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November 2017

  1. Dr. Sanjay B Lagdive, Dr. Rupal J Shah, Dr. Dharmendra Sindha and Dr. Satyaprakash Shah

    Objective: To fabricate ahollow maxillary complete denturein a patient with severely resorbedridge and greater inter-arch space. Background: Bulky prosthesis affects peripheral seal and causes poor retention of denture. Material and Method: Ahollow cavity was fabricated in the “rim” part of complete denture using two flask technique. Result: Retention and stability lost due to heavy weight of denture was regained. Conclusion: This case report describes a predictable technique to fabricate lightweight denture.

  2. Sayeri Dutta, Ngangbam Kilabati Devi, Rajesh Das and Meena Devi, N.

    Objective: The objective of this study was to analyze the Prescribing practice of antihypertensive medications in a tertiary care hospital in North East India and to assess the appropriateness of the prescribing pattern of antihypertensive drugs as per the seventh report of the Joint National Committee (JNC-7) guidelines. Methodology: A cross-sectional retrospective study was carried out for the month of October 2016- March 2017. Inpatient hypertensive cases suffering from hypertension with or without co-morbidities were included and were analyzed on the basis of age, percentage of male and female patients, anti-hypertensive drug category, most frequently prescribed hypertensive drug and percentage of one or two drug combination. Results: A total of 200 hypertensive patients on treatment, of which 37% were females and 62.8% males, were included. The most common co-morbid condition was Diabetes Mellitus. The most common drugs involved in the study were calcium channel blockers 47% followed by angiotensin II receptor blockers 22%.The commonest two drug therapy was with BB and CCB(32.9%), followed by ARB and CCB (21.1%), CCB and Diuretics (16.4%), ACEI and diuretic (11.7%) Conclusions: The most favored class of antihypertensive drugs, in hypertensive patients with or without comorbidities was CCBs. There was underutilization of thiazide diuretics, ACEIs and BBs in this study. Overall the general pattern of antihypertensive prescribing in this study is only partly in accordance with the guidelines of JNC-7.

  3. Anchal Srivastava, Bhavthankar, J. D., Abdul Ahad Khan, Deepak Passsi, Vikram Ahuja

    Calcifying Cystic Odontogenic Tumor (CCOT) was first described by Gorlin(1962) as Calcifying Odontogenic Cyst(COC)and accounts for only 1% of jaw cysts reported. Because of its histopathological diversity, there has always been controversy about its nature as a cyst or neoplasm. WHO (2005) has categorized this lesion from cystic - COC to neoplastic - CCOT. It has been found to be associated with various pathologies such as odontoma, ameloblastoma, ameloblastic fibroma. This paper presents clinicopathological, radiographic & histopathological features of a case of CCOT highlighting its histopathological subtypes.

  4. Dr. Swagata Gayen, Dr. Sanchita Kundu, Dr. Rudra Prasad Chatterjee, Dr. M. Pal and Dr. Bera, D. K.

    Background and Objective: The objective of the study was to identify the predominant oral pathogenic microbes associated with pericoronitis and antibiotic sensitivity of those predominant group of pathogens. Materials and Methods: A total no of 40 patients were selected, subjected to Microbiological evaluation and after performing the antibiotic sensitivity test, proper antibiotic therapy was given. These subjects were divided into 2 groups –Pre antibiotic & Post antibiotic, each group constituted 20 patients. Swab was collected from the depth of the pericoronal pockets for microbiological evaluation and their Antibiotic sensitivity test. Results: The results suggested that, both aerobic and anaerobic bacteria colonized in mixed infections of oral cavity as pericoronitis, but the distinguishing feature between these two groups that after proper antibiotic treatment the percentage of bacterial count (especially the anaerobes) markedly diminished. Conclusion: It was concluded from the results that, Amoxycillin Clavulanate fully encompasses the aerobic microorganisms whereas Metronidazole was particularly effective against the anaerobes.

  5. Abha Sharma, Shivendu Bhardwaj and RajatJhamb

    Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) and acute myeloblasticleukaemia (AML) are the most common malignancies diagnosed in children and arise within bone marrow precursors of lymphoid and myeloid lineages. ALL accounts for one fourth of all childhood cancer and approximately 75% of all cases of childhood leukaemia, with an annual incidence of about 30 cases per million people and a peak incidence in children aged 2–5 years. AML comprises approximately 15–20% of childhood leukaemia (Pui, 2004). Facial palsy is an acute, peripheral, lower motor neuron facial nerve paralysis with a usually favourable prognosis. Its causes are unknown, although it appears to be a polyneuritis with possible infectious, inflammatory, autoimmune and metabolic aetiologies. In addition, facial palsy is an unusual presentation of leukaemia and other lymphoid and myeloid malignancies where facial neuritis has secondary involvement (Löwenberg et al., 1999). Facial paralysis in children is very often idiopathic and isolated facial nerve palsy, resulting from leukemic infiltration is a rare occurrence. Facial palsy is not well recognized as a presenting symptom of childhood leukemia, especially in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) (Karimi et al., 2009). Here we present the case of a 13 year old boy with acute myeloid leukemia, who first presented with isolated right side peripheral facial nerve paralysis. The presence of Bell's palsy in young children requires a complete evaluation, keeping in mind the possibility of leptomeningeal disease. The purpose of reporting this case is to emphasize the need of examining the peripheral blood and bone marrow in children presenting as facial palsy for early diagnosis of childhood AML.

  6. Dominic Bracero and Kun Jiang

    Human Intestinal Spirochetosis (HIS) is an infection of colonic epithelial cells by Brachyspira pilosicoli and Brachyspira aalborgi, which is diagnosed by a characteristic blue haze present on the histological biopsies. The most common clinical manifestation of this infection is chronic diarrhea, but it may contribute to other known clinical entities such as Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) and Sessile Serrated Adenomas (SSA), especially in immunocompromised patients. IBS is an intestinal disorder characterized by an onset of pain with changes in bowel habits, consistency etc. and with no clear etiology. HIS infection may be that etiology in some cases since there is a significant overlap of symptoms and a study in Sweden found that people with HIS were at a three times higher risk of developing IBS when compared to those without it. SSA can be associated with the development of high grade dysplasia and the progression to adenocarcinoma. The development of SSA is linked to a mutation in the BRAF gene, however distinct causes of the mutation have not been established. HIS may be one of those causes due to the induction of chronic inflammation, which would explain why a 2014 study conducted in Japan found that the rate of HIS infection was significantly higher in those with SSA than those that did not have it. Pathologists should have HIS on their mind when helping to treat patients with chronic diarrhea, but should also recognize the contribution this infection can have on people with IBS and sessile serrated adenomas.

  7. Ita, P. M., Attah, R. F and Nchor, E. E.

    This research on “Study Habit as Predictor of Students’ Academic Achievement in English in Secondary Schools in Calabar Metropolis, Cross River State, Nigeria”, was a survey involving 660 students from 22 public secondary schools in Calabar Metropolis, Cross River State, Nigeria. Data was generated through a well-structured validated questionnaire titled “Students’ Study Habit Rating Scale” (SSHRS), and Students Achievement Test in English (SATE). Data obtained were analysed using Independent t-test at 0.05 level of significance. The result of the of the analysis showed that study habit has a significant influence on students’ academic achievement among senior secondary school students in Calabar metropolis, Cross River Nigeria.

  8. Dr. Arunajatesan Subbiya, Geethapriya Nagarajan, Gold Pearlin Mary Newbegin, Malarvizi Dakshinamoorthy and Arumugam Karthick

    Sucessful root canal treatment involves in the complete understanding of the root canal anatomy and the microorganisms involved in the disease processes. The complex anatomy of the blunderbuss canals render the clinician a major challenge during obturation. Inadequately filled root canals are the major cause of failure, achieving an adequate biological seal in such cases is very essential for the success of the root canal treatment. The aim of this case report was to describe the technique of managing a failed blunderbuss canal with MTA apexification and hence achieve a biological seal.

  9. Dr. Venkatram Krishnan, Dr. Garvit Devmohan Khatri and Dr. Neha Antil

    Congenital anomalies of the cochlea are important cause of congenital sensorineural hearing loss in children. Cochlear anomalies are also known to be associated with vestibulocochlear nerve aplasia or hypoplasia. Such children are ideal candidates for cochlear implan¬tation surgery. We report here a rare case of a 5year old female child who presented with bilateral hearing loss and was planned for cochlear implantation. She was referred for pre-operative imaging evaluation of temporal bone. HRCT temporal bone and MRI inner ear were performed, which revealed in complete partition type I with cochlear nerve aplasia on the right side and common cavity cochlear malformation with normal vestibulocochlear nerve on the left side. It is vital that cochlear and associated nerve anomalies must be recognized prior to surgery as this would predict the feasibility and outcome of the cochlear implantation.

  10. Shenshen Gao, Yang, Gao, Zhenyao Gu, Lijuan Jiang and Weimin Gu

    Tertiary comprehensive hospital is a regional hospital with high level of medical and health service, higher education and scientific research task. Its medical service and management, medical quality and safety, technical level and efficiency show the comprehensive strength of the hospital. Pediatrics as an integral part of the general hospital, the emergency building for children's safety treatment is of great significance. This paper describes the role of the concept of process reengineering in the construction of pediatric demonstration and emergency department of a comprehensive hospital. It aims to provide new ideas for the establishment of Chinese pediatric emergency department.

  11. Haifa Lafi Alenzi, Reem Farhan Alanazi, ReemFaleh Alanazi, BatiJassim Alshammari, Rahma Abdulhadi Alanazi, Sara Emad Alrayya, Raghad Khaled Alenzi and Hadel Mohammed Fahad Alsarawi

    Background: Immunization against childhood diseases is one of the most cost-effective public health interventions available, and has saved the lives of millions of children in the last 3 decades. Objective: To estimate the level of immunization coverage for obligatory vaccinations, Among children of Arar, Northern Saudi Arabia. Methods: The study was a community based cross-sectional survey. The study was conducted within communities in six randomly chosen departments in Arar city. The study population comprised of households with children under preschool age. Data was collected with a pretested, interviewer administered questionnaire. The questionnaire comprised 2 sections; section one: the socio-demographic characteristics and section two; the immunization status of the children. Results: The total coverage of "at birth" vaccination is 99.2%. 2nd month's vaccination was totally covered. 4th months vaccines were 99.2% covered. 6th month vaccines were totally covered. 9th month was 99.2% covered. 12th month was 98.3% covered (higher in females than males). 18th month was 99.1% covered. 24th month was 95.6% covered and pre-school age was 92.3% covered (higher in males). Subsequently it was revealed that 89.7% of children were fully immunized, one missed vaccine (6.9%), two missed vaccines (1.7%), three missed vaccines (0.9%) and four missed vaccines (0.9%) among the studied children, Arar, Saudi Arabia, 2016. Conclusion: The immunization coverage in the study population is high compared to that of other studies. Policy makers should hold health education campaigns to rise parents and general public awareness to avoid dropout doses, and hence encourage them to complete the immunization of their children.

  12. Dr. Jeelani, S. and Dr. Amirthaa Priyadharscini, R.

    Opening new vistas in the identification of the cause of the death, identity of the deceased and in the identification of the criminals or suspects involved in the death is a virtual aid in forensic science serving humanity in medico legal postmortems in the form of Virtibot, a robotic technology. It is a Robot assisted technology tackling the autopsy with a high tech imaging approach. A non invasive forensic imaging technology comprising of MicroCT, Multi slice Computed tomography, Microscopic MRI, Magnetic resonance imaging, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, 3-D CAD/ photogrammetry, biopsy module, three dimensional optical scanner of the body , angiography unit, navigation system unit that can be used for direct imaging and a computer system for documenting, equipped with 3D simulation software serve not only the judiciary system but also relatives of the deceased due to the fact that it provides details without mutilating the body.

  13. Abd-El-Aal A. Saleem

    Objective: To assess the diagnostic accuracy of modified Alvarado scoring system, abdominal ultrasonography and operative findings in comparative to histopathological study in patients suffering from acute appendicitis. Methods and Patients: This was a prospective study of 100 patients who underwent appendecictomy for suspected acute appendicitis. The patients were of both males and females their age ranged from 12- 47 years. The data were collected within one year including sociodemograghic data, Modified Alvarado Scoring System (MASS), abdominal ultrasonography, operative findings which were correlated with histopathological reports. Also operative procedure done, postoperative complications, hospital stay and outcome. Results: Out of 100 patients, the maximum percentage of patients were in age group 21-40 years (56%), males more than females (68% vs 32%, ratio 2.13:1). 76% had MASS ≥7, 68% had +ve ultrasonography findings for acute appendicitis. Histopathological positive reports were 80%. Ultrasonography compared to histopathology reports shows, sensitivity = 60%, specificity = 0%, PPV = 70.59%, NPV = 0% and accuracy =30%. MASS compared to histopathology reports at cutoff point = 6 shows, sensitivity = 90%, specificity = 40%, PPV = 85.71%, NPV = 50% and accuracy = 65%. Also, MASS compared to histopathology reports at cutoff point = 7 shows, sensitivity = 85%, specificity = 60%, PPV = 89.47%, NPV = 50% and accuracy = 72.50%. ROC curve for diagnosis of acute appendicitis according to MASS:- AUC = 0.87, standard error =0.034and CI = 0.80-0.93. Both MASS and histopathological positive reports were more prevalent among all age groups at cutoff point ≥7 than at cutoff point <7. MASS at cutoff point = 7 shows more Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy in males (86.67, 100, 100, 50, 93.33 respectively) than females (80.00, 33.33, 66.67, 50, 56.67 respectively). Conclusion: From present study, it is concluded that modified Alvarado scoring system is better diagnostic tool than ultrasonography alone in diagnosis of acute appendicitis because of the MASS provides high degree of sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV and accuracy in diagnosis of acute appendicitis in relation to histopathological study. MASS has to be more helpful in male patients by showing lower negative appendicectomy rate and high sensitivity, specificity, PPV and accuracy for male patients as compared to females. But still neither MASS nor ultrasonography is absolute tool in reducing negative appendicectomy in patients of suspected appendicitis.

  14. Aiman Nazhmetdinova

    Pollution of POPs, which are carcinogens, has an adverse effect on the environment and human health. One of the crisis regions of Kazakhstan is considered the Aral Sea area. Shalkar and Irgiz villages are located in the ecologically unfavorable zone of the Aral Sea in the territory of Aktobe oblast. On the basis of the obtained sample samples, we conducted research on the residual quantities of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), PCBs and dioxins. Calculations of carcinogenic risks revealed that total individual carcinogenic risk (CR sum) in the village of Shalkar when exposed to POPs (most of them are PCBs, dioxins, HCH) via different routes from various environments was 2,0x10-5and for the village of Igriz, 5,2x10-4. The evaluation of the carcinogenic risks we have received is assessed by their acceptability and allows us to relate the village of Shalkarto the second-range of risk, and the village of Irgiz to the third - range risk, which indicates the unacceptability of people's lives. This necessarily requires constant monitoring with the inclusion of all environmental objects, otherwise we may lose an entire generation of children who already today suffer from diseases associated with exposure to POPs (eye diseases, endocrine system diseases and diabetes mellitus).

  15. Kirupa, K. and Jamuna, G.

    Aim: The aim of the study is to compare the effectiveness of footwear alteration and footwear alteration with exercise in improving the functional activities in subjects with flatfoot. Background of the study: Flatfoot is one of the most common postural deformities, in which the arches of the foot become collapsed. This results in increased load in the first metatarsal and increased stress in the ligaments which supports the joints of the medial arch, these changes leads to a disturbance in the functional activities. Hence the study aimed to compare the effectiveness of footwear alteration and footwear alteration combined with exercise in improving the functional activities in subjects with flatfoot. Methodology: Once the study is approved by the institutional review broad, 30 out of 40 volunteers were selected based on the inclusion criteria. It is an experimental study carried out for the duration of 6week, in out-patient department of physiotherapy in ACS Medical college and Hospital, in which the individuals were randomly selected and divided into two groups (each of 15 individuals). Group-A treated with footwear alteration and group-B treated with footwear alteration along with exercises (heel raising, toe curling, short foot, toe raising, calf stretching). Navicular drop test and VAS were used pre and post to the test to evaluate the effectiveness of the treatment given to the individuals. Result: On comparing the mean values of navicular drop test and VAS, pre and post to the treatment, the group-B has shown highly significant improvement in the functional activities(***- P ≤ 0.001) than the group-A(*- P > 0.05), and highly significant reduction in pain in both the group (***- P ≤ 0.001).

  16. Yavuz Pirhan, Necmi Kurt, Osman Fadıl Kara

    Objective: Acute appendicitis is the disease most frequently requiring non-obstetric surgical intervention during pregnancy. It is a condition threatening both mother and fetus lives and the prevalence in pregnant and non-pregnant women is identical, it is 0.1 % - 0.2 %. The aim of this study is to investigate the approach for acute appendicitis in patients who underwent appendectomy during follow-up of pregnancy by retrospective data of last nine years. Materials and Methods: Data of 19 pregnant patients who underwent appendectomy during their pregnancy between January 2006 and November 2015 were retrospectively examined. Patients were evaluated with respect to age, age of pregnancy, clinical and laboratory signs, imaging results, surgical signs, postoperative complications, and pathological results. Results: At their admission, 63.1% of cases were at trimester 3, 21% were at trimester 2, and 33.3% were at trimester 1. In 19 patients, appendectomy was decided and performed during cesarean. Pathological results in 54.5% of these patients reported acute appendicitis. In pregnant cases with appendectomy, 10 patients (52.6%) had acute appendicitis, while 9 patients (47.3%) had normal appendix. Conclusion: We consider that in case of edema and hyperemia detected by visualizing appendix during cesarean, appendectomy must be performed.

  17. Dr. Maya Singha and Dr. Swanand S. Pathak

    Amikacin is an Aminoglycoside group of antibiotic, it is a semi synthetic derivative prepared from Kanamycin A by acylation of the 1-amino group of the 2-deoxystreptamine moiety with 2-hydroxy-4-aminobutyric acid. Amikacin is an antibiotic used for a number of bacterial infections. Amikacin have the potential to produce reversible and irreversible vestibular, cochlear, and renal toxicity. Cytochrome P4503A4 (abbreviated CYP3A4), is an important enzyme in the body, mainly found in the liver and in the intestine. In this study, we have tried to evaluate if there is any relation between high serum Amikacin level and presence of CYP3A4*22 in an individual. Study population was patients admitted in Medicine and Paediatrics department receiving Amikacin as antimicrobial of all ages and both sexes. Each patient were observed for any kind of adverse drug reaction during the period of antimicrobial therapy with Amikacin. Therapeutic drug monitoring of Amikacin was done for the patients who had any complain during that period. In the last step, CYP3A4*22 status was estimated for those patients with ADRs to see whether there is any correlation of the SNP (CYP3A4*22) with high serum Amikacin level. Apparatus used were High Performance Liquid Chromatography and Real Time PCR. So from the observations, it can be concluded that high serum Amikacin level has a correlation with adverse reactions of Amikacin. But, as it is seen that CYP3A4*22 is present in both group of patients ie. High and normal serum Amikacin level. It can be concluded that CYP3A4*22 has no correlation with high serum level of Amikacin.

  18. Sarma, B. K. and Seema Rani

    The highly selective and sensitive PVC based membrane sensor was fabricated by using 1,3,5-tris [(2,3-dihydroxybenzylamino) amino methyl]cyclohexane (L) as a neutral membrane carrier for the potentiometric determination of Promethazine HCl. The membrane with the composition of33% PVC, 64% Plasticizer, 3% PM-PMD(Ionophore) and 1% NaTPB was found to be best in terms of response characteristics of sensor assembly. The proposed membrane sensor has very low detection limit of 2.0 x 10-8 M, within the concentration range of 5.0 x 10-8 – 1.0 x 10-2 M, and has fast response time of about 10s. The proposed sensor was used for the selective determination of Promethazine HCl. in different synthetic as well as real sample.

  19. Mahalakshmi, N. K.

    Endodermal Sinus Tumour is one of the histological varieties of germ cell tumours. EST have also been referred to as yolk sac carcinoma because, they derived from primitive yolk sac, In the first 2 decades of life, almost 70% of ovarian tumours are of germ cell origin and one third of them are malignant. yolk sac tumour is the third most common malignant germ cell tumour of the ovary, comprising 10 to 15% overall and reaching a higher proportion among children. The EST (Yolk sac tumour) primarily affects the adolescent girls of age group 16 to 18 years. The gross appearance of an EST is soft greyish-brown which is usually well encapsulated and solid. Areas of necrosis and haemorrhage and small cystic spacesare often seen. A rate case of endodermal sinus tumour (Yolk sac tumour) of adolescence is presented. A 16 year old postmenar girl presented with lump abdomen and 3 months amenorrhea. Serum alphafeto protein was elevated. A fertility preserving surgery was done followed by 3 months amenorrhea. Serum. Alphafeto protein level was reduced that refletcs the response to chemotherephy.

  20. Setare Nassiri, Mohammad Vakili, Shahrzad Sheikh Hassani, Hamide Gholami and Leila Pirzade

    HELLP syndrome is one of the life-threatening situations in pregnancy and has a tendency to multi organ insufficiency in some particular cases. We discuss about a 14 years old woman with molar pregnancy who complicated by the syndrome in 16 weeks of gestation ,24 hours after evacuation of conception products. She was one of the missed molar pregnancies with management delays. After 24 hours of her evacuation, the patient developed sever plural effusion and returned to a normal condition after7 days.it was an exceptional situation implies a high risk of mortality. Based on our knowledge, there are very rare reports as such HELLP syndrome complicates complete molar pregnancy in 16 weeks of gestation. Notably we will report massive plural effusion caused by the syndrome in molar pregnancy as a very scare manifestation of HELLP syndrome. Early diagnosis of molar pregnancies is very important. When HELLP syndrome complicated molar pregnancy, treatment is similar to non- trophoblastic pregnancy with only Conservative closed management. Respiratory distress due to sudden onset massive pleural effusion is not as a common symptom of HELLP syndrome but our assertion is, it’s possible and only conservative management may be sufficient for this situation too.

  21. Dr. Prahaladu Patirla

    32 cases of intra cranial Brain Abscess (BA) depending on CT (Computerised Tomography) scan imaging were treated by emergency aspiration by a single burr hole and application of antibiotics into the cavity of abscess, till two consecutive negative aspirations were obtained. A combination of loop diuretics and antibiotics in appropriate doses were also given. The mortality rate with the procedure was nil and the morbidity rate being 12.5%.No role of corticosteroids (CS) in the management of brain abscess. Thus, emergency aspiration was found to be an effective mode of surgical management of brain abscess.

  22. Dr. Abdurahiman, T. and Dr. Fathimathu Zuhara

    Disorders of lipid metabolism results in Hyperlipoproteinemia which is one of the modifiable factor and leading cause of Coronary Artery Diseases.Clinical trials of relatively short term duration indicate that 2% reduction in CAD rates from each 1% reduction in serum cholesterol. Though Homoepathic treatment is found to be effective in various clinical conditions reelated to CAD, no biochemical correlation were attempted. This prospective study included primary hyperlipoproteinemia, diabetes mellitus, Hypertension and coronary artery disease groups. A total number of 86 patients were followed for about 2 years. Analysis of this study indicated a highly significant reduction in total cholesterol ( < 0.001 ), LDL cholesterol ( < 0.001), and non –HDL cholesterol ( 0.001). C:HDL and LDL: HDL were also reduced after treatment. There was reduction from high risk group to low risk group and optimal levels. This study had also demonstrated the efficacy in reduction of risk for develoment of CAD in 10 years, reduction of fasting and post prandial blood sugar in diabetes mellitus, as well as systolic and diastolic pressure in Hypertension. This study indicates efficacy of Homoeopathic method of treament in Life style disorders - Hyperlipidemia, Hypertension, Diabetes Mellitus, Coronary Artery diseases as well as the prevention of development of CAD.

  23. Prema Kumara, Wondwossen Yimam and Yemiamrew Getachew

    Introduction: Hospital-acquired infection is a major safety issue affecting the quality of care of hundreds of millions of patients every year, in both developed and developing countries, including Ethiopia. Asepsis is a set of process to prevent the spread of hospital acquired infection. To protect patients from pathogens during medical and surgical procedures, health care forces use aseptic techniques. Objectives: To assess the efficacy of hands on practice coaching regarding Operation room asepsis among nurses in Dessie Referral Hospital, Eastern Amhara, Ethiopia. Methodology: Institution based pre-experimental one group pre and post test design was used and 51 study subjects were selected by convenient sampling technique. The study samples included nurses working at Operation theatre. Data collection took place between October-November 2016. The collected data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics and statistical significances for variables were set at p- value less than 0.05. Results: There was a significant difference in skill score related factors under this study before and after the hands on practice coaching. There was a significant median difference in skill (p = 0.02) scores after the hands on practice coaching regarding operation room asepsis among study subjects. Sixty-seven (67) % of respondents rated the hands on practice coaching as very good. Seventeen (17) % of respondents had rated as good, and 4% rated as fair and also 4% of the respondents rated as poor. Conclusion and Recommendation: The hands on practice coaching provided by Wollo University staff was found to be efficient, conceivable on operation room asepsis skill and which can be scaled up further to nearby Hospital staff. Periodic training program shall be provided to nurses who work at operation theatre to update their skill regarding operation room asepsis.

  24. Grace Akoury, Valeria Modica Alameddine, Nada Khoury, Rawane Dagher, Pauline Abou Jaoude, Mode AlOjaimi, Rayan Ghyie and *Marie Claude Fadous Khalife

    Visceral leishmania, known as Kala Azar, is a rare but increasing disease especially in Lebanon. The protozoan parasite proliferates in the reticulo-histiocyte system producing a large spectrum of different symptoms that can mimic other diseases like malignancies. HL-Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis is a possible complication that can rapidly deteriorate the patient clinical situation and make the diagnosis even more difficult. We report a challenging case of fever and pancytopenia in an otherwise well looking Lebanese 3 years old girl.

  25. Dr. Durga Bhavani Domathota, Dr. K. Roja Reddy, Dr. A Venkata Ratnakar, Dr. Guru Ram Tej Kukunuri and Dr. N Om Brahma Prasad Chary

    Oral submucous fibrosis is an irreversible mucosal change due to hypersensitivity; the attributing factors are mainly divided into local and systemic. Local factors are dietary substances such as Chilies, betel quid (Gutkha) and Areca nut which imparts main contribution for the condition. Systemic factors, nutritional deficiency, autoimmunity, and genetic susceptibility. It is associated with other conditions such as trismus and fibrosis, burning sensation with initiation from an early mucosal inflammation. It is an irreversible condition with high probability of malignant transformation. So, it is imperative to have an insight related to this debilitating disease and its etiology, pathology, and treatment modes and prevention and insight about mechanisms of malignant transformation and to provide and apply possible management and decisively work towards treatment modalities. Hence the present article OSMF reviewed the etiology, pathophysiology, clinical features & management.

  26. Carmine D’Aniello, Claudia Trojaniello, Maria Rosa Coccaro, Gino Leo, Antonella Bianco, 1Francesca Andreozzi, Francesca Caputo, Pasquale Somma and Vincenzo Montesarchio

    Colorectal cancer most commonly metastasizes to the liver, lung and distant lymph nodes. Breast metastases are extremely rare and account for 0.5-6% of all breast malignancies. The most common cancers that metastasize to the breast are the contralateral breast tumor followed by metastasis from hematological malignancies, malignant melanoma, sarcoma, lung, prostate, ovary, kidney, stomach and carcinoid. Despite its rarity, when present, they are associated with a poor prognosis due to disease dissemination. Metastatic disease to the breast is an important diagnostic issue because its treatment differs greatly from that of primary cancer. The median overall survival is estimated to be less than one year after diagnosis of breast metastases. In some cases a palliative excision can be considered just for local control if is present pain, ulceration or in case of response to treatment and unique disease site. So it is important to differentiate breast metastases from primary breast carcinoma to avoid unnecessary surgical treatment.

  27. Deivanayagi Muthusamy

    Oral cancer is a potentially fatal disease with an increasing incidence and an unchanged five years mortality rate. The high mortality rate in cancer such as oral squamous cell carcinoma is commonly attributed to the negligence in detection of the disease at an early treatable stage. A number of promising recent technologies have been proposed to improve the effectiveness of early oral cancer detection. The world health organization has strongly identified prevention and early detection as one of the objectives in the control of oral cancers worldwide. The purpose of this article is to review the current knowledge about the commercially available diagnostic adjuncts in diagnosis of potentially malignant disorders.

  28. Elif Güneri Yöyen, Hatice Özgen and Haydeh Faraji

    In order to examine the effect of parents' own childhood traumas during their childhood and adolescence on their child raising attitude; a set of data was collected from 902 parents with children between the ages 2-6 who attend to preschool classes under the primary schools of Ministery of National Education Council, independent kindergartens and private preschool education institutions. The study used Childhood Psychologic Trauma Questionnarie and Parental Attitudes Scale; the collected data was analyzed with IBM SPSS 23.0 program. Frequency and percentage rate were used for categorical variables and regression analysis was used in order to detect the reasonal relation between the dependent and independent variables. Regression analysis had used in order to detec the relation between dependent and independent variables. At the end of the research, it was found that there is a significant relation between the parents’ child rasing attitudes and their own childhood traumas. According to this, these were found that emotional and physical abuse predict democratic and overprotective attitude, emotional neglect and physical abuse predict authoritarian attitude; pyhsical abuse, emotinal neglect and sexual abuse predict permissive attitude significantly in a positive dimention.

  29. Kapil Sharma, Vishal Patidar, Avinash Jain, Sheena Taneja, Sudan, D. P. S., Monica Sharma and Mishra, J. K

    Background: Bronchogenic carcinoma usually has fatal consequences but early diagnosis remains a challenge in developing nation like India. Bronchoscopic methods and CT guided FNAC are valuable tools for early diagnosis of both central and peripheral lesions. Objectives: To compare the diagnostic efficacy of Bronchoscopic methods (BAL, TBNA), Pleural Fluid (aspiration cytology, pleural biopsy), Lymph node FNAC while considering CT-FNAC of lung masses and EBLB as Gold Standard tests. Materials and Methods: Study was carried out for more than 4 years and various modalities of lung cancer were offered for CT diagnosed cases of lung masses. Data of 198 cases was recorded for statistical analyses. Results: Study obtained higher sensitivity of BAL samples and Lymph node FNAC as 79.17% and 88.2 % respectively. However, there was low sensitivity of pleural fluid cytology and pleural biopsy as 26.4% and 11.11% respectively. The study recorded good specificity and accuracy for all the modalities. Conclusion: We conclude to perform CT guided FNAC of masses, Bronchoscopic methods and lymph node FNAC for early detection of bronchogenic carcinoma.

  30. Dr. Ankita Srivastav, Dr. Vandana A. Pant and Dr. Brijesh Sharma

    Immediate temporization after a single stage implant placement is fairly a recent concept, which allows the maintenance of soft tissue contours. Improvements in implant design and development of new implant surfaces have resulted in increased use of this procedure. The presence of osseous defects like fenestration and dehiscence can hamper the surgical outcome and need to be corrected. The combined use of bone grafts and growth factors contained in PRF may enhance the bone density as suggested by various clinical trials. In the present study the advantage of the properties of bone graft and PRF membrane have been used to treat the fenestration defect in a single stage implant procedure.

  31. Dr. Farhin Katge, Dr Ashveeta J. Shetty and Dr. Manohar Poojari

    Purpose: To compare effectiveness of alternating current impedance spectroscopy technique (CarieScan PROTM) with tactile examination and bitewing radiography in detection of occlusal caries in primary teeth. Method: 110 primary molars in 40 patients aged 6 to 12 years were examined for presence of occlusal caries by tactile examination, bitewing radiography and CarieScan PROTMdevice. Results: Out of 110 teeth, 68 showed presence of dentinal caries and 42 showed presence of enamel caries. The highest sensitivity was seen with CarieScan PROTM (92.65%) followed by bitewing radiography (79.41%) and tactile examination (76.47%).95.24% specificity was seen with bitewing radiography, 92.86% specificity was seen with CarieScan PROTM followed by tactile examination with 71.43% which was least specific. Highest positive likelihood ratio was seen with bitewing radiography (16.68), followed by CarieScan PROTM (12.97) and tactile examination (2.68). Tactile examination (0.33) showedhighest negative likelihood ratio followed by bitewing radiography (0.22) and least with CarieScan PROTM (0.079). The diagnostic accuracy of CarieScan PROTM measurement was significant (AUC = 0.928, P < 0.001). Conclusions: In terms of sensitivity, likelihood ratios and accuracy, CarieScan PROTM performed better than tactile examination and bitewing radiography in early caries detection on non cavitated pits and fissures of primary teeth.

  32. Dr. Manoj Mahadeo Ramugade and Dr. Apoorva Dilip Patel

    Successful endodontic treatment mandates knowledge of internal and external anatomy of teeth along with their deviations. Maxillary first premolars usually have definite pattern of roots and root canals but, deviation in the form of having extra root and root canal is rare. Proper clinical and radiographic evaluation, magnification and modified access cavity preparation helps in diagnosis and treatment of such anatomical variation. This case report describes identification, treatment modifications and successful endodontic management of three rooted and three canalled maxillary first premolar.

  33. Thomas F Heston

    Healthcare complexity and costs can be decreased through the application of blockchain technology to medical records and insurance companies. Estonia has taken a leadership role in blockchain based services both in the commercial sector and in government. The Estonian government’s innovation strategy was to create GovTech partnerships to implement blockchain based technologies throughout the country, and become a global leader in the technology. Starting in 2011, just 3 years after Satoshi Nakamoto published the first description of distributed ledgers and blockchain technology, the Estonian Government started partnering with the private technology startup company Guardtime to use blockchains to secure public and internal records. Then in 2016, Estonia once again reinforced its global leadership in blockchain technology when it announced it would use blockchain technology to secure the health records of over a million citizens. Estonia’s systematic method of applying blockchain technologies through GovTech partnerships demnostrates how innovation is a process. Estonia also identified early the value of the blockchain as a disruptive platform innovation. The application of blockchain technology to healthcare is a radical innovation given that nearly all previous applications have been in the financial and legal sectors.

  34. Jibin, K. V., Dr. Kamaraj, B., Dr. K. Syed Abudaheer and Rahul Krishnan Kutty

    Background: The rising burden of stroke, especially in low-income and middle-income countries, leads us to propose a worldwide goal for stroke: a 2% reduction each year over and above that which may happen as a result of better case management and treatment. The experience of high-income countries indicates that sustained interventions can achieve at least the required 4% annual average decline in stroke mortality for people age 60–69 years. The aim and objective of the study is to determine whether functional task-oriented intervention is effective than Bobath intervention or vice-versa in enhancing walking balance and distance among post stroke survivors. Methodology: An experimental, randomized and single blinded comparative design and subjects were randomly divided into two groups by using simple random sampling method. A total of 40 subjects (n=40) were included with the following inclusion criteria; patients with clinical diagnosis of a first stroke, Patients above 40 years of age of either sex. Subjects with hemiparesis of _6 month’s duration after unilateral, supratentorial, ischemic, or hemorrhage stroke were recruited. Result: ‘t’ table value for (n1+n2-2) degrees of freedom at 5% level of significance was taken. ‘t’ calculated value > ‘t’ table value. These statistical test suggests that when the two intervention are applied to respective groups, they indicate positive and good results in term of walking distance, regain strength and control of the lower limbs. Whereas when both groups are compared there is very minimal significance changes. According to the generated result it can be suggested that these two interventions can be given for stroke patient for better and early recovery and can be included in the stroke rehabilitation treatment protocol. Conclusion: The studysuggest that it has been observed that both Bobath intervention and Functional task-oriented intervention are effective in chronic stroke rehabilitation. Whereas when both groups are compared there is very minimal significance changes seen. According to the generated result it can be suggested that these two interventions can be given for stroke patient for better and early recovery and can be included in the stroke rehabilitation treatment protocol. Moreover, Functional task-oriented intervention gives better response and is more effective than Bobath intervention in enhancing walking balance, distance and speed in post-stroke patients.

  35. Khalid Mokhtar, MS, Pharm D., Elgenaid Hamadain, Hamed Benghuzzi, 2Michelle Tucci, Kenneth Butler, Ibrahim Jamil, Donna Sullivan, and Felicia Tardy

    The present work is focused on coagulation defects associated with prediabetes, which are reflected in laboratory abnormalities of coagulation markers, such as fibrinogen and tPA. These markers are associated with increased risks of thrombosis which are associated with increased risks of cardiovascular (CV) events, including myocardial infarction (MI), coronary heart disease (CHD), and other forms of atherosclerosis. The Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) trial was designed to study the effect of four different interventions (Intensive Lifestyle (ILS) modifications, metformin, troglitazone, and placebo) on the development and progression of diabetes in subjects with Impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). In this study we analyzed the effect of troglitazone on coagulation markers including fibrinogen and tPA in the DPP population. Materials and Methods: Our analysis selected a subgroup (n= 3,171) from the original DPP population. The effect of troglitazone on coagulation markers was measured by analyzing its effects on the levels of fibrinogen and tPA at baseline and at 12 months and compared to the other three interventions (ILS, metformin, and placebo). Results: Troglitazone reduced fibrinogen levels, median percent change of - 6.65% (p <0.001) for all between group analysis: troglitazone vs. lifestyle, troglitazone vs. metformin, and troglitazone vs. placebo). This change revealed the highest change among all other interventions as reported in the previous DPP studies. Troglitazone also produced the highest median percent reduction in tPA levels (-21.39%) comparted to -20.41% in the lifestyle, -18.00% in the metformin, and -6.25% in the placebo intervention. Discussion and Conclusions: Our study demonstrated the benefits of the TZDs in reducing certain CV surrogate risk markers due to the treatment with troglitazone for 12 months. These benefits appeared as a decrease in the levels of coagulation markers including fibrinogen and tPA. These benefits are of special value especially in such a population already at increased risk for CV morbidity and mortality. The effects of troglitazone on these markers exceed that of metformin. Our analysis was unable to associate the effect of changes in weigh and waist circumference, and changes in measures of glycemia and insulin resistance with the main effect of troglitazone on coagulation markers.

  36. Dr. Pooja Agrawat, Dr. Kshama Chandan, Dr. Gaurang Mistry and Dr. Rajeev Singh

    Attachment retained implant overdentures are functionally superior to conventional dentures and are effective and cost saving alternatives to fixed implant dental prostheses. A wide variety of commercially available systems are used to connect implants to overdenture. Attachments for both maxillary and mandibular overdentures provide an acceptable implant prognosis, predictable retention while simplifying implant treatment protocols, making implant dentistry available for a larger segment of the population.

  37. Jayalakshmi P.S., Soumithran C. S., Pallav Kumar Kinra, Manoj Joseph Michael, Deepak Passi and Vikram Ahuja

    Aims and Objectives: To compare and evaluate the time of onset, profoundness, duration of anesthesia and postoperative complications of Articaine and Lignocaine. Materials and Methods: The study group consists total of 90 patients divided into two groups of 45 each undergone double blind study conducted with Articaine and Lignocaine with surgical removal of impacted mandibular 3rd molars. Clinical parameters like onset of anesthesia, duration of anesthesia, Pain experience and post operative complications were analysed. Results: Onset of anesthesia was (3 to 6 minutes) with mean 4.64 minutes for Articaine and 4.3 minutes for lignocaine. Mean duration of Anesthesia is 390.67 minutes for Articaine and 368 minutes for Lignocaine. Pain (evaluated withVAS scale) during anesthesia is not much significant statistically (Mean value - 2.00). There is also no statistical difference between the two groups (mean value 2.00) for pain during procedure. Paraesthesia was reported in Lignocaine group which resolves itself in due course of time. Conclusion: From the result of our study we can conclude that the onset of action Articaine solution is similar to Lignocaine. 4% Articaine has longer duration of action than 2% Lignocaine. The efficacy of 4% Articaine based on VAS (Visual analog scale) is similar to 2% Lignocaine indicating that Articaine has provided adequate analgesia. Articaine can be used in minor oral surgical procedures like impaction and dentoalveolar surgery.

  38. Keon-Cheol Lee

    There are many studies dealing with CPPS (chronic pelvic pain syndrome) which is very common urologic disorder but the reports about juvenile CPPS is rare. Urology outpatient visits of juvenile CPPS patients is very low but community survey study has suggested that the incidence of juvenile CPPS could be higher than we thought. There might be a possibility of underestimation for the prevalence of juvenile CPPS. According to the studies of juvenile CPPS, juvenile CPPS is devastating and has severe impact on the quality of life as like in adult patients. Compared with adult patients, juvenile CPPS patients had a high voiding symptoms and effect on depression or anxiety is commonly followed. Juvenile CPPS patients could experience more psychologic stress and catastrophizing due to the specificity of that age period with vulnerability. Multimodal management with psychologic reassurance is important to juvenile CPPS patients.

  39. Mayuri Gohil

    Introduction: The endometrial carcinoma can present as abnormal excessive uterine bleeding. However its occurrence with clear cell carcinoma of ovary is rare. Equally rare is the occurrence of bilateral clear cell carcinoma and the coexistence of ovarian endometrioid carcinoma. Materials and Methods: A 40 year multiparous woman with abnormal excessive uterine bleeding and suspected to have leiomyoma underwent hysterectomy. On operation table, she was found to have a malignant looking left ovarian mass and so hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy was done. Grossly, the uterus was having irregular endometrial lining and a superficial soft granular creamish mass filling the entire endometrial cavity. The left ovary had predominantly soft solid creamish area. Right ovary had predominantly cystic areas and one solid firm nodule. Sections were given and processed further as per our laboratory protocol and stained with H & E. Results: On microscopic examination, uterus showed morphology of well differentiated endometrial carcinoma limited to endometrium. Left ovary showed morphology of clear cell carcinoma with small area of endometrioid carcinoma. Right ovary showed predominantly normal morphology, nodule like area showed morphology of clear cell carcinoma. Both uterine and ovarian neoplasm were primary. Conclusion: This case is presented here owing to its rarity. Differentiation between the primary and secondary neoplasm in the synchronous neoplasms is important because it would influence on cancer staging, management, and prognosis.

  40. Manish Choudhary, Pardeep Kumar, Vivek Batra, Mamta Dubey and Bhargava, A. K.

    Spinal anesthesia, also referred to as central neuraxial blockade is produced when a local anesthetic agent is injected into the subarachnoid space. It induces sympathectomy leading to selective vasodilatation of lower limbs. Perfusion index (PI) is a valuable objective during anesthetic practice to find out noninvasive methods for predicting the effect of anesthesia at our institution we studied the role of PI in assessing the efficacy of spinal anesthesia in 100 patients, scheduled for lower abdominal surgeries. In our study we found that when perfusion index in toe increases continuously from baseline at various intervals, there was simultaneous drop in mean blood pressure. PI in the lower limbs (increase of 602.98% at 20 minutes) has a strong negative correlation with the mean arterial pressure (decrease of 19.67% at 20 minutes) as per our results (p <0.01). We correlated mean sensory block time with PI from baseline to 20 minutes, PI increased even at 1 minute after SAB but no statistically significant correlation could be found (p>0.05) between time of onset of block and PI values.

  41. Sourav Goswami and Jagruti Bhattacharjee

    Ageing is a universal phenomenon. With the decline of communicable diseases and fertility rates and increased and improvised medical services, the average longevity of the people round the globe has increased, so also is the case of developing nations like India. In spite of an increased elderly population, there has been very less improvement in the quality of life of the elderly in India. Though different activities are going on for developing “healthy ageing”, yet there are a number of challenges that the Indian elderly population faces in day to day life, that prove to be a bar in active ageing. The sole purpose of this article is to review the current challenges among the Indian elderly population in the context of globalization.

  42. Shamonica King, M.A., Hamed Benghuzzi, Michelle Tucci and Elgenaid Hamadain

    Background: Nutrient intake declines as a person ages. Vitamin D supplementation in older adults could potentially prevent skeletal disorders and other diseases when nutrient consumption is inadequate. Objective: To determine the mean consumption of vitamin D consumed through nutrient intakes and supplement consumption in middle-age and older adults in the United State whom participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) in the 2011-2012 cycle. Methods: The dietary intake of vitamin D (mcg) in 8,389 individuals of all age groups, who participated in the NHANES in the 2011-2012 cycle was analyzed using the respondent’s dietary survey responses. The mechanism of assessment and outcome measures was conductedusing IBM SPSS software packages (version 24.0). Results: The findings of this study demonstrated that older adults consumed less nutrient vitamin D than other age groups. The analysis of supplement consumption provided evidence that middle-age and older adults consume more vitamin D through supplements when compared with other age groups. Conclusion: Nutrient consumption is critical to maintaining good health, especially in older adults. In the aging adult population, vitamin D supplementation can offset the decreasing consumption of vitamin D in food intake.

