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January 2013

  1. Shoba, V., Krishnapriya, K., Boopathy Raja, A., Elanchezhiyan, C., and Selvisabhanayakam

    Nanotechnology has the potential to impact many aspects food and agricultural systems. Food security disease treatment delivery methods new tools for molecular and cellular biology new material for pathogen detection and protection of the environment are examples of the important links of nano technology to the science and engineering of agriculture’s and food systems. In the present study, the red and white color paper flower ethanolic extracts doped with MgS (Magnesium Sulphate) nanoparticles were used to determine their antibacterial activity. Both paper flower ethanolic extracts doped with MgS nanoparticles are having potential antibacterial activity when compared with standard antibiotic erythromycin. The white colored flower extracts doped MgS nanoparticles are having more antibacterial activity than the red colored flower extracts doped MgS nanoparticles. The white flowers may contain active antibacterial component. The combination of Bougainvillea glabra flower extracts and MgS nanoparticle may be suggested as a antibiotic agent because of their active potential to inhibit the bacterial growth.

  2. Rajalakshmi, M., Koushik, C. V. and Paramasivam, S.

    The textile industry is searching for innovative production techniques to improve the product quality. Nowadays, Micro fibers have set new trends in the textile industry and manmade fibers were upgraded to be superior to natural fibers both in appearance and also in the other physical and comfort properties. The blending of the micro denier polyester fibre along with cotton fibre is a popular one for research and it gives valuable performance with the main component fibre properties and additional micro polyester fibre properties. The research work shows that the part of micro polyester fibres improves the fabric properties in the aspects of better drape, softness, shrink resistance, high strength and good insulation against atmosphere conditions, good absorbency, good wicking property, good air permeability and environment friendly. This paper deals with the study of surface modification of 100% micro denier polyester, 100% cotton and 65/35 micro polyester / cotton fabrics by plasma treatment. The various properties improvement in the above fabrics was discussed and conclusion was made based on the performance of plasma treatment on the subjected fabrics.

  3. Robert Ng’ang’a, Iravo Mike Amuhaya, and KephaOmbui

    The study purpose of the study was to investigate factors influencing remuneration policy of the HR managers in the Kenyan banking sector. The specific objectives of the study were; to investigate how talent management, financial results,technological development,market surveys and company advisers influencedremuneration policy ofthe HR managers in the Kenyan banking sector. The target population of the study was the HR Managers in the 47 registered banking institutions in Kenya. The study adopted a census and questionnaires were used to collect data from the respondents. The data collected was analyzed using Excel package and the results presented using tables and charts. The findings of the study revealed that despite improvement in remuneration packages, salaries earned scored low an indication that HR managers think that they can be paid more. Further there are other HR related issues such as careerdevelopment and work related issues such as job design that plays an important part in employee productivity and retention. Employees are more satisfied and deliver more if their career progression is guaranteed and that the company they work for has a reputation for quality service/products.Following these findings the study recommends apart from concentrating on remuneration policy, banks should invest in work processes that guarantee quality of services/ products and aspects of HRM such as career progression among others that affect employees’ performance.

  4. Owusu-Sekyere Ebenezer, Issaka Kanton Osumanu and Abdul- Kadri Yahaya

    Since the turn of the new millennium, there has been a steady increase in the use of plastic products resulting in a proportionate rise in plastic waste in the municipal solid waste streams in Ghanaian cities, including the Kumasi metropolitan area. The adoption of a more hygienic mode of packaging food, beverages, “iced water” and other products brought plastic packaging to replace the existing cultural packaging methods. However, the packaging revolution has not been correspondingly backed by appropriate plastic waste management policy, which has left many cities in Ghana littered with plastic wastes; thus, creating disgusting visual nuisances and other public health problems. Despite the environmental and health implications of plastic waste, plastic recovery and recycling has become a very lucrative activity that have the potential to lift Ghana from its current economic quagmire. Using both quantitative and qualitative methods, the paper reveals that plastic waste collection and recycling has generated employment and revenue. The research further revealed that plastic waste is used as raw materials by the construction and oil industries. The paper concludes that plastic waste recovery and recycling should be institutionalized and regulated so that the wealth linkage can be mainstreamed with national policies.

  5. Mohd Shamim, Tabasum Rashid and Ruhee Rashid

    At the heart of the success of any school improvement process is teachers' willingness to change and improve their knowledge, attitudes and practices.The role of school leadership is crutial in combining professional and accountability measures for effective collaboration of teachers in this regard. To guide the study, four research questions were raised. The multi-stage sampling technique was used to collect data from tree hundred teachers as respondents. A validated questionnaire titled: Students Academic perfomance in physics correlates the qulity of teachers with the used of simple frequency counts and percentage for analysis. From the data analysis it was revealed that: the role of professionally qualified/trained teachers is an important teacher quality which enhances students’ academic achievement in physics, teaching methods adopted by the teachers significantly influence achievement of the behavior objectives. Several schools in the population of the study lacked modern instructional materials without which effective teaching and learning cannot be utilized and teachers’ experience significantly influence students academic performance; capacity building programes a major aspect of teachers’ experience that is yet to be given adequate attention. Its importance cannot be over emphasized in view of senior secondary school student’s poor performance in both internal and external examinations. Based on these findings, appropriate recommendations were made.

  6. Pejman Behdarvand, Chinchanikar, G. S. and Dhumal, K. N

    Allelopathic effects of two dominate weeds like wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis L.) and wild oat (Avena ludoviciana L.) on seed germination and seedling growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. Var. Chamran) were investigated at Department of Botany, University of Pune (M.S.), India in 2011. The results revealed that aqueous extracts of wild mustard and wild oat had caused drastic reduction in seed germination percentage, shoot and root length as well as dry weight of wheat seedlings. Maximum reduction was recorded at highest concentration of weed extracts. The extract of wild mustard had shown highest reduction in seed germination percentage, shoot length and seedling dry weight as compare to the extracts of wild oat and combination of wild mustard and wild oat. Amongst the three different types of weeds extracts, wild oat (100%) had caused highest negative effect on root length only. Amongst the different parameters studied root length showed highest sensitivity towards the treatments of weed extracts. The present investigation had clearly shown the negative influence of both the weeds on seed germination and seedling growth of wheat.

  7. V. K. Mishra, D. K. Dwivedi, D. K. Upadhyay and D. K. Pandey

    Male and female gametes are normal and functional, but can only produce offspring when correct parents are mated; etc. self-incompatibility, cross-incompatibility. Male sterility is the failure of plants to produce functional anthers, pollen, or male gametes. Phenotypic (structural male sterility, sporogenous male sterility, functional male sterility) and genotypic (genetic, cytoplasmic, cytoplasmic-genetic male sterility). Genetic male sterility system in which sterility expression is conditional by environmental factors. In environmental sensitive genic male sterility, a particular range or concentration of environmental factor at sensitive stage of the crop, which occurs during panicle development, result in complete male sterility i.e. photoperiod sensitive genic male sterility (PGMS), thermo sensitive genic male sterility (TGMS), photo-thermo sensitive genic male sterility (PTGMS), micronutrient sensitive genic male sterility (MGMS). Male sterility is also use in crop improvement for production of hybrids.

