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Evaluation of variation in the maxillary labial frenal attachment and its morphology in population

Author: 
Dr. Dhalkari, C.D., Dr. Indurkar, M.S., Dr. Gayathri, R.
Subject Area: 
Health Sciences
Abstract: 

Introduction: Maxillary labial frenum is a fold of the mucous membrane which connects lip to the alveolar process of the jaw. The upper labial frenum is a normal anatomic structure with inherent morphological variations. Aim: To evaluate the variation in the maxillary labial frenum attachments and its morphology in population. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on 100 subjects within age group of 15–35 years. Intraoral examination was done to evaluate the maxillary labial frenum attachment location and morphology by direct visual method and photographs were taken. Result: In this study, depending upon the extend of attachment fiber the most common type is mucosal (65%) followed by gingival type (25%), and papillary type (3%) is least common. The most common morphological type is normal frenum (60%) followed by normal frenum with nodule (17%) and normal frenum with appendix (13%). The least common morphological type is bifid labial frenum (1%). Conclusion: Maxillary labial frenum have different morphological variation and it may cause mucogingival problem. So the practitioner necessary to give importance for frenum assessment during clinical examination to prevent periodontal problem and need to relocate or excise high frenal attachment during mucogingival surgery (root coverage) for complete coverage of root.

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