  43. Dr N. Sarah Sheela Emerald, Dr Sarath Reddy Pocha, Dr Rafi Shaik, Dr Dandu Siva Sai Prasad

    Yanadis are one of the under privileged scheduled tribes mainly lives in coastal part of Andhra Pradesh state which are living in isolation and are treated as lowest social group and placed just above the scheduled castes in social hierarchy in the Potti SriRamulu Nellore districts. Nellore district has the highest population of Yanadi in the state. Like any other tribe in the country Yanadi also depend on herbs, barks and roots for curative procedures and maintenance of health. Enhancing the sustainable use and conservation of indigenous knowledge of useful and medicinal plants may benefit and improve the living standards of poor people. The aim of this study is to document the ethno medicinal plants used for oral diseases using a specific questionnaire form the traditional healers, elderly people and residents of Gonepalli village of Nellore district. Information on 3 trees, 7 different herbs along with alum and camphor is documented along with the details of the parts of the plants used. This study concludes that this documentation will help to preserve the rich herbal treasure of our tribal population as well as help the pharmacists to derive the active compounds and incorporate them in modern medicine in future.

  44. Maria da Penha Laprovita Oliveira, Antonio Neres Norberg, José Tadeu Madeira de Oliveira, 6Fabiano Guerra Sanches, Rodrigo Fernandes de Freitas and Nicolau Maués Serra Freire

    Sepsis by Candida species are nowadays one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality, especially in hospitalized, immunocompromised patients and newborn with high health risk levels. The objective of this research is to investigate the incidence of candidemias in patients hospitalized at the Baixada Fluminense region, Province of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and identify species of the genus Candida which causes sepsis on these patients. Blood samples from 1213 patients with clinical suspects of sepsis were collected between January 2010 and December 2014 and seeded on the nutrient broth Brain Heart Infusion. Positive cultures for yeast cells were transplanted into Sabouraud dextrose agar medium and the fungal growth obtained was identified by biochemical tests of BioMerieux–Vitek system. 31 cases of candidemia were diagnosticated, which corresponded to a prevalence rate of PC =2,56. The isolated species of the genus Candida were: 14 cases of Candida albicans (Dominance Coefficient , DC=45,16%), two cases of C. krusei (DC=6,45%), four cases of C. stellatoidea (DC=12,90%), one case of C. glabrata (DC=3,23%), two cases of C. parapsilosis (DC=6,45%) and eight cases of C. tropicalis (DC=25,81%). The results highlighted the need for continued attention to patients hospitalized to possible infections by Candida species which causes candidemias.

  45. Swati Diwakari Boddeda, Endla Varun Kumar, Chembolu Neelima, Bal Reddy Patlola, Sridhar Reddy, B. and Chembolu Nirupama

    Introduction: Mandibular fractures are most common in maxillofacial region. Intermaxillary fixation followed by open reduction and internal fixation is the choice of treatment. Elastic internal traction replaces intermaxillary fixation as it is a simple and effective means to reduce mandibular fractures into anatomical alignment for internal fixation reducing the overall operating time. Aim: The aim of the study was to compare the effectiveness of elastic internal traction over the conventional method of inter maxillary fixation in open reduction of mandibular fractures prior to internal fixation. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 14 patients with clinical and radiological evidence of isolated parasymphysis fracture mandible. Open reduction of fracture was done in group A by elastic internal traction and in group B by intraoperative inter maxillary fixation. Results: The difference in the time required for anatomical reduction of the fracture was statistically significant in both the groups of the patients. There were no significant differences between both the groups in relation to the anatomical reduction of fracture, stability of the post reduction occlusion, the need for post operative intermaxillary fixation and mental nerve paresthesia. Conclusion: Elastic internal traction technique is a simple and effective method of fracture reduction. It provides a stable primary fixation of the bone before the final fixation. It is a viable alternative to open reduction of fracture mandible by intermaxillary Fixation.

  46. Dr. Sangita Totade, Dr. Mahesh Kumar Jain and Dr. Swanand S Pathak

    Calcium (Ca++) a divalent cation, required to perform numerous physiological function within the body like cardiac and smooth muscle contraction. Increased excitatory and reduced inhibitory neurotransmission is responsible for excessive neuronal activity in epilepsy. Some of the CCBs induce reduction in current through Ca2+ channels and thus reducing the pacemaker current that underlies the thalamic rhythm in spikes and waves seen in generalized seizures. The dose of nimodipine was given at doses of 30 and 60 mg QID. This dose was given PO for the improvement of neurological outcome and is chaemic deficit in SAH patients. Either of the dose of nimodipine (30 and 60 mg QID) was not effective in maximum electroshock induced convulsions in experimental rats. When this dose was combined with standard anticonvulsant phenytoin at sub therapeutic dose in reducing tonic HLE was also not found statistically significant in our study.

  47. Dr. Pratik N. Suthar, Dr. Sonal B. Shah, Dr. Pushkar P. Waknis, Dr. Gandhali Limaye, Dr. Pranav Sathe and Dr. Aditi Saha

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the functional outcomes of conservative and radical management of osteochondroma of mandibular condyle. Methods: All relevant full text articles available on PubMed and GoogleScholar between 2001 and 2015 were retrieved and examined. The data was tabulated and analyzed. Results: Of the 24 cases 14 were treated by condyloplasty, whereas 10 required total condylectomy. Twelve patients required orthognathic surgery of which 3 patients had transient mandibular weakness and 1 patient had transient inferior alveolar nerve anaesthesia complications. Follow-up period for all cases ranged between 3 months to 7 years. There was only one case of recurrence but the patient was not re-operated as she was symptom free. Conclusion: Mandibular condylar osteochondroma is thought to be a relatively rare lesion occurring in the facial skeleton. Gradual facial asymmetry over the years is the most striking feature. The treatment modality for osteochondroma of mandibular condyle could be conservative condylectomy or total condylectomy. Both the procedures are curative. Additional procedures like orthognathic surgery may be required in extensive tumours. The decision, however, depends on the tumour size and how much swing of mandible is required post-surgery for correction of asymmetry and occlusion.

  48. Dr. Garvit D. Khatri, Dr. Kewal Mistry and Dr. Neha Antil

    Normal Internal Carotid artery run a straight and branch free course in the neck. However, due to abnormal embryological development or atherosclerosis/ fibromuscular dysplasia there might arise an aberration in the course of the internal carotid arteries. These may be medial deviation, kinking or coiling. Medial deviation may cause a retropharyngeal location. Ignorance of this location may lead to catastrophic complications in various surgical and anesthesia procedures involving the pharynx. We present a case of a 71year old male patient with oral malignancy and right-sided retropharyngeal common and internal carotid arteries with a brief review of literature to signify the clinical importance of this anatomical variant.

  49. Dr. Zuhair Al-Jehani and Dr. Sharifah Al-Zaidi

    Odontogenic Keratocyst (OKC) are defined as epithelial cell lined cysts. Most of these Odontogenic cyst are defined by their history. (OKC) is an entity from the Odontogenicyst, have potential Aggressive behavior and high tendency of recurrence together with defined histopathological features. This article reports a (OKC) in the maxillary sinus. This cyst occurs less than 1% in the maxillary sinus of all cases. The lesion was diagnosed based on histopathological and radiological feature, Treatment was surgically and no recurrence has been observed on follow up.

  50. Dr. Pranav Sathe, Dr. Pushkar waknis, Dr. Gandhali Limaye, Dr. Pratik Suthar, Dr. Shilpa Bawane and Dr. Sonal Shah

    Maxillofacial assault related injuries are an etiological important factor in fracture of facial bones. Here we have carried out a systematic review of analysis of fracture patterns in maxillofacial assault related injuries in the Indian Sub-continent and South-east Asia. The review shows mandibular fracture being the most common fracture of facial bones in assault related injuries to the facial skeleton.

  51. Neha Shah

    Ameloblastic fibroma is an uncommon benign odontogenic tumour showing proliferation of both epithelial and mesenchymal components. It is usually seen in first two decades of life and posterior part of mandible is the commonest site involved. It is mostly associated with impacted or congenitally missing teeth. There is considerable debate as to whether it is a hamartoma or a true neoplasm. Herein, we report a case of ameloblastic fibroma in a 17- year old female patient involving the mandible and associated with impacted and congenitally missing teeth. The tumour showed aggressive features which were suggestive of a true neoplasm but age of the patient was corroborative to a hamartoma.

  52. Mamta Rawat, Rakesh Sharma and Deepak Goel

    Aim: To assess level of burden and quality of life of caregivers of stroke survivors. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 120 caregivers of stroke survivors. Data were collected by demographic proforma, WHOQOL-BREF to find the quality of life and Zarit Burden Interview (ZBI) questionnaire to assess level of burden of caregivers. Results: The study results revealed that the most of the caregivers were in severe level of burden. The main component of burden was relationship and emotional well-being, which was affected most. In quality of life, all the domain were equally effected, while physical domain had least scores. There was a significant negative correlation between quality of life and burden scores of caregivers.

  53. Dr. Biswas, P. P., Dr. Nadeer, T., Dr. Mohammed Rijash, Dr. Shaji, A. P., Dr. Vineeth, V. T. and Dr. Dhanya Elizabeth

    Maxillary anterior dentoalveolar spacing has the most negative influence on self-perceived dental appearance among young adults. Interceptive therapy is required for definite closure of midline diastema. Stability of result requires bodily approximation of the incisors. Many well designed sectional springs have been reported in literature for the correction of midline diastema. In this article a case of midline diastema treated with ‘Trihelix spring’ is selected. This innovative spring is fabricated with A J Wilcock stainless steel, 0.014’’ special plus wire and contains three helices. This ‘Trihelix spring’ is a simple, effective, aesthetic and biologically compatible device with excellent root control for the treatment of midline diastema.

  54. Gurdeep Kaur, Dr. Rajender Sharma and Dr. Avinash Kulkarni

    Introduction: Vitamin D is essential for calcium homeostasis and bone metabolism. Vitamin D deficiency is associated with a number of comorbidities. There was disbelief that Vitamin D deficiency is uncommon in India. However from the data available in the published literature, Vitamin D deficiency is very common in India in all the age groups and both sexes across the country. Recently, low vitamin D levels have been associated with HIV disease progression and HIV related complications. Therefore, the role of vitamin D in preventing or mitigating these complications of HIV is of particular interest. We studied prevalence of low Vitamin D in newly diagnosed HIV positive patients and compared it with normal population in southern Rajasthan. Methodology: It was a prospective case control study conducted from Jan 2016 to Dec 16. This study includes newly diagnosed HIV patients who were registered under ART centre at our institute were taken as cases and controls were normal individual without premorbidities. Result: In case group 78% patient were vitamin D deficient, 12% were vitamin D insufficient and only 10% were vitamin D sufficient, whereas in control group 48% patient were vitamin D deficient, 18% were vitamin D insufficient and 34% were vitamin D sufficient. There is significant (p=.005) difference between prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in these two groups. There is weak but significant correlation (correlation coefficient=.336) between vitamin D and CD4 cell count. Increased CD4 cell count is seen in patient with sufficient vitamin D level. Conclusion: The study has shown that, as compared to the general population, the HIV population seems to be more susceptible to Vitamin D deficiency and to its adverse effects, so all HIV positive patients should be prescribed Vitamin D supplements.

  55. Dr. Dhanya Raghunathan

    According to WHO, 300 million suffer from depression. Suicide accounted for 1.4% of all deaths worldwide, making it the 17th leading cause of death in 2015.Medical training has reported to be very stressful. Global prevalence of depression among medical students was found to be 28%. Even more frightening, 11 per cent of medical students have reported suicidal ideation within the past year. Many of them do not have the requisite intelligence, competence or the aptitude to meet the tough demands of medical studies. Dentists encounter numerous sources of professional stress, beginning in dental school. This stress can have a negative impact on their personal and professional lives. But there is no reliable data portraying suicide among dentists. Is Dentistry ahead of other professions in suicide rate ?. This review seeks to bring forth the suicide rates in dentistry and causes for the same.

  56. Singh Soundarya and Sharma Anamika

    Background: Periodontitis has been defined as an inflammatory disease of supporting structures of teeth, of specific bacterial origin which progress with attachment loss. The etiology of the disease is multi factorial and bacterial deposits play an essential role in the pathogenesis. The bacteria that are involved in periodontitis accumulate in the sub-gingival plaque that comprises predominantly of Gram-negative strict anaerobic rods. Among them Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Bacteroides spp., Selenomonas spp. Predominate accurate identification of numerous bacterial species is nowadays possible with highly automated systems that are increasingly used in clinical laboratories because of their cost effectiveness, practicability, and ability to provide rapid turnaround time. It is now well established that anaerobes may be involved in numerous infections, including severe infections. Until recently, however, identification of anaerobes in clinical laboratories relied mainly on the use of time-consuming and lab or-intensive conventional methods or of manual commercial systems, the performances of which are quite variable at the species level. BioMe´rieux (Marcy, France) has recently developed a new colorimetric identification card (ANC card) which, in conjunction with the Vitek 2 system, permits this automated and widely distributed identification system to identify 63 taxa, including 49 taxa of anaerobic bacteria. Method: The aim of the present case reports is the identification of anaerobic bacteria using Vitek 2 ANC cards in Chronic Periodontitis patients. Results: The study showed that anaerobic organism identified were: Parvimonas micra, Fusobacterium species, Actinomyces species, Veillonella, peptostreptococcus in subjects with chronic periodontitis having probing depth ≥ 5mm taking GCF as a sample. Conclusion: The Vitek 2 ANC card provides a reliable identification for a limited number of relevant anaerobic bacteria species in a routine-diagnostic setting.

  57. Dr. Lakshmanarao Bathala, Dr. Rachuri Narendra Kumar, Dr. Nibha Kumari Singh, Dr. Dal Singh, V., Dr. Rayapati Srinivasarao and Dr. Mirna Garhnayak

    Stern public health effects and a notable influence on the environment may be seen due to Indecorous and scanty handling of biomedical waste. A number of bio-medical waste materials generated by the dental set up are problematic, which includes, scrap amalgam, photochemical waste (developer and fixer), lead foil from traditional X-ray packets, blood-soaked materials, human tissue, and disinfectant solutions. If the hazardous and non hazardous wastes are mixed, the entire mixture must be consider and should be treated as hazardous waste. With indigent waste management, there may be a peril risk of nosocomial infections, and the unprofessional waste management can steer to spread of antibiotic resistance too. The dental fraternity in many countries is not following the ideal bio-medical waste execution diligently, hence this survey aimed at the knowledge of the dental personnel towards the biomedical waste and its secured disposal ways in Godavari districts of Andhrapradesh, India.

  58. Dr. Guru Ram Tej Kukkunuru, Dr. K. Roja Reddy and Dr. Durga Bhavani Domathota

    Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) or Cone-Beam Volumetric Tomography (CBVT) is a diagnostic imaging technology that is changing the way dental practitioners view the oral and maxillofacial complex as well as teeth and the surrounding tissues. CBCT has been specifically designed to produce undistorted three dimensional images similar to computed tomography (CT), but at a lower equipment cost, simpler image acquisition and lower patient radiation dose.

  59. Dr. Padmashree, S., Dr. Mahesh, Dr. Shibin Shaju and Dr. Padma Pandeshwar

    Ameloblastoma is a most common benign odontogenic neoplasm which effects the maxillofacial region and more frequently affecting the mandible. It exhibits various clinical, radiological and histopathological features based on different types of ameloblastoma. Among these types, unicystic ameloblastoma (UA) is the least seen variant of ameloblastoma, with good prognosis and less recurrence if detected at the earliest. UA refers to those cystic lesions that show clinical, radiographic, or gross features of a jaw cyst but on histological examination show a typical ameloblastomatous epithelium lining the cystic cavity, with or without luminal and/or mural tumour proliferation. UA commonly occurs in 2nd and 3rd decades of life but only about 10% of cases are reported in children and less than one third of those occur in children below 10 years. We report a rare case of 5 year old male patient, presenting with a swelling in the left lower jaw region which was diagnosed as UA by correlating the clinical, radiological, and histopathological findings. Thus early diagnosis of UA in children is mandatory as it affects the growth of the jaw. The incidence rate, behavior and prognosis of the tumour in children make the surgical consideration different from adults.

  60. Dr. Sanjay P. Gadre and Dr. Vineet Mishra

    Recovery from the effects of non-depolarising relaxants can occur spontaneously by elimination of the agent either unchanged or after metabolism in general anaesthesia. However, this process may be slow, of variable time and cannot be reliably predicted. It may result in residual curarization. Also, surgical procedures can be of unpredictable duration and may require intense relaxation until near the completion of surgery. Pharmacological antagonism or reversal of NM block is therefore indicated in clinical practice. This can be accomplished with a variety of drugs called as reversal agents.

  61. Tonitrice Wicks, Hamed Benghuzzi, Michelle Tucci and Elgenaid Hamadain

    The purpose of this study is to examine the association between race, body mass index and breastfeeding outcomes among black and white women in Mississippi. A secondary analysis from of the 2009 – 2011 Mississippi Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System was conducted. Multivariable hazard ratios were investigated to assess the relationship between marital status and breastfeeding duration at 8 weeks postpartum. Stratified analyses were performed for white and black women. In terms of breastfeeding initiation and race, black women (63.1%) had a higher percentage of not initiating breastfeeding than white women (36.6%). The Chi-Square results, χ²(1) = 105.872 (p<0.001), indicating that there was a statistically significant association between race and breastfeeding initiation. Overall, both black and white women included in the study breastfed for approximately 3.08 weeks postpartum. Black women breastfeed for an average of 2.61 weeks compared to white women who breastfed for 3.62 week. At 8 weeks postpartum, the estimated probability of breastfeeding among white mothers was statistically different than white women. For body mass index, the results showed that there was no statistically significant association between BMI and breastfeeding initiation (p = 0.122). The Kaplan Meier analysis indicated that at 8 weeks postpartum, there was a statistically significant difference in breastfeeding duration within the BMI groups. However, after adjusting for confounding factors using the Cox regression the results indicated that BMI was not a predictor for breastfeeding duration. The results obtained from this study showed that 18.4%, 29.3%, 27.9%, and 25.7% of women underweight, obese, overweight, and normal BMI group, respectively, were breastfeeding at 8 weeks. There was a statistically significant difference between the BMI groups in breastfeeding duration (p<0/05). The survival curve showed that the probability of continuing breastfeeding was lower for underweight women than all of the other age groups at all time points. The overall average of weeks in which mothers continued to breastfeed for each corresponding age group was 3.094 weeks followed by 2.36, 3.19, 3.15, and 3.05; respectively for each BMI category. The results for BMI showed that the breastfeeding rate at 8 weeks postpartum was statistically different among each weight group (p<0.005). After adjusting for the following covariates: race, age, education, income, marital status, prenatal education, WIC participation and postpartum education (Cox Regression), the results showed that women were no more likely to continue breastfeeding at 8 weeks based on BMI (underweight, normal, overweight and obese).

  62. Tonitrice Wicks, Hamed Benghuzzi, Michelle Tucci and Elgenaid Hamadain

    The purpose of this study is to examine the association between race, body mass index and breastfeeding outcomes among black and white women in Mississippi. A secondary analysis from of the 2009 – 2011 Mississippi Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System was conducted. Multivariable hazard ratios were investigated to assess the relationship between marital status and breastfeeding duration at 8 weeks postpartum. Stratified analyses were performed for white and black women. In terms of breastfeeding initiation and race, black women (63.1%) had a higher percentage of not initiating breastfeeding than white women (36.6%). The Chi-Square results, χ²(1) = 105.872 (p<0.001), indicating that there was a statistically significant association between race and breastfeeding initiation. Overall, both black and white women included in the study breastfed for approximately 3.08 weeks postpartum. Black women breastfeed for an average of 2.61 weeks compared to white women who breastfed for 3.62 week. At 8 weeks postpartum, the estimated probability of breastfeeding among white mothers was statistically different than white women. For body mass index, the results showed that there was no statistically significant association between BMI and breastfeeding initiation (p = 0.122). The Kaplan Meier analysis indicated that at 8 weeks postpartum, there was a statistically significant difference in breastfeeding duration within the BMI groups. However, after adjusting for confounding factors using the Cox regression the results indicated that BMI was not a predictor for breastfeeding duration. The results obtained from this study showed that 18.4%, 29.3%, 27.9%, and 25.7% of women underweight, obese, overweight, and normal BMI group, respectively, were breastfeeding at 8 weeks. There was a statistically significant difference between the BMI groups in breastfeeding duration (p<0/05). The survival curve showed that the probability of continuing breastfeeding was lower for underweight women than all of the other age groups at all time points. The overall average of weeks in which mothers continued to breastfeed for each corresponding age group was 3.094 weeks followed by 2.36, 3.19, 3.15, and 3.05; respectively for each BMI category. The results for BMI showed that the breastfeeding rate at 8 weeks postpartum was statistically different among each weight group (p<0.005). After adjusting for the following covariates: race, age, education, income, marital status, prenatal education, WIC participation and postpartum education (Cox Regression), the results showed that women were no more likely to continue breastfeeding at 8 weeks based on BMI (underweight, normal, overweight and obese).

  63. Amjad Hamoud Alruwaili, Anfal Nayir Alanazi, Duaa Sami A Alsunayni, Arwa Bader N Alanazi, Zaynab Hussain M Almukalaf, Ibtisam Matan Alanazi, Tasleem Khoudier Alabdullatif, Wafa Mohammed Falah Alanazi, Adhwaa Saud D Alruwaili, Asma Majed Alhumaid and Ha

    Background: Menstrual problems account for much of the morbidity, affecting one in every five women during their life span. Thyroid dysfunction is associated with a range of menstrual abnormalities, including oligomenorrhea, amenorrhea, and menorrhagia. The aim of this study is to show the menstrual pattern in the studied women and to study the effect of thyroid disorders on the menstrual pattern among the affected women. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Northern Saudi Arabia. The study included160 randomly selected women from the general female population of Northern Saudi Arabia. A pre-designed online questionnaire which was distributed among the population. The questionnaire included the relevant questions to collect data about the socio-demographic characteristics of the participants, if the patient has menstrual disorders orthyroid disorders and their relation to each others. Results: Ninety three (58.1%) of the studied women had menstrual irregularity. Twenty one (13.1%) of the studied women had Hypothyroidism and only one case (0.6%) had Hyperthyroidism, 7.5% only of hypothyroidism cases had menstrual irregularity. There was a significant relationship between thyroid problems and menstrual irregularity and abnormal uterine bleeding (P< 0.05). Conclusion: These data demonstrate that hyperthyroidism in women is less frequently associated with menstrual abnormalities than was expected. Furthermore, There was a significant relationship between thyroid problems and menstrual irregularity and abnormal uterine bleeding (P< 0.05).

  64. Haytham A Dahlawi

    In Saudi Arabia, the prevalence of sickle cell disease (SCD) varies significantly in different regions of the country, with the highest prevalence is in the Eastern province, followed by the southwestern provinces. In addition, sickle-cell trait range was reported from 2% to 27%, and up to 2.6% have SCD in some areas. The aim of this study was to assess the haemoglobin S variant among Saudi’s who aged between 19 to 40 years old, in Taif city. The result of this study showed that the heterozygous form of Hb S was detected as the major abnormality with 96% while, the result of this study was also reported three cases with 4% of adults diagnosed with Hb S homozygous. Clear understanding the genetics and the prevalence of these disorders will provide opportunities for prevention or and reduce the incidence. Thus, this study suggests that in addition to the huge efforts already accomplished by the Saudi Ministry of Health to prevent at-risk marriages, the early diagnosis for these disorders might be offered for young adults as they can discuss the issue in the early stage of the marriage proposal.

  65. Dr. Sanjay P. Gadre and Dr. Vineet Mishra

    Recovery from the effects of non-depolarising relaxants can occur spontaneously by elimination of the agent either unchanged or after metabolism in general anaesthesia. However, this process may be slow, of variable time and cannot be reliably predicted. It may result in residual curarization. Also, surgical procedures can be of unpredictable duration and may require intense relaxation until near the completion of surgery. Pharmacological antagonism or reversal of NM block is therefore indicated in clinical practice. This can be accomplished with a variety of drugs called as reversal agents.

  66. Singh, H.M. and Dr. Uma Shanshkar Mishra

    Dahlia is an importance bulbous flower crop which has position to increase economic earning of grower. Forty varieties were grown and studied for genotypic correlation of traits at C.S.Azad University of Agriculture and Technology, Kanpur, during 2011-12 and 2012-13. Vegetative and reproductive characters parameters were found to have considerable relationship which also indicated the scope for making improvement in dahlia. Plant height and maximum number of flower per head revealed the sustainable magnitude for crop improvement in dahlia crop.

  67. Suganthi, P., Akshaya, T. S., Latha, V. and Swathi, M.

    The antibacterial activity of extract of medicinal plants, namely, Rhizophora apiculata, Phyllanthus emblica, Avicennia marina, Acalypha indica and Withania somnifera was evaluated against urinary tract infectious pathogens Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterococcus faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli. As compared to ethanol, acetone extract showed broad-spectrum activity. The multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria Enterococcus faecalis was inhibited by the acetone extract of Phyllanthus emblica fruit whereas the other two resistant bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli were inhibited by both ethanol and acetone extract of all the species. Biochemical analysis revealed the presence and confirmation of the organism. Further studies using different solvents for extraction are necessary to confirm that medicinal plants are a better source for the development of novel antibiotics.

  68. Sunil Kumar Yede

    Nature has given a lot of gifts in the form of valuable flora and fauna. One of the most important wild plants is bamboo. Bamboo plays a very significant role in the science of Ethno botany. Young bamboo shoots which are considered as one of the most useful health products because of their rich content of proteins, carbohydrates, vitamins, fibers and minerals and very low fat. Bamboo shoots should be processed properly before the consumption as freshly harvested shoots contain high content of cynogenic glycosides which may pose serious health issues. When the nutritional values of young bamboo shoots are compared with our commonly used vegetable like Carrot, Radish, Brinjal, Cabbage, we find that bamboo shoots contain a quite more amount of nutritious contents. This review gives stress on essential phytochemicals, health benefits and ethno medicinal uses of young bamboo shoots and their usage as important traditional food in India.

  69. Manisha Sonkamble and Narayan Pandhure

    Methods for preservation of green leafy vegetables are very important as nutritional point of view. The leafy vegetables such as Spinach, Radish, Chuka, and pods like Cowpea and Gaurare used on large scale as vegetables in Marathwada region. During the present piece efforts have been made to preserve the leafy vegetables to meet the need of common population. The preservation methods were sun drying, oven drying and shade drying. After treatment biochemical analysis was carried out to detect the retention of nutritional factors. Proximate analysis was conducted to determine the dry matter (DM), Acid soluble ash (ASH), Acid insoluble ash (AIA), amount of elements such as Calcium, Phosphorus, Nitrogen and Protein. Secondly, ash content from vegetables is a measure for total amount of minerals present within it, whereas the mineral content is a measure of the amount of specific inorganic components present within vegetables such as Ca, P, and N. Many vegetables crops have been used for medicinal values. Vegetables contribute protein, vitamin, minerals fibers and enzymes to the human diet. Results obtained indicate that, shade drying is more effective method than sun drying and oven drying to retain the nutritional factors.

  70. Yousif O H Assad

    The aim of the present study was to assess the level of pesticide residues in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) fruits collected from Wad Medani market brought from three different location in Gezira state (Alhoush, Alrahad and Almadina Arab) by using mosquito (Anopheles arabiensis Patton) larvae. The 3rd or early 4th instar as a bio-indicator tool instead of high technology and costly analytical equipment was used. A total of 27 samples of tomatoes from market were collected. First the mortality was evaluated by taking 10 larvae/replicate (3 replicates/concentration), and each experiment was repeated three times to obtain the Probit model of insecticides used to control insects and then used later in the study to calculate the residues. The insecticide residues in tape water fruit wash of tomato fruits collected from the market from three localities were investigated by using the mosquito larvae. The mortality results were subjected to the equation of the regression line for each insecticide used to control the insect pest, as the Probit model, to calculate the concentration of the insecticides used in tomato fruits collected from the market. The residues were measured from 500 g and 1 kg of fruits as mg/g tomato fruit. The results provided important information on the current pesticide contamination status of the tomato consumed vegetables and pointed an urgent need to control the use of plant protection products applied. These results also show that the detected pesticides may be considered a public health problem. Malathion and cypermethrin residues in the 0.5kg and 1kg of tomatoes batches brought from the three localities Alrahad, Alhoush and Almadina Arab were found below the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) of 0.02mg/kg body weight and 0.05mg/kg body weight, for the two insecticides malathion and cypermethrin respectively. Although, that not means the tomatoes fruit brought to the market free of human health risk. Therefore the organic farming is highly needed to minimize the harmful risk of pesticides to human health.

  71. Zeray Zeleke, Getachew Sime and Lemma Shallo

    A study was conducted to identify smallholder farmers’ adaptation strategies to the impact of climate change on wheat productivity and to determine factors influencing the choices of the strategies, in Arsi Zone of Oromia Regional State Ethiopia. Field survey was conducted on 196 smallholder farmers using a multistage stratified random sampling technique. Descriptive statistics and Multinomial logit (MNL) were used to analyze the data. Results from the descriptive statistics indicate that drought, flood, crop pest or disease and storm were the major climate-related risk factors faced by the sampled household farmers. The majority of the respondents (81.6 %) faced crop pest or disease followed by drought. More than 74 % of the sampled households used adaptive seed varieties, and soil and water conservation, early or late planting and increasing seed rate methods as adaptation strategies to cope with adverse effects of the risk factors on wheat production and productivity. Results from the MNL model indicated that the direction and magnitude of the determinant factors vary across adaptation strategies. On top of that, the type of risk factor households’ encounter influenced the type of adaptation strategies chosen to adapt to or mitigate the effects of the climate-risk factors. Strengthening existing households’ adaptation strategies through extension system appears instrumental. In this regard, awareness creation through regular trainings, extension services and mass media are vital particularly in enhancing existing adaptive practices like late or early planting, seeding rate management, provision of subsidy modalities or credits for purchasing adaptive wheat varieties, and construction of locally feasible physical structures for conserving soil and water. Above all, provision of reliable agro-meteorological information before the cropping system could help households manage appropriate adaptive strategies.

  72. Birgül Çakıroğlu and Reyhan (Gedikli) Akat

    Kaçkar Mountains is a mountain visited by mountaineers and tourists every year, with glaciers, lakes, forests, rivers, plants, animals, highland architecture and summit that can be observed throughout the year. The highest peaks are Altiparmak (3482 m), Kemerli (3562 m), Kavron (3932 m) And Verçenik (3713 m). The Kaçkar mountains have many trails and peak routes for trekking and hiking, and with the unique architectural structures in the road, it is important with the plateau culture. Recreation, livestock, health for many reasons such as the people who are migrating to the highlands during the summer around here, the architecture developed and offered. Within the scope of the study, the peaks of Altıparmak, Kemerli, Verçenik and Kavron mountains from the Kaçkar Mountains and architectural and natural values on the route are explained. As a result, the architectural characteristics of the plateau houses and their functioning without disturbing their landscaping and bringing them to tourism, if necessary, reveals what needs to be done to help increase tourism potential.

  73. Sivasankar, P., Riji John, K., Rosalind George, M., Kaviarasu, D., Mohamed Mansoor, M., and Magesh Kumar, P.

    Infectious diseases are associated with the most devastating problem in aquaculture sectors. In comparison to terrestrial farm animals and plants, aquatic animals require more attention in order to monitor and manage their health. Both farmed and wild fish are most susceptible to the various viral pathogens. Regrettably, viral diseases are more difficult to control due to lack of knowledge about pathogenesis and natural resistance to viral infections. Particularly, intensive aquaculture has brought more disease problems which leading to great economic losses. The outbreaks of both DNA and RNA viral disease are associated with significant losses of cultured and wild fish populations. In general, RNA viruses by far cause severe diseases in fish aquaculture and hence become economically important universally. RNA viruses including birnavirus, nodavirus, orthomyxovirus, rhabdovirus, reovirus, paramixovirus, retrovirus, coronavirus, togavirus, picornavirus etc. those are infectious for culture and wild fishes. The present review was built on RNA virus diseases affecting finfishes are menacing to the sustainable growth of aquaculture.

  74. Dr. A. Suvarna Latha, Dr. K. S. Shanthi Sree, Dr. P. Lakshmi Padmavathi, Prof. N. Yasodamma, Prof. K. Nagalakshmamma and Prof. D. Bharathi

    People's Biodiversity Register (PBR) is a document which contain comprehensive information on availability, knowledge of local biological resources their medicinal uses, traditional knowledge, geographical coverage, sustainable management of resources, quantification of the resources and serves as an impact assessment tool for developmental activities. PBRs are maintained and prepared in consultation with local people constituted by Biodiversity Management Committees (BMC) at local bodies such as village Panchayats, Taluk’s, Distrricts / Zilla’s, Corporation / Municipalitites. BMC and local support group (LSG) are the custodians of PBRs. Biological Diversity Act (2002) and Rules (2004) establishes Biodiversity Management Committees (BMC) in all local bodies throughout the country for the preparation of People's Biodiversity Registers (PBR). Preparation of PBRs is a scientific activity and serves as a key tool to monitor, document and facilitates knowledge-based management of agriculture, livestock, fish, forests, public health to enhance the quality of life of community members. Documentation should also help prevent loss of grass-root knowledge associated with biodiversity, secure recognition for such knowledge and add value to it for conservation of Biodiversity and related Indigenous traditional knowledge. The total number of PBRs Documented in different states till 17.07.2017 by National Biodiversity Authority is Karnataka with highest number 1970, Gujarat with 957, Madhya Pradesh of 890, Kerala with 854, Tripura with 279 and Andhra Pradesh with only 25. Hence, PBRs should be used as a base to set a standard for Bio-prospecting and there is a need for increasing the number of PBRs at gram Panchay at levels for conservation of Biological resources.

  75. Bidhan Mahajon, Rupashri Nath, Santosh Kumar Thakur, Remadevi, R., Ravi Shankar, B.

    Flemingia strobelifera is a medicinal plant belongs to Fabaceae family. It is widely distributed in India and subcontinent. It is extraordinarily famous for its sleep inducing activity among the tribal people of India. Various studies have already proved its different pharmacological activity. Present study aimed to evaluate the antianxiety activity of aqueous extract of roots of the medicinal plant in elevated zero maze test and mirror chamber test. Twenty four Swiss albino mice of either sex were divided into four different groups of six mice in each. Group I received normal tap water at a dose of 10ml/kg, served as normal control. Group II received Diazepam 2mg/kg and served as reference standard. Group III and IV administered with AEFS at a dose of 200mg/kg and 400mg/kg respectively. In acute toxicity study there was no mortality up to 2000mg/kg. The aqueous extract of the plant has shown significant anxiolytic activity at both the doses. In elevated zero maze test latency period to enter in to open arm has been significantly reduced and there was significant increase in the time spent in open arm and open head dips in comparison to control group (**p<0.01). In mirror chamber test significant increase in the number of partial entries and marked increase in the time spent inside the mirror chamber and number of full entries has observed in comparison to normal control. Presence of Flavonoids might be the chemical entity responsible for its anxiolytic activity. Further scientific studies are required to validate the therapeutic use and to elucidate the exact mechanism of action.

  76. Santosh Pal, Ramamurthy, A., Sudipta Kumar Rath, Richa Khandelwal and Bidhan Mahajon

    Tinospora cordifolia (Willd) Miers. is commonly called as ‘Guduchi’, ‘Amrita’ in Ayurveda. It is a well known medicinal plant for its massive application in the treatment of various diseases, motioned in the ancient and traditional Ayurveda literature. It is a glabrous, perennial, deciduous, climbing shrub of weak and fleshy stem spread across the Tropical India and Andaman. Many potential therapeutic properties have already been reported by various modern scientific researches. But lots of ancient clinical applications of this medicinal herb need to promote for widespread utilization globally. Hence present review aimed to analyze the extensive therapeutic application of this plant mentioned in different classical texts of Ayurveda. Review suggests for additional bunch of scientific studies on wide-ranging pharmacological properties of the plant, available in ancient classical literature of medicine.

  77. Isaac David and Shinde, P. U.

    Introduction: Diabetes mellitus has been implicated as independent causative factor of bilateral sensorineural hearing loss. Diabetes-related sensorineural hearing impairment affects people’s ability to hear and understand sounds. This is a case control study with the purpose of determining the hearing loss in type II diabetes mellitus in relation to control of diabetes. Method: 50 diabetic patients and 50 age and sex matched controls who have satisfied inclusion and exclusion criteria and have consented to participate in study were enrolled. They were evaluated by Tuning fork tests and Pure Tone Audiometry. Result: The hearing of diabetics was significantly impaired than the non-diabetic control group. This hearing impairment was noted in all the frequencies tested. The hearing acuity was compared with control of diabetes. The hearing loss was highly significant in uncontrolled diabetics when compared with subjects having controlled diabetes. Conclusion: Type 2 diabetes causes significant hearing loss in the patients, and control of diabetes is also a highly significant cause of hearing loss.

  78. Rakesh Hanumaiah, V.Krishna, Dr. B. T. Prabhakar

    Inflammation underlies a wide variety of physiological and pathological processes and pathological aspects of many types of inflammation are well appreciated. The classic molecular instigators of inflammation is ROS and which trigger the recruitment of leukocytes and causes prognosis of the disease. Current investigation postulated the anti-inflammatory efficacy of a triterpenoid, Lupeonone which exhibited free radicals scavenging activity resulting in reduced oxidative stress. Since inflammatory microenvironment has increased ROS and ability of the lupeonone to counteract this was evaluated in carrageenan induced paw edemas in mice. The lupeonone effectively reduced the inflamed tissue. Down the line, molecular cause of inflammation such as sequestration of neutrophils in edematic paw was drastically reduced and restoring of normal pathology. Overall the current study explore role of herbal based drug Lupenone with is antiflammatory activity with molecular evidence which could be positive hope for the treatment inflammatory disorders.

  79. Seena, K. K. and Nishma, M.

    Tridax procumbens (L.) commonly known as coat buttons or Tridax daisy, is a species of flowering plants in daisy family. It is best known as a wide spread weed and pest plant. It belongs to family compositae commonly known as 'Ghamra' and have been extensively used in Ayurvedic system of medicine for various ailments and is dispensed for 'Bhringraj' by some of the practitioners of ayurveda which is well known medicine for liver disorders. Pharmacognosy is the scientific and systematic study of the structural, physical, chemical and biological characters of crude drugs along with their history, method of cultivation, collection and preparation of the market. Present Pharmacognostic studies in T. procumbens (Asteraceae) was done by analysing the morphology, anatomy and physico-chemical studies. Microscopic and macroscopic characters of the plant were studied for the easy identification of the plant. Phytochemical screening tests are done in 2 extracts of whole plant viz methanol and acetone extracts. Methanol extracts of whole plants showed the presence of coumarins, tannins, alkaloids, quinines, flavanoids, resins, Proteins and carbohydrates. Acetone extract of whole plant shows the presence of coumarins, quinines, steroids, alkaloids, tannins, resins, protiens and carbohydrates.

  80. WOGNIN Affou Séraphin, KOMOE Koffi and KOUASSI N’Guessan

    The present work is focused on the evaluation of Chlorophyll a contained in phytoplankton from some bays of Abidjan district (Ebrie lagoon, Côte d’Ivoire). The sampling campaigns took place on August and October 2016. The study was interested successively in the physicochemical characterization of bays of Ebrie lagoon system, and the quantification of Chlorophyll a in order to evaluate the trophic state of these bays. Physicochemical parameters studies have shown a significant variation of temperature, conductivity and salinity. The determination of chlorophyll a concentration yielded values that vary between 0.26 μg.l-1 and 25.16 μg.l-1. The highest levels of chlorophyll a are observed about Koumassi stations: Koumassi 1 (15.84 μg l-1), Koumassi 2 (17.89 μg.l-1) and Koumassi 3 (25.16 μg.l-1), located in Koumassi Bay. Thus, bays could be reunited into three trophic classes: Cocody, Marcory and Anna bays are apparently ultra-oligotrophic; those of Yopougon, Azito, Bietry and M'badon are mesotrophic, and the others (Banco and Koumassi) are eutrophic.

  81. Dr. Mary Gilda and Dr. V. Subramaniam

    The development of technology in various fields has led the mankind into a new world of consumerism. In the field of textiles also, the technological developments have created a lot of new consumer products to meet the ever increasing demand of the public. In previous years, the use of natural fibres was widespread and restricted to conventional products. Though there were other materials such as jute, ramie, sisal, coir, banana known to man, their uses were restricted to non textile materials such as packing materials, ropes etc., The developments in the use of latest technology in adopting these non apparel fibres have led to introduction of new diversified products such as composites. The technology of composites making is very new and has very high potential in the natural fibres says Mathews (1999). Nonwoven products are taking the palce of many woven and knit materials because of their lower cost and lighter weight. A study was conducted to find out the effect of nonwoven and composites developed from natural fibres such as Jute, Coir, Banana and blends. Seven samples were taken from the developed nonwoven and composites. They are Jute, Coir, Banana nonwoven and composite as 1st and 2nd & 3rd samples, Jute Coir, Banana Coir, Jute Banana nonwoven and composites as 4th, 5th and 6th and Jute Coir Banana nonwoven and composites as 7th sample. These developed samples were subjected to saline water treatment. Colour fastness and an observation test were carried out. The study revealed that nonwoven prepared from Coir had absorbed more water when compared to Banana Jute and Coir Banana Jute. The composite made up of Coir had absorbed more water due to the space found in between the composite than the other composites.

  82. Chaudhari, V. B., Parmar, V. L., Chaudhari, M. H. and Udutha, J.

    The experimental was carried out on two sugarcane varieties, namely CoN -05071 and CoC-671 at the Sugarcane Tissue Culture Laboratory of Main Sugarcane Research Station, Navsari Agricultural University, Navsari during 2016-017. The investigation deals with protoplast fusion such as agglutinated protoplasts, and heterkaryon formation And Molecular character. In this experiment, PEG 6000(19%) has been found to be better than PEG 4000, CaCl2.2H2O(35μm) and 10.5pH was found to be better for total agglutination and heterokaryon formation in sugarcane cultivars. Somatic hybridization in a polyploid and vegetatively propagated crop such as sugarcane has a good potential for producing useful variation. Maximum polymorphism is observed among the genotypes and has accumulated maximum genetic changes in comparison.

  83. Richard C. Geibel, Anne van der Vegt, Orhan Özüak and Hossein Askari

    Most weight loss programs focus on a low-carbohydrate diet. In terms of successful and sustainable weight loss however, this diet isn’t suitable for every person as many studies demonstrate. One reason for this problem is the individual genetic make-up, since everyone metabolizes macronutrients differently. An individual diet plan for sustainable weight loss that is based on the genetic make-up and thus each person’s metabolic subtype (Meta-type) is provided by the nutrigenetic analysis MetaCheck. The aim of this study was to investigate, if there is only one type of diet that is suitable for everyone, while considering the individual genetic predisposition. A statistical study with 16,641 randomly selected MetaCheck analysis results was carried out to analyze how the different Meta-types are distributed and whether there is any association between Meta-types and demographic data. The results demonstrate that different Meta-types are distributed quite evenly in the European population. Further the Meta-types are not associated with age, gender or BMI and demonstrate no person’s risk for becoming overweight. In conclusion, general recommendations for everyone to lose weight isn’t a promising solution. Instead, there is a strong need for an individualized weight loss therapy, which is based on the individual Meta-type.

  84. Deshmukh, O. S.

    The screening and study of selected Indian medicinal plant Pueraria tuberosa (Roxb. Ex Willd)DC., were selected for phytochemical screening and antibacterial studies. The solvents used for the extraction of plant roots were ethanol, benzene, chloroform, acetone, petroleum ether and distilled water. The Gram-Postive and Gram-negative bacteria Yeast candida, Aspergillus niger, Staphylococcus aureus, Eschericha coli, Salmonella typhi, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas fluorescence, Klebsiella pneumonia and Streptococus pyogenes. were tested. The results obtained in the present study suggest that preliminary phytochemical analysis detected the presence of Alkaloids, Flavonoids, Terpenoids, Steroids, Cumarins, Carbohydrates and Tanins. The Pueraria tuberosa (Roxb. Ex Willd)DC. could be used in treating diseases caused by the test organisms.