  8. Angkur Mohammad Imteazzaman and Shams Muhammad Galib

    This study was done for the aim of determining the fish species inhibiting in the Halti Beel, a famous wetland of northwest Bangladesh. A total of sixty-three fish species including 55 indigenous and 8 exotic species belonging to 8 orders, 20 families and 41 genera were recorded during the investigation period and listed with their nomenclature and systematic position. Cypriniformes and Cyprinidae were the dominant order and family in terms of species composition. Puntius sophore was the most abundant fish species accounting 8.03% of total catch. Three critically endangered, eleven endangered and eight vulnerable fish species of Bangladesh were also recorded in this water body.

  9. Murat Bozkurt, Duygu Kara Bozkurt, Ahmet Said Çil, and Mert Ulaş Barut

    Urethral diverticulum is a condition that must be kept in mind in differential diagnosis of chronic pelvic pain. It is among the late complications developing after particularly vaginal and urologic operations. A detailed anamnesis and a careful vaginal examination are essential. Diagnosis can be made with transvaginal ultrasonography (TV-USG) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in presence of a vaginal mass. The patient who was admitted with chronic pelvic pain and dysparunia was diagnosed as urethral diverticulum after examinations and imaging techniques. No postoperative complications was developed in the patient who underwent a successful complete urehral resection via vaginal route and the patient recovered.

  10. Duygu Kara, Murat Bozkurt, and Ahmet Said Çil

    FMF is characterized by recurrent fever, peritonitis, arthritis, pleuritis and secondary amyloidosis. Iliopsoas bursitis due to its unspecific symptomatology is an often-underdiagnosed entity in the chronic pelvic pain. Also one of the reason of the acute pelvic pain in reproductive age is ovarian cyst rupture. A 22 year old woman with FMF disease admitted to obstetric and gynecology department with chronic right hip and pelvic pain. Transvaginal sonographic examination showed free fluid in the pouch of Douglas that was presumed ovarian cyst rupture. The patient was referred for MRI examination because of chronic hip pain which showed the iliopsoas bursitis communicating with the coxofemoral joint. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case in the literature which presented with acute pelvic pain and chronic hip pain with ovarian cyst rupture and iliopsoas bursitis in FMF patient.

  11. Prema Paulpandian, Selvarani Murugan and Thangapandiyan Santhanam

    The emergence and spread of antibiotic resistance is an alarming concern in clinical practice. This would lead to the development of new antibacterial agents from natural and inorganic substances. In the current scenario, one of the most promising and novel therapeutic agents are the nanoparticles. Hence the present study has been made an attempt to find out the potential metal nanoparticles for the management of human bacterial diseases. Metal nanoparticles (MeNPs) were synthesized by simple, cost effective, chemical reduction method. The synthesized particles were further characterized by X-ray Diffractogram (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) techniques to analyze size, morphology of the nanoparticles, and quantitative information of elemental metals respectively. Average crystalline size of the particle ranged from 17.85 to 44.87 nm. Bactericidal effect of metal nanoparticles was examined by agar well diffusion technique. Metal nanoparticles showed excellent activity against selected bacterial pathogens. Different classes of bacteria exhibited different susceptibilities to nanoparticles. All the experimental strains depicted highest sensitivity to silver nanoparticles compared to other metal based nanoparticles. Our results suggest that chemically mediated metal nanoparticles could act as an effective alternative for the development of new antibacterial agent to combat resistant problems.

  12. Momoh A., Akinyemi S. A., Ojo O. J., Dibal H. U. and Odewumi, S. C.

    Geophagic clays are consumed by human beings and other members of the animal kingdom for a number of reasons such as mineral nutrient supplementation, relief of early morning sickness in pregnancy and craving. The objective of this study was to assess major elements in geophagic clays in order to know clays that were enriched or depleted in major elements of nutritional value. The major elements were determined by means of X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRFS). The average concentration of SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3 and TiO2 are 42.52%, 29.20%, 12.04% and 1.26% respectively with low content of CaO (0.26%). Chemical index of alteration (CIA) values for geophagic clays ranges from 17.09 – 99.07. There are no differences in major oxides of Mg, Mn, K and P in geophagic and non-geophagic clays. Cluster analysis of the major elements showed two groups of chemical differences amongst the elements in geophagic clays, low and moderate to high degree of weathered clays. Functional analysis showed that some of the geophagic clays were enriched in SiO2, Al2O3 and Fe2O3 and depleted in CaO, K2O and MnO. Geophagic clays devoid of Al2O3, SiO2, MgO and those that are enriched in Fe2O3 and CaO are ideal for human consumption because of the potential benefits that are associated with Fe2O3 and CaO in human metabolism.

  13. Sree Gayathri, S. and Dr. Racheal Regi Daniel

    India is solitary of the richest floristic region of the world and has been a resource of plants and their yield since antique and man uses them in different ways according to his requirements, predominantly as food or as medicine. The preliminary Pharmacognostic study on leaves of medicinal plants plays an incredibly significant role in detection of the purity and quality of crude drugs. Medicinal plants which were originated on earth have notorious medicinal consequence and their usage is growing day by day in our daily life. The present efforts embody the investigation conceded out to establish methods for quality control of herb as per WHO guidelines. Entire botanical valuation which comprises macroscopic, microscopic, phytochemical assessment and physicochemical parameters like extractive value, moisture content, dry weight and ash value have been studied. The shade dried powder and various solvent extracts (viz., methanol, ethanol, aqueous, chloroform and acetone) have been analyzed for their phytoconstituents and fluorescence characters. The occurrence of alkaloid, phenol, steroid, flavonoid, saponin, tannin, and some other chemical constituents were recorded. Exploring the natural products has proved to be the most successful strategy for the discovery of new drugs. The present study has made an attempt to get referential information for the correct identification of the crude drug.

  14. Maleeka Begum, S. F., Renuka Devi K. P. and Srinivasan, J.

    The Toxicity of Congo red to earthworm, Megascolex konkanensis was studied. The toxicity was concentration dependent and the percent survival decreased with increasing concentration in water and soil. The concentration of congored which was sub lethal under normoxic condition became lethal under hypoxic condition. In soil, with increase in water content, a decreasing trend in LC50 value was observed. The severity of behavioral and morphological changes increased with increasing concentration of congored in water and soil.

  15. Parvathi, C., Shoba, U. S. and Prakash, C.

    The study investigates the removal of direct red 80 dye from its aqueous solution by using Tapioca peel activated carbon . The effects of condition such as adsorbent dosage, initial dye concentration, pH and contact time were studied. The adsorption capacity was demonstrated as a function of time for direct red 80 from aqueous solution by the prepared activated carbon. The results showed that as the amount of the adsorbent was increased, the percentage of dye removal increased accordingly. Higher adsorption percentages were observed at lower concentrations of direct red 80 dye. Silver nitrate treated Tapioca peel showed a better performance compared to Sulphuric acid treated and raw carbons, thus making it an interesting option for dye removal textile effluent.

