mental health among young middle aged population. The data was collected from 50 samples using purposive sampling technique. The data was analyzed and interpreted based on the objectives using descriptive and inferential statistics. The findings of the study revealed that, majority 32( 64%) of the young middle aged people had moderate level of mental health, 18(36%) of them had good mental health and no one had poor mental health. There was no association found between the level of mental health among the middle aged population with their demographic variables.

  25. Dr. Smriti Kapur, Dr. Monika M Sehgal, Dr. Aman Arora, Dr. Prachi Jain and Dr. Ritu Sangwan

    Severe ridge resorption decreases the success rate of a complete denture by reducing the denture bearing area. The increased interarch space and resultant increased weight of the prosthesis in such cases further adds to the problem. Fabricating a hollow denture to reduce the weight of the prosthesis is beneficial in such cases. In this article, three case reports have been described where completely edentulous patients with increased interarch space were given hollow denture made by three simple techniques.

  26. Pooja Suryavanshi, Shilpa, B. S., Dr. Priti Charde, Dr. Kaustubh S Thakare and Dr. Vikas Pakhre

    The periodontally accelerated osteogenic orthodontics (PAOO) technique is a combination of a selective decortication-facilitated orthodontic technique and alveolar augmentation. It provides an increased net alveolar volume after orthodontic treatment. The purpose of this article is to describe the history, biology, clinical surgical procedures, indications, contraindications and recent modifications of the PAOO procedure.

  27. Dildar Singh and Kanthamani K.

    Purpose: To comparevisual outcome in patients undergoing manual small incision cataract surgery with superior, supero-temporal and temporal incisions. Methods: A study was conducted between December 2014 and December 2015. A Prospective analysis of 102 cases meeting the inclusion and exclusion criteria were selected. The patients were randomly allocated to three groups of 34 each and surgeries were performed in group A with superior, group B with supero temporal and group C with temporal incision by single experienced surgeon. Post operatively unaided visual acuity was recorded in each patient post operatively on first week, six weeks and twelve weeks. Results: A total of 102 cases of MSICS were analysed. Most of the patients were between 61yr to 70yrs of age. After 12 week 16(47.1%) of the patients in SI group and 20(58.8%) of the patients in supero-temporal group had visual acuity ranging 6/6-6/9 where as in temporal incision group 25 (73.5%) patients had visual acuity ranging 6/6-6/9 (x2 – 4.981, p<0.01). Conclusion: Visual rehabilitation is better in temporal incision than superior incision.

  28. Rosaline Tina Paul, Dr. Ligil, A. R. and Biswas, P. P., Dr. Lijo K. Jose and Dr. Primal T. Francis

    New approaches to shorten treatment time without foregoing optimal results, has become a primary goal of all areas of orthodontics. Low friction and self-ligating bracket systems, preformed archwires, alveolar corticotomies are some examples. The phases of normal tooth movement are (Burstone 1962) 1. Initial phase, 2. Lag phase 3.Post lag /continuous phase. When a force is applied onto a tooth, it results in a number of biophysical events such as compression of periodontal ligament, bone deformation and tissue injury. These biophysical events in turn lead to certain biochemical reactions at a cellular level which bring about bone remodelling. Bone deformation and compression of the periodontal ligament leads to the release of some extra-cellular signaling molecules called first messengers. Hormones such as parathormone, local chemical mediators such as prostaglandins and neurotransmitters such as substance P and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP). The first messengers bind to receptors present on the cell surface of target cells and initiate a process of intracellular signalling. The intra-cellular signalling results in formation of second messengers, which include cyclic AMP, cyclic GMP and calcium. Second messengers inside the cells is believed to initiate formation of bone cells namely osteoclasts and osteoblasts which are responsible for bone remodelling. Mechanical forces, at present the only clinical means for producing orthodontic tooth movement, are but one way to activate cells. Chemical and physical agents are capable of stimulating bone cells to perform specific functions. Cellular activation occurs in or through the cell membrane. It involves fluxes of ions, such as Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, Cl, and inorganic phosphate as well as activation of the membrane-bound enzymes adenylate cyclase and guanylate cyclase. Enzymes act upon their respective substrates, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and guanosine triphosphate (GTP), to produce adenosine 3’, 5’-monophosphate (cAMP) and guanosine 3’, 5’-monophosphate (cGMP). These latter substances, together with Ca2+, are considered to be the intracellular “second messengers” which mediate the effects of external stimuli on their target cells. All three substances serve as co-factors in enzymatic phosphorylation reactions. The rational of acceleration by physical stimulation concomitant with orthodontic forces is done in order to augment the effect of the mechanical forces. Tissue remodeling effect which is mediated by a variety of cells like fibroblasts, root and bone surface lining cells endothelial and epithelial cells and different kinds of leukocytes. Thus this method is helpful in increasing the speed of tooth movement. The chemical methods to accelerate the rate of orthodontic tooth movement includes application of pharmacologic agents have shown good results in increasing orthodontic tooth movement .The combined effect of force application and the exogenous administration of an osteoclast differentiation factor has an effect on the rate of orthodontic tooth movement and periodontal ligament gene expression. In surgical method of corticotomy were linear cuts and bur holes are made extending 0.5mm into the medullary bone results in a temporary burst of localized soft and hard tissue remodeling (i.e., regeneration) which rebuilds the bone back to its normal state. Rapid tooth movement was due to transient localised demineralization and remineralisation in the bone due to wound healing. This phenomenon is known as the regional acceleratory phenomenon (RAP). This article presents a detailed description of the various methods of acceleration of tooth movement.

  29. Dr. R. Ananthalakshmi, Dr. Jaideep Mahendra, Dr. P. Jayamathi and Dr. S. Subramaniam

    The current lifestyle changes has made the human community more prone to a diverse psycho-somatic disorders. Periodontal inflammation is one such oral disease, which has a multiple etiologic factors. Though the primary cause of the disease is microbial, the other factors are local, psychological, systemic and environmental which can influence the pathogenesis of disease. The conventional oral health care system inclines towards the periodontal treatment procedures that involves prophylactic and surgical management. But yoga, the complementary and alternative medicine has a natural and drug free approach to general and oral health without risks and adverse effects. Yoga is also considered as a cost effective treatment modality in treating and preventing illness. Various forms of yoga are practiced - asana (postures), pranayama (rhythmic breathing) and dhyana (meditation). The benefits of yoga are categorised as physiological, psychological and biochemical. This paper discusses the effect of yoga on modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors of periodontal disease and how yoga can contribute in the disease prevention and progression. It also validates that yoga as a therapeutic field which needs more research in periodontal health.

  30. Dr. Rosy Lekharu, Dr. Ramesh Pradhan, Mr. Vijay Pandhare and Jayshree Tolani

    Results obtained from stored samples of serum or whole blood are often contradictory. The present study was done with the aim to determine the effects of storage time on the laboratory results of 5 analytes in sera. We determined the concentration of Glucose, Creatinine, Bilirubin, SGOT and SGPT at 0, 6, 12, 24, 48 and 72 hours and observed its stability. All samples were stored at 4-8° C. It was observed that all five serum analytes examined are sufficiently stable for 72 hours in serum.

  31. John, J. R.

    Background: The Ebola outbreak is a deadly disease of the African population which has captured the interest of the global community. The pace and fatality rate of the disease requires a ‘global intervention’, with public health strategies to halt transmission and prevent further outbreaks at the source. Ebola in comparison to other conditions has been delayed in vaccine development due to several reasons including poverty of host nations, complexity of the disease and its reproductive rate (R0), pharmaceutical companies focusing on commercial viability of products and lack of penetration in western nations. Materials and methods: This article is a review of the Ebola outbreak of its source of origin, demographic spread and also provides perspectives on the public health approaches that could be used to efficiently manage Ebola. Results and conclusion: There is an unmistakable link with poverty to social inequity and health disparity as the African nations were under colonialism of the western nations. There is also a requirement of diversification of public health management within Africa and on a global scale to manage and prevent diseases such as Ebola becoming pandemics. Thus Ebola could be efficiently managed by implementing public health approaches at individual, familial and community levels.

  32. Karan Raj Singh Sandhu, Ajay Bibra and Garima Bibra

    First described by Philipsen in 1956, the odontogenic keratocyst is characterized by a large squamous keratinization of its border, an aggressive growth behaviour, a high recurrent rate and characteristic histological appearance. It is now designated by the World Health Organization as a keratocystic odontogenic tumour (KOT). Clinically, the KOT is manifested by an asymptomatic growth. Radiographically, it appears as a well-defined unilocular or multilocular osteolytic lesion. The diagnostic approach is based on a combined analysis of the medical history, the clinical appearance and the radiographic appearance. The diagnosis may be confirmed by the histopathological report. Finally, treatment consists of surgical excision and follow up is characterized by a high rate of recurrence. Case Presentation: In this case report we present a 51-year-old male patient with a large odontogenic keratocyst and treatment with Enucleation and Chemical cauterization followed by dental implants with a 2 year follow-up. According to the patient's age and clinical findings, implants supported fixed prosthesis was the treatment of choice.

  33. Rituraj Sharma, Prabhuraj. B. Kambalyal, Kamlesh Garg, Parul Pandey and Jaldeep Dave

    Many studies have suggested co-relation among facial type, malocclusion and pharyngeal airway. Any impairment in pharyngeal airway can lead to certain type of malocclusion or change in facial pattern. The aim of this study is to evaluate upper and lower pharyngeal airway widths in Angle’s Class-I and Class-II malocclusions with different growth patterns. Lateral cephalograms of 40 untreated patients were categorized in four groups based on malocclusion (either Angle’s Class-I or Class-II malocclusion) and type of growth pattern (vertical or horizontal) using certain cephalometric values. For each patient upper and lower pharyngeal airway width were measured according to McNamara’s analysis. Statistical analysis was performed for inter and intra-group comparisons. Results showed decreased upper pharyngeal airway width in both Angle’s Class-I and Class-II malocclusions with vertical growth pattern than horizontal growth pattern. Significant differences were also observed in lower pharyngeal airway in Angle’s Class-I malocclusion with vertical and horizontal growth pattern. Overall comparison of upper and lower pharyngeal airway widths in both type of growth patterns showed increased pharyngeal airway width in horizontal growers. No differences were seen in upper and lower pharyngeal airways based on age and sex of an individual.

  34. Dr. Chetan Das, Dr. Bhag Chand Lohano and Dr. PushpaGoswami

    Objective: To determine the association of thrombocytopenia and prolong bleeding time in children suffering from malaria. Study design: Cross sectional descriptive study Setting: Department of pediatrics Liaquat University Hospital Hyderabad. Duration: Six month from 24th June 2014 to 23rd December 2014 Subjects and methods: All children presenting in pediatrics department of Liaquat University Hospital Hyderabad with fever (>101 oF) or history of fever (>101 oF) for 3 days duration were evaluated for malaria parasite through thick and thin blood smear. Then all malaria positive patients were assessed for platelet count. Thrombocytopenia; if present then further evaluated for their bleeding time (BT) by Duke’s method and observation were noted. Results: Total 154 children of malaria were included in this study mean age + SD (range) was 5.76 + 3.63 (6 months to 12 years). 118 cases were plasmodium vivax positive while 34 were suffering from plasmodium falciparum malaria, whereas 02 children had mixed (p. vivax and p. falciparum) infection. Out of 154 children of malaria, 100(65.0%) had decreased platelets count. Of these, 71(71.0%, n =100) had mild thrombocytopenia, 26(26.0%, n = 100) had moderate thrombocytopenia, while severe thrombocytopenia was observed in 3(3.0%, n = 100). Prolonged bleeding time was observed in those children who had thrombocytopenia. Out of 100 cases of thrombocytopenia, prolonged bleeding time (> 8 minutes) was seen in 8(8.0%, n = 100) cases. Of these, 5(62.5%, n = 8) children had moderate thrombocytopenia while 3(37.5%, n = 8) had severe thrombocytopenia. Conclusion: This study concluded that various degree of thrombocytopenia is common with malaria from asymptomatic to prolong bleeding time leading to life threatening bleeding require early diagnosis and prompt management.

  35. Dr. Terence Abraham, Dr. Rohan Rai, Dr. K. Nillan Shetty

    Aim: The aim of this study was to examine the Change in sagittal position of point- A and Effect of change in point-A on SNA Angle in Angle’s class II division 1 malocclusion cases treated with maxillary first premolar extraction. Materials and Methods: Pre and post treatment lateral cephalograms were collected from those who treated by PEA with MBT prescription with extraction of maxillary first premolars. Lateral cephalograms was analysed using various cephalometric parameters. The total change in the position of point A was measured by superimposing the pretreatment and post treatment lateral cephalograms on the sella-nasion (SN) line at the sella. Treatment changes in sagittal position of point A and SNA angle were calculated on pre-treatment and post-treatment lateral cephalograms which was analysed using Wilcoxon paired “t” test. Results: Point A has moved saggitally by 2.80mm backward and there is a decrease in the SNA angle by 0.520. Although VT-Point A shows significant change, its effect on Angle SNA is statistically nonsignificant. Conclusion: This study concluded that retroclination of maxillary incisors accompanied by backward movement of incisor root apex caused posterior movement of point A. However, this posterior movement doesn’t significantly affect the SNA Angle. Clinical significance: The present study is taken to evaluate the change in sagittal position of point A and its influence on SNA angle in class II div 1 malocclusion patients treated with maxillary first premolar extraction which will help us to assess the effective outcome in treating classII div1 cases.

  36. Dr. Mansi Semwal, Dr. Shweta Chaudhary, Dr. Rohan Shah, Dr. Sneha Desai

    INTRODUCTION: Pediatric endodontic procedures has increased steadily in the past decade. Therefore, restoration of teeth after endodontic treatment is becoming an integral part of the restorative practice in dentistry. AIM: To evaluate the compressive strength of root filled deciduous molar teeth with different restorative techniques along with fibre placement. METHODOLOGY: Fifty extracted deciduous molars were taken [Figure No. 2] and divided into four groups. Group 1- served as control, Group 2- pediatric endodontic procedure was performed and were kept unrestored (post obturation restoration). In groups 3 and 4 – post obturation restoration with composite composite was done. A 3mm groove using 343 sized bur was prepared on the occlusal surface of the finished restorations in group 4 from buccal to lingual direction. Glass fibre was inserted in the groove in combination with flowable resin that was cured and covered with composite resin. Cavity surfaces were covered with flowable resin in group 5 and were placed onto the bed of resin in buccal to lingual direction before the composite restoration. Compressive loading of the teeth was performed by a Universal Testing Machine at a crosshead speed of 3mm-1 until failure. Data was recorded in Newton and submitted to Anova and Tukey post hoc test. RESULTS: Fibre when placed from buccal to lingual direction under composite restoration (Group 5) {2213.02(204.4)} significantly increased fracture resistance. CONCLUSION: Post endodontic restoration is an important step necessary step for a good prognosis of the tooth. In the present study restoration has been evaluated along with fibre placement in two variations and fibre placement under the composite restoration was found to be providing a greater compressive strength. However, further studies both in vivo and in vitro need to be done to evaluate the efficiency of fibre placement as a post endodontic restoration.

  37. Arunkumar, V.R., Yogapadma, Vijayarekha and Ramesh, A.S.

    Fulfilling the aesthetic expectation of the patient is the challenging task for the dentist especially when it involves the maxillary anterior region. Aesthetic perception varies among individuals which in turn affect the outcome of the restoration. This study aims at comparing the perception of aesthetic between C.R.R.Is and lay person. Two groups were made to evaluate the aesthetic outcome of photos of interdental papilla with varying height in the aesthetic zone. The result shows that dental professionals as well as the layperson rated the gingival smile with 1mm shortened papilla to be very attractive and good.

  38. Dr. Munish Kumar, Dr. Rahul Ranjan Dr. Hrishikesh Chakraborty Manoj Kumar Rastogi and Dr. Kamlesh Tewary

    Background: Incidence of Tubercular meningitis (TBM) in developing countries is 7-12%. About 25 % patients have poor prognosis because of delay in diagnosis. The aim of the present study is to find a simple, rapid, cost effective diagnostic test in differentiating tubercular etiology from other causes. Methods: Sixty-two patients admitted to our tertiary hospital with symptoms and signs of meningitis were selected and divided into two groups: tubercular (n=39) and pyogenic (n= 23), depending upon the accepted criteria. CSF examination done in each patients and adenosine deaminase (ADA) level estimated. Cut off value of ADA kept at or above 10 IU/L for tubercular meningitis. Results: The mean age of patients with tubercular meningitis was 39.07 ± 16.67 years and that of pyogenic meningitis 34.35 ± 16.73 years. Out of 39 tuberculous patients, 33 patients were found to be having CSF ADA at or above the cutoff value of 10 IU/L while six had below cutoff value. In tubercular meningitis, the ADA level in CSF ranged between 7 to 112 U/L with mean± SD as 35.72 ± 32.83 IU/L, while in pyogenic meningitis, the ADA level ranged between 2.4 to 7 IU/L with a mean ± SD as 4.21± 1.35 IU/L. On comparison between two groups, the CSF ADA level found to be statistically highly significant (P < 0.001). Conclusions: our study showed that estimation of ADA in CSF is not only simple, inexpensive and rapid but also fairly specific method for making a diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis. For this reason we recommend CSF ADA estimation in TBM.

  39. Dr. Vidya Sekhar, Dr Renganath, M.J., Dr. Shobhana and Dr. Ramakrishanan, T.

    Introduction: While the primary goal of periodontal therapy is the maintainance of the natural dentition in health and comfortable function, predictability of outcomes following surgical procedures is of fundamental importance. Methods: This goal may be achieved by following the principles of biological solutions to biological problems. Various biological solutions include platelet rich plasma, platelet rich fibrin and concentrated growth factor. This case series deals with the use of concentrated growth factor in combination with bone graft for regeneration. Conclusion: Concentrated growth factor is an excellent biologic material which can be used in a gel form or membrane form alone or in combination with other regenerative materials.

  40. Prashanth, B. M.S., Narendra P Datti, M.S., Kanthamani, Sangeetha, T., Shrey Maheshwari, Bhavya Reddy and Dildar Singh

    Purpose: To compare efficacy of fibrin glue versusconjunctival suturing after pterygium excision in terms of operating time, postoperative symptoms, signs, recurrences & safety in terms of anaphylactic reaction and disease transmission (HIV, HBsAG). Materials and Methods: This hospital based prospective study was conducted at R.L. Jalappa Hospital and Research Centre, Tamaka, Kolar between January 2015 and June 2016. Study included 100 patients fulfilling inclusion criteria and all were worked up according to the protocol. Patients were randomly allocated to 2 groups, Group A (Fibrin group =50) and Group B (Suture group =50) who underwent pterygium excision with limbal conjunctival autograft with fibrin glue and pterygium excision with limbal conjunctival autograft with suture respectively. Patients were followed up at 1st day, 3rd day, 10th day, 1st month and 6th month for postoperative symptoms and signs like pain, foreign body sensation and lacrimation, sub conjunctival haemorrhage, graft retraction/gaping and recurrences. Results: Mean age of Limbal conjunctivalauto graft with suture was 52.39 years and 53.22 years in fibrin glue group. Mean operating time was 43.00 minutes in the suture group compared to fibrin glue group which was 22.78 minutes. Patients in fibrin glue group had less symptoms of pain, foreign body sensation, lacrimation, sub conjunctival haemorrhage and graft gaping compared to suture group. Recurrence was noted in 3 & 1 patient in suture group & fibrin glue group respectively at the end of six-month follow-up period. Conclusion: Fibrin glue was found to be a safe and effective method for attaching limbal conjunctival autograft following pterygium excision. Its use results in a shorter operating time, less post-operative discomfort, inflammation, recurrence and no anaphylactic reaction and disease transmission like HIV and HBsAG compared to suturing.

  41. Dr. Sumitha Mary Jacob, Dr.Satheesh Solomon T Selvin, Dr. Padma Paul, Dr. Anika Amritanand and Dr. Pushpa Jacob

    Aim: To assess the knowledge and practice of contact lens (CL) use among the young current users using a piloted questionnaire. Materials and Methods: An observational study was conducted between July and August 2013 in two colleges among young, current CL wearers undergoing various professional courses. Results: A total of 122 current CL users between 18-23 years were evaluated of which 67.2% were females. About 79.5% of the students were using soft CL of which 44.3% were disposable CL users. The participants preferred CL because they looked better (45.9%), improved their self confidence (30.3%) or felt more comfortable (30.3%) as compared to spectacles. About 37.7% of the students had the habit of sleeping with their CL on. CL were being cleaned regularly on removal by 73% while 5.7% were cleaning it only occasionally. Multipurpose solution was used for rinsing the lenses by 59% of the students. About 62.3% of contact lens users had problems/complications related to lens usage and the most frequent complications were general discomfort (26.2%), dryness (22.1%) and itching of eyes (17.2%). Only 61.8% of those who had complications consulted an Ophthalmologist. Statistical analysis used: Cross tab analysis using Fisher’s exact test to assess various correlations and categorical variables using frequencies and percentages. Conclusion: About 26.6 to 45.1% of young CL users do not follow the recommended lens care and hygiene practices. CL education on wear and care is of paramount importance and a regular follow up with an Ophthalmologist is mandatory.

  42. Dr. Kumar Gaurav and Dr. Sheela Kumar Gujjari

    The revolutionary era of tooth replacement began with the invention of implants. Although success rate of 81 to 99% have been reported, there has been a failure rate of 1.5 to 6.7%. Though small these failures still pose a significant clinical, psychological and financial challenges to clinician and patients. Improper implant planning, patient compliance and hypersensitivity to implant metal are major causes for its failure as there is a void and scope of research in this area. Hence this study has been designed to determine the metal particle released from titanium end osseous implant by exfoliative cytology and histopathology

  43. Srikanth, I. and Prameela Rani, A.

    A simple, sensitive and accurate liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometric (LC/MS/MS) method has been developed and validated for determination of Afatinib in human plasma. Zorbax SB-C18, 4.6 x 75 mm, 3.5 μm, 80 Å column, 5mM ammonium formate: acetonitrile (10:90 v/v) mobile phase was used for Chromatographic separation of Afatinib. The Afatinib and Afatinib-D4 were monitored by electrospray ionization in positive ion multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode was used to detect the Afatinib at m/z 486.10 /112.10 and Afatinib-D4 (IS) at 490.90 /112.10. Liquid-liquid extraction was employed in the extraction of analytes from human plasma. This method is validated over a linear concentration range of 50.0–10000.0 pg/mL with a correlation coefficient (r) of ≥ 0.9997. Both drug and Internal standards (IS) were stable in plasma samples.

  44. Rizu Negi, Manju Chhugani, Somibala Thokchom and Anju Hooda

    Purpose: This study was conducted in New Delhi, India to evaluate the effectiveness of lavender tea in relieving fatigue, enhancing sleep quality and in improving maternal-infant attachment during the postpartum period. Method: A total of 60 Indian postnatal women with no history of allergy to herbal teas, foods, or medicines were assigned systematically to either the experimental group (n=30) or the control group (n=30). The participants in the experimental group were instructed to drink one cup of lavender tea after spending time to appreciate and smell the aroma each day for a period of 2 weeks, whereas their control group received regular postpartum care only. The Lee fatigue scale, Postnatal sleep quality scale and Postpartum Bonding Questionnaire were used to assess outcomes. Findings: Data gathered were analyzed and interpreted using descriptive and inferential statistics. The mean post fatigue score of the postnatal mothers in experimental group (38.93) was lower than the control group (119.5) with a mean difference of 80.57. The obtained ‘t’ value of 21.5 was significant at 0.05 level. The mean post sleep quality level of the postnatal mothers in experimental group (3.93) was lower than the control group (15.86) with a mean difference of 11.93. The obtained ‘t’ value of 26.5 was significant at 0.05 level and the mean post maternal infant attachment of the postnatal mothers in experimental group (28.72) was lower than control group (69.55) with a mean difference of 40.8. The obtained ‘t’ value of 7 was significant at 0.05 level. This indicates that administration of lavender tea to postnatal mothers in experimental group for 14 consecutive days was to be effective in decreasing fatigue level, improving sleep quality and improving maternal infant attachment of postnatal mother whereas in control group regular postpartum care found not effective in improving maternal infant attachment. Conclusion: This study supports the popular claim for the beneficial effects of lavender tea on fatigue, sleep quality, and maternal-infant attachment in postpartum women. The lack of reported side effects further supports lavender tea consumption as an alternative therapy that is safe, simple, cost-effective, and viable for all clients.

  45. Dr. Osama Abdullah Abdul Raheem, Dr. Abd-EL-Aal A- Saleem and Dr. Hassan Ahmed Abdallah

    Background: Acute appendicitis is a common indication for abdominal surgery with a life-time incidence between 7 and 9% and appendectomy is one of the most common surgical procedures. Open appendectomy (OA) performed through the right lower quadrant incision was first described in 1894. It has become the standard treatment of choice for acute appendicitis, due to its efficacy and safety. Laparoscopic appendectomy (LA), first performed by Semm in 1983, and gradually acceptance. Objective: The aim of the present study was to compare the frequency of readmissions due to bowel obstruction (BO) after open versus laparoscopic surgery performed for suspected acute appendicitis.

  46. Dr. Manjunath, K., Dr. Sanjay Kumar, H.R. and Pradeep, B. K.

    Recent diagnostic and therapeutic progress for severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) has decreased the case mortality rate. There is a therapeutic window within the first 48 h, when specific treatment may alter the outcome. An ideal scoring system and laboratory assay in the evaluation of acute pancreatitis patients should provide an early severity assessment to facilitate treatment. This should be applicable in the clinical setting, rapid, low cost, accurate and available on a 24-hour basis. Objective: To evaluate the Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS) score and Interleukin (IL)-6 for predicting severity of acute pancreatitis. Methodology: SIRS scoring system and IL -6 levels is evaluated in 30 patients with acute pancreatitis at time of admission. These 30 patients were divided into 2 groups- mild and severe pancreatitis depending on presence of organ failure and/or local complications such as necrosis, etc. Correlation between SIRS’s score and IL-6 levels and its role in predicting severity of pancreatitis was evaluated. Results: Thirty-patients with acute pancreatitis admitted to our hospital between March 2014 to October 2015 were studied, 12 mild-group patients and 18 severe-group patients. SIRS score for severe form was > 2 while mild form had score < 2. IL-6 levels showed significant differences (p < 0.005) between the severe group and the mild group on the day of admission. Even SIRS score and IL-6 levels showed significant correlation with severity of pancreatitis. Conclusion: SIRS scoring system and IL-6 levels on the day of admission are useful for early prediction of severity of acute pancreatitis in primary health care and aides in effective management, thus reducing the morbidity and mortality of acute pancreatitis.

  47. Shikha Madan, Pardeep Kumar and Divya Agrawal

    Varicose veins in the vulvar and peri vulvar area in women is commonly present during pregnancy. These develop early in pregnancy, hence pressure theory of gravid uterus is no longer accepted. The treatment of varicose veins in pregnany is mostly conservative because, most of the treatment options are not safe and also these regress in the post partum period. We have reviewed all the treatment options available and their safety in pregnancy.

  48. Ambaga, M.

    In relating to explain the scientific basis of triple RLung, Mkhris, Badgan theory of Tibetan Traditional Medicine among many researchers have been prevailed the opinions as if rlung, mkhris, badgan are living things, the real thing, which really existed inside human body we could looking at it and touching it. By L.Ron Hubbard principle the first barrier to study is not having the real thing there that you are studying about, the real things or the objects that you study about are called mass. Our study demonstrated that inside a human body are not really existed a living rlung, mkhris, badgan, which play the role of so named mass-real things according to L.Ron Hubbard principle. If we would accept the opinions of some researchers about existing the living rlung, mkhris, badgan inside human body as the real thing as mass, which could look and touch, that mean that we should recognize the idea about existence of Homo sapiens human species, whose body beside living cells, contained a really existing living rlung, mkhris, badgan as mass-real things and who may be described as “Homo sapiens, containing rlung, mkhris, badgan” human species. In such way it is categorically resisted, refused the opinions, relating to coexistence of “Homo sapiens plus vata, kapha, pitta “human species (human species, containing a living rlung, mkhris, badgan had not registered in Linnaean taxonomy) along with “Homo sapiens” human species. In this connection it is raised the principal question that what things are really existed inside human body, conditioning the appearance of triple rlung, mkhris, badgan theory of Tibetan Traditional Medicine and served the role of mass - real things or the objects that we study, we could looking at it and touching it. By our study established that the membrane - redox potentials three - state line system dependent - full 9 stepped cycle of proton conductance-related regulations as the universal metabolic formula and the 4 compartments of human body and the 10 functional systems of human body formed during 4,4 billion years - basic stages of evolution development to ensure the normal functions of the membrane - redox potentials three - state line system dependent - full 9 stepped cycle of proton conductance since, when sets the stage for the formation of life in the universe, served the role of living mass - real thing in relating to Rlung, Mkhris, Badgan theory, which really existed inside human body we could looking at it and touching it.

  49. Maryelizabeth Tidiya Walarine and Binoy Mathew, K.V.

    Introduction: It has been quoted that the health care professionals are bound to deliver services based on high quality research results. Therefore, Evidence Based Practice (EBP) is given much thrust in recent years. Perceptions, knowledge and attitudes of health professionals towards EBP influence adoption and implementation of best practices in healthcare. There is a scarcity of research about perception of nurses towards Evidence Based Practice in Kerala. So we decided to conduct a cross sectional study about perception of EBP among nurses in Kozhikode district, Kerala. Method: Cross sectional study with purposive sampling technique will be used in the present study. 30 final year MSc nursing students, 30 nurses working in hospitals and 30 nursing faculties each will be included in the study. Perception of Nurses on Evidence Based Practice (EBP) Questionnaire will be used. SPSS software version 18 will be used for data analysis. Result: The result will provide insight regarding the level of perception about EBP among nurses in Kozhikode. Futher it will add more knowledge regarding the variation in perception among nurses, nursing students and nursing faculties regarding EBP. The study will help in highlighting the current status of EBP knowledge and utilization among nurses in this area. Discussion: The findings of the present study will provide information about the perception about EBP among various nursing professionals and guide policy makers and curriculum designers in adopting effective strategies to enhance the use of EBP in nursing practice. The present study will act as a background for more extensive research in the current topic and enhance knowledge base regarding Evidence Based Practice in nursing profession.

  50. Dr. Prerna Uikey, Dr. Sapana Ukey and Dr. Surekha Landge

    Ayurveda is one of the greatest gifts of sages of ancient india to the mankind. The word “Ayu” means all aspects of life from birth to death. The word “Veda” means knowledge or learning. Hence Ayurveda is a science by which life in its totality is understood. It is away of life which describes, the diet behaviour & alsoteaches us to maintain & protect mental, physical health & achieve longevity. Health means balance, harmony & equilibrium in all physiological activities of body & mind i.e. balance state of Doshas, Dhatus, Malas, Agni, Prasanna atma, Indriya & Mana. Contents of swasthvritta are 1. Dincharya 2. Ritucharya 3. Sadvritta 4. Preventive Measures Medicine that improves oja & prevents from aging & disease is called Rasayana. Rasayana means the food, exercise, medicine & all which provide nutrition to sapta dhatus & avoid aging. Rasayana includes concept of vayasthapana, Ayuvardhak, Medhya Rasayana. A person undergo rejuvenation therapy attains longevity, memory, intellect, freedom from disease, youth excellence & voice. Acharya charak decribed 4 dravys as medhya rasayan. Out of these Guduchi is one of the most rejuvenative herb.