  85. Vino, U. and Brindha Durairaj

    Mosquitoes play a vital role in the spread of vector borne diseases and their management has gained great importance. Plant extracts have been studied for their mosquitocidal activity against various vectors. The present study was found on the larvicidal and pupicidal activity of Lantana camara (L) essential oil and azadiractin loaded novel nanoemulsion formulation for the control of vector mosquitoes. Nanoemulsion formulations of double emulsion type- W/O/W. Lantana camara (L) essential oil and azadiractin loaded nanoemulsion formulation. Five different concentrations (5, 10, 15, 20,25ppm) were prepared and the insects (Culex quinquefaciatus and Aedes aegypti) were treated with it. The mortality percentage and lethal dose (LC50) were calculated. The study clearly reduced the repellent activity of the oil emulsion (Lantana camara (L)) and azadiractin loaded nanoemulsion formulation had potent biocidal activity on vector mosquitoes.

  86. Senthamilselvi, P., Sukumaran, M. and Muthukumaravel, K.

    The toxic effect of the heavy metal cadmium on the biochemical constituents and histology of digestive gland clam Meretrix casta was studied. The clam were exposed for 10, 20 and 30 days in 10% sub lethal concentration of 96 hr LC50 of cadmium (1.25 mg/l). There is significant decrease in the carbohydrate, protein and lipid profiles in the digestive gland and gill after exposed to sublethal concentration of cadmium. In clam exposed to sub lethal concentration of cadmium various histopathological alterations are observed after 10 days of exposure. Shrunken of digestive and secretory cells and enlarged lumen were noticed. At 20 days of exposure, rupturing of cell membrane and degeneration of digestive tubules were also observed. After 30 days of treatment, the hepatopancreas was highly damaged vacuolization, necrosis and atrophy of digestive cells were also observed.

  87. Zakkia Masroor, Mohammad Danish Masroor and Vinod Kumar Singh

    Insects are more radio resistant than higher vertebrates. The sensitivity to radiation varies widely among the insects orders, e.g. some species sterilized at doses below 50Gy. While lepidoptera requires more than 400Gy (IDIDAS, 2010). The use of phytosanitary treatment for sterilize insects to control or eradicate insect pests population is a revolutionary initiative in entomology. Because phytosanitary treatment through radiation is effective against most insects at dose levels that do not affect the quality of fruits. It is the ideal technology to disinfestion while maintaining excellence of fruit quality. Platypedla illepida. Platypepla ombordlta and Conmpomorpla sinensis are internal feeding insect pests that typically infesting 15-30% of the litchi fruit crop. In the phytosanitary treatment rays from radioactive substances could induce genetic damage and a large number of dominant lethal mutations. Which were exposed through a reduction in the hatchability of the eggs laid by the treated males. The effect of radiation can be produce abnormalities, reduction of adult life span, flight ability, mating propensity, nutrition and ultimately death of the fruit borers. (FAO/1AEA/USDA, 2003)

  88. Dr. Dewangan, S. K.

    The present strategy of Sustainable rural development in India mainly focuses on poverty alleviation, better livelihood opportunities, provision of basic amenities and infrastructure facilities through innovative programmes of wage and self-employment. In India, Limited availability of land, limited cash returns and agriculture being confined to one or two seasons in the year have made villages to look for supporting rural industries such as sericulture. In India sericulture has been promoted as an agro-based, labour intensive, rural oriented cottage industry, providing gainful employment mainly to the weaker and marginalised section of the society especially tribal. Sericulture is a multidisciplinary science, which deals with natural science such as plant, insect, soil, environment, etc. Large production base, availability of skills, land and labour, established infrastructure, availability of silkworm breeds/ hybrids, Low investment, short gestation period and higher returns are some strengths of sericulture sector. Seri culture is an integral part of tribal life having immense traditional and ethnic value in their socio-economic structure practiced by about 1.5 lakh tribal populace in the 15 states. There are more than 58 countries practicing sericulture in the world. India is the only Country in the world to produce all the four known varieties of silk including Mulberry, Eri, Tasar and Muga. In 2013-2014 the employment in sericulture sector were 7.85 million persons and it goes up to 8.51 in 2016-17.The total raw silk production was 26480 MT in 2013-14 which is recorded as 30265 MT in 2016-17. In Chhattisgarh Tropical Tasar and mulberry are reared on commercial scale. In 2016-17 the Total raw silk production in Chhattisgarh claimed as 361 MT. The sericulture industry has witnessed a quantum jump in raw silk productivity. The average yield of 25 kgs. Of cocoons/100 dfls in the recent past has increased and currently the average yields are in the range of 60-65 kgs./100 dfls. Generation of rural employment and reduction of migration to urban areas are some Opportunities of sericulture sector in study area. This article demonstrates that certain developmental initiatives have been playing an important role in the socio-economic progress of tribal masses in Raigarh district and explains the increased returns from sericulture as a result of development programmes. The study concludes with some suggestions to improve the long term feasibility of sericulture.

  89. Nagare, K. R.

    The freshwater snail species of L. acuminata were procured from different water bodies in and around the city Aurangabad during 2 years of study (from Jan. 2009 to Dec. 2010). Different larval trematodes emerged during patency were collected separately and got centrifuged. After mounting observations were made under compound microscope for their identification. In all some 6 types of cercaria have been identified during study period. Of the total parasitized snails 43.25 % snails were found invaded by, cercaria of Fasciola hepatica and least number of infected snails 2.33 % were found invaded by the cercaria of Diplostomum hepatica.

  90. Suhail Rashid, Syed Tanveer and Shazia Ahad

    For epidemiological studies of cestode parasites in domestic fowl hosts were collected from six sites from north and south zone of kashmir valley for the period of 24 months from March 2012 to Feb. 2014 for estimation of mean parasitic load, mean prevalence of Cestodes along with seasonal variation, variation with weight, and variation with sex. During the study 576 hosts were examined for cestode parasites and prevalence rate was found to be 61.63% (355/576) with mean intensity load of 43.46 per infected host. The species found were R.tetragona (38.27%), R.cesticellus (20.82%), R.echinobothrida (28.07%), C.infundibulum (15.12%), A.cuneata (9.27%), D.proglottina (10.4%). The highest prevalence was found to be in summer (74.30%) followed by autumn (70.13%) followed by spring (54.86%) followed by winter (47.22%). Prevalence rate was found to be higher in females (69.09%) than in males (53.81%). Infection was found more in growers (77.44%) then in adults (43.77%).

  91. Kirti V. Dahigaonkar, Jaspal Kaur Oberoi and Pratibha R. Jadhav

    Mud volcanoes at Baratang and Kattan started ejecting mud after the 2004 Tsunami incidence. In this study, prokaryotic diversity in the flowing mud was investigated by using PCR-DGGE approach. Presence of 88 organisms was detected of which, 36% population detected was affiliated to archaea. All the archaea detected were representatives of Euryarchaeota. 64% population was affiliated to bacteria, mainly dominated by Proteobacteria. In Proteobacteria, alpha proteobacteria contributed 26.785%, beta proteobacteria was found to be 28.57%, gamma proteobacteria contributed 16.071% and delta proteobacteria was 5.357%. Actinobacteria contributed 7.14% followed by firmicutes being 12.5%. Sphingobacteriales contributed 1.78% and ungrouped organisms contributed 1.78%. Statistical analyses of all DGGE gels indicate that the diversity of Kattan mud volcano was comparatively greater than Baratang mud volcano. The results indicate that a large number of unexplored microbial groups may exist in this unique ecosystem.

  92. Siraj Sebhatu

    Background: Nursing process is a systematic problem solving approach used to identify, prevent and treat actual or potential health problems and promote wellness. It has five steps- assessment, diagnosis, planning, implementation, and evaluation. The nursing care planning and documentation of patient care needs are important. The use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) can impact on the work that nurses carry out. Involvement of nurses in the analysis and design phases of a web based nursing care planning is necessary to properly encapsulate their care planning and documentation requirements. Objective: This project attempted to design a Web Based System to Support Nursing Care Planning for Wolaita Sodo Outona Hospital (WSOH). Methodology: The proposed project uses object oriented analysis and design system development technique approach and different data collection tools i.e. (interview, observation and relevant document review techniques) to collect sufficient data needed for the system to be developed. Analysis and design of the proposed system was performed using the object oriented analysis and design tools i.e. (class diagram, inheritance of the class, and association of the class, UML diagram, ER diagram), PHP and HTML, Java script for programming language and My SQL for database used. Result: The developed design of a web based system to support nursing care planning for Wolaita Sodo Referral Hospital incorporates Register new/update repeat patient detailed information, Search patient detail, assesses the patient condition, to make nursing diagnosis, prepares care plan, implement goals, evaluate the outcome and prepared aggregate report information; nurses give care service at In Patient Department (IPD). To capture all of these data relational data base system was designed. Finally, the three tire system architecture also designed to give a high level view of the new system. Conclusion: A web based system to support nursing care planning system used by nurses should make time-saving possible, be easily used with easy menus, save all applications exactly, have warning and alarm systems, display necessary interventions at appropriate times, be a guide for patient care.

  93. Richard M Craven, Ivor R Smith and Bucur M Novac

    Although a large number of publications dealing with Tesla transformers have appeared, many of these are confined to providing an analysis of the transformer performance based on a lumped equivalent circuit model. The present paper is concerned with more practical issues and begins by considering the often overlooked significance of the magnetic coupling between the primary and secondary windings for the range of potential applications of these transformers. It continues by discussing the benefits of using a solid-state primary switch and providing an insight into various other additions that may be made to the basic circuit.

  94. Awadhesh Kumar Yadav, Vinay Keshari, Sanchit Singh, Abhishek, Vidyanand Chauhan and Adarsh Gupta

    As in today’s world and in future, there is only requirement of the people that everyone want to a fast, efficient and precise work output with the use of less human effort. Hence, thinking upon the requirement of people, we as a student of mechanical engineering are going to give the idea of “BIONIC BOOT” which turns a man towards superman. It will increase the human capabilities. We got inspired from the kangaroo which can run to maximum speed of 44 mph due to its special type of back feet structure. They can store the elastic energy in their back feet and release of this elastic energy generates 80% more power than in humans. Hence we decided to make the same replica for the human beings which will store and release the elastic energy similar as “kangaroo.” The bionic boot could increase the speed of humans to 25 mph. It will also help in running off road or climbing hills. As we know that there are limited amount of fossil fuels present in the world. But in India, approximately 60 to 70% people use the two wheelers for the small distance transportation. Hence to reduce the dependency on fossil fuels for the transportation of people we have given the idea of bionic boot. The bionic boot makes the human beings more active. To make a pair of bionic boot we have used iron strip, high strength spring which can store and release the elastic energy, nuts and bolts, GI sheet, rubber and wooden blocks. Generally, the purpose of bionic boot is to increase the running speed of human beings.

  95. Haji Khamis, Kituyi Lusweti, Haji Mwevura, Steven Nyanzi and Kiremire

    Red tomatoes and red-fleshed watermelons contain a high level of lycopene with two isomers, cis- and all trans- isomers. All trans-lycopene is more valuable nutrient than cis-lycopene. A high content of cis-lycopene lowers the dietary value of fruit or the fruit - products. Individuals eat food staff with lycopene contents without awareness whether lycopene has been degraded or not. However, there is no researched information existing so far in Uganda to establish the dietary value of lycopene before and after heating. The objective of this study was to isolate all trans-lycopene and cis-lycopene and then to measure their maximum peaks of characteristic before and after degradation by heat from selected tomato and watermelon varieties from Uganda. Hexane solutions of cis-lycopene and all trans-lycopene were scanned by using UV - VIS spectroscopy. The results obtained showed that the UV - VIS absorption spectra of all trans-lycopene and cis-lycopene extracted from Citrullus lanatus has three peaks with maximum wavelengths of (503, 473 and 444 nm) and (502, 471 and 444 nm) respectively. When heated at 740C for 2 hours their maximum wavelengths were (501, 469 and 443 nm) for all trans-lycopene and (500, 469 and 444 nm) for cis-lycopene. When heated again at 740C for 2 hours their maximum wavelengths were (502, 470 and 444 nm) for both all trans-lycopene and cis-lycopene and hence lycopene has been completely degraded by heating. The absorption spectra characteristics of all trans-lycopene and cis-lycopene from tomato had three peaks with maximum wavelengths of (502, 472 and 444 nm) and (502, 471 and 444 nm) respectively. When heated at 740C for 2 hours their maximum wavelengths were (500, 469 and 443 nm) for both all trans-lycopene and cis-lycopene and hence lycopene has been completely degraded by heating. The significance of this result is that all trans-lycopene from watermelon takes longer time to be totally converted to cis-lycopene by heating rather than all trans-lycopene from tomato and hence is more stable to undergo degradation and losing its quality by heat. This gives more a preference of watermelon for dietary purpose to tomato.

  96. Dr. V. Nagendran and Sangeetha Venkat

    Precise Measurement of Level is often Critical for Inventory, Custody Transfer, Process efficiency, Consistent supply etc. In order to ensure Accurate & Reliable Measurements, Calibration of Level devices by Dynamic WET Calibration is Imperative. Compared to Primary Level measurements in liquids, the detection and measurement of Interface Level has its own particular challenges. Ideally, an Interface would be a clear separation between two media with different densities. This Article / Paper emphasises on an Innovative Method for Primary and Interface Level WET Calibration of Multi Type / Multi Brand Level Devices, mounted in a Specially Designed Universal Platform / Level Calibration Rig. This method efficiently works on the basic principle of Physics, cascaded with latest measurement techniques.

  97. Rajan Tiwari, Mohammad Ali Ashraf, Suyash Tripathi and Alpana Singh

    In today world the traffic is a main problem for every people. These traffic occur due to increasing availability of vehicle on the road as we see that every people have own motorcycle for the travelling purpose but in those bike we have limited space to sit for 2 to 3 people. It means atone time we can travel 2 to 3 person. But if the number of people is more than 3 and they have to travel for same distance then they used another vehicle for going that place. Due to increasing the number of the vehicle the fuel consumption rate increases. For that purpose we have given a innovative concept of travelling 6 to 7 at time in our prospected design. Here we are going to focus 3 wheel bikes, on which 6 to 7 person can ride at a time in the same fuel rate. In this three wheels are attached linearly and the size of bike is increase due to which we get space for the seating purpose and also for the carrier of goods purpose also by shifting the seat. The another wheel frame is attached according to our need, it is provided with joint attachment. We can used this bike for carrying of good. And when the number of people is less than four then according to our need we can disassembled the third wheel frame. This wheel frame is adjustable and can easily assemble by the man, there is no need of any mechanic.

  98. Ahmed, M. T., Abdel-Hamid, M. I., Hegazy, E. A., Elnaggar, M. A. and Abdel-Muttalib E. O.

    Our aim is to evaluate and compare between three different dose calculations algorithms (fast superposition (FSUP), superposition (SUP), and convolution (CON)) in IMRT (intensity modulated radiotherapy) treatment planning technique for breast cancer patients. Ten patients with left-side breast cancer were selected for this study. Dose of 5000 cGy was prescribed to planning target volume (PTV). For each patient, IMRT plans were created with non-coplanar and non-opposing photon beams of 6 MV quality. CMS XiO system of treatment planning (TPS) was the system for the process of planning. The percent of maximum variation observed between the three algorithms for PTV was 2.33% in average conformity index (CI), and for OARs was 2.68% in average Dmean in case of contralateral breast. Significant variations between three algorithms were observed. Due to our study, because the results between the three different algorithms show clear difference in some comparisons, considerable precaution unavoidable in treatment plans evaluation, because the dose calculation algorithm selection could effect on the process of treatment planning (TP) and also on the end medical results.

  99. Salma Mohamed Eljack Elsarraf, Gasmelseed, G. A. and Ibrahim, H. M. E.

    Khartoum, the capital of Sudan, has a serious problem with solid waste management and treatment because of the huge amount of generated wastes. Thousands of tons are generated daily, generally, uncollected wastes accumulate at roadsides and burned by residents, most of it ends up in open dumps and wetlands, contaminating surface and ground water, posing major health hazards. Land filling has started in Sudan since 2008 but not properly engineered, most amount of the region’s waste is disposed in open dumps or semi-controlled unlined landfills with no gas collection system, groundwater protection, leachate recovery, or treatment systems. 5,100 tons are generated daily in Khartoum state;almost 70% (3,570 tons/day) must dispose to landfill after separation of 30% of recyclable materials (plastic, metals, glass, etc.). Approximately, 180,000 m3/month of MSW generated from three parts of Khartoum state, Khartoum, Bahri and Omdurman. It needs to be dumped on three proper designed landfills. On the basis of “monthly” Cells for the purpose of easy design and management problems if occurred in any Cell (e.g. containment of fire or isolation problems), cells will have 60,000 m3 capacity with 1800m2 surface area. The waste depth is 10 meters to achieve sufficient depth for feasible gas production and extraction. Site excavation can be up to 4 meters below existing ground level. The total landfill area for period of a year equal 97,200 m2, and cells must have isolated by HDPE (high density poly ethylene) to prevent ground water from leachate. This paper describes the recent situation of MSW in Khartoum state and proposed a proper design of landfill to receive waste and the generated gases.

  100. Manvinder Kaur and Harvinder Singh Sohal

    Fused carbo/heterocyclic 1,4-dihydropyridine (1,4-DHPs) derivatives have been synthesized using β-cyclodextrin an efficient catalyst in alcohol with high yields and purity under one-pot method. The structures of synthesized compound were established using 1H, 13C-NMR, IR, ESI-MS and elemental analysis. The synthesized fused heterocyclic 1,4-DHPs were found to exhibit potent antimicrobial activity as compared to carbocyclic 1,4-DHPs and these results were further supported by percentage structure similarity using Chem 3D software with the standard antibiotic drug (Cefixime). Moreover, heterocyclic 1,4-DHPs shows excellent DNA photocleavage potential using agarose gel electrophoresis.

  101. Djanira Rubim dos SANTOS, Georgiana Eurides deCarvalho MARQUES, Clenilma Marques BRANDÃO, Adriano Souza FONSECA and Marciel Justino NASCIMENTO

    Native fruits are important foods for the traditional communities of the state of Maranhão. Thus, the objective of this work was to analyze the physical-chemical characteristics of some native fruits found in the transition forest biome of the Amazon. Fruit pulps of the species Açaí (Euterpe oleracea Mart), buriti (Mauritia flexuosa L), bacuri (Platonia insignis Mart.) and murici (Byrsonima crassifólia L. (Kunth)) were analyzed. The analyzed parameters were the physical and chemical, such as the composition centesimal, vitamin C, pH, ATT and STT according to the methods described by the AOAC. The results showed the nutritional richness of these native fruits, with important values for dietary fiber and differentiated minerals for each fruit analyzed. Therefore, these fruits are important for the food diets of the populations involved and for the food industry.

  102. Uthale, D.A., Shinde, V. R. and Dol, H. S.

    New series of Pyrrole derivatives were synthesized with an approach to reduce the growing anti-microbial resistance and to develop more potent and less side effects having antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and anticancer activity. An efficient synthesis of different novel 2-amino-4, 5-diphenyl-1-substituted-1H-pyrrole-3-carbonitriles derivatives by the Paal- Knorr Condensation of benzoin with primary aromatic amines in refluxing ethanol resulted in the formation of α-amino ketone intermediates, which were condensed without isolation, with malononitrile to yield the various 2-amino-4,5-diphenylpyrrole-3-carbonitriles(a-d). Pyrroles a-d reacted with different reagents such as acetic anhydride, sodium azide, hydroxyl amine hydrochloride to yield compound (a1-d1). The synthesized compounds were confirmed through spectral characterization using IR, 1H NMR and Mass. The Pyrrole derivatives examined for their in vitro antimicrobialtesting using disc diffusion method. Activity of the synthesized compounds was carried out against Gram-positive, Gram-negative bacteria. Result indicated that these compounds showed promising antimicrobial activity in comparison to amoxicillin (the standard antimicrobial drugs).

  103. Kiran T. and Sadath Ali Khan Zai

    Extensive use of reinforced concrete structures and composite materials in infrastructure, increases the demand of design of high strength and durable reinforced concrete structure subjected to static and impact loads. The structural design deals with various types of loads such as earthquake load, wind load, wave loads and impact occurs from various reasons such as vehicle collision, rock fall, military exercise, missile attacks etc. Construction industry is heading towards a new era with intensive use of High Performance Concrete (HPC). High performance concrete overcomes the limitations of conventional concrete. The use of HPC is not only limited to infrastructural projects but also in high rise structures, nuclear reactor, defense structure etc. Now-a-days fibers are the most used materials to improve the ductile property of concrete. The properties of carbon fibers, such as high stiffness, high tensile strength, low weight, high chemical resistance, high temperature tolerance and low thermal expansion makes them one of the most promising fiber materials to be used in the Fiber Reinforced concrete (FRC). Use of polypropylene fibers reduces cracks during plastic and hardened state particularly when it is use in structural elements such as beam, column, slabs etc. which improves the quality of concrete constructions. Hence, addition of carbon fibers and polypropylene fiber to HPC increases toughness, energy absorption capacity of High Performance Fiber Reinforced Concrete (HPFRC). The present experimental investigation has been focused to develop a comprehensive understanding of test slab specimen under impact loading. HPC of M60 grade of concrete integrated with carbon fibers and polypropylene fibers. Series of twelve slab test specimens having three each of M60 grade Slabs of (600x600mm) with varying thickness of 60, 50 and 40 mm with and without carbon fibres (0.5% by volume),polypropylene fibres (900 gm/m3), and combination of both. Impact tests on the slab test specimens were carried out on a low velocity repeated impact test machine using instrumented drop weight hammer of 10.2 kg attached with Load Cell and was designed, fabricated and installed at Civil Engineering Department, UVCE, Bangalore University, Bengaluru - 56. Accelerometer, LVDT’s was used to record the Time-histories and Load, Deflection, and Acceleration. The experimental result shows a significant increase in the energy absorption, peak loads same number of impact blows for the carbon and polypropylene fibre reinforced concrete test slab specimen.

  104. Hajera Khan, DhotreLaxmi, A. G Mangulkar., MD Zameeruddin

    The aim of this work was development and validation of a dissolutionmethod for Propranolol and Hydralazine (Carbetazine Tablets). The dissolution established conditions were 900 mL of 0.1M HCl (pH 1.0) as dissolution medium, using a paddle apparatus at a stirring rate of 50 rpm. The drug release was evaluated by UV spectrophotometric method the absorbance of solution were recorded at288.20nm and 259.20nm for Propranolol and Hydralazinemixture for Multicomponent Mode methodand at 221.8nmand 243.36nm for Propranolol and Hydralazine respectively for Second order derivative method .Ahead of the results it can be concluded that the method developed consists in an efficient alternative for assays of dissolution for tablets.

  105. Syed Hamza Mustafa and Salman Saeed

    Pakistan is a developing country, and like most developing countries it utilizes a considerable portion of its annual budget on development projects particularly in highways and roads infrastructure. Development and construction of highways and roads may however have a negative impact on the surrounding environment. To control this negative impact, green and sustainable highway initiatives have been undertaken in Some European countries and in North America. Rating systems have been developed in these countries to determine the sustainable performance of highways. Pakistan does not have a rating system and thus, to develop a rating system, it is necessary to identify the criteria across which the rating system will measure the sustainable performance of highways. This paper, therefore, aims to identify sustainable criteria elements in highway projects lifecycle. The identification process was completed by means of reviewing literature and by comparing other rating systems. As a result different sustainable criteria and subcriteria elements were identified in different phases of lifecycle of Highways I,e Planning, Design, Construction and Operation and Maintenance.

  106. Nikolai Kobasko, Volodymyr Dobryvechir and Wytal’ Morhuniuk

    The paper discusses contemporary methods of quenching processes analyzing and cooling time evaluation to provide engineers with the correct data needed for hardening process interruption. It is shown that intensive interrupted cooling combined with the optimized chemical composition of steel allows reduce distortion and increase service life of steel parts due to creation of high compressive residual stresses at the surface of quenched products. Examples of calculations are supported by analytical equations and computer code HART- TANDEM developed and used in Ukraine within 1978 – 1998. The paper is illustrated with many images: phase and stress distribution, distortion and quench cracks prediction. It is underlined that contemporary powerful software such as DANTE (Dowling et al., 1996; Ferguson et al., 2002), HEARTS (Inoue et al., 1992; Inoue, 2002) and many others can investigate all aspects of hardening processes including carburization and quenching under pressure if correct data on boundary condition are available. The DATABASE on cooling characteristics of liquid quenchants is not developed yet and in spite of existing powerful software no quick progress can be made without careful investigation of liquid quenchants. Authors of the paper hope that big companies interested in making benefits and quick progress connected with hardening processes will do investments to investigate carefully liquid quenchants and create for them DATABASE suitable for computer simulation on the basis of testing Liscic/Petrofer probes of different sizes and forms.

  107. Ismayilov, H.A. and Gulgezli, А.S.

    The solution that is obtained using the equation of the curved axis is in the form of an infinite series and practical application is associated with great mathematical difficulties. In addition, the differential equation of the curved axis is obtained for pure bending, i.e. The rod is bent due to the moments acting in the longitudinal sections, and there are no lateral forces. A bending of a flexible thread occurs under the influence of its own weight, which in many cases is directed precisely in the transverse direction of the rod or has a component directed perpendicular to the axis of the flexible thread. All this circumstance makes it necessary to create a new method for calculating the strength and rigidity of flexible threads. In the present paper, for the first time, this problem is considered not in Eulerian a but in Lagrangian variables. in variables not connected with a deformed body, but with an undeformed body. Exact analytical solutions are obtained, and after obtaining the solution in Lagrangian variables it is possible to go over to Euler variables. Moreover, the exact analytical solution obtained is much simpler than existing solutions and the application in practice presents no difficulties.

  108. Dr. G. A. Karhale

    The effect of packing density, moisture content and temperature on dielectric parameters such as dielectric constant (ε'), dielectric loss (ε"), loss tangent (tan), relaxation time (τp), conductivity (σp) for Azaditrachta Indica (bark) in powder form was assessed. The results show that there was a systematic increase in dielectric constant (ε') and loss factor (ε") with increasing values of relative packing fraction (δr) and decrease in dielectric constant and loss factor with increasing temperature. The moisture percentage measured by Thermo-gravimetric method. The water jacket was provided with fittings for connection with flexible rubber tubing to constant temperature circulator. The digital thermometer connected to water jacket to read temperature directly. Experimental results of different relative packing fractions were further used to obtain transformation to 100% solid bulk using correlation equations of Landau-Lifshitz- Looyenga and Bottcher. Result shows that, there is a fair agreement between experimental values and theoretical values of different dielectric parameters.

  109. Shirisha Bethala and Pravallika Bethala

    Cloud computing is the development of distributed computing, parallel computing, grid computing and virtualization technologies which define the shape of a new era. In this paper, we explore the concept of cloud architecture and compares cloud computing with grid computing. We identified several challenges from the cloud computing adoption perspective and we also highlighted the interoperability issue that deserves substantial further research and development. Cloud computing is a completely internet dependent technology where client data is stored and maintain in the data center of a cloud provider. Limited control over the data may incur various security issues and threats. The challenges for adopting cloud computing such as well managed service level agreement, interoperability, privacy and reliability. This research paper outlines what cloud computing is, the various cloud models and the main security risks and issues that are currently present within the cloud computing industry.

  110. Borana, S. L., Yadav, S. K. and Parihar, S. K.

    This paper shows the potential use of remote sensing technology and GIS for getting of accurate land-use information from landscape spatial metrics for analysis of urban sprawl of the Jodhpur city. This study also quantify and examine the characteristics of urban land cover changes (1990-2015) using the Landsat satellite images of 1990, 2000, 2010 and 2015. A supervised classification method has been applied to prepare the base maps with five land cover classes (built up area, mining area, vegetation, water body and other area). To observe the change detection, four different spatial landscape metrics viz. Mean Fractal Dimension Index (FRAC_MN), Area Weighted Mean Patch Fractal Dimension (AWMPFD), Euclidean Mean Nearest Neighbor (ENN_MN) and Core Area Percentage of Landscape (CPLAND) were calculated using Fragstats that shows detailed perspective of the landscape changes behavior.

  111. Yadav, S. K., Borana S. L. and Parihar, S. K.

    The proposed study aims to demonstrate applications of Geographic Information System (GIS) and Geospatial technologies for the exploitation and analysis of imagery and geospatial information to describe, assess, and visualize features for Emergency Management in Jodhpur city, the second largest city in the Rajasthan. Developing an emergency response system is essential for a city with rapidly growing potential. Though it is having all infrastructural and medical facilities, the problem lies in finding the optimum/best facility from an incident location. GIS automates use of this information to improve response times and optimize situational awareness, leading to more effective incident resolution. It allows public safety agencies at local, regional and state-wide levels to view and work with the same consistent geographic data, helping to maximize inter- and intra-agency collaboration and coordination in the pursuit of safer communities.

  112. Kiran. T., Srinivas, H. R., Showkath Ali Khan Zai, Guruswamy. J, Dr. Sadath Ali Khan Zai, Dr. Nagaraja, P. S. and Dr. Shashishankar, A.

    The modulus of elasticity of concrete is a very important parameter, reflecting the ability of concrete to deform elastically and avoiding excessive deformation providing satisfactory serviceability. In order to utilize the full compressive strength of concrete, the structure using high strength concrete tend to be slimmer and requires a higher elastic modulus to maintain its stiffness with ductility aspects. The ductile properties of High Strength Concrete are mostly dependent on proportions of ingredients used and can be enhanced by addition of fibers. This paper present a detailed experimental investigation carried out at the department of civil engineering laboratory, Bangalore University, Bangalore as per Indian Standards using standard cylindrical specimens tested with extensometer having 150 mm gauge length under uni-axial compression. M60 grade of concrete matrix is integrated with Steel fibers (SF), Polypropylene fibers (PF), carbon fibers (CF), PF+SF, PF+CF, CF+SF, PF+CF+SF to obtain modulus of elasticity of concrete for above modified fiber reinforced concrete and the results shows 3.48, 3.84, 3.87, 3.89, 3.88, 3.79, 3.91, 4.35 value for modulus of elasticity respectively and same is validated analytically. The Modulus of Elasticity of fiber reinforced Concrete for combination of M60+SF+PF+CF is found to be higher as compared to other fiber reinforced concrete matrices.

  113. Thameem Fathima, K., Jesurani, S. and Srimeena, S.

    The nano powders of Bariumhexaferrite and zirconium oxide in different weight ratios had been prepared by sol-gel method. The formation of pure crystallized BaFe12O19 and ZrO2 nanoparticles were occurred, when the precursor were calcined at 8000C and 10000C for 3hrs. The vibrational, structural, morphological, thermal and dielectric properties have been determined by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Thermal analysis (TG/DTA), and scalar analyzer. FTIR spectra exhibited band in the range of 473-550 cm-1 which confirmed the presence of (BaFe12O19 – ZrO2) nanoparticles. Nanoparticles of barium hexaferrite and zirconium oxide had average crystalline size between (32nm- 44nm) respectively. The SEM image revealed that powder is well crystallized and the particles are elongated hexagonal structure. The dielectric studies showed the frequency, dielectric constant and dielectric loss in the range of 11.5GHz, 24.6 and 0.0064.

  114. Bruno Roberto Santos and Maria Augusta Soares Machado

    Investments are becoming increasingly important to people in recent years. With the economic instability scenario and with the great uncertainties, such as those related to social security reform, many people decide to start investing in financial market. But, there is always the doubt in which market assets one the people should invest. In today's dynamic and globalized world, it is necessary to make a decision more quickly more efficiently, bringing positive results and contributing to the growth of an organization. Many investors believe that paying attention to only the return of an asset is beneficial, but they forget that higher returns carry greater risks, so it’s important understanding the mechanisms for calculating a risk so that there is less chance of loss. The key word for risk minimization in a portfolio is diversification; because when investing in several assets, there is a decrease in the impact of a loss of a certain asset.

  115. Akshit Bhatia, Kanika Mittal, Natansh Negi and Vaibhav Tomar

    Reading numerous reviews about a product often is a cumbersome work. Many times, the review only say that the product is good and nothing else about the design, functionality of that product and hence reading those types of reviews doesn’t influence the decision of the customers. So to make the life of a customer easier, this paper presents an algorithm that ranks the reviews on the basis of the amount of information in the review. The earlier works done on the ranking of reviews assumed that all features were equally important and hence the ranking was never based on the amount of information that can be extracted from the review. This algorithm is an improvement over the other works in the similar domain as it extracts the features based on their importance among the users and then ranks the review as per the information available in the review.

  116. Dadarao Dhone

    We generate basic mathematics to express scientific concepts, those are crept in our mind. Scientific skill starts here. To find the facts further, we perform experiments, draw results on the basis of basic facts assumed. If the basic assumed fact is not fully correct, It's experimentation leads the concerned topic towards other way. Because, its observations are interpreted on the basis of initial assumed facts considered as basic facts, In case of Relativity, it has happened so. To start to derive relativity formulae, called Lorentzian transformations, they assumed speed of light equal to c on the basis of experiments performed till then to measure speed of light. But they considered it constant c irrespective motion of light source, motion of observers. All the experiment performed in that respect measure speed of light w.r.t. the source of light. But, measurements in space are being done speed of light irrespective of relative motion between observer and the source of light signal. Thousands of stellar bodies are mapped, assuming speed of light c as constant irrespective of relative motion between observer and the source-star. Hence mistakes in measurement of distances and related factors, is bound to persist in those performed measurements. In this article, the miss-concept in respect of length contraction and time dilation is discussed in detail. While, exercising on some one topic, innovative facts get revealed. While, discussing on time dilation, it is natural to analyze in deep, the working of atomic clock and the futuristic clock also, which is being installed by NASA in space within a few months. It involves action of gravity on it. Therefore, why, gravitational acceleration of objects having different masses is the same on a massive body? That should be directly proportional to the masses of the objects; then, verifying; it is not so? Why and how gravity behave differently from other forces? Property of gravity is only attraction; and no repulsion. Then how, dark matter and dark energy can repel the stars and galaxies and clusters to run away from the center of the Universe, that too at accelerated speed? The concepts are discussed with a bold hypothetical consideration very thoughtfully by the Author. General relativity concepts have become very popular. They create some illusive picture before the public. It is tried to drive away illusion about, Space-Time Continuum to catalyze creative real thinking of Relativity Principles. NASA keeps the world's time the Best. It will be keeping Universe's time after fixing the Futuristic clock in free space. To make it, Universal conman time (in respect of scientific laboratories and observatories) innovative suggestions are offered in this article. Concept of very first birth of Universe through whirling of Dark Energy matter and, next by Big Bang, not like what is thought as per present theory, instead by different suitable and natural way, is very innovatively found by the Author.

  117. Niharika Tiwari and Upadhyay, V.

    In this paper we describe the mathematical model during Liver Abscess. Clinical evaluation of data collected in a hospital is also presented. The main objective of this paper work is to enhance about Abscess. One of the major problems of Liver Abscess is pollution. Liver abscess (LA) remains a serious and often difficult to diagnose problem. Liver abscess requires a high degree of suspicion for early diagnosis. We apply the Herschel-Bulkley Non - Newtonian model. The stability of this model is one of the most vital aspects in Mathematical field. In this case, the two phase blood flow in which that of first is red blood cells and other is plasma. In this paper we find the graphical presentation between hematocriet and blood pressure drop.

  118. Railya Mukhamadeyeva

    The article reveals the main Factors that require research of implementation and operation of the a new additive technology of the Republic of Kazakhstan. The main problems of studying and implementing new technologies have been developed. Within the study there was used the structural-functional model of the introduction of innovative technology was used. Exactly technology in the broad sense - the presence or the absence of them - determines the position of national economy in the world, its strategic position. Available of technologies provides scientist or designer with powerful tools for implementation of new ideas. Lack of technology limits creativity of scientists and engineers, forcing them to apply technical solutions that are in their possession, rather than those that are required to achieve goals. Therefore, technology itself is a major part of innovation.

  119. Guruaj N. Kulkarni and Vinayakumar S. Chikaraddi

    IoT permits totally different objects to be perceived or controlled remotely across the present network infrastructure. It conjointly helps to integrate objects from the physical world with computer-based systems and, hence, ends up in improved accuracy, efficiency, and economic edges, additionally as reduced human intervention in their operation. Hurrying for a celebration, we have a tendency to might forget to modify off the fans and lights at home. And bear in mind that lapse solely half approach through the party. Returning home to modify off the fans and lights is just not an possibility. Wouldn’t it's helpful if we have a tendency to may throw the gadgets and lights at home even once away? What if we have a tendency to may turn on our air conditioners even before getting into our homes in order that we have a tendency to don’t have to be compelled to watch for the room to become cooler? Around twenty years past, this is able to have simply been a phantasy however, today, this is often a reality owing to IoT or the web of Things, that amalgamates package with totally different physical hardware devices. It defines IoT because the internetworking of physical devices (also referred to as sensible devices and connected devices), vehicles, buildings and anything embedded with physical science, sensors, actuators, package and network property, that any permits these objects to gather and exchange knowledge.

  120. Arlex Martínez Artunduaga

    This paper examines the institutional design of victim participation proposed by the Colombian State, following the issuance of Law 1448 of 2011, investigating the limitations that the legal framework imposes on the victims' political action, a corollary Of a regulation that has gradually associated the scenarios of participation of the victims to the classic instances of democratic representation, as can be seen in the normative itinerary that passes through Resolutions 388, 588, 1448 of 2013, and the most recent, 828 2014. In order to do so, it proposes an analysis approach that combines the argumentative turn in public policies, the notion of human rights in resistance line (Herrera, 2000; Douzinas, 2008), the political space as an agonizing scenario (Mouffe, 1999; Laclau, 2014) in which political action is conceived as constitutive of subjectivities (Escobar, 1999; Hajer, 2000), the theoretical and applied revisions elaborated around the participatory scheme of Colombian victims (Vargas, 2014; Lemaitre, 2013; Berrio, 2013), along with Shklar's reflection on victims, injustice and political action (2010).

  121. Rafiu Oyesola Salawu, Philip Olawale Odewole and Mathew Aremu Ayanbimipe

    The study examined the pains and the gains in the implementation, of the Treasury Single Account (TSA) among the Ministries, Departments and Agencies in Nigeria. Analytical methods were employed in the presentation of relevant data. The results showed that the implementation of the Treasury Single Account has resulted to the concentration of authority to Central Bank of Nigeria to process cash transaction and operate TSA which has inflicted unbearable pains on the MDAs due to the high volume of regional level transactions and expansive network required for the operation. However, the findings also showed that the implementation of TSA has improved visibility of Government revenue and cash management. It has enhanced efficient payment processing with adequate checks and balances, facilitates revenue monitoring and strengthens cash planning and budget execution. More also TSA’s implementation in Nigeria enables efficient cash management through regular monitoring of MDAs’ balances with Money Deposit Banks .The study concluded that only a well tailored monitoring mechanism and strategies on TSA’s implementation can consolidate its gains, strengthen the national treasury systems, guarantee efficient cash management and enhance proper accountability of public fund in Nigeria.

  122. Dr. Narendra Kumar Batra, Dr. Bharat Kumar and Dr. Dheeraj Gandhi

    Social Entrepreneurship create innovative solutions to immediate social problems and mobilize the ideas, capacities, resources and social arrangement required for sustainable social transformation. In addition, India’s social entrepreneurship ecosystem is one of the most sophisticated in the world, giving multiple possibilities to connect with local partners, to learn and to pursue innovative solutions to one of India’s numerous social challenges in the fields of education, agriculture, healthcare, renewable energy, manufacturing and skills development. India is a very diverse and complex country and requires time to immerse into and understand the Indian way of thinking. The purpose of this paper is to analyze how corporations create social and economic value through corporate social entrepreneurial activities. Objective of Study: • To analysis the various methods adopted to reduce magnitude of social poverty from the society by SNF. • Creating awareness for Corporate Social Responsibility. • Joining the un/underprivileged rural talent to the main stream of world, by opening new horizons. Methodology This is a conceptual paper and the researchers has adopted the method of reviewing different research articles, research journals, and case studies, to collect data about Entrepreneurship and Social Entrepreneurship with reference to Shiv Nadar Foundation which is consequently incorporated as a concept paper drafted by the researchers. The study is based on secondary sources of data.

  123. Paulo Brazão

    This article intends to identify some restrictions of globalization for western societies. We discuss how the mercantilization of education influence western societies, modify the education, and how can Dewey's thinking to contrast. We reclaim the prevalence of experience, participation and critical thinking, as a construct of democratic society, a perspective of resistance and hope in solving the constraints of the post-contemporary world.

  124. Amose, T. and Dr. Sreedevi, N.

    Energy is a wider concept in a developing country like India, as the growth of economic level of a country promotes the economic factors also in the same ratio especially dealing in energy demand and supply. Yet, some states still face lack of energy consumption not only kinds of that, even energies for cooking purpose also. But the execution of various programmes and schemes related to cooking energy have provoked many people to consume more compared to people living under Below Poverty Line (BPL). This paper describes the scheme 'Pradhan Mantri Ujjwala Yojana' in the aspect of Assessment of economic impact. And it enumerated statements with the economic thoughts classified into socio-economic factors that deals with occupation, income, education and health and economic factors that points Imports, consumption and demand based on rural aspects with PMUY scheme. At last, feedback exposed by the honorable ministers including Prime Minister Narendra Modi is also taken in this dramatic paper.

  125. Babatola, A. M. and Ifeyinwa Arum

    Both Brazil and Nigeria had their evolution in the same manner. The two countries were colonized by Western powers. They similarly had their experiences of policies of expropriation and exploitation of human and non-human resources. They were however subjected to various draconian and obnoxious policies and rules, featured by contradictions, inconsistencies with divide and rule tactics. The study finds out that apart from all these, there were violations of human rights inherent in the direction of slavery and slave trade to which the colonies were subjected. This work relies on the secondary sources of data collection in order to obtain reliable information about the activities of the colonial masters. Data were also sourced from the internet, governmental organizations and agencies concerned with the issue of colonialism. The study raises pertinent question about the desirability of the colonialism in the west; and how the colonies were brutally treated and governed via the use of indirect rule in politics as far as Africa political system was concerned. It noted that instead of being concerned with good governance, the colonial masters preoccupied themselves with primitive accumulation thereby using blacks against blacks to achieve their ulterior motives. The study therefore concludes that for the attainment of good governance and development in Africa, the idea of over dependence on West must be de-emphasized in order to pave way for violence free democracy. There should be concerted efforts on part of the African governments generally to educate the masses on evil effects of western colonial masters.

  126. Youssef Moflih

    This article provides a quick scan of the literature that treats the subject of the localized production organizations. This analysis allows us to understand how the theoretical concepts developed by A. Marshall had great success as they were exhumed by the Italians in a series of works on the Third Italy. The localized production system developed (LPS) by Courlet (1994) helps circumscribe the organization that binds the enterprises together in a territory and highlight the nature of the benefits (positive externalities, reduced transaction costs, better coordination between the actors of a territory) yielded by proximity. Indeed, the LPS is far from being a concept in the true sense of the word because it is interpreted in several ways. The LPS can be attached first to a broader interpretation of the economic phenomena: either it is the new techno-organizational paradigm of reference resulting from the swing of the global mode of production or it is a component or even a transition state of the new industrial organizations that are being set up. The LPS can also be attached to a more specific interpretation referring to the history of economic development according to which any local reality would be, at some point, more or less an LPS. It is but a unit of analysis, which, as the organization, sees its theoretical foundations vary according to approaches and authors. This means that the literature only analyzes the forms of organization in local systems, without explaining their foundations nor their evolution. However, the industrial district and the LPS concepts are each specific features of the "standard-categories" of the industrial territories. Thus, the continuity between the two schools stems only from the benefits of belonging to a territory in the broad sense of the word.

  127. Paulo Brazão

    This article presents the partial result of an ethnographic research developed in an urban school in Funchal, Madeira, Portugal. The researcher and classroom teacher analyzed the reports of classroom life as students manipulated the technological tools - weblogs - and developed actions that broadened the curriculum. Weblogs were a vehicle of communication between school and the world, created and maintained by students. This action constituted an authentic activity, according to Lave, (1988).We presented two episodes of the students during the construction of a weblog about wrestling. As a result, we reflect the nature of collaborative learning in constructivist / constructionist learning environments and the role of technology in contexts of authentic activity.

  128. Yeshwant Maheshram and Siddharth Singhai

    Healthcare has become one of India’s largest sectors - both in terms of revenue and employment. Healthcare comprises hospitals, medical devices, clinical trials, outsourcing, telemedicine, medical tourism, health insurance and medical equipment. The Indian healthcare sector is growing at a brisk pace due to its strengthening coverage, services and increasing expenditure by public as well private players. Indian healthcare delivery system is categorized into two major components - public and private. The Government, i.e. public healthcare system comprises limited secondary and tertiary care institutions in key cities and focuses on providing basic healthcare facilities in the form of primary healthcare centers (PHCs) in rural areas. The private sector provides majority of secondary, tertiary and quaternary care institutions with a major concentration in metros, tier I and tier II cities. India's competitive advantage lies in its large pool of well-trained medical professionals. India is also cost competitive compared to its peers in Asia and Western countries. The cost of surgery in India is about one-tenth of that in the US or Western Europe. With the extended technology healthcare is more reliable and easy for patient and it is also providing a major hike in Indian Economy.