  16. Kalpana Chandel, Savita Jandaik , Vandna Kumari, Shilpa Sarswati, Ankita Sharma, Deep Kumar and Naresh Kumar

    In the present study compost samples of two mushrooms namely Buttton (Agaricus bisporus) and Shiitake (Lentinula edodes) were collected from Directorate of Mushroom Research (DMR) ,Chambaghat, Solan, Himachal Pradesh, India. After screening cellulase producing fungi a total of 45 fungal isolates were isolated from compost samples, out of which 36 fungal isolates were purified and 23 isolates showed the cellulase activity. The isolates were identified as Trichoderma, Aspergillus, Rhizopus and Penicillium species. The optimum pH and temperature for growth and enzyme production were found to be 6.0 and 28°C respectively. The maximum fungal growth and enzyme production by Aspergillus spp. was obtained after 4 days of incubation period whereas Trichoderma, Penicillium and Rhizopus species exhibited maximum fungal growth and enzyme production after 5 days of incubation. Sucrose was found to be the best carbon source in Trichoderma spp. and Penicillium species at 1 percent concentration, whereas Glucose exhibited maximum enzyme activity in case of Rhizopus spp. and Aspergillus spp. at 1.5 percent and 1 percent concentration resspectively. One percent peptone proved to the best nitrogen source in case of Trichoderma spp. Yeast extract exhibited maximum enzyme activity in case of Rhizopus spp. at 1 percent concentration, whereas Beef extract at 1 and 1.5 percent concentration was found to be best nitrogen source in case of Aspergillus and Penicillium species respectively.

  17. Dr. Sandhyalakshmi B. N, Dr. Kulkarni M. H.

    Fine needle aspiration cytology has become the preliminary diagnostic tool in the evaluation of clinically palpable breast lumps. This study was taken up to evaluate the role of FNAC in diagnosing malignant breast lesions. In this two year study 70 cases of malignant breast lesions diagnosed on cytology were followed up for histopathological correlation. Sensitivity was 94.3% and specificity was 100%. Sub typing of epithelial malignancies need a careful examination and an experienced cytopathologist.

  18. Adeola, R. G. and Ariwoola, S. A.

    Root and tuber crops form the major subsistence staples in larger parts of sub-Saharan Africa. However, in Nigeria, root and tuber production relies mainly on smallholders that have multiple practices to choose from while considering crops to be included in their cropping systems. This study examined factors influencing the inclusion of root and tuber crops in the cropping systems among farmers in Oyo state. Data were collected from 360 farmers randomly selected using a structured interview schedule. Frequency counts, percentages and Chi-square were used for the data analysis. The study revealed that factors such as age ((χ2 = 337.600, P<0.01), high yield potential ((χ2 = 122.500, P < 0.01), availability of planting material ((χ2 = 544.150, P<0.01), compatibility with the cropping systems ((χ2 = 124.576, P<0.01), low risk involvement ((χ2 = 90.000, P<0.01) and low capital requirement ((χ2 = 168.500, P<0.01), farm size ((χ2 = 96.100, P < 0.01) and ease of management ((χ2 = 96.100, P < 0.01) significantly influenced the inclusion of root and tuber crops in the farmers’ cropping systems in the study area. The extension administrators should also intensify efforts at educating the farmers on the importance of root and tuber crops in the cropping systems.

  19. Vaidehi, J., Ronald Ross, P., Paramanandham, J., Yogalakshmi, K. and Ramakotti, P.

    Environmental pollutants pose a huge menace to all living organisms either directly or indirectly. Pesticide contaminations in the aquatic ecosystem affect the fishes at large leading to severe physiological and morphological stress response. Fishes in turn to counter the stress factors, ought to synthesize a group of novel proteins called stress proteins which play an important role in the stress-resistance of cells against the toxic chemicals. In the present study, the ornamental fish Carassius auratus (var.,) auratus was exposed to different concentrations of the organophosphorous pesticide, chlorpyrifos in various exposure periods and the type of stress proteins synthesized were investigated.

  20. Binukumari, S. and Vasanthi, J.

    The Municipal Sewage water are discharged into low level areas, in streams and lands which finally accumulate in the form of large ponds and affects the environment. The sewage sample was collected from Singanallur station of sanganur canal of Coimbatore.1/10th of 72 hour LC50 value was taken as sublethal concentration for sewage water. After the experimental exposure (72hours, 10days, 20days) fishes were sacrificed and organs like gill, liver, kidney used for histopathological studies. It showed degenerative changes in gills, symptoms of general necrosis, cloudy swelling in liver and dilated glomeruli, cellular hypertrophy in kidney.

  21. Shailesh Kumar, K. N. and Hemalatha, S.

    Objective: To determine the cytotoxicity of Aegle marmelos leaf extracts using the brine shrimp test (BST) method for antitumour study. Methods: Test tubes containing different concentrations of leaf extracts were introduced with ten brine shrimp larvae (10 nauplii) and were maintained at room temperature for 24 hours. The numbers of surviving and dead shrimps were counted. Percentage mortality was determined. LC50 was calculated using graph and Finney Method. Results: Among the three leaf extracts tested, aqueous extract showed significant toxicity to brine shrimps in a dose-dependent manner with low LC50 value of 15.28 μg/mL. Conclusion: From the results it can be concluded that the significant lethality of aquoues extract of Aegle marmelos leaves to brine shrimp is indicative of the presence in this plant of a potent cytotoxic component which warrants further investigation.

  22. Thangarasu Rajakumar, Sekar Subashini, Mangipudi Ramakrishna Rao, and Kodukkur Viswanathan Pugalendi

    Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) is one of the parameter to assess the diabetic condition. In this study, the activities of carbohydrate metabolic enzymes were assessed and correlated with HbA1c in the red blood cells (RBCs) of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. Thirty diabetic patients (taking insulin and different antidiabetic drugs) from Rajah Muthiah Medical College and Hospital, between the age 40 and 70 were chosen and they were not suffering from any other illness and fifteen non-diabetic control subjects of the same age groups were also chosen for comparison. Index of glycemic control (plasma glucose, insulin, blood hemoglobin and glycated hemoglobin) and the activities of carbohydrate metabolic enzymes (hexokinase, phosphogluco isomerase, aldolase, pyruvate kinase and glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase) were measured. Diabetic patients have significantly higher plasma glucose, glycated hemoglobin and lower insulin and hemoglobin. Activities of hexokinase, phosphogluco isomerase, aldolase, pyruvate kinase and glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase were significantly lower in diabetic patients when compared with non-diabetic control subjects. Statistical analysis indicated a correlation of glycated hemoglobin with hexokinase (r= -0.858, p= 0.000), phosphogluco isomerase (r= -0.546, p= 0.000), aldolase (r= -0.591, p= 0.000), pyruvate kinase (r= -0.360, p= 0.023) and glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (r= -0.449, p= 0.004) in non-diabetic control subjects and diabetic patients. Inspite of regular intake of antidiabetic drugs or insulin, the index of glycemic control showed significant increase implying impaired control of diabetes mellitus. Hexokinase showed a significantly strong negative correlation to glycated hemoglobin. RBCs hexokinase activity has been inversely correlated with glycation which could act as an index in evaluation of glycation in diabetic condition.