  51. Ashwini Bhosale, Dr. Pratibha Narang, Dr. Deepak Thamke, Dr. Amita Aditya and Dr. R. K. Saxena

    Introduction: Candidiasis is found to be associated with a number of oral lesions, either as a cause or as an agent of supra added infection. However, the correlation between various candida subspecies and oral lesions still appears to be unclear. Various typing methods have been used previously for differentiation of candida subspecies, but have been found to be relatively complicated. In the present study, we present a simple and easy typing method using Sabouraud-Triphenyltetrazolium Agar (STTZ) as a tool for differentiation and morphotyping of candida subspecies differentiation associated with oral lesions. Methodology: A total of 101 candida strains were isolated from patients with oral lesions. The STTZ agar was prepared as per the method described by Quindós et al (1992). After incubation of cultures at 37°C for 6 days, a three-letter code was given to each strain, according to its colonial morphology. Association between morphotypes and oral lesions as well as morphotypes and candida species was evaluated. Results: Candida albicans was found to be the most predominant species amongst the 101 oral lesions studied, representing a total of 8 morphotypes. SP1N type (smooth, pale pink, without mycelial halo) was the predominant morphotype for Candida albicans. Morphotyping of other candida species could also be done effectively using this method.

  52. Neha Saini, Smriti Arora, Veena Sharma and Fareha Khan

    Aims: The aim of the study is to determine the effect of a care based on Roy’s adaptation model on physiological dimension among pediatric patients suffering from URTI. Settings and Design: Quantitative approach was selected with pretest posttest design conducted in the HAHC Hospital, Delhi. Sample and Sampling: 30 samples were chosen using convenience sampling technique. Methods: Care based on Roy’s adaptation model was given to the study subjects and a structured questionnaire was used to collect data regarding the physiological dimensions of the subjects before and after the intervention. Results: Findings revealed that the mean posttest physiological score of the experimental group was greater than the mean posttest physiological score of control group. Conclusions: Thus it is concluded that care based on Roy’s adaptation Model (physiological dimensions) was effective among pediatric patients suffering from URTI.

  53. Dr. Chirra Chakradhar Reddy, Dr. B. Shaik nazeer and Dr. Arun, H. S.

    Locking compression plating is a popular method of fixation for the bones of the forearm and is associated with superior outcomes and less complication compared to external fixation and non-operative methods. Hence an attempt is made to evaluate its management in our patients in rural set up. This study is a hospital based prospective study conducted in the Department of Orthopaedics at R.L. J. Hospital and Research Centre, Kolar, from November 2014 to February 2016. 30 patients with both bone fractures of the forearm were managed with open reduction and internal fixation with locking compression plating and were followed up for 6 months at regular intervals. The average age of the patients was 33.8 years and majority were male, right side was common (60%), most of the fractures of both bones forearm are located in the middle third and the fracture pattern transverse/short oblique was commonest. The results were based on Anderson et al. (1975) scoring system and in this study, there were 25 (87 %) patients with excellent results and 5 (13 %) with satisfactory. A case of superficial infection which resolved with antibiotics and two cases of posterior interosseous nerve injury immediately following surgery, which recovered spontaneously are observed. Open reduction and internal fixation with locking compression plating is one of the ideal methods of fixation of both bones forearm shaft fractures as there is stable fixation and earlyunion. Most of the fractures in this study united within 4 months of surgery. It is concluded that with proper preoperative planning, adherence to AO principles and adequate post-operative rehabilitation locking compression plate provides excellent results.

  54. Alejandro Córdova Izquiedo, Adrian Emmanuel Iglesias Reyes, Román Espinosa Cervantes, Juan Eulogio Guerra Liera, Jorge Fabio Insunza Castro, Abel Edmundo Villa Mancera, Maximino Méndez Mendoza, Rubén Huerta Crispín, María de Lourdes Juárez Mosqueda, Arman

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect on the use of vitamin C, E and C + E as antioxidants on sperm quality of frozen-thawed semen boar semen Yorkshire breed, which was divided into three treatments with Vitamin C, E and combined (C + E) at different concentrations (0, 2, 4 and 6 mg / ml) was used. Motility and viability was assessed before and after freezing the semen, semen freezing was described by Westendorf based with some modifications. After thawing with vitamin C motility of 80% and viability of 75%, with vitamin E motility was obtained was 85% and a viability of 89% and vitamin C + E motility was 85% and 88% viability. Concentration of 4 mg / ml in the control treatment vitamin C was 81% and 85% viability, with E motility was 80% and 85% viability. With vitamins C + E motility was 86% and 88% viability before freezing. After thawing, motility vitamin C was 80% and 80% viability; with E motility was 80% and 83% viability; with C + E vitamins in the witness vitamin C motility was 83% and the viability of 85%: In the concentration at 6 mg / ml the witness with vitamin C motility was 81% and viability of 80% ; with E motility was 87% and the viability of 80% and vitamins C + E motility was 85% and the viability of 88%: After thawing, the C motility was 83% and 79% viability, with E motility was 85% and 83% viability with vitamins C + E motility was 87% and 88% viability. In conclusion, the addition of vitamins in the spermatic conservation help keep sperm motility and viability.

  55. Akta Rasania, Neelu Vashist, Naresh N. Rai, Rajeev Saxena and Rakesh Kumar Singh

    Primary malignant lesion of gut is a rare tumor, only few cases have been reported in the litreature for which different criteria have been mentioned by different authors. We report a case of 70 years old female admitted with complaints of pain and abdominal distention presenting as intestinal obstruction. She was operated in emergency and found to have intussusception hence segmental intestinal resection was performed. Gross, microscopic, histochemical, Immunohistochemical finding confirmed the diagnosis of malignant melanoma. No other primary site was found on clinical examination. On follow up secondaries were found after 10months in the liver and retroperitonium, which was confirmed by FNA.

  56. Harine Sargunam, J.

    Ivy Gourd Coccinia grandis (L) also known as baby watermelon or little gourd is a unique tropical plant, that is a member of the family of Cucurmbitaceae. It has been classified as a medicinal herb in traditional Thai and ayurvedic medicine. The fruits of C. grandis are known to contain active constituents like taraxerone, taxerol, amyran, lupeol and glycoside cucurbitacan B. The tender green fruits are nutritious and are good source of protein, calcium, fiber and beta carotene, Vitamin-A. Coccinia grandis herb lowers blood sugar levels by 20 percent in type 2 diabetics, helps in regulating body temperature during fever, used as an injection into chronic sinuses, used in decoction for gonorrhea, used to treat inflammation, dyspnea, cough, emaciation, fever with burning sensation; convulsion, syphilis pulse and flower are used in jaundice.

  57. Boka Dugassa Tolera and Feng Hui

    Evidence-based practice, which is a systematic problem-solving approach to using best evidence in making decisions about patient care, is no longer an option for staff nurses. However, there are several barriers preventing nurses from using EBP in clinical decision making. The purpose of this review was to explore barriers to evidence based practice utilization among nurses in clinical decision making. The major outcome was generally, reviewed at individual and organizational level. Nurses’ poor attitudes and perceptions to utilization of EBP, lack of knowledge and skill in all research process, lack of awareness of EBP, poor communication skill in understanding research language and inability to understand statistical analysis of research were identified as individual barrier to EBP utilization, whereas lack of continues education, lack of authority to change practice, insufficient time to implement new ideas, lack of access to research, unsupportive staff and management were identified as Organizational barriers to utilization of EBP. Throughout, important link between role of individual, role of organizational and use of EBP are highlighted, Along with a significant individual readiness and organizational support were needed for nurses to overcome barrier on utilization of evidence based practice to ensure the high quality patient care. This can make further EBP development and implementation.

  58. Dr. Rohit Mahajan, Dr. Rakesh Kapoor, Dr. Tapesh Bhattacharyya, Dr. Rajesh Gupta, Dr. Kim Vaiphei and Dr. Pragyat Thakur

    Introduction: The management of rectal cancer has changed over the years with an emphasis on neoadjuvant chemoradiation (NACRT) followed by surgery. Multiple western studies had shown better local control and sphincter preservation with preoperative chemoradiation in carcinoma rectum. However, data from India is lacking. Thus, we conducted the retrospective study in our institution to show the impact of neoadjuvant chemoradiation on sphincter preservation in carcinoma rectum. Aims: Down staging, local control and sphincter preservation in carcinoma rectum. Materials and Methods: The retrospective study was conducted in our institution which enrolled 126 patients with histologically confirmed diagnosis of carcinoma rectum (stage I-III) treated with neoadjuvant chemoradiation followed by surgery from Jan2009-Dec2013. Total dose of 45Gy in 25 fractions over 5weeks was delivered using 3D-CRT technique. All patients received 5-FU/LV(5-Fluorouracil/Leucovorin) weekly with 5-FU 325mg/m2 and LV 30mg/m2 on D1 of every week. 4-8weeks after completion of NACRT, patients were assessed for disease response, sphinchter preservation possibility and resectability of tumour. Pathologic assessment of response was seen in the resected tumours. Impact of different prognostic factors on clinical outcome was analysed. Results: Median age of presentation was 48 years (range 18-77 years). Out of 126 patients, 86 were males and 40 were females. Most of the patients presented with bleeding per rectum (94.4%). Mean duration of symptoms was 9 months. Most of the patients presented with T3 disease (50.8%) followed by T2 (43.6%) and T4 (5.6%). Out of 126 patients, 83(65.9%) had N1 disease and 10(7.9%) had N2 disease. Lymph nodes were not involved in 33(26.2%). Most of our patients presented with stage III disease (73.8%). Mean distance of tumor was 4.2cm from anal verge. All the patients had histologically proven adenocarcinoma with signet ring cell and mucinous variety seen in 9.5% and 7.1% respectively. Most of the patients had moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma (43.7%). Well differentiated and poorly differentiated variety were seen in 6 and 5 patients respectively. With NACRT 82(65.07%) patients out of 126 were down staged and were amenable for surgery. Among 126 patients, 63(50.0%) underwent LAR(low anterior resection) and thus 50% of the patients had sphincter preserved and 53(42.1%) underwent APR(abdomino-perineal resection). Pathological complete response was seen in 14(11.9%) patients. Local control was seen in 60% of the patients. Patients with Hb>12gm//dl and tumours more than 3 cm from anal verge showed better sphincter preservation (p=0.018,p=0.011 respectively). Though grade of the tumour did not have impact on sphincter preservation however survival was improved in low grade tumours. Type of histology, lymph node positivity, pre op CEA did not have any significant impact on outcome. Conclusion: This study represents the largest Indian experience with standard neoadjuvant chemoradiation followed by surgery in rectal cancer. Down staging of tumor, improved local control and increased sphincter preservation was seen in our study. Pretreatment Hemoglobin status, distance from anal verge and grade of the tumour came out to be the important prognostic factors.

  59. Dr. Bharat Prakash, M., Dr. Satya Bhushan, N.V.V., Dr. Siva Kalyan, U., Dr. Chiang, K.C., Dr. Srinivas Saketh, G. and Dr. Bramara Kumari, K.

    The treatment of mandibular fractures has been in a constant state of evolution with goals to restore function and occlusion. Among various treatment options of Open Reduction Internal Fixation (ORIF), locking miniplate system have advantages over conventional plating system. Bite force assesses masticatory muscle function under clinical and experimental conditions. The subject related factors includes-age, gender, periodontal support, height, weight, craniofacial morphology, malocclusion, temporomandibular disorder (TMD) pain. Therefore, bite force is used as a variable for evaluating masticatory function.

  60. Dr. Jewel Darsan, Dr. Veena S Pai, Dr. Vedavathi Bore Gowda, Dr. Sneha L V and Dr Roopa R Nadig

    Aim - To evaluate the effects of a herbal desensitizing dentifrice in different forms on dentinal tubule occlusion by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Methods and Materials - 120 dentine blocks were prepared from the cervical region measuring 1.5 ×1.5 ×1.5 mm, was etched with 6% citric acid for 2 minutes, rinsed in distilled water and were divided into 4 groups: Group 1 specimens were brushed with distilled water, Group 2 specimens were rinsed in Hiora K mouth wash, Group 3 specimens were brushed with Hiora K tooth paste, Group 4 specimens were brushed with Hiora k tooth paste and the rinsed with Hiora K mouth wash From each group 5 samples each were taken on 3rd, 7th, 21st, 28th, 45th and 60th day. Specimens were washed with distilled water, dried in dessicator for 2 days, sputter coated with thin gold layer and subjected for SEM analysis and was scored in accordance with the tubule occlusion classification scoring system. Results –All the groups excluding control showed complete occlusion of dentinal tubule on the 45th and 60 th day. On the remaining days better results were shown by the tooth paste group followed by combination group and least occlusion was seen in mouth wash alone group. Conclusions - As Hiora K toothpaste and mouthwash occluded the dentinal tubules, they may be useful for the treatment of dentine hypersensitivity.

  61. Lakshman Chandra De

    Recently horticulture crop production has shifted from rural confinement to commercial venture to attract young entrepreneurs and economically viable and socially acceptable.In the North Eastern Region, the total area under horticultural cropsis around 822.5 thousand hectare which is around 3.14 percent of the total geographical area of the region and it givestotal production of 6818.4 thousand tonnes. Within the horticulture sector in the NE Region, fruit crops occupy 40.14%, vegetables51.83% and spices 8.03% area.Among fruits, citrus has the largest area under cultivation (34%), followed by banana (24%),pineapple (17%), apple (4%), papaya, mango, litchi, passion fruit (3% each), guava (2%) and kiwi (1%).Among vegetables, potato has the maximum area (27%) under cultivation followed by cabbage (10%), peas (7%), cauliflower (6%), tomato and brinjal (5%), okra and chilli (4%),onion (2%) while other vegetables have 30% of the total area under vegetable cultivation.Efforts have been made to develop an integrated fruit production systems including selection of location specific fruits crops and variety, production of quality seeds and planting materials, high density planting, identification of rootstocks for H.D.P, INM based on soil and leaf nutrient status, crop regulation. Integrated weed management development of horticulture based cropping systems for different agro-climatic region, organic farming for export oriented fruit crops, modern approaches of horticulture technologies like crop diversification, conversion of gray to green land, contract farming, precision farming, water resource management, protected cultivation, integrated weed management, integrated pest and disease management, improved post harvesting management and processing for value addition.

  62. Sanjay S. Prabhavale, Ananada S. Kudale, Sampada S. Date, Nitin L. Chutke and Krishna V. Kulkarni

    A case of utilization of xylazine to induce sedation in cattle to avoid their noise and movement for illegal trafficking was reported. A veterinary tranquilizer xylazine was detected by high performance thin layer chromatography followed by Gas Chromatography - Mass spectrometer. The blood sample of cattle and used syringes was received by the laboratory from the scene of crime by investigating agency. The extraction of drug from the biological samples has been done by using liquid-liquid extraction method. The methods strongly support the presence of xylazine in sample of question and give firm evidence for the material used for the purpose of crime.

  63. Pramila Padmini Mishra and Narasinga Rao Bhattam

    Oral-facial-digital syndrome effects maxillofacial regions, hands and feet. Type 1 (OFD1) is a rare condition with X-linked dominant inheritance caused by mutations in the Cxorf5 (OFD1) gene. This condition almost always causes intrauterine lethality in males. A still born male foetus was procured as a a part of research work in the department of anatomy. The foetus presented bilateral cleft lip and palate, polydactyly of hands and feet and clinodactyly of right hand and gatroshisis.different types of OFD’S overlap and genetic evaluation is required to place it in a particular type of OFD’S.

  64. Dr. Aparna Sharma, Dr. Leejo Augustine Jose and Dr. Abhaya Kumar Mishra

    History of Ayurveda literature can be traced back to Vedic period. Continuous foreign invasion makes it difficult for the exact prediction of descend of Scientific literature in Ayurveda through years. Literature works in Ayurveda flourished mostly in Samhita and Sangraha kala. But a lot of Rasasastra texts were written in modern period also. Rasakamadhenu is one among such texts, which may be considered as an important work in the field of Rasasastra. This text is considered as a compilation work which is done by Vaidyavara Sri. Chudamani Mishra. It is composed of 4 padas and 81 chapters. Rasakamadhenu gives a detailed description about the two main concepts of Rasasastra, i.e. Lohavada and Dehavada.

  65. Ramya, S., Saraswathi, U. and Malathi, M.

    In the present study, the 50% hydro ethanolic extract of different varieties of Musa sapientum (Musa spp.) peel such as Nendran (Musa spp. - French Plantain - AAB), Pachanadan (Musa spp. - Pachanadan - AABS), Rasthali (Musa spp. - Rasthali – AAB and Sevvazhai (Musa spp. - Red banana - AAA) was evaluated for in vitro anti-inflammatory activity. Inhibition of protein denaturation, RBC membrane stabilization and proteinase inhibitory activity was assessed at a concentration of 0.1g/ml for all the varieties. The standards used in this study include aspirin and diclofenac sodium. Of the four varieties used in the present study, Rasthali was found to have maximum inhibiting effect on albumin denaturation (63.42%) and RBC membrane stabilization (53.94% and 46.18%). Proteinase activity was also maximally inhibited by Rasthali (71.78%) when compared to others. From the results it can be concluded that Rasthali peel extract exhibited significant anti inflammatory activity when compared to other varieties and it may be due to phytoconstituents in it.

  66. Ankeeta Tripathi, Breshna Dalawjee, Pragati Karade, Pratibha Jadhav, Kirti Dahigaonkar and Dr. Jaspal Kaur Oberoi

    Lactic acid is found to be one of the most industrially essential acids that have a wide spread application such as food preservative, curing agent and flavouring agent. Lactic acid bacteria has antioxidant activity which is associated with multiple health protective effects such as prevention and treatment of diarrheal disease, inflammatory bowel disease, immunomodulation, treatment of cholesterolemia, prevention of systemic infections, prevention and treatment of allergies, and remedy for lactose intolerance. This investigation was designed to analyze the antioxidant capacity of lactic acid bacteria in order to provide characteristic parameter and theoretical basis for its further utilization as a natural antioxidant. In this study, different food samples were used to isolate lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Bacterial isolates that showed catalase negative, gram positive, glucose positive, mannitol positive and lactose positive were selected for further studies. The antioxidant activity of cells and different cellular fractions of Lactobacillus sp was evaluated by reducing power, total antioxidant activity, ferrous ion chelator, flavonoid test, scavenging DPPH and total phenolic content present. Further to confirm HPLC and TLC were also done. The probiotic potential of the isolates was found out by checking their pH and bile tolerance ability. All the isolates shown growth at pH 4. The study highlights a simple and rapid method for identification of Lactobacillus sp. On the other hand, in presented study media optimization was also done to maximize the production of LAB.

  67. Manimekalai, D., Deepika, S., Brema, K., Rajeswari, C. and Juliet Selvarani, A.

    Microfiltration usually serves as a pre-treatment for other separation processes such as ultrafiltration, and a post-treatment for granular media filtration. The typical particle size used for microfiltration ranges from about 0.1 to 10 µm. In terms of approximate molecular weight these membranes can separate macromolecules generally less than 100,000 g/mol. The filters used in the microfiltration process are specially designed to prevent particles such as, sediment, algae, protozoa or large bacteria from passing through a specially designed filter. More microscopic, atomic or ionic materials such as water (H2O), monovalent species such as Sodium (Na+) or Chloride (Cl−) ions, dissolved or natural organic matter, and small colloids and viruses will still be able to pass through the filter. The suspended liquid is passed though at a relatively high velocity of around 1–3 m/s and at low to moderate pressures (around 100-400 kPa) parallel or tangential to the semi-permeable membrane in a sheet or tubular form. A pump is commonly fitted onto the processing equipment to allow the liquid to pass through the membrane filter. There are also two pump configurations, either pressure driven or vacuum. A differential or regular pressure gauge is commonly attached to measure the pressure drop between the outlet and inlet streams. The most abundant use of microfiltration membranes are in the water, beverage and bio-processing industries. The exit process stream after treatment using a micro-filter has a recovery rate which generally ranges to about 90-98 %.

  68. Priya Radhakrishnan Pillai

    Fast Life and Competition to stand to the expectation of Parents are making Student Life Complicated Day by Day. While entering into College from School is the stage of Adolescence. It is the period in which several hormonal changes takes place in girls, a change from Childhood to Adulthood. As a teacher in college aims to develop students with skills, good manners and knowledge in their life. This study aimed to determine the problems the students encounter while entering in College. The research used an Observational Research method to know the problems the girl students face while entering in college and Experimental method to know about the Percentage of Awareness in them. Results of the Observation method showed that the problems faced were pressure from parents, Irritation during hormonal changes, race to become popular in College. The result obtained from Experimental method was that the awareness percentage was 40 to 50%.

  69. Dhanesh, Deepak Kr. Goyal, Sachin Kr. Mishra and Dr. Lini Mathew

    Nature of much process in industry is nonlinear. Every process of system suffered with unwanted signals called noise, if this noise randomly generated in desire system output than normal or linear filter are fail to remove it kind of noise from desire signal. This paper proposes an Adaptive Second Order Volterra Series Filter (ASVSF) for reducing noise from nonlinear system. Based on the lattice-channel structure with delayed element, updates kernel parameters. In order to reduce the computational complexity and the nonlinear distortion with no need of solving the lengthy second order nonlinear mathematics acoustic equation, the ASVSF-LMS filter is proposed. MATLAB simulations demonstrate the control performance improvement using the proposed algorithms.

  70. Dr. Sunil Jacob and Vinny Wilson

    Power consumption and it’s reduction is one of the primary concerns in today’s VLSI design because of two main reasons, one is the long operating life requirement of phone battery and portable devices and second is due to increasing number of transistors on a single chip which leads to high power dissipation and it can lead to reliability and IC packaging problems. Power reduction has become an important issue in digital circuit design, especially for high performance portable devices (such as cell phones, PDAs, etc.). Thus, it is evident that methodologies for the design of high-throughput, low-power digital systems are needed. A chip’s maximum power consumption depends on its technology as well as its implementation. Due to scaling down of technology and when CMOS circuits are powered by lower supply voltages, standby leakage current becomes significant. Also threshold voltage is reduced due to scaling which leads to the increase in sub- threshold leakage current and hence there will be increase in static power dissipation. In order to reduce the static power dissipation, one has to give up the circuit performance and area of the given circuit. This project discuss about various leakage current reduction methods that will be useful for both Conventional and Gate diffusion input (GDI) logics inorder to reduce the static power, dynamic power and also consider the area by using minimum number of transistors. These all were done in 95nm technology using Tanner EDA V13.0 Tool.

  71. Mubashshir Husain Ansari, Mohd Saqib Ansari and Manikant Kumar

    This paper presents a combination of active and passive filter for the elimination of harmonics produced by non-linear loads. In the proposed technique passive filter is used to eliminate lower order harmonics and active filter is used to eliminate higher order harmonics, and active filter also improves the filtering characteristics of passive filter. By the use this system lesser rating of active filter is required leading to a practical and economical system. The present paper presents a compensation method that is programmed in MATLAB-SIMULINK environment.

  72. Ravindra Janga and Sushama, M.

    This research paper proposes the Fuzzy logic Controller (FLC) for Forward Converter with Active Clamp circuit (ACFC) to improve the performance of the converter Brief review on the fuzzy logic controller and mathematical modeling of Converter is first given. The importance of FLC for forward converter and design procedure is described in detail. And the validity of designing controllers and achievement of desired compensation is verified by the results of implementing Fuzzy PID controller and Fuzzy PD controller to Active Clamp Forward Converter (ACFC). Finally the results are analyzed by applying disturbances at both sides of the converter. And obtained results of Fuzzy Controllers are compared with the results of Discrete-time PID Controller. The ACFC is used in Telecom Power Supply, in Distrubuted Power System Circuits and Improvement in performance of the Converter is achieved by designing the Fuzzy Controllers by simplifying the design process of the controller.

  73. Tahereh Nekoukhou, Ana Khajehnejad and Seid Ali Sebt

    Perovskite manganite La1.25Sr1.75Mn2O7 (LSMO) were synthesized successfully by the sol gel technique. LSMO was synthesized at pH of 5 and at two calcination temperatures of 1250 and 1450 oC for 12 hours. Phase formation, structure and magnetic properties of LSMO was investigated by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), EDS, FTIR and VSM. It was found that the calcination temperature influences on the size of crystallite and magnetic properties.

  74. Roshan P. Ghodkhande, Swapnl M. Naranje, Pratik R. Madekar, Rohit O. Thakur and Shubham C. Vaidya

    Ginger and Garlic Paste is mainly used as a condiment in various food preparation and also serves as a carminative and gastric stimulant in many medicine preparations. As a condiment, it is used for flavoring mayonnaise and Tomato Ketchup sauce, Salads, meat sausages, chutney, pickles, Biryani, Fried Rice etc. The project is about fabrication of mechanical crusher which would help to making a paste for full size ginger and garlic material. This project aims to design a crusher that could be installed anywhere and would aid crush of full size ginger and garlic. This project involves the process of designing the crusher considering forces required for crushing and ergonomic factor that an operator needs. The design of this machine is such that it would require optimum load to crush and will not strain the user or operator. The crusher is designed based in the simple principle or a mechanism which is Crank and Slotted Lever Mechanism where the rotary motion from the motor is connected to crushing plates that crushes materials. The Designed components were then assembled and analyzed using analysis software and the required dimensions of the crusher for the optimum performance have been found. These data’s were then transformed into a real time model by manufacturing it. The designed crusher was then checked and the crusher effectively crushed all the components with ease and with reduced human effort.

  75. Puran Lal Khuntey, Gajendra Das, Sashikant Verma and Krishna Pradeep

    This paper deals with the design of FIR filter using Blackman window, Rectangular window, Tringular window, Taylor window Techniques of order 10. In this paper. The analysis of magnitude and phase response of proposed FIR Low-pass filter are performed using MATLAB simulation. The result window technique provides better result in term of magnitude and phase response of High-pass FIR filter.

  76. K. Arun Kumar and M. Venu

    Friction stir welding (FSW) is a solid state welding process, widely emerging its usage in various manufacturing applications, used for joining similar & dissimilar metals mostly used for aluminum alloys. The present investigation is carried out on magnesium alloy (AZ31B) plates using FSW technique by varying the process parameters viz. tool material and tool pin profile while keeping the other parameters to a constant value. The output parameters are ultimate tensile strength, hardness and joint efficiency were studied for the above parameters for rotational speed of 900rpm & 1400 rpm, feed rate of 20mm/min, tilt angle 1° and axial force of 5KN. The optimum conditions have been found for the best weld quality with superior mechanical properties.

  77. Vamsi Mohan, V. and Dr. Sandeep Malik

    Cyber-attacks are becoming commonplace in our society these days as the world becomes more connected. Security attacks on information security infrastructure have continued to evolve steadily and legacy network based attacks have been replaced by more sophisticated web application based attacks. It is vitally important to discuss web application attacks considering the number of attacks happened in the recent years. In this paper, we define each of them in detail and emphasize their differences. We also conclude our studies in this area with providing a diagram which gives a comprehensive overview about Web attacks.

  78. Ejoba, R. and Ocholi, I. U.

    The level of microbial activity in environment water used for consumption in Dekina, Anyigba and Ejule Districts in the Eastern Senatorial District of Kogi State were determined. Sample were taken from Agbano pond in Ejule, Kogi State University borehole, Anyigba, Oganaji River in Anyigba and Dekina River in Dekina. The physiochemical parameters such as particular matter, pH, Temperature and odour for each sample were taken. All samples were prepared using serial dilution. Colonies formation count was done using plate inoculation method at 37oc for 24 hours. The aerobic mesophilic for each sample was done using three media, (McConkey agar, M-endo agar and Eosin methylene blue agar). Sub-culturing were prepared for each sample and the Gram stain technique was used to determined the type of bacteria present in water. The catalase test were equally carried out. The results the rivers (Oganaji and Dekina) were highly polluted and contain more potent bacteria (Salmonella typhi) among others and hence pose a heavy health risk in the environment.

  79. Adu Gyamfi, C., Commey, V. and Adu Amankwah, J.

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the food choices of teenagers and the health related problems of food consumed by teenagers. The study was conducted in two senior high schools in the Adansi North District of Ghana. The simple random technique was used to select 205 students. Questionnaire were used to elicit information from the students. Data was analysed descriptively. The study revealed that staple food of most students is ‘kenkey’ and fish therefore it is likely they may lack valuable nutrients from other food sources. It was also revealed that most students feel hungry in the afternoon which implies that they are given little or no money for lunch at school. Most students (65.3%) eat together with the whole family so until they go back home no food for them. Those who eat in school also make decision on choice of food based on what they can afford. The study also revealed that the major source of influence of the teenagers’ food choice is their parents since food choice for the adolescents are largely informed by food availability and affordability. It also indicated that most of the adolescent (72.8%) buy their own food from the street food vendors. The researchers therefore recommended that all stakeholders should help to support the teenagers to choose the right and balanced food as this determine the kind of adults they may be in future.

  80. OliraKebede

    Sound land administration needs effective good governance which has become a major area of focus by the government of Ethiopia. However, there is still a gap in applying the principles of good governance in urban land administration. The objective of this study was to assess the practice of urban land administration in Shashemene City of Oromia Regional State, Southern Ethiopia. To achieve this objective, the study has applied multi-stage representative sampling technique. The researcher has employed descriptive research design and mixed research approach. The study used 129 systematically selected sample households from four sampled kebeles. The primary data was collected from the city municipal officials and experts, focus group discussions participants as well as households by the researcher with the help of enumerators and secondary data were collected from rules and regulations, documents concerning land and property registration system, different documents on good governance principles and official records. Qualitative data were analyzed by narration, while quantitative data were analyzed through descriptive statistics. The cumulative finding reveals that there is an inefficient as well as ineffective land administration system and administrative, technical and capacity problems were the major challenges in the study area. Finally, the study stated improving the participation of people, striving for high level integration between service rendering departments and offices, instituting a pro poor land allocation and management system, strict controlling and evaluation system up on employees, applying the modern cadastral system of land registration and setting clear and uniform work procedure as recommendations based on the findings of the study.

  81. Özdemir ATAR

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of strength training on motoric characteristics of young male tennis players. A total of 40 players of Tennis Club Sportsmen voluntarily participated in the study out of which n=20 were experimental group and n=20 were control group. The experimental group practiced 8 weeks of strength training in addition to tennis training. However, the control group practiced just tennis training. Tall stature, bodyweight, vertical jump, 10 meters sprint and grasping tests were applied to the experimental and control groups before and after the training period. The differences between some performance variables of the experimental and control groups are evaluated with independent samples t-test. Level of significance is taken as 0,05. The experimental group’s posttest values of vertical jump, 10 meters sprint and grasping forces are found to be higher than the control group’s posttest values (p<0,05). In conclusion it is seen that strength training, which is having made to young tennis players, plays an important role in the development of physical performances of players.