  129. Celinea Lasan and Zamri Mahamod

    The objective of this research was to explore the reciprocal learning of the Malay language at the national primary schools in Sarawak, Malaysia. This research used qualitative approach that implemented as a case study which involving the collection of data through interviewing techniques, classroom observations, field notes and documents analysis. The participants in this study were involved eight primary school students and four Malay language teachers from four national primary schools in Sarawak. The validity and reliability of qualitative data are evaluated through pilot studies, The validity and reliability of qualitative data are evaluated through pilot studies, triangulation of information among different sources of data, receiving feedback from participants and expert review. Cohen's kappa coefficient index is used to measure the inter-rater agreement for the categorical items while the ATLAS. ti Mac version 1.6.0 (484) is used to facilitate reviewer analyzes qualitative data that were collected. The results of the study showed that the process of multi-racial unity brings together multi-racial students in Sarawak, group activities, communicating in Malay language, and tolerance between students and teachers in the classroom. Furthermore, integration among students also takes place in the classroom through the close friendships among the multi-racial students who come from various family backgrounds. The reciprocal learning of the Malay language also occurs through the linkage of various learning strategies in the classroom such as student-centered learning strategies, material-centered learning, student learning through existing experiences, and learning through group discussions. Students' learning environments also affects reciprocal learning which consists of physical environment and social environment. In addition, interaction between students and teachers in the classroom also involves teamwork, respecting each other, as well as facilitator's guide from the teachers.

  130. Derek Makokha

    The Northern Zanzibar-Inhambane Coastal Forest Mosaic ecoregion, together with the Eastern Arc Montane forests, harbor densities of plant species that are among the highest in the world. These natural habitats, especially small forest patches, are highly threatened along the Kenyan coast, and only slightly less threatened in coastal Tanzania. This has resulted primarily from conversion to agricultural land, although various forms of extraction also pose significant threats. Although gazetted and protected as a national monument, the forest biodiversity is still endangered. This research focused on indigenousforest plant species of high conservation value that appear in the 2017 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Mapping of RedListedplant species was done by means of random walks and geo-referencing using a GPS. The entire forest maps were created using GPS coverage through systematic walking around the forest edge. The GPS readings were complemented and translated to ARC GIS 9.3 software using Google earth digitization.This research established that 27 species in 16 families are listed in the IUCN (2017) Red list of Threatened Species. 8 species are Near Threatened (NT); 14 species are Vulnerable (VU) and 5 are Endangered (EN).

  131. Sanaa Ali Ahmed Alrashid, *Montather Majeed Ali and Yassein Habeeb Azaal

    Sport is an international language. Its ability to cross cultures enables sport related programs to bridge social and ethnic divides. As a result, sport can be a powerful tool to promote peace, both symbolically on the global level and very practically within communities. The power of sport can be used as both a tool for preventing conflict as well as element for building sustainable peace. When applied effectively, sport programs promote social integration and foster tolerance. These core values are the same as those necessary for lasting peace. In post-conflict environments in particular, this can work to reduce tensions and generate dialogue. This study shed lights on the potential contribution of sport within the process of peace and reconciliation, From trauma healing toward social integration. The fundamental elements of sport make it a viable and practical tool to support the achievement of the millennium development goals.

  132. Farida Abdul

    Literature indicates that there are four dimensions of tax fairness: horizontal equity, vertical equity, exchange equity, and procedural fairness. Although research suggests that compliance usually increases with tax fairness, this study sought to uncover the individual impact of each dimension of tax fairness on different perspectives of compliance. Using survey data obtained from medium and large corporate taxpayers in Kenya and employing a structural equation modelling technique, we find that procedural fairness is significant in influencing tax compliance among business taxpayers in Kenya. However, its different measures impact on the various dimensions of tax compliance differently. We also find that the different dimensions of tax compliance are influenced differently by the control variables. As such, policies to enhance compliance in Kenya would require a multi-faceted approach that critically takes on board what has traditionally been considered as tax fairness measures-since some measures in fact worsen compliance levels, contrary to expectations.

  133. Senthilkumar, U. and Sujatha, P.

    In this paper an attempt has been made to analyse the landuse and landcover change detection in Thiruvaiyaru block of Thanjavur district using remote sensing and GIS techniques. The total area of the study is 163.88 sq.km. It lies between the long 78 o 48’ E to 79o 9’ E and Lat. 10o 48’ to 11o 56’ N. In this block there are totally 62 villages. This area has a multi various land use. The satellite imageries LANDSAT 5TM (2005) and LANDSAT 7ETM (2015) data’s are used and the scale is 1:50,000. It is located in the central part of Tamil Nadu. Landuse and Landcover change detection maps were generated and classified into agriculture land, built-up land, fallow land, Uncultivable land, river sand, water bodies, and vegetation land for the year 2005 and 2015 based on NRSA classification. Each landuse and landcover has been from change to have positively and negatively for the two decades, especially agriculture land, sandy area, vegetation and fallow land, which is about 19.62, 6.56, 13.16 and 14.91 percentages respectively. These images were taken for comparing the classifications. The Landsat 5TM and 7ETM images were taken from GLCF.

  134. Christine Mwajuma Opondo, Dr. Pamela A. Raburu and Dr. Peter J.O. Aloka

    Teenage motherhood is a worldwide problem with 36.4 million girls giving birth before the age of 18 years in developing Countries and Kenya is no exception. The current study investigated the difference in adjustment of readmitted teenage mothers in selected secondary schools on the basis of age. Mixed method research approach was used and within it Sequential Explanatory Design was adopted. The target population consisted of 288 respondents namely 23 principals, 23 guidance and counseling teachers and 242 readmitted teenage mothers in 23 secondary schools in Ugenya sub-county. The findings of the study indicated that the older readmitted teenage mothers had higher mean score in overall adjustment than the younger ones. For example, whereas the teenage mothers in the aged group of above 19 years had a mean of 2.63 (SD=.316, SE=.056), those who were age below 15 years only had a mean adjustment of 1.72 (SD=.244, SE=.031). It was clearly shown that there was a statistically significant difference in overall adjustment scores for the three age groups [F (2, 163) =144.5, p<.05]. It was therefore concluded that there was significant influence of age on adjustment, with older readmitted teenage mothers adjusting better than their younger counterparts. Findings reported indicated that most young teen mothers had a lot of difficulties in adjusting to school life on return to school. However, the older and more mature teenage mothers adjusted appropriately and easily cope with the problems after counselling. It means that the age of teen mothers influenced adjustment. However, it was reported that, the younger teenage mothers easily shared their problems with the counsellors in school but had challenges in adjusting to school. The study recommends that teacher counselors should utilize relevant Cognitive and behavioral therapy techniques to help young teenage mothers adjust appropriately at school.

  135. Mg. Édgar H. Ramírez and Lic. Francisco J. Ruiz

    Writing production into the educative context is a key element that students must to know and to include inside their academic process, developing it in a proper way throughout their educational formation. Nonetheless, there are several factors that might mislead the development of the skill, such as the lack of guidance when it comes to write or the habit of producing a text starting off their own needs, distorting the task and the scholar’s growing. Thus, a workshop for writing creation is proposed and oriented for tales in Spanish, taking up dark fiction literature, driven to UCEVA’s Foreign Languages students from sixth semester, on which not only it will be worked the relevance of writing expertize into a pedagogical scenery but also, emphasizing on character creation, idea generation and looking for different components that help to show the narrative text as a talent sample from its creators, all of this under a didactic and ludic scheme that lead participants to enjoy and enhance the art of writing.

  136. Nassoua Antoine, O. K. P. O.

    The study carried out on 90 minor household workers aims at knowing the experience of the violence and the perception of these victimizations. Motivational theories, including motivational content theories were used to understand the judgment of minors employed by households. A semi-structured questionnaire and interviews were used to gather data that are analyzed to reflect the reality of victimization. From these experiences, minors express a rejection of the violence and behavior of the employer and thus maintain a negative image of these acts and the work of servant. This perception of minors has gradually been constructed in their minds and this depreciation and the rejection of the acts of the employer are motivated by the experience of victimizations which discourage and demotivate minors who no longer have a taste for work they exercise by necessity.

  137. Gatotoh Augustine Mwangi, Gakuu Christopher and Keiyoro Peter

    Education technologies including mobile learning (mLearning) are continually being integrated in teaching and learning. The adoption of mLearning is dependent on the end user that is the learner. This study therefore, sought to determine the relationship between the learner attitudes and adoption of mLearning among Community Health Care Trainees who were enrolled on the mHeath platform by Amref Health Africa in Kenya. The study is based on the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) which posits that actual system use is determined by user attitude among other factors. Three learner attitude attributes were investigated in this study. They included; attitude towards mobile learning technology , use of mobile devices for learning and learning content. The target population was 3081 learners in the two phases of the mHealth project. A sample size of 354 participants was obtained through simple random sampling procedure. A positive and significant relationship (r=.483**p < 0.01) was found between learner attitude and adoption of mLearning. It was therefore, concluded that learner attitudes play an important role in the adoption of mLearning. The study recommends that institutions aiming at implementing mLearning should focus of improving learner attitude toward using mobile technologies by designing mLearning instructional platforms that are user friendly, have comprehensive content and provide learner support services.

  138. Dr. AGBADOU Nakpon Joceline-Boli

    Levirate is a customary practice in Côte d'Ivoire, whereby a brother unites with his brother's widow or an elder son with his father's in order to create a framework for protection and assistance to the widow and especially to orphaned children. However, this practice tends to disappear, especially in the Gôh region, where it faces various deviations in a difficult socio-economic context. In this environment where the transition from community to society has had a significant impact on the organization and functioning of societies in contact with a market economy, advanced urbanization, schooling and acculturation, can this protection to be effective? Paradoxically, the levirate seems to be the only traditional institution in Côte d'Ivoire and in this region for the perpetuation of ties with the deceased and especially the maintenance of his legacy. Three (03) villages formed the sites of this study. This one aims to analyze the conditions of assistance and protection of the orphan child and the widow. To do this, at the methodological level, during two (02) months, semi-structured interviews made it possible to collect data from rural and urban populations. The analysis of the data was essentially qualitative. The results relate to five (05) life stories, presented following two main axes: the validity of the practice of levirate and the difficulties of the applicability of the said custom. This work, finally, insists on the sustenance of this ancestral custom, which in fact preserves the family cohesion, the maintenance of the lineage, the protection of the widow and especially that of the orphan child and probably for the prevention of delinquency. juvenile.

  139. Soumyabrata Mondal, Debdutta Chakraborty and Mishra, A. P.

    Agriculture is the pivot of economic growth and development of any nation. Like other developing countries in India also agriculture plays a dominant role for the economic development. During the first (1951-1956), second (1956-1961) and third (1961-1966) five year plans foodgrains production was the concerned of development strategy. This was the periods, when large junk of Indian population were suffered from food insecurity and malnutrition. The policymakers searched for something new to enhance the agricultural production. In mid 1960s the introduction of green revolution showed spectacular results and the production of food grains increased significantly. Later agricultural scientists put emphasis on the restructuration of Indian farming system. As a result in the beginning of the 21st century Indian farming has been shifting from traditional farming to modern commercial agriculture due to availability and growth of infrastructural facilities like improved seed varieties, fertilizers, pesticides, supplies and services, market facilities, literacy, mass media, research, teaching and extension. Besides, Indian economy has been undergoing structural transformation from an agro-based to knowledge-based services and industrial economy but the agricultural sector is still the mainstay as about half of India’s population is wholly or significantly dependent on agriculture and allied activities for their livelihood. Hooghly is one of the most important agricultural based industrial districts of West Bengal, about 70% of its population depend on agriculture and represents an important and remarkable place in the field of agriculture in West Bengal. In Hooghly, with the invention of science, technology and its application in agricultural field gives more growth and developed agricultural products. In this paper a detailed retrospective of agricultural development for the past few years i.e. from 2008 to 2013 in terms of agricultural production of principal crops, vegetables, fruits, flowers; yield capacity of these crops; net sown area; gross sown area; cropping intensity; irrigation facilities; consumption of fertilizers; availability of warehouses and cold storages are analyzed.

  140. Ayşe ÖZTÜRK, Nagihan SEKİ and Nurcan YİĞİT

    In this study; woody plant taxa in parks and gardens of Kastamonu province Taşköprü district were determined and the ecological conformity of the species was evaluated. Considering the climatic characteristics of the region, suggestions have been made for woody taxa which are resistant to air pollution and have good visual quality within the region's natural taxa.

  141. Jonah Nyabuga, Eliud Nyakundi and John Yambo

    The study examined the role of Youth Polytechnics in training the youth for self- employment in Homa Bay County. Unemployment among the youths rendersthem desperate and deprives them of basic means of life support which makes them vulnerable to exploitation, abuse and marginalization. The purpose of the study was to examine the role of Youth Polytechnics in preparing the youths to join self-employment in Homa Bay County. The study was guided by the following objective: To examine the skills taught in Youth Polytechnics in training youths for self- employment in Homa Bay County. The study was guided by human capital theory by Theodore W. Schultz. Descriptive survey design was used and purposive sampling technique was used to get the 18 managers and 1 county vocational officer in charge of TIVET while cluster sampling was used to select 380 students out of total population of 1265. A total of 320 students responded to the questionnaires. Pearson’s product-moment correlation coefficient was used to arrive at the relationship between the two tests. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics such as frequency counts, means, tables and graphs. Data was also analyzed using (SPSS Version 20) computer programme. The study found out that key skills like technical drawing (48.8%) and driving (30.9%) are missing from the course units in the youth polytechnics. Review of the courses was recommended to include the missing course units.

  142. Reddemma, N. and Sudhakara Reddy, Y.

    Today teacher has to make a balance between the in evoked responsibilities and large expectations from the students, parents, administrations and the community. In such a situation the need to re-dedicate themselves and to re-direct themselves of their new and chasing roles. In this study, an attempt was made to know the satisfied teachers differ significantly with dissatisfied teachers on different job-related factors with respect to their teaching effectiveness. It reveals that satisfied teachers with their job could perform effectively in their job whereas dissatisfied teachers could not perform up to their level.

  143. M.A. Gonzalo Romero Martínez, Laura D. Vargas and Paola A. Ospina

    This paper reports an Action Research study that aimed at analyzing the incidence of the implementation of Jazz Chants as didactic strategy to learn English vocabulary in kindergarteners in a Spanish monolingual context in Colombia. Initially, a diagnostic test was applied to 20 kindergarteners at the Bilingüe Hispanoamericano School located in Tuluá-Colombia, in order to establish their knowledge of vocabulary in English; which results were low. Later, a didactic sequence based on the strategy Jazz Chants, focused on learning vocabulary in English, was designed and applied, which addressed three themes established by the institution's curriculum: colors, shapes and classroom objects. Then, the students had to make use of the Jazz chants to perform different activities along the didactic sequence during each session in order to practice and become familiar with the vocabulary. After the didactic sequence, students' knowledge of vocabulary was evaluated again in order to analyze the incidence of the implementation of the strategy, which results were remarkably satisfactory.

  144. Krishnakhi Choudhury and Karabi Deka

    The present study is undertaken in the state of Assam. The study is based on Primary and Secondary data. Schizophrenia is a chronic, severe, and disabling brain disorder that has affected people throughout history. Treatment helps relieve many symptoms of schizophrenia, but most people who have the disorder cope with symptoms throughout their lives. Researchers are developing more effective medications and using new research tools to understand the causes of schizophrenia. Educating Individuals with Schizophrenia, to this point we have discussed what people diagnosed with schizophrenia can do to help themselves, and even what family and other relatives can do to help; but there is still the issue of how to educate these individuals in our classrooms. People with schizophrenia have difficulty retrieving associations within a context, and this creates a pervasive loss of memory that makes everyday life a challenge. In this paper an attempt is made to study the role of higher education because children and people over 45 rarely get schizophrenia. Despite the widespread misconception that people with schizophrenia have no chance of recovery or improvement, the reality is much more hopeful. Although currently there is no cure for schizophrenia, you can treat and manage it with education, medication, self-help strategies, and supportive therapies. Successful schizophrenia treatment depends on a combination of factors. Medication alone is not enough. It's important to also Educate them about their illness. With the help of education, most people with schizophrenia are able to have satisfying relationships, work or pursue other meaningful activities, be part of the community, and enjoy life.

  145. Gish Chacko, Maruthi Krishna Goud and Krishna Priya, G.

    The aim of the present study was to compare Metaphor comprehension and use in monolingual and bilingual adults. A total number of 60 subjects in witch these are divided in to genders group I group II. 30 monolingual Telugu native speakers. Telugu were selected as group I in the age range of 20 – 60 years .30 bilingual subjects i.e. Telugu & English were selected in the age range of 20 – 60 years list of 20 metaphors were selected from two age range groups. A questioner was prepared with list of 20 metaphors and data were collected from the two genders statically analysis was done using analysis of co variance ( ANOVA ) results were shown that there were no significant difference was found between Telugu monolingual and Telugu English bilingual groups. But there was a slight better performance was observed in bilingual Telugu English group. By viewing metaphor as a species of analogy, two generative functions of metaphors can be explained namely, the structural enhancement of target concept, and the lexical extension of basic terms. In study, we have focused on metaphor comprehension and use, and discussed the relationship between monolingual and bilingual. Our hypothesis was 40-60 years bilingual subjects could perform better than 20-40 years monolingual group. Outcome of the study was supporting the hypothesis that performance of metaphor comprehension and use were higher in older adult group than younger adults. Clinical implications: Help language educators to understand specific characteristics of a particular education context and create a classroom that accommodate the polyphony of voices and options. To high light the areas in the learners perceptions of their relationship it can be used in detecting metaphoric uses in subject object verb-noun and adjective –noun relationship Future directions: The languages studied in this paper were Telugu and English only similar experiments with more subjects and on other language should be carried out to test the generality of the results presented. More appropriate methodologies or experimental designs could be used Further research can refine and strengthen some of its aspects, instance through cross linguistic research in other languages. It would be interesting to investigate why this difference is only significant between the monolingual and bilingual groups. In future research it would be worthwhile to incorporate verbal information in the stimuli especially since verbal anchoring may help receivers to appreciate relatively complex metaphors. More research is needed to understand the circumstances under which contextual information is most likely to influence metaphor comprehension. The study can be extended to incorporate the role of preposition in metaphoric uses

  146. Raveesh Kaimal, T.V.

    Back ground of the study: A study undertaken by Sakhi in Kerala in 2004 revealed that 40% of respondents had experienced violence in the home at some point in their lives. Need for the study: The studies done in Kerala regarding domestic violence are very few in number, for taking necessary actions in this field we need the current status of women experiencing domestic violence. Purpose: The study explored the experience of domestic violence among women and assessed the knowledge of them regarding domestic violence. Design: Descriptive survey design was used. Sample: Comprised of 200 women between the age of 18-60 years selected by proportionate stratified random sampling. Method: Data was collected using two tools developed by the researcher. The data then obtained was analyzed using descriptive statistics (percentage and frequency distribution) and inferential statistics (Chi-Square). Major findings: Fourty three percentage of the subjects were experiencing domestic violence at the time of the study. Majority of the subjects (49%) had poor knowledge regarding domestic violence, 18% had good knowledge regarding domestic violence. Association found between physical violence and age (χ²(2)=12.5, p=0.002), education (χ²(3)=10.94, p=0.012), and duration of marital life (χ²(2)=24, p<0.001). Significant association noticed between emotional violence and age (χ²(2)=8.28, p=0.016), education (χ²(3)=10.94, p=0.012) and duration of marital life (χ²(2)=20.09, p<0.001). Association found between economic violence and duration of marital life (χ²(2)=9.47, p=0.002). Association was noticed between knowledge level and age (χ²(4)=13.87, p=0.008), education (χ²(6)=12.95, p=0.004), occupation (χ²(6)=13.22, p=0.04). Conclusion: The findings of the study show that this evil is still growing in our society. Also the knowledge of the women about domestic violence is found to be poor. It shows the need for gender sensitization and empowerment programmes.

  147. Aastha Sethi

    Growing water demand has put a burden on the availability and quality of water resources present in India. In 2010, per capita water availability was 1608 m3, which is expected to decrease to 1341 m3 by 2025 and to 1140 m3 by 2050. Factors accounting for this substantial decrease in availability of water resources are climate change, impact of urbanization and land use changes, energy choices of people, and growing populations. Change in climatic conditions leads to decrease in water availability and increase in water demand. Thus, it becomes difficult to cater for the water demand of the ever-increasing population. Climate change has also amended the water cycle in innumerable ways, leading to decreasing availability in water resources. Also, expanding impervious surfaces have altered the amount of percolation of water and thus declining ground water recharge. In some areas of the country, increased dependency on groundwater resources have burdened the aquifers in that region. Changing dynamics of water resources of India has an adverse impact on different economic sectors as well. Moreover, it becomes a critical issue in a country which is expected to reach the population of 1.6 billion by 2050. Thus, there is a need of monitoring and managing the water resources to avoid the problem of water shortage or degrading water quality in future. This paper explains in detail the reasons behind depleting water resources, focusing on impacts of climatic change and assesses the depleting water resources of hill town Nainital, Uttarakhand.

  148. Niharika Prasad and Pandey, J. P.

    Corporate social responsibility has received an increasing amount of attention from practitioners and scholars alike in recent years. However, very little is known about whether or how corporate social responsibility affects employees. The role CSR plays in enhancing a company's reputation among its own employees, subsequently boosting their motivation and engagement, is perhaps underrated. In this paper, an attempt was made to study the relationship between Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) and employee engagement, which is regarded as a key to organizational performance. This paper shed light on Corporate Social Responsibility as a driver of employee engagement in an organization. The study shows that CSR is an emerging and important driver of employee engagement.

  149. Dr. Ansuman Samal, Prof. Bibhuti Bhusan Pradhan, Dr. Divya Agrawal and Dr. Sanjay Kumar

    The term medical tourism is the amalgamation of two highly essential entities; medical which defines the health care sectors and tourism that defines travelling for any purpose. Due to globalization and thereby generated consumerism, when the physical, financial and psychological barriers are diminishing between the countries, the people are more aware, conscious, informed and they don’t hesitate to avail the good quality products and services irrespective of their proximities. In this line, the phenomenon of medical tourism has also exploded over the years and currently it has become a $100 billion industry. Though a late starter, India has done relatively well in attracting the medical tourists after implementing the liberalization process in 1990s. The whole hearted support given by the government, pool of talented & experienced doctors, other technical & nursing staffs, affordability, English speaking population, rich natural and cultural heritage sites etc. has made it an attractive proposition over the years. But the million dollar question that arises here is about competitiveness with existing global powers in terms of quality, affordability, technology and infrastructure. If we visit the recent occurrences in television and news papers, we come across very distressing news about the healthcare failures across India. Incidences of child and maternal mortalities, undeveloped/ under developed health care infrastructures, social taboos, outbreak of several life risking diseases like dengue, malaria, swine flu etc., are the common headlines appearing in the media. It puts a serious question mark on our efforts towards offering world class health care facilities. With this in background, we have tried to assess the current health care service quality in the state of Odisha with the use of SERVQUAL scale. Samples were taken from three of the renowned private teaching / tertiary care hospitals situated in the state capital. Based on the findings and instigated by the recommendations, we have listed many areas where we can improvise in order to upgrade over the current state of affairs.

  150. Biruk Sisay Desulie and Birhane Anagaw Abebe

    Rural farmers in Ethiopia have been practicing traditional irrigation since ancient time. But, it is only in the 1970s that small scale irrigation got recognition by the then government. Nonetheless, currently, investment in small scale irrigation has been identified as a key poverty reduction strategy. To this end, it may be important to review the existing irrigation schemes and the major challenges associated with them, among others. This paper critically reviewed 12 relevant recent literatures on the sub-sector and presented discussions thereof. It is exhibited that farmers practiced various types/techniques of small scale irrigations such as river and stream diversions, rainwater harvesting, groundwater and hand-dug wells, motor pump schemes and so forth. However, small scale irrigation is by far underdeveloped which has limited its contribution to the agricultural production and food security in the country. Various reasons and constraints are indicated for its underdevelopment across documents. The major constraints include institutional, technical, financial, socio-economic and marketing related aspects. Examining these constraints and planning to tackle accordingly is one of the ways that the government and its partners could address to develop the small scale irrigation. As such, it is important to duly consider those aspects in future policy issues and agricultural interventions. More specifically, it is suggested to duly work on improving the technical know-how of farmer on irrigation technologies, extending credit facilities, expanding markets and road infrastructures and setting clear organizational structures for irrigation departments at various levels.

  151. Ankita Gupta and Dr. Gautam, S.S.

    Electronic Governance is the significance of information and communication technology (ICT) for delivering government services and provided that effectiveness, clearness and replace of information, now a days by the use of ICT our economy turn to case less economy. The calculated purpose of e-governance is to maintain and make simpler governance for all parties -government, citizens and businesses. The E-governance uses the ICT in present for better and realistic connectivity and processing solutions. The rural ICT applications try to present the services to citizens at their village access stepladder. These applications use the ICT in present for better and reasonable connectivity and processing solutions. The ICT provide the services to different modes like government to citizen (G-C), government to business (G-B), government to government (G-G) to get better the achieve, enhance the sustain, decrease the processing expenses, increase clearness, and drop off the sequence times. This paper provides the brief literature review of ICT and explains its role on E-Governance.

  152. Dorothy Soi, Enose M W Simatwa and Viviline C Ngeno

    In Kenya the number of primary school teachers by gender is more or less 1:1 however gender gap in leadership in favour of men persists. For instance women hold less than 20% of all leadership positions in primary schools in Kericho County. This research was founded on the Theory of planned behaviour and the Model of Administrative Career Mobility, from which a conceptual framework was formulated. Mixed methods designs were adopted. A survey questionnaire and an interview schedule were used to collect data. The study population consisted of all 461 public primary schools in Kericho County. The study established that there was a weak negative significant relationship between the perception of institutional factors and leadership aspiration with a coefficient of -0.123 at a p-value of 0.05 and accounted for 1.2% of the variation in leadership aspiration. The study concluded that perceptions of female teachers on institutional factors influenced the female teachers’ leadership aspiration. The study recommended that school policies that are based on equal opportunity principles should be developed to create a leadership team in primary schools. It also recommended the development of programs for enhancing the access of female teachers to leadership positions in primary schools in light of their aspiration for leadership.

  153. Saad Eid S. Albaqami

    Transfer theory proposes that errors made by English Foreign Language students are often due to interference from their first language. Consequently, if there are distinctions in the systems governing the use of articles, the first language form tends to be used when students are translating into English. In terms of the Arabic language, no indefinite article is used, in contrast to English; thus, errors due to replacement, overuse, or omission may appear. To assess these effects, 20 Saudi postgraduate ELOCS students at Bangor University were invited to participate in a quantitative study. This involved the use of ten sentences with differing article usage;some required the zero article and definite or indefinite articles, while others required diverse and multiple usage. Statistical analysis using SPSS software, including correlations and ANOVA, illustrated that omission of the article was the most noticeable error, particularly with respect to indefinite articles. This was typically followed by replacing the indefinite article with the definite one. In the case of requirements for indefinite and definite articles in the same sentence, error rates increased. The paper’s findings lead to the importance of evaluating potential findings related to learning and teaching strategies but moreover recognises the demand for additional research.

  154. Radha, A.

    The dispersal of fungal spore districts like Thanjavure, Pudukottai and Madurai, Tamil Nadu, India was enumerated during the period 2010-2011 in the present investigation. In all twenty sample sites of Thanjavur district this fluctuations showed some uniformity. In Thanjavure, the lowest concentrations of fungal spores were observed both in June and July. The fluctuation trends in all months for all sampling sites in Pudukkottai district was as similar as observed in Thanjavur district. In Madurai, the highest range of fungal spores observed in the month of April suddenly decreased to 50- 60% in January and these trends continued up to June. Hence, the fungal spore concentration fluctuation trends were more or or less similar in all sampling places of Thanjavur, Pudukkottai and Madurai districts.

  155. Rajapriya, K. and Dr. Vijayanchali, S.S.

    Background: The number of people with diabetes has risen from 108 million in 1980 to 422 million in 2014. Diabetes is a major cause of blindness, kidney failure, heart attacks, stroke and lower limb amputation. The standardized prevalence rate for DM in the total Indian, urban and rural populations was 4.3, 5.9 and 2.7%, respectively. Objectives: To assess physical Activity of the Diabetic Respondents; To know the lifestyle pattern of the Diabetic Respondents; and To assess the Food Consumption Pattern of the Diabetic Respondents. Methodology: The study area was Apollo Specialty Hospital, Madurai. A total of 100 samples were selected from diabetic population. The samples were selected by adopting purposive random sampling technique. Questionnaire was used as a tool for data collection. Result: About 35 percent of the respondents were females and 65 percent of the respondents were males. Around 31 percent, 45 percent and 24 percent of the respondents were sedentary, moderate and heavy workers. About 52 percent of the respondents had the habit of watching television. Around 56 percent of the respondents had the habit of walking. About 52 percent of the respondents had the habit of smoking and 35 percent of the respondents were consuming alcohol. Majority 93 percent of the respondents consumed parboiled rice daily, 64 percent of the respondents consumed coconut daily, 25 percent of the respondents consumed banana daily. About 40 percent of the respondents had consumed groundnut oil daily. Around 74 percent of the respondents had consumed sugar daily. The mean carbohydrate, protein, fat, calcium and vitamin value was higher and energy, Iron and fibre value was lower than the recommended dietary allowance. Conclusion: Majority (56 %) of the respondents had the habit of walking, 16 percent of the respondents had the habit of cycling, 6 percent of the respondents had the habit of doing yoga and 22 percent of the respondents were not doing any exercise. Majority (52%) of the respondents had the habit of smoking and 35 percent of the respondents were consuming alcohol. Majority (75%) of the respondents were not following the Diabetic diet, 25% of the respondents were following the Diabetic Diet Strictly.

  156. Swarnalatha Devi, I., Parimala, K., Leelapriya, T., Venkateswarlu, K., Srikrishnalatha, K. and Vishnuvardhan Reddy, A.

    A field experiment was conducted to study the on effect of pulsed magnetic field(PMF) on maize inbred BML-6 during Kharif,2012, at Seed Research and Technology Centre, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad. Seeds were exposed to pulsed magnetic fields of varying frequencies viz., 1Hz, 10Hz, 50Hz and 100 Hz with intensity of 1500nT, sine wave for a period of 5 hrs per day for 15 days. The study revealed that 50Hz frequency was found to be most optimal combination which showed the best response for most of the parameters studied viz., cob length, number of seeds row-1, number of rows cob-1, cob weight and grainyield kg-ha. Significant increase in root length, shoot length and seed vigour was observed in all the treatments compared to control. The results suggested that pretreatment of PMF plays an importantrole in improvement of crop productivity of maize through the enhancement of protein, mineral accumulation and enzyme activitiesin seed which leads to increase the growth and yield.

  157. Akanksha Soni and Ram Rakha

    The present study is aimed to innovate and standardize technique in cheese making by whole pineapple juice used as a milk coagulant and incorporation of nutrients in cheese. It is also aimed to reduce the cost of rennet enzyme, easy availability and for those who are vegetarian and prohibited due to religious factor. Full cream milk was used to produce cheese by rennet enzyme in T1 & T2 while pineapple juice was incorporated as clotting agent in T3, T4 & T5. Ascorbic acid retention in T3, T4 & T5 was 1.16, 2.52 and 4.46 mg/100gm of cheese. It is a bioactive compound and is very essential to regulate various biochemical processes in the body. Presence of ascorbic acid in dairy product is an attractive feature of this study. The other chemical constituent viz protein, fat, SNF and moisture were found slightly lesser in juice treated cheese than rennet treated cheese (control) but there was no significant difference found in chemical constituents of cheese samples. Pineapple juice was found suitable for soft cheese production. The softness of cheese increased with the increase in quantity of juice in the treatments. The extra soft character of cheese in juice treated Bromelain enzyme present in juice as reported by Roseiro, et al., (2003) and Ilany and Netzer, (1969). The product was organoleptically analyzed for colour, flavour, texture and taste. Application of 2.5% juice scored 94, which was found highest than other treatments. The calculated Critical Difference of all treatments is 1.3618. It was found that T1 differs with T4 by 2.25, T2 differs with T4 by 2.25 and T3 differs with T4 by 1.75 significantly.

  158. Ezema, R. A., Onunwa, A. O. and Igbonekwu, J. E.

    Identifying specific organic amendments that can maximize stable aggregates and increase soil organic carbon (C) recovery is a critical component of soil management. In this study, we investigated comparatively, the short- term effects of poultry droppings (PM), cow dung (CD),swine slurry (SS), rice chaff (RF), boiler ash (BA) and control (no amendment) on significant soil properties such as aggregate stability, organic carbon fractions, pH and soil temperature. The research, which involved incubation of a mixture of each organic residue with soil in the laboratory for 90 days, adopted a completely randomized design (CRD). Results indicated that mean weight diameter – an index of aggregate stability and strength was highest (1.26 mm) in RF treated soil followed by BA, which did not differ significantly from SS. Aggregate stability in CD treated soils did not differ significantly from that of PM. The soil organic carbon was higher in all amended soils and ranked in the order of RF > CD >SS >PM > BA > Control and highest at 30 days sampling. Soil pH was highest (pH 7.0) in CD and PM treated soils and least (5.7) in SS treated soil and generally at 90 days sampling. There were significant (p=0.05) interactions between applied organic waste and incubation time on soil pH and organic carbon content. The organic residues differed in their effect on soil temperature at different sampling dates with PM treated having the highest.

  159. Takankhar, V. G., Karanjikar, P. N., Gutte, A. V. and Bhoye, S. R.

    Field experiment was conducted with 16 treatment combinations consisting of four levels of irrigation (0.4, 0.6, 0.8 and 1.0 IW/CPE ratio) at 60 mm depth and four levels of N (0, 50, 100 and 150 kg N/ha/yr). It was conducted in split plot design with four replications at Soil and Water Management Farm, Navsari Agricultural University, Navsari. In all three cuttings were under taken during the course of field experiment. The results of field study indicated that the herbage yield and essential oil yield of palmarosa were significantly influenced by irrigation and N levels. Among the four levels of irrigation, the treatment 0.6 IW/CPE ratio recorded significantly higher herbage yield (58.2 t/ha/yr) and essential oil yield (256 kg/ha/yr)of palmarosa. Among the different N levels, application of 100 kg N/ha/yr resulted significantly higher herbage and essential oil yield over rest of the treatments. An increase in oil yield under N100 was of the order of 64, 21 and 3.5 per cent over N0, N50 and N150, respectively.

  160. Mohamed M. AbdAlla, Nahed A.K. Rashed and Mohamed Abd Elsalam Yosef

    Blackberry (Rubus fruticosus L.) is a shrub with great importance because of its fruits and /or aerial parts have a wide use in pharmaceutal, medicinal and industrial healthcare purposes, in-addition to their nutritional value. In the present study, inter simple sequence repeats (ISSR) and sequence-related amplified polymorphism(SRAP) analyses were used to evaluate genetic stability of Rubus fruticosus L.̔̔ Triple Crown̕ micropropagated plantlets and compare or detect possibly existing genetic variation between them and their donor mother plant. Introduced shoot tips of Rubus fruticosus L.̔̔ Triple Crown̕ were micropropagated in North Sinai Research Station, Desert Research Center. Sterilized excised shoot tips of them were cultured on MS basal salt medium supplemented with benzyl adenine 0.5 mg/L. Then developed shoots successfully transferred to multiplication media for several subcultures and subsequently to rooting medium. Genomic DNA of five micropropagated plantlets (samples) that were phenotypically normalregenerates and essentially identical with their mother plant, in-addition to their donor (mother plant) was extracted using modified CTAB method. Ten ISSR primers and twenty three different SRAP primer combinations were used for this study. Comparisons of each ISSRand SRAPbanding patters average ofmean percentage of similarity which calculated by Nei & Li similarity coefficient and dendrogams constructed based on the UPGMA clustering method showed that the micropropagated plantlets (samples) exhibited somaclonal variation and not true-to-type. Also, polymorphic information content and marker index values for the two markers indicated the presence of polymorphism between the studied samples and their mother plant. In-addition, the discriminating capacity and efficiency of ISSR and SRAP markers for genetic analyses were high, but SRAP markers had better capacity for comparative study and quantifying genetic diversity between Rubus fruticosus L. ̔Triple Crown̕ micropropagated plantlets (samples) and their mother plant.

  161. Md. Mozahidul Haque and Majumder, U. K.

    This study was set out to explore the socio-demographic factors affecting women’s autonomy in decision-making process among married employed women in two northern districts named Dinajpur and Thakurgaonof Bangladesh. Data was collected from 150 married employed women for sampling purposes using random sampling technique. The analysis revealed that, overall 24% of the employed women participated in all the three areas of decision-making (i.e. freedom of movement, decision-making regarding children, and HH task and decision making), 38% percent involved in any two areas of decision-making, 26% percent participated in at least one area of decision-making and rests (12%) were not participated in any areas of decision-making. Results also found that, 46.0% women had autonomy to make decision abouttheir movement, 67.3% women had autonomy to make decision regarding children take care and 63.3% women had autonomy to make decision about household task and decision. The study results showed that mainly age of women, occupation of women, women`s monthly income, age of husband, occupation of husband, husband`s monthly family expenditure from own income, and total monthly family expenditure are significantly associated with married employed women`s autonomy in decision-making process.

  162. Muthukrishnan, N. and Raghunathan, R.

    Proteolytic bacteria were isolated from slaughter house soil with the help of Skim milk agar plates. The isolate showing maximum activity was selected and characterized based on Bergey’s manual. Upon 16S rDNA analysis, it displayed maximum similarity with Bacillus spp., and the sequence has been deposited in Genbank. For the production of alkaline protease, the strain Bacillus subtilis MR12 was grown on modified production medium containing sludge as substrate. Different cultural parameters were optimized for maximal enzyme production. Peak proteolytic activity was observed at pH-8.5 and temperature at 50 C with 1% inoculums. Cetrimide exhibited the highest inhibitory activity followed by Tween-80, SDS and Tween-20. Alkaline protease was purified to homogeneity by Q-Sepharose revealing a molecular weight of 35 kDa. The enzyme was active and more stable at pH-9 and 55 C.

  163. Shital Gharge and Geetha S. Menon

    Climate change is widely recognized not just as an environmental issue but one with severe socioeconomic implications across the globe. The living space in urban areas are becoming rapidly jumbled and disorganised, as concrete jungles continue to degrade the natural and aesthetic environment and turning it into heat islands. There is an urgent need to revive the urban green efforts. Urban parks and tree cover play a fundamentally important role in improving the environmental quality, energy efficiency, aesthetic appeal, biodiversity and are regulating climatic hazards. In the present investigation, carbon storage potential of trees and soil was measured encompassing the three major urban parks in Ulhasnagar.Non-destructive methods were used to study the carbon storage potential. Total AGB of the gardens was 1696.49 Kgs/2.27ha; Total BGB 441.08 Kgs/2.27 ha and total biomass was 2137.57 Kgs/2.27 ha. Total carbon stored in trees and of the soil was 51.55 tons ha-1. GIS based map shows the location and value of above and below ground biomass for each tree species in the study area. Samanea saman was the dominant tree in the study area with large DBH and with biomass of 758.1594 Kgs, almost contributing 35% of the total biomass. This study concluded that the carbon stock value of urban parks in Ulhasnagar is thin and occasional.

  164. Dr. Archana G. Dhavalshankh, Dr. Ahilya Kanase and Dr. Ganesh P. Dhavalshankh

    The introduction of one dose of IPV into routine immunization programme is to mitigate risks associated with OPV withdrawal and potential reintroduction of poliovirus. In polio Eradication and End Game Strategic Plan, SAGE (Strategic Advisory Group Of Experts) on Immunization has recommended that all OPV using countries should introduce one dose of IPV into routine immunization schedule and administer that dose at or >14 weeks of age in addition to the 3 to 4 doses of OPV in primary series. India has incorporated IPV under National Immunization Programme in November 2015. Our study focused on awareness about IPV among people and health care workers. We carried out this study to collect sociodemographic profile for monitoring use, and coverage of IPV, to identify the pattern of adverse drug effects with new IPV, to assess the knowledge and awareness about IPV in society. Though our study showed that with 97.7 to 100 % coverage of immunization with IPV, only minor local complaints after IPV administration but no single adverse events reported or documented either by the parent or by the health care persons. Our study information is useful to find how effectively immunization targets have met and -how efficiently the IPV is being used. Detected adverse drug reactions with IPV would be helpful -to maintain Universal Immunization Programme. This pilot project was undertaken with provision of use of IPV in routine and campaigns to assess vaccine acceptance to support country policy decisions; and ecologic studies in developing countries switching to all-IPV routine immunization schedules to evaluate potential emergence of cVDPVs and risk of WPV importations.

  165. Arpita Chakraborty and Dr. Ravindra Maradi

    Acute renal failure (ARF) is a sudden, sharp decline in the function of kidneys as a result of an acute toxic or inadequate oxygen supply to the kidneys. Abnormality in complete blood count parameters occur in kidney failure. The aim of the present study is to correlate blood count parameters with serum urea and creatinine in acute renal failure patients.Spearman’s rho correlation was used to correlate hemoglobin, neutrophils, lymphocyte and basophil levels with serum urea and creatinine in which hemoglobin was estimated by photometric method, lymphocytes, neutrophils and basophils by VCS Technology by Beckman Coulter and urea and creatinine by the Roche Cobas 6000 autoanalyser. This study included 102 diagnosed ARF cases taken from nephrology ward of Kasturba Hospital, Maniple. Our study showed decline in hemoglobin levels in ARF patients. This decline in hemoglobin levels may be due to decreased production of erythropoietin in ARF cases. A positive correlation of neutrophils with urea in ARF cases may be due to ischemia and inflammation in the kidneys leading to enhanced retention of toxic substances. As a result we can conclude that complete blood count parameters play a significant role in the pathophysiology of ARF cases.

  166. Vincent Joseph MAMA, Joseph OLOUKOI, Adeyemi CHABI, Salomon CHABI ADIMI and Thibaut Fabrice DOVONOU

    This study aims at improving the understanding of the processes of land use/cover change in a Central Region of Benin Republic. In this vein, an integrated approach that links satellite observations of land cover change at fine and temporal resolution to socio-economic analysis of land use change and to growing stock estimation was used. This approach was based on a multi scale methodology using Multispectral (XS) Spot and Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) for the multi-scale study of land use/cover change. A forest survey was carried out to estimate the plant diversity and the growing stock. To provide reliable information on the plant communities indices such as specific richness, Shannon index, Pielou equitability index and coefficient of variation were determined. Using a four stage sampling procedure, a total of 202 respondents were selected and interviewed. To predict land use change the Markov model approach was used. In all, a statistical model was developed for forest transition probabilities. In summary, this study has highlighted how a combination of GIS techniques and socio economic data in addition to growing stock volume data can be integrated together to document causes and processes of land use/cover change and to improve the understanding of the social consequences and social dynamics related to these land use/cover changes.

  167. Vu Van Liet, Nguyen Viet Long, Nguyen Van Ha, Pham Quang Tuan, Hoang Thi Thuy, Vu Thi Bich Hanh, Tran Thi Thanh Ha, Nguyen Thi Nguyet Anh and Le Thi Kim Hue

    Adapted evaluation of the UH400 line in the Northern of Vietnam with ten seasons from 2012 to 2015, it could be maintained and multiplication in spring and Autumn-winter season and sowing time for most suitable from early to middle of February annual. UH400 line can inducing the inbred lines with ratio from 4 to 10 percentage depends on the genotype, seeds of haploid type identified by the morphological marker R1-nj, this was confirm by molecular marker SSR. Doubling haploid lines, which were induced by colchicine with concentration was 0.06%, were obtained about 50 percentages of the survived DH lines. These DH haploid lines were evaluated on the field trial together inbred lines in Autumn-winter season in 2015. They showed appropriated growth and development in Northern of Vietnam and agronomical characteristics were indifferent compared within bred lines, they have yield vary from 14.21 to 44.12 quintal/ha. These DHs could be used for hybrid maize breeding programs in Vietnam.