  23. Govindasamy Hemalatha, Kodukkur Viswanathan Pugalendi, and Ramalingam Saravanan

    This study aims to evaluate the effect of sesamol on blood pressure, and renal function markers on uninephrectomized deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt hypertensive rats. Hypertension was induced in surgically single-kidney-removed (left), adult male albino Wistar rats, weighing 180-200 g, by injecting DOCA (25 mg/kg BW) subcutaneously, twice a week for six weeks, with saline instead of tap water for drinking. Every week, the blood pressure was measured and documented up to six weeks for all the animals. DOCA-salt hypertensive rats showed considerably increased blood pressure, heart rate, proteinuria, renal function markers (urea, uric acid and creatinine) in plasma and sodium levels in urine. In addition, hypertensive rats showed a decreased body weight and potassium excretion. Oral administration of sesamol (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg BW) brought back all the above parameters to near normal level. The effect at a dose of 50 mg/kg BW of sesamol was more pronounced than that of the other two doses. These findings indicate that sesamol exhibits strong antihypertensive and renoprotective effects in DOCA-salt hypertensive rats.

  24. Singaravelu Anbu and Nadanam Saravanan

    Morin, a bioflavonoid with antioxidant property, is a constituent of many herbs and fruits that are used as herbal medicines. It exhibits many biological activities and possibly even has protective effects against chronic renal diseases. The present study aims to study the protective effect of morin against ethanol-induced biochemical changes in kidney. Male albino rats were divided into four groups as follow; (1): control group, (2): control rats treated with morin (3) ethanol fed rats (4) ethanol fed rats treated with morin. Administration of ethanol (6g/kg BW) daily for a period of 60 days causes significant elevation in the levels of nephrotic markers such as urea, uric acid, creatinine and also significant elevation of kidney lipids such as total cholesterol, triglyceride, free fatty acid, and phospholipids. Ethanol also causes the significant decreased in the activities of membrane bound ATPases. However, ethanol fed rats treated with morin (60 mg/ kg BW, post orally once daily for a period of 30 days) significantly reduced the level of nephrotic markers, the lipids levels and increased the activities of membrane bound enzyme. The results of the present study strongly indicate that morin has potent reno-protective effect against ethanol induced oxidative tissues damage in experimental animals.

  25. Karthikumar Pugazhendy K., Mohan Nadarajan Jayachandran, K. and Jayanthi C.

    The present study is aimed to investigate identification of microbes in water samples in different sites. The places are; Kovalam, Kanathur, Injambakkam, Besant Nagar, Pattinapakkam – Foreshore estate, Santhome, Marina beach, Vailankanni. A total of 78 strains were isolated from nine different samples collected from the intertidal zone of the east coast road (ECR), India. The antibacterial effect for the strains AMET 6303, AMET 6308, AMET 6349, AMET 6361 and AMET 6374 were screened against the bacterial and yeast pathogen Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococcus sp., Escherichiacoli and Candida sp.

  26. Dr. Iqbal Ahmed Shariff, Dr. Deepti Pruthvi, Dr. Kuruvatti Rajashekar, Dr. Hiremath S. S., and Dr. Shashikala, P.

    Introduction: Encephalitis refers to inflammation of Parenchymal brain tissue. Acute encephalitis begins abruptly (hours to days) whereas chronic encephalitis is insidious in onset, occurring over weeks to months.1 Objective: To document etiological, clinical and laboratory features in cases of Encephalitis in general and Japanese encephalitis in particular. Methods: Fifty Indian children below 15 years of age, with encephalitic features were investigated. They were treated in Bapuji Child Health Institute and Chigateri Government Hospital, Davangere. Various methods (Hematological, Biochemical, Cytological, Microbiological, Radio imaging) were used. Serologic methods were used for detection of IgG and IgM antibody to Japanese encephalitis virus. Results: The etiological agents responsible were Japanese encephalitis virus followed by Co-existing infections, Mumps and other viral etiology where specific diagnosis could not be clinched Conclusion: Japanese encephalitis virus is more frequent viral pathogens of childhood encephalitis in Davangere and surrounding areas.

  27. Sanjay Kumar, Bandana Rath, Bhabagrahi Rath, Budheswar Majhi, Trupti Rekha Swain, Shantilata Patnaik, Jagannath Sahoo and Jyotsna Patnaik

    Osteoporosis is a common problem that causes bones to become abnormally thin, weakened, and easily broken (fractured). Women are at a higher risk for osteoporosis after menopause due to lower levels of estrogen, a female hormone that helps to maintain bone mass. Fortunately, preventive treatments are available that can help to maintain or increase bone density. Prolonged therapy with and/or high doses of certain medications can increase bone loss. The use of these medications should be monitored by a healthcare provider and decreased or discontinued when possible. For those already affected by osteoporosis, prompt diagnosis of bone loss and assessment of fracture risk are essential because therapies are available that can slow further loss of bone or increase bone density. The aim of all drug treatments is to lower your risk of future fractures and there are a range of effective medications that do just that. Medicines are used to both prevent and treat osteoporosis. Some medicines slow the rate of bone loss or increase bone thickness. Even small amounts of new bone growth can reduce your risk of broken bones. If you take medicine for osteoporosis, you will also need to get enough calcium and vitamin D, eat a healthy diet, and exercise regularly. A large part of treating or reducing the effects of osteoporosis is getting enough calcium and vitamin D. Exercise, which not only improves your bone health, but increases muscle strength, coordination and balance. Safety issues to prevent falls that may result in fractures, such as removing loose rugs around your house. In addition, our orthopedic surgeon may prescribe a medication to slow or stop bone loss, increase bone density, and reduce your risk of fracture which will be discussed in detail in this Review.

  28. Tabasum Rashid, Mohd Shamim and Ruhee Rashid

    This study was undertaken to explore the job satisfaction of lecturers. Present research compared job satisfaction of 30 contractual and 35 permanent lecturers on pay, promotion, supervision, fringe benefits, coworkers, nature of work, communication, contingent & rewards and operating conditions. These aspects of working environment contribute as factors of job satisfaction. Results indicated that there is significant difference between the contractual and permanent lecturer’s job satisfaction on the pay, fringe benefits and contingent & reward aspects. As the job satisfaction of lecturers can directly affect students and classroom so it is recommended that there should be permanent lecturers in govt. higher secondary schools so that their satisfaction can produce good results.

  29. Golam Mostafa

    Transformation of land is relatively a rapid process determined by the local users through the policies to be proved more beneficial in economic terms which sometimes do not consider such transformation on holistic basis. In riverine plain areas, there is a close inter relationships between agriculture, settlements, natural channels and wetlands. In recent times the degradation and loss of wetlands is more rapid than the past. The determinants of wetland ecosystem degradation include construction of infrastructural facilities, conversion of land, eutrophication and pollution, and excessive water harvesting from surface and subsurface sources to meet the increasing human needs. Transformation of natural land to agricultural land and agricultural to commercial or industrial land has a direct impact on the wetlands which is very crucial in terms of both economic and ecological values. Chinsurah-Magra, Singur and Serampur-Uttarpara Blocks of Hugly District of West Bengal are endowed with fertile agricultural lands, industrial complexes and wetlands rich in biodiversity which are facing adverse effects of short run development policies related to land transformation particularly for the wetlands. This paper is an attempt to explain the degradation and loss of wetland ecosystem, essence of change in the strategies in policies of land transformation and development and reclamation of wetlands with necessary primary and secondary information and their analysis and interpretation.