  82. Ali M. Al-Hawbani, Khaled M. Al-Selwi, Ali M. Qaid and Saleh S. Albani

    The Wadi Qutabah gabbroic intrusion associated with magmatic Ni-Cu sulfide deposit is located in the northwest of Yemen, about 60 km. of Sana’a City. Petrographic examination shows the gabbroic rocks are composed mainly of plagioclase, clinopyroxene orthopyroxene and hornblende. Two main types of sulfide mineralization have been recognized within gabbroic rocks; disseminated and massive sulfides. The principal ore minerals are pyrrhotite, pentlandite, chalcopyrite and magnetite. The chemical compositions of the gabbroic rocks represent SiO2 (47.68 - 53.13 wt. %), MgO (1.97 - 9.98 wt. %) Al2O3 (16.57 - 26.76 wt. %), Fe2O3 (2.0 - 13.35 wt. %) and TiO2 (0.54 - 3.07 wt. %). The results of chemical analysis of the sulfides represent Ni (0.40 – 1.54 wt. %), Cu (0.06 – 2.46 wt. %) and Co (0.08 – 0.180 wt. %). The Wadi Qutabah gabbroic intrusion is enriched in light rare earth elements (LREE) relative to heavy rare earth elements (HREE), and exhibit positive Nb, Ta and Ti anomalies and negative Zr and Hf anomalies. Major oxide, trace element and REE data are suggestive of oceanic island evolved basalt as the parent for these gabbros. The mineralogy and tectonic discrimination diagrams suggest within plate basalt tholeiitic.

  83. ADEOSUN, Ahmed Babatunde, Dr. ISMAIL, Norafidah and Dr. ZENGENI, Knocks Tapiwa

    Election- related violence has characterised Nigeria electoral process since attainment of flag independence in 1960. Since the present Fourth Republic, all elections conducted in the country have been marred by violence. This paper examines electoral violence in Nigeria with a focus on Niger Delta region of Nigeria which has been the epic centre of election-related violence. This paper interrogates the role of elites from the region in the political-cum electoral violence. It contends that the fierce battle for political office in the region has to do with the control of oil wealth found in the region. The paper adopts a qualitative research method and relied on both primary and secondary sources of data. Primary data were collected through interviews of some of the major stakeholders from the region and secondary data gathered through journal articles, books and periodicals. Study findings show that elites support or promotion of violence is the key factor responsible for electoral violence in the region and other factors identify are under development, unemployment and juicy nature of political office or nature of politics. The paper concludes, among others, that political office should be made less attractive, elites found promoting violence before, during and after an election be sanctioned.

  84. Dr. Debesh Bhowmik

    In this paper, author tries to relate inflation rate (measured both by CPI and WPI) with growth rate in India during 1960-2015 and calculated target rate of WPI and CPI. Author used Bai-Perron test (2003) for structural breaks and also used Granger Causality test (1969), Johansen cointegration and vector error correction models (1991,1996) for relationship and used residual test for autocorrelation and found impulse response functions for convergence and stability for both CPI and WPI with growth. By taking Khan and Senhadi model (2001), author found out the target rate of CPI and WPI for India. Author observed that one per cent increase in whole sale price index per year leads to 0.59 per cent increase in GDP growth rate per year in India during 1960-2015. The WPI granger cause growth rate but not vice versa i.e. causality is uni-directional. Growth and WPI is cointegrated in the order of one. VEC Model is stable but change in WPI has slow error correction whereas change in growth rate is not a good fit but its error correction process is faster than change in WPI. Its residuals are not normal having autocorrelation problem and impulse response functions are diverging. During 1960-2015, WPI has four structural breaks at 1974, 1988, 1995 and 2008 respectively. Above the threshold level of WPI=4.12 with 2010=100, the inflation-growth nexus tends to negative. The paper also found that one per cent increase in consumer price index per year leads to 0.55 per cent increase in GDP growth rate per year in India during 1960-2015. The CPI granger cause growth rate but not vice versa i.e. causality is uni-directional. Growth and CPI is cointegrated in the order of one. VEC Model is stable and is highly good fit but only error correction process of change in growth rate is significant for speedy correction. Its residuals are not normal having autocorrelation problem and impulse response functions are diverging. During 1960-2015, CPI has four structural breaks at 1974, 1987, 1996, and 2008 respectively. Above the threshold level of CPI=3.258 with 2010=100, the inflation-growth nexus tends to negative.

  85. Dr. Paras Jain, Soman Malaiya, Anupam Jain, Ruchee Singhai and Shivangi Jain

    Many people in the later years of their lives due to failing health require assistance. On the other hand, many retirees feel restless and suffer from depression as a result of their new situation. They are one of the most vulnerable societal groups when it comes to depression due to confluence of increasing age and deteriorating health status. Studies have shown that healthy elderly and retired people are as happy or happier and have an equal quality of life as they age as compared to younger employed adults. Present study is focused on comparison of working old aged and retired persons in terms of mental health, adjustment capability and physical health.

  86. Vivek Swami and Dr. Humbe, V. R.

    Indian economy is prominently driven by the cities. Cities in India have its own challenges and opportunities in itself. These challenges are economical, infrastructure related and also social. As per the census 2011, the urban population residing in the various cities in India accounts for approximate 30% of its total population and contributes approximate of 65% of its total GDP. This is posed to increase to 40% and 75% respectively by 2030. In light of this situation, one has to investigate these posed challenges and also look into the opportunities so as to make these cities Smarter. One of the noticeable challenges is of Water and Waste Water Management of the cities, which need to be studied with respect to the current operational difficulties and expected changes as per the guidelines of the Smart City. Annual per capita water availability would be decreased by almost 25% by 2050 in India. Currently most of the cities of India are missing the appropriate sewage treatment facilities and the suitable sanitation. As per the guidelines of Smart City, the research is focused to understand the basic requirements of Water and Waste Water Management. Purpose: The purpose of the study is to understand the gap between the proposed Smart City requirements and the existing infrastructure. This paper also investigates specifics about the Water and Waste Water Management of proposed Smart City requirements vis-à-vis prevailing systems. Methodology: This research paper is descriptive in nature. The primary data is collected through interview method. The primary facts were gathered through the discussions with the municipal authorities involved in water and waste water management. The content analysis method is used to evaluate the secondary data related to the guidelines of Smart City and existing records. Findings: The major finding of this research assignment reflects the enormous gap between the current systems and expected transformation into Smart City.

  87. Sourav Mahato

    In Indian constitution there is special provision for the backward section of India to ensure the equity of opportunity. Scheduled cast, scheduled tribe, other backward casts, women, people of backward places are called backward section. There is facility of special opportunity and reservation for the backward section in the fields of education and job. But sometimes we see that candidates of backward section are getting the special facilities and reservation being rich or very rich or highly rich in economy/finance, where real needy candidates are suffering. Therefore the public is protesting this issue. The investigator tried to study should the candidates of backward section who belong in rich families or highly rich families be given the advantages, special opportunities and reservation. He studied the issue in Purulia district of West Bengal. He took 50 samples from the students of higher education level (students of colleges and universities) in Purulia district of West Bengal. He used interview and questionnaire as tool, simply analysed the items to interpret the data. Finally he got the finding that there should be something different provision for the rich or highly rich peoples of backward section to provide special facilities, special opportunities and reservation.

  88. Chaitra Sai Malika, S. and Siddhartha, V.

    In India, always a day starts with a news story saying about the future health care. Air pollution is the strong evidence for environmental problem in India in terms of human health, causing thousands of deaths and illness which leads to a huge amount for health care expenses. Air pollution leads to deaths of many pre-mature when compared to traffic accidents but the media coverage and government action is very less in India. According to the survey conducted by Organization for Economic Cooperation and development, India consistently ranks among the most polluted country. India is responsible for Sulphur dioxide emissions, nitrogen dioxide emissions, volatile organic compounds, carbon monoxide emissions and greenhouse gas emissions. The reason for the emissions of such harmful pollutants is due to weak laws and guidelines. To reduce this pollution, level the government should take certain precautions and production and also to give strict laws to control air pollution by comparing the air pollution act with other countries we can know how strong and how weak are our laws, so that we do some amendments to finalize the laws and Act to reduce air pollution in our country. Unless India strengthens this laws and regulations, pressures from people will result in increasing hazardous air pollutants.

  89. Kulakov, A. V. and Tyutyunnik, V. M.

    Theoretically predicted and experimentally confirmed the existence of the new states of matter, called the authors of the “plasma quantum condensate” and connecting symptoms normal fluid and ionized plasma. The theoretical foundation of plasma condensate formed was given. It is shown that the phase transformation of up to 1 MJ/g latent heat that exceeds the heat the most efficient fuels. Seven basic properties of energy allocation in the formation of non-ideal pinching plasma were founded: formation of specific ionized conglomerate, pulse energy output, in which the plasma’s liquid becomes a laser (or razer), spontaneous generation of magnetic field, self-similarity of process in laser and pinching plasma, etc. The calculations of energy allocation when plasma quantum condensate formation was shown; the possibility of its application in science, engineering and technology was described. Corpuscular radiation generation process is designed in quantum non-ideal plasma, flowing in two modes: acceleration on the front of the MHD-shock waves; acceleration in plasma focus. Plasma quantum condensate is fundamentally new, alternative, renewable and sustainable energy source. This source is environmentally friendly, does not pollute the atmosphere of the planet; his use of cleanses the environment.

  90. Abdul Mateen, K. W., Uday Kumar, Mahadevappa D Gouri, Anil Kumar, G. K., Narasimhamurthy, H. N. and Rajeshwari, Y. B.

    The experimental sheep (Bannur breed) were observed for their basic behavior patterns for six hundred hours, six hours in a day during the study. Study was done to construct the ethogram for bannur breed of sheep under semi-intensive farm conditions. Eight main behavioral categories consisting of forty-six different behavioral patterns were grouped under different headings, were used for the study. Behavioral categories included, gaits, animal oriented locomotion, visual patterns, object and self oriented contact patterns, vocal and non-vocal patterns, stretching patterns, stationary body positions and stances and feeding, digestive and elimination patterns. Sheep utilized the maximum time for grazing activity with occasional browsing on plants, trees, etc. Defecation and urination were the common patterns exhibited along with the feeding activities. Most of the activities were expressed during the day time. The rumination was observed during rest while the animals slept during night times. These results of the study indicated that the bannur sheep express maximum natural behavioral activities in free range system. Further the behavior patterns exhibited under confinement are only need based suggesting that the animal prefer an independent free movement space than enclosed systems.

  91. Manju Sahu, Moumita Sinha, Kalpana Agrawal and Mitashree Mitra

    There has recently been a lack of judicial confidence in the evidence provided by handwriting analysis which has highlighted the need for objective research to be conducted in this area. Typically a person bases his signatures on one template and although no two instances are exactly the same, they are meant to represent the same shape. Because signatures are at least meant to be unique, they can be used for personal identification. This is also how signatures are used in legal cases. The aim of the study was to examine various writing characteristics, whether a different body position influence the signature of the writer. To study the variation in signature at different body posture i.e. sitting, standing and mobile, 3 samples of signature were collected from 100 persons. It has been found that movement of hand shows highly significant difference in all three body positions thereby movements of hand do changes with as position changes and has been concluded that in most of the studied features movement of hand, pen pressure and size of signature show maximum variation with changes in positions.

  92. Rashika Mudunkotuwa and Hettige Don Karunaratne

    The study investigates the macroeconomic determents of tourist arrivals in Sri Lanka, using annually series of the corresponding variables. To achieve the objectives both time series technique and econometrics techniques were used to analyze data. The statistical techniques used include the unit root Augmented Dickey Fuller test in order to fulfill the objective of stationary for all the time series. The results from granger causality test revealed that past behavior of gross domestic production, gross domestic per capita income, government expenditure on capital and net lending, imports of goods, exports of goods and foreign direct investment are significant factors which determine the present behavior of tourist arrivals in Sri Lanka. The regression analysis it showed that all macroeconomic variables are strongly linear associated with tourist arrivals. The VECM model has revealed that there exists long run relationship between tourist arrivals and those variables. The results derived in this study can be effectively used for implementation of new strategies to attract more tourists to Sri Lanka.

  93. Abdulrahman M. Alshabeb, Riam K. Almaqrn and Abdulaziz A. Alsayegh

    The twenty-first century has witnessed an ever increasing range of approaches being taken to leadership. Many of these have sought specifically to distinguish this from management by developing innovative theoretical perspectives and models, which have helped to deepen our understanding of this concept. Some of these approaches have explored the possibility of a gendered dimension to leadership styles and have attempted to identify the multiple factors which prevent women from breaking through the glass ceiling and achieving their true potential. Whilst in the Western world, feminism had a major impact on women’s role in society and in the workplace since the late 1960s, Saudi women were not admitted to university until the end of that decade but now they occupy a number of key positions within Saudi society. This essay examines what is known about the challenges faced by these women and the aspirations of those who hope to follow in their footsteps. This essay begins by attempting to distinguish between the two interrelated concepts of management and leadership and will then consider some of the diverse definitions of leadership which have been formulated. The following section briefly outlining some of the key theories and models which have been developed with regard to educational leadership. Following this the focus shifts to examine one of the key debates in the field of leadership studies, namely whether leaders are born or whether they can be made. Another of the areas which has also prompted increasing academic interest is the extent to which gender influences not only styles of leadership but how we as societies choose to understand the meaning of leadership. This is followed by a discussion of a review of literature relating to the varied challenges faced by women aspiring to leadership positions, particularly in the educational field. Having reviewed some of the key debates and concepts in leadership studies, the concluding sections of this essay focus on female leadership in Saudi Arabia, a society which is widely viewed as being one of the most challenging environments for women. After briefly contextualising Saudi society and its education sector, the results of several studies concerning the challenges faced by women in leadership positions in academia in the Kingdom will be used to highlight the similarities and the differences in the challenges faced by Saudi women and their non-Saudi counterparts. After a series of recommendations on future strategies which can be employed to encourage female leadership in academia in the Kingdom, this essay concludes with some personal reflections on my aspirations to a role in academic leadership as Saudi citizens.

  94. Dr. Meera Mathur and Prerna Bhati

    The National Rural employment Guarantee Act 2005 is a landmark initiative in the history of poverty reduction strategies in India. The act providing unskilled wage work to the poor at the bottom addresses the worst form of poverty in the rural India. The Act provides a legal Guarantee of 100 days of wage employment in a financial year to every rural household whose adult members volunteer to do unskilled manual work at the minimum wage rate notified for agricultural labour prescribed in the State or else an unemployment allowance. The objective of the Act is to supplement wage employment opportunities in rural areas and in the process also build up durable Assets. The objective of the paper is to examine the extent to which the intended programme has reached the tribals and schedule cast people in terms of employment generation, asset creation and wage accruals through involving MGNREGA The reference period for the analysis is from 2016-15 to 2012-13. The data is collected from secondary sources for this study it includes the information available on the official websites of MGNREGA and Simple averages, ratios, and percentages have been used to carry out my objective. The major findings of the study are no household in tribal of the village completed 100 days employment programme, above 50 % employment sharing by the tribal women in every year in this village.

  95. Nguyen Hai Quang

    This study determines effectof factors marketing mix (4P’s) oncustomer satisfaction as well as effect of customer satisfaction on loyalty to airline in air cargo transport in Vietnam's market through empirical research. Based on establishing research models, surveying and analying of data, research results show that there is a positive effect of the marketing mix on customer satisfaction. The order of importance of effect on customer satisfaction are respectively price, place, product and promtion. In addition, the effect of customer satisfaction on loyalty to airline is very strong in Vietnam's market of air cargo transport. Therefore, to increase customer satisfaction and customer loyalty to airline, airlines need to focus on marketing mix policies such as: Policies on product, price, place (distribution) and promotion.

  96. Dra. Gabriela Isabel Pérez Aranda, Mtro. Sinuhé Estrada Carmona, Br. Yesenia Margarita Gracia Rejón, Dra. Virginia Pacheco Quijano, Mtra. Ana Rosa Can Valle, Dra. Liliana García Reyes and Dr. Miguel Ángel Tuz Sierra

    The present study consisted of two stages; the first one compared the dimensions of social behavior among adolescent men and women with special educational needs; And the academic averages were compared according to the types of NEEs. We used the Socialization Battery BAS-1 (teachers), BAS-2 (parents) and BAS-3 (self-perception) (Moreno & Martorell. 1987, 1989). It was carried out in a Telesecundaria of San Francisco de Campeche, with a sample of 25 students; The results were analyzed with the statistical student´st-testand the analysis of variance (ANOVA). Significant gender differences were found in BAS 1: anxiety / shyness scale. Students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder were also found to obtain higher academic averages in English, science, and technology, while students with emotional difficulties scored higher on physical education. The second stage of the study compared the academic averages (scores) of 50 students divided into groups, with and without NEEs, as well as by gender. ANOVA was used to analyze the data. Significant differences were found in different subjects among the groups studied.

  97. Carla Silva

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between Intellectual Capital (IC) and the evaluation of the Portuguese Research Units (RU) given by the Foundation for Science and Technology (FCT). In particular the aim is to argue that in these Research Units, the evaluations of IC is related to financial support (FS) and bibliometric indicators (BI). The article tests the BI/FS relationship at the Research Units in Portugal, by surveying the inputs products of full time researchers members. The survey addresses, in particular, the financial support given by Portuguese FCT to Researcher Units measured by bibliometry. The results suggest that RU evaluations are indeed related to thematic scientific area and not with IC. The survey addresses, in particular, the factors that promote the RU evaluations and their perception, like bibliometric indicators as input products, of IC in ours Universities.

  98. Kapesa, A.

    Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (MGNREGS) is a flagship programme of the Government of India that directly touches the lives of the poor and promotes inclusive growth. It is a paradigm shift from earlier programme of anti-poverty alleviation programme which enhance livelihood security in rural areas by providing at least 100 days of guaranteed wage employment in a financial year to every household whose adult members volunteer to do unskilled manual work (Government of India, 2008). The paper discusses the working of MGNREGS in a village and brings out lack of accountability and monitoring system at the village level.

  99. Suheir Hassan Khairelseed Dafalla and Noha Hassan Osman Rajab

    The researcher of this study aims to identify the effectiveness of using cognitive trips viaweb (Web Quest) in teaching Introduction to Mathematics on the mental motivation development among education female students at Afif. The study tool is represented in the design and construction site in the light of cognitive trips tasks strategy "Web Quest" using Dreamweaver program. The author of this paper adopts the reference model (ADDIE) in Web design tasks. The study sample consists of 40 female students, selected to represent the community. The validity of measure is ratified through the validity of internal consistency as the measure is applied on a pilot sample consisting of (28) students, and all the correlations between measure dimensions and scale as a whole are statistically significant at the level of significance (0.01) and this confirms that the measure is highly consistent internally. To ensure the stability of measurements, the two researchers have applied a pilot sample consisting of 28 sophomore female students at the Faculty of Education in Afif. The measurement has been applied on the selected sample twice with 2 week time between the two applications. The internal consistency coefficient Cronbach's alpha of the scale has been measured as a whole as well as for each area of the scale, which expresses the reliability and validity of the scale of construction and the study has the following results: There are statistically significant differences at the level of 0.05 between the mean scores of female students before and after the measurement in the dimensional application to measure mental motivation development (orientation toward learning, solving problems creatively, integration of knowledge, and mental focus) in favor of the grades of students after the measurement, which means the effectiveness of cognitive trips strategy in the development of mental motivation (orientation toward learning, solving problems creatively, integration of knowledge, and mental focus).

  100. Mohamed Mihlar Abdul Muthaliff, Mohd Rosmizi Abd Rahman, Muhammad Khairi Bin Mahyuddin, Ahmad Najaa’ Bin Mokhtar and Yuseri Bin Ahmad

    For a nation with multi-cultural pluralistic society to maintain or promote peaceful coexistence, it is crucial to have, positive perception towards their counterparts. Therefore, studying their perception to figure out the current situation is essential to take necessary actions. In this regard, based upon sample survey and interviews, this article attempts to find out the perception of non-Muslims about co-existence with Muslims in Seremban in the state of Negari Sembilan, Malaysia. Such a study is warranted because of the plural nature of Seremban society whose stability depends upon harmonious relations between various ethnic and religious groups. The analysis of this research involved 100 respondents, all of whom are based in Seremban and its surrounding areas. It is composed of various educated segments, professionals and university students from different religious background such as Christians, Hindus and Buddhists. The study found that majority of non-Muslims hold positive opinion about their counterpart in this area which augurs well for the stability of the region and the country. Nevertheless, there exists a good number of people holding a negative opinion about Islam and Muslims implying, therefore, the need for more concerted efforts about improving the image of Islam and Muslims in Seremban and other parts of Malaysia.

  101. Loreto María Bravo Zanoguera, Sosima Carrillo, Pedro Bravo Zanoguera, Jessica Lizbeth Cisneros Martínez and Zulema Cordova Ruiz

    This research addresses the issue of the financial cost of the employment relationship with reference to labour and tax regulations in 2014 and 2015 the study was conducted in a manufacturing company of the city of Mexicali, Baja California Mexico. The objective of this study is that pattern or future investor can identify the cost of a working relationship with a worker, since, in Mexico, the payroll is one of the main expenses and obligations for all taxpayers, also impacting these expenses of financial organization form, the tribute paid by the granting of employment benefits it is occasionally very cost, that is required to analyze this issue in order to propose a wage restructuring the organization if you need. He was a cross-sectional descriptive, non-experimental study, analyzing various documents of the company as a plan of benefits, labour contracts, payroll, as well as the implementation of surveys to employees.

  102. Katsimardos Petros, Bouas Konstantinos, Dr. Rossidis Ioannis and Dr. Babalioutas Labros

    At a time when the economic crisis is identified has one of the main problems, state administrations are asked to come up with the most effective solutions. The effort focuses on the activation of development mechanisms in order to heat up the economy by limiting the recessionary pressures. A prime example is the Greek crisis and the effort of finding the appropriate response measures. The focus on activation of dormant mechanisms of economic development is a difficult yet one-sided way to address the economic crisis. Particular attention should be given to the restructuring of the administrative system which is largely responsible for the inefficient management, bureaucratic structure and the delayed response to administrative requirements, rendering the tackling of to the current economic crisis an extremely difficult task. Gradually it becomes clear that in order to overcome the crisis, we must first sanitize the system of governance and secondarily develop appropriate development tools that will lead to economic consolidation.

  103. Prathibha, M. V. and Prof. Ashok, H. S.

    Emotional maturity refers to the ability to understand and manage one’s emotions. Academic performance refers to the grades obtained by the students. Emotions play a key role in behavior and influence the achievements of life. The aim of the study is to find the relationship between Emotional Maturity and Academic performance of adolescents. Null hypothesis was adopted. Sample consists of 60 college students belonging to the age group of 17 to 20years, purposive sampling method was adopted. The results are analysed by computing Pearson correlation and the results indicate that there is no significant relationship between emotional maturity and academic performance. Independent sample t-test is computed to study the gender difference in emotional maturity and academic performance and the result indicates that there is a significant gender difference in emotional maturity and academic performance.

  104. Asmatullah, Syed Shahid Noor, Faizan Iqbal, Sajid Yonus and Muhammad Zoha Farooq

    Background: Distal tibia fractures are rare fractures of lower limb. This study assessed the outcomes of distal tibial fractures treated with percutaneous locking plates. Methods: 50 patients were selected based on the fracture pattern and classified using the AO classification and stabilized with medial tibial locking plate. Time to fracture union, complications, and outcomes were assessed with the American Orthopedic Footand Ankle Society Ankle score at 14 months. Results: Out of 50 patients 37 were males and 13 were females. The mean plate hole was 12.08±1.82. Mean proximal screw was 3.94±0.42. Mean distal screw was 4.12±0.22. Mean no. of compressions were 0.56±0.76. Mean operative time was 82.66±23.56 min while union was 4.98±1.58 months. 44(88%) patients gave satisfactory results. It was found that there is no significant association of satisfactory result were observed with gender, injury, fracture type, fibula fracture and fibula fixation. Conclusions: Distal tibial locking plates have high fracture union rates, minimum soft tissue complications, and good functional outcomes. The literature shows similar fracture union and complication rates using locking plates.

  105. Igwe, F. U., Ndon, O. M. and Brown, H.

    The alteration in systemic uric acid homeostasis following consumption of certain beverages is generating concern among clinical scientists. There is renewed speculation that high levels of uric acid in body fluids can cause accumulation of urate crystals in joints which may result in gouty conditions. This study assessed the relationship between consumption of various types of alcoholic beverages and corresponding uric acid levels in the blood and urine of regular consumers in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. Randomly selected adult male and female volunteers, who accepted to undergo alcohol, caffeine and aspirin fast for 48 hours prior to consumption of specified volume of the various alcoholic beverages, were studied. The volunteers were divided into groups according to sex and preferred choice of alcoholic beverage. Blood and urine samples were collected, before and one hour after consumption of the beverage. Serum and urine uric acid levels were determined using uricase methods. There was significant (P<0.05) increase in the serum uric acid levels of male volunteers that consumed stout and larger beer. The urine uric acid levels of the male volunteers that consumed stout, larger beer and brandy were significantly (P<0.05) lower than the corresponding levels before consumption. For the female volunteers, there was significant (P<0.05) increase in the serum uric acid levels among those that consumed stout, brandy and table wine. Conversely, there was significant (P<0.05) decrease in the urine uric acid levels among those that consumed larger beer. The elevation of serum uric acid and its decreased elimination through urine may lead to uric acid accumulation in blood and predispose regular consumers of high doses of these alcoholic beverages to gout arising from deposition of uric acid crystals. Appropriate choice of the less susceptible brands of alcoholic beverage and moderation in consumption frequency is advocated.

  106. Dr. Neha Baburao Belsare, Dr. Parag Balkrishna Nehete, Dr. Atul Alsi, Dr. Ashlesha Subhash Marathe and Dr. Amit Balkrishna Nehete

    Condylar guidance on articulators is an approximate duplication of the condylar path in patients and reproduced on the instrument with the help of interocclusal records (Zarb et al., 2004). Varying inclinations have been reported with consecutive registrations, between operators, between recording materials, and between articulators (Christensen, 1978; Gysi, 1929). The purpose of this study is to compare condylar guidance values obtained from arcon and non-arcon articulators with the gold standard values of cephalometric readings and to analyze which articulator gives more accurate readings. And also to check whether lateral cephalogram can be used to determine the condylar guidance value of the patient. This will save the valuable clinical time in adjusting the occlusion.

  107. Gamal A. M. Ejaimi

    Anesthetists should have to face with different challenging sickle cell anaemia cases due to the nature of the disease. Thorough understanding of the pathophysiology of sickle cell crisis and organs dysfunction accompanied sickle cell anaemia will result in a decrease in perioperative morbidity and mortality. Also, proper preoperative assessment and evaluation with a multi-disciplinary team approach will carry out good optimization enabling early detection and management of perioperative complications.

  108. Dr. Vandana Singh, Prof. Dr. Muthusekar, M.R., Dr. Akash Chakravarthy and Dr. Manu E Prasy

    Introduction: Universal moth prop: A mouth prop (also bite block) is a wedge-shaped implement used in dentistry for dentists working with children and other patients who have difficulty keeping their mouths open wide and steady during a procedure or during procedures where the patient is sedated. It has a rubber-like texture and is typically made from thermoplastic material. They come in several different sizes, from pediatric to adult, and are typically ridged as to use the back teeth to hold them in place. Newly designed mouth prop (pillar): This design allows the assistant to have a clear view of the treatment. Since it is sleek the patient won’t have a gag reflex. The height adjusting mechanism in treatment under general anesthesia, Where the patient is not in consciousness to open his mouth while changing the sizes. In between the treatment, if the patient complains the size of the prop is too huge it can be adjusted straight away, unlike the conventional ones where we have to keep changing the props until we get the right size. Materials and Method: 20 patients are included in this study, 10 patients in each group. Randomization was done by tossing of coin. Group A universal mouth prop and Group B newly designed mouth prop “Pillar”. Inclusion criteria patients need surgical removal of lower third molar. Exclusion criteria patients had restricted mouth opening. Measuring parameters are patient’s comfort, operator’s ease and assistant’s work efficiency. Result: The mean age group was range from 20- 28 years. Male and female ratio was 11:9. there was no patient discomfort, Operator's ease in favor of newer design, and Assistant's work efficiency also increased while using newer design.

  109. Dr. Ankita Dave, Dr. Rahul Lodaya, Dr. Chetan Bhat and Dr. Sanket Kunte

    The maxillofacial region is one of most commonly affected region by the cysts, compared to any other part of the body. Odontogenic keratocysts (OKC) are aggressive odontogenic cysts due to their high recurrence rate and locally aggressive nature. These are commonly seen in the 2nd to 3rd decade of life with mandibular posterior region being frequently involved. Here we report a case of 14yr old boy with follicular OKC that was clinically misdiagnosed as a dentigerous cyst. This case report emphasises on the role of histopathological evaluation and differential considerations of various cystic lesions.

  110. Nivesh Krishna, R. and Dr. Gopinath, P.

    The antibacterial activity of using lozenges in controlling E. faecalis causing dental caries were not reported widely. Thus, the aim of the present study was to determine the antibacterial activity of different lozenges such as Strepsils, Koflet and Stodal against E. faecalis isolated from dental caries. Based on our study, Strepsils has higher antibacterial activity against E. faecalis and has a MIC value of 1:3. Stodal as a homeopathic lozenges did not show any activity. This indicates the role of lozenges in controlling dental caries.

  111. Doaa Abdel Wahab A. El Morsi, Rania Hamed Abdel Rahman, Omar Farouk and Sahar M. Hamed

    Cadmium (Cd) is a heavy metal that is ubiquitous all over the world. Breast cancer is the most widely recognized tumor affecting women. The work aims to study the effect of cadmium toxicity on cancer associated genes expression in a sample of breast cancer Egyptian patients. A case - control study was conducted on 100 female patients attending the Surgical Oncology Center and complaining from breast mass. From each patient 10 gm breast tissue sample was collected for estimation of cadmium by atomic absorption spectrometer and testing RNA gene expression (CycD1; CycE; cdk2; c-myc; and GAPDH as housekeeping gene) using Real Time - Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT – PCR). The results found that the age of breast cancer patients ranged from 37–74 years. The cadmium level and four genes expression levels were significantly higher in tumor tissue as compared to both non - cancerous and healthy tissues (p < 0.001). Also no significant difference in Cd and gene expression levels were found when compared between hormone receptors positive or negative cancer patients (p > 0.05). It could be concluded that Cd may induce breast cancer through increasing the cancer associated gene expression responsible for cell proliferation.

  112. Pradeep Christopher, Jasline David, J., Poorna Devadoss and Raja Satish, P.

    Hypercementosis is an excessive, non-neoplastic deposition of radicular cementum and is mostly presented as a solitary lesion or in rare cases as a multiple type. It usually occurs in the premolar and molar region of the mandible with no sex predilection. Hypercementosis is coupled with a number of etiological factors, which may be local or systemic in nature. It is decision making choice for a general dental practitioner to manage such situations. We report a female patient with multiple hypercementosed tooth.