  168. Sandip Kumar Mukherjee and Mandira Mukherjee

    Resistance to extended-spectrum β-lactams was mediated by plasmidic extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) and/or AmpC β–lactamases in uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) a primary etiologic agent of urinary tract infections (UTI). Often the isolates were multidrug resistant harboring integrons and cause great hindrance in treatment. This study aims to identify genetic relatedness between plasmids and their correlation with β-lactamase resistant genes and integrons in nosocomial UPEC isolates. 29 drug resistant patterns were observed in 82 E. coli isolates after urine culture and biochemical detection. 33(45.8%) isolates were ESBL producers and 39 (54.2%) resistant to ESBL production. The former showed lowest resistance (3%, 24.2%) than the latter (43.6%, 35.9%) group to meropenem and nitofurantoin respectively. Conjugal transfer of plasmids was successful for 52 isolates. blaTEM was present in all transconjugants, alone or in combination with other β-lactamases and integrons. Mantel test revealed significant correlation (Rxy=0.997, p <0.0001) between plasmids, β-lactamase genes and integrons. Therefore this study demonstrated that flow of genetic information was due to mobile genetic elements instead of genetic recombination between plasmid pairs. Furthermore awareness, detection and distribution of resistant determinants were an absolute necessary for designing therapeutics for optimal patient care.

  169. Paliwal, N. and Babel, G.

    Background: Lifestyle interventions for weight loss are the cornerstone of obesity therapy, yet their optimal design is debated. Lifestyle weight management programmes for overweight or obese adults are multi-component programmes that aim to reduce a person's energy intake and help them to be more physically active by changing their behaviour. Aim: To find out Effectiveness of nutrition and complete lifestyle modification package on nutritional status of overweight adult people Materials and Methods: The sample comprised one hundred eighty adult (180) peoples (90 male and 90 female) in the age group of 30-40 year. Participants (body mass index [BMI] ≥25 kg/m2; age 30-40 years). We aimed to examine the effectiveness of combined nutrition and complete lifestyle modification package (NCLMP) for overweight adult people. In NCLMP we combined electronic Devices, diet and physical exercise programs with at least 6 months of follow-up, conducted in overweight adults Results: Although participants view the lifestyle-based, non-medical commercial programme as an appropriate intervention for weight management. Results revealed that in Pre-intervention phase majority of the subjects (75 per cent) were found to be in the category of high risk while minority of the respondents (25 per cent) had normal WHR (< 0.8). The mean WHR was 0.83±0.0 and the fat values exceed the normal range of fat, diet of subjects in comparison to the balanced diet was substantially inadequate in food groups, representing the excess fat deposition in the subjects owing to obesity. Intervention phase results revealed effect of electronic devices, physical exercise and nutritionally balanced weight loss diet on body composition of males were showed body Fat (%) before intervention was 31.10±3.2 and after intervention 29.26±4 and decrease after intervention -1.84. Effect of nutrition and complete lifestyle modification package on nutritional status of overweight adult people intervention on body composition of females were found body Fat (%) before intervention was 33.83±4.6 and after intervention 32.2±4.5 and decrease after intervention -1.59. Conclusion: Our study concludes that weight loss can be brought about by exercise and diet. For sustained weight loss along with exercise and diet behaviour modification is required.

  170. Kalpana, B. and Lakshmi,S.

    High concentrations of metals exert a negative influence on the development of plants, their use of nutrient and metabolism. The heavy metals can cause a major ecological crisis since they are non-degradable and often accumulate in plant parts, biologically magnified through trophic levels and causes deleterious effects on plants and animals. The present investigation deals with the effect of copper on the biochemical and yield parameters of Cowpea (Vignaunguiculata (L.) Walp.) under field condition. Copper was treated with Copper sulphate (CuSO4. 5H2O) from two Cowpea varieties (CO 7 and CO 6) of various concentrations (0, 5, 10, 25, 50, 100, 150 and 200 mgl-1) were prepared and were used for biochemical and yield studies. It is evident from the results obtained that the increase in copper concentration affected all the biochemical and yield parameters such as chlorophylls, carotenoids, total sugar, protein, amino acids, seed output, shelling percentage 100 seed weight, pod yield and harvest index were observed.

  171. Nahed, A. K. Rashed

    The present study was conducted to study the genetic diversity among sex (6) olive cultivars and one unknown genotype grown in El-Kharga Oasis, El-Wadi El-Gedid, Egypt using inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSR) markers. Ten (ISSR) primers amplified 92.00 fragments of which 46.00 fragments were polymorphic. The number of polymorphic bands per primer varied from 0.00 to 8.00 with 4.60 bands per primer on average. Genetic similarities were calculated using the Dice coefficient (Nei and Li., 1979). The resulting similarity matrix was subjected to the UPGMA clustering method for dendrogram construction and cultivar differentiation. ISSRs dendrogram obtained by UPGMA analysis grouped the local cultivar and the unknown local genotype grown in El-Kharga, El-Wadi El-Gedid very close to each other, in the same time grouped all foreign cultivars near each other's and a part from the local ones. The results obtained could be used for selection the promising parents to generate an effective breeding program and for conservation strategies to future olive propagation program under the promising area El-Wadi El-Gedid conditions. Also, show that ISSR markers could be useful for cultivar differentiation and genetic diversity of Olea europaea L. studies.

  172. Yapo Ossey Bernard, Gnagne Agness Essoh Jean Yves Eudes, Ohou Yao Marie-Jeanne Adelaide, N’cho N’cho venance Bouafou Eugene, Gadji Alahou André Gabazé, Ahoule dompe Ghislain, and Okou Gnahoua Magloire

    Potential source of life, drinking water must undergo various physical, chemical and bacteriological analyses that will assess its quality for human consumption avoiding any risk of contamination. This study aims to determine the physical, the chemical and the bacteriological quality of drinking water in Abobo (Abidjan Côte d’Ivoire). Ten (10) neighborhoods have been selected for the sampling from taps. A total of forty (40) water samples have been analyzed at a ratio of four (04) samples per neighborhood. Eleven (11) physical and chemical parameters and four (04) bacteriological parameters were analyzed on the basis of the French standards (AFNOR). According to the results, drinking water inten (10) neighborhoods ofAbobo has a good physico-chemical quality. However, two (2) samples out of forty (40)are unfit for human consumption because they are total coliforms contaminated. This may be due to the low rate of free chlorine in these samples et also to the supply network quality.

  173. Amit U. Paschapur, Vijaya Lakshmi K., Sunanda, B. S. and Vinod Pawar

    Experiment was conducted to study the effect of temperature on longevity of Heterorhabditis indica under controlled laboratory conditions. The results showed the maximum survival rate of 77.29% at 200C after 90 days of incubation, followed by room temperature (25-280C) and 300C test temperature showing 61.30% and 54.60% survival rate after 90 days of incubation, respectively. At test temperatures 100C and 400C the survival rate was 0.0% and 0.33% after 20 days of incubation, indicating that themortality of IJs of H. indica occurred due to lethal low and lethal high temperature effects, respectively. The results indicated the optimum temperature for storage of H. indica was 200C.

  174. Derek W. Makokha

    Agricultural expansion continues to be the biggest threat facing the Coastal Forests of East Africa. Due to poor soil quality and an increasing population trend, subsistence agriculture as well as commercial farming continue to consume more and more of the region's natural habitat. The study assessed the forest structure of the Kaya Muhaka forest and the adjacent agro-ecosystems at the Kenyan Coast. Two 3 km parallel transects running through the agroecosystem and Kaya Muhaka forest from East to west and three 1 km parallel transects running from north to south of the forest were set up. 20 m x 20 m quadrats were laid out every 250 m along transects. The vegetation structure of the forest was assessed by identifying and recording all trees with a Diameter at Breast Height (DBH) of 5 and above within each quadrat. The DBH was measured using a diameter tape measure in the following class intervals; 5-9 cm, 10-14 cm, 15-19 cm, 20-24 cm, 25-29 cm,30-34 cm, 35-39 cm, 40-44 cm, 45-49 cm and >50cm. Most forest species occupied the lowest DBH class of 5-9cm, with the overall DBH class distribution exhibiting an inverse letter J indicating regeneration. The canopy cover and height within the three life form layers (herb shrub and tree) were estimated in each plot by ocular estimates. The tree layer cover was estimated in three sub canopy layers namely; upper stratum (>20m height), middle stratum (5-10m height), lower stratum (5-10m height).The canopy cover estimation involved the imaginary projection of the aerial shadow of each vegetation layer on the ground and estimation of its percentage area. The total percentage cover of each area was assumed to be 100%. Tree height measurement was done by use of a suunto clinometer and the tree height was calculated trigonometrically. In all the sampled transects, the upper stratum was the least represented while the lower stratum dominated the forest canopy. These results were interpreted to mean that the forest has experienced significant disturbance from the surrounding smallholder farmers and is under a regeneration process.

  175. Chowdhuri, T. K. and Sadhukhan, R.

    The present investigation was carried out to study the effect of different growth regulators on propagation of Lantana Spp. in subtropical zone under naturally ventilated polyhouse equipped with foggers at Mandouri farm of Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur, Nadia, West Bengal. Significant differences among the treatments (IAA @1000ppm, IAA@2000ppm, IAA @3000ppm, IBA @1000ppm, IBA @2000ppm, IBA @3000ppm, NAA @1000ppm, NAA @2000ppm, NAA @3000ppm and Control) on root emergence and proliferation were noticed. After two consecutive years of studied, (Lantana camara Depressa and Lantana camara Sanguinea), can successfully propagated by tip cutting in the month of June with the treatment of NAA @ 3000 ppm for rapid multiplication of this plant in sub-tropical zone. The second best growth regulators may be considered like IAA @2000ppm, IBA@1000ppm and NAA@ 2000ppm for this purpose.

  176. Christina Litaay and Bambang Harianto

    Starch sago different from other types of noodles, such as wheat flour and pasta, because it is made from gluten-free starch.The implementation of the extruded technology and fortification fish meal plays an important role in determining quality of sago noodles. The study aimed to analyze the effects of different fortification of fish meal on the degrees white, cooking time, cooking losses and elasticity of sago noodles. Fortification method was done by using different concentration of fish meal 0%, 2%, 4%, 6%, and 8%. The result of the study showed that fortification method using concentration 8% resulted in the provide quality of noodles with degrees white 46.70, cooking time 8.0, cooking looses 23.8and elasticity 16.20.

  177. Nene, W. A., Shomari, S. H. and Assenga, B. B.

    Weaver ant, Oecophylla longinoda is eusocial insect used as a bio-agent against more than fifty insect pest species in several crops. Colony rearing in the screen house involves the collection of mated winged females after their nuptial flight, rearing to allow broods development. The time taken for forming different broods is not well known for the new founding colony of O. longinoda. We conducted a screen house experiment to study the phenology of new founding O. longinoda colonies. We found that are eggs hatched 9 days after they are laid; furthermore, it takes 9 days from larvae to develop to pupae. However it requires at least 10 days for pupae to develop into worker ants. It takes 30 days from nuptial flight day to the first emergence of worker ants. The study found that, it can take at least 11 days for workers in a colony freely exposed in seedlings to initiate nests buildings. These are useful pieces of biological information which can be used in colony managements during rearing. This information can also be used in estimating time taken by a colony in the screen house before it is introduced in the field to control insect pests.

  178. Oloo Micky Olutende, Jasper Situma Wekesa, Edinah Sabiri Mogaka and Issah WabuyaboKweyu

    This study investigated the effects of acute aerobic exercise on mood state of university students. Male and female participants (N = 20; Mean age= 21.13, SD = 1.017 years) who were physically in perfect health and had no history of disease participated in the study. The participants were selected based on the temperament grades of the pre-test and were randomly divided into two groups of control (10 girls and 10 boys) and training (10 girls and 10 boys). The training group did rhythmic aerobic exercises for two weeks; each session lasted 60 minutes including 10 minutes as warm up exercises with basic aerobic movements, 40 minutes as the conditioning part (which started with the intensity of 140bpm and reached to 160bpm in final sessions), and 10 minutes of non-impact aerobics movements and stretching for cooling down, by which the training session ended. The control group did not participate in any training programs during the study but was given an exercise pep talk. Participants completed the Profile of Mood States (POMS) before and after exercise bouts, and scores were compared using repeated measures ANOVAs. Results showed a significant difference in mean mood state scores in the tension, anger, fatigue, depression, confusion subscales of the POMS and also in the overall total mood disturbance of the participants. The was a significant main effect for mood change over time (Greenhouse-Geisser 1.526, 76 =174.329, p<0.05, Ƞ2=0.821), a significant main effect for groups (F (1,38) =78.993, p<0.05, Ƞ2=0.675) and a significant Time × Group interaction effect (Greenhouse-Geisser 1.526, 76 =56.992, p<0.05, Ƞ2=0.600). Pairwise comparisons were all significant in the tension, vigor, anger and confusion subscales of the POMS. In conclusion, exercise appears to be effective in improving mood and it is recommended that aerobic exercises can be performed as a mood enhancement strategy and should be included in public health programs.

  179. Beatriz Giraldo, O., Sandra C Garzón, C., Daniela De La Cruz, B. and Maria E Vélez A.

    Aim: To determine the prevalence of group A beta hemolytic Streptococcus in the academic community of the Fundación Universitaria Autónoma de las Américas sede Pereira. Methods: Descriptive clinical epidemiological study. A sample of 226 people was obtained from the academic community to which a structured survey type instrument was applied. A throat sample was taken with swab and the material obtained was cultured on 5% sheep blood agar medium in the presence of 10% CO2. Bacitracin susceptibility test was performed at a concentration of 0.04 U. A sample of 5 ml of peripheral blood was taken in a dry tube to obtain serum, in order to perform a rapid test for titration of Antistreptolysin (ASLO) and Measurement of anti-Streptococcus beta hemolytic type a antibodies by the latex agglutination technique. Results: The prevalence of β-hemolytic Streptococcus was 47.34% (n=107) in subjects of the academic community. The distribution according to the results of the culture for SBHGA of 4.42% (n=10), sensitivity to bacitracin appears in 4.4% of the 226 people under investigation, the ASO TEST of 400 UI/mL, was n=10 represented by 4.42%; for asymptomatics with ASO titre of 200 UI/mL was the 42.92% (n = 97). Conclusion: This study shows a percentage of positivity of 4.42% (n=10) with tonsilpharyngitis and highlights the problem of asymptomatic patients with a 42.92% of prevalence (n=97) which is considered a risk factor for acute pharyngotonsillitis.

  180. Sophia Karastogianni and Stella Girousi

    A novel molecularly bioimprinted polymer (bioMIP) sensor was constructed through an efficient one step electropolymerization technique, using the natural dye safranine-O (Sa) capped with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). The dsDNA was electrochemically entrapped into poly- (safranine-O) capped with silver nanoparticles (poly-(Sa@AgNPs)) film (molecularly bioimprinted polymer), deposited potensiodynamically on the surface of carbon paste electrode (CPE), using cyclic voltammetry (CV). The morphology and performance of bioimprinted polymer were characterized by electron scanning microscopy (SEM. The analytical performance of the bioimprinted sensor was also studied. The modified electrode presented very good reproducibility, satisfactory stability, as well as high sensitivity and selectivity compared to the conventional DNA and electrochemical sensors. Furthermore, the square wave voltammetric peak current was linear to butyl paraben mass concentration in the range 0.362 to 100 μg L-1, with a detection limit of 0.109 μg L-1. The bioimprinted sensor was successfully applied to the determination of butyl paraben in real cosmetic samples with satisfactory recovery ranging from 97.3 to 100.2 %, demonstrating its feasibility for practical application.

  181. Ushakanthan, S., Visweswaran, S., Sivakkumar, S., Mariyappan, A. and Banumathi, V.

    Siddha is a complete holistic medical system that has been widely practiced in India and Sri Lanka. Hypertension is the most common cardiovascular disease and is a major public health issue in developed as well as developing countries. Approximately 20% of the world’s adults are estimated to have hypertension. In siddha medicine, symptoms of “Raththa kothippu noi” comes under the “Kuruthi azhal noi” is resembles as hypertension. In Siddha text many herbs or Herbal formulation has been mentioned to treat the Kuruthi azhal noi (Hypertension). In this view, the Vasambu chooranam is also indicated for Kuruthi azhal noi. The aim of the study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of “Vasambu chooranam” on Kuruthi azhal noi. This study was conducted at the OPD of Ayothidoss Pandithar Hospital, National Institute of Siddha, Tambaram Sanatorium, Chennai-47on 20 patients with Kuruthi azhal noi (Primary hypertension) who were satisfied the inclusion criteria. The dose of the Vasambu Chooranam was 1g with warm water, twice a day, before meals for 4 weeks. Blood pressure was monitored on subsequent following visit at 7th 14th 21st and 28 days respectively. End of the of drug treatment data analysis was carried out using Bonferroni post Hoc test by GraphPad Prism 5.0. At the first visit the mean baseline systolic blood pressure, the mean diastolic blood pressure and the mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) were 150.00 mmHg, 93.80 mmHg and 113 mmHg respectively. The mean value of these parameters SBP, DBP and MAP decreased to 135 mmHg, 86.40mmHg and 103 mmHg respectively at end of study. There was significant reduction in systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure and mean arterial blood pressure (P value < 0.0001). “Vasambu Chooranam” is effective in treating the mild to moderate Kuruthi azhal noi (Hypertension) swith positive outcome on the quality of life.

  182. Dr. Anupam Saxena

    One of the major tribal communities of Central India, the Gond; that inhabits parts of Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Andhra Pradesh and parts of Maharashtra. These regions are rich in cultural legacy and have distinctive arts and crafts. Gond people dwell in nature with their inherent artistic skill and represent the magic of colorful forms with dots and lines. This research paper tries to put forward the ethnographic study of Gond tribal art of Patangarh District of Madhya Pradesh, its tradition, present scenario, and the efforts made by various institutions/ government agencies to rejuvenate the heritage and to create livelihood for these artisans.

  183. Sitangshu Sarkar and Jha, A. K.

    Sisal (Agave sp) is an important leaf fibre yielding plant grown extensively in Brazil and in African countries (Kenya, Tanzania, Madagascar etc.). It was introduced in India long ago and grown by tribal people of central plateau zone for fibre and live fence, by quasi-organized planters for fibre and by some state departments mainly for soil conservation purpose. In spite of its huge potential and demand of fibre in the country, adequate effort has not been given based on findings of research on sisal for commercial fibre production from sisal. Although some good amount of research have been conducted on various aspects of this crop in India, but there was no comprehensive documentation of research on sisal fibre production. Therefore, the present paper summarized 60 years of research findings on sisal fibre production in India classified into different chapters such as soil & climatic requirement, sisal types for different geographical areas, propagation technique, planting system, macro-micro nutrient management, water and weed management, intercropping, disease management, harvesting & extraction, fibre quality & grading, uses, economic and social benefits.

  184. Neha Kumari, Dr. Sharad Johri and Dr. Shachi Srivastava

    Urinary tract infections are one of the most common problem faced in todays’ era. The chief presentation is with distressing symptoms like burning, pain, frequency on urination etc. that ensures ones attention towards the quality of routine life. Various primary and secondary causes had illustrated in ayurvedic classics under Mootravaha srotodushti as krichhramootrata. Antibiotics – the main stay of treatment may also limited their prolonged and frequent use due to resistance development/reinfection/relapses etc. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of Shatavaryadi Kashaya as a potential drug for Paittik Mootrakrichhra/lower UTI. Study Design: The study done on 60 patients, selected randomly with classical features with graded category undertaken for weekly assessment subjectively and for objective parameters, assessment done before and after therapy. Among 60, 2 were drop outs. So, complete trial done over 58 subjects. The trial period is of 21 days followed by 2 follow ups after therapy. Shatavaryadi Kashaya had administered in the dose of 40 ml BD after meal with 5 ml madhu & 5 gm misri. Result – A significant improvement assessed during and after completion of trial without any complication/adverse effect exploring the total effect of therapy, out of 58 patients, 94.82% were relieved, 1.72% patients were moderately improved 1.72% were mildly improved and 1.72% remain unchanged. Interpretation and Conclusion – The trial drug proved effective and nearly sure shot arrow in the management of distressing symptoms of UTIs. This study needs to be done on a large scale and for a longer time.

  185. Sachin Palekar, Behnaz Patel, Vinaya Rane, Digvijaysinh Chauhan, Ajeet Patil and Shreya Patwardhan

    Legumes are a source of wholesome protein, alimentary fiber, and bioactive substances displaying antioxidant activity together with anti-inflammatory and antineoplastic properties. Cereals and Pulses form an integral part of the human diet.Eight accessions of Dolichos lablab Linn. were procured from Pulses and Castor Research station, Navsari. Total proteins were extracted in chilled 100 mM Tris-HCl buffer (pH 8) containing 1% SDS and 0.01% - mercaptoethanol. Albumins and Globulins were extracted based on differential solubility in water and dilute salt solution respectively. The genotype of an organism expresses itself through the phenotype - through proteins. So, protein profiling of the plant is essential to reveal the role of proteins. Electrophoresis serves as an imperative tool for studying the protein profiling of the plants. Therefore, Extracted samples were subjected to electrophoretic separation by SDS-PAGE. Proteins were stained using Coomassie blue and silver staining technique. The binary data was subjected to Statistical analysis using MVSP software. The genetic similarity matrix was calculated using Jaccard’s co efficient and the dendrogram was based on Jaccard’s distance matrix is obtained using UPGMA. Thus three different Phylogeny trees for 8 accessions of D. lablab L. were made based on protein profile of Total Proteins, Albumins, and Globulins. Present work provides the protein variation and phylogenetic relationships between eight accessions of Dolichos lablab L.

  186. Nemani Rama Thulasi, Vadivelan, K. and 3Sivakumar

    Aim of the study: The aim of the study is to compare the effect of time based selective domain of self-management rehabilitation on health related quality of life in Parkinson’s disease Need for the study: There is no cure for Parkinson’s disease. Medical management is directed at slowing of disease progression and symptomatic treatment. Individuals who develop Parkinson's disease are confronted not only with the physical and psychological issues that impact quality of life. The medical community is increasingly recognizing health related quality of life as a major criterion in evaluation of health interventions, particularly as it relates to Parkinson’s disease, in the content of both motor and non motor symptoms. Research has pointed out that maintaining positive attitude optimism and happiness can lead to longer lives, less disability and increased quality of life. Rehabilitation has an important role in reducing functional limitations while promoting activity participation and independence. In addition complication of Parkinson’s disease can be reduced or prevented while quality of life is promoted. The ideal rehabilitation program considers the patients disease history, course and symptoms, together with impairments, functional limitations and disability. Of equal importance are the patient’s abilities, priorities and resources including family, home and community resources. Study Design: Experimental Study Type: Comparative Sample Size: 18subjects were taken for the study and divided into three groups Namely Group A, Group B, Group C, Group A: control Group (5), Group B: experimental Group 1 (6), Group C: experimental Group 2 (7) Sampling Method: Convenient sampling Study Duration: 6weeks Results: According to table 1 & table 2, difference between three groups in terms of Parkinson disease questionnaire – 39. Group 1 was given medications, group 2 was given medications and 18 hours rehabilitation and group 3 was given medications and 27 hours rehabilitation. The mean difference between group 1 & 2 is -2.5987745 and mean difference between group 1 & 3 is 12.8867157. The p value is < .066. The mean difference between group 1 & 3 is greatest than group 1 & 2. The mean difference between group 2 & 1 is 2.5987745 and mean difference between group 2 & 3 is 15. 4854902. The p value is < .019. The mean difference between group 2 &3 is greatest than group 2&1. The mean difference between group 3&1 is -12.8867157 and mean difference between group 3&2 is -15.484902. The p value is < .019, the mean difference group 3&2 is greatest than group 3&1. Hence the mean difference between the group 3&2 is greater than group 1&2 and group 1&3.

  187. Ajgaonkar, S.S. and Patil, S.S.

    Watershed is powerful tool of socio-economic development ensuring sustainable rural development. Natural resource management leads to livelihood security through agriculture and allied activities. The rain-fed agricultural production can be improved by adopting ridge to valley watershed approach. Chartha-Selud watershed project is a unique example of watershed programme of run by various departments of government. The present study evaluates the socio-economic and environmental impact of watershed program on these villages in comparison with neighboring villages Hatmali and Naigavhan. The watershed program in these villages partially fulfills the objectives of sustainable rural development. There is increase in agricultural productivity and water availability. The watershed program had an impact on the cropping intensity, crop diversification, land use pattern etc. There is more adoption of cash crop and perennial fruit crops in watershed villages with support of micro-irrigation and farm ponds. There is not any significant difference in livestock population, use of farm implements and transport and communication means.

  188. Giorgio Maria Paolo Graziano, Antonio Di Cataldo and Antonino Graziano

    Introduction: They represent the most common kidney mass in the adult; These are true cysts provided with a wall consisting of a monolayer epithelium and containing a liquid most similar to urine. Typically spherical and unilocular are present. They are equipped with a fibrous collagen tissue capsule that sometimes has calcium deposits. They are considered to be acquired. These cysts are often cortical, but there are also midollars. They generally do not communicate with renal pelvis. More often the size varies from 0.5 to 1 cm, but there can be cysts of 3 or 4 cm. The therapeutic approach to these cysts may be variable. Considering the reduced possibility of a neoplastic form, the surgical approach is uncommon and is therefore reserved for those cases where, due to today's diagnostic methods, there is certainty of the existence of a neoplasm. In this study we present percutaneous treatment with its indications and evaluations on the therapeutic efficacy of the method. Materials and Methods: From January 2017 to Nov. 2017 at the AOU Policlinico University of Catania studies, we received our observation n 10 middle age patients 67 (range 65-69) with renal cystic disease. These cases presented a symptom characterized by severe pain at the side of sn (70%) or ds (30%), nausea of periodic food vomiting, with episodes of microematuria, and hypertension. Transcutaneous stinging ecoguidated bite, which in most simple medium-sized cysts were aspirated (60% of cases); and only in cases where some cysts were of a size> 10cm (20% of cases) a sclerosing agent or a contrast medium with cysts of size <4 cm is injected into the cavity to prevent recurrence. Unfortunately, sometimes this was not enough and therefore it was necessary to use open or laparoscopic surgery with Decortication (20% of cases). No drainage was performed with catheterization because of the infectious risks that this procedure can cause. Results: 60% of the cases treated with peritoneal and cystic transplants were <100mm cytological examination excluded the lesion malignancy, and were discarded after 2 hours of treatment, and with antibiotic therapy for 3.4g. Discussion: The first advantage of this peritoneal treatment of simple kidney cysts is to undertake ultrasound therapy by emptying voluminous renal cysts even in critical stages, then injecting alcohol or contrast media to make sclerosing cysts. Conclusions: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of percutaneous treatment with aspiration needle, under ultrasound (US) or under CT guidance (computerized tomography), in symptomatic symptomatic renal cysts, also of considerable size> 13cm. Percutaneous treatment of symptomatic simple cysts represents in agreement with many authors the gold standard for this pathology.

  189. Nandagopal, P. and Venkataramana, G. V.

    Ecotourism is one of the conservation tools to save wildlife and forests. Globally, there is a debate on the term ecotourism as there are many controversial issues running with the use of the same terminology. This study was carried out to know the ecotourism opportunities that can be implemented in Brahmagiri Wildlife Sanctuary in the specified localities without disturbing the wildlife habitats. Sampling sites were selected randomly inside the Wildlife Sanctuary and marked using GPS. Faunal density and diversity, canopy studies, tourist zone marking and eco tourist’s density which are the ecotourism encouraging factors were studied. Possible ecotourism activity zones were marked near to the anti-poaching camps. Based on the observation it is suggested that the activities like bird watching, canopy walk and trekking kind of activities can be organized for Eco tourists which can increase revenues for the management.

  190. Shrirang Holkar, Deepali Vaishnav and Manjusha Hivre

    Background: Petrol pump workers constantly inhale polluted air and fumes of petrol in their duties. Liver injury had long known to be associated with occupational exposure to a wide range of chemicals. Benzene affects many enzyme activities in the liver, tissues, and peripheral blood and this can lead to a decrease in the activity of antioxidants enzymes and may result in oxidative stress. Aim: To study the effects of petrol fumes on the liver enzymes and other biochemical parameters on petrol-pump workers. Material and Method: 50 workers at Petrol pump stations and 50 service workers not exposed to Benzene were selected for study. Study consisted of quessionaire, and blood investigations for MDA, SOD and liver enzymes AST, ALT and ALP. Statistical analysis done by student t test. Result: MDA, SOD and all liver enzyme levels of exposed group were found to be significantly high as compared to non-exposed group. Conclusion: Occupational exposure to benzene found to have hazardous effects on parameters of oxidative stress and antioxidants along with the liver enzymes.

  191. Christelle NADEMBEGA, Abdoul Karim OUATTARA, Birama DIARRA, Dorcas OBIRI-YEBOAH, Théodora ZOHONCON, Virginio PIETRA and Jacques SIMPORE

    Introduction: Thyroid disorders are common in adults with significant clinical consequences. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of biochemical hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism in older people in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. Material and Methods: This was a retrospective analysis of thyroid function tests results of people who presented at the biomedical laboratory of the "Hôpital Saint Camille de Ouagadougou (HOSCO)" from January 2016 to September 2017. Serum thyrotropin (TSH) and free tyroxine (FT4) concentrations were measured by chimiluminescence immunoassay (Roche Diagnostics, Switzerland). The normal ranges for TSH and FT4 were 0.25-5 μUI/ml and 9-20 ρmol/L respectively. Results: Older people aged 50 years and over represented 9.7% (251/2589) and 28.9% (747/2589) for men and women respectively. Among them, 85.7% (855/998) had a normal concentration of TSH (0.25 μUI/ml ≤TSH > 5 μUI/ml). Hyperthyroidism (TSH≤0.25 μUI/ml) was twice more frequent than hypothyroidism (TSH>5 μUI/ml): 9.8% vs. 4.5% (p value < 0.05). People aged 70 to 79 years presented the most abnormal concentrations of TSH: 15.2% of women had a concentration of TSH lower than 0.25 μUI/ml against 0% for males (p value 0.010) and 16.7% of men a concentration greater than 5 μUI/ml TSH against 5% in women (p value 0.043). Conclusion: These results confirm that the elderly are proned to thyroid disorders and women are more affected than men. The diagnostic of thyroid disorders must take into account the physiological changes of aging. The implementation of a health system adapted to older people is very necessary to ensure regular monitoring of their health.

  192. Velvizhi, S. and Annapurani, S.

    The polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a hyper androgenic disorder associated with chronic oligo-anovulation and polycystic ovarian morphology.Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn. Commonly known as Licorice is one of the most widely used herb from the ancient medical history of Ayurveda, both as a medicine and as a flavouring agent. Letrozole induction was reported to cause an inflammatory condition which may contribute to insulin resistance, hyperlipidemia leading to metabolic syndrome. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of Glycyrrhiza glabra root extract in the treatment of letrozole induced PCOS in female wistar rats. Administration of letrozole led to an increase in the levels of CRP, TBARS and Liver marker enzymes in rats treated with letrozole. Glycyrrhiza glabra root extract treatment significantly decreased thelevels which were found to be elevated in PCOS rats induced by letrozole. The effect of Glycyrrhiza glabra was found to be comparable with clomiphene citrate, which is being used as a major medicine in the treatment of PCOS. The findings of the present study suggested that the Glycyrrhiza glabra root extract could be used as an adjunct therapy for the management of PCOS.

  193. Shibu Puthenparampil and Dr. Baburaj, P. T.

    Objective: To find out the prevalence of substance abuse among higher secondary school students in Kottayam district of Kerala. Materials and Methods: Interventional study was conducted in selected Higher Secondary schools with the interval of six months period. 48 schools were selected by applying systematic random sampling technique from entire school list. For the sample purpose, each 16 schools has been selected from Government school ie 8 schools from rural and another 8 schools from urban areas. The same proportion was used to select the schools from Aided and Unaided schools respectively. Structured Questionnaires was used for the data collection. Results: Before intervention study, number of students who had smoking habits were high students 88(21.0%). It is quite interesting that, after intervention, the number of students who had habit of smoking was reduced as 32(7.6%). Before intervention study, 19(38.0%) of the students were used substance who belongs to Muslim community followed by Hindus 38(20.5%) and Christians 29(17.1%). 110(26.2%) of students report that they had monthly income of Rs > 25000. Conclusion: The initiation of substance abuse at early adolescence results in continuation of substance to the adulthood. Therefore, preventive strategies are required to be planned and suggested for substance abuse. Government should take up initiative and incorporate the problem and the adverse health effect of substance use in the school curriculum as early as primary level. Conflict of interest: Nil Financial support/Source of funding: Nil

  194. Dr. S. Prabakar, Dr. M. Nagarajan and Dr. K. Sivasamy

    The growth of modern innovative technology and tools leads to the transformation of present record format into digital format. The Gurukul Lutheran Theological College & Research Institute Archives consists of plenty of administrative and research valuable materials. With a new vision of changing the contemporary scenario, this case study is conducted. The dspace digital library has been downloaded and installed to upload a few sample materials to conduct this case study. The case study helps to a new findings of preparing a proposal to completely digitize the Archives into Digital Archives.

  195. Gyanendra Singh and R. K. Saxena

    Various medicinal properties are attributed to natural herbs. Medicinal plants represent the most source of recent prescription drugs and care product. The historical back drop of plants being used for medicative purpose is perhaps as old because the history of human race. Extraction and classification of many active phytocompounds from these green factories have born to some high activity profile medicine. A growing body of proof indicates that secondary plant metabolites play major roles in human health and will be nutritionally vital. Phytochemical screening of plants has disclosed the presence chemicals as well as steroids, alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, glycosides, saponins, phenols, aminoacid, carbohydrate, terpenoids etc. several plant extracts and phytochemicals show antioxidant/free radical scavenging properties (Larson 1988; Nair et al., 2007; Parekh and Chanda, 2007). Secondary metabolites of plants act as defense mechanisms against predation by several microorganisms, insects and herbivores (Lutterodt et al., 1999; Marjorie, 1999).

  196. Wondwosen Shiferaw Aga

    This project presents the design and testing of solar water still by utilizing solar energy for purification of brackish water which contribute the supply of pure water in Ethiopia. In Ethiopia, due to the lack of pure water about 250000 children die per year. The purpose of this research is to provide potable water by using solar water distiller which can be locally manufacture and flexible. Solar water still natural way of water desalination. The operation principle of single-basin solar distillation is similar to hydrological cycles. The incoming solar radiation from the sun is focused and concentrated onto a receiver pipe using a single basin trough, heating the incoming impure water at which point it is sprayed into our custom designed distillation device where it evaporates and re-condensed into pure potable water. The single basin solar water distiller has the capacity to purify brackish water up to 99.9% and will produce four gallons of pure water per day. Since the daily recommended consumption of pure water per person per day is about two liters, it is sufficient to satisfy the need of pure water for one family. Solar desalinate water have a lot of health advantage such as removing contaminants, elimination of chemicals and no additives. However the result obtained at the end of this paper were not as similar as theoretical figure, from first day experiment the amount of distilled water collect was 750cm3 and second day 1700cm3 which is less than theoretical number. While conducting the experiment different factor are identified the major are types of materials (glazing, insulator) and design parameter (tilt angle, tracking and mechanism) and site (solar radiation and shadow). Generally the efficiency of solar water still can be optimized as much as possible by design modification, material selection and site selection

  197. Sweety Sihag and Neha Wadhwa

    Zinc and molybdenum are involved in many biochemical processes supporting life. The most important of these processes are cellular respiration, cellular utilization of oxygen, DNA and RNA reproduction, maintenance of cell membrane integrity, and sequestration of free radicals. zinc are involved in destruction of free radicals through cascading enzyme systems. Superoxide radicals are reduced to hydrogen peroxide by superoxide dismutases in the presence of zinc cofactors. On the other hand, excess intake of these trace elements leads to disease and toxicity; therefore, a fine balance is essential for health. Trace element--deficient patients usually present with common symptoms such as malaise, loss of appetite, anemia, infection, skin lesions, and low-grade neuropathy, thus complicating the diagnosis. Symptoms for intoxication by trace elements are general, for example, flu-like and CNS symptoms, fever, coughing, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, anemia, and neuropathy. A combination of observation, medical and dietary history, and analyses for multiple trace elements is needed to pinpoint the trace element(s) involved. Serum, plasma, and erythrocytes may be used for the evaluation of zinc status, whereas only serum whole blood is preferred for molybdenum. The present review summarizes basic concepts of zinc and molebednum transport, use and storage and focuses on the zinc and molebednum system.

  198. Divyansh Mansukhani, Karthik Suresh and Abishek, br.

    The abundance and high potential of Solar Energy makes it appropriate for commercial electricity purposes. The technology to access the high potential lacks efficiency by lot. This article is a description of a novel idea, which proposes the efficiency increase by at least 120% of present efficiency. It includes framing of concepts based on fundamentals of mechanisms in Solar Cell Module and Photonic Crystals. This hybrid model of Solar Cell introduces specialized domains for future research as well as gives an open challenge for the decade to fabricate it.

  199. Srinivas, H. R. and Dr. Sadath Ali Khan Zai

    The Layered reinforced cement concrete beams can be analyzed using conventional methods for composite element consisting of fibre reinforced high performance concrete (FRHPC) and Normal strength concrete (NSC) to improve the efficiency of concrete matrix of different layered flexural member. A beam is a flexural member which provides support to the slab and vertical walls, as flexural members plays an important role in the structural system hence specific attention has been given to study affect of different concrete matrix in the form different concrete layers on behavior of flexural member under static loading. In reinforced cement concrete beam generally consists of two zones i.e., compression zone at top and tension zone at bottom. As concrete is weak in tension, steel is introduced in the tension zone to take up the tension, but as strength of concrete is ignored in tension zone with respect to compression zone. As the concrete in the tension zone of the section contributes little to the beam load bearing capacity. Hence in the present experimental investigation the tension layer is made of normal strength concrete while the compression layer is made of fibre reinforced high performance concrete and also combination of both. The possibility of such scheme is practical a new innovative construction technology so a higher concrete strength is required in the beam's compression zone to withstand rather large bending moments under serviceability. The research is aimed at experimental investigation focused on two layered as well as three layered test beams specimens consisting of High Performance Fibre Reinforced Concrete (HPFRC) and Normal Strength Concrete (NSC) in tension zone with varying depth to optimize and to improve the efficiency of layered concrete matrix (HPFRC and NSC) consisting of following grades of concrete with layered as M20, M60, M60/M20, M60/M20/M60 to study energy absorption capacity, toughness, ductility index, cracking moment and consequently load carrying capacities of layered test beam specimens from Load-deflection curve to assess the enhancement in flexural strength and same is to be optimized with minimum use of FRHPC for layered beam concept.

  200. Hamed Elmously and Khaled Mustafa Elerian

    This paper focuses on the determination of mechanical properties of three species of date palm midribs and leaflets. The three species are SIWI, FREHI, and GAGA date palms located at the Bahariah oases, Egypt. These results have then been compared with known wood species. The comparison shows that Frehi midribs have the highest values of bending strength, and Young’s modulus in compression. Siwi midribs have the highest values for Young’s modulus in bending, and transverse shear strength. GAGA midribs have the highest values of compression strength, and longitudinal shear strength. The Frehi leaflets have the highest value of tensile strength, while Siwi leaflets have the highest value of Young’s modulus in tension.

  201. Muthu Suganya, C., Karthik K. and Dr. Ramasamy, K.

    The image segmentation performs a substantial role within the grassland of image process as a result of its broad vary of applications within the farming fields to find plants pests by classifying the various pests. Classification may be a technique to classify the plants pests on completely different morphological individuality. This paper presents, one in all the most effective image clump methodology, referred to as Reformulated Fuzzy c-Means with Edge and Local Information (RFELICM) introduce the weights for a component values with in local neighbor windows that improves the smart detection accuracy. The canny edge detection mechanism is employed for edge detection. Then completely different weight area unit set supported the native neighbors area unit separated by a position. The various weighted component values of native neighbor windows area unit clustered one by one, the method is perennial till the ultimate clump result’s is obtained. The RFELICM solves the matter of random distribution of pixels within the regions. Therefore the RFELICM offers a much better result than the other existing technique.

  202. Janice R. McCall

    Three successful commercial airline in-flight emergencies were explored using a retrospective multiple-case study, through a constructivist worldview, to understand how coordination between and amongst flight crew and Air Traffic Control (ATC) helped save lives. The cases in this study, Qantas 32, Air Transat 236, and US Airways 1549, covered a period from 2000-2012 and were selected to learn what flight crews and ATC did right during in-flight emergencies that led to the successful outcome and no loss of life. The scope of the study was limited to identifying major themes within archival data collected from public final investigation reports, transcribed audio recordings, photos, and news interviews either published or televised, along with autobiographical books published by flight crewmembers. Constant comparison analysis, through a three-phase coding process, was used to identify four major themes that enhance coordination between flight crews and ATC: reluctant hero, trust in others roles, embracing training, and coping with crises. An additional theme of emotional trauma was identified as a byproduct of experiencing the in-flight emergency, no matter the outcome. Based on the findings, recommendations for future research involve expanding on the current study of what went right during in-flight emergencies to develop resiliency for both individuals and organizations.

  203. Kulkarni Rashmi Ravindranath

    Today enterprises are challenged by tectonic shifts in nearly every aspect of their businesses – economic, technology, demographic, and customer preferences etc. To help them meet these challenges, organizations are adopting technology and automation solutions to enable best – in – class Business Process Management (BPM). One technology gaining rapid favor is Robotic Process Automation (RPA)-essentially defined as automation that can handle rules based and repetitive tasks without human intervention, or unassisted automation.

  204. Rohini Ojha, B. K. Mehta and Darshana Mehta

    New glycosidic compounds were isolated from the ethanolic extracted from leaves of Artabotrys odoratissimus (R.Br) by using ethanol. The six known compounds, two new rhmnopyranosyl compound, one pyranocoumarin compound and three aliphatic hydrocarbon were the new alcoholic compound identified by spectral (IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR spectra, mass spectrum, elemental analysis) and chemical analysis. The rhmnopyranosyl compounds was identified as 22.23-dihydro-5-stigmastene-3--D-glucopyranoside,  3--L-rhm- (17 and one coumarin compound 7-hydroxy-8-(3”-methylene acetoxy-1”-oxo butenyl)-6’-6’-dimethyl pyrano (2’, 3’:5, 6)-coumarin and and aliphatic were identified as Octatricontane, 11-methyl hexacontan-1, 45, 60-triol, Octaeicosandioate. These are novel compounds and being reported first time by us.

  205. Mr. Sk Khasim, Mr. B. Jayaram and Mrs. Ismatha Begum

    Wireless Sensor Network consists of distributed autonomous sensor nodes to monitor physical and environmental conditions, Such as temperature, sound, vibration, pressure, motion and to collectively pass their data through the network to a main location known as Base station or Sink. Wireless sensor consist of huge number of nodes spread over diverse locations having characteristics like low processing power, low storage capacity and limited battery life. That means sensor networks are battery powered. As a sensor network grows it is more suspected to attacks. Sensor nodes will communicate highly sensitive data among various nodes, so it is most important to construct a secure channel for a wireless sensor network. They are mostly used in applications, such as military monitoring, health care as well as civilian applications. The main aim of this paper is to investigate the security related issues in wireless sensor networks .This paper categories various security threats and their classification that can occur in wireless sensor networks and providing probable Countermeasures (defenses) against the attacks.

  206. Nilo Serpa

    This article presents and discusses, from an epistemological point of view, a quantum theory of spacetime based on principles built from infinite mathematics applied to natural philosophy, cosmology and Riemannian geometry. A cautious argument shows that there is no logical reason to suppose that the ultimate structure of the universe is discontinuous from the moment that one considers an expanding universe. General relativity and quantum mechanics are evoked by discussing the barriers that today hinder a theory of great unification. A brief explanation of Lyra's geometry is made under the application of singularity functions in the context of the proposed theory. In addition, a quick appreciation of the current state of the investigations is made, showing the role of the proposed theory in the scenario of modern research.

  207. Gaikwad, S. A., Tembhurkar, Y. D. and Dudhe, C. M.

    Spray pyrolysis is a simple, inexpensive and economical method to produce a thin film on large substrate area. Semiconducting thin films of CdZnSe2 have been deposited onto preheated glass substrate by varying substrate temperature from 250°C at an interval of 25°C to 325°C. The optimized deposition temperature is around 300°C. From optical transmission and reflection spectra, absorption coefficient(α) was calculated at various wavelengths ranging from 350 nm to 1100 nm and was of the order of 104-105 cm-1. Band gap energy were determined from absorbance measurement in visible range using Tauc theory. It shows that the main transition at the fundamental absorption edge is a direct allowed transition. At the temperature of 300°C, the optical band gap is found to be 2.52 eV. At the temperatures less than or greater than 300°C, the optical band gap goes on increasing. The refractive index(n) and extinction coefficient(k) both decreases as wavelength increases which shows that the optical constants are most suitable for many scientific studies and technological applications such as heat mirrors, transparent electrodes and solar cells .Electrical conductivity was measured by four probe method. Arrhenius plots shows the semiconducting nature of films. EDAX analysis reveals the formation of thin films.