  30. Mohd Abass Bhat and Fayaz Ahmad Dar

    Most of the theories in security market are based on the notion of rational investment decision behaviour from investors. But it has been observed that it is not the case always. A new area of research has come up which recognizes the psychological element in financial decision making and thus challenging the traditional models. This new area of study is known as behavioural finance and in the changing socio-economic and technological context; it is high time to study this new area of knowledge. The objective of this paper is restricted to the role of investor emotions in investment decision making and from our research it has been proved that the emotions play their role in investment decisions, but building long-term wealth requires counter-emotional investment decisions–like buying at times of maximum pessimism or resisting the euphoria around investments that have recently outperformed. Unfortunately, as the study below shows, investors as a group too often let emotions guide their investment decisions. In the end, by anticipating and understanding the series of emotions that you may experience, you’ll be better equipped to tolerate and benefit from market fluctuations. And we have also included a Para of suggestions which will help the investors to avoid emotional influence on investment decisions.

  31. Gnanaraj, M., Kowsalya, R., Padmavathi, K. and Elangovan, N.

    Testis specific protein kinases are important because of their potential role in spermiogenesis, sperm maturation and sperm function. To continue our studies on the testis specific serine/threonine kinase (TSSK) family, we isolated a PCR fragment encoding a member of testis specific serine/threonine kinase3 (TSSK3) from Mus musculus testis RNA using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) with oligonucleotides. The sequence length of the target gene was identified as 804 bp encoding a protein of 268 amino acids.

  32. Simranjeet kaur, Baljeet Kaur and Sandeep Singh, Harpreet Singh

    Neural networks are a new method of programming computers. They are exceptionally good at performing pattern recognition and other tasks that are very difficult to program using conventional techniques. Programs that employ neural nets are also capable of learning on their own and adapting to changing conditions. Neural nets may be the future of computing .A good way to understand them is with a puzzle that neural nets can be used to solve. Suppose that you are given 500 characters of code that you know to be C, C++, Java, or Python. Now, construct a program that identifies the code's language. One solution is to construct a neural net that learns to identify these languages. According to a simplified account, the human brain consists of about ten billion neurons -- and a neuron is, on average, connected to several thousand other neurons. By way of these connections, neurons both send and receive varying quantities of energy. One very important feature of neurons is that they don't react immediately to the reception of energy. Instead, they sum their received energies, and they send their own quantities of energy to other neurons only when this sum has reached a certain critical threshold. The brain learns by adjusting the number and strength of these connections. The brain's network of neurons forms a massively parallel information processing system. This contrasts with conventional computers, in which a single processor executes a single series of instructions.

  33. Aditya Singh Pratihar

    The DNA replication is very interesting phenomenon, which was deeply investigated in the past century soon after the discovery of DNA and its helical structure. Initially, the phenomenon was explored in the virus (SV40, Polyoma virus, Papilloma virus, Adenovirus, etc.), bacteria i.e. E. coli and later on, in more complicated organism i.e. higher bacteria, fungus, plant, animals to some extant etc. The DNA replication process and mechanism was best studied in the yeasts, budding yeast-S. cerevisiae and Fission yeast-S. pombe as a great deal of information is known in these two organisms. The genome wide studies in these two organisms provided a great deal of information regarding the possible initiation sites through out the genome but the actual applicability of the data needs to be determined experimentally.

  34. Naresh Kumar and Dr. Surinder Nath

    Physico-chemical properties and bacteriological examination of spring water was done from from Markanday region of Hamirpur District in Himachal Pradesh. Physico-chemical properties such as Total Dissolved solids (TDS), Dissolved oxygen (DO), Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Alkalinity, Hardness, Chloride and pH were determined and compared with World Health Organization (WHO) standard. Bacteriological examination was done by isolation of microorganism from water and identification by serotyping. It was found that water was potable and free of pathogenic strain.

  35. Vijayalakshmi, C., Palaniammal, S. and Ramya, K.

    This paper deals the public key cryptography and Quantum cryptography and its uses in the applications such as Key Agreement, Data Encryption and Digital Signature. This paper discusses some public key algorithms, mathematical explanations on the working of these algorithms and also gives a brief introduction to modular arithmetic, which is the core arithmetic of almost all public key algorithms. Quantum cryptography could well be the first application of quantum mechanics at the single-quantum level.

  36. P. K. Srimani and K. Nithiyanandhan

    The present study deals with the macroscopic analysis of medicinal plants specifically betel leaf by using the techniques of Image Processing and Neural Networks. Any disturbance between the elements of human body leads to disease and the therapy lies in restoring the balance through the use of medicines of natural origin such as herbs and minerals. India is endowed with a rich variety of medicinal plants. Not only in India, but also from other parts of the world, there is a great demand for Betel Leaf which is not only used in all auspicious occasions but also has wonderful medicinal values. The results of the present research work include the macroscopic structure of Veins, Areole characteristics and Area characteristics. The results are presented and discussed.

  37. José G. Vargas-Hernández and Elizabeth Martínez-Centeno

    The main objective is to review the growth that have taken the franchise in recent years in Mexico and answer the question; why this model is so successful franchise? Based on the theory of transaction costs and agency theory, the method used for this research is analytical. It can be concluded that the action of buying a franchise should be investigated carefully. Although legal protection is available, the best strategy for this model is that it covers many weaknesses in markets such as opportunism

  38. Esther Njoki Gicheru

    This study is an analytical descriptive research study to assess the attainment of peak performance of the Co-operative College of Kenya. The study aimed to achieve the degree of effectiveness of the interventions in ensuring that the organization works towards the employee profiles in the areas of commitment, confidence, competence, working conditions and communication and to determine the behavioral changes among the leadership and the employees after conducting the interventions to improve the overall performance of the Co-operative College of Kenya. The theoretical framework of this study is based on Kurt Lewin’s Field Theory as expounded by Dessler (1980). The pre and post intervention instrument is a questionnaire which is an adaptation of the tool developed by Ken Hultman (2003). Fifty eight employees of Co-operative College were asked to rate themselves through the pre-intervention survey, on how well they performed on fifteen categories of the areas of commitment, confidence, competence, working conditions and communication. The results formed the basis for conducting planned interventions in June 2008. During the period May to December 2008, the researcher worked with the staff of the College on various team building and other group activities to ensure consistency in addressing the issues that emerged during the pre-intervention survey. In December 2008, a post intervention survey instrument was given again to the employees (using the same survey instrument as the pre intervention). The data from the pre intervention assessment and the post intervention evaluation were statistically treated using the means. The t-test was used for comparison of the pre and post intervention data for improvements significant at 0.05 levels. The results of the survey showed significant improvements in the obtained t-value from the difference of the pre and post assessment, which means that the intervention offered were successful. The analysis of the pre intervention assessment and post test intervention evaluation data were statically significant therefore the organization development interventions were successful in improving the workers’ performance of the Co-operative College of Kenya. The results recommend that further intervention activities will be conducted to sustain the continued improved performance of the workers to attain optimal (peak) performance.