  113. Dr. Mansi Jain, Dr. Nilesh Bulbule and Dr. Nayana Anasane

    Aim: The aim was to see the changing trends while restoring resorbed mandibular ridges with different implant designs. Methods: A systematic search was conducted in pubmed, Google Scholar and major journals for studies published between 1985 - 2015. The era was divided into three decades and the number of cases in rehabilitation of resorbed mandibular ridges irrespective of the pre prosthetic surgeries for the implant site where taken into consideration. Patient in the age range of 16 - 75 years of age where included in the study. The number of implants used for successful placement of prosthesis where included in the study. Discussion: With the wide variety of options present selecting a particular type has been difficult, especially when treating resorbed mandibular ridges. Basal implants represent a good alternative to the regular dental implants. With the difference in philosophies of the two implants there arises a need to see the clinical evaluation of a better option for restoring resorbed mandibular ridges. Conclusion: An increasing trend was found in the use of crestal implants. Considering the advantages, disadvantages and post - operative complications crestal implants suggested to be of better choice when compared to the basal implants.

  114. Dr. Vasupradha, G., Dr. Evuru Prasanth, Dr. Dinakaran, J., Dr. Bhaskar Jayaraman, Dr. Marathamuthu Karthikeyn, Dr. Hema Latha and Dr. Karthikeyan

    On the gums lesions associated with gingival tissues means Epulis or Epulides. A reactive focal connective tissue proliferation confined only to gingiva, but its histopathology etiology is unknown. Fibrous epulis is a slow growing, painless, hyperplastic fibrous tissue mass located only in gums. Commonly found in anterior region of oral cavity. Here we report a case of giant fibrous epulis which occurred in the third molar region of mandible associated with impacted third molar. The case of fibrous epulis at the lower left quadrant of mandible for past 5 months duration is presented, it was painless, slow growing mass, on examination well pedunculated growth over the third molar on left lower mandibular region. Provisional diagnosis was fibrous epulis with impacted third molar tooth. Surgical excision was done under local anesthetic solution along with removal of impacted third molar and second molar also. Histopathology report suggests of pyogenic granuloma with no signs of malignancy. Considering the fact that all the clinical features resembles that for fibrous epulis, we would like to emphasize the good histopathologic consideration for the post – operative follow up by the dentist.

  115. Dr. Supriya Banerjee, Dr. Deepashree Paul, Dr. Piyali Datta and Dr. Gautam Kumar Kundu

    The maxillary first permanent molar is the largest and most complex in its root canal morphology. The number of second mesio-buccal (MB-2) canals identified in maxillary molars increased from 51% in naked eye to 82% with microscopy. (Baldassari et al.,) This is a case report of endodontic treatment of a maxillary first permanent molar with 7 root canals identified by Cone Beam Computed Tomography and treated by root canal therapy using rotary instrumentation.

  116. Suhail Fatima, Shabnam Ansari and Nasir Ali Khan

    About 80 percent of adults experience low back pain at some point in their lifetimes. It is the most common cause of job-related disability and a leading contributor to missed work days. Vast majority of low back pains are mechanical in nature. In many cases, low back pain is associated with spondylosis, a term that refers to the general degeneration of the spine associated with normal wear and tear that occurs in the joints, discs, and bones of the spine as people get older. Recurring back pain resulting from improper body mechanics is often preventable and minimized by avoiding movements that jolt or strain the back, maintaining correct posture, and lifting objects properly. Many work-related injuries are caused or aggravated by stressors such as heavy lifting, contact stress (repeated or constant contact between soft body tissue and a hard or sharp object), vibration, repetitive motion, and awkward posture. Using ergonomically designed furniture and equipment to protect the body from injury at home and in the workplace may reduce the risk of back injury. In this module, authors have provided background, etiology, risk factors and prevention of back pain. Adopting correct postures is the key to manage backache. We have demonstrated correct postures with the help of eleven colour pictures.

  117. Dr. J. Ranjit Kumar, Dr. Uma Sudhakar, Dr. S. Uma Maheswari, Dr. A. Arun Kumar and Dr. G. B. Parthasarathy

    Introduction: Chronic Periodontitis, an inflammatory disease caused by oral bacteria stimulates the host cells, neutrophils which release Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) as a part of immune response. Excess ROS is one of the pathological features in the periodontal lesion. Recently, Reactive Oxygen Metabolites (ROM) were recognized as a useful measure for blood ROS. To reduce inflammation, periodontal therapy is required. Therefore nonsurgical periodontal therapy- Scaling and Root Planing (SRP) may be effective in decreasing circulating ROS. Aims and Objectives: The purpose of this study is to estimate the plasma ROM level in healthy and diseased periodontium and the effects of nonsurgical periodontal therapy- Scaling and Root planing on plasma ROM level in Chronic Periodontitis. Materials and Methods: The study population consisted of 20 subjects belonging to both sexes were randomly selected. Subjects were divided in two groups, Healthy periodontium (GROUP I) and Chronic Periodontitis (GROUP II). Plaque index (PI), Sulcular bleeding index (SBI), Probing Pocket Depth (PPD), Clinical attachment level (CAL) were recorded at baseline, 1st and 2nd month. Blood was collected to assess the plasma ROM level at baseline in both groups. After SRP, in group II subject’s blood was collected at 1st and 2nd month to assess plasma ROM level. Results: The mean plasma ROM level in group I subjects was 162.6 CARRU and in group II subjects 321 was CARRU at baseline. Comparison of clinical parameters and ROM between test group and control group at baseline was significant (P<0.001). In test group, correlation between ROM level and plaque index was significant (P= 0.026). The other clinical parameters and ROM level at baseline, 1st month and 2nd month were non-significant. Conclusion: The present study suggests that non-surgical periodontal therapy -Scaling and Root planing was effective in improving clinical parameters and reducing plasma ROM level in Chronic Periodontitis subjects.

  118. Mareta, S., Saleh, H. and Moeliono, D. D.

    Background: Scabies is a contagious skin disease caused by infestation and sensitization towards Sarcoptes scabiei var. hominis (S.scabiei). The disease could possibly spread through both direct and indirect contact with skin. According to Republic of Indonesia’s Ministry of Health, the prevalence of scabies in Indonesia in 2008 was 5.6%⸺2.95% from all patients who visited Primary Health Care. The incidence of scabies has remained high in Indonesia, with the lowest number was found in North Sulawesi, and the highest in West Java. Some factors that increase the prevalence of scabies are high humidity, poor level of sanitation, dense population, malnutrition, poor hygiene and lack of knowledge. Although scabies is not life-threatening, the disease could progress to a more severe and persistent form, complicated by low immunity and secondary skin infections. Aim: Revealing the prevalence and characteristics of scabies patients in Dermatovenereology Clinic, Bandung District Hospital between 2014⸺2015. Methods: Retrospective study from medical record of all scabies patients in Dermatovenereology Clinic, Bandung District Hospital between 2014 and 2015. Results: The total amount of scabies patients in 2014 was 306 (7.11%) and in 2015 was 300 (7.14%) among patients who admitted outpatient clinic. The most common groups were male, children, students, unclear transmission source, all of patient was administered permethrin 5% and 22,33% patients had secondary infections.

  119. Dr. Holebasu, Dr. Bhushita Lakhkar and Dr. Karthik Adiraju

    Dyke-Davidoff-Masson Syndrome (DDMS) is seldom seen in clinical practice. It is characterized by cerebral hemi atrophy with ipsilateral hypertrophy of skull and sinuses. We report two cases of DDMS, A 11yr old male who presented with generalised tonic clonic seizures and mental retardation. Another case of 17 yr old male who presented with seizures, hemiparesis of the right hand and leg with deformity of the right upper limb and right lower limb.

  120. Betty SarabiaAlcocer, Ana R. Can Valle, Claudia Basulto Castro, Gabriel Abelardo Ortega Zavala, Adriana Stephanie Verdejo Arrocha, ManuelAntonio Alvarez Flores, Carlos Francisco Zenteno Canché and Renan Rivero Cerda

    Sexually transmitted diseases are becoming more common, such as Human Papilloma virus, which occupies the second place in this type of disease, after infection with Chlamydia. Objective: To know the risk cofactors associated with human papiloma virus infection in women aged 25-65 years of the Dzibalchen, Hopelchen, Campeche Health Center and the benefits of the HPV vaccine. Conclusion: The study showed a prevalence of infection with the human papiloma virus of 12.7%, being the onset of sexual life at an early age between 16 and 20 years (66%) and the number of couples (60%) the most Associated with this disease.

  121. Varsha Singh

    The aim of the present study is to understand the role of emotions, particularly jealousy and envy as a motivating factor for achievement, from Mahabharata’s (Indian epic) perspective. Negative emotions are more powerful as the fear of loss or the avoidance of pain has a much stronger grip on the individual, they are mostly experienced when the goals are blocked and thus motivate one more powerfully towards the achievement of a goal due to the disequilibrium experienced. The methodology involved analyzing selective episodes from B.R Chopra’s Mahabharata, using narrative analysis and in turn understanding from the characters, the role of emotions as a motivating factor for the above mentioned variable in the context of organization.

  122. Summaya Saeed and Aun Ali

    Background: Mastalgia has been reported as a condition that impacts individual’s activities of daily living and Quality of Life (QOL). The aim of this study was to evaluate impact of mastalgia related pain on QOL. The study also investigated the impact of psychological intervention done at breast clinic on both pain and QOL among patients with mastalgia. Methods: A randomized clinical trial was conducted to identify impact of psychological intervention on QOL among patients with mastalgia. In total 128 participants were recruited from outpatient department of a Tertiary Care hospital in Karachi. The study was conducted over the period of 10 months. The recruited participants were randomly divided into two groups (n=64, each group). Group-I received psychological intervention of 45 minutes whereas, Group-II was considered as a control group. The Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) was used for assessing pain. However, QOL was measured by SF-36. Both scales were applied on initial presentation and then after the period of 3 months. Results: Before giving psychological intervention, no statistical difference was noted in pain measured via VAS and QOL measured using SF-36. However, the analysis showed significant difference after giving psychological intervention. The participants in Group-I reported lower level of pain and better QOL when they were assessed after 3 months of psychological intervention in comparison to Group-II. Conclusion: Findings of current study suggested that mastalgia impacts on QOL of patients. Moreover, study findings revealed positive influence of psychological intervention on patients with mastalgia. Therefore, it has been suggested to make psychological intervention as a build in component of treatment if patient presents with no findings on physical examination.

  123. Waleed S. Mohamed, Abeer M. Ashmawy, Fatma El-Zahraa S. Abdel Rahman, Mahmoud A. Amer, Mubasher Rauf, and Motawa E. EL –Houseini

    Background: Leukemias are a group of diseases characterized by increased numbers of abnormal white cells in the blood and bone marrow. Two promising products such as silibinin and trans-retinoic acid have found to have anti-cancer effects. Aims and Objectives: This work aims to study the effect of silibinin, and trans-retinoic acid on leukemia cells (LC) propagated ex-vivo in comparison with normal cells. Materials and Methods: This study was done on 75 subjects that divided into three groups: 25 AML patients group, 25 CML patients group and 25 healthy controls group enrolled in a prospective study. Blood samples were collected and LC was isolated from whole blood samples. Haemocytometer cell count and viability studies, immunophenotypic characterization levels were detected by flowcytometry, and -IFN-γ level was performed by ELISA technique. Results: Silibinin and TRA treatment show significant differences in the level of cell density, γ-IFN, and CD4% among AML and CML patients compared to normal healthy control persons , on the contrary CD8 did show insignificant difference among the previous mentioned groups due to the previous mentioned treatment. Conclusion: We may suggest that combination therapy of silibinin and TRA could be useful treatment of CML and AML patients.

  124. Dr. Arpita Tandon, Dr. Nilesh Bulbule, Dr. Amit Jagtap and Dr. Chandra Ahuja

    Background: Since the introduction of dental implants, they have been accepted as a predictable and reliable modality for both partially and completely edentulous patients. Successful implant placement depends on the osseointegration of the implant into the host bone. Integration of the implant is greatly influenced by the properties of the implant surface and its design. Objectives: The objective of this review is to determine the effect of implant design and surface modification on implant osseointegration. Data Sources: A complete online search for articles was made using PubMed and Google Scholar. Study eligibility criteria: All articles that were published in English or those having detailed summary in English were included. Only those articles that were published between 1st January 1994 and 31st March 2016 were considered. Randomized controlled trials and cohort studies with data on osseointegration of implants with different implant designs and surface modifications done on animals were considered. Articles having histomorphometric and histologic method of analysis with a study period of more than 6 weeks were selected. Results: The review gives an insight of the various surface modifications and designs that can be successfully applied on dental implants so that a greater level of osseointegration can be achieved. Limitations: Few articles do not clearly mention the results which makes the interpretation difficult. Conclusions: Major advancements have been made in order to develop implants with innovative surface topography and design. These modifications have greatly influenced the rate and degree of osseointegration. Hence, such implants have set the stage for the future of successful implantology.

  125. Dr. Diptimayee Jena, Dr. Nirupama Devi, Dr. Itishri Jena, Dr. Rashmita Kumari Padhy, Dr. Pramila Kumari Mishra

    Aim and Objectives: Essential hypertension accounts for more than 90% of cases of hypertension. It is one of the most important risk factors for cardiovascular diseases and other clinical outcomes. Even though lot of research has been done for the treatment and prevention of hypertension. The present study was carried out with the objective to find out correlation between oxidative stress and paraoxonase 1 in hypertension (HTN). Methods: The study was carried out on 90 hypertensive patients and 90 normotensive controls. Cases with diabetes mellitus, thyroid disease, chronic kidney disease, smoking, autoimmune diseases and any other chronic diseases are excluded. The study was approved by Institutional ethical committee. Informed consent was obtained from all cases. Serum PON 1 was estimated by ELISA method using commercial kit procured from Aviscera Bioscience, total oxidant load by FOX 2 assay and total antioxidant capacity by FRAP assay. Statistical analysis was done by SPSS version 20 software. Results: serum total oxidant load (FOX 2) was increased and serum total antioxidant capacity (FRAP) and antioxidant enzyme (PON 1) was decreased in hypertension. There was a negative correlation between serum FOX2 with serum FRAP and PON1 level Conclusion: Oxidative stress which is responsible for pathophysiology of hypertension, causes decrease in total antioxidant capacity. PON 1 is an antioxidant enzyme present on the surface of HDL also significantly decreased which is responsible for prevention of HTN and it’s complications.

  126. Abdelhamid, M. S., Nabil, T. M., Nafady, H. A., Ali, A. M., Rashad, A. M., Abdelmoola, M. H., Garib, A. Z. and Elgaabary, T.

    Purpose: Which is more convenient ABDELHAMID technique or Lichtenstein. Background: Hernia recurrences are mostly due to excessive tension, abnormal scared tissue, and inadequate repair or over looked hernias. In Lichtenstein repair A mesh was inserted along the posterior wall without disturbing the old repair. While in transabdominal pre-peritoneal (TAPP) with external fixation the mesh was applied away from the scared old repair in the preperitoneal space Methods: This is a retrospective study for 100 patients done years ago at Al Hayat Hospital Jeddah, KSA, Bani-Suef University Hospital and Bani Suef Health Insurance Hospital. The study design and data collection were between 9 -2015 and 9 – 2016. We reported the patients for duration of operation, hospital stay, cost, recurrence and return to work. Results: The mean operative time in TAPP with external fixation was 80 min while in Lichtenstein repair was 65 min. The cost was less in Lichtenstein repair while long of stay (LOS) was the same. Recurrence was 2% in TAPP with external fixation on the other hand it was 4% in Lichtenstein repair. Patients returned back to work after 5 days in TAPP with external fixation and after 9 days in Lichtenstein repair. Conclusion: TAPP with external fixation is associated with longer operative time and higher cost but the incidence of recurrence is much less while return to work was earlier in TAPP with external fixation advocating to be used as a primary option in recurrent inguinal hernia repair.

  127. Keerthi T. and Rajagopal K. V.

    Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the role of 3D MRI in diagnosing glenoid labral tears in comparison to conventional MRI considering arthroscopy as the gold standard investigation. Materials and Methods: Forty five patients between 15-60 years of age with shoulder pain and suspected glenoid labral pathologies are included in the study.MRI of the shoulder joint including 3D sequences was done and findings are compared with the final diagnosis obtained by arthroscopy. Post arthrogram 3D sequences are also acquired whenever arthrogram was performed and the findings are compared with those of conventional MRI and Arthroscopy. MR arthrogram was considered as gold standard in cases where arthroscopy was not done. The analysis was done using kappa statistics. Results: Maximum patients (23 out of 45)are students with athletic activity in the age group of 21-30 years and ninety percent of the patients are male. Most of the patients presented with recurrent shoulder subluxation/dislocation and there is tear of anteroinferior labrum in fifty percent of the patients. 3D MRI showed improved sensitivity and specificity for labral tears (100% accuracy for superior segment tears with subtle false negativity for inferior segment tears). Pre and post arthrogram 3DMRI showed perfect agreement with arthroscopy with kappa score of 0.9 and 0.94 respectively. Conclusion: 3D MRI is a sensitive tool in detection of labral tears and correlates better with arthroscopic findings but was not found to substitute conventional MRI.

  128. Pratibha Khosla and Sagarika Chaudhuri

    Stress can fill in as a main thrust regarding acquiring comes about, however then again, relentless stress can go about as an executioner as far as execution. It is essential for nursing instructors to know the predominance of psychological stress and psychological prosperity among nursing understudies. This paper is a report of a review led to investigate the level of stress among the nursing understudies. With the use of modified perceived stress scale (PSS-14) level of stress was measured from sample of 30 from each group of bachelor of nursing 2nd, 3rd & 4th year. The outcomes demonstrate that there was severe stress among the nursing understudies (63%). Future research is prescribed to expand the extent of this audit by tending to the adapting methodologies that are used by nursing understudies to manage clinical stress.

  129. Dr. A. V. S. S. Swathi Vasanthi, Dr. Pravallika, I., Dr. G. S. Kejriwal and Dr. C. H. Madhavi

    Aims and Objectives: Chordoma are midline tumours originating from embryonic remnants of the primitive notochord. They are low-grade neoplasms, locally aggressive, slow-growing, but highly recurrent. Chordomas have 4 pathognomonic characteristics on plain film evaluation: expansion of the bone, rarefaction, trabeculation, and calcification. The usual radiographic pattern is lytic, with frequent calcification or sequestered bone fragments. CT scanning is essential, highly sensitive, and accurate for evaluating bony integrity, bone destruction, and calcifications or bone fragments within the lesion. Evaluation of the precise extent of the tumour and the degree of involvement of adjacent tissues is best performed by MRI. The aim of our study is to highlight the role of imaging in chordomas and to correlate imaging diagnosis with histopathological findings. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted over a period of one year on patients who came to MIMS general hospital with clinical and radiological suspicion of chordoma. This is a prospective study done on a total of 15 patients who were radiologically suspected as having chordoma and evaluated on Seimens 16 slice CT and Siemens essenza 1.5 tesla MRI with contrast. Results: In our study of 15 cases, most common age group was found to be 20-40 years and chordomas had slightly greater female predilection. Out of 15 cases, 9 were histopathologically proved as chordomas and the remaining 6 turned out to be false positive. Based on these results the sensitivity and specificity of CT and MRI in diagnosing chordoma is 100% and 60% respectively. Though there remains a question of controversy, in our study most common location is spheno-occipital region. Conclusion: In our study, we found out that both CT and MRI have good accuracy and are complementary to each other in diagnosing chordomas, however each one has certain superior characteristics over the other. Though radiological imaging plays an important role in diagnosing chordoma, histopathological examination is essential for confirmation. A rare presentation of chordoma with orbital extension was also included in our study, which was histopathologically proven. So, the possibility of chordoma should be suspected even if we found the lesion in an uncommon location, when typical radiological features of chordoma are encountered.

  130. Dr. Dinesh Pal Yadav, Dr. Indra Bhati and Dr. Ramgopal Yadav

    Background: Ectopic pregnancy is the most life threatening emergency in pregnancy leading to maternal death. Ectopic pregnancy jeoparadizes the wish of attainmaint of motherhood also, But now therapy for ectopic gestation has evolved from a radical procedure to conservative treatment aimed at the preservation of fertility. Objective: To assess the demographic profile, risk factors, clinical presentation & determine the efficacy of methotrexate treatment for ectopic pregnancies at our tertiary care centre which will not only help in reducing maternal mortality and morbidity rates but also go a long way in preservation of future fertility. Method: A prospective, longitudinal and observational study was conducted in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Umaid hospital, Dr. SN Medical college, Jodhpur during a period of two year from October 2013 to September 2015. 32 cases of ectopic pregnancy admitted in the hospital were analyzed in terms of demographic profile, risk factors, clinical presentation, management and efficacy of methotraxate. Finally all collected material and data were analyzed statistically to draw various informative conclusions. Results: Most common age and parity affected by ectopic pregnancy were 21-30 years (63.75%) and para 1-3 (72.50%) respectively. No age and parity were immune to ectopic pregnancy. More than one clinical feature was present in most of the patients. Efficacy of methotraxate in our study was 81.25%. Successfullness of Methotraxate treatment in gestational sac size <4cm was 84% and in D1 β-hCG level <5000 mIU/ml was 88.46%. Effectiveness of methotraxate was decreased when gestational sac size and β-hCG level increased. Conclusion: Medical therapy with MTX has an established place in the treatment of early EP in selected patients with hemodynamic stability and lower initial levels of hCG as the most reliable predictors of treatment outcome and advantage of tubal conservation and saves patients from requiring surgery.

  131. Dr. Saraswathi Gopal, K., Dr. Supriya Manoharan and Dr. Sumathy, C.

    Objectives: The aim of the present study was to infer and record the prevalence of anatomical variations and incidental pathologies of maxillary sinus in patients presenting with dental and ENT problems who were subjected to Cone Beam Computed Tomography scans performed for Maxillofacial diagnostic purpose. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective study we have evaluated 70 CBCT images (140 maxillary sinus bilaterally) from age group ranging between 14-65 years for anatomical variations and maxillary sinus pathologies. 140 CBCT images were acquired using PLANMECA MID PROMAX 3D machine and the images were analysed using Romexis Software. Results: The anatomical variations like prevalence of septa was found in 17.14% , sinus hypoplasia in 6.42% and pathological findings grouped as mucosal thickening was found in 16.42%, mucosal retention cysts in 7.14%, antral polyps in 9.28% and sinus opacification in 3.57% were observed. Conclusion: The high occurrence of pathologies in asymptomatic maxillary sinus emphasizes how important it is for the dentists to identify these potential pathologies of maxillary sinus in CBCT images. It is the duty of the dental radiologists to be keen enough to detect these pathologies and refer the patients with such pathologies to the concerned specialists for providing an early diagnosis, better prognosis and a comprehensive health care for the patients.

  132. Gabriela Fernandes and Nilofer Sheikh

    Altered passive eruption is a condition in which the gingival tissue remain positioned on the enamel prominence rather than at the cementoenamel junction. Difficult to detect, most of these cases go undiagnosed or misdiagnosed. Hence, it is necessary to be informed of this entity in order to adequately diagnose and treat it. Treatment modalities often involve surgical intervention and restoring esthetics is a prime concern in these cases. This article describes a review of literature and provides vital information in diagnosing and treatment this condition as well as describes a successfully treated case.

  133. Dr. Sarmistha Padhy, Dr. Basanta Kumar Dash and Dr. Ranjeeta Nayak

    Introduction: Tuberculosis kills more youth and adults than any other infectious disease and so strikes the most productive age group. When left untreated a smear positive case can infect between 10-15 persons per year. Therefore early detection followed by effective treatment is imperative for the successful control of tuberculosis. Objective: 1.To explores the different patterns of health seeking behaviour of patients from first presentations till diagnosis. (2) To find out the relationships between sociodemographic & life style factors with the time of presentations & diagnosis. (3) To reveal the factors associated with patient delay, health system delay and irregularities after initiation of treatment. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted at Pulmonary medicine OPD of MKCG Medical College, Berhampur and Chest OPD of District Headquarter Hospital, Berhampur for a period of one year between Ist June 2013 – 31 may 2014. Results: Majority of the patients (43.9%) were service holders followed by other occupations. 42% of the patients belonged to class V followed by 23% who belonged to class IV socio-economic status. The most common symptom with which the patients presented with were cough (94%) and fever (87.5%). It was observed that most common reasons for patient delay was the belief of not so serious cough (88.5%), dependency followed by financial constraints in 72.9% subjects. Conclusion: Considering the high magnitude of pre-treatment delay it is imperative to access a simple and rapid diagnostic test for TB that can be used at the lower healthcare facility level.

  134. Seema Vinayak, Farnaz Dehkhoda and RohinVinayak

    Despite chemotherapy and radiation therapy as being effective in the treatment of cancer, like other therapies, they can cause some side effects, which may vary in each individual. Sometimes these treatment sessions cause pain that may decrease with time. But in some people, permanent nerve damage happens, which can cause severe symptoms after treatment. The study focused on measuring the effect of two types of music therapy on pain in blood cancer patients. 180 young adult (age range of 20-40 years) patients (with an equal number of males and females)with blood cancer who were undergoing chemotherapy or radiation therapy, were equally assigned to three groups randomly viz. two intervention groups (i.e. either active or receptive music therapy) and a control group. Participants were evaluated by McGill pain questionnaire visual analogue scale. Scores were obtained before and after the music therapy. Twenty sessions of active or receptive music therapy(with each session of 15-30 minutes) were applied on intervention groups whereas the control group received only routine medical treatment sessions. Results indicated significant differences in reduction in scores of pain from pre-therapy to post-therapy scores for both intervention groups as compared to no intervention group. Analyses of Covariance applied to compare these three independent groups revealed that active music therapy had the greatest impact on the reduction of pain as compared to the receptive music therapy group. The study has great implications for pain reduction in the patients undergoing the cancer treatment.

  135. Dr. Deshmukh Poonam Prakashrao, Dr. Nikumbh Milind, B. and Dr. Dawre Manisha

    Urinary calculi are common problems in primary care practice and usually affect people between 30-60 yrs of age. They affect men more than women. In India, 12% of the population is expected to have urinary stones out of which 50% may end up loss of kidneys or renal damage. Location & quality of pain are related to position of the stone within the tract. Patient may present with the classic symptoms of renal colic & hematuria along with nausea, vomiting, difficulty in urinating, penile pain, testicular pain etc. Helical CT scan of abdomen is the Gold standard method for diagnosis of urinary calculi. Management of urinary calculi is based on stone composition, stone location & size & upper tract anatomy. Lifestyle modifications play very important role to prevent the occurrence and recurrence of urinary calculi. Dietary changes like increase in consumption of water, low salt diet, increase intake of fruits containing citrates along with limit intake of foods containing oxalates in large extent are the things which can combinely help to prevent recurrency of urinary calculi. These all factors will be discussed in detail in present study.

  136. Dr. Sandhya, K., Dr. Bobby John and Dr. Shobitha

    Oral cavity is one of the commonest site for cancer in our population due to a high prevalence of tobacco use in the country. Aim: The aim of this study was to retrospectively assess the oral cancer profile among patients who underwent biopsy in a tertiary centre in Central Kerala and there by implement the preventive measures for controlling it. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study was conducted by analyzing the histopathological records in the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Government Dental College Kottayam from June 2008 to May 2014. Results: The study showed that among 1270 patients who underwent biopsy as a part of the diagnostic procedures during the study period, 570 (44.8%) patients were diagnosed as having dysplasia, premalignant and malignant lesions .Out of this, 361 patients were diagnosed with oral squamous cell carcinoma. There was an increased predilection of oral cancer among males and the predominant age group affected was between 61-70 years of age followed by 30-40 year age group. Buccal mucosa was the most common site accounting for 42.6% of the total cases. The most prevalent histopathological pattern was moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. Statistically significant association was found between age group and histopathological grading, sub site and histopathological grading with p value <0.005. Conclusion: The increased prevalence and younger age group involvement of oral SCC in the study suggests that preventive measures should be implemented in our society at the earliest.The data found in the study can be used to make public awareness of the harmful effects tobacco and alcohol.

  137. Shivangi Sharma, Dr. Manju Chhugani and Somibala Thokchom

    Aim: Aim of the study is to determine the effectiveness of dry cupping therapy at acupoint BL23 on intensity and quality of postpartum low back pain among postnatal mothers in a selected hospital of New Delhi. Setting and Design: A quantitative experimental research, using pre test pot test control group design was used and study was conducted in Swami Dayanand Hospital, New Delhi. Sample and Sampling: 60 samples were taken using purposive sampling technique. Methods: Structured questionnaire and Short Form Mc Gill Pain Questionnaire was used to collect data regarding demographic variables, clinical profile of postnatal mothers and intensity and quality of postpartum low back pain among postnatal mothers. Result: In this study findings revealed that the mean intensity of low back pain reached from 8.33 before the intervention to 1.97 after 3 days of intervention and according to Short Form Mc Gill Pain Questionnaire the mean SMPQ Scores also reduced from 29.83 to 4.9. The results showed significant difference between the observations. Conclusion: Thus, it was found that dry cupping therapy is effective reducing the intensity and improving the quality of postpartum low back pain.

  138. Dr. Parimala Kumar, Dr. Nandini Manjunatjh, Dr. Mohammed Basil, Dr. Kishore Bhat, Dr. Vinayak Joshi and Dr. Mohitha Shetty

    Background: Periodontitis is a polymicrobial disease which effects bone and the supporting structures of teeth. The treatment for periodontal diseases has moved towards an antimicrobial model of disease management. With the threat of wide spread antibiotic resistance rendering many antibiotics useless against many diseases, there is an increased necessity to develop a novel antimicrobial based treatment for effective disease prevention. In this regard an invitro study was conducted comparing virgin coconut oil with standard chlorhexidine mouth wash (0.2%) on five periodontal pathogens. Methods: An invitro study on the five putative pathogens of periodontal disease was conducted using minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), maximum bacterial count (MBC) and time kill curve methods. The culture media used was Brain heart infusion broth. Results: The results showed that all the organisms were resistant to virgin coconut oil, while there was varying degree of sensitivity to chlorhexidine. Conclusion: The results of the current study showed that virgin coconut oil has no therapeutic effect in the treatment of active periodontal disease, while chlorhexidine was found to have bacteriocidal effect on against Prevotella intermedia, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Tenerella forsythia and bacteriostatic effect on against Fusobacterium nucleatum and Aggregatibacter actinomycetum commitans.

  139. Dr. Divya Bagoria, Dr. Reena Mathur, Dr. Nihar Kathrani, Dr. Sumitra Choudhary and Dr. Jaya Pamnani

    Aims & Objectives of the study: The purpose of this prospective study is to show the importance of ultrasonography in cases of bleeding in first trimester which helps in confirming the pregnancy & precisely identifying the cause of vaginal bleeding occurring in the first trimester and to define correlation of ultrasound findings with clinical diagnosis. Materials and Methods: The present Hospital based prospective cohort study was conducted on 100 patients in our department during the period of eighteen months; from 1stApril 2015 to 31st August 2016. Patients presenting anywhere from the first day of the last menstrual cycle to the first twelve weeks of pregnancy were included. Women of reproductive age with a missed period but a negative urine pregnancy test and patients who refused to admission were excluded Results: Majority of patients in the present study belonged to 26 – 30 years of age. The most common cause of bleeding in first trimester was threatened abortion (32%). The total number of disparities between clinical and ultrasound diagnosis of the causes of bleeding in first trimester was 64%. The accuracy of ultrasound compared to that of clinical diagnosis was 100% in the detection of threatened abortion, blighted ovum, incomplete abortion, complete abortion and vesicular mole. It was found the accuracy was 66.7% in the diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy. Conclusion: Ultrasound is a very valuable tool in the diagnosis of various causes of bleeding per vaginum in first trimester of pregnancy. It is the only imaging modality which is easily accessible and by which an accurate assessment of the first trimester bleeding can be done from diagnostic and prognostic point of view.

