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Prostate cancer in Mississippi: epidemiology, risk factors, and prevention

Author: 
Austine U. Onyia and Anthony Mawson
Subject Area: 
Health Sciences
Abstract: 

Background: Prostate cancer is the second most common type of cancer and the fifth leading cause of death in men worldwide. In 2018 it was estimated that there were 1.3 million new cases of prostate cancer worldwide, with developing countries having higher prevalence rates. It is the second leading cause of cancer deaths in the United States. About 248,000 new cases and 34,000 deaths were reported by the American Cancer Society in 2021, with a projection that 1 in 8 males will be diagnosed with prostate cancer in their lifetime. In the state of Mississippi, prostate cancer is the most common type of cancer for men (29%) followed by lung and bronchus (18 %), colon, and rectum (10 %). African American men are at a higher risk of developing this type of cancer. Prostate cancer is mostly asymptomatic in the early stages. Active surveillance is therefore necessary for early detection. There is currently no evidence of effective prevention of prostate cancer, but dietary modification and increased physical activity can reduce the risk of developing it. The United States Preventive Task Force recommends a voluntary screening for men aged 55 to 69 years. However, for the higher-risk population such as men with a family history of prostate cancer and African American males, screening is recommended from age 40. Method: This paper reviews the risk factors, trends, etiology, and prognosis of prostate cancer in Mississippi, with a view to disease prevention. Findings: Southern diet common in southern states such as Mississippi is typically low in healthy food and high in processed foods. These unhealthy food choices combined with poor lifestyles and low socioeconomic status further exacerbate the mortality and prevalence of prostate cancer among men in Mississippi. Conclusion: Understanding the epidemiology and risk factors of prostate cancer in Mississippi will help to formulate policies and programs for the prevention of the disease

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