  208. Selendra Kumar Rajali and Sunil KumarH, S.

    In this project, an attempt has been made to study and clearly explain the process between IGA and FEM Method. Meshing is difficult in complex problems such as bending model where an object may move out of alignment. In this project work, both IGA and FEM flowchart is shown and a static investigation is carried out by both method using the same geometry. After, investigation it has been observed that IGA method shows better results compare to FEM. As IGA method was quite a good method compare to FEM but it has its own disadvantage like the person needs to have a good knowledge of CAD.

  209. Dr. Neeta Gupta and Jitendar Singh

    The present study has tried to explore perceived parenting among patients suffering from Obsessive – Compulsive disorder (OCD) and Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD). For this the data was collected on 100 patients equally divided into OCD and GAD patients. They were further classified equally on the basis of gender (OCD=M=25, F=25),(GAD=M=25 & F=25). Bhardwaj et al’s (1998) Parenting scale was utilized to measure perceived parenting of the respondents. The results have revealed that: 1. Individuals suffering from GAD scored significantly higher on Carelessness vs. Protection dimension of parenting as compared to individuals suffering from OCD. 2. Significant gender differences were found on two dimensions of parenting i.e. boys as compared to girls scored significantly higher on lenient standard vs. Moralism and Faulty role expectation vs. Realism.

  210. Mrs. Kilumoni Chutia and Dr. Chintal Siv Sankar

    District Institute of Education and Training (DIETs) is a teacher training institution for the elementary level. It includes in service and pre -service programmes both. The main purpose of these programmes are reform the teacher’s behaviour, create awareness and responsibilities of the teacher, create suitable environment by facilitating new innovations etc. Trainees, teacher educator’s perception on effect of these programmes are important aspect for research. So the main purpose of this paper is to study the trainee’s perception on effect of DIETs at Azad DIET College in Lakhimpur District of Assam.

  211. Badal Dev Roy and Dr. Saravanan, R.

    The charge booster preferred for load vehicles for ensuring best engine performance at all speeds and road conditions especially at higher load. The arbitrary adaption of turbocharger sometimes gives negative effects like surge and chokes in charge flow to engine. Many approaches reported to match the turbocharger for the desired vehicle engine. Bull all such tasks are tedious and some may be more expensive. But perfect match gives many distinguished advantages and cost worthy. This study focuses on the match of appropriate turbocharger for TATA 497 TCIC -BS III engine and evaluate the alternative possibilities for match other turbochargers. Five turbochargers with different trims were considered they are: trim 67 (B60J67), trim 68 (B60J68), trim 70 (A58N70) trim 72 (A58N72) and 75(A58N75). The Five different road conditions like rough, highway, city drive, slope up and slope down were included for evaluation. The simulation and experimental methods used to find the turbo-match performances. The compressor map used for analysis of appropriateness of turbo-matching.

  212. Saurabh Singh, KrishnaYadav, Rishabh Singh, Akash Soni, Harjeet Matharu and Pranay Rao

    This paper proposes and aims at designing a GSM jammer. GSM jammer is a device that transmit signal on the same frequency at which the GSM system operates. The mobile phones in the area where the jammer is located are disabled. This project is mainly intended to prevent the usage of mobile phones in places inside its coverage without interfering with the communication channels outside its range, thus providing a cheap and reliable method for blocking mobile communication in the required restricted areas only. The circuits that use for GSM jammer are Tuning Circuit, Voltage Controlled Oscillator, RF Amplifier and Antenna form the Jammer circuit. All the circuit output are constructed and observed using the Electronic workbench. The simulation result and practical result were studied and they were found to be approbatory equal. The gain of the project is that we are able to block communication coming into and going out from a GSM phone operating on the 890MHz to 960MHz frequency band.

  213. Kamala, K.A., Sankethguddad, S., Sujith, S.G. and Praveena Tantradi

    Background: The use of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) in dentistry was first described in 1967, by Shane and Kessler, but it has yet to gain widespread acceptance in dentistry. A study was undertaken to evaluate the effectiveness of TENS therapy as an adjuvant modality and to compare it with the conventional medication in controlling pain in temporomandibular disorder (TMD) patients. Materials and Methods: A total of 60 patients with the clinical symptom of pain associated with TMDs were randomly divided into two groups. Group A (control) patients were treated with medication (analgesics and muscle relaxants) alone, while group B patients were treated with TENS therapy in combination with medication. The intensity of the pain was assessed using the Visual Analog Scale (VAS). The results were analyzed with the student's ‘t’ test. A P-value < 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: A significant improvement was observed in both the TENS and the control group in terms of pain control. On comparative analysis, adjuvant TENS therapy was found to be more effective than medication alone, in controlling pain. (P value = 0.019). Conclusion: The observed data suggest that TENS therapy can be used as an adjuvant modality in the management of pain associated with TMDs. This study justifies the use of TENS therapy in the management of TMD.

  214. Dhananjay Pd. Mishra and Hirendra K. Chourasia

    Twelve cultivars of Vicia faba have been obtained from seed banks of different research stations for chromosomal studies during meiotic operations. Results have shown that exist some remarkable variations at the intraspecific level in order to visualize the genetic divergence. Meiotic informations provide aglimpses of gene homology indicating phylogenetic relationship between the taxa.

  215. Nikhil A. Kolte, P. M. Tumane and Wasnik, D. D.

    The use of bacterial strains in the synthesis of silver nanoparticles emerges as an eco-friendly and exciting approach towards the field of research in life sciences. In this present work, microbial production of silver nanoparticles was investigated using the bacterial strain Bacillus cereus GAD 20. The test bacterium was isolated from soil samples from Gadchiroli district of Maharashtra state grown on Hichrome Bacillus Agar and Bacillus Differentiation Agar and further identified on the basis of 16S rRNA. Synthesized silver nanoparticles were characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy and the maximum absorbance was found to be around λ-427nm. The particle size of silver nanoparticles was studied by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). FTIR analysis confirms the presence of proteins as stabilizing agents. The antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles was studied against multi drug resistant bacterial strains of Escherichia.coli and Staphylococcus.aureus. Zone of inhibition of microbes in presence of silver nanoparticles showed inhibition of growth suggesting antibacterial property of the silver nanoparticles.

  216. Baiju, K. C. and Shibu, S.

    The present article is based on an investigation into the educational deprivation among social groups of Kerala. It is a micro level study executed within the human development framework. The study mainly examined the enabling environment for education in the study area. Regional Human Development Enabling Index (RHDEI) and Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) are used to explore the inter-group variations in the incidence of educational deprivation in the study area. The sample size of the study consists of 120 households, which belong to different social groups such as SC, ST, OBC and General. The findings of the study reveal the disparity in educational attainment among different social groups in Kerala, which are placed top in the ladder of human development among other states of India.

  217. Dr. Sharath Kumar Shetty, Dr. Neeraja, U., Dr. Mahesh Kumar, Y. and Dr. Rajeshwari Poojari

    Objective: To investigate the correlation between gonial angle measurement and asymmetry of condyle and ramus. Materials and Methods: The study sample consisted of 60 patients reported to the dept of Orthodontics, K.V.G dental college, Sullia for orthodontic treatment. The preoperative orthopantamogram of these patients were taken and divided into 3 groups based on gonial angle as average angle, high angle and low angle. Condylar, ramal, and condylar plus ramal asymmetry values were computed for all of the subjects on orthopantomograms. Data was analysed statistically by means of individual t test and one-way analysis of variance by bonferroni test. Results: Student ‘t’ test showed that there was no statistically significant difference (p>0.05) among the three groups regarding the condylar, ramal and combined lengths. The effect of gonial angle on the asymmetry measurements was investigated by variance analysis (Bonferroni test). No statistically significant difference was found between the groups (p>0.05). Conclusion: From the study it was concluded that the vertical condylar, ramus and condylar plus ramus asymmetry index measurements were not affected by the gonial angle.

  218. Mansur, M. A., Uddin, M. N., Jamil, M. G. M., M. Manik Mia and Karmakar, M.

    This research was conducted to assess the quality and safety aspect of important processed fish and fishery products prepared from freshwater fishes of the Brahmaputra river of Mymensingh district in Bangladesh. Three sun-dried fish, one semi-fermented fish product and a salted fish product, and frozen prawn were included in this research. Among the sun-dried fishes Mystus tengra, Amblypharringodon microlepin and Wallago attu were included in this research. Semi-fermented product prepared from Puntius stigma was included in this research. Salted fish prepared from Hilsa ilisha was included in the present research. Frozen freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) was also included in this research. All samples were purchased from Fish Market of Mymensingh city. The samples were assessed by sensory quality test (Organoleptic test), estimation of nutritional composition e.g. Protein, Lipid, Ash, Moisture, TVB-N, TMA-N and heavy metal concentration e.g. Cd, Cr, Pb, Cu, Zn in laboratory experiments. Organoleptically the processed fish and fishery products of this research were excellent. The SDP was <2 in almost all samples which indicated excellent condition i.e. Grade A. The protein content of the processed fish and fishery products was between 18.5% in frozen prawn to 56.20% in sun-dried fish. Lipid content was between 2.15 % to 20.09%, ash content was between 1.24% to 19.07% and moisture content was between 18.88% to 79.65%. The TVB-N value of frozen freshwater prawn was 9.65 mg/100g. Whereas in sun-dried fish, salted fish, semi-fermented fish the TVB-N value was between 72.8 mg/100g to 87.28 mg/100g. The TMA-N value of the samples of present research was between 3.19 mg/100g to 9.68 mg/100g. The Cd concentration of the samples was below the maximum allowable limit (<1 ppm) except in sun-dried Mystus tengra. The Cr concentration in all samples was above maximum allowable limit (>0.05 ppm). The Pb concentration of all samples was above maximum allowable limit (>2 ppm). The Cu concentration of the samples was below maximum allowable limit (<10 ppm) except frozen freshwater prawn. The Zn concentration of the samples was below the maximum allowable limit (100 ppm) except sun-dried Kechki. Results of the present research indicated that the processed freshwater fish and fishery products possessed excellent sensory quality, nutritional quality, freshness quality. The materials are reasonably safe to eat with careful selection.

  219. Swati Chavan, Silpi Basok and Satish Mahajan

    Background: In developing countries there is a lack of data on estimation of incidence of sepsis. Global studies suggests that, it is required to address the magnitude of this problem with mortality rate ranging from 20-60%. Aim and Objectives: to evaluate the incidence rate, microbial causative agent, drug susceptibility profile of causative bacteria and estimate the predisposing factors and patient outcome of the cases of septicaemia. Method: Blood culture of inpatient admissions from a period of July 2013 to August 2014, suspected of septicaemia was processed and data analyzed. Result: Out of 1714 blood culture specimen 490 were found to be positive. Conclusion: The incidence rate of septicaemia in our hospital was found to be 7.4 per thousand per year. The incidence rate was highest in paediatric department. The most commonly isolated organisms were gram positive (46.7%), followed by gram negative (43.8%) and candida species (9.5%). The most effective antibiotic for Gram positive organism in this hospital was vancomycin and amikacin. While, effective antibiotic for Gram negative bacteria were colistin, netilmicin, meropenem and imipenem. The proportional mortality rate for patients with septicaemia was 14.4%.

  220. Dhone, D. B.

    Since miss-landing of Beagle-2nd , the Author is verifying the cause of it. I had conveyed by email to NASA that time, the conceptual cause and within three days I learnt in a News Paper that, the missing of Begule-2, from its destination was due to a mathematical mistake. The guiding and controlling system cannot behave erroneously. In his service life, he believed on control systems of machine. They work perfectly without erring, as per the concepts put in the system to work. The difference in behavior may occur due to some concepts installed, being (excuse me) un-natural. By proving the truth of the Relativity concept; a formula for satellite remote control is built up in this article. The futuristic clock's software should be built up or revised, according to the corrected concepts of Relativity and in line with the formula derived.

  221. Dr. Rohan Diwakar, Dr. Saurabh Jain and Dr. Shivani Varma

    Rotation of a tooth refers to a condition in which there is a displacement of the tooth around its long axis within the alveolar bone. The aim of this case report is to demonstrate a simple and fast method for the correction of a severely rotated tooth. A female patient, 12 years of age reported with a chief complaint of irregular arrangement of teeth. The patient was diagnosed with Angles Class I malocclusion with severely rotated right maxillary central incisor. A modified Nance palatal button with “D”iwakar hook was inserted in the mouth and after 5 months, the tooth was brought back into normal alignment.

  222. Tewodros Biset Amene

    The overall objective of the study was to find out the factors affecting access to finance of MSEs in the study area. The research design was cross sectional survey which included a structured and unstructured questionnaire. 392 questionnaires distributed to MSEs Managers, 318 questionnaires were filled and returned. The collected data was examined using SPSS (version 20) and AMOS (version 21). In this study descriptive statistics like simple percentage, frequency and tables were used to give clear picture about the MSEs, to answer the major obstacles of MSEs in borrowing finance and MSEs source of finance. Beside to descriptive analysis, the research used structural Equation Model (SEM).In accordance with SEM results, preparing business plan, financial statements, and collateral Availability have a significant effect on MSEs finance access. This implies, those MSEs which were preparing business plan and financial statements have access to finance from finance institutions. Availability of collateral is a most significant element of MSEs to have access to finance. Descriptive analysis also discovered that the major obstacles of MSEs in borrowing finance were long time loan process and bureaucracy, requirement of large amount of advance saving, short term loan repayment period; high collateral and high interest rate respectively. Therefore, based on the finding the researcher recommended that MSEs have to prepare business plan and financial statement to get loans. Furthermore, Financial Institutions have to improve loan process bureaucracies.

  223. Dr. Ebru Onler

    Patient safety is the foundation of good patient care. Elder population is growing worldwide. Consequently, the population of hospitalized patients is aging as well. The care of geriatric patients must differ from the care of younger adults. Elderly patients are vulnerable to medical errors. Common medical errors in the elderly, such as falls, medication errors, can contribute to the prolonged hospital stay, readmission, nursing home placement and compromise return to independent living in the community. Many recommendations for effective safety practices have been suggestedby the Institute of Medicine, the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence, and World Health Organization .These recommendations can be applied to geriatrics. These recommendations include detecting and reporting of medical errors in the elderly, identifying system failures when medical errors occur, improving the continuity of care. As a result, there is a strong link between patient safety and geriatrics. Safe geriatric care can be achieved by implementing safety recommendations. Health professionals should realize that patient safety is critical for improving the quality of geriatric care.

  224. Benjamin Maduabuchi Aniugbo, Dr. Kathryn King, Dr. Catherine Hayes and Dr. John Anthony Fulton John

    Background: Diarrhoeal illness is a global leading cause of death in children under five years old worldwide but especially in developing countries. In Nigeria, it is the major cause of childhood mortality after malaria. Published extant literature reveals that the severest impact of diarrhoea is concentrated in rural areas where sanitation and hygiene practices are historically poor. Death due to diarrhoeal illness entirely preventable via timely health seeking behaviour and practices. Aim: This study aimed to examine the effect of socio-demographic factors on the health seeking behaviours of carers for children with diarrhoeal illness in rural communities in Nkanu West LGA of Enugu state, Nigeria. Methods: A cross sectional survey of caregivers in rural communities was undertaken in Nkanu West LGA of those caring for children aged under five years old that have had diarrhoea in the last three months. Data on their health seeking behaviour and socio-demographic characteristics were collected using a semi-structured self-administered questionnaire. Statistical Package for Social Sciences was used to analyse the data using Chi-Square to determine inferential statistics on the established relationship between socio-demographic characteristics and health seeking behaviour. Results: Of the 140 caregivers interviewed, most were aged between 26-30 years (42.1%), traders (30.0%), had at least secondary education (35.0%). The majority of their children were aged between 0-12 years (40.7%) and male (52.1%). 74.3% sought medical care beyond the context of their home during episodic diarrhoea and the majority reported first visiting primary health centres (36.2%). Alternative medical institutions that people accessed were hospitals (14.3%), Traditional Birth Attendants (23.8%), chemists (16.2%), and traditional healer (9.5%). The major reason for the choice of institution visited was accessibility (37.1%). However, not seeking care outside the home was due to perceived severity [not serious (45.7%). Oral rehydration solution use was high (86.4%). Factors associated with the medical care context visited were education (p=0.010), occupation (p=0.002), affordability (p=0.005), accessibility (p=0.002), significant others (p=0.005). Conclusion: Results of this study reveal a significant level of appropriate health seeking behaviour amongst the caregivers in the geographical area. Instead, social, economic and demographic factors were found to be the major determinants of health seeking behaviours. These findings suggest a potential need to improve awareness of the necessity of appropriate health seeking behaviours as well as increasing access to affordable health care in the context of rural Nigerian communities.

  225. Dr. Sujatha, S., Dr. Aninditya Kaur, Dr. Shivani Sharma, Dr. Nithin Thomas and Dr. Priyadharshini, R.

    Background: Maxillary sinuses of various species are known to exhibit sexual dimorphism. The maxillary sinus in males is larger in volume than females in contemporary human populations. Hence, an attempt is being made to use the different dimensions of the maxillary sinus in the determination of sex using coronal, axial and sagittal sections of CBCT scan. Materials and Methods: A total of 175 CBCT scans of bilateral maxillary sinuses of 74 females and 101 males in the age group of 16 to 80 years, were retrospectively selected from the CBCT archives. The dimensions of right and left maxillary sinuses was measured using DICOM software and statistical analysis was done. Results: Maxillary sinus volume on both sides showed statistically significant results with a higher percentage of sexual dimorphism. Conclusion: Volume of maxillary sinus can be used as a precise diagnostic parameter for sex determination.

  226. Aswathi Gopi and Kiranjith, J.

    Objective: To find out the risk factors of hearing loss and its frequency in neonates Type of study: Descriptive study Study centre: Sree gokulam medical college and research foundation Inclusion criteria: Neonates born in sree gokulam medical college and research foundation from january 2015 to january 2016 Exclusion Criteria: Neonates with unilateral oae refer and those failed to get parental consent Method of study: Neonates born in sree gokulam medical college and research foundation from january 2015 to january 2016 were selected. Detailed history taken and examination done. Neonates with risk factors such as respiratory distress, low birth weight, congenital anomalies, preterm, born through cesarean section, with maternal gestational diabetes mellitus and pregnancy induced hypertension and neonates without risk factors were subjected to otoacoustic emission on both ears. Two category were made, category 1 – neonates with risk factors and category2- – neonates without risk factors. Results were statistically analysed. Results: All the risk factors assessed in the study which include, prematurity (p=0.003), low birth weight (p<0.001), cranio-facial anomalies (p<0.001), maternal diabetes mellitus (p<0.001), pregnancy induced hypertension(p<0.001) and caesarian delivery (p<0.001) were found to be statistically significant for neonatal hearing loss Conclusion: This study confirms that neonates with risk factors are found to have greater percentage of hearing abnormality when compared with neonates without risk factors when screened with oae.

  227. Dr. Abdul MananKhaskheli, Dr. Shahid Majid, Dr. Fauzia Wasim, Dr. Osama Tariq, Dr. Hafeezullah Shaikh and Neeta Maheshwary

    Objective: Objective of this study was to identify non invasive predictors for the presence of Esophageal varices in patients of liver cirrhosis without prior history of upper Gastrointestinal bleeding. Methodology: This cross sectional analytic study was conducted from August 2011 to July 2016 in the Department of Gastroenterology at Liaquat National Hospital Karachi and Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi. Patients diagnosed to have liver cirrhosis without prior history of upper GI (gastrointestinal) bleeding secondary to varices either visiting the outpatient department or admitted in hospital were included. Informed consent was taken from all patients. Screening Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) was performed in all patients to detect varices once the diagnosis of liver cirrhosis was confirmed. Patients of both gender and age more than 16 years were included in the study. Statistical package of social science (SPSS) were used to analyze data. Results: Hundred patients of liver cirrhosis who fulfilled the selection criteria were included in the study. Average age of the patients was found to be 48.71+12.38, out of 100 patients 46% were male and 56% were female. Esophageal varices were seen in 76/100 (76%) patients, significant large varices (Grade III and IV) seen only in 9.2 % of patients. 37(47.7%) Patients with Varices were male and 39(51.3%) were female. Univariate and multivariate analysis of variables was performed between patients with and without varices. Serum albumin, bilirubin, portal vein diameter were significantly associated with presence of esophageal varices whereas platelets counts, prothrombin time and splenic size were not significant in univaiate analysis. Multivariate analysis show low platelets, decreased albumin, increased prothrombin time, increased serum bilirubin and increased portal vein diameter were significant independent predictors of presence of esophageal varices. Conclusion:Incidence of esophageal varices in patients with liver cirrhosis without a history of upper GI bleeding was significantly high our study. The statistically substantial predictors of presence of esophageal varices were, platelets count<150,000/cmm, serum albumin <2.8gms /dl, serum bilirubin>1.2mg /dl , prothrombin time >2 seconds of control value , portal vein diameter >11mm.

  228. Dr. Syed Shafiq Alam, Dr. Mohammad Afzal ud Din, Dr. Sheikh Javed Iqbal, Prof. Mohammad Afzal Wani, Dr. Syed Qawnain, Dr. Nahida Dar, Dr. Shugufta Aziz, Dr. Mohammad Muttahir-ud Din, Dr. Syed Badir Duja Khan and Dr. Qurat ul Ain

    Aim: This is a retrospectrive study done to study the incidence and results of all pediatric patients who reported to our hospital as case of fall from height. Materials and Methods: The records of all fall related patients in the age group below 15 years of age between June 2013 and June 2017 were analysed. Mortality in patients with associated extracranial injuries were not taken for the study (mortality was taken into account for purely craniocerebral neurosurgical patients). Results: Two thousand two hundred and sixty eight children were found to have fell from height. Two hundred and thirty four patients were found to have sustained skull fracture. 99 patients had sustained fracture of skull base. A quarter of patients needed admission. The mortality associated has been found to be one percent. Three percent patients had isolated cerebral contusion, another 3 percent had subdural hematoma, 3 percent had subarachnoid hemorrhage and one percent had EDH (extradural hematoma) and another 3 percent had combined insults to brain. About 9 percent had fractures of skull bone out of which a quarter fractures were depressed. 5 percent children required surgery. In patients of pure craniocerebral trauma half a percent died. Conclusion: We conclude that falls form an important mode for mortality and morbidity in the society paticularly the children. Brain injuryform an important cause of these mortality and morbidity. We need to improve on this count by planning measures to avoid such mishaps in future.

  229. Dr. Hemalatha, D., Dr. Karkuzhali, P., Dr. Gayathri Devi, T. and Dr. Archana, R.

    Introduction: Diabetes mellitus is a cluster of abnormal metabolic disorder having common features of hyperglycaemia with a state of increased free radical activity. Chronic hyperglycemic status favours auto-oxidation and the formation of advanced glycation end products. Adenosine deaminase (ADA) is considered as a good marker of cell mediated immunity. Increased ADA activity in diabetic individuals couldbe due to altered insulin related T-lymphocyte function. Methodology: This study was done as case control study among 60 cases and 40 controls. The cases were further divided into two groups based on HbA1c levels. All the parameters like FBS, PPBS, HbA1c and ADA were measured. Results: In our study, ADA levels was significantly high in controlled diabetics (group II with HbA1C < 7) and was much higher in Uncontrolled diabetics (group III with HbA1 C > 7) compared to healthy controls (group I). Comparison of the parameters (FBS, PPBS, HbA1 C, ADA) between the 3 group was done using Student t test and was statistically significant. Pearson's coefficient correlation was done between ADA and HbA1 C and found a positive correlation between them and had a statistical significance. Conclusion: This study indicates that ADA raises with the extent of severity of type 2 diabetes. Positive correlation of ADA with HbA1 C provides the information that ADA can be considered to reflect the glycemic status of the individual.

  230. Dr. Sohail Anwar Azami

    Introduction: Self-insertion of foreign bodies into the male urethra and urinary bladder for autoerotic stimulation is a rather rare emergency condition that an urologist may encounter. A case of an knotted electrical wire inserted in the male urethra and tip of the wire seen in external urethra and other end in the bladder is presented. Case presentation: A16 year old male presented with the inability to void and bloody urethral discharge after having introduced an electrical wire into his urethra for masturbation 24 hours earlier. He had made several unsuccessful attempts to remove it. During the physical examination, one end of the wire was observed in the urethral meatus An x-ray of kidney, ureter, bladder (KUB) demonstrated a coiled up radiopaque wire inside the bladder. The patient was unmarried with father accompanying him. It was the first time he had ever self-inflicted a foreign body in his urethra and he had history of psychiatric illness and no drug addic tion. CT scan was showing a knotted wire inside the penile urethra. After giving his formal consent, the patient was taken to the operating room. Under spinal anesthesia, an unsuccessful trial was made to pull the wire. Then a suprapubic cystotomy was performed and the wire was removed. The patient was discharged on the 8th postoperative day with the urethral catheter in situ. Patient was called in OPD after 2 weeks and Foley’s catheter removed. A very few cases of self-inflicted foreign bodies have been reported in the male urethra and urinary bladder .The variety of these objects is really impressive, including sharp and lacerating objects (e.g needle, pencil, wire), wire-like objects (cable, rubber tube), parts of animals (bones) or plants and vegetables (hay, cucumber), fluids (e.g, glue) and powders (e.g, cocaine). The most common reason for self-insertion of a foreign body into the male urethra is of erotic or sexual nature, especially masturbation or sexual gratification . A mental illness or drug intoxication may also be the reason. Masturbation in males is very frequent with a rate close to 100% . In the majority of cases, the patient feels guilty and humiliated, therefore he postpones the search for medical help. In our case, the patient was expressing repentance for his action. A few very interesting psychiatric-psychoanalytic theories have been postulated. According to Kenney's theory, the initiating event is the coincidentally discovered pleasurable stimulation of the urethra, followed by repetition of this action with objects of unknown danger, driven by a particular psychological predisposition to sexual gratification. Wise considered urethral manipulation as a paraphilia combining sadomasochistic and fetishistic elements where the orgasm of the individual depends on the presence of the fetish. He believed it shows a regression to a urethral stage of erotism due to a traumatic event or a strong libidinal drive. From the clinical view, many authors advocate the psychiatric evaluation of these patients, based on theories that consider this act as an indication of an impulsive behavior, self-punishing in nature that may aggravate to suicide. The psychiatric evaluation is controversial as many of these patients are psychologically normal. Clinical presentation may vary from asymptomatic to swelling of external genitalia, dysuria, poor urinary stream or retention, bloody or purulent urethral discharge and ascending urinary tract infection. Depending on the type of foreign body and its location, various methods of removal have been described, including meatotomy, cystoscopy, internal or external urethrotomy, suprapubic cystostomy and injection of solvents. Removal of the foreign body may be quite challenging requiring imagination and high-level surgical skills. Endoscopic therapy is the standard. The most suitable method is relevant to the size and mobility of the object. In the majority of mobile objects inside the urethra, the mobility is towards the bladder where, after having been pushed, the foreign body can be grasped by forceps or retrieval baskets. Nephroscopes have been used for the retrieval of screws as well as magnetic retrievers for galvanic objects. The YAG laser has also been used lately. In cases where endoscopic procedures are unsuccessful, then open surgery is recommended. For objects stuck in the penile urethra, external urethrotomy is recommended,while for intravesical foreign bodies, a suprapubic cystotomy is the treatment of choice. Conclusion: A self-inflicted foreign body in the urethra and bladder is a rare situation. Endoscopic manipulation is the preferred first-line treatment and if unsuccessful, open procedures may be necessary.

  231. Snehi, S. K., Purvia, A. S., Parihar, S. S., Gupta, G., Singh, V. and Raj, S. K.

    More than 80% of the known geminiviruses are transmitted by whiteflies (Bemisia tabaci Gennadius) and belong to the genus Begomovirus, which mostly have bipartite genomes designated as DNA-A and DNA-B and infect dicotyledenous plants although numerous begomovirus with a monopartite genome occur in the Old World and there are some of which a single components is not infectious yet no DNA-B component has been found. There have been several of reports of satellite molecules associated with begomoviruses. Genome ORFs are plays important roles for host range determination, virus symptom development & severity, virus movement and virus replication. The frequency with which new begomoviruses are appearing shows that these viruses are still evolving and pose a serious threat to sustainable agriculture, particularly in the tropics and sub-tropics. In recent years, some begomoviruses have also moved to temperate regions causing concern in the production of vegetables in greenhouses. In this review we have discus about the genome organization of begomovirus, its ORFs and their possible pathogenesis n the basis of research findings.

  232. Setare Nassiri, Mohammad Vakili, Hamide Gholami and Setare Akhavan

    Rupture of diaphragmatic hernia is a very rare life threatening situation in pregnancy.it usually is followed by abstraction and strangulation of the herniated intra-abdominal organs such as colon, stomach and small bowel. Almost 50% of cases are misdiagnosed because of the non-specific manifestation of diaphragmatic hernia. The symptoms can be varied as the spectrum, from slight abdominal pain to acute abdomen or sever respiratory distress. High suspicion should be considered when the patient’s symptoms don’t response to usual supportive management. Delay in surgical intervention leads to high maternal and fetal mortality while timely diagnosis is resulted in favorable prognosis. Herein we present a pregnant woman with progressive epigastric pain and sever respiratory distress, who were undertaken thoracolaparotomy and gastrorrhaphy due to gastric strangulation via ruptured diaphragmatic hernia on 22nd week of gestation. Eventually both of them, mother and baby had a good prognosis. We concluded that although this condition is very rare but is very dangerous and it is mandatory to emergent surgery to avoid life threatening implications.

  233. Muhammad, S., Chafe, U. M., Daneji, A. I., Magaji, A. A., Adamu, Y. A., Mohammed, A. A. and Bello, M. R.

    Trypanosomes are flagellated protozoan, classified under the family Trypanosomatidae and known to cause serious disease conditions in all vertebrate animals under terrestrial and aquatic environments. The ubiquitous nature of the piscine parasite, warrants several vectors to accomplish their digenic lifecycle, involving arthropods and annelids. Sleeping sickness, Nagana, Chagas disease, Surra, Dourine, Mal de Caderas, Avian and Piscine trypanosomosis are associated with man, cattle, camels, horses, birds and fishes respectively, with tsetse flies, mosquitoes and leeches identified as respective vectors. Anemia, nervous disorders, abortion and loss of condition are principal pathologic manifestations. Hemolytic anemia is common to all species, due to accelerated erythrocyte destruction. However, in fish, other salient factors predispose and complicate the anemia observed. Anemia from heavy leech blood meal, and severe bleeding at the site of bite constituted multifactorial nature in fish. Leeches are equipped with specialized organs and biologically active substances for attachment, piercing and sucking blood from the host with mild pain sensation. These factors are considered and compared with trypanosomosis in other animals.

  234. Setare Akhavan, Setare Nassiri and Narges Nahavandian

    Objective: To evaluate the predictors of persistent trophoblastic disease which can lead to early diagnosis and increase the response rate to treatment. So we have studied numerous factors between two groups of molar pregnancy, those who progressed to GTT and those who were treated after evacuation. Material and Methods: In this study, 227 patients with complete molar pregnancy, referred to our Gynecology Oncology center of Imam Hospital of Tehran University of Medical Science, Iran, were enrolled. Based on their progression to GTT, they were divided into two groups. Recorded information included the following: age, number of parity, fundal height, types of blood group, platelets count, prior history of infertility, existence of theca lutein cyst, and level of serum B hcg before evacuation, chemotherapy and level of serum B hcg within 1 and 2 weeks after evacuation. Two groups of patients were compared based on factors mentioned above. Results: Among the investigated items, there was a significant difference between two groups in these factors: fundal height, frequency of complete molar pregnancy, serum B hcg level, platelet count and chemotherapy with methotrexate. (P<0.001) Eventually we identified predictive factors for GTT. Conclusion: We recommend that further evaluations are needed to confirm our results. With more documents it would be considered a scoring system to determine the risk of development of GTT and try to prevent it by early chemotherapy.

  235. Eva-Maria Cojocaru, Ariela Elena Banu, Roxana Elena Bogdan Goroftei, Victorița Ștefănescu and Ion Poeată

    Arachnoid cerebral cyst in children are a pathology which induces fear, anxiety and false perceptions in the children’s affected family. Monitoring arachnoid cysts on long term can prevent the evolution of the child to a lower quality of life and the aggravation of the condition in some cases. Wetake in study 83 children which were diagnosed with computer tomography or magnetic resonance with arachnoidcerebral cystsin the period 2014-2016 and we applied on them a new grading scale for arachnoid cysts, arachnoid cerebral cysts children evaluating scale ( ACCES scale). This scale contains four items: 1) the clinic involvement 0-3, 2) compression phenomena 0-3, 3) presence or absence of seizures, 4) cognition (memory, thinking), language or behavioural disturbances 0-3. So by far the child is evaluated and we can recognise the most severe cases and make intervention plan. There were evaluated 83 children with imagistic discovered arachnoid cerebral cysts. A male predominance was observed 59 boys and 24 girls. The age when the cyst were discovered was at 10 years old, by far the most. Cyst size was more often in the greatest diameter of 20-30 mm (31 children). There were children with one or more arachnoid cysts. Also there were children with associated malformations. In our series the highest ACCES score was 6, but a score higher than 4 influences the daily life of the patient. The proposed method is of great clinic utility, is not invasive and brings not new costs for patient investigation.

  236. Kantenga Dieu Merci Kabulo, Patrice Ntenga, Kelvin Nemayire, Toivouskongetukuna Hasheela, luxwell Jokonya, NathanielHarunangoni Zimani, Aaron Musara, Kazadi Kaluile Ntenga Kalangu and Rudo Makunike Mutasa

    Gunshot injuries occur when oneis shot by a bullet or other sort of projectile from a firearm. Peace time gunshot injuries occur in a variety of different situations: criminal and terrorist incidents (including shots fired by law enforcement agents), attempted suicides as well as unintended firearm 'accidents' (both civilian and amongst the armed forces). Penetrating traumatic brain injury is the most lethal form oftraumatic head injury. Approximately 70-90% of these victims diebefore arriving at the hospital, and 50% of those who survive to reachthe hospital die during resuscitation attempts in the Emergency Department. We report a case of a 17 year old male patient whowas previously well.He wasaccidentally was shot on his head by a friend, he did not lose consciousness and neither did he have any seizures, but was complaint of mild headache. On examination, hemodynamically stable, he had a punctate scalp wound on the left temporal area anterior to the ear with crusted blood around it and no exit wound, his Glasgow coma scale was 15/15, hispupils were 3mm bilaterally andreactive to light, he had no cranial nerve deficit with normal conjugate eye movement,Motor and sensory examination was normal. He was communicating and mobilizing very well. Skull x-ray showed the bullet in the cranium. Unenhanced Computer Tomography (CT) scan of the brain confirmed the intracranial bulletin the suppratentorial space with hemorrhagic contusion in the left cerebellar hemisphere and posterior fossa pneumocephalus. There was effacement of sulci and gyri and no evidence of intraventricular hemorrhage. The patient was then admitted to a high dependency unit for observation with a diagnosis of penetrating head injury secondary to gunshot wound. He remained fully conscious and neurologically intact for 24hours after which his level of consciousnesssuddenly started deteriorating associated with vomiting; he passed on while he was being taken for repeat and futher imaging of the brain. A post mortem examination was consistant with the CT Scan findings including massive subarachnoid hemorrhage and brain swelling.

  237. Elias MAKHOUL, Naim HANNA, David SIMON and Joe EL MIR

    Transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) is a very well-known treatment used for non resectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). After chemoembolization, pancreatitis is a known but uncommon complication, result from local cytotoxicity or pancreatic ischemia due to reflux of chemoembolic material into pancreatic arterial branches. In this manuscript, we present a case of mild and self-limited acute pancreatitis post-chemoembolization, with successful conservative treatment.

  238. Dr. Nikita Dandekar and Dr. Jasmin Winnier

    Foreign body ingestions are encountered more frequently in children, elderly, mentally and physically challenged individuals when compared to normal and healthy individuals. In this report, a case of accidental ingestion of a hand pro taper file by a 9-year-old child is presented. The management of the incident, factors to be considered in management, possible complications, identification and management of complications have also been discussed. Recommendations for prevention of mishap has also been included.

  239. Manoj Chandak, Rasika Kashikar, Prithwish Mukherjee, Madhur Kalra and Rakhi Chandak

    Introduction: We compared the apical extrusion of sodium hypochlorite delivered with a conventional needle irrigation, passive ultrasonic irrigation and sonically driven system during the irrigation of root canals. Methods: Sixty single-canal teeth were divided into 3 groups. Teeth were embedded in 0.2% agarose gel (pH = 7.4) containing 1 mL 0.1% mCresol purple (titan media), which changes color at a pH level of 9.0. Root canals were irrigated with sodium hypochlorite using 3 different techniques, and the amount of irrigant was controlled. Standardized digital photographs were taken 20 minutes after the first irrigant was used and were analyzed to determine the amount of extrusion (expressed as a percentage of total pixels). Results: The amounts of apical extrusion obtained were 50% (10/20), 40% (8/20), 20% (4/20) for needle irrigation group, passive ultrasonic irrigation and sonically driven system respectively. The sonically driven system and passive ultrasonic irrigation showed significantly lower extrusion values than the needle irrigation techniques in terms of the number of teeth and pixels. Conclusion: The risk of apical extrusion is significantly lower with the sonically driven system and passive ultrasonic irrigation in comparison with the needle irrigation techniques.

  240. Paramita Das, Dr. T. Panneerselvam, Dr. Padmavathi. P. Prabhu and Jithendar Reddy

    A novel RP-HPLC method has been developed for the estimation of Gallic acid and Ellagic acid in Argwadharistam, which is popular herbal formulation. It is an ayurvedic formulation made out by Terminalia Chebula along with other ingredients. Studies have shown that it has used in all types of dermatitis. The use of gradient elution of Acetonitrile & buffer solution enabled the efficient separation of Gallic acid and ellagic acid in 4.8 min and 8.46 min (Rt), five calibration standards in range of 2.0-10µg/ml for Gallic acid and 10-50µg/ml for Ellagic acid at 254nm quantification was effected at 254nm. Validation was performed according to ICH guidelines. Proposed method showed good linear correlation coefficient (r2=0.999). The LOD and LOQ of Gallic acid and ellagic acid were 0.8µg/ml & 2.5µg/ml and 1.5µg/ml & 5µg/ml respectively. The recoveries are between 98 and 102%. The developed and validated method was simple and accurate can be used for the estimation of Gallic acid and ellagic acid in herbal formulation.

  241. Dr. Keshav Ram Benipal

    Labial agglutination occurs when the labia minora have fused. These maybe either filmy or dense adhesions and form a raphe in midline.This condition is seen in paediatric population, prepubertal girls and also have been reported in reproductive age group and post- menopausal women. The possible etiology of this may be a hypoestrogenic state which leads to local irritation and inflammation. Here we present two cases – first a 24 years nulligravida, with labial agglutination which was refractory to conservative management. Second case – a 42 years unmarried female with dysuria.

  242. Abeer I. Abd El-Fattah, Soha S. Essawy and Dina M. Abo-elmatty

    The success of etoposide for the treatment of testicular cancer is limited by its undesirable side effects on reproductive system, which is generally ascribed to inflammation and oxidative stress. In the current study, the protective effects of montelukast and curcumin on etoposide-induced reproductive toxicity were investigated.Rats were divided into four groups; group 1 was kept as control. In group 2, etoposide was administered at a dose of (20 mg/kg/day, i.p) for 5 days, while in groups 3, 4; montelukast or curcumin, were given at the doses of (10mg/kg/day, p.o) and (20mg/kg/day, p.o) respectively for 21 days,during that i.p. injection of etoposide (20 mg/kg/day, i.p) was injected from day 8 through day 12.Etoposide induced oxidative stress via significant increase in MDA level and significant decrease in GSH level as well as SOD and CAT activities. Montelukast and curcumin prevented these effects through antioxidant properties. In addition, the deleterious effects of etoposide on spermatogenesis, serum testosterone level, oxidative stress, ATP, mtDNA and nDNA damage as well as histopathological changes were eliminated by montelukast or curcumin treatment, notably curcumin could normalized some of these parameters. The present study showed that montelukast and curcumin can reverse toxic effects of etoposide on the reproductive system that can be contributed due to anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and antiapoptotic potential.

  243. Kanakam Elizabeth Thomas and Savitri, S.

    Oral candidal infection is common among bronchodialator users irrespective of whether they use it as puff or as nebulizer. There are several theories and hypothesis on the role of Candida albicans in the oral cancer and initiation of oral malignancy. Though Candida has a pathogenic role in the oral cavity, C.albicans nitrosation are able to convert chemical compounds which are able to trigger proto oncogenes and initiate malignancy2 Aim: In the current study we aim to find out the different species of Candida that colonize the oral cavity of patients on broncho dialtors. Material and Methods: Saliva sample of the patients (n=40) were collected and was serially diluted, inoculated onto SDA. Isolates were then sub cultured onto HiChrome Candida Agar for identification. Other tests of identification like germ tube test and carbhohydrate fermentation tests were also carried out. Results: It was noted that out of 40 samples 37 samples had Candida growth. In the present study it can be seen that Candida albicans is isolated from 29 samples from 30 puff users and 2 samples from the 10 nebulizer users. Conclusion: In our study we found that 97 % patients who are puff users had Candida albicans. The chances of the yeast triggering proto oncogene cannot be ignored.

  244. Anbupriya, M., Mahalakshmi, C. and Prof. V. P. R. Sivakumar

    Background: Information on the prevalence of urinary incontinence in women with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is scant. Such knowledge may be important to the development of care for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary Disease. Objective: To find out the prevalence of urinary incontinence among Indian women with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Study design: Observational study. Subjects: 100 subjects with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease with age group between 30 – 40 years of female. Outcome measure: Questionnaire for Urinary Incontinence Diagnosis (QUID). Results: It Shows 12% of Indian women has shown prevalence to urinary incontinence with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and 88 % has not shown any prevalence to urinary incontinence with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease with age group of 30-40 years. Conclusion: The present study indicate the prevalence of urinary incontinence among the subjects with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease is about 12% among the age group of 30-40years.Hence, there is a prevalence of urinary incontinence with Chronic Pulmonary Disease in Indian women even at this young age. Certainly there will be worsening of the urinary symptoms as pelvic floor muscles weaken due to menopause, aging and recurrent cough. Incontinence should also be assessed and managed in subjects living with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. All Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease subjects should be trained with pelvic floor training and KNACK technique along with routine chest physiotherapy to prevent the complications and to improvise the Quality of Life.

  245. Dr. Sarvani VL Nukaraju, Dr. Sharath Kumar Shetty, Dr. Mahesh Kumar, Y. and Dr. Brigit Alphonsa Gervasis

    Objective: To evaluate knowledge, attitude, awareness towards orthodontic treatment among Engineering and Medical undergraduate students in Dakshina Karnataka. Method: A questionnaire was made of 22 closed ended questions to assess the awareness, knowledge and attitude of students towards orthodontic treatment. Two groups were made, group 1: engineering students, group 2: medical students, sample size was 600 in each group (rounded from n = 555). Colleges were selected randomly and filtered from the list and 3 medical colleges and 3 engineering colleges from Dakshina Karnataka population were selected. The quality and reliability of the questionnaire was made by doing a pilot study with sample size of 100 in each group. Results: Each question was compared and assessed between the two groups. The results showed not much awareness and knowledge was present regarding malocclusion in both the groups and there was more of positive attitude towards orthodontic treatment in medical students in Dakshina Karnataka population. Conclusion: This study suggests utmost need to educate both engineering and medical students all over Dakshina Karnataka population towards orthodontic treatment for better health of the people.