  140. Konwar, B., Sarma, K., Saikia, B., Talukdar, D. J., Shah, S., Cheda, M., Chandran, M., Lalhmangaihzuala, M., Shah, N., Ghorai S. and Ahmed, F. A.

    A five years old Pomeranian bitch having 7 kg body weight was presented to the Teaching Veterinary Clinical Complex, College of Veterinary Sciences and Animal Husbandry, CAU, Selesih, Aizawl, Mizoram with a history of straining to urinate, dribbling of bloody tinged urine, anorexia since one week. The patient was mildly dehydrated and dull. Palpation of the ventral abdomen elicited discomfort. Observation at micturition revealed that blood was voided at the end of micturition. Lateral and ventro-dorsal radiography revealed the presence of bladder calculi. Ultrasound examination showed presence of a hyperechoic mass with clear acoustic shadow indicative of calculus with cystitis. The calculus measured about 2.5 cm horizontal diameter and 2.75 cm vertical diameter and weight was 10 gm. The urine appeared anechoic with no debris and the bladder wall measured 0.2 mm thickness. The calculus was successfully removed by a cystotomy procedure.

  141. Dr. Divya Bagoria, Dr. Reena Mathur, Dr. Avinash Gupta, Dr. Sumitra Choudhary and Dr. Jaya Pamnani

    Aims and Objectives: To study the role of triple phase CT scan in detection, characterisation, differentiation and diagnosis of liver lesions. To study the enhancement patterns of various liver lesions on triple phase CT scan. Materials and Methods: A Hospital based prospective study was conducted on 100 patients having clinical suspicion of liver pathology or with suspected/proved focal liver lesions by other imaging modalities were referred to CT for diagnosis had undergone triphasic CT for evaluation of liver lesions in the department of Radiodiagnosis, JLN Medical College and Associated groups of hospital. After image acquisition different phases were evaluated in detail to identify lesions and characterise their nature. Then lesions were classified statistically to derive the conclusions. Results: There were 59 benign cases and 41 malignant cases out of total 100 patients. Metastases and hemangiomas were the most common detected lesion in 20% of patients (total 40%). There were 16% cases of HCC, 12 % cases of abscess, 9 % cases of simple cyst, 8% cases of hepatic trauma, 4% cases of hydatid cyst, focal fatty infiltration, and cholangiocarcinoma each and 1% cases of FNH, hepatoblastoma and AVM each. On triple phase CT scan, hemangioma (except one) showed peripheral nodular enhancement followed by centripetal filling Metastaasis to liver were hypoenhancing on all post contrast phases (18 out of 20). Conclusion: Triple phase CT is helpful in confident diagnosis of hepatic lesion. It has an indispensable role in characterising, evaluating and differentiating various hepatic lesions which helps in guiding appropriate management plan with proper surgical triage.

  142. Dr. K. Sindhuja, Dr. Gautham Hegde and Dr. K. Nillan Shetty

    Objectives of the study: To compare soft tissue chin thickness at different cephalometric points and its correlation with mandibular divergence pattern in south indian population Materials and Method: Lateral cephalograms of 90 South Indian patients in the age group 18 and above were taken and divided into three groups – low angle, medium angle and high angle of manbibular plane to the cranial base. Soft tissue chin thickness was measured at three different levels of chin: Pogonion, Gnathion, Menton. The soft tissue chin thickness was also compared between males and females. Results: One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), followed by comparison between different growth pattern groups using Post Hoc Tukey’s test was done. Statistically significant difference was seen between the low angle and high angle groups with increased soft tissue chin thickness in high angle cases. No statistically significant difference was observed between males and females. Conclusion: Soft tissue chin thickness was minimum at menton and maximum at pogonion. Thicker soft tissue was seen in low angle cases, with no statistically significant sexual dimorphism.

  143. Dr. Aditya A Chandele, Dr. Nilesh Bulbule, Dr. Dilip Kakade and Dr. Arpita Tandon

    Objective: The objective of this study is to compare & evaluate surface hardness and compressive strength of type III gypsum product after addition of 2% Gum Arabic and 0.2% Calcium Hydroxide. Method: For the study, 80 samples were poured out of which 20 were poured with type III gypsum, 20 were poured with type III gypsum and 2% Gum Arabic, 20 were poured with type III gypsum and 0.2% Calcium hydroxide and remaining 20 were poured with 2% Gum Arabic and 0.2% Calcium Hydroxide. 40 samples were tested for surface hardness and remaining 40 for compressive strength. Obtained values were then tabulated, compared and subjected for statistical analysis. Results: Highest compressive strength was seen in samples with no additives. Surface hardness was increased after the addition of additives. Conclusion: There was no effect of Gum Arabic and Calcium Hydroxide on compressive strength of Type III gypsum. Surface hardness was increased after the addition of additives. Highest values were obtained for surface hardness after addition of Gum Arabic and Calcium Hydroxide.

  144. Dr. Rakesh Kumar Roy, Dr. Shymal Bar, Dr. Santosh Kumar Verma, Dr. Poonam K. Jayaprakash, Dr. Arun Kumar Chauhan and Dr. Pradyut Biswas

    Introduction: Human hyoid bone is anunique and important part of musculo-skeletal apparatus of the craniofacial complex. Change in it’s position postoperatively might contribute to relapse and affect the dimension of airway.The aim of the present study is to evaluate the position of the hyoid bone and its co-relation with pharyngeal airway space in different skeletal pattern. Methodology: The study was conducted in-vitro and samples were equally divided in three groups (n=25) based on skeletal pattern. Result: Skeletal changes affect vertical and horizontal position of hyoid bone but no significant change in pharyngeal airway space. Conclusion - As limited parameters used in this study we can use these parameters in our regular records for easy evaluation of hyoid bone position and to predict the tendency of relapse in patients treated with functional appliance and orthognathic surgery.

  145. Dr. K. Prabhusankar, Dr. L. Balamùrugan, Dr. V. Usha and Dr. M. Varun

    Aim: To evaluate the efficacy of GELATAMP (colloidal silver impregnated with gelfoam) in reduction of post operative complications and soft tissue healing after impacted Mandibular 3rd Molar surgeries. Materials and Methods: The Study was performed in a series of 15 patients (30 impactions) aged between 25 – 48 years with bilateral mandibular 3rd molar impactions requiring surgical removal attending the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery. After the surgical removal of the teeth, these sites were augmented with GELATAMP and assessment was done to evaluate the soft tissue healing and reduction of postoperative complications like pain, swelling on 1st, 3rd and 7th post operative days. The results were recorded based on Soft Tissue Healing Index, Visual Analog Scale (VAS), Swelling Assessment by Tape Measurement. The ‘t’ test was used to test the significance between control and trial group. The ‘p’ value < 0.05 was taken to denote significant difference. Results: Soft tissue healing assessment and pain score showed high statistical significance (p < 0.005) on GELATAMP side compare to control side on 1st, 3rd, and 7th postoperative day. Regarding swelling assessment, There was no statistical significant difference between 2 groups. Conclusion: It was concluded that, surgically extracted mandibular 3rd molar socket augmented with GELATAMP resulted in effective soft tissue healing, and reduced postoperative complications compared to control group. Hence GELATAMP could be augmented on a routine basis on Mandibular 3rd molar extracted sockets.

  146. Dr. Bhagvat Vikrant Mohan, Dr. Juily Aher and Dr. Shirish Rajaram Bhagvat

    Amebic liver abscess is the most frequent extraintestinal manifestation of Entamoeba histolytica infection. This infection is caused by the protozoa E histolytica, which enter the portal venous system from the colon. Amebic liver abscess is an important cause of space-occupying lesions of the liver, mainly in developing countries. Prompt recognition and appropriate treatment of amebic liver abscess lead to improved morbidity and mortality.

  147. Dr. Mahendra Nagar, Dr. Suman Khangarot, Dr. Anil Saxena and Dr. Shahin Lal

    Tuberculosis is mainly disease of lung but can affect any body organ .when two or more noncontiguous organ sites is affected called disseminated TB .This form of TB is more common in patients with low immunity. Due to high mortality among these patients early diagnosis and treatments is essential. We report a case of disseminated TB in form of milliary TB ,Pott’s spine and neurologic TB. Patient was diagnosed early and put on treatment ,and showed favorably response to treatment.

  148. Priyanka Suhag, Charu Srivastava, Sriram Gopal, Abhishek Chandavarkar and Shreyas Arun Chawathey

    Endometrial ablation is the procedure in which we remove or destroy the endometrium and superficial myometrium to destroy the basal layer of endometrium and inhibit its regeneration, hence preventing blood loss during menses. Based on the Principles used for the development of the second generation techniques for endometrial ablation, we have utilised a technique in which a silicone Foley’s catheter with Hot Normal Saline is used to ablate the endometrium. Materials and Methods: This prospective study was carried out in the outpatient Gynaecology clinic and the department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology in Dr DY Patil Medical College, Nerul, Navi Mumbai with recruitment of subjects from March 2016 to September 2016 and follow up till date. The study included 50 patients aged from 35 to 55 years complaining of menorrhagia not responding to treatment (medical treatment) for 3 to 12 months. Foleys cathetar inserted in endometrial cavity inflated with boiling saline was used to ablate endometrium. Results: 92% satisfaction rate with the procedure at 6 months was observed. Complete cessation of menses was reported in 26% patients and 18% patients had eumenorhea. 48% Patients had reported Hypomenorrhoea at 6 months post procedure. Conclusion: Foley’s thermal balloon endometrial ablation is a safe, cost effective, simple and effective procedure.

  149. Manjusha, S., Dr. Soja, S. L. and Dr. Usha, V. K.

    In the modern world students feel difficult to control their emotions in order to face various situations in their academic as well as personal life. Success in academics can be predicted more by emotional measures. A student must be emotionally intelligent and mentally healthy so that he can achieve good academic results also. The study was descriptive in nature and purposive sampling technique was used. Three hundred 4th year BSc nursing students from selected government and private nursing colleges in Kerala were included in this study. Socio-personal data sheet, Mangal’s emotional intelligence inventory and observation record were used to assess the demographic data, emotional intelligence and academic performance of nursing students respectively. The findings revealed that emotional intelligence and academic performance were correlated (ρ =0.71, p<0.01). And no difference was found in the emotional intelligence of nursing students between government and private nursing colleges. Also there was significant difference in the academic performance of nursing students between government and private nursing colleges (t=4.69, p<0.001). Majority of the students had average emotional intelligence and found that emotional intelligence increases with academic performance. Integration of emotional intelligence in to the nursing curriculum provides nurses to enhance the quality of their clinical practice and thereby overall professional development.

  150. Bramara Kumari K., Satya Bhushan N. V. V., Sunil T., Siva Kalyan U., Kho Chai Chiang, Srinivas Saketh G., and Bharat Prakash M.

    The Purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of Curcumin, a component of turmeric in the management of Oral lichen planus. A total of 30 patients were included in the study who were administered oral curcumin of dosage 300mg used thrice daily for three months in the management of clinical symptoms such as pain, burning sensation, erythema, ulceration and in reduction of inflammatory markers level interleukin-2, interleukin-6, interleukin-10, Tumor necrosis factor-alpha, high sensitivity C-reactive protein. Assessment of patients was done at 15th day, 30th day, 60th day and 90th day. Symptomatic effect of pain evaluation- there was a significant reduction in pain by using VAS score and burning sensation. Similarly, there was also significant reduction in the degree of Erythema and ulceration by using Oral mucositis assessment scale. There was a reduction in the level of inflammatory markers in the patient serum. Oral administration of curcumin showed a reduction of symptoms and inflammatory markers level in Oral lichen planus.

  151. Srinivas Saketh G., Satya Bhushan N.V.V., Ravindranath K.V., Siva Kalyan U., Kho Chai Chiang, K. Bramara Kumari and Bharat Prakash M.

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of immediate implants in periapical infected extraction sockets. A prospective study was conducted on 24 patients and 30 implants were immediately placed into the extraction sockets after debridement and filling the defect with bone graft. All the implants were placed in maxillary single rooted teeth and mostly centrals (right and left) except one (1st premolar region). The parameters such as periapical radiolucency, marginal bone, peri-implant radiolucency, implant stability, gingival papilla score and buccal gingival height were analyzed over a follow up period of 3 months. All the 30 implants were osseointegrated successfully with good gingival aesthetics and improvement in marginal bone and a considerable decrease in the periapical radiolucency and peri-implant radiolucency after a period of 3 months. It can be concluded that immediate placement of implants in periapical infected sockets is a safe, effective and successful treatment option, provided certain procedures such as meticulous debridement of the socket proper placement of the implant and antibiotic administration are followed.

  152. Arrafy Rahman, KhondokerMoazzem Hossain, JalaluddinAshraful Haq, SharifulAlam Jilani, Hasina Mamtaz, Fahmida Rahman and Monirul Haque

    Typhoid is endemic in almost all parts of Bangladesh. Widal test is one of the easily available tools in many areas of the developing countries for the diagnosis of typhoid fever. The interpretation of Widal test depends upon the baseline titer which is prevalent amongst healthy individuals in a particular geographical area. In the endemic areas, the healthy people may contain antibodies which are capable of reacting up to a variable titer in the Widal test due to a past exposure, vaccination and cross reacting antigens. Therefore, it varies widely from place to place and is referred to as the baseline titer of that area. The objectives of this study were to determine the average baseline titer of the apparently healthy students of a private medical college of Dhaka and to find out the correlation among age; sex and the history of typhoid fever, antibiotics and vaccines against typhoid in regard to the Widal titers. The blood samples were collected from 100 apparently healthy students over the period of five months. After collecting the blood, sera were separated and analyzed for the presence of the Salmonella antibodies using the Widal tube agglutination test. Among the 100 serum specimens which were tested, 59 were positive for TO from 1:20 to 1:80 and 27 were positive for TH from 1:20 to 1:80. Based on the above results of the study, it has been revealed that the cut-off titers of 1:80 for the TO and of 1:80 for the TH may be considered as diagnostic for typhoid fever in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Besides, the study showed that there is no correlation among the age; sex and the history of typhoid fever, antibiotics and vaccines against typhoid in regard to Widal titers.

  153. Dr. Jakati Sanjeev, Dr. Gogineni Radhakrishna, Dr. Harish Atram, Dr. Aley Mrunal and Dr. Chachada Achint

    Context: With the increasing awareness of aesthetics among the general population more children seek orthodontic correction of their malocclusion. If malocclusion is identified early, simple preventive & interceptive measure alone can alleviate a developing malocclusion. Aims: To assess the prevalence of malocclusion in primary dentition as an indicator to future malocclusion Settings and Design: Complete clinical examination was performed under day light in the school & relevant statistical analysis was employed to test the proportions in different groups Statistical analysis used: Chi square test was employed to test the proportions in different groups Results: Oral hygiene status in the sample group was found to be 36.5% good, 18% fair and 45.5% had poor. Amongst the class I malocclusion (Flush terminal Plane) 35% had crowding in lower arch & 14.3% had crowding in upper arch, 7.5% had proclination in upper arch & 2.7% in lower arch. Spacing occurred in 78% in upper arch & 59.5% in lower arch. Crowding in upper & lower arches is 14.3 & 35%. Over jet percentage in our total sample is 5.1%. Prevalence of posterior cross bite is 4.2%. Conclusions: Prevalence of malocclusion in primary dentition in urban population in Nagpur within the age group of 3-6years is 81.2% Future Class I, 15.7 % Future Class II and 3.1 % Future Class III.

  154. Negi R. Rati, Kaushal Ankush, Singh Mitasha and Raina K. Sunil

    Background: The frontline workers which include nurses need to be focused in creating awareness and reduce the cultural and emotional barrier about breast screening among the female patients and community they come across. Objective: To determine the knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) of use of cancer screening programmes among nursing students and staff of a tertiary care center. Methodology: A cross sectional survey was conducted among 300 nursing students and staff of Dr. Rajendra Prasad Government Medical College, Kangra at Tanda, Himachal Pradesh in 2016. A semi structured predesigned study tool was introduced to assess the demographic profile and KAP regarding screening methods pertaining to breast cancer. Results: The adequate knowledge about all symptoms of breast cancer was observed to be >80% among younger age nurses (age <40 years).A positive attitude towards breast self-examination (BSE) promotion in mass media was observed in more than 80% of younger age group nurses (<30 years).Majority (78%) of them performed BSE once a month; 11.3% underwent clinical breast examination (CBE) and 11.6% mammography. Time constraint (14.6 %), lack of services and specialist (23.6%) and embarrassing to get examined (10.6%) were the quoted as the reasons behind not getting CBE. In a given situation when the participant discovers a breast lump, around 87% responded of taking immediate consultation from doctor. Conclusion: Along with increasing knowledge we have to strengthen emotional status of women in our country. The frontline workers can prove to be a great asset in creating community awareness.

  155. Morabandza, C.J., Amboyi, G.A.S., Gouolali, T., Elion Itou R. D.G., Etou Ossibi, W.A., Andzi Barhé, T., Ongoka, P.R. and Abena, A.A.

    Phytochemical constituents and antioxidant activity of Strychnoscamptoneura (Loganiaceae) leaves were studied by using classical tests. The aqueous, hydroethanolic, ethanolic and chloroform extracts were prepared. The most important extraction yield was obtained withhydroethanolic extract. Qualitative analysis by colored tube reactions of aqueous extract revealed 11 major chemical families. Thin layer chromatography of the chloroform extract confirmed the presence of sterols and terpens; the one of hydro-ethanolic extract, flavonoids and phenolic acids. Quantitative evaluation showed 3.56 ± 0.21% alkaloids, a higher content in total phenols and flavonoids with the ethanolic extract compared to the aqueous and hydro-ethanolic extracts. The antioxidant activity by using the 1-1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method was greater withethanolic extract than with aqueous and hydro-ethanolic extracts. These results offer good prospects for a possible use of leaves in place of the bark, stems and exudates of this plant by the rural populations.

  156. Archana Jain, Deepali Rastogi, Bhawana Chanana and Parmar, M. S.

    There is an urgent need for increase in land allocation to food crops due to rising population, especially in developing countries and on the other hand, cotton availability and its per capita availability is getting reduced due to which alternative fibre sources need to be identified and appropriate technologies developed for their conversion into useful textile products. Ligno-cellulosic fibres are one such alternative but their extraction is a tedious task which may vary as per the intended use of the fibres extracted. The present paper summarizes the extraction process of ligno-cellulosic fibres according to their end use and also briefs about their possible applications in textiles.

  157. Matondo, N. K., Nkongolo, K. K., 3Mumba, D., Tshilenge, D. K., Kizungu, V. and Lubobo, A. K.

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is one of the most important grain legumes in the word in term of total production and nutrition. It was domesticated in America, and spread around the world. This crop is cultivated in a very large part of Africa, extent in 30sub-Saharan Africa countries. But only a fraction of its accessions has been characterized based on origin, morphometric traits, agronomic performance and seed composition. This objective of this study is to characterize morphologically and agronomically the Common bean accessions from DR-Congo germplasm, highlight the level of high variability in the Common bean gene pool of the Country.81,11% of Common bean accessions from the germplasm had losangic leaves and 18,99% triangular leaves.50% of plants had white color of flowers, 35,56% of pink color and 14,44% of rosatre white color. Pods colors frequencies were 85,56% yellow, 6,67% red, 6,67% green and 1,11% crimpson.31,11% of accessions had seeds with white color, 21,11% of brown color, 18,88% of yellow color, 6,67% of red color, 3,33% of brown chestnut color, 2,22% of striated color, 2,22% of cream-coloured color, 2,22% of chocolate striated cream-coloured, 2,22% of red mottled color and 9,99% various the accessions colors (1,11% pink, 1,11% red dark, 1,11% red checkmate, 1,11% red striated white, 1,11% yellow checkmate, 1,11% grey sink, 1,11% grey striped, 1,11% light crimson and 1,11% crimson with white points). The stems colors were 78,89% green, 20% anthocyanin and 1,11% red. There were significant differences among accessions for all the quantitative traits analyzed. In this germplasm, 18,89% of the accessions were high than 1 m tall, 20% between 1 m to 0.50 m tall and 61,11% less than 0.50 m tall. Plant height and stem diameter were negatively correlated, while plant height and number of leaves per plant were positively and significantly correlated to each other. A negative correlation was observed between leaflet length and plant height. Grain yields were highly and significantly correlated to the number of pods and seeds per plant. Based on grain yield resistance over the two years of trials at the location, thirty three accessions have been identified as adapted to the local conditions of the main growing common bean region in the DR-Congo.

  158. Matondo, N.K., Yao, K.N., Kyalo, M., Skilton, R., Nkongolo, K.K., Mumba, D., Tshilenge, D.K. and Lubobo, A.K.

    The genetic diversity of Common bean accessions from the germplasm of INERA in DR-Congo was assessed to understand their phylogeny relationship using SSR molecular markers. A set of 91 accessions, comprising 21 from CIAT/Columbia, 36 from Mvuazi, 30 from Mulungu and 4 from Gandajika, were genotyped with 12 SSR markers that generated 89 alleles with an average of 7 alleles per locus. Polymorphism information content (PIC) value was 0.64 indicating a fair diversity with a range of 0.40-0.82. The average heterozygosity level per locus was 0.24. The variability was as low as 1% among the populations, 64% within individual and 35% within population. Clustering analysis based on the genetic similarity grouped the 91 Common bean genotypes into 2 main distinct clusters. Information generated from this study can be driven to select parents for breeding or develop hybrid lines for yield increase, high biomass, resistance against abiotic/biotic stresses and segregating populations to map genes/QTLs for yield in Common bean in the western DR-Congo.

  159. Archana Singh and Kavita Sharma

    Good health not only implies freedom from disease but physical, mental and emotional fitness as well. Dietary and lifestyle behaviors among adolescents are risk factors for several chronic diseases in adulthood. The objective of the study to evaluate the dietary habits and Life Style including physical activity, sedentary behaviors etc on the health in adolescents. Selecting 100 adolescents of age group 12-18 years in Agra district. Significant effect of exercise, market made food, watching television etc. was observed on obesity among adolescents

  160. Wankar, S. S. and Wadhai, V. S.

    Fly ash, a residue of coal combustion from thermal power plant play potential role in bioreclamation of degraded agricultural soils. Fly ash contains some micro and macronutrients viz. Cu, Fe, Zn, Mo, Mg, K, P and Co, Cd, Cr, Pb, Ni which enhance the growth of plants. AMF helps plant growth by increasing uptake of nutrients, producing growth promoting hormones and suppress plant pathogens. In present study, utilization of beneficial microorganism viz. AMF e.g. Funneliformis mossae in fly ash amended soil for bioreclamation of degraded agricultural soil was studied. Pot assay method was conducted from last week of November to February. Various concentration of soil/fly ash (w/w) was prepared and were taken in different pots. Fly ash concentrations viz. 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% were taken in the respective pots. 0% i.e. only soil was considered as control. In first set, that is set no. F, only fly ash and soil was added (0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, and 40%) and in another set, set no. C soil+FA+Funneliformis mossae was taken. Seeds of Wheat cultivar Lok-1 was used as test crop. During pot assay method, morphological characters of wheat plant were studied i.e. Germination %, Shoot length and Root length etc. Morphological characters were compared between set F and set C, over the control. Increase in %germination, shoot and root length was observed in set C which contains Funneliformis mossae as compared in set F which contained soil and fly ash. Highest shoot and root lengths were observed in set C2 and C4 followed by F2 contains 20% and 40% fly ash respectively. Rate of % germination was observed high in set no. C2, C4 followed by C1.The present study showed that AMF viz. Funneliformis mossae had vital role on wheat growth in fly ash amended soil.

  161. Saket Kumar, Rajeev Pratap Singh and Rajesh Singh

    The present study was estimating the association between grain yield and its component, which is essential to improvement yield traits. In 6 wheat genotypes analyze the genetic variability and correlation of germplasm in last week of December at Field Experimentation in Agricultural farm, BHU, Varanasi during Rabi season 2015-16. The significant mean sum of squares for most of the characters indicated the presence of substantial amount of variability. The differences between GCV and PCV for important characters studied indicating the less effect of environment on the expression of these characters. The GCV was observed high for grain yield followed by harvest index, canopy temperature and total grain yield. The phenotypic coefficient of variation (PCV) was exhibited high by canopy temperature followed by tillers per plant, spike length and grain weight per spike. High heritability coupled with high genetic advance was observed for plant height followed by harvest index. Grain yield exhibited positive significant correlation with 100 grain weight, grain weight per spike, spike length, grain filling period, harvest index, tillers per plant, test weight, days to maturity and canopy temperature depression at different genotypic level. Therefore selection can be expressed upon these characters for yield improvement of wheat in late sown condition. The results revealed that wheat planted on of December 2015 produced low spike length, plant height and grain yield with a comparable number of tillers and number of grains per spike. There was 9.4% reduction in grain yield as compared to late sowing. However, it showed negative significant correlation with plant height and grain yield in both environment. The path coefficient analysis revealed that biological yield per plant is the major contributor towards the grain yield per plant. Hence, main emphasis should be given on biological yield in breeding program.

  162. Deepak Mewar, M.C. Nautiyal and Dinesh Chandra Naithani

    The present study were undertaken in the Department of Horticulture, School of Agriculture and Allied Sciences, HNB Garhwal University (A Central University), Srinagar Garhwal, Uttarakhand during the year 2014 to study effect of various seed treatments on seed germination parameters in Wild Fig (Ficus palmate L.). In this experiment wild fig seeds are given stratification (7, 14 and 21 days at 40C) and then GA3 (250, 500and 750 ppm) treatment to see their effect on breaking dormancy and promot6ing germination. The experiment design was completely randomized block with three replications. The study revealed that the seeds of Wild Fig (Ficus palmate L.) treated with T1S2 (7days stratification + 500 ppm GA3) significantly affected germination percentage ,germination rate, height of seedling, fresh weight of seedling, dry weight of seedling and survival percentage of seedling. So it can be concluded that T1S2 (7days stratification + 500 ppm GA3) had the best effect on breaking wild fig seed dormancy and improving of this plant germination and seedling growth.

  163. Chakraborty, A., Guha, P. and Mandal, A. K.

    Hydration-dehydration treatments (soaking-drying and moist sand conditioning drying) and dry-dressing treatments especially with red chilli powder (Capsicum frutescens L.) @ 1g/kg of seeds and ascorbic acid @ 500mg/kg of seeds were effective in slowing down seed deterioration of high-medium vigour (3-month-old seed) wheat (cv. PBW-343) seed under subsequent ageing conditions. The wet treatments viz., soaking-drying and moist sand conditioning drying significantly improved germinability and field performance and productivity (effective tiller/ m2, grain yield/ m2 and 1000-seed weight) over untreated control. A few dry treatments, especially, red chilli powder and ascorbic acid also showed better results in improving storability and field performance than the untreated control. But the major effects were due to wet treatments in maintaining germinability as well as field performance of high-medium vigour wheat seeds. Physiological and biochemical studies revealed that soaking drying and moist sand conditioning drying followed by few dry treatments like red chilli powder and ascorbic acid showed reduced leakage of electrolytes and sugars with lower lipid peroxide formation and higher dehydrogenase enzyme activity than the control. On the basis of the above findings, wet treatments viz., soaking drying and moist sand conditioning drying; and dry-dressing treatment with red chilli powder may be suggested for the improvement of vigour, viability and field performance of high-medium vigour wheat seeds.

  164. Shibana, C., Dr. Diraviya Raj, K. and Francis

    The present investigation has been undertaken to find out the antimicrobial activities of the selected crustacean Portunus pelagicus. Antimicrobial activity of the whole body shell of crabs were tested against five bacterial strains and four fungal strains by disc diffusion method. Among the crab antibacterial activity of shell of Portunus pelagicus showed the best activity against Streptococcus (7mm) and antifungal activity of ethanol shell extract showed the maximum activity against Aspergillus flavus. The result of present study revealed that ethanol extract of whole body shell of P. pelagicus showed the best antibacterial and antifungal activity.

  165. Kanimozhi, S. and Sridhar, S.

    The objective of this study was to determine the phytochemical content, antibacterial activity and antioxidant activity of ethyl acetate extract of Grateloupia doryphora. The ethyl acetate extract of G. doryphora was evaluated fortotal phenolic, flavonoid contents, antibacterial (agar disc diffusion and broth dilution methods) and antioxidant (ABTS assay, lipid peroxidation, superoxide radical scavenging, nitric oxide radical scavenging and reducing power) activities. The results indicated that ethyl acetate extract of G. doryphora was effective in inhibiting the growth of Gram positive viz; Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis, gram negative viz; Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae compared to antibiotic streptomycin. The ethyl acetate extract was found to be rich in total phenolic content, and high antioxidant activity as compared to Ascorbic acid. The presence of functional groups of active compounds was confirmed by Gas Chromatography mass spectroscopy (GSMS) analysis of ethyl acetate extract. It was concluded that all tested ethyl acetate extract of G. doryphora had antibacterial and antioxidant activities. These properties might be due to the presence of high total phenolic content or flavonoids. Hence, the ethyl acetate extract of thallus of G. doryphora represent a potential source of antibacterial and antioxidant compounds that may be used in food or pharmaceutical products.

  166. Sitangshu Sarkar, A. R. Saha and Bijan Majumdar

    Estimation of fibre yield in sisal (Agave sisalana Perr. ex Engelm.) is absolutely necessary for well ahead planning of marketing arrangements between the actual grower or cooperatives and the fibre purchaser or mills who are situated geographically in distant locations in India. There is no yield prediction method for sisal which could estimate fibre yield well ahead of harvesting. Therefore, an attempt had been made during 2010-11 at Sisal Research Station, Bamra, Sambalpur, Odisha to develop linear regression equations of fibre yield (Y) estimation by considering number of harvestable leaf (LN), leaf length (LL), leaf breadth (LB), leaf green weight (LW) as independent variables data collected from field experiment. In total, nine regression equations were developed, of which the equation, Y = -1221.428 + (23.327) x LN+ (10.761) x LL+ 21.355 [where, Y= Fibre yield (g/plant); LN= mean Leaf number per plant (harvestable); LL= mean Leaf length (cm)] predicted the fibre yield most accurately (2.48 t/ha) with the observed actual yield data (2.39 t/ha) and the coefficient of determination (R2) value was near unity (0.981). Therefore, the developed regression equation can predict the fibre yield in sisal with acceptable accuracy for edapho-climatic condition prevailing in central plateau region of India.

  167. Ramesh Pradhan, Vijay Pandhare, Jayshree Tolani and Rosy Lekharu

    Obesity is a growing social problem. Obesity can restrict the quality of life and make the person susceptible to a plethora of chronic systemic diseases like Coronary artery disease, Hypertension, Diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome and even cancers. Obesity leads to a low grade inflammatory state which creates an oxidative stress in the body. The oxidative stress measured in obese individuals versus normal controls show an increased oxidative stress in the former putting them at increased risk of complications. We found that with increasing Body mass index the oxidative stress increased as seen in the rise of Malondialdehyde (158%) and fall of Glutathione peroxidase (20.76%), Glutahione reductase (29.45%) and Vitamin C (21.7%) which when compared between the two groups is statistically very significant (p<0.0001).