  39. Sandeepta Burgula, Surya S. Singh

    Stabilization of HIF-1α, its translocation into the nucleus and dimerization with its HIF-1β subunit to form HIF-1 complex is an index of hypoxia. Until recently, most studies involving HIF1 were carried out in animal cell line models. In this study, we show the translocation of HIF-1 in freshly isolated human lymphocytes treated with hypoxia mimicking conditions. In order to check for expression of HIF-1 and its nuclear translocation, we used conditions of hypoxia and hypoxia mimicking conditions. in vivo hypoxia conditions were analyzed in rat models by exposing them to oxygen partial pressure relevant to an altitude of 7500 m (pO2=59 mm Hg), whereas hypoxia mimicking conditions were established by using certain agents known to stabilize HIF-1. Agents like CoCl2 and DFO were used in this context in freshly isolated lymphocytes. The translocation of HIF-1 is shown using electrophoretic mobility shift assay of nuclear and cytoplasmic extracts.

  40. Subrahmanyam Annamdevula, Raja Shekhar Bellamkonda and Ram Kumar Mishra

    Service quality has got increased considerable attention within the education sector. Efforts to understand and assess the service quality in higher education have been undertaken in the recent years. The conceptualization of service quality, its relationship to the satisfaction, value constructs and methods of evaluation have become a central theme of education sector. Numerous studies have done in this area with adopting generic service quality models, but little work has been concentrated on exploring the dimensions to measure service quality in higher education in the standpoint of total environment as experienced by students being the primary customers. The paper focuses on recent studies (models) developed to measure service quality in higher education and discussed various factors should be considered while developing a model for measuring the same with provided a conceptual framework.

  41. M. Mohanapriya, Lalitha Ramaswamy, R. Rajendran, S. Karthik Sundaram

    The current review work deals about the details of microbes as a probiotic and its beneficial effects for different applications. Probiotics are microorganisms that have health promoting influence in the body. They must be able to withstand the acid in the stomach and bile salts to perform the natural functions in the body. Probiotics have wide range of benefits including boosting the immune system, combating infections, allergies and regulating the digestive system as well as relieving lactose intolerance. Probiotics are classified as food supplements and suited to be used in yogurts, curds and their drinks. Fruit and vegetable juices have also been found to be suitable for the incorporation of probiotics as they promote health by way of providing vitamins and minerals which make it a complementary and an alternative to medicines. The acceptance of a probiotic foods India is growing slowly however, it has a good potential for growth as a health food.

  42. Gokulakrishnan J., and Sunil Kumar. B

    A study was conducted to assess the magnitude of heterosis for grain yield and its components over mid parent (MP), Better parent (BP) and standard heterosis (SH) in rice hybrids (Oryza sativa L.) through line x tester analysis. The present study comprised of three lines and ten testers. The resultant thirty hybrids along with their thirteen parents were evaluated during 2009 to 2010 in a randomized block design with three replications at Plant Breeding Farm, Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Annamalai University, Chidambaram. The analysis of variance indicated significant amount of variability among the genotypes for all the seven traits studied. The cross combinations IR 58025A x ASD 19, IR 62829A x ASD 16, PUSA 3A x IR 42 were found to be promising for seed yield as they had high percentage of standard heterosis.

  43. Vasudha Lingampally, V. R. Solanki , Amarjit Kaur, S. Sabita Raja

    Andrographolide, a terpenoid isolated from the leaves of Andrographis paniculata (Acanthaceae) exhibited growth regulating activity against the stored grain pest Tribolium confusum (Duval) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). The fifth instar, sixth instar larvae and pupae were treated with 1µg/µl of Andrographolide. The larval and pupal development to adults was greatly reduced resulting in the formation of permanent larvae, larval-pupal intermediates, abnormal pupae, pupal-adult intermediates and abnormal adults due to the interference of Andrographolide with moulting process and adult eclosion. These resultant forms were ruled out from further development and reproduction. The strong effect of Andrographolide on larval-pupal and pupal-adult moults is interpreted as an interference with moulting hormone pools. Our results suggest that Andrographolide shows an effective insect growth regulating activity and exhibits great promise in inhibiting growth, development and morphogenesis of Tribolium confusum.

  44. Eric D.K. Ngetich and Elijah. G. Rintaugu

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether selected physical fitness components (coordinative ability, speed, strength, cardiovascular endurance and flexibility) can be utilized as prediction factors of long jump performance. Measurements were observed from 50 selected long jumpers sampled from Indira Gandhi Institute of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, University of Delhi. Test included shuttle run, 50m dash, standing broad jump, 12 minutes walk/ run (cooper test) and sit and reach. Analysis was done using t-test and product moment correlation at 0.05 level of significance. Findings showed that a significant relationship between running broad jump and cardiovascular endurance (r = 0.41), coordinative ability (r= -0.50), explosive leg strength (r= 0.43) and speed (r= -0.48) and no significant differences in arm and shoulder endurance (r= 0.17). It was conclude that performance in cardiovascular endurance, coordinative ability, explosive leg strength, speed and flexibility are related to running broad jump performance. The study recommends that training programs for long jumpers need to be systematic and scientific in developing physical fitness components.

  45. N. Johnson and Dr. E. Ramganesh

    Physics is at the heart of the technology driving our economy (National Research council, 2001) and is present in almost every facet of modern life. Physics may also be considered the most fundamental of all the sciences because others like chemistry, Biology, Geology, etc., deal with systems that obey law of Physics. This is one of the reasons why Physics has become an essential part of being scientifically literate. Indeed Problem solving in Physics plays a key role in the conceptualization of the students at higher secondary level. This paper highlights on the objective measurement of Red Alert in Physics Problem solving through Self-regulatory strategies with interactive multimedia. A sample of 90 higher secondary students from standard XII of S.R.V.S National higher secondary school, Karaikal was taken for the study. Experimental research method with control design was adopted for the study. Researches indicate that students problem solving failures are often due not to a lack of knowledge about science but to the ineffective use of what they do know. The major outcome of research is that Self-regulatory strategies were found effective with multimedia in reducing ‘Red Alerts’ in Physics Problem solving among the higher secondary students.

  46. Luaay Abdulwahed

    This paper takes a keen look in network security and network security goals, why computers are insecure and type Of attack, how to improve network security . Securing your network and practical's what is Quota.

  47. Riya Banerjee

    Burdwan Municipality is one of the emerging urban centre in West Bengal and also running in the phase of land dynamics. This phenomenon, leads to large scale unplanned growth with uneven pattern of land use in the study area. The town has drastically increased its area and population size from 1970, this results development of Municipal area in the fringe regions as well as rural counterparts. This paper aims to analyze whether this development is an expansion or unplanned overgrowth. So, the author have used the Land use data, topographical map, satellite image with supervised classification of Maximum Likelihood Method to identify the temporal change of municipal area. Then a map also prepared to show the municipal boundary in different time periods by using Geographical Information System.

  48. Rasavel M., and Ravichandran, M

    Field experiments were conducted to study the interaction of phosphorus, sulfur and zinc on growth and yield of rice in neutral and alkali soils. The treatments consisted of two levels of P2O5 (25, 50 kg/ha), two levels of S (20, 40 kg/ha) and four levels of Zn( 0,5,10, 15 kg/ha) besides an absolute control, thus totaling seventeen treatments. The results revealed significant interactions among P,S and Zn on growth and yield of rice. The growth and yield of rice was less when P, Zn and S were applied at lower rates, but improved with increasing levels of nutrients. However, the highest grain (5216, 4678 kg/ha) and straw yields (6123, 5642 kg/ha) was noticed with application of 50 kg P2O5, 20 kg S and 10 kg Zn /ha in neutral and alkali soils respectively. This was comparable with 50 kg P2O5, 40 kg S and 10 kg Zn /ha. Similar effect was noticed with respect to growth and yield attributes. It is clearly exhibited that in the absence of zinc application, growth and yield of rice is reduced in spite of addition of adequate amounts of P and S. Further, for a given level of P and S, addition of highest amount of Zn (15 kg/ha) reduced the growth and yield of rice.