  246. Dr. Kumari Khushboo, Dr. Jyoti S Kabbin, Dr. Sathyanarayan MS, Dr. Ambica R. and Dr. Girish

    The efficiency of hand drying is important in preventing pathogen spread, but knowledge regarding drying methods is limited. The proper drying of hands should be an integral part of the hand hygiene process in health care for controlling the infection spread. Hence, this study is undertaken to detect the bacteriological profile of the air from the hand dryers, thereby aiming to help investigate the cross contamination in addition to the hand drying action of the hand dryers. Objectives of the study: 1) To study the bacteriological profile of the air from the hand dryers. 2) To study the bacteriological cross-contamination of the hand dryers. Setting and Design: The study is a prospective study and was conducted in the Department of Microbiology, Victoria hospital. Various hand dryers in Bangalore Medical College & Research Institute, Super Speciality Hospital (PMSSY), Bangalore was included under this study. Materials and Methods: 45 hand-dryers in BMC&RI, SSH(PMSSY) were used to assess the bacterial contamination. The bacterial isolates were identified using standard microbiological procedures. Results: Of 45 hand dryers studied, our study yielded 11 isolates of Gram positive bacilli, 4 isolates of Micrococcus species, 2 isolates of Staphylococcus aureus, and 1 Klebsiella pneumoniae. The 31(68.88%) hand dryers yieldedno bacterial isolates. Conclusion: In the hospital areas like wards and OPDs, it is difficult to maintain asepsis and hence, care should be taken to frequently maintain the hand dryers. The above study gives us an opportunity to look into such aspects and help in creating a sterile and safe hospital environment.

  247. Vinay Kharsan, Akshay Daga, Kamini Dadsena, Usha and Naveen Lalchandani

    Unicystic ameloblastoma is the benign, locally invasive odontogenic tumors which histologically shows typical ameloblastomatous epithelium lining part of the cyst cavity, with or without luminal and/or mural tumor growth. A case of symptomatic unicystic ameloblastoma in 16- year-old-female, who has treated by surgical decompression followed by enucleation in 2 stage surgery is presented. The present case report describes the clinical and radiological behaviors, its importance and complexity of a differential diagnosis and treatment protocol of lesions in the mandibular molar-ramus area in teenagers.

  248. Barkha Devi, Karma Doma Bhutia, Chemi Denka Bhutia, Dechen Sherpa, Deepika Chettri, Deeplata Sahu, Dipajani Oinam, Junu Chettri, Phurba Lhaki Bhutia, Purnima Borah, Sanchayeeta Dey, Sarita Kumari Gupta Saha, Shabnam Gurung, Sonee Ghalay, Sushma Sharma an

    Introduction: Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS) is a growing problem with adolescent girls. in addition young women during their reproductive years. It can be very difficult to diagnose PCOS in teenage girls as they often experience irregular or absent menses and acne. It is one of the most endocrine disorders with prevalence of 5%–10% in different ethnic populations and 22% of women in general population. PCOS is a heterogeneous endocrine disorder which affects one in 15 women worldwide. Objectives: The primary purpose of this study was to explore the knowledge of nursing students regarding different area of PCOS and to assess the self preventive measures adopted by the students diagnosed with PCOS. Hence the present study was planned to assess the level of knowledge regarding PCOS among nursing students and to identify the self preventive measures taken by the students diagnosed with PCOS to prevent future complication. Methods: Investigators adopted the survey approach with descriptive survey research design where 100 nursing students studying in third year B.Sc. nursing programme were recruited through non probability purposive sampling technique from Sikkim Manipal College of Nursing, at Sikkim Manipal University, Gangtok, East Sikkim. Structured knowledge questionnaire on PCOS and Self preventive measures regarding PCOS were used to collect data on nursing student’s knowledge and self preventive measures regarding PCOS for which validity and reliability was ensured. Results: The finding of the study shows that majority of the students were in the age group of 20 to 21 years (78%) and almost all (100) students had inadequate knowledge regarding PCOS with the mean score of 14.97 out of 32. The findings also shows that the minimum knowledge scores were found in the meaning of PCOS (29%) and causes & risk factors for developing PCOS (44%). The study also reveals that five students were diagnosed with PCOS had a very unhealthy life practices i.e. (60%) had never adopted any health measure to control weight, 4(80%) drinks alcohol sometime, 2 (40%) smoke cigarette always and 3 (60%) of the students’ diet include foods rich in calorie. Statistically significant difference was found between demographic characteristics such as sources of information on PCOS (41.6%) with students’ knowledge (P≤0.05). Conclusions: Based on the results of the present study it can be concluded that, all of the students (100%) had poor knowledge regard polycystic ovarian syndrome. but it was having its association with the sources of information, which indirectly reflected that if the students were given enough needed information regarding the PCOS and its management then the syndrome can be identified at its early stage. Nursing curriculum should be updated to include comprehensive information about PCOS to improve the awareness of other women once in practice.

  249. Muthu Chitra, Shankar, M. N. and Janani, P.

    Objective: To assess the clinical presentation, surgical management of thyroid disorders and complication of thyroid surgeries in the tertiary care set up. Methods: This article is an audit of the thyroid surgeries performed in the Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery (ORL-HNS) department of Stanley Medical College and General Hospital, Chennai- 01, during the 6 year period from 2010 to 2017. The data was recorded on a pre designed proforma which comprehensively encompassed the relevant variables and outcome, which was interpreted systematically. Results: 178 Thyroid surgeries have been performed during this period of which were 106 total thyroidectomies and the remaining 72, hemi-thyroidectomies. Solitary nodular goiter of the thyroid was the most common benign disease encountered while papillary carcinoma was the common malignant disease of thyroid diagnosed. Conclusion: Thyroid disorders was prevalent among the population and it commonly affects younger females. Solitary nodular goiter was commonest cause and hemi thyroidectomy was most frequently performed surgery, the complications were minimal with experienced hands.

  250. Sudhir Varma, Salim Abufanas, Maha Ali, Noor Nadhim, Mariam Khan and Eyas Abuhijleh

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare the wicking properties of different multifilament sutures. Materials and Methods: Polyglycolic acid (PGA) 4-0 sutures and black silk sutures were placed in sheep blood agar media for 24 h and then suspended on a microscope slide. Fluorescein isoothiocyanate-dextran (FITC-D) was placed at the mid-point of the sutures and observed using fluorescence microscopy. The experiments were repeated, and the amount of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli was measured every 8 h. Results: We observed no growth of Escherichia coli on the silk sutures after 24 h. In contrast, the concentration of S. aureus was approximately >100 CFU/µL, 60–80 CFU/µL, and 30 CFU/µL at 8, 16, and 24 h, respectively. For the PGA 4-0 suture, S. aureus concentration was >100 CFU/µL, 30–40 CFU/µL, and 30–40 CFU/µL at 8, 16, and 24 h, respectively and that of E. coli was >100 CFU/µL, 35 CFU/µL, and 27 CFU/µL at 8, 16, and 24 h respectively. The wicking effect of the black silk sutures thus resulted in 70% growth of S. aureus and no growth of E. coli, and the wicking effect of the PGA sutures resulted in 70% more growth of S. aureus compared to that on silk, whereas the growth of E. coli was 35%.

  251. Dr. Nagarathna, C., Dr. Veena, R. L. Dr. Jaya Agali Ramachandra and Dr. Umapathy Thimmegowda

    Aim: The aim of the study is to evaluate the efficiency of hand held lentulospiral (HHL) and endodontic pressure syringe techniques in primary molar radiographically using endoflas obturating material. Background: Successful endodontic therapy needs preparation of an aseptic root canal and sealing of the root canal system. Many investigations have been carried out to evaluate and compare the success rate of obturating techniques for primary teeth and major research in the area of finding newer obturating techniques is ongoing. The literature regarding the comparison of comparative efficiency of hand held lentulospiral and endodontic pressure syringe is relatively sparse. Therefore the present clinical study is undertaken to radiographically compare, the primary teeth obturation with hand held lentulospiral and endodontic pressure syringe. Study design: The present study was conducted on twenty primary molars indicated for pulpectomy in the age groups between 4 to 8 years. The teeth were randomly divided into two groups (group I and II). Group I (control group) obturated with hand-held Lentulo spiral and group II (test group) obturated with endodontic pressure syringe respectively. Post-operative evaluation was done for: a) quality of canal obturation, (under fill, optimally fill, or overfill) and b) presence of voids in each third of the root canal. The obtained data were analyzed using Chi-square test and Mann Whitney U test. Results: The results of the present study showed 50% of the canals were optimally filled, 40% were overfilled and 10% were under filled in control group. In test group were filled using endodontic pressure syringe showed, 70% of canals were optimally filled, 30% of canals were overfilled and there was no underfilled canals. The present study also showed higher number of voids in the middle 1/3rd of the control group than in the test group. There was no statistically significant difference between both the techniques. Conclusion: The obturation of primary molar teeth using hand held lentulospiral and endodontic pressure syringe though showed presence of voids in both the groups did not significantly affect the quality of root canal fillings.

  252. Mr. Dharashive V.M. and Mrs. Kapse V.N. YELAM

    The most common, convenient and preferred route of drug administration is oral route. Oral disintegrating tablets are the solid dosage forms that disintegrates in the saliva in less than 60 seconds, and are thus taken without the need of extra water. The oral disintegrating tablets are launched in 1980 and hence now-a-days it is one of the fastest growing segment of oral dosage form due to its improved solubility, stability and patient compliance. The versatile manufacturing technologies of orally disintegrating tablet is now no longer limited by dosage strength, bitter active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) and narrow therapeutic applications. scientists have prepared ODTs by following various methods like compression, molding, melt granulation, phase transition process, sublimation, freeze-drying, spray drying, effervescent methods etc.

  253. Tariq Karrar, Ahmed Alotaibi, Maree Al Anazi, Maha Abdallah, Fahad Mohammed Alanazi, Bakur Kharallah Alanazi, Khalid Ahmed Alquwafli, Sultan Eid Alharbi, Mohammed Ahmed Aljuhani, Sami Saad Alharbi and Shoeb Qureshi

    Background: Diabetic keto acidosis (DKA) is one of the complicated stages caused by hyperglycemia and low/no levels of insulin in blood. DKA is more common in children with diabetic type 1 more than adult. Since there is lack of data, the present study was conducted to assess the prevalence of DKA among diabetic children visiting KASCH emergency room. Aim of the Study: Our study aiming to measure the frequency diabetic ketoacidosis among children Methodology: This retrospective quantitative case control chart review study was conducted among 182 children diagnosed with Type I Diabetes Mellitus. Biochemical data of the study population was collected from best care database of KASCH. The data was analyzed by using SPSS version 22. Frequencies, percentages, mean, standard deviation, Mann Whitney U test, Spearman’s rank correlation were used for the analysis of data. The study was approved by IRB of KAIMRC. Results: The study indicated that type 1 diabetes is more prevalent among females then males. Among the subjects 61.5% were with DKA. It was observed that there was no significant difference between plasma glucose levels of those subjects with DKA and without DKA as indicated by Mann Whitney U test. Significant negative correlation was observed between glucose level and Pco2 and pH. Significant correlations were observed between serum electrolytes and ABG values. There is significant difference in the Ca levels of subjects with DKA and without DKA. Conclusion: DKA can effect of homeostasis of the subjects by altering the ABG parameters and electrolytes which can have long term implications in the health of the subjects.

  254. Muthu Chitra

    The operation of rhinoplasty in a remote Centre is always not based on aesthetic purposes, but related to the correction of septum to provide a proper airway. This is an account of septorhinoplasty done and the achieved results in our setup, a remote township of tamilnadu down south of India.

  255. Dr. Suvarna Patil, Dr. Upendra Hoshing and Dr. Divya Rachalwar

    Aim: To compare the solubility of 5 different root canal sealers in water and in artificial saliva in 24, 48 and 72 hours. Methodology: For standardized rings were filled with epoxy resin (AH-Plus), Silicon based (Roekoseal), Calcium hydroxide based (Apexit plus), MTA based (MTA Fillapex), Zinc oxide eugenol (Prime Dental). These samples were then immersed in distilled water and artificial saliva for 24 hrs, 42 hrs and 72 hrs. The weight loss of the sample was determined by comparing the weight pre test and post test. The data was calculated and analysed using one way ANOVA test. Result:Among all resin based root canal sealer (AH-Plus) has showed less solubility in water and artificial saliva after 24hr, 48hrs and 72 hrs followed by Silicon based sealer- Roekoseal, Calcium hydroxide based – Apexit Plus, MTA based – MTA Fillapex, Zinc oxide eugenol sealer – prime dental. Zinc oxide eugenol based sealer has shown more solubility in saliva than in water. MTA Fillapex has shown more solubility in water than all other sealers. Conclusion: AH-Plus has shown less solubility than all other sealers independent of any medium used, MTA Fillapex has shown more solubility in water. Zinc oxide eugenol has shown more solubility in saliva.

  256. Arya Sandeep

    Background: In India, twenty one community based studies conducted over a period from 1964 to 2000 identified 0.48% to 29.40% of children who had mental illness. Prevalence rate of ADHD children in India is 12.82% reported by ICMR (1988-1991), 4.67% reported by AIIMS Delhi (1980-82). At least 3% of school age children suffer serious attention deficit problems. Objectives: To assess the learning needs of teachers about management of attention deficit in terms of need assessment opinionnaire; to assess the knowledge of school teachers about management of attention deficit in children as measured by a structured knowledge questionnaire; to evaluate the effectiveness of seminar on management of attention deficit children in terms of gain in knowledge score and to find out association between pretest & posttest knowledge score of school teachers about management of attention deficit with their selected demographic variables Methods and Materials: An evaluatory research approach with one group pretest posttest design was employed among 30 primary school teachers selected by purposive sampling technique and by administrating Need assessment opinionnaire. Data was collected by administrating a structured knowledge questionnaire before and after seminar. Results: Result of this study showed that mean post test knowledge score i.e. 17.40 than mean pretest knowledge score i.e. 11.07 of primay school teachers. The difference in knowledge score was statistically siginificant at 0.05 level (t test = 7.3). Association between knowledge score and demographic variables found non significant in both pretest and posttest. Conclusion: It was concluded that seminar was effective in terms of gain in knowledge.

  257. Islam Md.Mansuri, Alam Shahid, Bastola Ramjee, Sharma, S., Adhikari, S., Gyawali, M. and Ahmad Md. Parwez

    Femoral hernias are relatively uncommon but are most common incarcerated abdominal hernias with strangulation of viscous carrying significant mortality. Femoral hernia has often been found to be the cause of unexplained bowel obstruction. Delay in diagnosis may occur, especially because a strangulated femoral hernia doesn’t always present with typical groin swelling and signs of strangulation. We report a case of 65 yr old female presenting with vomiting since 7 days, with a non tender swelling in right groin without signs of strangulation. On exploration, Richter’s femoral hernia with part of small bowel wall as content which was viable and reduction of ileum with hernia repair was done.

  258. Dr. Sangamithra, S. and Dr. Radhabarathi, D.

    Periodontitis is one of the most prevalent chronic inflammatory diseases across the globe. The link between periodontitis and rheumatoid arthritis has been well established by various biologically plausible mechanisms in the past decade, however periodontitis being a polymicrobial disease has recently been found to initiate and maintain the auto-inflammatory response that occurs in rheumatoid arthritis.This article focuses on the role of hypercitrullination, as one of the pathologic link between the two forms of chronic diseases.

  259. Serdar Altun, Erhan Cahit Özcan, Ali Bal, Mehmet İhsan Okur, Mehmet Emin Atli and Ayşen Orman

    Congenital maxillo-mandibular fusion is a rare anomaly involving simple mucosal fusion or complete bony fusion that may lead to nutritional or respiratory problems in early and after birth due to restricted mouth opening. Early intervention is crucial to prevent ankylosis of the temporomandibular joint and to achieve complete jaw development. Herein, we present a rare case of maxilla-mandibular fusion in the context of associated therapeutic challenges.

  260. Serdar ALTUN, Erhan Cahit Ozcan, Ali BAL and Mehmet İhsan OKUR

    Accurate pre-operative marking of important reference points should be undertaken to avoid distortion when placing sutures on the post-excision residual tissues after procedures such as abdomino-plasty and belt lipectomy performed to correct the excessive skin lagging after bariatric surgery.

  261. Dr. Josephine, A. and Dr. Bheema Rao, G.

    Fine Needle Aspiration cytology plays a pivotal role in the management of palpable swelling. Breast swelling being easily accessible provides ideal ground for aspiration cytology.Although these swellings are more common in females, males are also prone to breast lesions because of change in dietary and lifestyle habits in India. The present study is undertaken to determine the prevalence of various spectra of male breast lesions diagnosed by FNAC and to assess the expression of hormone receptor in carcinoma breast by immunocytochemistry. Materials and Methods: Four year retrospective study was conducted in department of pathology in a tertiary care Hospital in southern India between May 2013 and May 2017. Male patients with palpable breast masses were subjected to fine needle aspiration cytology in the outpatient department of our central laboratory. The smears were interpreted by cytopathologist and results were analyzed. Immunocytochemistry was performed in a single case of carcinoma breast in FNAC smears. Results: Gynecomastia was the most common lesion encountered accounting for 80.6% (25 /31) of cases. Majority of them presented in the third decade. Two cases of (6.4%), Carcinoma Breast were seen presenting in the sixth decade.Single case of Granulomatous mastitis (3.2%) and three cases of breast abscess (9.6%) were also encountered in the present study. Conclusion: Fine Needle Aspiration cytology plays an important role in the diagnosis and management of male breast lesions. Histopathological examination remains the Gold Standard method in establishing the diagnosis of breast lesions. Ancillary techniques such as Immunocytochemistry aids in predicting the prognosis as well as the management of carcinoma breast cases.

  262. Dr. Bulbulenilesh, S., Dr. Tandon Arpita, A. and Dr. Kakade Dilip, M.

    To evaluate & compare effect of different thicknesses of heat cure polymethyl methacrylate denture base resin at different time intervals in distilled water, artificial saliva and its combination on sorption and linear dimensional change.- An in- vitro study. Materials & Method: This was an invitro study where a total of 176 samples of heat cured polymethyl methacrylate were made. 44 samples each of 1mm and 2mm rectangular slab and 44 samples of each 1 mm and 2mm circular discs were made. 11 samples were allocated to each group of 1mm and 2 mm samples and immersed in artificial saliva and distil water for 30 and 90 days. The rectangular slabs were used to test the linear dimensional change and the circular discs were used to test for sorption according to ADA specification number 12. Results: Unpaired T test was used to evaluate the values obtained in the study. It was observed that the linear dimensional change seen was statistically significant after immersing the 1mm (p = 0.013) and 2mm (p = 0.019) samples for 30 days in artificial saliva and distil water. No statistically significant change was seen in sorption over 30 and 90 days. Conclusion: The greatest change in linear dimensional change was observed after 30 days in artificial saliva and distil water. No significant changes were seen thereafter in linear dimensional change or sorption. Clinical significance: The thickness of the denture base material is an important factor for successful prosthesis. If the denture base is thin, it may fracture, may not tolerate occlusal forces. If it is thick it will be heavy to load the tissues, may absorb more liquid & shows linear dimensional changes & may not fit the tissues & disturbs the occlusion. Inspite of such an important factor thickness of the denture base is often neglected.

  263. Dr. Samia Perwaiz Khan, Dr. Sofia Izhar and Dr. Fadieleh A. Sohail

    Non alcohol fatty liver diseases (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver diseases and the early diagnosis is essential to prevent complications. There is need for development of noninvasive tool to determine the severity. Non alcoholic fatty changes in liver may be present in obese and diabetic patients and thus will alter the management. Since ultrasound is noninvasive technique for the diagnosis of fatty liver diseases in comparison with liver biopsy. While performing ultrasound abdomen, liver echogenicity can be homogenous and normal, slightly diffused increased echogenicity or markedly increased echogenicity (alteredtexture changes multiple, nodular or irregular hyperechogenic lesions) with poor or non-visulization of intrahepatic vessels. This was the method for grading of fatty changes in liver and also compared the size. As determined the echogenicity and increase in size were found to have direct relationship..In this article the type of echogenicity changes along with variation in size of liver were recorded. Age did not have much significance, but it was seen that greater number of female obese patients.

  264. Julia Sherriff, Dr. Elgenaid Hamadain, Dr. Ralph Didlake, Dr. Hamed Benghuzzi, Dr. William Mustain, Dr. Michelle Tucci and Dr. Donna Sullivan

    Background: Continued concerns for improvements in safety and quality of the perioperative setting (PS) process and outcomes drive the efforts in improving the interdisciplinary collaboration (IC) to match or supplant the change brought by innovation with better reflexivity through planning. PS professionals routinely engaged in surgery and recovery hold the prime insights into the active process of ICPS and are best capacitated to articulate their perspectives and priorities. Purpose: The purpose of this research was to describe the patterns of ICPS factor prioritization within the interdisciplinary team (IDT). The questions guiding this research were: 1. What antecedents of IC are considered by IDT professionals to be important in PS? 2. What viewpoints and potential contentions exist in prioritizations of IC improvements? We have utilized a modified Q-methodological approach to assess the subjective viewpoints within IDT professionals. Materials and Methods: This research is based on mixed-methods survey design with modified Q-methodology adapted for utilization in a statistical platform, such as SPSS. Qualitative theme extraction from literature review (LR) was utilized in selection ICPS factors for inclusion into the concourse of statements, which from the Q-sample was induced. ICPS factor Q-sort was obtained from participant responses in 12x12 prioritization matrix built into a survey in REDCap. The viewpoint groups were then identified with factor analysis of the rotated (rows-columns) matrix and subjected to further analysis of concordances and discordances. Results: Five primary factors of ICPS as identified by IDT members include: Critical Communication and Feedback (CCF), Purpose, Team Technical Competence (TTC), Trust, and Adaptability. Cumulative 94.672 % of variance was explained with eight viewpoint groups with eigan values greater than 1.0. and factor loadings greater than 0.30 in the Q-FA model. Eight viewpoint groups included: Technocratic, Polarized-reflexive-visionary, Collegial, Communicator, Focused on Critical Process, Power-Observant (conscious of power dynamics), and Task-Oriented. The ninth viewpoint group included Absolutist viewpoints (16.67% of P-set). Conclusions: In this study, we were able to identify the primary factors important in improving ICPS and the viewpoint groups and patterns using modified Q-methodologic approach. Identification of potential sources of contention and dispute are necessary for IDT reflexivity and adaptability in innovative environment of PS.

  265. Hemalatha Krishnasamy

    Urolithiasis is one of the most common diseases of the urinary tract. Ureteral stones account for 20% of the calculi in urolithiasis and about 70% of ureteral stones are present in the distal third of the ureter at the time of presentation. A conservative approach through medical expulsive therapy has now become an established treatment modality that employs various drugs acting on the ureter by different mechanisms. Aim of the study: To compare the safety and efficacy of tamsulosin and tadalafil as medical expulsive therapy for distal ureteral stones Materials and Methods: This prospective study was conducted at the Institute of Urology, Rajiv Gandhi government General hospital, Chennai, over a period of 12 months, from October 2016 to September2017 in 100 patients with distal ureteral stones sized 5 to 10 mm. Patients were randomly divided into 2 groups: group A received tamsulosin 0.4 mg and group B received tadalafil 10 mg at night for 10 days. Stone expulsion rate, age group, sex ratio, number of ureteric colic episodes, analgesic requirements, and adverse drug effects were noted in both groups. Observations and results: Altogether 100 patients, 50 in group A and 50 in group B, were enrolled in the study. The patients' average age was 46.5 years, and the male-to-female ratio was 3.3:1. Demographic profiles, stone size, and baseline investigations were comparable between the 2 groups. Although the stone expulsion rate was significantly higher in the tadalafil group than in the tamsulosin group (53% vs. 47%), this difference was not statistically significant. There were no serious adverse effects. Conclusion: Tadalafil has a significantly higher stone expulsion rate than tamsulosin when used as a medical expulsive therapy for distal ureteral stones sized 5–10 mm. Both drugs are safe, effective, and well tolerated with minor side effects.

  266. Ayla TEKİN ORHA, Konuralp ILBAY and Cannur DALÇIK

    Aim: We aim to identify the anatomical changes, of the anatomical relevant region on the spinal canal, lumbar vertebrae and intervertebral disc to determine the causes of pain in patient with lumbar disc herniation. Methods: The heights of vertebral body and intervertebral disc, anterior-posterior transverse diameters of disc herniation and sagittal-transverse diameters of spinal canal were measured on the T2-weighted axial and sagittal MRI. Measured values, gender, age and visual analogue scale (VAS) value were statistically compared in two groups and in two genders. Results: A significant difference was found between the sagittal diameters of spinal canals of the two groups (p<0.001), while a significant difference was not found between genders (p=0.45). As for the relationships between the disc herniation diameters and VAS, it was determined that anterior-posterior diameters were statistically more significant in the increase of pain (p<0.001). Conclusion: We determined that LDH did not always coexist with spinal stenosis because patients with only LDH have mentioned a high value of VAS. Furthermore, by selecting only patient with L4-L5 LDH level we put forward that anatomic structures surrounding the disc herniation were not affected by the intervertebral disc degeneration. Furthermore sagittal diameter of spinal canal and anterior-posterior length of herniation were significant in the increase of pain in cases with LDH due to the risk of the dural sac remaining under central pressure.

  267. Daoudi, A., Rada, N., Etalbi, C., Draiss, G. and Bouskraoui, M.

    The occurrence of aseptic meningitis as a result of intravenous infusion of immunoglobulin is a rare complication (Approximately 1% of patients treated). We report our first case of a girl aged 9 years followed for hyper Ig M syndrome, having developed a febrile meningeal syndrome 7 hours after its first intravenous immunoglobulin infusion, The lumbar puncture showed pleocytosis (total cell counts: 90 cells) with 70% neutrophiles, cerebrospinal fluid(CSF) Chemistry was normal. CSF gram stain, culture for bacteria were negative. The outcome was favorable with analgesics. The first observations of aseptic meningitis after intravenous immunoglobulin have been reported since 1968 in both adults and children. The exact pathophysiology is not clear. Although rare, the medicinal origin, especially intravenous immunoglobulin of aseptic meningitis in children should be evoked in the absence of any other cause.

  268. Dr. Manjari Chaudhary, Dr. Ajay Bhoosreddy, Dr. Seema Bhoosreddy, Dr. Ashni Chatterjee, Dr. Shweta Varma, Dr. Shuddhodhan Gaikwad, Dr. Apurva Patil and Dr. Akanksha Bhandari

    Background: Various imaging modalities have been used by clinicians in the preoperative assessment of the third molar position. The aim of this study is to initiate and confirm a new classification for the inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) injury with respect to positional relation between the tooth and the inferior alveolar canal (IAC) using Cone Beam Computed tomography (CBCT). Material and Methods: Mandibular CBCT scans were assessed randomly and were reviewed retrospectively. Patients with complicated mandibular third molars cases were then selected for the study. Complicated mandibular third molars refer to those which met at least one of the following criteria i.e., partially or fully impacted, contact or interrupt the inferior alveolar canal, considerable obstruction of the longitudinal axis of adjacent tooth during teeth eruption. The new classification system was established based on: the positional relation of tooth to the IAC in the coronal/ axial reconstructions of the CBCT. Results: Of these cases, TYPE I: Buccal and Abutting (28%), TYPE II: Lingual and Abutting (48%), TYPE III: Root Apex and Abutting (14%) (When the nerve is <5mm from the root apex), TYPE IV: Intraradicular (10%). TYPE II was the most common type of classification (48%) while TYPE IV was the least common type (10%). Conclusions: The presented new classification system which is based on positional relation between the tooth and the IAC is proved to be applicable in detecting mandibular third molar with higher risk of IAN injury. Hence this will aid as a good guidance for the appropriate treatment design.

  269. Nitin Kasture

    Bioremediation is modern technique in remediation of pollution of environment. Now a days this technique is widely used for remediation of soil and water. According to literature surveysvarious microorganisms have the potential to degrade nitro-aromatic compounds, xenobiotics etc. The white rot fungi are found to excellent organisms for mineralization processes. The purpose of the study is to determine bioremediation potential for PNP by fungal strains. The fungal stains used for degradation assay are (i) Aspergillus flavus NCIM 650, (ii) Aspergillus oryzae NCIM 1212, (iii) Aspergillus niger NCIM 1025, (iv) Fusarium oxysporium NCIM 1008, (v) Rhizopusoryzae NCIM 997, (vi) Scleratiumrolfssi NCIM 1048 and (vii) some agriculturally important microbes including Aspergillus awamori, Trichoderma sp. About 100 ml of sterile MSG medium was supplemented with filter sterilized PNP at 50 ppm concentration was taken in Erlenmeyer flask. This medium was inoculated separately with above fungal strain and incubated on a rotary shaker (120 rpm) at room temperature. The flasks were monitored for 8 days for the disappearance of yellow colour of PNP. After 8 days, the each fungal culture was renioculated in fresh sterile MSG medium with 50 ppm PNP. After five repeated enrichment for 5 weeks, each flask was observed for disappearance of yellow colour.

  270. Daisy Happy and Prachi Janbandhu

    Effective oral hygiene is a crucial factor in maintaining good oral health, & thus, overall health. The regular & effective removal of dental plaque is important to prevent common oral diseases like gingivitis & periodontitiseffectuated by use of interdental aids in addition to toothbrush. Dentists play a major role in creating awareness about the importance of interdental aids & motivating patients to use them. This study aimed to evaluate the knowledge, attitude, self-reported practice & prescription pattern of interdental aids by dental students of Sinhgad Dental College and Hospital, Pune. Data was collected using a 22-item questionnaire from 200 dental students (undergraduate and post-graduate). Mean knowledge score was determined to be 2.27 out of 5. 100% correct responses were given by only 1% participants. 87% agreed that the routine use of dental floss is necessary for maintaining periodontal health. 74% reported that dental flossing is technique sensitive &time consuming. 19.5% respondents use other interdental aids like interdental brushes (11.5%) or toothpick (7%) occasionally. 81.5% participants reported that they prescribe interdental aids to their patients. 75% demonstrate the correct technique of using interdental aids. The overall knowledge was found to be below average & a greater emphasis is needed to improve it. A good knowledge base, attitude can positively influence good oral hygiene practices among themselves and the general population. Dentists should practice recommended oral self-care and act as role models.

  271. Dr. Lalit D Kapadia and Dr. Dhruti Basiya

    Background: This study is to identify major cause of morbidity in near miss cases and measures taken to reduce morbidity and gravid complications. Method: 100 case of obstetrics patients with severe morbidity who survived has taken to study the cause of morbidity and interventions they have been through. Result: 34% patients had eclampsia, sever pre eclampsia; 21% had Anemia, 25% had PPH, 8% had rupture uterus, 7% had CVS disease, 3% had renal disease, 2% had coagulation defect. 100% patients were given uterotonics and antibiotics prophylactically and therapeutically, 68% patients were given blood products, 34% had magnesium sulphate, 19% had laprotomy out of which 14 patients had hysterectomy. Conclusion: Preeclampsia, eclampsia are the most common while anemia and hemorrhage were second most common cause.

  272. Veda Hegde, Wasim Raja Mumtaz, Sufia Khan and Pravin Chandra, K. R.

    Aim: Lymph node morphology does reflect certain parameters of immune responses. The study was aimed to evaluate, compare, and correlate the morphological changes and the type of immune responses in paraffin embedded lymph node sections of patients diagnosed with metastatic and non-metastatic oral squamous cell carcinoma. Methods: This study constituted a total of 29 histopathologically proven metastatic and 31 non-metastatic cases obtained from 60 oral squamous cell carcinoma patients. These 60 cases yielded a total of 429 lymph node sections which were subjected to haematoxylin and eosin stain. All the 429 sections were analyzed for the type of immune response (cell mediated or humoral response) based on the morphological changes. Results: Data analysis using chi-square test yielded a highly significant result in immunological status in the lymph node sections of metastatic oral squamous cell carcinoma in contrast to non-metastatic oral squamous cell carcinoma. Conclusion: The study highlights the status of the immune system related to the prognosis of the patient and a comprehensive treatment protocol over the conventional methods of examination of lymph node. Thus the recent study concluded that the histopathological lymph node pattern may serve as a surrogate marker in predicting the metastasis and thus enhancing the survival of the patients.

  273. Dr. Sandeepa, N. C., Dr. Muhammed Ajmal, Safeyah Abdurrahman Alqarni and Mashael Khaled Al-Thobati

    Objective: Antibiotics are frequently prescribed in dentistry as a prophylaxis and/or for the management of infections in the oro-facial regions. It is known that indiscriminate usage of antibiotics often can lead to development of resistance and thus the topic is receiving a great deal of consideration in the literature. Most of the studies are conducted among dentist and was found that overuse and abuse of antibiotics are practiced. It is very important that dental students are cognizant and well-informed regarding antibiotics. The difficulties if identified during their undergraduate level can be used to improve their skill of prescription and thus avoid overuse of antibiotics in their future clinical set up. This research aim toassess the knowledge of dental undergraduates regarding the use of antibiotics in various clinical conditions, antibiotic prophylaxis and the problems encountered in writing the prescription. Method: Both male and female students of level 10, 11, and 12 students of King Khalid University –College of Dentistry were selected for the study. Questionnaire was used and the responses were analyzed. Results: Most common error faced during prescription was, not knowing the brand names and dosage. Only 40% students think that antibiotics have to be prescribed when there is evidence of systemic spread. 53.4% students consider antibiotics to prevent post-operative complications. 16.5% consider prescription when specific treatment has to be delayed and when there is patients’ expectation for a prescription. 18.3% consider antibiotic before any surgical procedure. 12.3% think that antibiotics have to be given in acute pulpitis and 28.5% believe that it has to be given in acute infection before drainage. 13.4% consider antibiotics in routine extractions. Satisfactory knowledge regarding the various situations where antibiotic prophylaxis is used was lacking. Majority think that there is need to conduct a workshop on rational use of antibiotics at University. Conclusion: Though majority have responded satisfactorily, there is a requirement for the development of prescribing guidelines and educational initiatives regarding sensible and right use of the antibiotics and has to be stressed to dental undergraduates within schools for refining the present scenario.

  274. Dr. Sandeep Rajan O, Dr. Jayakumar K, Dr. Ravindran Nair, Dr. Sobhana, C.R., Dr. Sarath S.S and Dr. Fasalulla.O

    Background: Zygoma is a prominent bone in face and most commonly injured during trauma. Sensory disturbance of the Infra Orbital region and a palpable fracture displacement of the Infra orbital margins are the typical clinical findings of zygomatic complex fracture. In most cases fracture lines involve the Infra Orbital foramen, canal, or fissure, therefore, fractures of the zygomatic complex are characterized by sensory neuropathy (specifically hypoesthesia) in the area of innervations of the Infra orbital nerve, both as a presenting symptom, and as a postoperative complication. Objectives: Our objectives of the study were to investigate sensory changes in the superior labial, lateral nasal, inferior palpebral branches of infra orbital nerve following zygomatic complex fractures by employing sensory testing over a 6-month period, to identify the most commonly involved branch of infra orbital nerve in zygomatic complex fracture and to document the pattern of sensory recovery in the study subjects. Patients & Methods: The study was carried out in ninety patients fulfilling the inclusion crtiteria were selected. In all patients the sensory changes in the superior labial, lateral nasal, inferior palpebral branches of infra orbital nerve following zygomatic complex fractures analyzed by employing sensory testing by means of mechanical detection threshold and reaction to pin prick, over a 6-month period and to identify the most commonly involved branch of infra orbital nerve in zygomatic complex fracture and its association with fracture severity and to document the pattern of sensory recovery in the study. Results: From our study we found that upper lip (73 cases out of 90 by mechanical method and 65 cases by pin prick test) is the most commonly involved area and hence superior labial branch is the most commonly involved branch in zygomatic complex fractures. All branches had significant recovery after 6 months. Study of pattern of recovery after treatment showed that there is no significant improvement in paresthesia of any branches of infra orbital nerve following closed reduction of zygomatic complex fracture. We had only two cases where open reduction was done and both did not recover from paresthesia

  275. Dr. Amit Kumar, Dr. Jha, V. N. and Dr. Nimisha

    Introduction: Acute febrile illness (fever of short duration 2-3 week) is a common presentation. This study is intended to know thrombocytopenia in patients of acute fever, its severity, cause and recovery. Aims and Objective: To clinically study thrombocytopenia in Aute Febrile Illness and the aetiology Material and Methods: The study was conducted on 100 patients who presented with fever of short duration in Darbhanga Medical College & hospital Results: Thrombocytopenia is very common in fever of short duration in all age groups ranging from 10 years to 80 years. Approx. 40 % patients have platelets between 50,000 to 1,00000 mm3. In 45 % patients cause was mostly viral fever (not dengue). In 30% enteric fever, 10% dengue fever, 8 % malaria and 7 % septicemia.> 98 % patients had good recovery. Conclusions: Thrombocytopenia is quite common in patients presenting with fever of acute onset (2-3 week duration) and the main cause is unknown not malaria, enteric fever or dengue.

  276. Konwar, B., Kalita, D., Sarma, K. K., Rao, G. D., Gogoi, D., Dutta, D. and Phukon, A.

    Six mixed breed dogs aged between seven to eight years were presented to the TVCC, CVSc & AH, CAU, Selesih, Aizawl, Mizoram with the history of anorexia, tenesmus, lethargy, dull and depressed with dribbling of foul smelling bloody urine for few days. Physical examination revealed slightly tensed abdomen with pale mucous membrane. Blood biochemical examination revealed significantly decreased haemoglobin, packed cell volume, total erythrocyte count, total protein and albumin with significantly elevated blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine and leukocytosis with neutrophilia. Lateral abdominal radiography revealed cranial displacement of urine filled urinary bladder with slightly enlarged prostate which descended from the pelvic cavity. Ultrasonography revealed loss of bi-lobed prostate appearance with presence of three anechoic cavities and parenchyma surrounding the cavity was slightly hypoechoic and heterogeneous which was diagnosed as prostatic cyst. Diffusely enlarged prostate with uniform echotexture, spherical in sagittal section and asymmetrical on transverse plane was diagnosed as prostatic hyperplasia.

  277. Ambaga, M. and Tumen-Ulzii, A.

    The accumulative capacity of erythrocyte membrane surroundings in relation to free protons, formed in the full 9 stepped cycle of proton conductance is one of more powerful factors influencing the antiobesity mechanism. The accumulation of protons inside erythrocyte membrane surroundings are strongly connected with all previous stages of transferring of protons within the full cycle of proton conductance, which conducted as follows as the second stage of proton conductance, where formed CO2 and the seventh stage of proton conductance, where formed metabolic water - H2O in the result of oxidation of protons by activated oxygens, after this have been occurred the reaction between CO2 and H2O with formation of H2CO3 and dissociation reaction withformation of HCO3. HCO3 formed during this reaction have been entered to the erythrocyte membrane surroundings, bearing some parts of protons, released from food substrates. In such way, protons released from food molecules passing all previous 7 stages of the full cycle of proton conductance have been created the preconditon of biosynthesis of fatty acids with participation of HADH, FADH2 (HADH + ATP = NADPH) formed during second stage of full cycle and reached to final 9-th stage as erythrocyte membrane surroundings. This explanation gives the new idea, that if we can succeeded to cause the controlled proton leakage from erythrocyte membrane surroundings, which thereby would lead to diminish the proton gradient in the intermembrane space of mitochondria and also diminish the following transfer of proton to matrix through ATP synthase (sixth stage) and to decrease the fatty acid synthesis owing to relatively shortage of reducing agent as NADPH.

  278. Umbeli, T., Awatif J Al Bahar, Salah Ismail, Rabaa Abd Alwahab, Murwan IO MRCOG, Ahmed Elmustafa and Najia A Algobara

    Background: Postoperative pain relief after caesarean section (CS) requires the balance between pain relief and side effects of the drug used or the procedure. Objective: To assess the role of post- operative analgesia using rectal diclofenac; and intra-muscular (I/M) pethidine; and their side effects in women delivered by cesarean section at Omdurman Maternity Hospital (OMH) 2017. Methods: This is a prospective cross-sectional hospital-based study conducted during the first six months of 2017. Women delivered by uneventful CS under spinalanaethesia (SA) were included in the study after an informed consent. Unless contra-indicated; all women received a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID); diclofenac sodium 75 mg, given rectally immediately after operation and repeated every eight hours during the first 24 hours or when needed. Women with contraindication for NSAID or when pain was persistent in spite of repeated NSAID; were given an opioid; pethidine or tramadol 100 mg intramuscularly (I/M). Women were assessed for blood pressure, pulse, respiratory rate and symptoms of pain, headache, post partum haemorrhage (PPH), nausea and vomiting. Data was collected by trained data collectors using a structured format. Results: A total of 15209 delivered in this hospital during six months, 9974 (65.6%) delivered vaginally and 5235 (34.4%) by CS. Elective CS were 2947 (56.3%) and emergency CS were 2288 (43.7%). Out of those delivered by CS, 4800 (91.7%) received diclofenac (vortex) and 435 (8.3%) received pethidine. There was no significant difference between the two groups in their socio- demographic characteristics or their pulse rate, blood pressure and respiratory rate (PV = 0.150). Nausea and vomiting were mild in both groups, whereas in diclofenac are less than pethidine (PV= 0.05), other side effects were not reported in either of the two groups. Patient’ satisfaction and hospital stay were almost the same in both groups. Conclusion: Postoperative Use of diclofenachas provided good analgesic effect, greaterpatient satisfaction, reduced consumption of opioids, less side effects and shorter hospital stay for women underwent cesarean section.

  279. Dr. Kirti Satish Dulani, Dr. Neeta Vijay Bhavsar, Dr. Sakshee Rahul Trivedi and Dr. Aarti Mangla

    Purpose: This is randomized, double blind, split mouth clinical study to evaluate the effectiveness of 6% ferric oxalate solution to prevent Root Sensitivity (RS) after periodontal flap surgery. Methods: 25 subjects requiring periodontal surgery in similar bilateral posteriors quadrants were evaluated for RS with tactile, hot and cold test using Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) at baseline and 1, 2, 4, 6 weeks after surgery. Randomization was done with coin flip method for test (6% ferric oxalate in 0.9% saline) or control (0.9% saline) solution for each patient. Solutions were applied to the exposed root surfaces for 1 minute during surgery. Data were analyzed by repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) for inter-group and paired t-test for intra-group comparisons. Results: The test solution significantly reduced RS to tactile, hot and cold stimuliand for more time period than control solution.Sensitivity reduced to 85%, 66% and 53% for tactile, cold and hot stimuli respectively with test solution.Subjects got maximum discomfort on control sites from cold stimulus followed by tactile and least to hot stimulus during 1 and 2 week following surgery. Both the sides showed a gradual reduction in mean VAS, reaching to baseline values at 6 weeks. Conclusion: The application of 6% ferric oxalate during periodontal flap surgery is a rapid and effective means of reducing RS after surgery. It can provide immediate relief to patient in a period when other agents will take longer time to act, thereby preventing discomfort from post-surgical RS.

  280. Dr. Mohamed Idris, Dr. Alvin Joseph, Dr. Nandakishore and Dr. Sudheer, K.A.

    Success of endodontic therapy depends upon combination of a three dimension fluid tight obturation along with adequate post endodontic restoration to make the pulpless teeth to function as an integral part of the dental arch. Post endodontic coronal restoration is important to prevent ingress of microorganisms into coronal pulp. When endodontically treated posterior teeth (with and without coronal coverage restorations) were compared, a significant increase in the clinical success was noted when cuspal coverage crowns were placed on maxillary and mandibular molars and premolars. Often, we come across an endodontically treated tooth with little or no clinical crown in routine clinical cases. In such cases, additional retention and support of the restoration are difficult to achieve. The Richmond crown can be a good treatment alternative for restoration of such teeth. This case report discusses on Richmond crown as a post endodontic restoration of a badly mutilated mandibular first molar tooth.

  281. Dr. Jyotsna Sharma, Dr. Dhawal Agrawal, Dr. Malhar Vyas, Dr. Parul Hans and Dr. Juhi Garg

    Objectives: To determine the prevalence of refractive error, color vision defects and squint in age group 6-16yr. Study Design and Setting: cross sectional study done in School of Mathura city. Study Period: September 25 th to 28th September 2017. Results: A total of 1000 students were subjected to eye check up, where a total of6-16years age group with (M:F ratio=0.97:1.Ocular morbidity was detected in 290(29%) ocular disorders. Out of 1000 students 246 had refractive error, the most common ocular morbidity which accounted to 24.6% of total was ref error and uncorrected ref error was in 17.7%, followed by 2.7% squint cases,1.7% of colour vision defective cases Conclusion: This study shows the recent prevalence of most common ocular morbidities which include refractive error, were very high which demands yearly school eye check up to be made compulsory to improve the quality of eye-sight.