  168. Shikha Singh, Rishikesh K. Tiwari, Somenath Ghosh and Ravi S. Pandey

    The indiscriminate use of pesticides in agriculture can affect the production of fish by creating different physiological anomaly which can also affect the human health by biomagnifications. Therefore, the present study was aimed to evaluate the Sublethal toxicity of triazophos (o,o-Diethyl-o-(1-phenyl-1H-1,2,4,- triazol-3yl) thiophosphate), an organophosphate (OP) pesticide, on histopathological and haematological parameters of a freshwater fish, Channa punctatus. Fishes were exposed to 5% and 10% of LC50 concentration, 0.068 mg/l of triazophos for 96 h maintaining ten fishes in each group, along with the control group. For histopathological studies, tissues under study were dissected and fixed appropriately and for haematological studies, blood sample were collected. Histopathological changes in liver include vacuolization and increase in number of kupffer cells; in gills, changes in the architecture of primary and secondary gill lamella; and in kidney, shrinkage of glomerular and kidney tubules were observed. In hematological parameters significant increase in total WBC, MCV and significant decrease in RBC, Hb, MCH, MCHC were observed with respect to control. This preliminary study indicates the physiological effect of triazophos on C. punctatus. However, further molecular and biochemical studies may supplement the mechanism of action of this pesticide.

  169. Jaime Lara, François Zimmermann, Daniel Drolet, Charles M. Hansen, Alain Chollot and Nathalie Monta

    This article focuses on solubility of chemicals on polymeric materials as an approach for selecting the best protective materials. The Hansen three-dimensional solubility parameters (HSP) were used to obtaining the solubility parameters of five of the most used polymer materials from swelling tests with forty chemicals covering a broad spectrum of HSP values. The approach considers that for chemical substances that are soluble in a polymer protective material, this material will not be resistant. Inversely, for polymer materials for which chemical substances are not soluble, the material will be resistant. Based on the experimental data, the Hansen HSPiP software was used to calculate the solubility parameters (the center of the sphere) and radii, R, of the polymer spheres for Nitrile, Neoprene, Natural Rubber, Viton and Butyl Rubber glove materials. Based on the calculated HSP values for the glove materials, the differences with the HSP values (dissimilarity A value following the Hansen approach) for more 1 200 chemical solvents were calculated. The Hansen solubility approach states that for chemicals where the solubility parameter distance (A) of a given chemical to the center of the polymer sphere is higher than the R value, A/R >1, the material will be resistant and inversely, for A/R < 1 the material will be not resistant. In this study, a new approach that considers the Hansen Sphere with a modified R was developed. An algorithm that compared the predicted values with close to nine hundred experimental data from the literature, allows defining for each material a zone of uncertainty with minimum and maximum R values. A Software (ProtecPo) was developed that allows the selection of the best glove materials avoiding a dangerous “trial and errors” approach. In any case this software is a substitute of permeation tests to determine the level of chemical resistance to a chemical or mixtures of chemicals.

  170. Munde Vaijnath and Pradip C. Bhaskar

    Now a day an image fusion is an emerging field and powerful technology in the area of image processing. The process of integrating multiple input images into a new single composite image with more informative than any of input image. There are different image fusion transform techniques proposed by many researchers. Out of that transform techniques a Non-subsampled shearlet transform adds the property of shift-invariant, capture more directional information and represent the directions of edges more accurately as compared to other transform techniques such as discrete wavelet transform and Non-subsampled contourlet transform (NSCT) techniques. This paper presents concept of software simulation of Non-subsampled shearlet transform based decomposition algorithm for application of image fusion using MATLAB Simulink Library. Simulink library Blockset is used to implement a model which is able to do the pixel level averaging image fusion. Non-subsampled shearlet transform is implemented with the filter banks whose levels can be adjusted. The perfect reconstruction can be obtained with the down sampling of the images. NSST decomposition provides a simple hierarchical framework to fuse images with different spatial resolution. It is a powerful tool to separate the spectral content of an image from the spatial information.

  171. Bala Karthikeyan, R. and Santhanam, A.

    In this study, ZnO and Al doped ZnO films were produced by Sol-Gel spin coating method. The films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and UV-vis spectroscopy. Their photocatalytic activity was evaluated by the decomposition of the methyl orange dye using direct sunlight. The ZnO film was able to degrade the test pollutant (methyl orange) under sunlight was 55% after 180 min of irradiation of sun light. However, the Al doped ZnO film presented a very high degradation rate under sunlight (95% degradation). The high activity achieved by the Al doped ZnO film under natural conditions can be potentially applied to water treatment processes.

  172. Lad, J. S. and Sangle, S.M.

    The present research paper discusses the absorbance measurement by using different mixtures of solutions filter. The expected and observed transmittance spectra were recorded and the results have been compared with the wavelength of maximum absorbance, maximum percentage of transmittance values. Mixture of copper nitrate, Copper chloride, Sodium dichromate, Potassium permanganate and Rhodomine- B were used in the present study. Cucl2+Na2Cr2O7 mixture solutions desirable results among other mixtures of solution filters. It is commonly know that every compound absorbs or transmits light over a firm range of wavelength. Colorimetry is one of the most useful devices of quantitative investigation in several areas such as chemical science, physical science, life science, and Medical science applications.

  173. Dr. Sameena Falleiro

    Each year, a substantial portion of educational institutions' budgets are allocated to supporting the integration of Information Communications Technology(ICT) into instruction under the assumption that ICT benefit teaching and learning, and can improve student academic performance. The goal of integrating and implementing ICT as a foundation skill area within all curricula is to help students on their journey toward digital literacy through the use, management, and understanding of ICT. Curriculum developers, teachers, and administrators play a significant role in working toward achievement of this goal. Strategies for the integration and implementation of ICT developed, with an understanding of the use and historical impact of technology will help facilitate positive change in the classroom and lead to ICT literate students. This study aims to analyze the current scenario of teaching and learning in the State of Goa, India, be it in the classrooms or outside. Based on the inputs obtained by conducting surveys and interviewing stakeholders in Undergraduate Education in the State, in particular, the study makes predictions regarding the changing roles of instructors, student expectations and needs related to online learning, pedagogical innovation, and projected technology use in online teaching and learning. The researcher would like to prepare a roadmap for ICT implementation in the State as an outcome of this study.

  174. Mesfin Bibiso, Abi M. Taddesse and Asmare Melese

    This study was conducted with the objective to evaluate soybean (Glycine max L.) response to P and K fertilizer application under greenhouse condition in a pot experiment. Four representative surface soil (0-20 cm) samples were collected from Damot Sore, Boloso Bombe, Damot Pulasa, and Humbo Districts. Four rates of P (0, 23, 46 and 69 kg P2O5 ha-1) in the form of triple super phosphate (TSP) and four rates of K (0, 21.5, 43 and 64.5 kg K2O ha-1) in the form of potassium chloride (KCl) were used. The soil samples collected were planted with soybean and the treatments were arranged in a completely randomized design (CRD) with two factors in three replications. The dry weight content and P and K concentrations in the leaves of soybean plant showed significant difference at P < 0.05 level by the application of treatments. The dry weights found by the application of P69 K64.5 and P69 K21.5 markedly higher than the dry weights of the other treatments and the highest K concentrations in the leaves of the soybean plant were observed by the application of P69 K21.5 and P69 K64.5 for Damot Sore District. For Boloso Bombe District, the highest P concentration was recorded by the application of P69 K21.5, P69 K43 and P69 K64.5 and the lowest P concentration was obtained by the application of P0 K0. The highest concentration of K in the plant leaves was observed by the application of P23 K43. The amount of fertilizer applied at the rate of P46 K21.5 significantly increased the K concentration in the leaves of soybean plant (43.6 g kg-1) for Damot Pulasa Districts. For Humbo site, the amount of fertilizer applied at the rate of P46 K21.5, significantly increased the K concentration in the leaves of soybean plant (43.6 g kg-1) whereas, the control treatment (P0 K0) has the lowest K concentration in the leaves of the plant (12.1 g kg-1). Therefore, application of P and K containing fertilizers had a positive impact on growth of the plants in acidic soils. However, further study is recommended to confirm these findings under field conditions.

  175. Sandhya Devi, R.S. Dr. Vijay Kumar, V.R. and Sridevi, S.

    This project proposes a parking system to solve the problem of inessential time consumption in finding parking space in college campus car park areas. The proper operation of these systems depends on their ability to detect the presence of vehicles in the parking spaces. A parking reservation system is established in such a way that users book their parking slot through short message services (SMS). A communication device called GSM used to send a SMS to the user. Once the sensor range is below some fixed range, so the RFID tag stops transmitting the data, and the system recognizes the slot as booked. The micro controller will send the information of booking slot details. An Android based application is used to commanded the entering to or leaving from the parking slot.

  176. Elsaeed Elsaeed Mohamed Abd Elrazek

    Objective Exams (OE) plays a major role in educational assessment as well as in Electronic learning. In this paper we present a Framework that generates three types of Objective exams questions (multiple choice questions (MCQ), true-false question (T/FQ), and complete Questions (CQ)from paragraphs of electronic course. The proposed Framework consists of a lot of main stages, it uses both of the Natural Language Processing (NLP) techniques to generate three types of questions (GFQ, T/FQ, and MCQ), and Exam Maker (EM), it uses the generated questions to produce the object exams.

  177. Sofia Satriani Krisen and Ardy Kapahang

    The study on fatty acid composition of Payangka fish (O aporos) nike has been performed. The payangka fish (O aporos) nike from Tondano Lake was taken from fish farmers as much as 10 kg. Preparation techniques which conducted involve reception, selection aside from fish samples as follow-up material (dirt) and washing. The sample preparation process was taken in considering to equipment sanitation and hygiene. Samples are washed and then drained and dried at 400C for 24 hours. All parts of the fish body used for analysis. Determination of total fat content using (soklet extraction methods) and identification of fatty acid using Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry(GCMS). Based on analysis result, the chromatogram peak data indicate that amount of fatty acids components in fish payangka (O aporos) nike from Tondano lake in Minahasa, North Sulawesi was detected at least 19 components.

  178. Anitha, N. and Dr. Muthuswamy, P. R.

    Research on the espousal of information technology, drawing on models hired from social psychology, characteristically outlooks adoption as a task of individual attitudes, the influence of others, insight of facility to carry out a particular behaviour, and facilitating features. A momentous restraint of these models, in technology-adoption situations, is breakdown to deem the features of the technology itself. This essentially theoretical paper introduces the construct ‘website features’ as potentially influential in technology adoption, and specifically Internet banking. Research facts on the salience of such features are reconsidered and it is argued that the valuable features and their impact vary along the stages of the customer loyalty and its related procedure. A speculative framework is portrayed for evaluating mobile web design in relation to these stages. Using this ensemble into active models, it is squabbled, will proceeds marketing theory in mobile environment and support mobile web designers in enhancing website efficacy to the profit of the customer loyalty.

  179. Mulu Geta, Fitsum Dejene and Melese Mada and Meheretu Adnew Nigussie

    The purpose of this study was investigating the use of Wolayita language (Wolaitatua) in grade five English classes. Basically, the extent to which Wolaitatua isused; reason teachers give for using Wolayita language, and teachers and students attitude towards the use of Wolaitatua in grade five English classes. The study was conducted in Offa woreda and SodoZuria woreda, which are found in Wolaita Zone. The woredas have sixty five primary schools. The researchers randomly selected ten schools as a study sites. From these schools, thirty five teachers were randomly selected and completed a questionnaire containing fourteen close ended and two open ended questions. Similarly, six teachers were observed and interviewed with semi-structured questions. From the sample schools, twenty four students being in three focus groups, discussed semi structured questions. Findings revealed that both teachers and students have been using Wolaitatua in English classes more frequently. Besides, the teachers use Wolaitatua for explaining abstract words, checking comprehension, maintaining class room discipline and their students use for asking and answering questions and discussing in groups. Furthermore, both teachers and students have positive attitude towards the use of Wolaitatua in English classes. It is, therefore, recommended that grade five English teachers should consider the use of student’s first language in English classes systematically.

  180. Sandy Ojang Onor

    The Cross River monoliths refer essentially to a collection of historic stones embedded in a restricted area of Ejagham territory in the upper Cross River region of Nigeria. These monoliths, locally called Akwanshi clearly capture and exemplify the depth of a formidable artistic tradition that is unique, rich and sophisticated with hardly any parallel anywhere else in Africa. The monoliths, which are yet to have a comprehensive scholarly visitation and interrogation, have however enjoyed a measure of art-historical, archaeological and ethnographic investigation. What is clearly lacking thus far is the placement of these investigations in proper historical perspective. This paper would attempt to do so. To achieve our objective, we shall consult oral sources, depend on pristine published works and extant literature on the subject.

  181. Zewde Jagre and Umer Aliy

    This is an inquiry that attempted to explore popular superstitions among Bale Oromos. The rationale behind this research was the fact that there is no former endeavor to study the Bale Oromo community popular superstitions. Four woredas were selected for this study from Bale zone by purposive sampling. The inquiry was expected to play its part in helping us preserve the cultural heritage of the Oromo people. The popular Oromo superstitions were collected primarily from the elders of the selected districts of Bale Robe through a semi-structured interview. Simple random sampling was used to select the kebeles from each selected woredas. And snow ball sampling technique was used to select local elders from each selected kebeles. Also questionnaire was used to collect data from the informants who were identified as educated. Those educated categories were selected high school students and the woredas culture and tourism officers. Relying on the semi structured interview, several superstitions which are practiced amongst the rural communities have been collected. The quantitative part of the study showed that the educating youths in general are fairly superstitious. While the degree of being superstitious among different genders was not significant; nonetheless, females appeared to be slightly more superstitious than males. In light of education level and their tendency of being superstitious, the woredas culture and tourism officers were more superstitious being followed by those students in grade nine and ten.

  182. Tonny Kerley de Alencar Rodrigues and Raniele Cimara da Conceição Gomes

    Consumption is a phenomenon that allows people a symbolic experience replete with meanings. The understanding of this practice is not only related to the utilitarian value that the product can offer, on the contrary, there is a cultural dimension that governs consumption actions and the way consumers internalize the meanings of the products. In this research, the automobile assumes the role of study object because it is a product capable of receiving social and cultural projections that increase its symbolic value, in addition when it becomes personalized becomes synonymous with greater benefits. Therefore, this research aims to analyze the meanings associated with the practices of low-income consumers in the purchase of personalized cars. The interest in researching the people of the emerging middle class comes from the active participation that has been demonstrating in the consumption of goods and services in recent years. The results provide information relevant to the process of technological innovation in the production of custom cars, adapting the product to the customer's preferences for affordable prices and design. Finally in conclusion, the information provided may be relevant to the process of technological innovation in the production of customized cars, adapting the product according to customer preferences at an affordable cost. In this way, organizations must develop strategies in relation to the potential for redirection at affordable prices for the low-income consumers.

  183. Dr. Navita Mahajan

    Corporate governance is like the backbone of an organization. It acts as a guide to all the activities and decisions that are made for the company. Through the effective implementation of corporate governance the board of directors are able to devise efficient and effective strategies in order to achieve the company’s goals. This case on corporate governance and its implementation by the board of directors helps us understand the role, importance and the value of corporate governance. The case is made in light of the recent events that had taken place with the Tata Group of companies which is the removal of Cyrus Mistry from the chairmanship of the Tata Sons (the holding company for the entire Tata conglomerate) and from the board of other Tata group companies as well. The case helps in understanding the corporate governance of the Tata Group and the mind-set behind it. Tata Group is a conglomerate which is worth almost a $100 billion dollar and has taken a lot of years of dedication and hard work to reach to the position that it holds today. This wouldn’t have been possible without a strong emphasis on ethics and corporate governance. This case helps the reader understand as to how the company’s governance is implemented and what the areas are of key importance to the company. It also highlights the relation between 2 major conglomerates namely the Pallonji Group (owned by Cyrus Mistry’s father Pallonji Mistry) and Tata Group. Apart from this it also throws light on the roles and responsibilities that the board of directors have towards the company and the stakeholders. After going through the recent events of the Cyrus Mistry removal the case also tries to analyse and present some suggestions that could help in avoiding such situations of conflict. The major emphasis throughout the case is on relating theory with practical events or happenings in order to understand the relevance of corporate governance in a corporation or a company.

  184. Helena Yeboah

    The World Health Organization indicate that 35% of women worldwide have experienced partner or non-partner violence in some part of their lives, but in war-torn zones in some sub-Saharan African countries like Burundi, sexual violence was a part of the everyday lives of most women and girls during the periods of series of conflicts the country experienced. Sexual violence was used as a weapon of war by combatants during the conflict periods. However, even in the post-conflict era, the rate of various forms of sexual violence is still on a rise. This paper reviews the situation of sexual violence during and after the Burundi conflicts, influencing factors and the way forward.

  185. Nur Ain Elzira Abdullah and ZamriMahamod, PhD

    This study aimed to explore the skills possessed Malay language teachers based on option and non-option in providing the planning of teaching and learning of Malay language. Teachers’ skills were acquired based on their sharing experiences through the program of Professional Learning Community based-approached Lesson Study in the teaching and learning of Malay language. The conceptual framework of this study incorporates three models, namely Model Standard Guru Malaysia (BPG KPM 2009), Model Standard Kualiti Pendidikan Malaysia (JNJK KPM 2010) and Model of Lesson Study (Yoshida 2004) as the reference of teaching skills and the learning of Malay language. This qualitative study using multiple case study design and data were obtained through the study protocol interviews, observations and document analysis. Eight Malay language teachers involved in this study were selected through purposive sampling. The study was conducted in four secondary schools in Kapit District Education Office, Sarawak. Validity and reliability of the survey data were assessed through a pilot study, triangulation data, field notes, confirmation of study participants, and approved by experts based on the Cohen Kappa agreement coefficient. Data were analyzed by using Atlas Ti software version 7.1.0. The findings indicated that teachers with option and non-option of Malay language has many similar expertise in providing the design of teaching and learning of Malay language. However, the similarities anddifferences that exist in this finding are interesting phenomenon and should be backed up as best practices in designing the teaching and learning of Malay language. This study suggested that Malay language teachers either option nor non-option should inculcate the culture of collaborative in Lesson Study. This is to establish the practices of sharing knowledge continuously in order to improve in designing of teaching skills and effective learning of Malay language.

  186. Dr. Natasa Stojan and Ivana Miletic

    The Grand Duchy of Luxembourg is a multilingual country with three official languages: Luxembourgish, French and German. Many people living and working in Luxembourg also speak English and other languages, such as Portuguese and Italian. The purpose of this paper is to investigate contemporary language use and language attitudes towards multilingualism in Luxembourg. We conducted online research on language situation in Luxembourg from 1 July 2016 to 31 August 2016, which included a questionnaire via Google forms. Mixed questionnaire with both close and open ended questions was used to collect all the responses. 155 participants completed our survey, 82 of which (or 52.9%) are Luxembourgish (this number also comprises dual nationalities, for example Luxembourgish-Portuguese or Luxembourgish-French), and 73 (or 47.1%) are foreign nationals. All of the participants live and/or work in Luxembourg and they experience multilingualism on a daily basis. Mostly social networks, such as Facebook groups or Reddit, were used to share the questionnaire. The average age of the participants is 26.8. Therefore, the results are representative for the younger generation.

  187. Manjari

    The purpose of this study was to measure the various aspects of self-concept of college students. Self-concept is accompanied by an understanding you have of yourself that’s based on your personal experiences, body image, the thoughts you have about yourself, and how you tend to label yourself in different situations. Two groups were selected one is male and the other is female, both groups have 50 students. Each group has 25 male and 25 female students. Data were collected from the Delhi and National capital Region College students. In this research paper “self-concept questionnaire” by Dr. R.K. Saraswat was used. The scale consists of 48 items. “t” test was used for analysis.

  188. Drs. Mujadi, Prof. Dr. Budi Siswanto and Dr. KridawatiSadhana

    Whether or not the quality of education is very dependent on who is running the education itself. The level of student achievement is also highly dependent on the quality of the teachers who carry out the learning to the learners. Education in Indonesia has made a new paradigm in addressing the low quality of education and achievements of learners through increasing academic qualifications for teachers who teach in primary school to high-school level. Improvement of qualification of teachers specifically focused on the most elementary school teachers from the School of Teacher Education qualification (SPG) and the Diploma to Degree level education elementary school teacher (PGSD). To expedite the qualification of primary school teachers in Indonesia required that organizes college degree program (S-1) PGSD with considerable capacity. To realize this the only alternative is the Open University as an institution of higher education distance that can accommodate a large number of students without being limited by space and time. This is because the Open University uses distance learning system with the concept of self-learning, so teachers who studied at the Open University does not have to leave his job as a teacher in the learning process. With the concept of self-study is expected later teachers graduated from S-1 PGSD Open University is able to carry out his work in the learning process full independence in the face of all obstacles in school and in the community. The extent to which implemented self-learning experiences in the learning process? And how the independence of elementary school teachers graduated from the Open University in implementing learning in school?. Researchers are trying to find out "Independence Elementary School Teacher Tier One", Review of Social Reality Independence Teacher Open University graduates in Bojonegoro Region. The respondents of teachers drawn from schools in urban areas to the suburbs in accordance with the criteria and character study. Independence (autonomy) teachers are the focus of research. This research is using qualitative method in the analysis of the data and produce a compilation propositions and conclusions. Data taken by observation, monitoring, and interviews in accordance with qualitative research methods, the data on the independence of teachers in accordance with the existing indicators. Characteristics of teachers in learning activities is a reality field that actually happened and values that develop on a regular basis so that the behavior becomes more consistent. The role of informants consisting of Bojonegoro district education offices, school principals, peers, school committees, and learners are very significant in providing data completeness and refinement of research results. While the implications for existing theories is to provide a basic understanding of independence, according to some experts and based on existing research results, that independence is "independence is a condition in which a person believes in his ability and be able to ensure the parameters are there to resolve the issue with the free, intelligent, responsible, and produce work, initiative, sense, and copyright without the help of others.

  189. Adeela Rehman and Nurazzura Mohamad Diah

    Women’s health status in many parts of the world is influenced by the care women acquired during her motherhood time period. This paper comprised the reviews of existing literature encompasses of maternal healthcare services in public hospitals, its efficacy, quality and user’s satisfaction. Access to healthcare services is the fundamental right of every individual in any democratic state which resulted in state’s responsibility to provide ample care to all. Therefore, it is significant to examine how public hospital manages to provide quality and timely care to mother and newborns. The state’s run health systems are built with the intention to fulfill the rights and healthcare needs of each and every citizen at government expense. Among all, mother and newborn health is important consideration which needs to be given special attention. To organize efficient care structure for maternal health needs in developing countries is one of the biggest challenges due to limited resources.

  190. Lawaheth Hussein

    The current study aims to explore the prevalence of superstitious beliefs and their relationship with social compliance among a random sample of female students from the Faculty of Science and Art at Al-Qassim University. The researcher has adopted the descriptive approach in the present study which consists of(100) female students from the primary education section, level seven, scientific and humanitarian track. The researcher selected(50) female students for each track. The scale of the superstitious beliefs consists of(22) items, while the social compliance one consists of(24). Having designed the scales, they have been applied on the sample and the data have been treated statistically. The study outcomes have shown that –firstly, there is a significant difference towards superstitious beliefs among students. Secondly, there are no statistically differences in the degree of superstitious beliefs among students related to the academic scientific and humanitarian track. Thirdly, there is a significant difference towards social compliance. Finally, there are no statistically differences between the two tracks in the degree of social compliance. The statistical analysis which has been done by using Pearson correlation coefficient has shown that there is a relation between the students degrees on the superstitious beliefs scale and social compliance one, which equals(0,34). After using T-test for two correlated samples, the value of T is(8,52), which is a statistically significant at the(0.05) level. This means that the relation between the two variables is significant and positive.

  191. Dr. Yugandhar, K.

    Visual and auditory activities in an electronic English class facilitates multi model learning. E-English class enables students to receive individualized instruction from teacher with extended applications in reinforcing class with audio-visual materials. An effective digitalized language class is expected to move around a well thought-out activity that involves content accessed through computers. The ambiance of e-English class stimulates student-teacher, student-content and student-student interaction in the target language. Activities are to be carefully chosen for each class with regard to the time span required for the execution. The learners have an expectation of hands-on work and active participation more than passive listening as the case in a conventional class. Computer has the potential to increase students’ interest for language learning with supportive materials like dictionaries, e-books and resources to encourage them to pursue independent and individualized study. Thus, an ideal e-English class facilitates ambiance conducive for language learning with interest and enthusiasm as it is an extended application in reinforcing classroom activities.

  192. Jayaranjini, K. and Dr. P. Vetriselvi

    Background: Inadequate knowledge of postnatal mothers regarding care of low birth weight babies will pave the way for increase in morbidity and mortality. There are only few studies that assessed their knowledge. Methodology: This prospective clinical trial was conducted at a tertiary care teaching hospital in south India. Postnatal mothers knowledge, before and after structured teaching programme was assessed in 75 postal natal mothers. Results: Knowledge of postnatal mothers after structured programme was significantly high. Conclusion: Structured teaching programme is effective in enhancing the knowledge level of postnatal mothers.

  193. Simarjeet Kaur

    Sample size determination is the essential step of research methodology. It is an act of choosing the number of observer or replicates to include in statistical sample. In some situations, increase in precision for larger sample size is minimal or even nonexistent. Sample sizes are judged based on the quality of resulting estimates. Sample size determination in descriptive studies is different than experimental studies. Sample size determination helps in increasing the quality of evidence based research.

  194. Suchitra Reddy and Vikas B Kamble

    Infectious diseases have become a major concern in the health care fields. Recent increase in incidence of diseases such as hepatitis-B and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) has lead to a significant change in attitude towards the importance of cross infection control in dentistry. It has been reported contaminated prosthesis can transfer microorganisms to prosthesis, materials, equipment, personnel, and patients and can establish a cross contamination cycle. To avoid this, there is a need to establish a disinfection protocol that is effective, clinically viable, inexpensive, and easy to comply with and which should not have physical, mechanical and chemical effect on denture base resin. Routinely, chemical method of disinfecting denture materials is used which includes use of sodium hypochlorite, Glutaraldehyde and chlorine dioxide. Recently, use of microwave energy has been suggested as a simple alternative to prosthesis disinfection with lower operational cost, ease of use, requires no special storage, has no expiration date and doesn’t induce resistance to Candida albicans. It has been reported that both the methods are effective in prosthesis disinfection but their effect on dimensional accuracy of denture base resin is still controversial. So the purpose of this study is to evaluate and compare the effect of Glutaraldehyde and microwave disinfection on dimensional accuracy of two commercially available heat polymerized denture base resins.

  195. Shah Alam, M. Akhtar Siddiqui, Dr. M. Maaz, Sunil Kohli and Mridu Dudeja

    Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common non communicable diseases and remains today a worldwide and increasing health problem. A recent international study reported that nephropathy is the most common complication of diabetes mellitus accounting for 21.1% renal issues. Diabetic nephropathy is a long term chronic progressive microvascular complication of diabetes mellitus. It has been clinically defined by the presence of protein in urine more than or equals to 300 mg/ 24 hr in diabetic patients with the absence of other renal diseases. In classical unani literature, Buqrat (Hippocrates 460 BC) mentioned a disease with excessive urinary flow and wasting of body. Jalinoos (Galen 131-201 AD) defined diabetes as “Diarrhea Urinosa” (diarrhoea ofurine) and “dipsakos” (thirsty disease). He described it as a disease specific to kidneys because of weakness in their retentive ability. The present study entitled as “evaluation of efficacy of unani formulation as adjuvant in the treatment of diabetic nephropathy” has been carried out at Majeedia unani hospital Jamia Hamdard New Delhi from 2016-2017. A compound formulation mentioned in zakheera khawarrzam shahi containing Samaghe Arabi (acacia arabica), Gulnaar (punica granatum) Dam-al-akhwain pterocarpus marsupium), shibbe yamani (hydrated form of potassium aluminium sulphate), Badaam (prunus amygdalus) and gond kateera (sterculia urens) has been mentioned for the treatment of bole zulali in diabetes. The study reveals that the test drug has good response in treatment of albuminaria in diabetic nephropathy, as compared to control drug.

  196. Keerthana, R., Dr. Dhanraj and Dr. Ashish

    Background: This study is to understand the oral health quality of life for implant placed patients since there are different methods of implant placement. Aim and Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes in oral health-related quality of life during implant treatment for partially edentulous patients, and to evaluate the influence of the type of partially edentulous arch. Materials and Methods: Twenty patients with a small number of lost teeth who underwent implant treatment were selected. Quality of life change during implant treatment was measured. The subjects completed the survey which comprised of 9 questions which were used to analyze the quality of life after implant placement. Results: A total of 52 patients were selected (28 male and 24 female) and survey was conducted within the age limit of 20-50 and the age group between 41-50 had most implant placement for nearly 1-5 yrs. They were not much comfortable while eating. They felt socially happy then before. And they also felt physically rehabilitated but they did nt feel much comfortable in smiling. They had a improved general health and personality. Conclusion: Although there is a temporary functional limitation after implant placement in overall here may be an improvement after the definitive prosthesis placement.

  197. Kaur Sarvjeet, Kaur Harpreet and Kaur Aninder

    Background and Aim: Effective postoperative analgesia improves early mobilization, patient’s satisfaction and reduces psychological stress. Now a days wound instillation of local anaesthetic is commonly used method to provide post-operative analgesia. We design this study to compare the post-operative analgesic effect of tramadol when administered intravenously or in wound instillation with bupivacaine. Materials and Methods: In this study, 100 patients posted for elective abdominal surgeries under general anaesthesia were randomly divided into two groups (n=50) and were given the following drugs after surgery as per group allocation: Group A patients received 2mg/kg tramadol intravenously plus wound instillation with 15 ml 0.5% bupivacaine and Group B received 2mg/kg tramadol with 15 ml 0.5% bupivacaine in wound instillation. Rescue analgesia was provided by intravenous morphine 0.05mg/kg. Verbal Numerical Rating Scale (VNRS) on movement was assessed at 0, 1, 3, 6, 8, 12 and 24 h following surgery. Patients were also observed for post-operative 24 hrs rescue analgesic requirement, patients satisfaction score and any adverse effects. Results: VNRS on movement was significantly reduced at 1 and 3 h after surgery in Group B as compared to Group A (P=0.001). Analgesic efficacy was similar in both the groups at all time intervals. The satisfaction scores at 12 and 24 h post-operatively were superior in group B as compared to group A (P <0.05). Patients receiving IV tramadol had more vomiting and sedation. Conclusions: Analgesic efficacy of wound instillation with tramadol was comparable to intravenous tramadol after lower abdominal surgeries along with better satisfactory scores and lessor side effects.

