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A study to assess the knowledge regarding hypothyroidism and its effects among adolescent girls in selected areas of pakala

Author: 
Dr. Sreelatha, M., Renuka Priya J.C. and Dr. Sudha Rani, P.
Subject Area: 
Health Sciences
Abstract: 

Introduction: Thyroid disorders are amongst the most prevalent of medical conditions and these are common worldwide. In India too, there is a significant burden of thyroid diseases. They are five common thyroid diseases in India 1) Hypothyroidism 2) Hyperthyroidism 3) Goiter and iodine deficiency disorders 4) Hashimoto’s thyroiditis and 5) Thyroid cancer. The prevalence of hypothyroidism is the most common type of thyroid dysfunction. . It consists of two lateral lobes connected by an isthmus. The gland is about 5cms long and 3 cms wide and weighs about 30g. The blood flow to the thyroid is very high about 5ml/min per gram of thyroid tissue. The thyroid gland produces three hormones: Thyroxine (T4), Triiodothyronine (T3) and Calcitonin. Adolescence is the period of transition between childhood and adulthood. Children who are entering adolescence are going through many changes (physical, intellectual, personality and social developmental). Adolescence begins at puberty, which now occurs earlier, on average, than in the past. Hypothyroidism results from suboptimal levels of thyroid hormone. Thyroid deficiency can affect all body functions and can range from mild, sub-clinical forms to myxedema an advanced form. The most common cause of this in adults is auto immune thyroiditis (Hashimoto’s disease), in which the immune system attacks the thyroid gland. Methodology: Non- Experimental approach was adopted to achieve the objectives of the study, which was felt to be most appropriate for its practicability in real life situation. It has the advantages of practicability, feasibility and to a certain extent for generalization. Research design was descriptive research design. The study was conducted in selected areas of Pakala.Population includes adolescent girls in selected areas of Pakala. Sample size consists of 100 adolescent girls under inclusion criteria. Non probability convenient sampling technique was adopted for the present study based on inclusion criteria. Results: With regard to the level of knowledge regarding hypothyroidism and its effects out of 100 adolescent girls, majority of samples 55 (55%) had moderate knowledge, 24(24%) of samples had inadequate knowledge, 21(21%) of samples had adequate knowledge. The mean knowledge score was 31.65 and the standard deviation was 7.019.There was significant association between the level of knowledge and selected socio demographic variables like Educational status of mother, father, Occupational status of father and Residence, significant at p < 0.01 level and some of socio demographic variables such as Age in years, Occupational status of mother, Type of family, Monthly family income significant at p<0.05. Hence Ho1 hypothesis was rejected. There was no significant association between level of knowledge and demographic variables like religion and standard of study. Conclusion: In this study most of the adolescent girls had moderate and inadequate knowledge regarding hypothyroidism. The information booklet has enhanced the knowledge levels of adolescent girls regarding hypothyroidism and its effects. The demographic variables such as Age, Gender, Educational status of mother and father, occupational status of mother and father, monthly family income, residence and source of information were associated with their knowledge regarding hypothyroidism and its effects.

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