  49. Narasimhamurthy, Pandey C. N. and Nath, S. K.

    .

  50. Emmanuel Njungab, René Oum Lissouck, Hippolyte Ntede Ngah, Regis Pommier, Christine Labrugère, Louis Max Ayina Ohandja and Joseph Noah Ngamveng

    X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy and Fourier Transform Infra Red Spectroscopy (FTIR) were used, to characterize tropical ayous (triplochyton scleroxylon) and fraké (terminalia superba) sanded wood surface prior to gluing. As expected, O1s and C1s were the predominant species in the spectra of the two woods. C1s peak have been decomposed into several components. Earlier study reveled tree classes of carbon for frake. Unlike these result the two woods characterized in this work exhibit carbon atoms in classes C1 (carbon atoms bonded by a C-C or a C-H bond), C2 (carbon atoms bonded by C-O bond), C3 (carbon atoms bonded by C=O or by a O-C-O bond), C4 (carbon atoms bonded by O-C=O bond), C0 (carbon attributed to inhomogeous charges, and à non attributed carbon at 285,6 eV. The four principal classes were confirmed by FTIR. The oxygen-to-carbon (O/C) ratio of wood was determined. The deviation of the O/C ratios from theoretical values was interpreted as indicative of surface rich in lignin, surface hydrocarbon impurities or extractives and wood density.

  51. Mahantesh R. Chinagundi, Prashanth G. S, Silju mathew , 2Aravind S. Raju, and Soumya K. M.

    The development of surgical correction of class III cases in recent years has made it more interesting for the orthodontist to handle mandibular prognathism. Treatment of patients in this classification is really just coming to the fore, and represents a closer cooperation between two fields of specialization, oral surgery and orthodontics. Setback of the mandible to correct mandibular prognathism is a well known procedure. The 2 most frequently used techniques are the intraoral vertical ramus osteotomy (IVRO) and the sagittal split ramus osteotomy (SSRO). In our patient we successfully used the SSRO procedure to correct mandible prognathism. The duration of treatment is of 10 months, and the prognathic profile had been improved and the anterior cross bite been relieved with finishing the occlusion in the cusp-fossa (class II) relationship.

  52. Rewati Raman Bhattarai, Sudip Thaguna and Shyam Kumar Mishra

    Milk was analyzed for several parameters like pH, acidity, fat, protein, solids-not-fat, total solids and moisture content. The values obtained were found to be satisfactory in comparison to composition of normal cow milk. Cream was separated from milk using hand-operating cream separator. Analysis of cream showed satisfactory results in comparison to cream obtained by cream separation process. The cream was divided into three parts of which first was directly made ghee without culturing, second was cultured with dahi culture and third with yoghurt culture. Chemical analysis of all ghee samples gave satisfactory results in comparison to normal ghee composition. Sensory evaluation of the three samples were performed taking attributes like flavor, acidity, color, texture, absence of impurities and overall. Ghee prepared from dahi cultured cream showed the highest. Again, dahi cultured cream was treated to different pH (4.5, 4.0 and 3.6). Ghee was prepared and subjected to sensory evaluation. The cream cultured to pH 3.6 showed the highest score. This finding indicates that flavor is produced in ghee in greater extent by dahi cultured cream in respect to yoghurt cultured and non-cultured cream and greater the extent of culturing, more is the flavor yielding diacetyl produced.

  53. Ruth Laldinthar and M. S. Dkhar

    Microbial diversity (fungi and bacteria), biomass carbon and nitrogen, respiration and physico – chemical properties of soil were studied for two years i.e., 2009 and 2010. The study sites selected were two different broad leaved forests of Meghalaya, (i) at Upper Shillong (1861msl) and (ii) at Mawkyrdep (889 msl). Results showed that CFUs of fungi and bacteria, microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen, respiration and moisture content, organic carbon, total nitrogen and available phosphorus except exchangeable potassium were higher in the soil at high altitude forest than at low altitude forest. Qualitatively, there was not much difference in the composition of the fungal flora at both the study sites. Majority of the fungal species isolated belonged to deuteromycotina. Species of Aspergillus, Fusarium and Penicillium were found to be dominant at both the study sites. The results also showed that all these parameters decreased with increase in soil depth. CFUs of fungi and bacteria showed significant positive correlations with microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen, moisture content, organic carbon, available phosphorus, total nitrogen. One way analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed significant variations (p≤ 0.05) between various parameters studied and the soil depths. Shannon diversity index and Simpson dominance index of fungi were highest at the surface and sub surface soil layer respectively.

  54. Yobouet, Y. A., Adouby, K., Trokourey, A. and Yao, B.

    Some metals inputs within the solid waste dump were studied through the Pollution Load Index (PLI). High levels in cadmium (4.00±0.62 mg.kg-1), lead (138.43±51.5 mg.kg-1) and zinc (266.63±42.83 mg.kg-1) and low levels in copper (40.77±11.98 mg.kg-1) were measured within the soils at five sites against a control. The total concentrations in metals were measured in soil samples collected from the surface to 1.5 m depth. The measurements showed in total metal concentration decrease from surface to depth in lead, zinc and copper. Cadmium was measured to be constant with the depth of study. The values of Pollution Load Index pointed out strong contaminations in metals of the soils surface layers at overall area of study. PLI decreased from 5.13 to 1.33 with respect to the increase in depth in that landfill. The soils clay contents were showed to be the major factor for controlling the metals distribution within those soils.

  55. Dr. Ruma Kundu, Srikanta Kundu and Indraneel Mandal

    Stock market indices are recognised as barometers of economic performance. While stock markets themselves can vary from one another, the corresponding indices can also differ on a variety of factors. In a globalised world it has become customary to address the issue of integration of markets around the world. In this paper the authors have tried to tackle this issue from the viewpoint of stock markets in India. The present work considered seven major international stock indices viz. – the Dow Jones Industrial Average and the NASDAQ Composite in the USA, the FTSE 100 in the UK, DAX in Germany, Nikkei 225 in Japan, Hang Seng in Hong Kong and the S&P/TSX Composite in Canada. On the domestic side the authors chose the Sensitive Index or Sensex. Using ten year data they attempted to determine whether a long-term relationship exists between the Indian markets and leading markets across the globe. For this purpose they utilised techniques like unit root testing, cointegration analysis and Granger causality analysis. The results indicated that the Sensex was influenced by all the leading international indices. However the converse did not necessarily hold true.