  198. Salman Ghaffari, Masoud Shayesteh Azar, Mohammad Hossein Kariminasab, Mehran Razavipour, Mehran Yosefi and Vahid Mojrian

    Background: Since intra-articular prostheses advanced in terms of quality and longevity, monitoring and evaluation of the results of joint arthroplasty is necessary. This study aimed to evaluated the short-term outcomes of total hip arthroplasty (pain and function) in patients with osteoarthritis of the hip in two orthopedic center, Imam Khomeini and BooAli Sina hospital in Sari, 2011-2015 Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective (surgery documents) and prospective (outcomes) study to evaluate hip pain and function after THA surgery by using the Harris Hip. Results: The average Harris scores was 85.87 ± 12.18. Harris score significantly higher in BooAli orthopedic center, P = 0.04. Harris score was significantly lower in 2011 than the other years P <0. 0001. A significant inverse association was observed between age and Harris score r = -0.168, P = 0.015. Conclusion: It seems that hip replacement in patients with arthritis and degeneration is not only the effective treatment but also desirable option for increased satisfaction and enhanced quality of life and daily functioning of patients.

  199. Nor Masitah Mohamed Shukri, Dr. Dhanraj and Dr. Ashok

    Aim: To conduct a survey focusing on the awareness of dental students on the various types of occlusal schemes. Background: Complete denture prosthesis is usually customized for edentulous patients or ones that lost some of their dentition. However, the complete denture prosthesis is not stabilized when compared to natural dentition. Therefore, the ideology of complete denture prosthesis with various occlusal schemes has been proposed to give a significant stability and sometimes it is esthetically limited. In fact, it also provide comfort and a better function like chewing for the patients, as if resembles natural teeth. It is very imperative for the students to know each occlusal scheme specifically and their application. Material and method: This study was carried out in an attempt to evaluate the level of awareness among the students regarding the various occlusal schemes for fabricating complete denture prosthesis by circulating 100 questionnaires. Conclusion: The study showed that the participants are fully aware about various occlusal schemes for designing complete denture prosthesis however intervention measures should be carried out to increase the awareness regarding this disease. More emphasis should be placed on curriculum taught in undergraduate education.

  200. Dr. Mansi Jain, Dr. Nilesh Bulbule and Dr. Nayana Anasane

    Maxillofacial defects whether acquired or hereditary have always had a significant effect on the functional as well as social aspect of life. Various parts of palate and maxillary ridge resection have had different effect on the speech. After prosthetically restoring such defects there is a need for analysing the outcome of the prosthesis through speech function; it should consist of some form of objective clinical measurements, like resonance balance, determining palatopharyngeal orifice (PPO) opening and speech intelligibility with the help of instruments like Nasometer & PERCI-SARS. These tests have provided a deep insight into what is required while restoring the maxillary defects and what kind of modifications will help restoring back the anatomy as close to as normal. This article was aimed at reviewing the articles which have used these tests to evaluate the speech outcome after restoring the maxillary defects with obturator prosthesis.

  201. Dr. Hrishikesh Karpe, Dr. Swapnil Patil, Dr. Vinaya Kumar Kulkarni, Dr. Hitendra Jain and Dr. Rutuj Jadhav

    Background/Introduction: Dental caries is one of the most common chronic diseases of early childhood. Dental problems in early childhood have been shown to be predictive of future dental problems, Epidemiological studies reveal considerable variationin the prevalence of caries in preschool children ranging from 3 to 85% with strong correlation to socioeconomic status and ethnicity along with local factors. This highlights the importance of prevalence studies and understanding of the local factors influencing ECC in designing a preventive program. Aim and Objectives: To determine Early Childhood Caries (ECC) prevalence and its risk factors in preschool children of Sangamner City, Maharashtra. Methodology: A sample of 1325 children between 24 and 71 months of age was selected from play homes and nursing homes of various parts of the city, who were clinically examined for dental caries using mouth mirror under day light. Dental caries was recorded according to World Health Organization criteria. The parents/caregivers of each child were interviewed with a structured questionnaire. The data was subjected to statistical analysis. Results: Out of total 1325 children, 755 were affected with ECC showing an overall prevalence of 57%. The factors identified which were highly significantly correlated are age of child, mother education level, father occupational status, bottle feeding and sweetened drink consumption at night and not utilizing routine health care services. Conclusions: Future health promotion and education programs should include oral health issues and the risk factors for ECC, its prevention & consequences should be addressed. Public funded oral health programs should be started and should be targeted at the children from lower socioeconomic status. Effective strategies should be developed to promote the use of brush and paste for cleaning teeth and discouraging inappropriate bottle‑feeding, discouraging on demand consumption of chocolates and sugars. Most factors identified were preventable and needs attention to promote dental health education and routine dental visits.

  202. Subin Samson

    Introduction: To evaluate and compare the labial and lingual cortical bone thickness in mandibular anterior segments during en masse retraction using skeletal anchorage aided by micro implants. Methods: The study was done in-vivo on 10 subjects, with angle’s class i bi-maxillary protrusion and/or angle’s class ii div 1 protrusion patients between the age group of 18-30 years in the permanent dentition. Pre-treatment and post treatment CBCT’s were taken for all the patients. Titanium small head micro implants, were used as anchor units for en-masse retraction. Changes in cortical bone thickness were measured at cervical (s1), middle (s2) and apical (s3) regions. Results: One-way Anova test and Paired t test were performed on the given data which stated that statistically significant increase in cortical bone thickness was seen in at s1,s2&s3 on the lingual aspect with a p value of <0.001,whereas on the buccal aspect there was significant decrease only in left lateral incisors at s2 and s3 after retraction. Conclusion: This current study concluded that orthodontic retraction force causes significant change in the thickness of cortical plates ie: reduction in thickness along the direction of force and differential remodelling at s1, s2 &s 3. Decrease in lingual cortical plate thickness was seen after correction of inclination and retraction of mandibular anterior segment.

  203. Rajeswary Kumar, Madan Kumar P Diwakar and Shivakumar M Shastry

    Background: Risk assessment is an essential component in the decision- making process for the prevention and management of dental caries. Cariogram® is a computer-based program which was developed to depict caries risk of a person graphically using various factors. Aim and objective: The present study was aimed to compare the effectiveness of Cariogram® in caries risk assessment among 12 year old school children in Puducherry. Material and Methods: The study was done among 60 school going children of 12 years old in Puducherry. The patients were divided into two groups - a high caries group (Decayed, missing and filled teeth index score of 2 and more) and a low caries group (DMFT score of 0 and 1). Data were collected according to standardized pattern developed by Petterson (2005). The results in the Cariogram® software were represented as percentage in five components and analyzed using appropriate statistical tests. Results: The mean of actual chance to avoid new caries between high caries group and low caries group was 50.50 and 82.27 respectively which was statistically significant. The mean of bacterial component in Cariogram was 17.07 in high caries group and 5.73 in low caries group. Remaining three component of Cariogram model - diet, susceptibility and Circumstances were also favorable for the low caries group than the high caries group. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that the Cariogram® was effective in assessing the caries risk among school going children in Puducherry.

  204. Dr. S. S. Subramanian

    Repeated movements, static postures were known to cause postural problems cervical and lumbar disc lesions. This case study subject employed a fitter, where handling of heavy objects with more repetitive manual tasks were involved as part of his occupation. The objective of this case study report was to focus on to clinically evaluate, analyse and treat neck muscle imbalance and posture but also to strength the co existing abdominal muscle weakness. With an improved motor power of neck, abdominal muscles, reduction of VAS by 60 % and 42% in the subjective scoring of neck disability index. Hence an evaluation and treatment of spine should be focused instead of localized symptomatic treatment is the core of this study for an enhancing maximal patient benefit.

  205. Dr. Adhikari Karishma and Dr B. K. Bezbaruah

    Aims and objective: To evaluate the prescription pattern of steroids in Dermatology OPD and the adverse events reported with steroid use. Materials and methods: The prescriptions of both genders and of all age groups attending Dermatology OPD with moderate to severe dermatological problem, receiving corticosteroid were included. A total of 1575 prescriptions were analyzed for 6months, out of which steroids were prescribed in 600 prescriptions. The parameters assessed were corticosteroids prescribed, their route and frequency, demographic profile of patients and the adverse events reported. Results: The majority (54.5%) of cases were males in the age group 35-50 years. About 85% of the prescriptions contained four to five drugs per prescription. In 72% instances injection dexamethasone and in 53% cases oral prednisolone was prescribed. The prevalence of pemphigus vulgaris is highest followed by systemic sclerosis. Cutaneous adverse effects were maximum, most frequent being atrophy, acne, and purpura. Systemic reactions such as hyperglycemia and glaucoma were found in some cases. Conclusion: Our study confirms that steroids are used frequently in the Dermatology OPD and are associated with adverse drug reaction which could be minimized by their judicious use.

  206. Dr. Raj Shekharsharma, Dr. Anjaykumar, Dr. Sushilkumar, Dr. Bikramkumar, Dr. Vivekbhaskar, Dr. Brajeshkumar and Dr. Anjana Gandhi

    Liposarcoma is a malignant mesenchymal tumor frequently located in retroperitoneum, and rarely presenting an isolated lesion in kidney. Case Report: Female, 60-year old patient presenting with left upper abdominal lump with no family history of any renal pathology. On examinations 15*12 cm lump; bimanually palpable was detected on investigation left renal cell carcinoma diagnosed she was treated with radical nephrectomy and remains asymptomatic, without evidences of recurrence in two year follow up.

  207. Dr. Palanisamy Seerangan, Prof. Jolarpettai Venugopal Mahendran and Dr. Aravinth Kumar Ashok

    Context: Diffuse Axonal Injury is an important pathological substrate of Traumatic Brain Injury. Knowing the clinical, radiological and post-mortem features of diffuse axonal injury can significantly increase our understanding of this entity in particular and traumatic brain injury as a whole and may help us in treating as well as predicting the outcome of patients with diffuse axonal injury. Aim: To analyze the clinical, radiological and gross & histological autopsy features of Diffuse Axonal Injury in severe head injury patients. Settings and Design: Prospective Cross-sectional Study Methods and Materials: 32 patients admitted to the neurosurgical ward of the Institute of Neurosurgery, Madras Medical College & RGGGH, between the period of October 2012 to March 2015, with Severe Head injury (GCS<8) and CT scan brain suggestive of Diffuse Axonal Injury were included in the study. Demographic data was collected and radiologic features were analyzed. Patients who died during the course of treatment were included in the study and autopsy was done. Of the 90 patients who had DAI, 32 patients expired and were subjected to autopsy and findings were analyzed. Results: It was observed that SAH was the commonest gross autopsy finding (62.5%). Hypoxic Changes with cellular swelling were the common findings in microscopic examination. Microscopic Lesions in Thalamus were the most statistically significant post-mortem finding. Conclusions: Thus in our study we found that in most cases CT Brain findings did not correlate with severity of head injury. The study shows that edema in the brain stem and corpus callosum were the predisposing causes of death.

  208. Ganapathi Rao, Biradar Vijay, Naikar Ashok and Halli Chandrakanth

    Frozen shoulder, also known as Periarthritis or Adhesive capsulitis causes a significant loss in range of motion typically occurs in cycle of 3 stages. It predominantly occurs in females in their fifties. In textual references of Ayurveda Frozen Shoulder is closely related to Avabahuka. In this condition, Vata is localized in the shoulder region, getting aggravated, dries up the bindings (ligaments) of the shoulders, constricts the siras present there and causes Avabahuka. Modern medicial science plays very less role in the management of Frozen Shoulder. In Ayurveda various para-surgical procedures were mentioned for diseases of Vata and Kapha, in which Agni karma is one of them, that has been recommended in various musculoskeletal disorders. Hence a case study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of Agnikarma in frozen shoulder.

  209. Dincă Valeriu-Gabi, Dincă Alexandra-Ligia, Căpitănescu Cristian and Manole Gheorghe

    Regardless of the form which is manifested clinically by degenerative diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, it triggers the pathogenic mechanism as a first modification of the fluidity, that the membrane permeability, in particular of the cellular and mitochondrial. The process begins at membrane level and endothelium coronary to cardiomyocyte sarcolemma through the release of arachidonic acid and catalytic conversion. Secondary functionality disruption occurs receptors and membrane pumps, especially those cationic consequences for the balance transmembrane ion compounds and availability of macro downward energy capital of cardiomyocytes. This work synergistically with ionic concentration camps sarcoplasmatice disorders, particularly Ca2 + will interfere-contract excitation coupling process and that of acto-myosin contractile achieve complex, leading to myocardial contractile deficit installation.

  210. Dr. Dilip Kumar, R., Dr. Madhukar Natekar, Dr. H. P. Raghuveer, Dr. Shobha, E. S., Dr. Prashanth, N. T. and Dr. Vinod Rangan

    Necrotising fasciitis is a rare soft tissue infection of soft tissues characterized by rapidly progressive, necrotizing process that has high rate of fatality. It can occur in an occult fashion wherein the necrosis progresses within the fascia and subcutaneous tissues leaving the upper muscular and dermal layer intact. Unless a high degree of suspicion is expressed by the surgeon this condition can go unnoticed and lead to death. In maxillofacial region, infections of odontogenic origin and peri-tonsillar regions are the main causative factors, responsible for this condition .The possibility of acquiring this disease is accentuated in patients with on low immunity status like diabetes. In this review we analyse a detailed review of this morbid disease and present two case reports with their effective management.

  211. Dr. N. Sanjivani Dhote and Dr. J. Palekar Tushar

    Context: Since the early 1900s, the scientific community has acknowledged a large group of children with movement skill difficulties who have not been diagnosed with a general medical condition. This difficulty in motor skill competence, observed in children who are developing well intellectually, is termed ‘developmental coordination disorder’ (DCD). Considering the importance of timely diagnosis of DCD and the child’s performance on the BOT-2 will allow the physical therapist to identify areas of strength and areas of need in regards to the child’s gross motor functioning, and can therefore help to guide treatment. The early diagnosis of DCD can be helpful to prevent the future secondary complications. So purpose of this study is to find out the prevalence of developmental coordination disorder on BOT-2 in 5 to 15 years school going children. Settings and Design: It was a cross-sectional analytical study conducted in PCMC area schools. Methods and Material: Multistage stratified sampling done to assessing 516 children’s included 248 males and 268 females which were assessed by Using BOT-2nd edition. Statistical analysis used: Mean and Standard Deviation (SD) & Fisher’s test was used to analysis. Result: Prevalence of DCD was among male 1.12% & female 1.61 from 516 children. Conclusion: Female showed more prevalence of Developmental coordination disorder than Male.

  212. Dr. Samit Jain, Dr. Sarika Jain and Dr. Sankalp Verma

    Hope for the first time introduced myiasis in 1840, as a disease of the animals which sometimes affects the human organs. The word myiasis was derived from a Greek word “myia” which means fly. Zumpt (1965) defined myiasis as “the infestation of live humans and vertebrate animals with dipterous larvae, which at least for a certain period feed on the host’s dead or living tissue”. Oral myiasis is a rare condition which was first described by Laurence (1909). It is defined as “the invasion of the soft tissue or towards foul smelling pus discharge from the tissues, where it is induced to lay eggs”. Myiasis is caused by Diptera order flies and the genus commonly involved are Sarcophaga and Chlorysoma (Zumpt-1965, James-1947). Myiasis frequently occurs in rural areas infecting livestock and pets such as cats and dogs. In humans myiasis prevails in unhealthy individuals found in third world countries. The predisposing factors are persistent mouth opening along with poor oral hygiene, suppurative lesions and facial trauma. Oral myiasis is rare in comparison to cutaneous myiasis, as the oral tissues are not permanently exposed to external environment. Here we present a case of oral myiasis affecting the anterior aspect of the hard palate.

  213. Dr. Asmita Jain, Dr. Anindya Bhalla and Dr. Sankalp Verma

    In the past 20 years, the technological advances in radiotherapy have been immense which have improved effectiveness, decreased complications and expanded implications of radiation therapy; but some of the technology has not been rigorously evaluated. Although, the promise of new imaging modalities is great, it is not without its hurdles. Importantly, there are large financial and educational barriers in the initial setup and implementation of these new modalities. The present article is a review about the existing modalities of radiotherapy in practice and update on current researches.

  214. Dr. Asmita Jain, Dr. Anindya Bhalla and Dr. Sankalp Verma

    Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is one of the most common causes of sexually transmitted disease in both men and women worldwide. HPV is associated with a variety of clinical conditions that range from innocuous lesions to cancer. Genital HPV types are divided into high and low-risk types, according to the oncogenic potential. Strong evidence for a causal etiology with HPV has been stated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer for cancers of the cervix uteri, penis, vulva, vagina, anus and oropharynx (including base of the tongue and tonsils). The present review is a detailed discussion about the human papilloma virus and its causative infections and diseases in human beings.

  215. Dr. Meenu Gill, Dr. Pansi Gupta, Dr. Shilpi Bhargava, Dr. Sumiti Gupta, Dr. Bhawna Sachdeva, Dr. Aastha and Dr. Rajeev Sen

    Background: Angiomyxoma is a rare slow growing and soft and benign tumour that predominantly affects in the perineum of women in reproductive age group. It develops from myxoid cells of connective tissue. It is locally infiltrating and recurrent in nature. It is of It is of two types: superficial which grows near the surface and aggressive which involves the deeper structures. Case report: We herein present a series of 4 cases of angiomyxoma. A 70yrs female presented with complaints of burning sensation and difficulty in passing urine and per vaginal pus discharge for last few days, A 45 yr female presented department with the complaints of a mass in introitus and something coming down per vagina for 5-6 months, A 40yr female came with mild pain in right iliac fossa. Vaginal examination showed a left labial polypoidal mass measuring 4 × 4 cm, and clinically thought to be a Bartholin gland cyst and 50 yr female showed up with a growth on vault. Conclusion: It is important to accurately diagnose this rare tumor as it can be mistaken both clinically and on microscopy for several other conditions leading to loco-regional recurrence.

  216. Suvidha, A. and Dr. Navaneetha, R.

    Physical activity and good nutrition plays a pivotal role in maintaining good health. Swimming is a low impact activity and a good workout which confers physical and mental health benefits. It was hypothesized that the nutrient intake and nutritional status of the adolescent swimmers (experimental group) will be different from the non swimmers (control group). The BMI will be different from non swimmers (control group). The study was undertaken with an aim to assess the nutritional status of regular swimmers and non-swimmers in the age group of 13-18 years. Assessment of somatic status and nutrient intake were the objectives. A sample consisting of swimmers (N=80) including 40 male swimmers and 40 female swimmers was selected along with the control group containing 30 male swimmers and 30 female non-swimmers (N=60). Irrespective of their status as swimmers or non-swimmers, the mean nutrient intake in both the groups was significantly less than their RDA (carbohydrates, proteins, fats, calcium, iron, vitamin D, vitamin C). The BMI of the swimmers was less compared to the non-swimmers but within the normal range in case of both the boys and girls. However, the Mid Arm Circumference which depicts the muscle mass was higher among the swimmers. The study revealed that there was no significant difference in the nutrient intake of both the groups irrespective of the competitive sport. Even though nutrient intake is not meeting the RDA, the Mid Arm Circumference is good indicator depicting the importance of physical activity. Even though the nutritional knowledge was good in both the groups, their nutrient intake shows they not practising the same. Most of the swimmers were found to be non-vegetarians following a meal pattern of 4 meals per day, while most of the non-swimmers were found to be vegetarians and ova-vegetarians following a 3 meal pattern per day. A habit of skipping meals was found in adolescent boys(swimmers and non-swimmers). The water consumption was found to be more than 5 litres per day among the swimmers as against the non-swimmers who were consuming less than 3 litres per day.

  217. Joyce Aparecida Tavares de Miranda, Lucia Maria Jaeger de Carvalho, Izabela Miranda de Castro, Ana Cláudia de Macêdo Vieira, Verônica de Oliveira Figueiredo, Marianna Ramos dos Anjos and Gisela Maria Dellamora Ortiz

    The presence of pesticides residues above the Acceptable Daily Intake values and the Maximum Residue Limits is worrying in the point of view of food safety. In order to identify and determine the presence of organ phosphorus pesticides in bean samples, a multiresidue technique of extraction method was applied, and the analyses were conducted by gas chromatography coupled to a thermoionic flame detector (GC-FTD). This study aimed to validate the methodology of determination of organophosphates by studies of selectivity, linearity, intermediate precision, limit of detection, limit of quantification, and accuracy study by addition and recovery. The method was selective for all analytes, because there was no interference higher than 30% of the limit of quantification. The limits of detection were between 1.60 and 52.96 ng.kg-1 and the quantification limits were between 3.30 and 176.0 ng.kg-1. Regarding intermediate precision, the differences of area values were ≤ 15%, in different concentrations, except for phorate. The correlation coefficients (r) of linearity curves were higher than 0.99 for all active ingredients, within the working range applied. The recovery percentage was between 70 and 120%, except for phorate. Thus, the methodology was satisfactory for identification and determination of ten from the eleven organophosphates analyzed in beans.

  218. Bassam Alowaiesh and Muhammad Harhash

    Background: The expansion of the olive cultivation resulted in the north of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) to import many cultivars from several countries and planted, which requires the study of the impact of environmental conditions on these cultivars and their success. Materials and Methods: The present study was carried out during 2004 and 2005 growing seasons on five olive cultivars (Olea europea L.). The aim of this study was to evaluative the important olive cultivars introduced recently for cultivation in the North Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. These cultivars are Manzanilla, K18, Sourani, Nabali and Picual growing in the project of the Al-Jouf Agricultural Development Company in Bosita, Ten trees (as a replicates) were selected of similar size and age (about 10 years) from each cultivar. The tested trees received the same agro-technical practices adopted in this district. The following characteristics were studied: flowering and fruiting the results of the study show that the species differed among themselves in a lot of floral traits and fruiting. Results: cv. Picual was an outstanding first qualities crop (fruits, oil) for the tree with the qualities of a good fruiting making it the best cultivars for the extraction of oil as well as excellence cv. Manzanilla qualities of fruits and this makes it even better for dual-purpose items and was a cv. Sourani best by the oil in the fruit so it is recommended to these three cultivars of superiority over the rest of the cultivars, it can also take advantage of the cultivars of k18 and indifferent of Nabali for pickling.

  219. Kumud Joshi, Bharat Kotru and Sushil Kotru

    High fat or cholesterol have been implicated in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. The present study was designed to investigate the possible hypolipidemic effects of propolis on cholesterol fed rabbits and to compare with standard drug available in the market (statin). The rabbits were first made exogeneously hyperlipidemic by giving them high fat diet and cholesterol powder (500mg/kg body weight) in 5ml of coconut oil orally for 15 days and then were administered with drugs like Propolis and statin. In the hyperlipidemic rabbits there were an apparent reduction in the animal body weight and a significant increase in serum total cholesterol (78.67 %), triglyceride (27.24 %), LDL-c (78.56 %) and VLDL-c (38.04 %) with a concomitant non significant decrease in serum HDL-c (25.45 %) . Whereas oral treatment of animals with propolis for about 45 days in a dose of 25mg/Kg body weight lead to significant reduction in the animal body weight as well as in serum total cholesterol (93.61 %), triglyceride (76.91 %), LDL-c (96.4 %) and VLDL-c (75.6 %) with a slightly nonsignificant increase in HDL-c. In conclusion, propolis was found nearly equal in efficacy like statin standard drug in comparison with hyperlipidemic animals on all serum lipid parameters. Thus propolis extract offers promising hypolipidemic effects with no drug related disturbances in safety medications that may be mainly attributed to its potent antiatherosclerotic potential. Further studies will be needed in future in order to determine which one (or more) of its active constituents has the main hypolipidemic effects.

  220. Dadang Kuswandi Jalari, Agus Muslih and Tatang Roni, S.

    The mosquito Aedesaegypti is the vector of the disease dengue fever Dengue (DBD) which until recently was a public health problem in Indonesia. One of the efforts made in the eradication of the vector control was via DBD naymuk larvae of Aedesaegypti by using larvasida. Larvasida biodiversity derived from plants has the potential to control mosquito larvae, besides its use is secure against man. One of the biological larvasida that can be used is from the leaves of Yam bean (Pachyrrhizuserosus). From previous research that the leaf extract Yam bean (Pachyrrhizuserosus) could be mosquitos Anopheles aconitus larval lethal with a concentration 2.8771% at LC50. This research aims to know the sejauhmana leaf extract Yam bean (Pachyrrhizuserosus) can be deadly mosquito larvae Aedesaegypti in various levels of concentration. As a variable in this study was the death of the larvae of the mosquito Aedesaegypti with free variables is a variation of the concentration of extract of leaves of Yam bean (Pachyrrhizuserosus). Sample research is the larvae of the mosquito Aedesaegypti in the instar III/IV relatip stable of outside influence as much as 30 larvae for each treatment. The treatments in this study by using aqueous leaf extract jicama with the respective concentrations of 2.0%, 4.0%, 6%, 8% and 10%, with 4 repetitions and a control without treatment. Analysis of the statistics used in this research is analisaregresi through the program SPSS 17 probit for windows. From observations of the larva, the number of known dead after emblazoned Yam bean leaf extract at concentrations of 2%, the highest 4 tails (16%) and the lowest was 2 tails (8%); the highest at 4% is the 7 tail (28%) and the lowest 4 tails (16%); the highest concentrations of 6% is the 12 tails (48%), the lowest 7 tail (28%); the highest concentrations of 8% is 21 tail (84%), the lowest 17 tail (68%); the highest at concentrations of 10% are 25 tails (100%) 21, the lowest tail (84%), at konrol there is no death. Analysis of examination results of probitmenunjukkan effective concentration on LC50, LC90 and LC95 with confidence interval (SK) acceptable i.e. 95%, respectively was 6.314%, and 10.104 11.179% with upper and lower limits. From this analysis biased note, the higher the concentration of extract of leaves of Yam bean, then the higher death rate larva Aedesaegyptisampai finally reached the maximum limit of the larva mortality rate.

  221. Malligai, E., Divya Sri, L.R., Murugavel, S.K. and Manikandan, N.

    Hemoglobin A1C (HbA1c) has been recognized as a diagnostic marker for diabetes mellitus by the ADA in 2013. Accuracy is extremely important to diagnose the disease. In case of HbA1c measurements, accuracy may be affected by various factors like transportation, storing facility and temperature alterations etc. Therefore, we designed this study to find out whether temperature and storage timings alter HbA1c results. Aım: The aim of the study was to find the comparison of HbA1c levels at different time intervals and storage temperatures. Materıals and Methodology: Paired Samples were collected from subjects attending master health check-up program irrespective of their diabetic status. In the first step, samples were processed immediately and the values were noted down. Then the first set was stored at 24oC and re -estimated after 8 hours and 16 hours. The second set was kept at 4oC and estimated after 8 hours and 16 hours. 18 samples alone from second set (4oC) were measured at 30 hours. All the samples were measured using BIO-RAD D10 machine based on HPLC ion exchange chromatography. Results and Conclusıon: Statistical analyses were done using Paired student t test and Pearson correlation coefficient in SPSS software version 21. Linear regression analysis was used to visually represent the difference. Our study did not show any major difference in HbA1c values irrespective of temperature and duration of the storage.

  222. Pawan Kumar, Sunil Chopra, Maninder Singh, Anil Sindhu

    As the total population is expanding, interest for nourishment is additionally expanding. But food losses occur due to crop diseases caused by pathogens such as bacteria, viruses and fungi. So it is important to utilize the advanced technologies, for example, bio and nanotechnologies in agricultural sciences. Metallic nanoparticles are being utilized in every phase of science along with engineering. Among the all noble metal nanoparticles, silver nanoparticle are an arch product from the field of nanotechnology which has gained boundless interests because of their unique properties such as chemical stability, good conductivity, catalytic and most important antibacterial, anti-viral, antifungal in addition to anti-inflammatory activities. The introduction of nano silver offers an alternative where all detection and identification of plant pathogens. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles can be conceivably utilized to overcome the biological risk generated by nanoparticles derived from chemical methods, especially in the plant. This paper provides an overview of green synthesis and application of silver nanoparticles for the disease diagnosis and detection methods in plants.

  223. Lavanya Krishnadhas, Santhi, R. and Annapurani, S.

    Volkameria inermis is an evergreen shrub of 3m tall, distributed throughout the tropical and inter tropical regions of India. It belongs to the family Lamiaceae. The petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, ethanol and aqueous leaf extracts of Volkameria inermis were screened for free radical scavenging activity against DPPH, superoxide, hydroxyl, hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide. The scavenging activity was found to be dose dependent. Of all the extracts the ethanolic extract showed maximum scavenging activity. Hence, from the present study it can be concluded that the leaves of Volkameria inermis possess good radical scavenging activity and it can be used as an easily available source of natural antioxidants.

  224. Dr. Rekha Battalwar and Bhaswati Batabyal

    Objective: To evaluate practices for food safety, sanitary conditions and food handling by street food vendors Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted in 100 street food vendors in Andheri (East and West) suburb of Mumbai city. A pre-structured questionnaire was used for interview and observation of food vendors to access the food safety and sanitary conditions. Results: Of the 100 vendors, 2% vendors washed hands before every customer, 12% reported that ready to serve food was kept in closed contained/ protected shelf, 3% reported that place to keep ready to serve food is very clean, 5% stalls had no animals or pets evident around the stall, 5% had proper cleanliness of vending stall, 4% had hand washing facilities available, 63% stalls had clean environment, 4% vendors washed their hands in clean water each time before handing food, 10% vendors used an apron when handling food, 48% vendors clothes were clean, none of the vendor used gloves, 37% vendors had clean short nails, 3% vendors covered hair when handling, preparing and serving food, 48% vendors did not the same utensil to prepare raw and cooked food products and 38% washed cutting board with soap and rinsed in hot water to kill bacteria. Of the 100 vendors, 2% cleaned food preparation surface whenever they washed up, 3% at the end of the day, 1% once a week, 35% when it looked dirty whereas 59% washed it before they prepared food. A significant association was found between frequency of changing oil and age group with higher percentage of vendors above 31 years of age changing oil everyday as compared to those below 30 years of age (χ2=12.133, p=0.016). Significantly higher percentage of vendors aged 31 years and above washed chopping board with soap and rinsed in hot water to kill bacteria as compared to vendors less than 30 years of age (p=0.002). There was no significant difference for other food safety and sanitary practices when vendors were classified according to age group (p>0.05) Conclusion: Food safety, sanitary condition and food handling practices are not adequate among street food vendors in Mumbai city. Educational programs need to be developed to educate street food vendors regarding appropriate street food handling practices.

  225. Ranjani, R. and Dr. Maheswari, A. S.

    Wetland is the land area that is saturated with water, either permanently or seasonally such that it takes on the characteristics and distinctiveness of that particular ecosystem. Koothaippar wetland ecosystemis one such highly potential wetland area, which attracts more number of water birds in and around the world. Data for this research was collected from August 2013 to January 2014, covering three seasons, Pre – Monsoon (August and September), Monsoon (October – December) and Post Monsoon (January). Significant species - wise and overall variations in the population size of (as highest count in a month and region) water birds belonging to different ecological groups were recorded in two regions of the lake during different months of 2013 and 2014. Totally 34 species of water birds were recorded in region 1 and 30 species of water birds recorded in region 2. Water birds were categorised into different ecological groups like 4 species of divers, 12 species of large waders, 8 species of swimming birds, 5 species of small waders, and 5 species of aerial foragers were present in region1 and 4 species of divers, 10 species of large waders, 7 species of swimming birds, 4 species of small waders, and 5 species of aerial foragers were present in region 2 which attracts more number of water birds in region 2. Present paper highlights the influence of water temperature, air temperature, and physico-chemical characteristics of bottom sediments of two regions of Koothaippar lake ecosystems. Among all the water parameters tested, Electrical Conductivity, PH, Calcium, Magnesium, Potassium, Sulphate, Chloride, Fluoride, Atmospheric temperature and Turbidity are the factors which influences significantly the distribution and diversity of water birds in the study area during the study period.