  282. Angirekula Saseekala, Sujatha, C., Lalitsiri Atti, Srihari Atti and Madhavi Latha, N.

    Background: Mobile learning is a type of Technology of learning with portable hand held electronic devices such as Tablet, computers, net-books and digital readers to provide a myriad of opportunities to support learning and performance both inside and outside the class rooms. Aim: The study was aimed to assess and evaluate the use of mobile learning technology as an educational tool among the paramedical students of Biochemistry. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted among 100 paramedical students attending Biochemistry department of Sri Venkateswara Medical College (Govt.), Tirupathi, Andhra Pradesh with a method of 9 point Mobile Learning questionnaire issued to all the students after obtaining consent. Data was collected and analysed by simple statistical methods. Results: This study showed a Sex distribution ratio of males 48 (48%) and Females 52 (52%). 31(31%) were I yr BPT students, 25(25%) were II yr BSc MLT, 21(21%) were III yr BSc MLT, 17(17%) were Ist yr DMLT and 6 (06%) were In-Service Lab Technicians and Lab Attendant Trainees. 20 (65%) BPT, 10 (40%) II BSc.MLT, 13(62%) III BSc.MLT and 7(41%) I DMLT students were using m-learning, whereas 11(35%) BPT, 15(60%) II BSc.MLT, 08(38%) III BSc.MLT, 10(59%) and I Yr DMLT students were not using m-learning. Among in-service trainees none of them were using m-learning. On the whole 50 (50%) were using smart devices for M-learning as an educational tool. Remaining 50 (50%) could not use due to lack of internet access, lack of technical knowledge and cost of instrument etc. Conclusion: This study concludes that 50% of the paramedical students used smart devices for learning and their mobile learning capabilities will expand with the introduction of smaller sophisticated and powerful gadgets capable of delivering data anywhere at any time in promoting the access and quality of education.

  283. Desika, R., Rajajeyakumar, M., Abinavi, S., Thanya, A., Varshaa, B., Lavanisha, K. and Suganthi, D.

    Background: Yoga produces consistent physiological changes and have sound scientific basis.Practice of Pranayam has been known to modulate cardiac autonomic status during follicular and late luteal phases of menstrual cycle due to fluctuations of serum estrogen and progesterone levels. Aims and Objectives: To study the impact of Nadishuddhi pranayama on perceived stress and vasomotor tone in the different of Phase menstrual cycle before and at the end of study period among young adult females. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out in 66medical students aged between 17–25 years. They were selected by using simple random sampling and informed consent was obtained. A pretested questionnaire perceived stress scale was used to gather the research information. In control group, there was no significant difference in the BMI, WHR, HR, SBP and DBP of both phases of menstrual cycle at the beginning and end of the study period. Results: In yoga group, there was significant difference (p≤0.05) in the BMI, WHR, HR, SBP and DBP of both phases of menstrual cycle at the beginning and end of the study period compare with control group. After yoga, there was significant decreased stress in both phase of study group as compared to control group. Conclusion: However, slow type of pranayama increased parasympathetic activity during follicular phase and decreased sympathetic activity in secretory phase. As a result, decreased stress level of the individual.

  284. Sani Usman Gurowa (PhD) and Usman Muhammad Abdulwahab

    This paper aims to appraise the pattern of government spending in Nigeria using a time series analysis to compare the nature of government spending between the Pre-Democratic era (between 1984 to 1998) and Democratic era (between 1999 to 2013), with a comprehensive approach and analytical outlook. The study employs secondary data and the data were analysed using the T-test model to test the statistical significance of the hypothesis. The analyses however revealed that public spending in Nigeria is significantly to a particular spectrum of activity, that isrecurrent expenditure, under both eras, this, of course is not good for economic growth. In the area of sectoral allocation of recurrent expenditure, emphasis has been on transfer payment and general administration. The neglect sectors are social and community services and economic services.The study, however, suggests that they should be paradigm shift from the current pattern of government spending(where recurrent spending had been favoured) to capital spending, and that, the on-going fiscal reforms should be made more effective to establish a prudent government sector with enhanced efficiency and productivity.

  285. Dr. Sushma Shukla

    A countries economic growth depends on many factors like Natural resources, human resources, physical capital, technological development, and social and political factors. This paper is investing the role of human capital in the economic growth of India. This study investigates the relationship between the human capital and economic growth in India from -1995 to 2014, Healthcare expenditure has been used as a proxy variable for human capital. This research paper is based on multiple linear regression models, and neo classical Solow production function. This study discovered that there is a strong positive relationship between human capital and economic growth, other variable used in the study Gross capital formation, and secondary School enrollment, also effecting the economic growth of India positively. This study found that secondary School enrollment has the greatest impact on India’s GDP growth. This study concludes that to achieve long-term sustained economic growth policy makers should consider allocating the financial resources towards improving India's human capital, which can be achieved by increased health care expenditure and more funding towards education. India's population can be a mean of economic growth, not a hurdle.

  286. Mahjabeen

    The aim of the study is to understand the influence of internet usage and dependency on the psychosocial well-being of college students. The samples comprised of 1200 college students belonging to the age group of 17-21 years. Of the 1200, 600 belonged to government colleges and 600 were from private colleges. To assess the student’s internet usage, social interaction, mental well-being and loneliness questionnaires were used namely, ‘The Young People’s Internet Usage’ Questionnaire by Child Exploitation and Online Protection (CEOP) Centre, UK, Mental, physical and spiritual Well-Being Scale (MPS Scale) by Vella-Brodrick and Allen (1995) and UCLA Loneliness Scale developed by Russell (1996). Descriptive and inferential statistics were computed using SPSS to analyse the data collected. The findings of the present study report better psychological well-being among the female participants. In addition, private college students were found to have increased social interaction than the government college students. Whereas, the male students belonging to private colleges were found to be lonelier. Besides, a significant relationship was found between internet usage and psychological well-being and social interaction. Furthermore, it was found that the type of college, gender, education of mother, well-being and social interaction contributed negatively to the internet usage of the college students. Whereas, loneliness, internet dependency, education of father and family’s monthly income contributed positively to the internet usage thereby indicating that higher the internet usage, higher the internet dependency and loneliness and lower the psychological well-being and social interaction among the college students.

  287. Alicia Uribe Taborda and Nancy Caicedo Caicedo

    This article aims to present some specific considerations about the guarantee in terms of participation offered to victims of armed conflict in Colombia. This is understood as a right that must radiate all public policy of victims and restitution of land Contained in Law 1448 of 201, its regulatory decree and the other rules that complement it. And from such irradiation to make visible the positive actions that account for the development, implementation and follow-up that is carried out, given that for these kalends the aforementioned law is about to fulfill six (6) years of having been sanctioned for a period Of ten (10) years.

  288. Öğr. Gör. Tayfun KARA

    The need for security has been one of the most basic needs of the human being since its existence. Society’s security and peace has been tried to be protected and guaranteed by creating military and similar organizations through the formation of cities and states since the first societies. Protecting citizens against internal and external threats is among the major basic tasks of the state. These powers are also provided by security forces on behalf of the state. The fact that many states after the 1st World War are armed rapidly inside and outside and the technological development has been mostly seen in the war industry, is a clear indication that a new war will take place in near future. The concept of private security has developed very rapidly as an inevitable need, especially as the law enforcers that use the state authority against the changing and developing society especially after the Second War have been inadequate to meet the needs, in particular the internal security needs, of the society, resulting in very heavy costs for the states. In the study, levels of the organizational commitment and meaning of work, of the private security personnel working in stadiums were examined according to various variables. The study is important as it is the first work carried out in this field and draws attention to that field. In recent years, we see that negative attitudes and behaviors towards organizational system and work become more common in organizations. In such environment it is becoming increasingly difficult for employees to increase their sense of commitment for the organization and work. On the one hand, there is a need for improving the employees’ sense of organizational commitment and on the other hand, for revealing and solving the anti-productivity behaviors that affect their business performance. One of the most important factors for enabling organizations to carry on their activities effectively is the presence of employees who are highly committed to their organization. Employees with high organizational commitment adopt the goals and values of their organizations, make great efforts for the organization and have more desire to stay in the organization. Numerous researches show that the organizational commitment of the employees is effective in maintaining and developing the existence of the organizations. Accordingly, the relationship between the levels of organizational commitment and meaning of work for the private security personnel working in stadiums was studied using “Three-Dimensional Organizational Commitment Scale” developed by Allen and Meyer, in which the dimensions “affective commitment”, “continuance commitment”, and “normative commitment” are contained. In the study, affective commitment, one of three dimensions used to investigate the organizational commitment, refers to an emotional orientation showing that the individuals are identified with their organization, are happy for being a member of the organization and are strongly committed to the organization; continuance commitment implies that the individual will continue to be a member of the organization due to the costs that would arise if the individual leaves the organization and/or due to the lack of alternative job opportunities; and normative commitment refers to the commitment of individuals which they show because of necessity feeling due to moral obligation sense. Another scale used in this study is Scale for Meaning of Work. This scale is a three-dimensional measurement tool consisting of 10 items, which has been developed by Stegger et al. (2012). These dimensions are Positive meaning, the meaning added by work and High motivation. The scale is a 5-point Likert scale, the rating of which is as follows: “1” for Totally Disagree, “2” for disagree, “3” for Neutral, “4” for Agree and “5” for Totally Agree.

  289. Indrani P Bora and Arundhati Baruah

    Iodine is one of the most important essential trace elements not only for plant but for human being and animal also. Plant derive iodine from soil but animal kingdom uptake it through food crops. North eastern region of India especially Assam is identified as iodine deficient state. It has been divided in six agro-climatic zones on basis of rainfall, temperature, humidity and soil. Three sites from each zone were selected for the study. The present investigation was carried out to evaluate total and available iodine content in soil and to explore the accumulation of iodine in edible part of Kharif and Rabi crops under agroforestry in different zones. Highest iodine content in soil was recorded in upper Brahmaputra valley (3.24 mg kg-1) followed by lower Brahmaputra valley (2.84 mg kg-1). Among the Kharif crops, highest iodine content was found in lady’s finger (7.09 mg kg-1) while in Rabi crops it was recorded in cabbage (11.10 mg kg-1). Iodine content was found comparatively more in Rabi crops than Kharif crops. Least amount of iodine content was recorded in crops as well as soil in hill zone of Assam. Foliar vegetable was found to have more iodine accumulating capability than fruit vegetables. Observation concluded that uptake of iodine by crop dependent on the availability of iodine content in soil.

  290. Tri Sulistyaningsih, Purnawan D. Negara, Jainuri, Hevi Kurnia Hardini and Dan Suwarta

    This research investigates the implementation of integrative tourism policy base on agro-tourism and fungtion in strengthening of tourism stakeholder in City of Batu Malang East Java Indonesia. An integrative policy in the development of tourism is a very important variable in the development of a city. Development program of the tourism sector, based on the Medium Term Development Plan (RPJMD) 2012-2017 Batu, Batu directed as a center for international tourism based organic farming. Location of Batu located in the mountainous region, making it very feasible as agro tourist area.The results of this study, found that the development of agro-tourism visitors increased more than 300% on 2016. However, this increase was not accompanied by the maintenance of conservation land. Implementation of tourism development is still partial and less integrated among sectors. This research question is how the local government response to the integrative policies in the development of agro-tourism sector in the city. How local governments understood and implemented an integrated policy in the development of agro-tourism sector. The research focus in Batu City in East Java Indonesia. The research method used in this study is a qualitative method. The data collecting through observation, depth interview, Focus Group Discussion (FGD), and the use of secondary data. The conclusion of this study is that regulation, peasant, peasant community, content of regulation, and integrity affect the responsiveness of local government in the development of based on agro-tourism. Integrative policy can be effective with the engagement between the government sector, policy content, policy instruments, and community participation.

  291. Dr. Neha Bansal

    With rapid urbanization, the risk of disasters is increasing as more people and assets locate in areas of high risk. For instance, more than half of the world’s large cities, with populations ranging from 2 to 15 million, are located in areas of high earthquake risk. The impact of Disasters is even more pounding in these high risk areas. Disasters not only erode and destroy years of development gains, destroy assets, kill people and increase poverty but impact GDP directly especially in more vulnerable urban areas. Therefore we need a long term strategy for disaster management than merely emergency management. Researchers have indicated that urban resilience is most significant and impactful method for reducing growing levels of disaster risk in long run. Resilience is also directly linked with sustainability. Urban Resilience is the capacity of individuals, communities, institutions, businesses, and systems within a city to survive, adapt, and grow no matter what kinds of chronic stresses and acute shocks they experience. Thus an urban resilient citizen is disaster resilient and more sustainable over the others. This paper aims at identifying the concept of urban resilience to combat long term disaster management in urban areas. Some best practices taken up for study here include-guidance for measuring disaster resilience indicated in Twigg’s (2009) ‘characteristics of resilience’ framework; Emergency Capacity Building Project (2013) indicated in ‘Toward Resilience: A Guide to Disaster Risk Reduction and Climate Change Adaptation’; DFID’s Multi-Hazard Risk Assessment Framework; Oxfam GB’s Multidimensional Approach for Measuring Resilience; Sendai Framework-2015; Hyogo framework 2005. We further try to identify the challenges in urban resilience and its further scope of development. With time, the disaster resilience methods have also adapted to smart techniques. We also try to identify some of these here.

  292. Dr. Chaudhary, A. P.

    India is a agrarian country, having 2.4% of land resources, 4.0% of water resources feeding 11.6.% of livestock population and producing 18.5% milk of the world. The fact is that India is highest milk producer (155.50 million tonnes) of the world as well as of goat milk and second-largest producer of chevon in the world, even though country is second in goat population after China. In-spite of these facts, productivity of individual animal is poor, have immense scope of economic gains, if appropriate technological and marketing interventions are applied in the country for rearing these animals (Anonymous, 2016). The increase of goat population from 281.82 million in 1911 (British India) to 1351.73 million in 2012 (India) shows the peoples preference of rearing the species, while there are only 26.97% pure breeds of goats and rest of the population is either graded or non descript, which shall be taken into consideration for future breeding policy in the country. Similarly, average productivity of goat is only 0.45 lit per goat per year, while present productivity of goat is increased 1.5 times over a period of 74 years. However, production potential of selected goat breeds in India is significantly higher (1.06 to 2.50 kg per day) than national average, realized that still we have high potential animals in the country, which shall be exploited for increasing the productivity of the species.

  293. Patil, N. A., Suryawanshi, D. S., Shelke, G. B.

    Sex ratio is the one of the good indicator or a way to know the women status in the society and even socio-economic conditions of a region. If sex ratio of an area is under stood then we can easily plan and comprehend demographic dynamism in terms of mortality, migration, economic characteristics, marital status etc. Sex ratio is a term used to define number of females per 1000 males. In this paper the present study reveals the tahsil wise sex ratio in the study region during 1901-2011. It has studied on the basis census of 1901-2011.The present paper deals with trend in sex ratio as well as sex differential in decadal viz 1901 to 2011. The sex ratio has large variation from one tahsil to another tahsil in the study region. The study region has overall sex ratio of 932 females per 1000 males. It has increased from 932 to 936 during last decade. Sex ratio in the study area has declined over the period 1901-2001 from 968 to 932. To explain the consistently decreasing trend of sex ratio, some of the common reasons put forward are son preference, neglect of girl child resulting in higher mortality at younger age. Tables, graphs and maps are used to explain the change in sex ratio over the period in the study region.

  294. Olaoye, Samuel, A., Seddon, Wilfred Ibi, Daniel-Adebayo Olugbenga And Olurin, Oluwatoyosi

    The importance of Internal Audit in an organisation cannot be over emphasised. Decisions made by organisations are very crucial to the progress of the organisations. Due to lack of necessary internal audit procedures, organisations have become ineffective and Unprofitable. In the light of this problem, this study examined, the role of internal audit in enhancing transparency in public firms in Nigeria. The population of this study consists of the staffs of five selected public firms listed in Nigeria stock Exchange. The data for this research were gotten from questionnaires administered and collected from 50 respondents. Data generated for the study were analysed andtranslated using frequencies and percentages. The hypotheses were tested using regression analysis at 5 per cent level of significance (0.05). The outcome of the analysis showed that Internal Audit has positive and significant effect on Fraud prevention in Nigeria Public Firms.The R2of 0.554 indicates that 55.4% of the variations in fraud prevention are due to internal audit. From the result, Internal Audit also has positive and significant effect on Firm Credibility in Nigeria Public Firms. The R2 of 0.478 indicates that47.8% of the variations in Firm Credibility are due to Internal Audit. Finally, the result indicated that internal audit has a positive and significanton Corporate Governance in Nigeria Public Firms. Based on the findings, it was concluded that internal audit has a great role to play in enhancing transparency in Nigeria public firms. We then recommend that proper internal audit department must be established and that management of organizations should co-operate with internal audit staff to prevent fraud and increase the credibility of the organizations.

  295. Molly Chaturvedi

    Around the world, four billion people lives in poverty and marketing firms are still struggling to turn them into customers. For the past decade, business visionaries have argued that these people, dubbed the “Base of the Pyramid”, make up an enormous, untapped market. Some of the world's biggest, savviest corporations have aimed to address their basic needs — by selling them everything from clean water to electricity and from FMCG to consumer durables. “Improving the lives of billions of people at the bottom of the economic pyramid is a noble endeavor. It can also be a lucrative one. Fast pace of technology advanced every sphere of social, economic, political cultural life, produce, reduce costs, distribute, and expect higher profits. The focus is on tapping the rural markets. Urban markets have saturated lied to look rural markets. This paper presents a review of rural markets‟ environment, Problems and strategies in India. Rural marketing has become the latest mantra of most corporate even MNCs are eyeing rural markets to capture the large Indian market. This throws an open ground challenge to the marketers in a country with multi-cultural, multi-lingual varsity. This paper is an attempt to provide some mettle solutions to these challenges as it studies and follows some successful rural marketing strategies of modern times.

  296. Leorna Marisel, A., Pantuhan Guillermo, P., Pahm Sandra Joy, P., and Castillo-Israel Katherine Ann, T.

    Makapuno binagol, a Philippine sweet dessert product, was processed using mature makapuno (VMAC5 variety). Meat from mature makapuno was initially shredded and steamed for 15 minutes. Refined, brown and muscovado sugar at 30%, 40% and 50% concentrations by weight were added to makapuno then mixed and soaked for 24 hrs before cooking. Finally, the cooked makapuno meat were packed inside coconut shell, sealed and sterilized at 15 psi for 15 min. The physicochemical, sensory and microbial properties of the makapuno binagol were evaluated using color and total soluble solids (TSS), 9-point Hedonic scale, and the total plate count. Results showed that the color and total soluble solids (TSS) of the product were affected by the types of sugar used, with the makapuno cooked in refined sugar having the lightest color and highest TSS. Sensory evaluation revealed that color and aroma acceptability were affected by neither types nor levels of sugar. Texture and general acceptability were affected by the sugar level only and the sweetness by both factors. General acceptability had strong positive correlations with all attributes, with aroma having the strongest correlation, followed by sweetness, texture and color; yet, color acceptability had no correlation with measured color values. The product developed was microbiologically safe (<105 CFU/g) after one month storage at room temperature.

  297. Dr. Kadjo Koutou

    Dans cette recherche, nous nous sommes proposé de faire une étude de cas et de vérifier si les tresses sont porteuses de signes graphiques de symbolisme et de langage. En effet, les tresses sont une expression dans leur espace d’évolution et de transmission de symboles empreints de richesse, d’identité communautaire et de valeur culturelle indéniable. Les tresses sont un signe de reconnaissance individuelle et collective d’un groupe social depuis les temps anciens, en passant par ceux contemporains, jusqu’à nos jours. Elles représentent aussides codes définis par des signes sémiologiques, communicatifs, perceptifs lors des manifestations socio-culturelles. Elles sont également des symboles qui s’articulent autour des rites, et des idéologies traditionnelles africaines. L’objectif visé est de souligner les différents aspects du langage de l’art capillaire à Abidjan.

  298. GOBA Boliga Zéphirin, M. and Dr. ZADY Casimir

    L’étude a pour objectif d’analyser les impacts des conditions de détention sur les droits des détenus à la Maison d’Arrêt et de correction d’Abidjan (MACA). Cette recherche de type empirique reposant sur la méthode phénoménologique et a utilisé la recherche documentaire, l’observation non participante l’entretien et les analyses qualitative et quantitative comme méthodologie de recherche. Les résultats l’enquête révèlent qu’il y a un dysfonctionnement dans l’application des textes juridiques régissant le milieu carcéral. Lequel favorise la violence à la MACA du fait de l’impunité dont semble jouir certains détenus et autres gardes pénitentiaires, du manque de moyens et de la méconnaissance des textes juridiques. Il ressort également que la corruption en milieu carcéral génère la violence, les trafics illicites et l’inapplication des textes et de la loi. Ces indicateurs sont un frein au droit des détenus. Enfin, la surpopulation constitue une violation flagrante des droits des détenus. L’étude propose une sensibilisation des acteurs du milieu carcéral à la connaissance des textes et la mise en place des dispositifs de sécurité pour mieux protéger les détenus qui en ont droit.

  299. I Gede Agus Kurniawan

    In Indonesia, legal certainty is still becoming the main concern of the judges as the law enforcers. Actually, the purpose of law is not merely on legal certainty but also how to reach justice and usefulness for the justice seekers. This article analyses the legal issues on the relevance of the dynamics of thoughts by Karl Popper and Satjipto Rahardjo in the context of law enforcement in Indonesia’s judiciary practice and the development model of Indonesian judiciary practice based on Karl Popper’s theory and Satjipto Rahardjo’s progressivity of meaning. This article employs normative legal research. The results show that the dynamics of Karl Popper's thought and Satjipto Rahardjo's progressive legal concept are relevant to law enforcement in Indonesia’s judiciary practice as well as for the future of judiciary practice in Indonesia, a holistic pre-understanding of law and legal theory as one layer of law for law enforcement is urgently needed.

  300. Diksha Sharma and Dr. Surinderjeet Kaur

    The pervasion of internet technology in every nook and corner of urban as well as rural areas has lead to advent of online shopping stores. The on-line shopping is very popular these days in India because of comfort, availability of wider choice, discounted rates, easy mode of payment, easy delivery and return facilities. The present study was undertaken with the objectives to assess the online shopping practices of selected women of Ludhiana city, to gain an insight into the factors contributing to online shopping and preferred products for online purchase. The study was conducted in Ludhiana district of Punjab. Five localities viz; Punjab Agricultural University Campus, Sarabha Nagar, Kitchlu Nagar, Bhai Randhir Singh Nagar and Model town were selected purposively. The findings of the study revealed that the most influencing factor for online shopping was convenience, followed by discount/offers, wider choice, easy delivery of products and easy return system. Respondents mainly purchased small items of their personal use but they were still hesitant to shop online for major household items. Thus, total 175 women constituted the sample for the study. From each of selected locality, 35 households having internet connection and experience of online shopping were selected through snow ball sampling technique.

  301. Maya Raveendran and Dr. J. Nagaraj

    Education is emphasized as a significant factor in women empowerment because it helps them to react to the challenges, to tackle their traditional role and change their lives. Women’s education plays a very significant role in the growth and development of the country. The growth of women is largely determined by the social and economic factors which are highly influenced by the literacy and educational development. Empowerment of women means to enhance the women with power to make her decision or choice in all aspects like social, economic and political aspects through ensuring equality. Though various measures are been taken by the government in empowering the women, its outcomes are not been measures mostly. Kudumbashree, a community organization of Neighborhood Groups is one such programme in Kerala which strives towards women empowerment. This study tries to evaluate the impact of educational on the empowerment of rural people under Kudumbashree (NHG) scheme.

  302. Vithyanandhan, S. and Dr. Muthukumar, P. K.

    Autism is a multifaceted neurobehavioral state that includes impairment in social interaction and developmental stages combined with repetitive and rigid behaviours. Because of the range of symptoms, this condition is now called autism spectrum disorder. Autism spectrum disorder ranges from normal handicap to severe disability which may require special care. Thus the parents who are taking care of children with autism have to face lots of practical difficulties and challenges. This may put them in stress, depression, anxiety and other issues if they are not properly addressed to manage the problem. If this is the condition then their quality of life is a question to be answer. Thus this study focused on their quality of life and various measures to combat with the problems in taking care of their children were also discussed.

  303. Dhore R.K. and Undal V.S.

    Plants are useful for treating a variety of diseases of man and also animals. The large no veterinary medicinal plants are found in Akola District of Maharashtra. The plant diversity of Akola district is rich and the tribal people and other depend on veterinary plants used for the treatment for different domesticated animals. Akola district is region of Amravati Division of Maharashtra state. The report focused ethano-veterinary information on 26 medicinal plants species belonging to 20 family, documented using local practitioners. The information is presented through an assessment, meeting, interview and field job during numerous field visits. Highest (3) plant species were using from Cucurbitaceae family of the area by villagers. It reported that majority of herbs species are more (35%) utilizing as compared to tree (34%), climber (23%) and shrubs (8%). Concerned scientific names along with their vernacular name, family, part used and specific disease/disorder cured by medicinal plants of the study area have been reported in the paper. Investigation indicated that leaves 36%, root 29%, stem and bark 9%, flower 7%, seed 4%, fruit, pod and latex 2% plant as most preferred remedial purpose. Out of 41 total ailment/ diseases preliminary recorded from entire Akola district with fever, dysentery, infections were the extensive occurrence. As in Indian agriculture, livestock is playing key role in the farmer’s existence, therefore conservation and cultivation of therapeutic plants is essential for sustaining the ethno-veterinary medicinal and cultural resource of mankind.

  304. Sudipta Paul

    The Earth is an oblate spheroid rather than a perfect sphere due to the equatorial bulge because of Earth’s rotation around its axis. The Earth's terrain varies greatly but on a global scale the deviations in local topography are small compared to the Earth's radius. If we consider the Earth as a smooth sphere, as it appears from the space, ignoring the ups and downs of the terrain, what would the direction of movement of a person or an object moving towards the horizon on the Earth’s surface be – upwards, downwards or both?

  305. Joy A. Ogam and Bernard Nassiuma

    Introduction: This study examined the influence of decision making stage on adoption of hydroponic technology in the implementation of dairy farming projects in Kajiado County, Kenya. The focus of this study was on how the use of hydroponic technology for fodder production enhanced dairy farmers’ productivity and income levels. Material and Methods: A sample of 110 respondents was selected using simple random sampling technique (Isinya, Loitokitok and Ngong) divisions in Kajiado County. Participants were dairy farmers practising zero grazing. Semi-structured questionnaires were used to collect primary data. Correlation analysis and Regression analysis using Ordinary Least Squares were used to analyse data. Results: The findings of this study show that decison making stage had no influence on adoption of hydroponic technology in the implementation of dairy farming projects in Kajiado County. Conclusion: The study concludes that capacity development for dairy farmers and design of suitable public policies on hydroponic technology can enhance hydroponic technology adoption.

  306. Dr. S. Chelliah

    This is an attempt to lay focus on the features of Robert Frost’s poetry especially blending of realism and humanism as marked features of his poetry with a focus on a sympathetic blending of Man and Nature in his poetic realm, bringing home the point that Nature has been a rich ingredient in literature ever since man learnt to speak and write and all objects of nature like man, bird, beast, trees, flowers and all that man noticed around enveloped in a mysterious irresistible charm taking good shelter in the feelings and language outpourings of man about which Robert Frost has described in detail as an outstanding nature poet and an adept in shaping his art and outlook. It clearly reveals how Frost as a serious artist by his virtual dedication of his life to poetry, he has proved himself to be a representative and embodiment of the American literary imagination probing deeply into the source of his poetic gift so as to nourish many layers of meaning at the surface level.

  307. Umar Said, Hary Yuswadi, Sasongko, Akhmad Toha and Zarah Puspitaningtyas

    Background: The change of policy direction of vocational education development needs to be directed toward the transformation of human resource quality, so as to increase the competitiveness in the labor sector. Aim: This study aims to find out how the contribution of Vocational High School in improving the quality of human resources and the partiality of the government in Situbondo District, East Java Province, Indonesia. Methods: The analysis was done by using qualitative descriptive method. Results: The results of the analysis show that: 1) the high enthusiasm of students to attend school in Vocational High School, not accompanied by the readiness of most Vocational High School in Situbondo District in preparing facilities and infrastructure as well as competent educators, thus impacting the achievement of the objective of increasing the resources students are less than optimal, 2) the government's partiality in the management and development of Vocational High School is not optimal, it is reflected in the unavailability of macro policy in the form of “Peraturan Daerah” in the management and development of Vocational High School. The micro policy undertaken by the relevant agencies is also not optimal and professional in implementation, it is reflected from the inability of the education office to innovate in the guidance of Vocational High School.

  308. Abhishek Venkteshwar and Dr. Uma Warrier

    Purpose: Research in the field ofgender studieshave become a dynamic study area over the past few decades and is likely to become even more so as the importance of gender equality is rapidly gaining momentum. Therefore understanding gender differences will be viewed as increasingly important. India has been regarded as the youngest country in the world by the UN as it has the world’s second largest population. However there are only 940 females for every 1000 males (census 2011) This clearly indicates that there is a discrimination .Gender difference is one of the most neglected component in the Indian education system due to the complexity in its computation. Gender shapes an individual’s personality, measured by big 5 personality traits of an individual (Openness to experience, Conscientiousness, Extraversion, Agreeableness and Neuroticism) and controls the behavior of the person which has a strong relationship with the academic performance.This article aims at examining the relationship between Emotional Intelligence and gender of net generation students.

  309. Sridevi, E. and Dr. Ranjit, L.

    Study on mental health has become the need of the hour as percent of youngster affected by it is increasing due to unnoticed and inappropriate treatments. Thus this study was carried out to known the level of mental health of the adolescent and the factors influence it. The findings reveals that moderate to high level of mental health was found among the adolescents and emotional stability was found to be the significant and foremost influencing factor of mental health.

  310. Momanyi Marcella

    Studies have shown that the greatest problem school administrators’ encounter today is “time poverty.” There is public concern on the use of allocated school time in Kenya. Teachers use out of class hours during holidays, weekends, morning and evening preps and physical education lessons to cover the syllabus. The teachers’ argue that the syllabus is overloaded to be covered within the allocated time but the Ministry of Education reiterates that the school time is adequate. Both parties exhibit conflicting intellectual captivity and need decolonization of mind or attitude; to critically examine, deconstruct and update their reasoning, and reconstruct it with appropriate alternatives. It is against this background that a study was conducted to find out the principals’ effectiveness on time management in secondary schools in Nyamira County, Kenya. This study was guided by the following research questions. To what extent do principals perform effectively their roles of time management in schools? What are activities contribute to instructional time wastage in your school? What strategies can be put in place to curb time wasters? Convergent Parallel Mixed Design guided the study. The sample size was 200 teachers and 400 students. Data collection Instruments were questionnaires, Interview guide and Focus Group discussions. The instruments were validated and pilot tested. Key findings showed that most of instructional time was wasted in non academic activities such as annual teachers’ national strike, sending students home for fees, delays in assembly, teacher and student tardiness, procrastination among others. The study concluded that allocated time was adequate but not utilized well. The researcher recommended that principals should organize workshops to equip teachers and students on time management skills.

  311. Eric AGBESSI K.G., Mouhameth CAMARA, Moumouni OUEDRAOGO, Hoinsoudé SEGNIAGBETO, Mariano B. HOUNGBEDJI and André T. KABRE

    Due to the increasing pressure exerted on Protected Areas in Togo by neighboring populations, the fauna and its habitat are constantly threatened. To sustainably manage the natural potential of the complex, a thorough knowledge of the state of conservation of resources such as non-human primates appears necessary. Indeed, the numbers and distribution of non-human primates are true indicators of wildlife conservation in that their poaching is evidence of the scarcity of game because they are rarely targeted by hunters and poachers. The purpose of this study is to present the situation on the diversity of non-human primates that the complex contains, as well as the forms and scale of the threats to which they are subjected. Six areas have been identified in which two approaches have been developed: (i) interviews of local residents, hunters, farmers and water and forest officials with a view to obtaining information on the status of primates and their coexistence with local residents (ii) inventory with geolocalization of the studied populations. The data collected were processed by Ms Excel 2013, software R version 3.1.3, and free software Qgis 2.14 for mapping. A total of 391 individuals belonging to six (6) species were counted over a distance of 250.14 km for 212.5 hours in both parts of the complex, the three main ones being Chlorocebus aethiops tantalus (vervet), Erythrocebus patas (the patas), Cercopithecus mona (the mone). The outcomes of this study show that poaching is the primary cause of declines in populations of non-human primates. Its magnitude reflects a strong human pressure on the non-human primates studied, a sign of difficulties experienced by hunters and poachers in finding other types of game. This is followed by the destruction and disruption of habitats through agriculture, transhumance and logging. As a result, non-human primates in the protected area complex will be in real danger of extinction if appropriate conservation action is not taken in time.

  312. Emmanuel Kakaaga Byaruhanga, Momanyi Marcella and Dagobert Kabendera

    This study investigated influence of working conditions on teachers’ Job performance in public primary schools. Ugandans have often experienced teachers’ massive industrial action, amidst declining of their professional conduct in schools characterised by teachers’ poor time management, inadequate preparations, syllabus coverage and absenteeism. The study was guided by Convergent parallel mixed methods design specifically cross-section survey and phenomenological designs. Participants were sampled using both probability and non-probability sampling procedures. The sample size was 165 teachers, 14 class teachers, 15 head teachers, one district education officer and one district inspector of schools. Research instruments used to collect data were questionnaires, in-depth interview guide, and Focus Group Discussion Guide. These were subjected to content and face validity. Cronbach alpha tested reliability for Likert scale items and yielded a coefficient of 0.897. Descriptive statistics including frequencies and percentages summarized quantitative data. Inferential statistics ANOVA tested hypothesis. Qualitative data was organised into codes and analytical concepts and presented in verbatim and narratives. Key findings revealed availability of reference materials and textbooks facilitated teaching in lower classes. Lack of staff quarters, textbooks and inadequate physical structures hindered teaching and learning processes. The study recommends the government to increase Capitation Grant for school infrastructure. School administration should encourage formation of alumni associations to support schools.

  313. Paola Andrea Mina Gómez and Heberth Caicedo Saldaña

    The present work reports the findings of a close relationship existing between the motivational and dispositional component to develop critical thinking in university students of two academical Programs of Unidad Central del Valle in Tuluá, Colombia. It is important to know if the interaction lying behind these components is equal or on the contrary, it can be assumed that one step over the other, or if their development is systematic and both of them contribute to the final task The results of the research work can help the university to enhance the inclusion of strategies to develop critical thinking effectively on the students Faculty of Sciences of Education.

  314. Vinod Kumar, M. and Dr. Prakash Babu

    Employee retention is a critical responsibility for any organisation in today’s scenario due to immense competition which has aroused from globalization, urbanization and digitalization. It is not only necessary to attract the best talent but also to motivate and retain the right resources in an organisation. This research paper aims to review the findings of research papers of various authors to chalk out the factors that affect employee retention at workplace. This study examines ten critical factors that affect employee retention. Overall it has been noticed that there are no single fixed practices which portray the significance of the influence of all these ten factors since different organisations have various business objectives and the stage at which the organisation is currently operating. This paper is completely based on the secondary data specifically research papers from various authors.

  315. Dr. Shruti Priya

    As is well known the chief objective of any economy revolves around growth of national income. India has been star post 2009 recession among all nations to sustain the pace of economic growth at a fair rate. However the nation faces challenges on many fronts. The synchronisation of the monetary and the fiscal policies play a crucial role in determining the rate and direction of growth. The present paper delves into the possible impact of money supply and other closely related variables like interest rate, inflation rate along with capital formation as a variable.

  316. Dr. Marathe, R.A.

    The International marketing has become now the need of the customers world wide due to availability off technology to communicate and share the services and purchase products form any other country at minimum cost and get the maximum benefit of the available resources at the customer side, As organizations continue to pursue more global strategies, the need to be able to understand consumers in far away places is increasing. Marketing primary mechanism through which companies understand their current, as well as potential, customers. As companies contemplate the global marketplace, they must consider how domestic market research differs when conducted in international markets. In an effort to help and reach maximum customers world wide the International Marketing will help the companies to take the advantage of globalization. The Research paper is decent effort to create awareness among the readers and customers to perform International marketing activities through the available technologies like Internet, m-Commerce and –commerce tools. The Author has studied the advantages, disadvantages and best solutions to promot the International Marketing.

  317. Aiza S. Dalman

    This study aimed to determine the frequently used words in the campaign speeches of President Donald J. Trump and to find out if the modes of persuasion, such as pathos, ethos and logos are employed in his speeches. This study utilized the qualitative method of research in analyzing the corpus (12 campaign speeches). When the corpus of the study was fed in the word count tool and text analyzer software, it was found out that the word “will” got the highest frequency of 121, followed by Hillary (58), American (38), going (35), plan and Clinton (32), illegal (30), government (28), corruption (26) and criminal (24). Further, it was also found out that Trump employed the modes of persuasion in his speeches. Given the results of the study, the researcher concludes that Pres. Trump’s frequently used words and modes of persuasion might help him won the US election because the statements having the frequently used words and modes of persuasion are against Hillary or in his own favor. The findings of the study can lead to pedagogical implication which the language teachers may use this study to acquaint the students that modes of persuasion as well as frequently used words are important in order to win in a certain debate. On the other hand, this study may also be helpful for the aspiring politicians so that they will be mindful of the words and statements that they will utter in front of the people.

  318. Valdir Cordeiro Rocha and Marcus Vinicius Carvalho Guelpeli

    As access to the Internet broadens and with the advent of tools that allow people to create content, the amount information to which we have access grows exponentially. Texts written about various subjects and by countless authors are produced every day. It is impossible to absorb all the information available or to select the most adequate piece of information for a certain interest or public. Automatic text summarization, in addition to presenting a text in condensed form, can simplify it, thus generating an alternative for saving time and widening access to contained information for many different types of readers. The automatic summarizers that currently exist in literature do not present personalization methods for each type of reader and, consequently, generate results that have limited precision. This article aims to use the automatic text summarizer PragmaSUM in educational texts with new summarization techniques using keywords. Personalization methods using keywords seek to increase precision and improve the performance of PragmaSUM and its summaries. In order to achieve that, a corpus was formed exclusively by scientific articles in the field of education in order to conduct tests and comparisons between different summarizers and summarization methods. The summarizers’ performance was measured by the Recall, Precision and F-Measure metrics, all of which are present in the ROUGE tool. The results point towards improved performance when employing keywords in summarization with PragmaSUM, which suggests the importance of choosing keywords adequately for classifying the content of the source text.

  319. Julie LaDell-Thomas and Mingyuan Zhang

    This study presented a secondary analysis of the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) dataset. The paper examined the impact of reading-related computer use on 2015 NAEP reading scores of fourth grade students, particularly those of lower socioeconomic status. The findings include (1) the average scale score of students of lower socioeconomic status was significantly lower (M=209, SD=.4) than students of higher socioeconomic status (M=237, SD=.3) by 28 points. (2) The average score of students when teachers had received training in integrating technology in the past two years was significantly higher ((M=224, SD=.5) than when teachers had not received training (M=220, SD=.7) by four points. Moreover, (3) Students who reported that they did not have a computer at home (M=209, SD=.7) scored significantly lower than students who did have a computer at home (M=225, SD=.4) by 16 points. These findings may indicate that concerns about the inequity of technology resources across what is termed the “digital divide” are warranted, and teacher technology training has a positive impact on student academic achievement.

  320. Dr. A. Kusuma

    The concept of Green Accounting can be viewed as an extension of the original concept of national economic accounts formalized in the Standard National Accounts (SNA) framework. In India, public awareness towards the environment has grown tremendously since the ‘70s, when laws for the protection of the environment were passed. Smt. Indira Gandhi, the then Prime Minister felt the necessity of healthy environment and expressed her strong opinion in favor of the environment at the United Nation’s Conference on the human environment in Stockholm, 1972. There is now an urgent need to take steps globally and particularly to formulate the accounting and valuation techniques regarding environmental issues. Mandatory guidelines can be issued in each and every country to incorporate these in the company’s annual report, including environment related legislations, as in developed countries. Hence, it can be concluded that the absence of standardized environmental accounting practices and disclosure techniques, both at national and international levels, and their legal enforcement, necessitates the urgent and pressing need to take steps nationally and globally to formulate these techniques and practices in regard to environmental issues.

  321. Dr. A. Kusuma

    Domestic violence is a pattern of assaultive and coercive behaviors, including physical, sexual, and psychological attacks, as well as economic coercion, that adults or adolescents use to gain power and control over their intimate partners. Domestic violence is lethal, common, and affects people of all cultures, religions, ages, sexual orientations, educational backgrounds and income levels. The frequency of domestic violence in urban areas is high tendency than the rural areas. The possibilities of domestic violence are more rampant in rural areas. The highest type of violence is makes on physical both in rural and urban areas. Both in rural and urban areas, majority of women are frequently influences the violence. More than half and above of the respondents are physically assaults and also caused by mental depression. Majority of the women are never felt upon suicidal tendency and they are mentally very much strong than the others. More women are not having any knowledge on Domestic Violence Act and they are also not having confidence on the Act. A majority of the respondents opined that police stations are working effectively and they are believed on police stations. Effective implementation of government policies may protect the women workers from domestic violence. Government should take effective policies to remove working hierarchy based conflicts and discriminations. Mass campaign programmes should be conducted to spread knowledge about rights and freedoms to the women workers. Apart from the government, mass campaign programmes should be organised by the media and NGOs to prevent work based violence.

  322. Arachana Khandait, Dr. Ashish Panat and Devendra Rapelli

    The field of image processing, image quality assessment is a fundamental and challenging problem with many interests in a variety of applications. Dynamic monitoring, adjusting image quality, optimizing algorithms and parameter settings of image processing systems are benchmarking in image processing system and algorithms. In this paper using such techniques we are going to analysis the detection of diseases like tumour for the ease in medical use.

  323. Dr. R. Bakyaraj and S. Srinivas

    The man–eater of Malgudi is a modern version of the ancient tale of Bhasmasura, a demon. The point that Narayan uses the Bhasmasura, myth in The man - eater of malgudi is evident. In his essay “Gods, Demons and modern times.” Narayan describes how once suddenly he came upon a theme that struck him as an excellent piece of mythology in modern dress, published under the title, “man eater of malgudi” and how, “I based this story on a well – known mythological episode the story of Mohini and Bhasmasura.” Further, the novel itself bears reference to the myth twice. Once, when sastri, identifying Vasu with a rakshasa, defines the make – up of a demoniac creature. Expatriating on the lives of various demons in Puranas, sastri narrates the story of Bhasmasura as under.

  324. Dr. Anand, R.

    Emotional intelligence helps the individual to meet the demands of the society and provide a feeling of self-satisfaction. According to the Bar-On (1997) model, emotional intelligence is an emotional competencies, skills and facilitators that determine how well we understand and express ourselves, understand others and relate with them, and cope with daily demands, challenges, and pressures. Job satisfaction is based on one’s feelings or state of mind regarding the nature of work. The happier people are with their job, the more satisfied they are said to be. The data for this study was collected through survey method. The results of this study reveal that executives with up to 2 dependents in their family have higher reality testing and flexibility skills than their counter parts. Further details were discussed in this paper.

  325. Dr. Muzafar Ahmad Bhat, Dr. Shafia Nisar Kakroo and Dr. Mirza Aumir Beg

    Objective: This study evaluated the short-term clinical benefits of two systemic antibiotic regimes added to the nonsurgical periodontal treatment of generalized aggressive periodontitis. Materials and Methods: The patient records were reviewed and 45 patients were selected and divided into the following three groups: Scaling and root planning (SRP) only (group C); SRP plus azithromycin (AZT group); and SRP plus metronidazole and amoxicillin (M + A group). The periodontal indexes were recorded at baseline and 3‑month posttherapy. Results: The periodontal parameters were improved in all groups 3‑month posttherapy. The scores were decreased more in the AZT and M + A groups than the controls, but this difference did not reach significance. In addition, the decrease in the plaque index from baseline to 3‑month in the AZT group was not significant. Conclusion: Nonsurgical therapy reduces the probing depth and clinical inflammation findings. This healing tendency was observed in the AZT group despite the baseline plaque scores. Therefore, AZT might be active against the bacteria in dental biofilms.

  326. Dr.Giriraj Kiradoo

    Purpose: The research paper aims at bringing to light the impact of Indian Ethos and ethical values in management and leadership roles. The management and leadership roles have always been governed by a set of principles that provide growth and discipline in an organizational environment. Methodology- A qualitative study on the books and documents of the researcher from the database of 2013-2017 is used to determine necessary understanding on the topic of study. The review of the article provides clarity on the topic of the research paper. Findings- This holistic management model provides a high focus on the activities of managing and driving human behavior towards the development of quality work and greater work efficiency. Indian management through the influence of Vedas, Upanishad, Bible, and Mahabharata gains wide opportunities for growth and expansion. Conclusion- The successful models of management are based on the aspects of spirituality, Karma, Liberation and culture. The modern approaches of management and leadership do not provide high existence and growth to a system. The base of Indian management and leadership is derived from the cultural and spiritual values of the ancestors. The research signifies the role of Indian ethics and Ethos in the transition of management and leadership styles.

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