  56. Manimegalai, A., Manikandan, T., Sheela, R. and Elumalai, D.

    Jawadhu Hills are a range of hills. One of the largest in the Eastern Ghats in Thiruvannamalai District, in the northern part of the state of Tamil Nadu. About 80 Km wide and 32 Km long and they are bisected into Eastern and Western sections by the Cheyyar and Agaram rivers tributaries of the palar. Several medicinal plants are rich in Jawadhu hills. The herital medicines to cure a disease used by various tribes are tribal medicines. These medicines are safe, eco-friendly and bio-friendly plants based products for various diseases of tribals. The results of present study revealed that there is a wide usage of plants by tribes of jawadhu hills. The tribal knowledge of medicinal use of plant is still an unexploited area. At present tribal depend more on trained doctors of town which give them immediate relief from pain. Tribals have no ideas about the active principles of their drugs. Many medicinal plants are no longer used because of the knowledge had been passed to the present generation through the words of mouth. The role of tribals in the plant conservation is must for preserving plants for future generation.

  57. Basheer M., Aarif K. M., Jafer Hisham, T. and Idrees Babu K. K.

    A bird survey was conducted by employing Direct Observation and Block Count method in Bangaram and Thinnakara Islands during 2009. Among the 55 species of birds identified in the survey, Bangaram represents 46 species and Thinnakara represents 19 species. Charadriidae with 21 species is the most speciose family at Bangaram whereas Laridae with 11 species is the most speciose family at Thinnakara. The Common Tern, Sandwich Tern and Gull-billed Tern are the new addition to Bangaram Reef. In Thinakkara we spotted mainly Terns. As conservation strategy awareness programmes and a marine bird monitoring programme with adequate representation of fishermen, local people and Department of Environment and Forests should be launched at Bangaram and Tinnakara Islands

  58. H. S. Patil, Shilpa Mohan Shitole and K. N. Dhumal

    The present investigation was attempted to focus on studies of allelopathic effect of some dominant, invasive weed species like Alternanthera tenella Colla., Croton bonplandianum Baill and Xanthium indicum Koen. from Baramati Tahsil, Dist. Pune, Maharashtra, India, on seed germination and seedling growth in mung bean. The allelopathic effects of leaf extracts of weeds not only affect the seed germination, but it also influences seedling growth in terms of root and shoot length, vigour index. The results on mung bean seed germination studies indicated that the lower concentration (10%) treatments of Alternanthera and Xanthium leaf and root extract were highly stimulatory for mung bean seed germination as well as root and shoot length. However, the treatments of Croton root and leaf extracts were highly inhibitory. The effects of leaf extract were more significant than root extract. The positive and negative influence of root and leaf extracts of selected weeds on root and shoot length might be due to specific action of secondary metabolites (allelochemicals) in them.

  59. Joseline Kwamboka Metobo

    This study was an analysis of the pricing strategies used by supermarkets in Eldoret town. Supermarkets in Eldoret town were began by white settlers. The oldest of the supermarkets that was set up in 1968 was Aziz and Akbar. By the year 2004 the number of supermarkets in Eldoret town had increased to 25. A survey of these supermarkets shows that each one of them has different pricing for the same product that has been supplied by the same supplier. There is need to investigate why these supermarkets are charging different prices for the same product yet they are serving the same market. The objectives of the study are to identify the pricing strategies used by supermarkets in Eldoret town and to establish factors considered in choosing pricing strategies. The study is based on a strategic pricing model by Kotler (2000), which states that any organisation should have a strategic pricing plan to be able to exchange its products or services successfully in the market place. This study was a descriptive research, and it followed a cross-sectional design. The sample population comprising of 25 supermarkets in Eldoret town was targeted. However, only 13 supermarkets’ managers were interviewed. The rest of the managers’ declined to be interviewed. Data was collected by use of questionnaires that were issued to the supermarket managers and by observation. The results of the observation were recorded in a notebook and later analysed together with the results from the questionnaires.The data was quantitatively analysed using the SPSS package and is presented in tables. The research established that most supermarkets in Eldoret town used the ‘one price strategy’ (fixed price) and leader pricing strategies. The other pricing strategies were in use too but at varying degrees. Price lining was the least in use. The study established that the most commonly used pricing strategies were one price, leader pricing, unit pricing and giving discounts to customers. This study recommends that since supermarkets have become a common phenomenon in Kenya in recent years broader based researches can be carried out to assess the growth trends and factors influencing their growth. The study also recommends that since other retail outlets are a threat to supermarkets in Eldoret town a study to establish the application of various pricing strategies by the retailers be carried out.

  60. Pritesh Parmar, Bhaumik Dave, Ankit Sudhir, Ketan Panchal and R. B. Subramanian

    Heavy metals pollution to water and soils due to anthropogenic activities are threats to living organisms which needs to be tackled with a new emerging technology, referred as phytoremidiation, offers a cost-effective and environmental friendly way for clean up of contaminated areas with exploitation of green plants, which either accumulates or converts it to non toxic forms, but that incurred serious physiological and metabolic constraints in plants. This review is focused on promising aspects of physiological, biochemical and molecular level to know the mechanism of plant response towards heavy metal stress.

  61. Dibyendu Roy and Shampa Aich

    The shape memory effect, super-elasticity and biocompatibility allow the Ni-Ti-Cu thin films to be used in different fields. In this paper systematic study have been done on the Ni-Ti-Cu thin films with various copper content. The Ni-Ti-Cu films were successfully prepared by individual sputtering targets of pure Ti, Ni and Cu and the crystalline structure, residual stress and phase transformation properties of the Ni-Ti-Cu films were investigated using grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GI-XRD), differential scanning calorimetery (DSC), and curvature measurement methods. The effects of the sputtering process parameters on the film composition, phase transformation and shape-memory effects were analyzed.

  62. Muthike G .M., Kanali C .L., and Shitanda D.

    In this study, the effect of framed chain sawing system with optimized chain on timber size uniformity and surface roughness was analyzed and compared with the freehand chainsaw system and band saw as control. The surface roughness of sawn timber from three commonly sawn timber species (Eucalyptus saligna, Grevillea robusta and Prosopis juliflora) was determined by stylus tracer approach. Freehand chainsaw produced timber with significantly the highest size deviation and surface roughness, while framed chainsaw using an optimized felling chain produced timber with more uniform sizes and smoother surfaces which did not significantly differ from that produced by a band saw. The findings of this study concluded that, the use of the frame on the chainsaw effectively control the chain to saw timber around the pre-set size thus producing timber with more uniform sizes. Modification of the cutters on the chain help in stabilizing the sawing speed, reducing the erratic behaviour of chainsaw, thus producing timber with smooth surface close to timber sawn using band saws. These parameters make framed chainsaw a choice eco-efficient small-scale timber sawing system, appropriate for timber sawyers operating on the farms, where trees are few, scattered and small in diameter.

  63. Daniel M. Mwamidi, Shem M. Mwasi and Abdrizak A. Nunow

    Taita community in Kenya inhabits the Taita-Taveta County of which two thirds of which is occupied by Tsavo National Park. There is increased human-wildlife conflict which has led to losses of properties as well as lives of both human and wildlife. Despite wildlife management efforts by the Government, these conflicts are on the increase thereby their threatening their livelihoods. Their indigenous knowledge on human-wildlife conflict minimization is fast disappearing as it remains in the custody of a few community elders and if not documented may soon disappear. This study documents this knowledge through qualitative interviews with elders living within the parks’ neighborhoods. Data analysis showed elders’ explanations on the important role of indigenous knowledge in minimizing human-wildlife. However, for successful utilization of indigenous knowledge for this purpose to be realized, this study recommends its use in synergy with scientific knowledge in the use management of wildlife the County.

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