  226. Mili Thakkar, Tumane, P. M., Bhandari, P. R. and Durgesh D. Wasnik

    This study evaluate antibacterial property of green synthesized silver nanoparticles Coccinia indica extract as reducing agent against multiple drug resistant bacteria (MDR) such as E. coli, S. aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Silver nanoparticles were synthesized through Coccinia indica extract and characterized using UV-VIS spectroscopy, SEM, TEM techniques. The antibacterial activity assays were done against all bacterial pathogens by well diffusion method. The diameter of silver nanoparticles was predominantly found within the range 100-300 nm. The absorption peak at 420 nm broadens with increase in time indicating polydispersity nature of the nanoparticles. The present study showed that P. aeruginosa and E.coli was found to be resistant against Ampicillin, Cephotaxime, Ceftazidime, Clotrimazole and Gentamycin. S. aureus was resistant toward Methicillin, Vancomycin, Imipenem and Tobramycin. In this study, the Green SNPs showed excellent zone of inhibition against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (22 mm) whereas least zone of inhibition was found against S. aureus (8 mm). It has been found that nanoparticles treated with herbal solutions at different concentrations resulted into inhibition of S. aureus at 12.5 µg/disc and slightly increased concentration of SNPs i.e. 1.56 µg/ml is the minimum concentration found inhibitory to the growth of MDR strains of Pseudomonas whereas SNPs didn’t show any zone of inhibition against E. coli. The present findings suggest that green synthesis of nanoparticles are simple, quite effective method that can be used as an alternative antibacterial agent against diseases caused by multiple drug resistant pathogens.

  227. André Henrique Gonçalves, Lillian França Borges Chagas, Gessiel Newton Scheidt, Magno Rodrigues de Carvalho Filho, Luciane de Oliveira Miller and Aloisio Freitas Chagas Junior

    Considering the difficulties the producers have to control the diseases and maintain soybean crop stand, this study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of inoculation of Trichoderma asperellum UFT 201 in control of Rhizoctoniasolani for the maintenance of stand and productivity of soybean at field conditions. The experiments were conducted during crops 2014/15 and 2015/16. Evaluations were performed at 25 and 50 days after sowing (DAS). Counts were performed in the number of plants in order to check the initial stand and final stand, treatment efficiency with Trichoderma and productivity. For the experiments with different dosages of the inoculant based on Trichoderma asperellum UFT 201, there were differences between the doses with the best results for the treatments with doses of 2 to 4 kg ha-1 at crop 2014/2015 and all doses at crop 2015/2016 and for stand characteristics, Rhizoctonia control, plant biomass, evidencing the efficiency of the inoculation of Trichoderma asperellum UFT 201, reflecting the increase on productivity.

  228. Vijayaraj, R., Manikandan, M. and Jaquline Chinna Rani, I.

    An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants was carried out in Loyola college campus, located at capital of Tamil Nadu state (Chennai), India. This survey was conducted based on participatory observations and field visit to all places of our college campus. A total of 105 medicinal plants species with 93 genus, were identified. The main purpose of this survey is to collect data about medicinal plants available in our college campus in-order to preserve its valuable bioresources. Plant species belonging to diverse families such as Acanthaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae, Malvaceae, Solanaceae etc., were found. All these plants having enormous medicinal properties including antibacterial, anticancer, antidiabetic, antiviral, antifungal, antidote, anthelminthic, antianalgesic and they can cure cough, cold, ulcers, diarrhea, skin disorders, snake-bite etc. However, from the observed plant list, some of them are in vulnerable condition like Abutilon indicum and Leucas aspera. A survey reported that in Chennai 18 peoples were killed and around 12,000 trees were uprooted by a cyclone 'Vardah' in the month of December on 2016, even in Loyola college campus 130 trees uprooted and their stem, branches were broken. The day after this cyclone entire Chennai and Loyola college campus was looking like a forest. From the previous decade natural disasters like flood, cyclone and excess sunlight are often highly disturbing the normal life style and living environment of Chennai peoples. Another side global warming and pollutions are increasing. Due to these reasons some precious plants which are sensitive to these hazards are getting a place in the list of 'an endangered plants'. After few decades some valuable plants may be disappeared in our college campus because of those risks, so we hope that this survey will be helpful to the upcoming batches of Loyolites, through this they can get some ideas and information about medicinal plants of Loyola college campus.

  229. Vera Stamenova, Maya Petrova, Tanya Metodieva, Borelli Zlatkov, Jean Filipov, Martin Lubih and Emil Paskalev

    Background: After kidney transplantation proteinuria not only indicates graft pathology, but contributes to disease progression, graft loss and worse patient outcomes. Treatment of the underlying cause may not always result in normalizing protein excretion rates. Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEinh) or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) treatment in kidney transplant recipients is a field of debate and ongoing research focusing on patient survival and delaying the need for dialysis after kidney transplantation. Methods: We performed a retrospective single center study on 277 patients who received a kidney transplant between 01.01.2005 and 31.12.2010. We ran a Log Rank test and univariate and multivariate Cox regression analysis to study the effect of proteinuria and ACEinh/ARB treatment on survival. In patients with biopsy proven graft pathology (N 91) we compared survival rates of patients with and without ACEinh/ARB treatment. Results: Proteinuria at 3 months post transplantation significantly lowered patient (p=0.021) and graft survival (overall and censored for death –p<0.001 and p=0.004). Proteinuria was an independent factor for worse outcomes for the overall graft survival (HR 1.718, 95% CI 1.072 to 2.752, p=0.024) and graft survival censored for death (HR 3.866, 95% CI 1.968 to 7.598, p<0.001). Treatment with ACEinh/ARBs had a significant effect on proteinuria excretion after 12 months (p=0.005), on patient survival in the whole cohort (HR 0.437, 95% CI 0.198 to 0.967, p=0.041) and in patients with biopsy proven graft pathology (p=0.029). Conclusions: Kidney transplant recipients benefit from receiving treatment with an ACEinh/ARB, especially in the presence of proteinuria and proven graft pathology.

  230. Dr. Manisha. K. Dawre, Dr. Milind. B. Nikumbh, Dr. Pranali. U. Mangrule and Dr. Ashlesha. A. Nagrale

    Ayurveda is a science of life. To maintain Swastha Rakshana, Ayurveda has emphasized the need of Dincharya, Rutucharya etc. In the same manner to get a healthy and prosperous child, Ayurveda advocates the concept of Garbhini Paricharya. Mother’s diet and activities performed during the period of pregnancy reflect on the fetus. The chief characterstics features in 4th month is the mother expressing the nature of child through her taste preferences behavior. This condition is called as “Dauhrid Awastha” (Desires of mother). The Dauhruda Bhawas of fetus expressed through the mothers desire. When these desires are not completed, the fetus is affected and become deformity in child. So we must complete her all desires. In modern science this deformity can be compared with “Teratology”. Teratology is the study of abnormal development or congenital malformation. There are many causes of teratology, nutrition is one of them. Nutritional deficiency in fetus leads to neural tube defect. And there is abnormality in child after birth. The present study wants to analyze the Dauhruda Awastha in Garbhini, deformity in fetus due to Dauhrud Avahelana(Ignorance of longings) in Garbhini and concept of teratology in Ayurveda.

  231. Dr. Arindam Karmakar, Dr. Asis Manna, Dr. Manali Sinharay, Dr. Krishnendu Das and Dr. Arnab Kumar Mandal

    Antibiotic resistance of urinary pathogens especially the extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) producing organisms has emerged as a global challenge to clinicians trying to formulate an empirical therapy. Choice of the correct antimicrobial agent and constructing an antibiotic policy has also become very difficult in recent years. Area-specific monitoring studies are essential to gather knowledge of the prevailing microbes and their sensitivity patterns. The present endeavor studies the antibiotic sensitivity pattern of 468 culture-positive urine samples amongst a total of 4466 samples from outdoor patients from Malda, a small town in West Bengal, India. Females of reproductive age group were mostly affected. Gram negative organisms dominated the organisms with Escherichia coli having the greatest share accompanied by Klebsiella sp, Proteus sp, Pseudomonas sp etc. Fluoroquinolones were only moderately sensitive (50-60% sensitivity) against Gram negative organisms. Trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole and nitrofurantoin also had unsatisfactory levels of sensitivity (<50%). Carbapenems, aminoglycosides and tetracyclines were consistently sensitive against most organisms. Amongst the 441 organisms tested for ESBL 241 were ESBL positive. Most of the ESBL negative organisms were susceptible to ampicillin-sulbactam and piperacillin-sulbactam. Staphylococcus aureus was reasonably sensitive to co-amoxiclav, nitrofurantoin, cotrimoxazole, tetracyclines, vancomycin, linezolid and clindamycin. Fluoroquinolones which are presently being prescribed widely have lost their effectiveness. Overall, very few choices of oral antibiotics remain to be empirically prescribed for urinary infections. ESBL positive gram negative organisms are very much on the rise.

  232. Samynathan, M., Ebanasar, J. and Sudheer Mohammed, M. M.

    In the present study, the earthworm species Allolobophora chlorotica reported for the first time from India in the higher altitudes of Nilgiris part of Western ghats, Peninsular India. The original report of the species is from UK. The species is endogeic in nature and are found in the habitats like wet land as well as wood land. The result was documented and concluded by observing its morphological characters.

  233. Dr. Karthiyayini, R.

    Aegle marmelos(L.)Corr. (Rutaceae family) is endangered medicinal tree. The Present study was carried out to know the effect of pretreatment on seed germination and seedling growth parameters of size graded A. marmelos seeds viz. large, medium and small. There was no significant influence were observed in germination percentage but the root and shoot length was significantly increased in hot water treated (10min and 15 min.) seedlings compared to control and other treatments.

  234. Dr. Karthiyayini, R.

    S. nux-vomica Linn. (Loganiaceae family) is one of the most important medicinal tree species in India. Present study was carried out to know the effect of pretreatment on seed germination and seedling growth parameters of size graded seeds viz. large, medium and small. The present result revealed that the H2SO4 (10 minutes) treated seedling was enhance the percentage of germination. However, with increase in the treatment time the seed germination percentage decreased in germination percentage other treatments.

  235. Uma Maheswari, L. and Subramani, A.

    A cultivar screening test of greengram was conducted. Four cultivars of greengram were obtained from agricultural research station. Seeds were surface sterilized and evenly placed in petriplates. Seeds were irrigated with equal volume of different constituents of Cadmium chloride solution (5, 10, 25, 50 & 100 mgl-1). One set of seeds were irrigated with distilled water was maintained as control (0 mgl-1). The various seed germination characteristics of greengram like seed germination rate, seed germination index, vigour index, root length, shoot length and dry weight of seedlings were recorded on the 9th day after sowing of seeds. From the results obtained from the present investigation it was inferred that Cadmium inhibited the seed germination and seedling growth of greengram. There was a gradual decline in germination rate and seedling growth with progressive increase in Cadmium concentration. Among the four cultivars studied ADT-1 performed better under Cadmium treatment when compared to the rest of the cultivars.

  236. Tahani M. Bawazeer and Mohammad S. Alsoufi

    The purpose of this paper is the early evaluation of pre-treatment processes of Bombyx mori silk fibroin used to produce “Kisswa Al-Kabba” in order to determine the degree of efficiency and the differences among the most commonly-used degumming processes. Silk fibroin from the Bombyx mori silkworm was degummed through reproducibility processes in a customized method including natural soap degumming (tap water and deionized water) along with laboratory scale and factory scale machines. The results revealed that the maximum average value of sericin content was found to be 28.1669% (for tap water) and 28.5715% (for deionized water), indicating removal of all or most of the sericin. After neutral soap degumming, the initial modulus decreased from 108.7 gf/den to 55.1 gf/den, while the breaking tenacity decreased from 4.0270 gf/den to 2.7185 gf/den, indicating partial harmful damages of silk fibers molecules after neutral soap degumming method. These values decreased after degumming treatment, suggesting that the silk fibers become soft and stretchable. There was not much influence on elongation after degumming for different scale conditions. The tensile properties of the silk fibers after degumming laboratory scale machine (tap water) treatment was the worst. The degumming process or boiling process of silk fibers on a laboratory scale with tap water results in a serious decrease in the tensile properties. The surface morphology of the silk fiber shows that there was no important difference among the degumming approaches used in this study. The molecular conformation estimated by FT-IR stayed unchanged regardless of the degumming processes.

  237. Rahul Krishnan, Vanaja, S., Manimegalai, S. and Karunakaran, A.

    Cardiovascular diseases are the major causes for the death worldwide according to World Health Organization. Among the many vital signs like oxygen saturation, respiration rate and blood pressure of the arteries, “heart rate” is the vital factor monitored (LorenzoScalise, 2012). It is the vital sign required for patient approach both in clinical and emergency situations. Heart rate variability (HRV) is then performed on the processed data to have the record of any cardiac abnormalities. This literature survey is mainly about various contacted methods which are used so far to measure heart rate and their various effects on human beings (LorenzoScalise, 2012). The study also supports non contact methods of measuring heart rate which are quite ineffective when compared to the former.

  238. Madan Lal and Shikha Kapila

    We have applied a potential approximation known as modified Becke-Johnson (mBJ) based on density functional theory (DFT) method to calculate structural and electronic properties of BaPaO3 and BaUO3 compounds is presented. The Types of chemical bonding is examined with the help of variations in electron density difference distribution that is induced due to changes of second cation. Results reveal (Γ-Γ) direct band gap semiconducting nature.

  239. Usha Devi S, Jayalakshmi S and Tamizh Chelvam T

    In this paper we introduce the notation of intuitionistic fuzzy strong bi-ideals of a near-ring and obtain a characterization of a strong bi-ideals in terms of an intuitionistic fuzzy strong bi-ideals of a near-ring. Further, we discuss the properties of intuitionistic fuzzy strong bi-ideals of a near-ring.

  240. Todkari, S.M., Bachuwar, V.D. and Salunke, D.J.

    The main purpose of work is to develop low cost and portable PC interfaced data acquisition and monitoring system especially for C-V measurement of the ferrite thin films. Data acquisition system (DAS) consist of microcontroller AT89S52, Two ADC (0804) and DAC as sweep generation for C-V measurement, data acquisition system must acquire two parameters simultaneously i.e. cos wave reference signal and sin wave reference signal which incorporates phase and amplitude information. Data acquisition system acquire serially and send to PC with LabVIEW. LabVIEW GUI is developed to process the data and display the value of phase and amplitude of waveform and other relative electrical parameters of device under test (DUT), this also utilize for simultaneous measurement of any two physical parameters in general, which is essential most of the time in the research lab, the device is able to acquire two different physical parameters at the same instant and data logging with PC using USB port and processing of the signals using LabVIEW.

  241. Beatrice A. Achilike

    A peer group is a normal social group consisting of human beings that share common interests. This group has strong negative and positive influences on members who are mostly adolescents. Such influences reflect their learning and general behaviour. This paper tries to x-ray the positive and negative influences exerted on members. Social and academic roles are among the positive roles the group hands over to adolescent members. Some of the groups wage war against negative influences that can ruin many adolescents such as drug abuse and other delinquent acts. The paper recommended among others the use of behaviour modification therapies by guidance counsellors as ways of mitigating these negative peer influences.

  242. Beatrice A. Achilike

    This study investigated the perception of teachers on the influence of insecurity on socio-emotional development of secondary school students in Owerri Metropolis of Imo State. The study adopted a descriptive survey design. Using simple random sampling techniques, two hundred teachers were selected as subject for the study. Three research questions guided the study. Instrument used for the study was a researcher structured questionnaire. Two test experts validated the instrument while a test re-test method which yielded a reliability coefficient result of 0.72 confirmed that the instrument was reliable. Data was analyzed using mean. Results revealed among others, that dangerous electrical installation around the school environment constitute insecurity especially in dilapidated buildings. Also teachers perceived that insecure school children do not develop trusting relationship for teachers and other adults. The study equally found that teachers perceived insecurity to be stunting students creative expression by in inhibiting their play expression. Recommendations were made to include that there should be appropriate security personnel in schools in addition to fencing every school especially those on the high way.

  243. Andualem Shiferaw, Dagne Tiruneh and Dr. Demelash Mengistu

    This study was conducted with the objective of investigating English as a foreign language (EFL) teachers’ and students’ attitude and implementations of listening skill. The study was carried out in government secondary schools found in Jimma town during the 2016 academic year. Seventeen English language teachers and three hundred sixty nine students were involved in the study. In order to select student participants for the study, the researchers employed simple random sampling. Comprehensive sampling was used to select sample EFL teachers as their number was not larger. In order to collect data for the study, the researchers used questionnaire, observation, and interview. Mixed approach was utilized to analyze the data gathered using different tools. The data from classroom observation and interview were analyzed qualitatively whereas those from the questionnaire were quantitatively analyzed. The findings of the study revealed that the EFL teachers had positive attitude towards the teaching of the listening comprehension skills. However, they did not give much attention to the teaching of the listening lessons provided in the student’s textbook. The study also showed that the role played by the teachers to encourage the students to learn listening skills was inadequate. Moreover, it was found out that the EFL teachers often skipped the listening skill sections (lessons) provided in the EFL textbooks in the pretext of covering the annual plan for the academic year on time.

  244. Himanshi Sharma, Dr. Deptee Warikoo, Dr. Sunil Bhatt and Dr. Kapil Garg

    Background: Patient satisfaction is an important patient-centered health outcome. To date, no systematic review of the literature or patient satisfaction with physiotherapy services has been conducted. Purpose: The purpose of the present study is to evaluate patient satisfaction with the physiotherapy services from various private clinics, public hospitals, rehabilitation centers and general population and also to identify the factors that affects patent satisfaction with physiotherapy services. Limitation: One of the limitation of the study is that it is difficult to generalize the study findings to the regions at a large. Conclusion: Patients are highly satisfied with the physiotherapy services across various cities of North India physical therapists can enhanced the quality of patient centered care by understanding and optimizing these determinates of patient satisfaction.

  245. Birhanu Moges

    The purpose of the current study is to assess secondary school teachers’ perception of management of classroom misbehaviours and coping strategies to prevent, reduce and react towards misbehaviours. The study adopted descriptive survey design. The sample consisted of 120 teachers selected randomly from four government secondary schools in the Asella City. Data collected was analyzed and interpreted using percentages, mean and standard deviation. Findings of the study showed that teachers, who are inadequate in CM, tend to have more disciplinary problems in their classrooms. Problematic behaviors of the students in the process of learning-teaching were the uninterested, lazy, noisy, naughty, hyperactive students, giving chorus answers, talking without permission and unpreparedness for class work. Such copying strategies were found ignoring the problematic situation, warning the students about the misbehavior, and use of body language such as mimes, gestures, and establishing eye-contact. The teacher should, being friendly with students, use of appropriate method of teaching and participatory lesson and taking attendance regularly can be helpful in shaping the behaviours of the students. In conclusion, effective CM enhances teaching-learning. It is recommended that teachers should plan activities where students are involved. Teacher should design such classroom and display classroom rules inside classrooms so that the students may see them and follow them.

  246. Dr. Medha. J. Gupte

    The world has witnessed an accelerated pace of financial globalization, where wireless networks have made their presence felt. India is no exception, where digital technology has to a lesser extent disrupted financial services in India. Digital banking could refer to end to end processing of banking transaction operations which have been initiated by the client. It could take various forms such as ATMs, NEFT, Telebanking etc. As is a well acknowledged fact banking and financial services form the backbone of an economy and are required to meet the challenges posed by changing technology, to satisfy the consumer preferences towards digital technology, to meet demands for micro payments, of being environment friendly and meting equal treatment to all. There has been a spurt in online banking and the government has been taking measures to promote the same. In a surprise move the Government of India decided to demonetize the two highest denomination notes namely Rupees 500/- and Rupees 1000/-. One of the main objectives of the move was creation of a cashless economy. Subsequently a number of stringent measures were taken by the government to promote digital banking. However, there are a number of hurdles in keeping with the developing nature of the economy such as existence of a large unorganized sector, erratic internet connectivity and poor penetration of smart phones. Besides many small banks do not have digital banking and problem of security risk and most importantly lack of awareness of banking facilities are omni present in India. What is needed is for the government to take initiative in providing regulatory measures with active participation from public and private sector.

  247. Ozan Sever, Gökhan İpekoğlu, Fatmanur Er, Ceren Suveren Erdoğan, Canan Demirtaş and Fatma Filiz Çolakoğlu

    Aims and Objectives: This study was performed to investigate the acute effect of the submaximal aerobic exercise upon adrenocorticotropic hormone and cortisol levels in chronic smokers and non-smoker. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out upon 8 regular (15> cigarettes/day) smoker untrained male along five years and 9 never smoker untrained male. Subjects performed an endurance exercise that continues 40 minutes at 70% maximal heart rate. There were 15cc venous blood samples extracted from the forearm pre-exercise (PRE), post-exercise (POST), post-exercise 2 hours (2h), post-exercise 24 hours (24h) to measure of ACTH and cortisol levels. Results: It is determined that in POST ACTH levels of smokers and non-smokers were shown a significant increase according to PRE levels (p<0,05). 2h cortisol levels of smokers and non-smokers were significantly lower than PRE levels (p<0,05). In comparison between-groups, all measurements (PRE, POST, 2h and 24h) indicated that differences in ACTH and cortisol levels of non-smokers were not significant (p>0.05). Conclusion: The study revealed the fact that, in terms of non-smoker and smoker groups cortisol and ACTH showed similar tendency in time analysis. Smoking habit did not make a difference on the hypothalamic-pituitaryadrenal axis during exercise. The results demonstrate that it may be helpful to investigate this relationship with different types of exercises in different intensities in more controlled subsequent studies.

  248. Yumarma Andreas

    Jababeka is an industrial and residential area which has very fast development in Indonesia. Four big villages, namely MekarMukti, Serta Jaya, Pasir Gombong and Simpangan have a big number of residents. There are more than 70.000 people who live in here as workers, staff, officers and entrepreneurs. The continuous increase of the number of companies, residences and new comers brings about a potential of constraints, competition and rivalry among local people and new comers. The socio-demographic data analysis using the phenomenological and hermeneutic approach reflects that Jababeka has a business potential of entertainment center. It follows that the entertainment center is promising potential. In anticipation of future problem, this entertainment center is also beneficial to bridge the gap between local people and new comers. However it should be located at the place that can be easily accessed by those four villages. The on-going increase of companies, residences and new comers in Jababeka will prop up the business potential of entertainment center.

  249. Dr. Rashmi Rani Agnihotri, H. R.

    Social work is an academic and professional discipline that seeks to facilitate the welfare of communities, individuals, families, and groups. It may promote social change, development, cohesion, and empowerment. Underpinned by theories of social sciences and guided by principles of social justice, human rights, collective responsibility, and respect for diversities, social work engages people and structures to address life challenges and enhance well-being.a practicing professional with a degree in social work is called a social worker. Examples of fields a social worker may be employed in are Poverty relief, life skills, and community development, forensic, industrial relations, child protection, and elder protection, Women ’s rights, human rights, addictions, rehabilitation, disaster management, mental health, disabilities and Administration. Social Work Administration is also one of the important method. The need for social work which takes place within a framework of government policy and statute. In practice and at present, this refers largely to local authority social work services which have powers and responsibilities to intervene in the lives of individuals and families, generally with their consent but compulsorily in specified circumstances. It is in these areas of social work that many of the tensions and conflicts arise, not only for social workers but for people using their services and for the public. Some may be deterred from seeking social work help by fears that it could result in judgments about their ability to cope independently or care adequately for their children. There have long been debates about the relationship between the supportive, caring and enabling elements of social work and the need at times to exercise powers of removal or control for the protection of the individual, other family members or the public at large. This is a particular feature of local authority social work, and currently much less of an issue for most social workers employed in voluntary organizations or working independently. Patterns of employment are changing, however, with more social work posts located in multi-disciplinary and joint agency settings, and policy initiatives which could see more functions undertaken by voluntary and community organizations on behalf of the statutory Current policy direction and changing public expectations could also lead to a more fundamental shift away from a focus on statutory intervention and towards a culture where people positively seek social work support as part of their own problem-solving strategies. This would be consistent with policies to encourage independence and social inclusion, to help prevent problems arising or becoming worse by offering earlier support, and to enable people to take maximum responsibility for managing their own lives and playing their part as active citizens. It could also lead to social work becoming a mainstream, universally available service to which people turn, as they turn to their GP, for advice and assistance with complex problems and concerns. Here the Researcher study the Women self help group members with use of Social work interventions. A SHG is a group of about 10 to 20 people, usually women. From a similar class and region. Who come together to form savings and credit organization. They pool financial resources to make small interest bearing loans to their members. This process creates an ethic that focuses on savings first. The setting of terms and conditions and accounting of the loan are done in the group by designated member. The Study is Purely Theoretical. The Study is based on secondary data sources. The necessary information about the Self help groups and social perspectives, its various components are collected from Books, Journals, Internet Source or related topic. The Researcher study about the Social work intervention on self help groups in detail, The Research Work includes, Concept of Self help groups, Methodology, Social work intervention on self help group members etc.

  250. Vivien L. Chua, Ed. D.

    This paper assessed the local tourism potentialities of Sorsogon province in the Philippines. Data gathering employed an online Delphi-based process to evaluate the criteria in measuring potentialities of local tourism; one hundred and fifty (150) respondents were selected via stratified random sampling; and data analysis used descriptive statistics and non-parametric Wilcoxon Rank Sum Test. Results suggest that to ensure sustainability to existing tourism potentialities, Sorsogon has to focus on the importance of quality tertiary education, the provision of stable local employment, the promotion of healthy and balanced community life, as well as prioritizing the basic social services of its communities. Sorsogon tourism destinations are characterized by the four (4) tourism typologies based on travel motivation: ecotourism, econautical, cultural, and educational tourism and findings indicate that most of Sorsogon’s tourist destinations remained untouched by commercialism however, there is a need to balance the travel motivators and tourist personalities with the psychological needs of the local communities in order to sustainably manage these tourism destinations. This study recommends that aside from human resources, there’s a need for stronger local government support and capital investment be maximized on information and communications technology in order to boost the local tourism economy and showcase Sorsogon’s tourism potentialities beyond boarders.

  251. Sintayehu Admas and Gize Abeje

    Eighty chickpea germplasm and four standard checks (i.e Arerti, Harbu, Minjar, and Natoli) were characterized at D/Ziet agriculture Research Center using quantitative traits to determine the level of chickpea germplasm variation and to classify the test genotypes into clusters based on similarity and also to identify promising genotype for further breeding activities. Augmented design was used with five blocks. There was a strong significant differences among germplasm for plant height (PLH), primary branch per plant (PBPP), secondary branch per plant (SBPP), number of pod per plant (NPPP), number of days to mature (DTM) and thousand grain weight (TGW). 14 genotypes gave better thousand grain weights to the best standard check, Harbu (420gm) and 12 genotypes matured earlier than the earliest check, minjar (107days). Wide mean range values were recorded for all the traits. The high values of genotypic and phenotypic coefficient of variation indicated the existence of genetic variation among genotypes for all the studied quantitative traits. Based on cluster analysis the genotypes grouped into four classes irrespective of the origin of germplasm collection. The first two principal components explained 72.9% of the total variation among the genotypes for all quantitative traits. The genetic diversity observed among the genotypes will have a practical value to chickpea breeders to use the identified desirable trait for utilization in breeding program for chickpea genetic improvement.

  252. Mengistu Matino Eltamo

    Introduction: Informal businesses have so many sections in any town of developing counties. Among these informal vending sections, this study sought to investigate the relationship of the ‘Jebena Buna’ venders’ strategies with their daily profit making performance for their long life. The study used quantitative approach. Methodology: Data were collected through structured questioner, in-depth personal interviews and direct observations. Structured questionnaires are distributed to 97 street cattle coffee venders at Golla (National Bank of Ethiopia) to Wolaita Association Development Unit (WADU) Round About at 2nd main road of the Town. The study discovered that the relationship of the street vending strategies influences on the performance of daily profit making capacity of the cattle coffee street venders. Aim: The study provided an insight into an emerging research area that is characterized by a proliferation of a variety of types of street vendors in Sodo. Result: The study showed that while vending associations had been unsuccessful in their efforts to achieve sector governance for long life, the new interest regime could offer novel strategies of action to achieve this goal. The study should get “selling in low price(X5)” is the most influential ‘Buna’ vending strategy at Sodo. All literature part strategies are strongly related and have significant (<0.001) effect on daily profit making performances of the venders. The Interview results show that, most people on the street see vending as a way to acquire money quickly and reduce un employment and youths attracted in it for short period instead of long life.

  253. Woldu Assefa and Teshome Tefera

    This study was conducted to investigate factors affecting teacher’s use of teaching aids to facilitate students learning in Jimma town secondary schools. The sample for the study included 40 purposively selected mathematics teachers from the four secondary schools in Jimma town. A questionnaire that was adapted from the work of Kamla-Raj 2014 administered to solicit factors that affect teachers’ use of teaching aids in creating mathematical sense. Five types of questionnaires on (perspectives of teacher variables, time and cost perspectives, motivation and attitudes towards mathematics, learner qualities and the nature of teaching aids) were distributed to the sample secondary school mathematics teachers to examine the level of their impacts. Percentage and descriptive statistics were applied to analyze the data. The results indicated that almost all teachers agree on the impacts factors such as (perspectives on teacher variables, time and cost perspectives, motivation and attitudes towards mathematics, learner qualities and the nature of teaching aids) on use of teaching aid to facilitate their students learning. Hence, school and teachers are expected to look for ways of using instructional aides to facilitate their students learning in mathematics class. To over com the problem time and cost perspectives, the school and teachers may need to look for ways of using locally available resources. College of Education and Behavioral Sciences need to collaboratively work on raising secondary school teachers on the importance of using teaching aids to facilitate students learning.

  254. Prof. Punit Kumar Mishra

    Practo Technologies Private Limited established by two engineers from NIT, Suratkal in the year 2008, Shashank ND and Abhinav Lal. Shashank’s father had been asked to undergo a knee replacement surgery. He was looking for second opinion from a doctor in the US. Unfortunately, he could not share medical records with the doctor because they were not available in a digital format. That is how the company came into existence. The engineering duo consistently along with robust team creates technology to support healthcare industry. For Practo founders, life seems to be in a full circle in 2015 on several fronts like serving consumer health needs, raising $120 million in the year, and four acquisitions. Today, with all acquisitions they are trying to complete neat jigsaw puzzle. Mr. Shashank categorically explained that Practo is not an ecommerce company rather a service market place. On the other side, various new start-ups are there like Ziffy.com, Lybrate and MedAngels.com increasing competition. To retain leadership they are not leaving any stone un-turn, recently they have come up with TV commercials along with various online promotions. The various campaigns that Practo has run so far focus on the funny side of an otherwise grim situation and the ease of use. The case is useful for management graduates both U.G. and P.G specializing with marketing. Case may be used for internet marketing, branding strategy, understanding competition and revenue models and their sustainability particularly for start-ups of similar nature.

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