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A study on demography, clinical profile and etiology of stroke in young adults

Author: 
Meena R.L., Ayush Agarwal and Dr. Vikash Bharadwaj
Subject Area: 
Health Sciences
Abstract: 

Background: A stroke, or cerebrovascular accident is defined as an abrupt onset of a neurologic deficit that is attributable to a focal vascular cause. Cerebral ischemia is caused by a reduction in blood flow that last longer than several seconds. Neurologic symptoms are manifested within seconds because neurons lack glycogen, so energy failure is rapid. If the cessation of blood flow lasts for more than few minutes, infarction or death of brain tissue results. When blood flow is quickly restored , brain tissue can recover fully and the patient symptoms are only transient: this is known as Transient Ischemic Attack (TIA). Within the ischemic bed are two zones: one is the core ischemic zone and other is penumbra or ischemic but still viable cells. Although it is considered to be a disease of old population, It is not infrequent in young adults. Stroke in young adult poses a Major socioeconomic health problem especially in developing countries.1 Aims and Objectives: To study etiology and clinical profile of stroke in young adults (15-45 years) in a tertiary care centre. Methodology: The study is based on prospective collection of data of 150 young adults aged between 15-45 years diagnosed as stroke who were admitted in medical ward or neurology ward in a tertiary care hospital. Patients admitted at Maharana Bhupal Government Hospital Udaipur diagnosed with stroke , confirmed with neuroimaging and meeting the inclusion criteria during study period of 2 years were taken into consideration for the study. Results: In this study 150 cases were admitted with stroke who met the inclusion criteria were enrolled in study after taking consent. At presentation complete history, relevant clinical examination, neuroimaging was done. The etiology and clinical outcome were analyzed in this study. Conclusion: In this study, higher incidence of developing stroke is observed in males (M:F= 2.9:1). Most of the patients in this study population were in the age group of 41-45 years. Clinically, motor weakness was the predominant symptom observed. 24% of patients were diabetics, 28% were hypertensives, 52% were smokers and 54.6% were alcoholics. The most common artery involved was middle cerebral artery (82%) while the common etiology was atherosclerosis (50%).

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